WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpha chloro ethers

  1. Derivatives of benzimidazole: vasodilator activity of 2-(p-chloro-alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole hydrochloride. Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenge, P; Carraz, G; Luu Duc, C; Silice, C

    1979-01-01

    The effects of 2-(p-chloro-alpha-hydroxybenzyl)-benzimidazole hydrochloride (HBBPC) have been studied in the rabbit and rat. Most of these studies were performed comparatively with reference vasodilators and papaverine. HBBPC vasodilator activity is nearly the same as that of papaverine in the isolated rabbit ear. The characteristic of the vasoactive action of HBBPC seems to reside in its duration. The mechanism of action of HBBPC seems of peripheral type, that is to say it acts on the vascular smooth muscle.

  2. Synthesis of various geometric and enantiomeric oxime O-(alpha- and beta-methylcholinyl) ethers as potential anticholinergic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, P L; Isaacson, E I; Brown, R G; Delgado, J N

    1977-08-01

    Various enantiomeric and geometric oxime O-(alpha- and beta-methylcholinyl) ethers were synthesized as potential anticholinergic agents. The synthesis, separation, resolution, and structural characterization of these compounds are reported. The first step of the synthetic pathway involved an oxime formation, with subsequent O-alkylation of the respective oxime with 2-chloro-N,N-dimethylpropylamine hydrochloride. The separation of the alpha- and beta-structural isomers utilized vacuum fractional distillation and/or column chromatography, and the resolution of the enantiomers was accomplished via the formation of tartrate diastereoisomers. A preliminary pharmacological evaluation for anticholinergic activity was conducted using a rat ileum assay. Structure-activity relationships, including some stereochemical properties and antimuscarinic activity, are discussed.

  3. Energetics of 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-alpha-D-mannose binding to the Parkia platycephala seed lectin and its use for MAD phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego del Sol, Francisca; Gómez, Javier; Hoos, Sylviane; Nagano, Celso S; Cavada, Benildo S; England, Patrick; Calvete, Juan J

    2005-03-01

    Parkia platycephala belongs to the most primitive group of Leguminosae plants. Its seed lectin is made up of three homologous beta-prism repeats and exhibits binding specificity for mannose/glucose. The properties of the association between the lectin from P. platycephala seeds and monosaccharide ligands were analysed by isothermal titration calorimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The results are consistent with the lectin bearing three thermodynamically identical binding sites for mannose/glucose per monomer with dissociation constants in the millimolar range. Binding of each ligand by the lectin is enthalpically driven. Crystals have been obtained of the lectin in complex with a brominated derivative of mannose (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-alpha-D-mannose), which were suitable for deriving an electron-density map by MAD phasing. In agreement with the thermodynamic data, six Br atoms were found in the asymmetric unit of the monoclinic P2(1) crystals, which contained two P. platycephala lectin molecules. The availability of other Br derivatives of monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fucose) may make this strategy widely useful for structure elucidation of novel lectins or when (as in the case of the P. platycephala lectin) molecular-replacement methods fail.

  4. Discovery of the hemifumarate and (alpha-L-alanyloxy)methyl ether as prodrugs of an antirheumatic oxindole: prodrugs for the enolic OH group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R P; Reiter, L A; Barth, W E; Campeta, A M; Cooper, K; Cronin, B J; Destito, R; Donahue, K M; Falkner, F C; Fiese, E F; Johnson, D L; Kuperman, A V; Liston, T E; Malloy, D; Martin, J J; Mitchell, D Y; Rusek, F W; Shamblin, S L; Wright, C F

    1996-01-05

    Ether, ester, and carbonate derivatives of the antirheumatic oxindole 1 were prepared and screened as potential prodrugs of 1. This effort led to the discovery of the (alpha-L-alanyloxy)-methyl ether and hemifumarate derivatives of 1 which deliver the drug efficiently into the circulation of test animals, are stable in the solid state, and possess good stability in solution at low pH as required to ensure gastric stability. Success in achieving acceptable bioavailabilities of 1 across species (rats, dogs, and monkeys) followed the inclusion of ionizable functionality within the promoiety to compensate for masking the polar enolic OH group of the free drug. However, the introduction of ionizable functionality was often associated with decreased stability, as demonstrated by the hemisuccinate, hemiadipate, hemisuberate, and alpha-amino ester derivatives of 1 which could not be isolated. A clear exception was the hemifumarate derivative of 1 which was not only isolable but actually more stable at neutral pH than the nonionizable ester analogues. The solution and solid state stability of the hemifumarate, together with its activity as a prodrug of 1, suggests that hemifumarate be considered as an alternative to hemisuccinate as a prodrug derivative for alcohols, particularly in situations where solution state stability is an issue.

  5. Photochemical Properties of CH2═CH-CFCl-CF2Br (4-Bromo-3-chloro-3,4,4-trifluoro-1-butene) and CH3-O-CH(CF3)2(Methyl Hexafluoroisopropyl Ether): OH Reaction Rate Constants and UV and IR Absorption Spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Vladimir L; Martynova, Larissa E; Kurylo, Michael J

    2017-08-03

    Rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals (OH) with 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropyl methyl ether (CH 3 -O-CH(CF 3 ) 2 ) and 4-bromo-3-chloro-3,4,4-trifluoro-1-butene (CH 2 ═CH-CFCl-CF 2 Br) have been measured over the temperature range 230-370 K to give the following Arrhenius expressions: k CH3OCH(CF3)2 (T) = 7.69 × 10 -14 × (T/298) 2.99 × exp(+342/T), cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 , and k CH2CHCFClCF2Br (T) = (6.45 ± 0.72) × 10 -13 × exp{+(424 ± 32)/T}, cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 . Atmospheric lifetimes of compounds were estimated to be 67 days and 4.5 days, respectively. UV absorption spectrum of CH 2 ═CH-CFCl-CF 2 Br between 164 and 260 nm and IR absorption spectra of both compounds between 450 and 1600 cm -1 were measured at room temperature.

  6. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Chia-Hua; Lu, Ta-Jung; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  7. Suppression of alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid in VEGF-induced angiogenesis and the possible mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Cheng-Hung, E-mail: chchuang@hk.edu.tw [Department of Nutrition, Master Program of Biomedical Nutrition, Hungkuang University, 1018 Sec. 6 Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 43302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chia-Hua [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lu, Ta-Jung [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Technology and Innovation Management, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hu, Miao-Lin, E-mail: mlhuhu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, National Chung-Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-12-15

    Alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid (α-TEA) has been reported to exhibit both anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities in cell culture and animal studies. However, it is unclear whether α-TEA possesses anti-angiogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of α-TEA on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression both in vitro and ex vivo. We found that the α-TEA inhibited tube formation, invasion, and migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and that such actions were accompanied by reduced expression of MMP-2. α-TEA also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis, as indicated by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay. We further showed that α-TEA attenuated protein expression of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), phosphorylated p38, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Moreover, α-TEA (30 μM) significantly up-regulated protein expression of tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMP)-2 (by 138%) and the metastasis suppressor gene nm23-H1 (by 54%). These results demonstrate that the anti-angiogenic effect of α-TEA both in vitro and ex vivo and its possible mechanistic action appears to involve the inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways and through up-regulation of TIMP-2 and nm23-H1 expression. - Graphical abstract: Possible mechanisms of α-TEA on inhibited angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Brief summary In the present study, we have demonstrated that VEGF-mediated angiogenesis is significantly inhibited by α-TEA, and that this effect involves inhibition of MMP-2 level through VEGFR-2-mediated FAK and p38 signaling pathways related to invasion and migration. - Highlights: • The anti-angiogenic effect and the mechanistic action of α-TEA were investigated. • α-TEA significantly inhibited VEGF-mediated angiogenesis both in vitro and ex vivo. • α-TEA down

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Some Mono Chloro-S- Triazine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of ten bifunctional mono-chloro-s-triazine vinyl sulphone reactive dyes were synthesized based on Hacid with varied substituents coded as (BRD). These dyes were characterized by IR spectroscopy. The results revealed an incorporation of various substituents. The visible absorption spectra of these dyes were ...

  9. New contributions to the chemistry of 2-chloro-2-(chlorothio)propanedioic diesters and diamides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawata, Mohamed A.M.; El-Torgoman, Abdel M.; El-Kousy, Salah M.

    2002-01-01

    The pyridine-catalyzed reaction between a number of propanedioic acid derivatives 1 and thionyl chloride has been investigated in detail. Contrary to popular belief the straightforward formation of the corresponding alpha-chloro sulfenyl chlorides 2 is the exception rather than the rule. The prop...

  10. Discovery of Clinical Candidate 4-[2-(5-Amino-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-4-chlorophenoxy]-5-chloro-2-fluoro-N-1,3-thiazol-4-ylbenzenesulfonamide (PF-05089771): Design and Optimization of Diaryl Ether Aryl Sulfonamides as Selective Inhibitors of NaV1.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nigel A; Batchelor, Dave; Beaudoin, Serge; Bechle, Bruce M; Bradley, Paul A; Brown, Alan D; Brown, Bruce; Butcher, Ken J; Butt, Richard P; Chapman, Mark L; Denton, Stephen; Ellis, David; Galan, Sebastien R G; Gaulier, Steven M; Greener, Ben S; de Groot, Marcel J; Glossop, Mel S; Gurrell, Ian K; Hannam, Jo; Johnson, Matthew S; Lin, Zhixin; Markworth, Christopher J; Marron, Brian E; Millan, David S; Nakagawa, Shoko; Pike, Andy; Printzenhoff, David; Rawson, David J; Ransley, Sarah J; Reister, Steven M; Sasaki, Kosuke; Storer, R Ian; Stupple, Paul A; West, Christopher W

    2017-08-24

    A series of acidic diaryl ether heterocyclic sulfonamides that are potent and subtype selective Na V 1.7 inhibitors is described. Optimization of early lead matter focused on removal of structural alerts, improving metabolic stability and reducing cytochrome P450 inhibition driven drug-drug interaction concerns to deliver the desired balance of preclinical in vitro properties. Concerns over nonmetabolic routes of clearance, variable clearance in preclinical species, and subsequent low confidence human pharmacokinetic predictions led to the decision to conduct a human microdose study to determine clinical pharmacokinetics. The design strategies and results from preclinical PK and clinical human microdose PK data are described leading to the discovery of the first subtype selective Na V 1.7 inhibitor clinical candidate PF-05089771 (34) which binds to a site in the voltage sensing domain.

  11. Photosynthesis involvement in the mechanism of action of diphenyl ether herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, M P; Hess, F D

    1985-05-01

    Photosynthesis is not required for the toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides, nor are chloroplast thylakoids the primary site of diphenyl ether herbicide activity. Isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplast fragments produced malonyl dialdehyde, indicating lipid peroxidation, when paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium ion) or diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] were added to the medium, but no malonyl dialdehyde was produced when chloroplast fragments were treated with the methyl ester of acifluorfen (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid), oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene], or MC15608 (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate). In most cases the toxicity of acifluorfen-methyl, oxyfluorfen, or MC15608 to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos (Moewus) did not decrease after simultaneous treatment with diuron. However, diuron significantly reduced cell death after paraquat treatment at all but the highest paraquat concentration tested (0.1 millimolar). These data indicate electron transport of photosynthesis is not serving the same function for diphenyl ether herbicides as for paraquat. Additional evidence for differential action of paraquat was obtained from the superoxide scavenger copper penicillamine (copper complex of 2-amino-3-mercapto-3-methylbutanoic acid). Copper penicillamine eliminated paraquat toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons but did not reduce diphenyl ether herbicide toxicity.

  12. Photosynthesis Involvement in the Mechanism of Action of Diphenyl Ether Herbicides 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Michael P.; Hess, F. Dan

    1985-01-01

    Photosynthesis is not required for the toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides, nor are chloroplast thylakoids the primary site of diphenyl ether herbicide activity. Isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplast fragments produced malonyl dialdehyde, indicating lipid peroxidation, when paraquat (1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium ion) or diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] were added to the medium, but no malonyl dialdehyde was produced when chloroplast fragments were treated with the methyl ester of acifluorfen (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoic acid), oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene], or MC15608 (methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate). In most cases the toxicity of acifluorfen-methyl, oxyfluorfen, or MC15608 to the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos (Moewus) did not decrease after simultaneous treatment with diuron. However, diuron significantly reduced cell death after paraquat treatment at all but the highest paraquat concentration tested (0.1 millimolar). These data indicate electron transport of photosynthesis is not serving the same function for diphenyl ether herbicides as for paraquat. Additional evidence for differential action of paraquat was obtained from the superoxide scavenger copper penicillamine (copper complex of 2-amino-3-mercapto-3-methylbutanoic acid). Copper penicillamine eliminated paraquat toxicity in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledons but did not reduce diphenyl ether herbicide toxicity. PMID:16664206

  13. Di-μ-chlorido-bis({4-[bis(trimethylsilylamino]-6-chloro-2,2,8,8-tetramethyl-5,7-bis(trimethylsilyl-3,5,7-triaza-4,6-diphospha-2,8-disilanon-3-en-4-ido-κ2P,P′}palladium(II diethyl ether disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Höhne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Pd2(C18H54Cl2N4P2Si62Cl2]·2C4H10O, features a dinuclear chloride-bridged palladium complex bearing two equivalents of the novel monoanionic mixed valent (λ3-P—N—(λ5-P ligand. A metal catalyzed coupling of two aminoiminophosphines and a shift of one chlorine from the metal to the phosphorus results in the (λ3-P—N—(λ5-P ligand. The molecule contains a planar bimetallic Pd2Cl2 core with a crystallographic centre of inversion at the mid-point of the Pd...Pd line. The Pd atoms are in a distorted square-planar arrangement, where the P/Pd/P and Cl/Pd/Cl planes are twisted with respect to each other by a dihedral angle of 7.57 (4°. The P—Pd—P bite angle is 71.380 (18°. Intramolecular C—H...Cl interactions are observed. In the crystal, the diethyl ether solvent molecule is disordered over two sites, with an occupancy ratio of 0.788 (5:0.212 (5.

  14. Reactions of phenols and alcohols over thoria: mechanism of ether formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppannasamy, S.; Narayanan, K.; Pillai, C.N.

    1980-01-01

    The dehydration of phenols and alkylation of phenols by alcohols over thoria were studied at 400 to 500 0 C and atmospheric pressure. Phenol and cresols, when dehydrated gave diaryl ethers as main products. With para-substituted phenols such as p-methoxy, p-t-butyl, p-chloro, and p-nitrophenol no ether formation was noticed. All the reactions were accompanied by considerable amount of coke formation. Alkylation of phenols by alcohols gave a mixture of O- and C-alkylated products under the same reaction conditions. O-alkylation and C-alkylation are parallel reactions. The mechanistic aspects of the reactions are discussed. 3 figures, 3 tables

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-conducting membranes of organic–inorganic (sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)/phosphated zirconia nanoparticles) composite were prepared by incorporating various ratios of phosphated zirconia nanoparticles (ZP) in sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). SPEEK/ZP showed an improvement of ...

  16. Naphthyl azomesogens with lateral chloro groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2003-10-11

    Oct 11, 2003 ... 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, the appropriate n-alkyl halides, SOCl2, KOH, 2-naphthol, 3-chloro aniline,. NaNO2, CuSO45H2O, anhydrous K2CO3 etc. were used as received. Solvents were dried and distilled prior to use. 2.2a 4-n-Alkoxybenzoic acids [A] and 4-n- alkoxybenzoyl chlorides [B]: These were synthe-.

  17. UV-A photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles by nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, G.L.; Hogan, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Photooxidation of β-carotene in Triton X-100 micelles was stimulated by lipophilic nitrodiphenyl ether herbicides at concentrations as low as 5 μM after 15 min in UV radiation (UV-A between 315 and 400 nm). Bleaching of β-carotene by acifluorfen-methyl [methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate] was proportional to UV-A intensity and independent of pH. White light (400-700 nm) alone was without effect. At pH 6.5, 100 μM acifluorfen [sodium 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitrobenzoate], a water-soluble nitrodiphenyl ether, stimulated photooxidation of β-carotene after 15 min in UV-A radiation. Activity of 200 μM acifluorfen was enhanced at pHs between 3.5 and 6.5. The chlorodiphenyl ether analogue of acifluorfen-methyl, methyl 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-chlorobenzoate, exhibited little activity at 200 μM and 200 μM phenyl ether was without effect. Activation energy for acifluorfen-methyl stimulated β-carotene photooxidation near 20 and 30 0 C was 40.3 and 5.6 kJ mol -1 , respectively. Subsequent to UV-A exposure and placement into darkness no further bleaching of β-carotene was detected, indicating that reactive species were generated only in light and consumed quickly in darkness

  18. Catalytic aziridination of electron-deficient olefins with an N-chloro-N-sodio carbamate and application of this novel method to asymmetric synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakata, Satoshi; Murakami, Yuta; Tsuruoka, Ryoji; Kitanaka, Shinsuke; Komatsu, Mitsuo

    2008-12-21

    A new method for the aziridination of electron-deficient olefins using an N-chloro-N-sodio carbamate is described; the reaction was promoted by phase-transfer catalysis (solid-liquid) and afforded aziridines from alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, esters, sulfones and amides.

  19. New Tetraazacrown Ethers Containing Two Pyridine, Quinoline, 8-Hydroxyquinoline, or 8-Aminoquinoline Sidearms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Zhaoxia

    1999-01-01

    .... Crab-like cyclization of bis(alpha-chloroacetamide)s and diamines followed by reduction of the cyclic diamides was used to synthesize the selected crown ethers containing two unsubstituted macroring nitrogen atoms...

  20. Synthesis and reduction of 2-nitroalkyl polysaccharide ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, A; Spoelma, FF; van Doren, HA; Gotlieb, KF; Bleeker, IP; Kellogg, RM

    Several 2-nitroalkyl polysaccharide ethers (from pullulan (1), guar (2), agarose (3), inulin (4), cellulose (5), Na-alpha-polyglucuronate (6) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (7)) were synthesized by reaction with 2-nitro-1-alkenes (2-nitro-1-propene and 2-nitro-1-butene) formed in situ from 2-nitroalkyl

  1. Usage of the word 'ether'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, M.C.

    1980-01-01

    Confusion has been caused by scientists using the one word 'ether' to classify models differing from each other in important respects. Major roles assigned to the word are examined, and the nature of modern ether theories surveyed. The part played by the several meanings attached to the word, in the ether concept, is outlined. (author)

  2. Cation permeable membranes from blends of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly (ether sulfone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.G.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; van der Vegt, N.F.A.; Strathmann, H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone), S-PEEK, is blended with non-sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (PES) to adjust the properties of ion permeable and ion selective membranes. In this study, membranes are prepared from blends with (i) a S-PEEK content between 10 and 100 wt.% using one S-PEEK batch

  3. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAL2): A potent MIO-enzyme for the synthesis of non-canonical aromatic alpha-amino acids.: Part II: Application in different reactor concepts for the production of (S)-2-chloro-phenylalanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreßen, Alana; Hilberath, Thomas; Mackfeld, Ursula; Rudat, Jens; Pohl, Martina

    2017-09-20

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPAL2) is in general a very good catalyst for the amination of fluoro- and chloro-cinnamic acid derivatives yielding halogenated (S)-phenylalanine derivatives with ≥85% conversion and excellent ee values >99%. We have studied the application of this enzyme as whole cell biocatalyst and immobilized on the cellulose carrier Avicel ® for the production of the hypertension drug precursor (S)-2-chloro-phenylalanine using batch, fed-batch, as well as continuous membrane reactor and plug-flow reactor. For immobilization, a C-terminal fusion of the enzyme with a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) was produced, which selectively binds to Avicel ® directly from crude cell extracts, thus enabling a fast and cheap immobilization, stabilization and recycling of the enzyme. 1g Avicel was loaded with 10mg enzyme. Best results were obtained with whole cells using the continuous membrane reactor (47g product /g DryCellWeight ) and using the immobilized enzyme in a repetitive fed-batch (274g product /g immobilized enzyme ) or in a continuous plug-flow reactor (288g product /g immobilize enzyme ). Therewith the productivity of AtPAL2 outperforms the established fed-batch process at DSM using PAL from Rhodotorula glutinis in E. coli as whole cell biocatalyst with a productivity of 0.14g product /g WetCellWeight (ca. 0.7g product /g DryCellWeight ) (de Lange et al., 2011; doi:10.1002/cctc.201000435). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Conjugate Addition of Nucleophiles to the Vinyl Function of 2-Chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conjugate addition reaction of various nucleophiles across the vinyl group of 2-chloro-4-vinylpyrimidine, 2-chloro-4-(1-phenylvinylpyrimidine and 2-chloro-4-vinylquinazoline provides the corresponding 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylpyrimidines and 2-chloro-4-(2-substituted ethylquinazolines. Treatment of these products, without isolation, with N-methylpiperazine results in nucleophilic displacement of chloride and yields the corresponding 2,4-disubstituted pyrimidines and quinazolines.

  5. Electron spin resonance photochromic beta-tetrachloro-alpha-ketonaphthalene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, D. A.; Nieuwpoort, W. C.

    1968-01-01

    A triplet ESR spectrum has been observed in a powdered sample of beta 2.3, 4.4-tetra-chloro-alpha-ketonaphthalene after UV irradiation. The spectrum could be reproduced by computer simulation using an anisotropic g-tensor (g(xx) = 2.00950. g(yy) = 2.00280. g(zz) = 2.00232) and zero-field splitting

  6. Ether space-time & cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this first volume of papers is to examine the different paths by which the modern ether concept has been developed and to highlight the part it plays in major departments of 21st century physics. The evidence for its existence is reviewed, and it is hoped, widespread misconceptions concerning ether are corrected. It is anticipated that the emerging modern concept of ether will play a fundamental part in the development of 21st century physical science.

  7. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from 2-chloro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NAGESH MANURKAR

    2017-08-24

    -hydroxy benzoyloxy]-. 2-chloro-1,4-benzene (BHBOCB) and aliphatic dicarboxylic acid chlorides by interfacial polycondensation methodology is presented. Synthesised polyesters consist of bis[4-hydroxy ...

  8. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from 2-chloro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 9. Thermotropic liquid crystalline polyesters derived from 2-chloro ... These polyesters exhibited thermotropic liquid crystalline behavior and showed nematic texture except decamethylene spacer. Decamethylene spacer based polyester showed marble ...

  9. Electrochemistry of silicon in chloro-fluoride and carbonate melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyatkin S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of K2SiF6 in chloro-fluoride melts and that of SiO2 in carbonate melts has been studied. Silicon, titanium silicides, boron silicide and ternary compounds Ti-Si-B have been deposited from chloro-fluoride melts. Only SiC was deposited from carbonate-silica melts under carbon dioxide atmosphere (that is, excessive pressure of CO2.

  10. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuerschner, Lars; Richter, Doris; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high...... amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine...... in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking....

  11. Reproductive toxicity of the glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, B D

    1983-06-01

    The glycol ethers are an important and widely used class of solvents. Recent studies have demonstrated that ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdiME), ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE), and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) are teratogenic. Other studies have demonstrated that testicular atrophy or infertility follow treatment of males with EGME, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA), EGEE, EGEEA, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (diEGdiME), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE). Experimental data are reviewed and structure-activity relationships are speculated upon.

  12. Synthesis of N-(2-chloro purin-6-yl) aza-18-crown-6 and its interaction with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui; Cui, Fengling; Mao, Runze; Huo, Ruina; Qu, Guirong

    2012-01-28

    The synthesis of novel purine nucleosides-linked azacrown ethers in the C6 position, N-(2-chloro purin-6-yl) aza-18-crown-6 (NCPAC), was described. This new nucleoside analogue can be prepared from a series of N9-modified nucleosides and the method allows for new and easy modification of the nucleosides. The interaction between NCPAC and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied using molecular docking and fluorescence techniques. Thermodynamics revealed that the interaction was entropy driven with predominantly hydrophobic forces. From the observed Föster's-type fluorescence resonance energy transfer, the donor (Trp 214 in HSA) to acceptor (NCPAC) distance was calculated to be 3.6 nm. The conformational changes of HSA due to the interaction were investigated qualitatively from synchronous fluorescence spectra. Molecular docking studies were performed to obtain information on the possible residues involved in the interaction process.

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly(ether ether ketone) derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceicao, Thiago F.; Bertolino, Jose R.; Mireski, Sandro L.; Joussef, Antonio C.; Pires, Alfredo T.N.; Barra, Guilherme M.O.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, three derivatives of poly(ether ether ketone) [PEEK] were prepared in suspension by nitration (NO 2 -PEEK), reduction to the amino group (NH 2 -PEEK) and carbonyl reduction (PEEK-OH). These modified polymers were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. They showed interesting characteristics, such as, basicity and higher solubility in organic solvents, like DMF, for use as membranes and composites in different applications. (author)

  14. Ether the nothing that connects everything

    CERN Document Server

    Milutis, Joe

    2006-01-01

    In Ether, the histories of the unseen merge with discussions of the technology of electromagnetism. Navigating more than three hundred years of the ether''s cultural and artistic history, Joe Milutis reveals its continuous reinvention and tangible impact without ever losing sight of its ephemeral, elusive nature. The true meaning of ether, Milutis suggests, may be that it can never be fully grasped.

  15. Response of Substituted Indoleacetic Acids in the Indolo-alpha-pyrone Fluorescence Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Böttger, M.; Kaiser, P.

    1978-01-01

    The method of indolo-.alpha.-pyrone fluorescence-determination of IAA was investigated to study possible interference from 4-chloro-indoleacetic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, which occur naturally. Both compounds show about 40% of the fluorescence of IAA after conversion into their .alpha.......-pyrones. Other halogenated indoleacetic acids show between zero and 60% of the fluorescence of IAA. Apparently the concentration of IAA cannot be determined in crude extracts in the presence of 4-chloro- or 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid, because separate determinations of each of these compounds are not possible...

  16. Cannizzaro reaction of 2-chloro-3-formylquinolines and its synthetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to give 4-(2-methoxy-quinolin-3-yl)-but-3-en-2-ones which in turn were bromocyclized and dehydrobromi- nated to get 2-acetylfuro[2,3-b]quinolines. Keywords. Cannizzaro reaction; bromocyclisation; 2-methoxy-3-formylquinolines; furoquinolines;. 2-chloro-3-formylquinolines. 1. Introduction. Natural products bearing furo[2 ...

  17. 21 CFR 177.2210 - Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reference. Copies of the ASTM method may be obtained from the American Society for Testing Materials, 100... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene polymer, chloro-sulfonated. 177.2210... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use Only...

  18. 4-Chloro-2,3,5-trifluorobenzoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuitao Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A new tetrahalogenated benzoic acid 4-chloro-2,3,5-trifluorobenzoic acid was synthesized from methyl 2,3,4,5-tetrafluorobenzoate via three steps. The structure of the newly synthesized compound was established by FTIR, NMR, MS and elemental analysis.

  19. Influence of molecules with chloro group on the associative liquid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Influence of molecules with chloro group on the associative liquid methanol: A dielectric relaxation approach. V P PAWAR1, G S RAJU2 and S C MEHROTRA3. 1Department of Electronics, Maharashtra Udayagiri College, Udgir 413 517, India. 2Department of Physics, Dr. B.A. Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431 004, ...

  20. Luminescent Lariat Aza-Crown Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard König

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lariat ethers are interesting recognition motifs in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis of a luminescent lariat ether with triglycol chain by azide–alkyne (Huisgen cycloaddition is presented.

  1. Synthesis and Antimicrobial activity 2-chloro-6-methylquinoline Hydrazone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A series of 2-chloro-6-methylquinoline hydrazones (3a-o were synthesized by the condensation of substituted acyl
    hydrazines, semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and INH with 2-chloro-3-formyl-6-methylquinoline in absolute alcohol.
    The structures of compounds were established using spectral data and elemental analysis. All the compounds were
    evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (NCTC, 10418, Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC, 65710
    and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC, 10662. Compounds were also tested for antifungal activity aganist Aspergillus
    niger (MTCC, 281, Aspergillus flavus (MTCC, 277, Monascus purpureus (MTCC, 369 and Penicillium citrinum
    (NCIM, 768 by cup-plate method.

  2. Radiation decomposition of alcohols and chloro phenols in micellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno A, J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of surfactants on the radiation decomposition yield of alcohols and chloro phenols has been studied with gamma doses of 2, 3, and 5 KGy. These compounds were used as typical pollutants in waste water, and the effect of the water solubility, chemical structure, and the nature of the surfactant, anionic or cationic, was studied. The results show that anionic surfactant like sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), improve the radiation decomposition yield of ortho-chloro phenol, while cationic surfactant like cetyl trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), improve the radiation decomposition yield of butyl alcohol. A similar behavior is expected for those alcohols with water solubility close to the studied ones. Surfactant concentrations below critical micellar concentration (CMC), inhibited radiation decomposition for both types of alcohols. However radiation decomposition yield increased when surfactant concentrations were bigger than the CMC. Aromatic alcohols decomposition was more marked than for linear alcohols decomposition. On a mixture of alcohols and chloro phenols in aqueous solution the radiation decomposition yield decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. Nevertheless, there were competitive reactions between the alcohols, surfactants dimers, hydroxyl radical and other reactive species formed on water radiolysis, producing a catalytic positive effect in the decomposition of alcohols. Chemical structure and the number of carbons were not important factors in the radiation decomposition. When an alcohol like ortho-chloro phenol contained an additional chlorine atom, the decomposition of this compound was almost constant. In conclusion the micellar effect depend on both, the nature of the surfactant (anionic or cationic) and the chemical structure of the alcohols. The results of this study are useful for wastewater treatment plants based on the oxidant effect of the hydroxyl radical, like in advanced oxidation processes, or in combined treatment such as

  3. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D.; Hui, Wang S.; Oliveira, Vivianna S. de

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  4. Hydrogen storage by functionalised Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedicini, R.; Giacoppo, G.; Carbone, A.; Passalacqua, E. [CNR-ITAE, Messina (Italy). Inst. for Advanced Energy Technologies

    2010-07-01

    In this work a functionalised polymer was studied as potential material for hydrogen storage in solid state. A Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix was modified by a manganese oxide in situ formation. Here we report the functionalisation process and the preliminary results on hydrogen storage capability of the synthesised polymer. The polymer was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Gravimetric Hydrogen Adsorption measurements. In the functionalised PEEK, morphological changes occur as a function of oxide precursor concentration and reaction time. Promising results by gravimetric measurements were obtained with a hydrogen sorption of 0.24%wt/wt at 50 C and 60 bar, moreover, reversibility hydrogen adsorption and desorption in a wide range of both temperature and pressure was confirmed. (orig.)

  5. Alpha-(trifluoromethyl)amine derivatives via nucleophilic trifluoromethylation of nitrones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D W; Owens, J; Hiraldo, D

    2001-04-20

    (Trifluoromethyl)trimethylsilane (TMSCF(3)) reacts with nitrones to afford alpha-(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylamines protected as O-trimethylsilyl ethers. Potassium t-butoxide initiates the nucleophilic trifluoromethylation. The reaction works best with alpha,N-diaryl nitrones, and the conditions are compatible with a range of substituents on the aryl groups. Acidic deprotection of the nitrone/TMSCF(3) adducts generates alpha-(trifluoromethyl)hydroxylamines. Catalytic hydrogenation of the adducts produces alpha-(trifluoromethyl)amines. Nitrone/TMSCF(3) adducts with strong electron-withdrawing groups on the alpha-aryl ring or heterocyclic alpha-aryl groups undergo an elimination/addition sequence to generate alpha,alpha-bis(trifluoromethyl)amines. Nitrones with alkyl groups bound directly to the 1,3-dipolar moiety fail to react with TMSCF(3), but trifluoromethylation of beta,gamma-unsaturated nitrones followed by reduction of the double bond can circumvent this limitation.

  6. Sulfonated polyphenyl ether by electropolymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Hongying; Vacandio, Florence; Di Vona, Maria Luisa; Knauth, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sulfonated polyphenyl ether was for the first time electropolymerized. ► This technique allows the economical preparation of ionomeric membranes for electrochemical energy technologies. ► The mechanism of electropolymerization was discussed in detail. - Abstract: Electropolymerization of sulfonated phenol was for the first time achieved and studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry on stainless steel substrates. The obtained sulfonated polyphenyl ether was characterized in terms of impedance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Dense films of micrometer thickness can be obtained; the proton conductivity is about 3 mS/cm at room temperature.

  7. Maxwell's ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theocharis, T.

    1983-03-12

    A new interpretation of Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light is proposed, namely that the ambient Coulomb field is the medium (Maxwell's ether) of the electromagnetic radiation fields (Maxwellian waves). This investigation implies an incompleteness of the experimental foundations of the principle of special relativity, and suggests how this principle could be tested more fully. The beginning of an attempt to shape this re-interpretation in the form of an alternative theory is outlined.

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of γ-chloro-α,β-diamino- and β,γ-aziridino-α-aminoacylpyrrolidines and -piperidines via stereoselective Mannich-type additions of N-(diphenylmethyleneglycinamides across α-chloro-N-sulfinylimines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Callebaut

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric synthesis of new chiral γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamide derivatives by highly diastereoselective Mannich-type reactions of N-(diphenylmethyleneglycinamides across chiral α-chloro-N-p-toluenesulfinylaldimines was developed. The resulting (SS,2S,3S-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides were formed with the opposite enantiotopic face selectivity as compared to the (SS,2R,3R-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxyl esters obtained via Mannich-type addition of analogous N-(diphenylmethyleneglycine esters across a chiral α-chloro-N-p-toluenesulfinylaldimine. Selective deprotection under different acidic reaction conditions and ring closure of the γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides was optimized, which resulted in Nα-deprotected syn-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamides, N-sulfinyl-β,γ-aziridino-α-aminocarboxylamide derivatives, a trans-imidazolidine, and an Nα,Nβ-deprotected syn-γ-chloro-α,β-diaminocarboxylamide.

  9. Structural and functional roles of ether lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Dean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ether lipids, such as plasmalogens, are peroxisome-derived glycerophospholipids in which the hydrocarbon chain at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone is attached by an ether bond, as opposed to an ester bond in the more common diacyl phospholipids. This seemingly simple biochemical change has profound structural and functional implications. Notably, the tendency of ether lipids to form non-lamellar inverted hexagonal structures in model membranes suggests that they have a role in facilitating membrane fusion processes. Ether lipids are also important for the organization and stability of lipid raft microdomains, cholesterol-rich membrane regions involved in cellular signaling. In addition to their structural roles, a subset of ether lipids are thought to function as endogenous antioxidants, and emerging studies suggest that they are involved in cell differentiation and signaling pathways. Here, we review the biology of ether lipids and their potential significance in human disorders, including neurological diseases, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

  10. {5-Chloro-2-[(4-chlorobenzylideneamino]phenyl}(phenylmethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Yasmeen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C20H13Cl2NO, the C=N bond adopts an E conformation. The chloro-substituted rings form a dihedral angle of 11.99 (9° with each other and form dihedral angles of 74.95 (9 and 83.26 (10° with the unsubstituted ring. In the crystal, molecules are connected into dimers by pairs of weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds and the dimers are arranged in columns parallel to the a axis.

  11. 3-[Chloro(phenylmethyl]-6-methyl-1,2-benzoxazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kayalvizhi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H12ClNO, is a functionalized 1,2-benzoxazole with a chloro(phenylmethyl substituent. The molecule is V-shaped, the dihedral angle between the mean plane of the 1,2-benzoxazole system [maximum deviation = 0.023 (3 Å for the N atom] and the phenyl ring being 70.33 (14°. There are no hydrogen-bonding interactions in the crystal structure, which is stabilized by van der Waals interactions only.

  12. Nucleophilic Substitution and Redox Reactions with alpha-Chloro beta-Oxo Sulfenyl Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Essawy, Farag A.G.; Yassin, Salah M.; El-Sakka, Ibrahim A.

    1998-01-01

    prepared. Sulfenyl chlorides 1 and 4 have been derivatized with p-toluenesulfinate, methoxide, and cyanide ions as well as with primary and secondary amines, with thiophenol and with thiobenzoic acid. The molecular structure of thiocyanate 8a has been determined by X-ray crystallography....

  13. beta-Chloro-L-alanine inhibition of the Escherichia coli alanine-valine transaminase.

    OpenAIRE

    Whalen, W A; Wang, M D; Berg, C M

    1985-01-01

    beta-Chloro-L-alanine, an amino acid analog which inhibits a number of enzymes, reversibly inhibited the Escherichia coli K-12 alanine-valine transaminase, transaminase C. This inhibition, along with the inhibition of transaminase B, accounted for the isoleucine-plus-valine requirement of E. coli in the presence of beta-chloro-L-alanine.

  14. 40 CFR 721.3560 - Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene... Substances § 721.3560 Derivative of tetra-chloro-ethy-lene. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section: Derivative of tetrachloroethylene, P-82-684. (2) The...

  15. Flow-Induced Crystallization of Poly(ether ether ketone)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Behzad; Rhoades, Alicyn; Colby, Ralph

    The effects of an interval of shear above the melting temperature Tm on subsequent isothermal crystallization below Tm is reported for the premier engineering thermoplastic, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). The effect of shear on the crystallization rate of PEEK is investigated by means of rheological techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under a protocol of imposing shear in a rotational cone and plate rheometer and monitoring crystallization after quenching. The rate of crystallization at 320 °C was not affected by shear for shear rates <7 s-1 at 350 °C, whereas intervals of adequate shear at higher shear rates prior to the quench to 320 °C accelerated crystallization significantly. As the duration of the interval of shear above 7 s-1 is increased, the crystallization time decreases but at each shear rate eventually saturates once the applied specific work exceeds ~120 MPa. The annealing of the flow-induced precursors was also investigated. The nuclei were fairly persistent at temperatures close to 350 °C, however very unstable at temperatures above 375 °C. This suggests that the nanostructures formed under shear might be akin to crystalline lamellae of greater thickness, compared to quiescently crystallized lamellae.

  16. Comparison of Properties among Dendritic and Hyperbranched Poly(ether ether ketones and Linear Poly(ether ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Morikawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ether ether ketone dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyldiphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4′-(4-fluorobenzoyldiphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoylbenzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketones having the same hydroxyl groups in the side chains as the chain ends of the dendrimer and hyperbranched polymers. Their properties, such as solubilities, reduced viscosities, and thermal properties, were compared with one another. Similar comparisons were also carried out among the corresponding methoxy group polymers, and the size of the molecules was shown to affect the properties.

  17. Atmospheric lifetimes of selected fluorinated ether compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heathfield, A.E.; Anastasi, C.; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric lifetimes have been estimated for a selection of ethers, the latter representing a class of compounds being considered as replacements for chlorofluorocarbons. The estimates are based on laboratory measurements of rate constants for the reaction of the OH radical with the ethers, and ...

  18. Interfacial oxidation of alpha-tocopherol and the surface properties of its oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, G S; Cornwell, D G

    1978-05-01

    dl-alpha-Tocopherol spread on an acidic subphase as a gaseous monolayer was oxidized slowly to a derivative that was identified by thin-layer chromatography as alpha-tocopherylquinone. The derivative generated the same II-A isotherm as alpha-tocopherylquinone. When the subphase contained gold chloride, alpha-tocopherol was oxidized rapidly and quantitatively to alpha-tocopherylquinone. dl-alpha-Tocopherol spread on a basic subphase as a gaseous monolayer was oxidized slowly to a mixture that contained alpha-tocopherol, a quinone, and a nonpolar derivative. The mixture generated a II-A isotherm with an inflection point below the equilibrium spreading pressure of either alpha-tocopherol or alpha-tocopherylquinone. When potassium ferricyanide was added to the alkaline subphase, alpha-tocopherol was oxidized rapidly to a mixture that contained both the nonpolar derivative (major product) and the quinone (minor product). The nonpolar derivative was isolated by thin-layer chromatography and identified as the spirodienone ether by ultraviolet, infrared, and chemical ionization mass spectra. The spirodienone ether had a low equilibrium spreading pressure that explained the inflection point in the II-A isotherm generated by alpha-tocopherol on an alkaline subphase. Surface area data showed that dl-alpha-tocopherol formed immiscible films with stearyl alcohol and miscible films with oleyl alcohol. II-A isotherms showed that alpha-tocopherol in both immiscible and miscible mixtures was oxidized rapidly on an alkaline potassium ferricyanide subphase to the spirodienone ether. Collapse pressure data showed that the spirodienone ether formed an immiscible film with stearyl alcohol and a miscible film with oleyl alcohol. Interfacial oxidation experiments showed that alpha-tocopherol is oxidized either to tocopherylquinone (acidic subphase) or to the spirodienone ether (alkaline subphase). The natural occurrence of both tocopherylquinone and the spirodienone ether suggests that

  19. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting-Against-Beta...... in publicly traded stocks versus wholly-owned private companies, we find that the former performs the best, suggesting that Buffett's returns are more due to stock selection than to his effect on management. These results have broad implications for market efficiency and the implementability of academic...

  20. 5-Chloro-2-methyl-3-phenylsulfonyl-1-benzofuran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Dae Choi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H11ClO3S, was prepared by the oxidation of 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-phenylsulfanyl-1-benzofuran with 3-chloroperoxybenzoic acid. There are two symmetry-independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. The dihedral angles formed by the phenyl ring and the plane of the benzofuran system are 77.80 (8 and 78.34 (8°. The crystal structure is stabilized by aromatic π–π stacking interactions between the furan ring and the benzene rings of neighbouring benzofuran fragments from two symmetry-independent molecules; the centroid–centroid distances within the stacks are 3.689 (4, 3.702 (4, 3.825 (4 and 3.826 (4 Å. Additionally, the stacked molecules exhibit inter- and intramolecular C—H...O interactions.

  1. The synthesis and characterization of some novel 5-chloro-2-(substituted alkoxy)-N-phenylbenzamide derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    IOANA M. C. IENAŞCU; ALFA X. LUPEA; IULIANA M. POPESCU; MIRABELA A. PĂDURE; ALINA D. ZAMFIR

    2009-01-01

    To obtain biologically active compounds, the synthesis of some new derivatives with an o-hydroxybenzamide structure was performed. The ethyl esters 4–6 were obtained by the reaction of 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamide and chloro-substituted acid ethyl esters 1–3 in ethyl methyl ketone. The obtained ethyl esters were condensed with hydrazine yielding the hydrazides 7–8. The hydrazones 11–14 were obtained by the reaction of the hydrazides and the chloro-substituted benzaldehydes 9–10. All t...

  2. The synthesis and characterization of some novel 5-chloro-2-(substituted alkoxy-N-phenylbenzamide derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA M. C. IENAŞCU

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To obtain biologically active compounds, the synthesis of some new derivatives with an o-hydroxybenzamide structure was performed. The ethyl esters 4–6 were obtained by the reaction of 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-phenylbenzamide and chloro-substituted acid ethyl esters 1–3 in ethyl methyl ketone. The obtained ethyl esters were condensed with hydrazine yielding the hydrazides 7–8. The hydrazones 11–14 were obtained by the reaction of the hydrazides and the chloro-substituted benzaldehydes 9–10. All the newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and elemental analyses.

  3. Doping chloro boron subnaphthalocyanines and chloro boron subphthalocyanine in simple OLED architectures yields warm white incandescent-like emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Trevor G.; Lessard, Benoît H.; Bender, Timothy P.

    2018-01-01

    We have incorporated chloro boron subphthalocyanine (Cl-BsubPc) and chloro boron subnapthalocyanines (Cl-ClnBsubNcs) into organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) that enabled an overall warm white emission with CIE coordinates close to that of a 60 W incandescent lightbulb. More specifically, we have shown that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be used as dopant emitters in a simple host-dopant architecture, and we have compared the use of NPB and Alq3 as potential hosts for these materials. When doped into Alq3, Cl-BsubPc shows a strong orange emission, and Cl-ClnBsubNcs shows a moderately strong red emission. We have further demonstrated that Cl-BsubPc and Cl-ClnBsubNcs can be co-doped into the same layer giving combined orange and red emission peaks. A "cascade" energy transfer mechanism of sequential absorption and re-emission is proposed. Device performance characteristics such as luminance, current efficiency, photoluminescence efficiency, and external quantum efficiency are tabulated. Additionally, in view of ongoing research into white emitting OLEDs for indoor lighting purposes, the Colour Rendering Index (CRI), R9 values, and CIE co-ordinates for these devices are also discussed. We conclude from this study that the BsubNc chromophore has potential application as a red dopant in OLEDs including for indoor lighting. Additionally, given the scope for axial and peripheral derivatization of the BsubNc motif, we believe that this chromophore has many unexplored molecular design handles that will affect its ultimate performance and application in OLEDs and other opto-electronic devices.

  4. Clinical comparison of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, D D

    1981-01-01

    A substitute for the volatile solvent diethyl ether has been actively sought for the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Ethyl acetate has recently been shown to be a comparable substitute. In an effort to verify these findings and evaluate ethyl acetate under clinical conditions, comparison studies with 62 fresh human stool specimens were performed. Parallel concentrates with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate were prepared for each specimen, and the quantity and appearance of recovered par...

  5. Confirmation of vinyl chloride in foods by conversion to 1-chloro-1,2-dibromoethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D T

    1976-01-01

    A semiquantitative method has been developed for the confirmation of vinyl chloride (VC) in foodstuffs. The VC was brominated to give 1-chloro-1,2-dibromoethane which was analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography, using an electron capture detector. The yield of 1-chloro-1,2-dibromoethane varied between 40 and 55%, which permitted a lower limit of confirmation of VC of 15 ppb for vinegar and sherry and 50 ppb for peanut oil.

  6. N-(3-Chloro-2-methylphenyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-amine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Uwabagira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The two precursors 3-chloro-2-methylphenylthiourea 2 and 4-fluorophenacyl bromide 4 are reacted under Hantzsch thiazole synthesis condition to yield the new compound N-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl-4-(4-fluorophenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-amine 5. The IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral data are presented, along with its in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Chromobacterium violaceum.

  7. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene

    OpenAIRE

    Pullan, Nikki; Liu, Max; Topham, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Controlled polymerization of 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene using reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization has been demonstrated for the first time. 2-Chloro-1,3-butadiene, more commonly known as chloroprene, has significant industrial relevance as a crosslinked rubber, with uses ranging from adhesives to integral automotive components. However, problems surrounding the inherent toxicity of the lifecycle of the thiourea-vulcanized rubber have led to the need for control ...

  8. Activity relationships for aromatic crown ethers

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, M J

    1998-01-01

    This thesis involves an investigation of aromatic crown ethers and a study of their binding constants for alkali metals. The study was motivated by the current needs of the semiconductor industry to improve the scavenging of mobile ions from fabricated circuits. A number of aromatic crown ethers have been sulphonated in an attempt to improve their water solubility and cation binding activity. These materials have been extensively studied and their binding activity determined. In collaboration with a molecular modelling study, the effect of ionisable sulphonate groups on the macrocycles' behaviour has been investigated. The broader issue of the effect of substituents in aromatic crown ethers has also been studied with the preparation of a wide range of substituted crown ethers. The cation binding activity of these materials has been found to bear a simple relationship to the electron withdrawing nature of the aromatic substituents. This relationship can be accurately monitored using electronic charge densities...

  9. Skin absorption in vitro of glycol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, F; Fiorito, A; Adami, G; Barbieri, P; Coceani, N; Bussani, R; Reisenhofer, E

    1999-10-01

    The increased use of glycol ethers (GEs) for water-based paints and cleaning products, combined with a lack of information about many of these products, particularly with regard to the effects of percutaneous exposure, led us to evaluate the skin absorption rates of a group of glycol ethers in vitro. Skin permeation was calculated using the Franz cell method with human skin. A physiological solution was used as the receiving phase. The amount of solvent passing through the skin was analysed with a gas chromatographic technique employing flame ionization detection. A permeation profile was obtained and steady state, lag time and permeation constant flux was calculated for each of the following solvents: ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGMEE), propylene glycol mono-methyl ether (PGMME); propylene glycol mono-methyl ether acetate (PGMMEac); 2-propylene glycol 1-butyl ether (2PG1BE), ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME), ethylene glycol diethyl ether (EGDEE) and diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME). All solvents were tested in their pure form and with 70% acetone. For all solvents tested the lag time was less than 2 h, and for the majority of them was about 60 min. Flux at steady state ranged between 0.017 +/- 0.005 and 3.435 +/- 1.897 mg/cm(2)/h and permeation rate was from 0.0192 to 1.02 x 10(-3) cm/h. The presence of acetone in the solution caused a reduction in lag time and an increase in permeation rate, higher for EGMEE, lower for EGDEE, indicating the enhancing effect of this mixture of solvents. Our results confirm the high percutaneous absorption of the GEs tested. The Franz method might be helpful for obtaining a grading of skin notation for hydrophilic substances: in the case of glycol ethers, it can give us precise information about permeation risk, particularly important in the evaluation of exposure. In the case of solvents with high dermal absorption, the air concentration is no longer a sufficient measure of the total exposure to workers, and

  10. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes for nanofiltration of acidic and alkaline media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalwani, M.R.; Bargeman, Gerrald; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan; Schwan Hosseiny, Seyed; Boerrigter, M.E.; Wessling, Matthias; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Several thin film composite nanofiltration membranes have been prepared by spin coating a sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) solution on a polyethersulfone support, followed by thermal treatment. The most optimal developed nanofiltration membrane shows a clean water permeance of ∼4.5 L m−2 h−1

  11. Optical anisotropy, molecular orientations, and internal stresses in thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koziara, Beata; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The thickness, the refractive index, and the optical anisotropy of thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films, prepared by spin-coating or solvent deposition, have been investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. For not too high polymer concentrations (B5 wt%) and not too low spin speeds

  12. Ether modified poly(ether ether ketone) nonwoven membrane with excellent wettability and stability as a lithium ion battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Wang, Wenqiang; Han, Yu; Zhang, Lei; Li, Shuangshou; Tang, Bin; Xu, Shengming; Xu, Zhenghe

    2018-02-01

    In this study, poly(ether ether ketone) is first chloromethylated to improve the solubility and is later used for nonwoven membrane fabrication by electrospinning. Finally, the chloromethyl group was converted to the ethyl ether group and dibenzyl ether group in a hot alkaline solution. The abundant polar groups endow the membrane with excellent wettability, reducing the contact angle to 0°. The polymer matrix is crosslinked by dibenzyl ether group, endowing the membrane with excellent stability (insolubility in many solvents, and ultra-low swelling in the electrolyte at 80 °C) and good anti-shrinkage property (0% at 180 °C). The electrospinning-fabricated membrane remains stable until 4.812 V (vs. Li+/Li), meeting the requirement for use in lithium ion batteries. The interwoven structure of the nonwoven membrane effectively gives rise to the high electrolyte uptake of 215.8%. The ionic conductivity of the electrolyte-swelled electrospinning-fabricated membrane is 51% higher than that of the electrolyte-swelled Celgard membrane. As a result, the lithium ion battery with this nonwoven membrane exhibits an enhanced rate performance (up to 42.5% higher than the lithium ion battery with a PP separator) and satisfactory cycling performance.

  13. Nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester and ethyl diazoacetate to give the alkylating agent and mutagen ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Haorah, James; Chen, Sheng C; Wang, Xiaojie; Kolar, Carol; Lawson, Terence A; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2004-03-01

    Whereas nitrosation of secondary amines produces nitrosamines, amino acids with primary amino groups and glycine ethyl ester were reported to react with nitrite to give unidentified agents that alkylated 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine to produce purple dyes and be direct mutagens in the Ames test. We report here that treatment of glycine ethyl ester at 37 degrees C with excess nitrite acidified with HCl, followed by ether extraction, gave 30-40% yields of a product identified as ethyl chloro(hydroximino)acetate [ClC(=NOH)COOEt, ECHA] and a 9% yield of ethyl chloroacetate. The ECHA was identical to that synthesized by a known method from ethyl acetoacetate, strongly alkylated nitrobenzylpyridine, and may have arisen by N-nitrosation of glycine ethyl ester to give ethyl diazoacetate, which was C-nitrosated and reacted with chloride to give ECHA. Nitrosation of ethyl diazoacetate also yielded ECHA. Ethyl nitroacetate was not an intermediate as its nitrosation did not produce ECHA. ECHA reacted with aniline to give ethyl (hydroxamino)(phenylimino)acetate [PhN=C(NHOH)CO2Et]. This product was different from ethyl [(phenylamino)carbonyl]carbamate [PhNHC(=O)NHCO2Et], which was synthesized by reacting ethyl isocyanatoformate (OCN.CO2Et) with aniline. ECHA reacted with guanosine to give a derivative, which may have been a guanine-C(=NOH)CO2Et derivative. ECHA showed moderate toxicity and weak but significant mutagenicity without activation in Salmonella typhimurium TA-100 (mean, 1.31 x control value for 12-18 microg/plats) and for V79 mammalian cells (1.5-1.7 x control value for 60-100 microM). In conclusion, gastric nitrosation of glycine derivatives such as peptides with a N-terminal glycine might produce ECHA analogues that alkylate bases of gastric mucosal DNA and thereby initiate gastric cancer.

  14. Atmospheric degradation of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether, allyl ether and allyl ethyl ether: Kinetics with OH radicals and UV photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiñolo, M; Ocaña, A J; Aranguren, J P; Lane, S I; Albaladejo, J; Jiménez, E

    2017-08-01

    Unsaturated ethers are oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted by anthropogenic sources. Potential removal processes in the troposphere are initiated by hydroxyl (OH) radicals and photochemistry. In this work, we report for the first time the rate coefficients of the gas-phase reaction with OH radicals (k OH ) of 2-chloroethyl vinyl ether (2ClEVE), allyl ether (AE), and allyl ethyl ether (AEE) as a function of temperature in the 263-358 K range, measured by the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. No pressure dependence of k OH was observed in the 50-500 Torr range in He as bath gas, while a slightly negative T-dependence was observed. The temperature dependent expressions for the rate coefficients determined in this work are: The estimated atmospheric lifetimes (τ OH ) assuming k OH at 288 K were 3, 2, and 4 h for 2ClEVE, AE and AEE, respectively. The kinetic results are discussed in terms of the chemical structure of the unsaturated ethers by comparison with similar compounds. We also report ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) absorption cross sections (σ λ and σ(ν˜), respectively). We estimate the photolysis rate coefficients in the solar UV actinic region to be less than 10 -7 s -1 , implying that these compounds are not removed from the atmosphere by this process. In addition, from σ(ν˜) and τ OH , the global warming potential of each unsaturated ether was calculated to be almost zero. A discussion on the atmospheric implications of the titled compounds is presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radioiodinated N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-chloro-4-iodobenzamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmomo, Yoshiro; Murakami, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Chiaki; Hirata, Masahiko; Magata, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    In developing monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B specific radioligands, N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-chloro-4-[ 125 I]iodobenzamide ([ 125 I]FIBA) was conveniently synthesized from its tributylstannyl precursor by an iododestannylation reaction using sodium [ 125 I]iodide and hydrogen peroxide with high radiochemical yield. The method should be applicable for labeling with 123 I, a suitable radioisotope for in vivo imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In vitro binding studies using mouse brain mitochondrial preparations showed that the specific binding of [ 125 I]FIBA was saturable and of high affinity. Calculated values for K D and B max were 201 nM and 9.5 pmol/mg protein, respectively. The [ 125 I]FIBA binding was effectively prevented by MAO-B specific inhibitors (l-deprenyl, Ro 16-6491, FIBA) or substrate (β-phenethylamine). However, MAO-A specific inhibitor (clorgyline) and substrate (serotonin) had no significant effect. After an intravenous injection into mice, [ 125 I]FIBA showed high brain uptake (1.64% dose/g at 15-30 min post injection) and long retention (1.11% dose/g at 120 min post injection) in the brain. Good brain-to-blood radioactivity ratios of 2.19 and 2.41 at 60 and 120 min after injection, respectively, were obtained. The in vitro binding data and in vivo characteristics suggested that [ 125 I]FIBA is potentially useful as a probe for biological studies including specific labeling of MAO-B in vivo as well as in vitro. Moreover, the 123 I-labeled counterpart, [ 123 I]FIBA, might be valuable for non-invasive imaging and mapping of MAO-B in the living brain with SPECT. (author)

  16. An efficient diethyl ether-based soxhlet protocol to quantify faecal sterols from catchment waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vikas Kumar G; Dunstan, Hugh; Taylor, Warren

    2006-03-03

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and reproducibility of a diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure for faecal sterols occurring from catchment waters. Water samples spiked with a mixture of faecal sterols were filtered and analytes were extracted using the diethyl ether-based soxhlet method and the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process. For diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction procedure, solvent extracts were saponified with 100 microL of 10% KOH in methanol (100 degrees C/120 min) and then acidified with 60 microL of 6M HCl. Lipid contents were extracted by ethanol (0.5 mL) from the saponification products. The lipid extracts were then reacted with 100 microL of bis(trimethyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethyl chlorosilane (100 degrees C/60 min) to form the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The derivatised extracts were then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. For sterol concentrations ranging from 35 to 175 microg mL(-1), the soxhlet-based extraction process yielded the following recovery efficiencies for coprostanol (101%), epicoprostanol (97%), cholesterol (97%), dihydrocholesterol (97%) and 5alpha-cholestane (111%), whereas the Bligh and Dyer process yielded recoveries of 32, 41, 0, 36 and 51%, respectively. The results suggested that the diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction method was more efficient and reproducible than the Bligh and Dyer chloroform extraction process for the analyses of trace levels of faecal sterols from water samples. Moreover, it was revealed that the diethyl ether-based soxhlet extraction method used less solvent and was logistically easier.

  17. Syntheses of Diazadithiacrown Ethers Containing Two 8-Hydroxyquinoline Side Arms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Song, H

    2001-01-01

    Ten new diazadithiacrown ethers containing two 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) sidearms attached through the HQ 7-positions and four new diazadithiacrown ethers containing two HQ sidearms attached through the HQ 2-positions have been prepared...

  18. Luminescent Lariat Aza-Crown Ether Carboxylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard König

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Lariat ethers are interesting recognition motifs in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis of a luminescent lariat aza-crown ether with a carboxyl group appended by azide-alkyne (Huisgen cycloaddition is presented.

  19. Cationization of Alpha-Cellulose to Develop New Sustainable Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Papermaking has been using high quantities of retention agents, mainly cationic substances and organic compounds such as polyamines. The addition of these agents is related to economic and environmental issues, increasing contamination of the effluents. The aim of this work is to develop a cationic polymer for papermaking purposes based on the utilization of alpha-cellulose. The cationization of mercerized alpha-cellulose with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (CHPTAC is governed by a pseudo-second-order reaction. The initial amorphous fraction of cellulose is reacted with CHPTAC until the equilibrium value of nitrogen substitution is reached. Nitrogen is incorporated as a quaternary ammonium group in the polymer. Also, the kinetic constant increased with decreasing crystallinity index, showing the importance of the previous alkalization stage. The use of modified natural polysaccharides is a sustainable alternative to synthetic, nonbiodegradable polyelectrolytes and thus is desirable with a view to developing new products and new processes.

  20. Reaction of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones with 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzhtsinskaya, B.V.; Kositsyna, E.I.; Pertsikov, B.Z.; Rudakova, E.V.; Voronov, V.K.; Skvortsova, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane to 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones depending on the ratio of the reactants leads to the formation of 3-(1-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-3-(1-chloro-2-hydroxypropylthio)-1,2,4-triazoles. 3-Hydroxy-1,2,4-triazolo[2,3-b] tetrahydro-1,3-triazines have been synthesized by intramolecular cyclization of the monoadducts. IR spectra were recorded on a Specord 75-IR instrument as a thin layer, in KBr pellets, an in chloroform solution; PMR spectra were recorded on a Tesla BS-497 instrument (100 MHz) at 20 0 C in CD 3 OD with TMS as internal standard

  1. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, B D; Goad, P T; Burg, J R

    1984-01-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four ti...

  2. Synthesis of l-threitol-based crown ethers and their application as enantioselective phase transfer catalyst in Michael additions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Zsolt; Nemcsok, Tamás; Pálvölgyi, Ádám; Keglevich, György; Grün, Alajos; Bakó, Péter

    2017-06-01

    A few new l-threitol-based lariat ethers incorporating a monoaza-15-crown-5 unit were synthesized starting from diethyl l-tartrate. These macrocycles were used as phase transfer catalysts in asymmetric Michael addition reactions under mild conditions to afford the adducts in a few cases in good to excellent enantioselectivities. The addition of 2-nitropropane to trans-chalcone, and the reaction of diethyl acetamidomalonate with β-nitrostyrene resulted in the chiral Michael adducts in good enantioselectivities (90% and 95%, respectively). The substituents of chalcone had a significant impact on the yield and enantioselectivity in the reaction of diethyl acetoxymalonate. The highest enantiomeric excess (ee) values (99% ee) were measured in the case of 4-chloro- and 4-methoxychalcone. The phase transfer catalyzed cyclopropanation reaction of chalcone and benzylidene-malononitriles using diethyl bromomalonate as the nucleophile (MIRC reaction) was also developed. The corresponding chiral cyclopropane diesters were obtained in moderate to good (up to 99%) enantioselectivities in the presence of the threitol-based crown ethers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Surface study of mixtures containing cyclic ethers and isomeric chlorobutanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royo, F.M.; Villares, A.; Martin, S.; Giner, B.; Lafuente, C.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental surface tensions and the corresponding surface tensions deviations for the mixtures containing 1,3-dioxolane or 1,4-dioxane and 1-chlorobutane, 2-chlorobutane, 1-chloro-2-methylpropane or 2-chloro-2-methylpropane, measured with a drop volume tensiometer, are reported at the temperatures of 298.15 K and 313.15 K. The excess surface concentrations of isomeric chlorobutanes are also evaluated using a monolayer model

  4. Coulomb correction to elastic. alpha. -. alpha. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, P.K.; Jana, A.K.; Haque, N.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India (IN))

    1991-02-01

    The elastic {alpha}-{alpha} scattering is treated within the framework of a generalized phase-function method (GPFM). This generalization consists in absorbing the effect of Coulomb interaction in the comparison functions for developing the phase equation. Based on values of scattering phase shifts computed by the present method, it is concluded that the GPFM provides an uncomplicated approach to rigorous Coulomb correction in the {alpha}-{alpha} scattering.

  5. On new physical reality (on ψ-ether)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a new physical reality - the ψ-ether. All the achievements of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory are due to the fact that both the theories include the influence of ψ-ether on the physical processes occurring in the Universe. Physics of the XX century was first of all the physics of ψ-ether

  6. Synthesis and electrical conductivity studies of metal chloro and nitroxide group containing styrene butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, T.; Ramesan, M. T.

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of different functional group in SBR was done by a simple reaction between sodium nitrite and mercuric chloride in the presence of phase transfer catalyst. The attachment of chlorine and NO2 functional group in the double bond of the butadiene was monitored by FTIR and UV spectroscopy. The structure and morphology of chloro nitro SBR was studied by SEM and XRD. Flame retardency studies revealed that the chemical modification imparts better flame resistance to chemically modified SBR. AC conductivity and dielectric properties of chloro- nitro SBR was higher than that of SBR and conductivity increases with the level of chemical modification.

  7. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Alpha m-RNA while 30% only expressed Interferon Alpha Receptor m-RNA. Responders and non-responders to Interferon therapy ... expression of IFN Alpha Receptor mRNA. Regardless of the response to interferon, histological .... generation reverse hybridisation, line probe assay. (Inno-LiPA HCV II; Innogenetics, Ghent,.

  8. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, Samta; Caforio, Antonella; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2014-01-01

    A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether

  9. Selective crystallization of cations with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffels, Dennis Egidius

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the selectivity and preferences of the incorporation of differently sized cations in the cavities of various crown ethers and the characterization of the resulting compounds. The coordination preferences of crown ethers with different cavities have long been known, and the impact of other effects on the structure formation have increasingly become the focus of attention. In this work a comparative overview of the coordination preferences depending on various factors was undertaken. The focus was mainly on the variation of the cavity of the crown ether in the presence of differently sized cations. In addition, the effects of the solvent and differently coordinating anions have been investigated. Within the framework of this work, basic coordination preferences could be detected with rare earth nitrates, which are affected particularly by the choice of the solvent. The formation of different types of structures could be controlled by varying the conditions such that the incorporation of the cation in the cavity of the crown ether was influenced and the formation of a particular type of structure can be influenced partly by the choice of solvent. In this case no direct preferences for the incorporation into the cavity of the crown ether in relation to the cation size were observed for rare earth cations. However, the coordination of the crown ether leads in each case - for lanthanides - to rather high coordination numbers. A total of five new rare earth complexes and two structural variants could be observed with crown ethers. In the study of the selectivity of the incorporation into the cavity, known structures were also reproduced and further structures were characterized but the crystal structures not entirely solved. With the use of monovalent cations such as potassium, lithium or silver a total of nine new compounds could be synthesized, while no clear preferences for the incorporation of certain cations were detected. The

  10. Microwave sintering of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) based coatings deposited on metallic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, G.; Leparoux, S.; Liao, H.; Coddet, C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of microwave (MW) sintering PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone) based coatings was investigated. Three coatings were studied: pure PEEK, micron-SiC and nano-SiC particles filled (wt.10%) PEEK coatings. The results indicate that, for the two composite coatings, the SiC particles distributed in the polymer matrix, as a good MW susceptor, could be heated preferentially by MW radiation. Consequently, the polymer matrix was heated by these particles

  11. Ion-Selective Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) Actuator Based on Crown Ether Containing Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem; Zoetebier, Bram; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Bayraktar, Muharrem; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    This study introduces the concept of ion selective actuation in polymer metal composite actuators, employing crown ether bearing aromatic polyether materials. For this purpose, sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) (SPAEK) and crown ether containing SPAEK with molar masses suitable for membrane

  12. Preparation and characterization of monovalent ion selective cation exchange membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Krupenko, O.; Krupenko, O.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyses the separation properties of various commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs) and tailor made membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(ether sulphone) for binary electrolyte solutions containing protons and calcium ions. All membranes are thoroughly

  13. Synthetic bioactive novel ether based Schiff bases and their copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Muhammad; Akhter, Zareen; Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-10-01

    Novel ether based Schiff bases (HL1- HL4) were synthesized from 5-chloro-2-hydroxy benzaldehyde and primary amines (1-amino-4-phenoxybenzene, 4-(4-aminophenyloxy) biphenyl, 1-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene and 2-(4-aminophenoxy) naphthalene). From these Schiff bases copper(II) complexes (Cu(L1)2-Cu(L4)2)) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and spectroscopic (FTIR, NMR) techniques. The synthesized Schiff bases and copper(II) complexes were further assessed for various biological studies. In brine shrimp assay the copper(II) complexes revealed 4-fold higher activity (LD50 3.8 μg/ml) as compared with simple ligands (LD50 12.4 μg/ml). Similar findings were observed in potato disc antitumor assay with higher activities for copper(II) complexes (IC50 range 20.4-24.1 μg/ml) than ligands (IC50 range 40.5-48.3 μg/ml). DPPH assay was performed to determine the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Significant antioxidant activity was shown by the copper(II) complexes whereas simple ligands have shown no activity. In DNA protection assay significant protection behavior was exhibited by simple ligand molecules while copper(II) complexes showed neutral behavior (neither protective nor damaging).

  14. Unique presynaptic alpha 2-receptor selectivity and specificity of the antihypertensive agent moxonidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, B I

    1988-10-01

    The characteristics of the alpha-receptor activating property of the new antihypertensive agent moxonidine (4-chloro-N-(4, 5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinamine, BDF 5895) was studied using peripheral vasculature and brain membranes of various animals. Moxonidine exerted a full agonist effect in elevating diastolic blood pressure in the pithed rat. Activation of postsynaptic alpha 1- and alpha 2-receptors contribute to the vasoconstrictory effect in rats. In the vasculature of the rabbit, moxonidine was a full agonist at presynaptic alpha 2-receptors in inhibiting transmitter release induced by electrical stimulation of pulmonary artery strips. At postsynaptic sites, exogenously applied moxonidine was a full agonist at alpha 1-receptors in the isolated aorta, pulmonary artery and vena cava of the rabbit. Selectivity for alpha 2-receptors in the pulmonary artery was 106-fold. In rat brain membranes, moxonidine showed 288-fold greater selectivity for alpha 2-receptors, when the displacement of [3H]-rauwolscine was compared with the displacement of [3H]-prazosin. On the whole, clonidine exhibited greater potency than moxonidine on both alpha-receptor subtypes, but moxonidine consistently showed greater alpha 2-receptor selectivity than clonidine. In the guinea pig myocardium, moxonidine caused neither bradycardia nor tachycardia in the isolated right atrium and produced a negligible positive inotropic effect at 100 mumol/l in the isolated papillary muscle.

  15. Gelation Behavior of 5-Chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, an Antituberculosis Agent in Aqueous Alcohol Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Korpela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It was shown that 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, an antituberculosis agent, gels aqueous alcohol solutions efficiently. Thermal stability and gel-to-sol transition temperature of 1% gel in CD3OD/D2O (2:1 was studied by 1H-NMR. Fibrous structures of four xerogels have been characterized by scanning electron microscope.

  16. Iron(III) porphyrin-catalysed oxidation reactions by m-chloro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Dedicated to the memory of the late Professor Bhaskar G Maiya. *For correspondence. Iron(III) porphyrin-catalysed oxidation reactions by m-chloro- perbenzoic acid: Nature of reactive intermediates. A AGARWALA, V BAGCHI and D BANDYOPADHYAY*. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi ...

  17. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of 5-chloro-5-benzobarbiturates as new central nervous system depressants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Andreia A.; Gomes, Niele M.; Matheus, Maria E.; Figueroa-Villar, Jose D., E-mail: figueroa@ime.eb.b [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Chemistry. Medicinal Chemistry Grupo; Fernandes, Patricia D. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas. Lab. de Farmacologia da Inflamacao e do Oxido Nitrico

    2011-07-01

    A new family of barbiturates, 5-chloro-5-benzylbarbituric acids, was prepared using a simple efficient synthetic method from aromatic aldehydes and barbituric acid, followed by reduction and chlorination with trichloro-isocyanuric acid, affording overall yields of 53 to 70%. The in vivo evaluation with mice showed that these compounds present tranquilizing activity. (author)

  18. Gelation Behavior of 5-Chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, an Antituberculosis Agent in Aqueous Alcohol Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen, Erkki; Salo, Hannu; Korpela, Jukka

    2012-09-19

    It was shown that 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline, an antituberculosis agent, gels aqueous alcohol solutions efficiently. Thermal stability and gel-to-sol transition temperature of 1% gel in CD₃OD/D₂O (2:1) was studied by ¹H-NMR. Fibrous structures of four xerogels have been characterized by scanning electron microscope.

  19. Kinetic studies on substitution of cis-diaqua-chloro-tris-(dimethyl ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4, July 2012, pp. 801–807. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Kinetic studies on substitution of cis-diaqua-chloro-tris-(dimethyl sulphoxide)-ruthenium(II) complex with some dipeptides in aqueous medium. ARUP MANDAL, PARNAJYOTI KARMAKAR, SUBHASIS MALLICK, BIPLAB K BERA,. SUBALA MONDAL, SUMON RAY ...

  20. Novel 2-Chloro-8-arylthiomethyldipyridodiazepinone Derivatives with Activity against HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supanna Techasakul

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the molecular modeling analysis against Y181CHIV-1 RT, dipyridodiazepinone derivatives containing an unsubstituted lactamnitrogen and 2-chloro-8-arylthiomethyl were synthesized via an efficientroute. Some of them were evaluated for their antiviral activity against HIV-1RT subtype E and were found to exhibit virustatic activity comparable to some clinically usedtherapeutic agents.

  1. Evaluation of crystallization kinetics of poly (ether-ketone-ketone) and poly (ether-ether-ketone) by DSC

    OpenAIRE

    Gibran da Cunha Vasconcelos; Rogerio Lago Mazur; Edson Cocchieri Botelho; Mirabel Cerqueira Rezende; Michelle Leali Costa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The poly (aryl ether ketones) are used as matrices in advanced composites with high performance due to its high thermal stability, excellent environmental performance and superior mechanical properties. Most of the physical, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of semi-crystalline polymers depend on the degree of crystallinity and morphology of the crystalline regions. Thus, a study on the crystallization process promotes a good prediction of how the manufacturing parameters affe...

  2. Hardness and wear properties of boron-implanted poly(ether-ether-ketone) and poly-ether-imide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Youngchul; Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of boron beam irradiation on the hardness, friction, and wear of polymer surfaces were investigated. Typical high-performance thermoplastics, poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and a poly-ether-imide (Ultem) were studied after 200 keV boron ion beam treatment at ambient temperature to doses of 2.3x10 14 , 6.8x10 14 , and 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 . The hardnesses of pristine and boron-implanted materials were characterized by a conventional Knoop method and a load-depth sensing nanoindentation technique. Both measurements showed a significant increase in hardness with increasing dose. The increase in hardness was also found to depend on the penetration depth of the diamond indenter. Wear and friction properties were characterized by a reciprocating sliding friction tester with an SAE 52100 high-carbon, chrome steel ball at 0.5 and 1 N normal loads. Wear and frictional properties varied in a complex fashion with polymer type and dose, but not much with normal load. A substantial reduction in friction coefficient was observed for PEEK at the highest dose but no reduction was observed for Ultem. The wear damage was substantially reduced at the highest dose for both Ultem and PEEK. For the system studied, the highest dose, 2.2x10 15 ions cm -2 , appears to be optimum in improving wear resistance for both PEEK and Ultem. (orig.)

  3. ChloroMitoCU: Codon patterns across organelle genomes for functional genomics and evolutionary applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablok, Gaurav; Chen, Ting-Wen; Lee, Chi-Ching; Yang, Chi; Gan, Ruei-Chi; Wegrzyn, Jill L; Porta, Nicola L; Nayak, Kinshuk C; Huang, Po-Jung; Varotto, Claudio; Tang, Petrus

    2017-06-01

    Organelle genomes are widely thought to have arisen from reduction events involving cyanobacterial and archaeal genomes, in the case of chloroplasts, or α-proteobacterial genomes, in the case of mitochondria. Heterogeneity in base composition and codon preference has long been the subject of investigation of topics ranging from phylogenetic distortion to the design of overexpression cassettes for transgenic expression. From the overexpression point of view, it is critical to systematically analyze the codon usage patterns of the organelle genomes. In light of the importance of codon usage patterns in the development of hyper-expression organelle transgenics, we present ChloroMitoCU, the first-ever curated, web-based reference catalog of the codon usage patterns in organelle genomes. ChloroMitoCU contains the pre-compiled codon usage patterns of 328 chloroplast genomes (29,960 CDS) and 3,502 mitochondrial genomes (49,066 CDS), enabling genome-wide exploration and comparative analysis of codon usage patterns across species. ChloroMitoCU allows the phylogenetic comparison of codon usage patterns across organelle genomes, the prediction of codon usage patterns based on user-submitted transcripts or assembled organelle genes, and comparative analysis with the pre-compiled patterns across species of interest. ChloroMitoCU can increase our understanding of the biased patterns of codon usage in organelle genomes across multiple clades. ChloroMitoCU can be accessed at: http://chloromitocu.cgu.edu.tw/. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  4. Poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio...the originator. Army Research Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7160 December 2014 Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as a...REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) December 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Poly(aryl-ether-ether- ketone ) as

  5. Model for Photodegradation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Veselý, M.; Vajglová, Zuzana; Kotas, Petr; Křišťál, Jiří; Ponec, Robert; Jiřičný, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2015), s. 4949-4963 ISSN 0944-1344 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0880; GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0664 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : polybrominated diphenyl ethers * photodegradation model * quantum chemical calculation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2015

  6. Nikola Tesla, the Ether and his Telautomaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milar, Kendall

    2014-03-01

    In the nineteenth century physicists' understanding of the ether changed dramatically. New developments in thermodynamics, energy physics, and electricity and magnetism dictated new properties of the ether. These have traditionally been examined from the perspective of the scientists re-conceptualizing the ether. However Nikola Tesla, a prolific inventor and writer, presents a different picture of nineteenth century physics. Alongside the displays that showcased his inventions he presented alternative interpretations of physical, physiological and even psychical research. This is particularly evident in his telautomaton, a radio remote controlled boat. This invention and Tesla's descriptions of it showcase some of his novel interpretations of physical theories. He offered a perspective on nineteenth century physics that focused on practical application instead of experiment. Sometimes the understanding of physical theories that Tesla reached was counterproductive to his own inventive work; other times he offered new insights. Tesla's utilitarian interpretation of physical theories suggests a more scientifically curious and invested inventor than previously described and a connection between the scientific and inventive communities.

  7. From ether theory to ether theology: Oliver Lodge and the physics of immortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Courtenay Grean

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of physicist Oliver Lodge's religio-scientific worldview, beginning with his reticent attraction to metaphysics in the early 1880s to the full formulation of his "ether theology" in the late 1890s. Lodge undertook the study of psychical phenomena such as telepathy, telekinesis, and "ectoplasm" to further his scientific investigations of the ether, speculating that electrical and psychical manifestations were linked phenomena that described the deeper underlying structures of the universe, beneath and beyond matter. For Lodge, to fully understand the ether was to force from the universe an ultimate Revelation, and psychical research, as the most modern and probatory science, was poised to replace religion as the means of that disclosure. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparison of Properties among Dendritic and Hyperbranched Poly(ether ether ketone)s and Linear Poly(ether ketone)s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Atsushi

    2016-02-16

    Poly(ether ether ketone) dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy)-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketone)s having the same hydroxyl groups in the side chains as the chain ends of the dendrimer and hyperbranched polymers. Their properties, such as solubilities, reduced viscosities, and thermal properties, were compared with one another. Similar comparisons were also carried out among the corresponding methoxy group polymers, and the size of the molecules was shown to affect the properties.

  9. Preliminary Investigation of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone Based on Fused Deposition Modeling for Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK fabricated by fused deposition modeling for medical applications was evaluated in terms of mechanical strength and in vitro cytotoxicity in this study. Orthogonal experiments were firstly designed to investigate the significant factors on tensile strength. Nozzle temperature, platform temperature, and the filament diameter were tightly controlled for improved mechanical strength performance. These sensitive parameters affected the interlayer bonding and solid condition in the samples. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectrometry analysis was secondly conducted to compare the functional groups in PEEK granules, filaments, and printed parts. In vitro cytotoxicity test was carried out at last, and no toxic substances were introduced during the printing process.

  10. Proton conductivity enhancement by nanostructural control of sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuwei; Ge, Junjie; Cui, Zhiming; Liu, Changpeng; Xing, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 5625 Renmin Street, Changchun 130022, Jilin (China); Zhang, Jiujun [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council of Canada. 4250 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lin, Haidan; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-08-15

    A series of sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membranes for direct methanol fuel cells are successfully prepared under different humidity degree conditions. These membranes exhibit enhanced proton conductivity at high humidity degree. It is proved that the different proton conductivity is ascribed to the orientation arrangement of sulphonic acid groups, which is caused by environmental water in the preparing process of membranes. A model is established by analyzing the dynamics of membrane formation and proved by Field emission scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). (author)

  11. Synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of thiophene analogues of 5-chloro-5,8-dideazafolic acid and 2-methyl-2-desamino-5-chloro-5,8-dideazafolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsch, Ronald A; Wright, Joel E; Rosowsky, Andre

    2002-06-01

    N-[5-[N-(2-Amino-5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinazolin-6-yl)methylamino]-2-thenoyl]-L-glutamic acid (6) and N-[5-[N-(5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-yl)methylamino]-2-thenoyl]-L-glutamic acid (7), the first reported thiophene analogues of 5-chloro-5,8-dideazafolic acid, were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of tumor cell growth in culture. 4-Chloro-5-methylisatin (10) was converted stepwise to methyl 2-amino-5-methyl-6-chlorobenzoate (22) and 2-amino-5-chloro-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxoquinazoline (19). Pivaloylation of the 2-amino group, followed by NBS bromination, condensation with di-tert-butyl N-(5-amino-2-thenoyl)-L-glutamate (28), and stepwise cleavage of the protecting groups with ammonia and TFA yielded. Treatment of 9 with acetic anhydride afforded 2,6-dimethyl-5-chlorobenz[1,3-d]oxazin-4-one (31), which on reaction with ammonia, NaOH was converted to 2,6-dimethyl-5-chloro-3,4-dihydroquinazolin-4-one (33). Bromination of, followed by condensation with and ester cleavage with TFA, yielded. The IC(50) of and against CCRF-CEM human leukemic lymphoblasts was 1.8+/-0.1 and 2.1+/-0.8 microM, respectively.

  12. Ethers as gasoline additives : toxicokinetics and acute effects in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nihlén, Annsofi

    1999-01-01

    Ethers or other oxygen-containing compounds are used as replacements for lead in gasoline and to ensure complete combustion. Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is already in use world-wide and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) may be used increasingly in the future. The aims of the present thesis were to study the uptake and disposition (toxicokinetics) of MTBE and ETBE in humans, to address the issue of biological monitoring and to measure acute effects (assessed by questio...

  13. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Gregg A [East Lansing, MI; Itoh, Aya [Tsuruoka, JP

    2011-09-13

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  14. Hydrogenolytic cleavage of naphthylmethyl ethers in the presence of sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adero, Philip O; Jarois, Dean R; Crich, David

    2017-09-08

    With the aid of a series of model thioether or thioglycoside containing polyols protected with combinations of benzyl ethers and 2-naphthylmethyl ethers it is demonstrated that the latter are readily cleaved selectively under hydrogenolytic conditions in the presence of the frequently catalyst-poisoning sulfides. These results suggest the possibility of employing 2-naphthylmethyl ethers in place of benzyl ethers in synthetic schemes when hydrogenolytic deprotection is anticipated in the presence of thioether type functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-spin intermediates of the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Chapyshev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to theoretical expectations, the photolysis of 2,4,6-triazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridine in argon at 5 K gives rise to EPR peaks of just two triplet mononitrenes, two quintet dinitrenes, and a septet trinitrene. EPR spectral simulations in combination with DFT calculations show that observable nitrenes can be assigned to triplet 2,4-diazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-6-nitrene (DT = 1.026 cm−1, ET = 0, triplet 2,6-diazido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-4-nitrene (DT = 1.122 cm−1, ET = 0.0018 cm−1, quintet 4-azido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-2,6-dinitrene (DQ = 0.215 cm−1, EQ = 0.0545 cm−1, quintet 2-azido-3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-4,6-dinitrene (DQ = 0.209 cm−1, EQ = 0.039 cm−1 and septet 3-chloro-5-fluoropyridyl-2,4,6-trinitrene (DS = −0.1021 cm−1, ES = −0.0034 cm−1. Preferential photodissociation of the azido groups located in ortho-positions to the fluorine atom of pyridines is associated with strong π-conjugation of these groups with the pyridine ring. On photoexcitation, such azido groups are more efficiently involved in reorganization of the molecular electronic system and more easily adopt geometries of the locally excited predissociation states.

  16. Combining regio- and enantioselectivity of lipases for the preparation of (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Jonh J; Oromi, Mireia; Cervero, Maria; Balcells, Mercè; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Preparation of 98% ee (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorohydrin esters, using fungal resting cells and commercial enzymes. Hydrolyzes were carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), C. rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM), Burkolia cepacia, and resting cells of Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus. The influence of the enzyme, the solvent, the temperature, and the alkyl chain length on the selectivity of hydrolyzes of isomeric mixtures of chlorohydrin esters is described. Regioselectivity was higher than 95% for some of the tested lipases. Novozym 435 allowed preparation of the (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol after 15 min of reaction at 30-40 degrees C. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO 4 were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO 4 , the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance

  18. Silane Cross-Linked Sulfonted Poly(Ether Ketone/Ether Benzimidazoles for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilu Yao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy propyltrimethoxysilane (KH-560 was incorporated in various proportions into side-chain-type sulfonated poly(ether ketone/ether benzimidazole (SPEKEBI as a crosslinker, to make membranes with high ion exchange capacities and excellent performance for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Systematical measurements including Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS proved the complete disappearance of epoxy groups in KH-560 and the existence of Si in the membranes. The resulting membranes showed increased mechanical strength and thermal stability compared to the unmodified sulfonated poly(ether ketone/ether benzimidazole membrane in appropriate doping amount. Meanwhile, the methanol permeability has decreased, leading to the increase of relative selectivities of SPEKEBI-x-SiO2 membranes. Furthermore, the H2/O2 cell performance of SPEKEBI-2.5-SiO2 membrane showed a much higher peak power density compared with the pure SPEKEBI memrbrane.

  19. All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, P.; Kushwaha, R.K.; Shashidhara, K.; Hande, V.R.; Thakur, A.P. [Polymer Department, Naval Materials Research Laboratory (DRDO), Shil-Badlapur Road, Anand Nagar PO, Thane Dist., Ambernath, Maharashtra 421 506 (India); Samui, A.B., E-mail: absamui@rediffmail.co [Polymer Department, Naval Materials Research Laboratory (DRDO), Shil-Badlapur Road, Anand Nagar PO, Thane Dist., Ambernath, Maharashtra 421 506 (India); Khandpekar, M.M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Birla College, Kalyan, Thane Dist, Maharashtra 421 304 (India)

    2010-02-28

    All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline (PANI) and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (XSPEEK,) is reported in this paper. The crosslinker used for sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (SPEEK) is 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl) benzene. The XSPEEK is used as both solid electrolyte and separator membrane. Supercapacitors are fabricated using various PANI/XSPEEK weight ratios. These are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The supercapacitor with PANI/XSPEEK weight ratio 1:0.5, exhibit a specific capacitance of 480 F g{sup -1} of PANI. To the best of authors' knowledge, the value reported here is the highest for a supercapacitor based on a proton conducting solid polymer electrolyte and PANI. Detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis is carried out. The analysis shows that the complex capacitance of the supercapacitor depends on the XSPEEK content. The time constant (t{sub 0}), derived from the imaginary part of complex capacitance decreases with increase in the XSPEEK content in the supercapacitor. Cycle life characteristics of the supercapacitor show a decrease in specific capacitance during initial cycles and get stabilized during later cycles.

  20. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H., E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO{sub 4} were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO{sub 4}, the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance.

  1. Growth and characterization of 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone single crystals using vertical Bridgman technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravinth, K., E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com; Babu, G. Anandha, E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com; Ramasamy, P., E-mail: anandcgc@gmail.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam -603110, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-04-24

    4-chloro-3-nitrobenzophenone (4C3N) has been grown by using vertical Bridgman technique. The grown crystal was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was examined by high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The fluorescence spectra of grown 4C3N single crystals exhibit emission peak at 575 nm. The micro hardness measurements were used to analyze the mechanical property of the grown crystal.

  2. Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra, assignment, ab initio, DFT and normal co-ordinate analysis of 2-chloro-4-methylaniline and 2-chloro-6-methylaniline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, V; Mohan, S

    2009-03-01

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT-Raman spectra of 2-chloro-4-methylaniline and 2-chloro-6-methylaniline have been measured in the range 4000-400 and 4000-100cm(-1), respectively. Utilising the observed FTIR and FT-Raman data, a complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compounds were carried out. The vibrational frequency which were determined experimentally are compared with those obtained theoretically from ab initio HF and DFT gradient calculations employing the HF/6-31G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) methods for optimised geometries. The geometries and normal modes of vibration obtained from the HF and DFT methods are in good agreement with the experimental data. The normal co-ordinate analysis was also carried out on the basis of ab initio force fields utilising Wilson's FG matrix method. The manifestations of NH-pi interactions and the influence of bulky chlorine and methyl group on the vibrational modes of the amino group are investigated.

  3. Ruthenium(II) carbonyl compounds with the 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatikonda, Rajendhraprasad; Haukka, Matti

    2017-04-01

    Two ruthenium carbonyl complexes with the 4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine ligand (tpy-Cl, C 15 H 10 ClN 3 ), i.e. [RuCl(tpy-Cl)(CO) 2 ][RuCl 3 (CO) 3 ] (I) [systematic name: cis -di-carbonyl-chlorido(4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ 3 N )ruthenium(II) fac -tricarbonyltri-chlorido-ruthenate(II)], and [RuCl 2 (tpy-Cl)(CO) 2 ] (II) [ cis -dicarbonyl- trans -di-chlorido(4'-chloro-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine-κ 2 N 1 , N 1' )ruthenium(II)], were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The Ru II atoms in both centrosymmetric structures (I) and (II) display similar, slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination spheres. The coordination sphere in the complex cation in compound (I) is defined by three N atoms of the tridentate tpy-Cl ligand, two carbonyl carbon atoms and one chlorido ligand; the charge is balanced by an octa-hedral [Ru(CO) 3 Cl 3 ] - counter-anion. In the neutral compound (II), the tpy-Cl ligand coordinates to the metal only through two of its N atoms. The coordination sphere of the Ru II atom is completed by two carbonyl and two chlorido ligands. In the crystal structures of both (I) and (II), weak C-H⋯Cl inter-actions are observed.

  4. Nootropic alpha7 nicotinic receptor allosteric modulator derived from GABAA receptor modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Herman J; Whittemore, Edward R; Tran, Minhtam B; Hogenkamp, Derk J; Broide, Ron S; Johnstone, Timothy B; Zheng, Lijun; Stevens, Karen E; Gee, Kelvin W

    2007-05-08

    Activation of brain alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7 nAChRs) has broad therapeutic potential in CNS diseases related to cognitive dysfunction, including Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In contrast to direct agonist activation, positive allosteric modulation of alpha7 nAChRs would deliver the clinically validated benefits of allosterism to these indications. We have generated a selective alpha7 nAChR-positive allosteric modulator (PAM) from a library of GABAA receptor PAMs. Compound 6 (N-(4-chlorophenyl)-alpha-[[(4-chloro-phenyl)amino]methylene]-3-methyl-5-isoxazoleacet-amide) evokes robust positive modulation of agonist-induced currents at alpha7 nAChRs, while preserving the rapid native characteristics of desensitization, and has little to no efficacy at other ligand-gated ion channels. In rodent models, it corrects sensory-gating deficits and improves working memory, effects consistent with cognitive enhancement. Compound 6 represents a chemotype for allosteric activation of alpha7 nAChRs, with therapeutic potential in CNS diseases with cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Fabrication and properties of poly(polyethylene glycol n-alkyl ether vinyl ether)s as polymeric phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Dong-fang; Chen, Sai; Li, Shu-qin; Shi, Hai-feng; Li, Wei; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2016-01-01

    A series of poly(polyethylene glycol n-alkyl ether vinyl ether)s (PC m E n VEs) with various lengths of alkyl chains and polyethylene glycol spacers as side chain (m = 16,18; n = 1,2) were synthesized via two steps. First, monomers-ethylene glycol hexadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 16 E 1 VE), ethylene glycol octadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 18 E 1 VE), diethylene glycol hexadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 16 E 2 VE) and diethylene glycol octadecyl ether vinyl ether (C 18 E 2 VE) were synthesized by a modified Williamson etherification. Then, four new types of phase change materials were successfully fabricated by a living cationic polymerization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were employed to characterize their composition, thermal properties and crystallization behavior. The results show that, the side chains of PC 16 E 1 VE, PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are in a hexagonal lattice, and the onset temperatures for melting of PC 16 E 1 VE, PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are 39.8 °C, 37.4 °C, 51.0 °C and 48.9 °C, the onset temperatures for crystallization are 36.7 °C, 35.2 °C, 47.4 °C and 46.3 °C, respectively. The enthalpy changes of PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are higher than 100 J/g; on the contrary, it is 96 J/g for PC 16 E 1 VE. The enthalpy decrease is no more than 11% after 10 heating and cooling cycles. The 5 wt% mass loss temperatures of PC 18 E 1 VE, PC 16 E 2 VE and PC 18 E 2 VE are higher than 300 °C; on the contrary, it’s 283 °C for PC 16 E 1 VE. Using a weak polarity, flexible alkyl ether chain (-OCH 2 CH 2 O-) as a spacer to link the main chain and side chain is conducive to the crystallization of the alkyl side chain. These new phase change materials can be applied in heat storage, energy conservation, and environmental protection.

  6. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagano, K; Nakayama, E; Oobayashi, H; Nishizawa, T; Okuda, H; Yamazaki, K

    1984-01-01

    Past studies on the toxicological effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers as well as the recent data on these chemicals in Japan are reviewed. Only a few researchers have participated in the study of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. The effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers on testis and embryotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM) have been studied, as has the teratogenicity of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdM). Studies on ethylene glycol alkyl ethers and related...

  7. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  8. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of EG-Artemisinin Ethers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of ethylene glycol (EG) ethers and quinoline hybrids of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and to evaluate their antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum strains. The ethers were synthesized in a ... falciparum, ethylene glycol) (EG), ethylene oxide (EO), hybrid ...

  9. Synthesis and Antiplasmodial Activity of EG-Artemisinin Ethers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of ethylene glycol (EG) ethers and quinoline hybrids of the antimalarial drug artemisinin and to ... The IC50 values revealed that all the ethers were active against both strains but less potent than ...... Compound 19 was racemate (mixture 3''R and 3''S isomers) isolated as fluffy ...

  10. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether Fruit Extract of Fruits of Brucea javanica (Simarubaceae) ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To investigate the chemical composition and antitumor activity of the petroleum ether extract of the dried ripe fruits of Brucea javanica.

  11. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L

    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg

  12. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyglycerin mono(4...

  13. Synthesis and bioactivity of rotenone oxime O -ether derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A series of rotenone oxime O-ether derivatives were synthesized and characterized. All compounds were tested for their insecticidal, miticidal and fungicidal activities against the selected pests and compared with those of rotenone. The results of biological tests show that the rotenone oxime O-ether derivatives have ...

  14. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  15. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  16. [Recent development of research on the biotribology of carbon fiber reinforced poly ether ether ketone composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Pan, Yusong

    2014-12-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced poly ether ether ketone (CF/PEEK) composite possesses excellent biocompatible, biomechanical and bioribological properties. It is one of the most promising implant materials for artificial joint. Many factors influence the bioribological properties of CF/PEEK composites. In this paper, the authors reviewed on the biotribology research progress of CF/PEEK composites. The influences of various factors such as lubricant, reinforcement surface modification, functional particles, friction counterpart and friction motion modes on the bio-tribological properties of CF/PEEK composites are discussed. Based on the recent research, the authors suggest that the further research should be focused on the synergistic effect of multiple factors on the wear and lubrication mechanism of CF/PEEK.

  17. Enhanced osteogenic activity of poly ether ether ketone using calcium plasma immersion ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Qian, Shi; Meng, Fanhao; Ning, Congqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-06-01

    As a promising implantable material, poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses similar elastic modulus to that of cortical bones yet suffers from bio-inertness and poor osteogenic properties, which limits its application as orthopedic implants. In this work, calcium is introduced onto PEEK surface using calcium plasma immersion ion implantation (Ca-PIII). The results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirm the modified layer with varying contents of calcium are formed on PEEK surfaces. Water contact angle measurements reveal the increasing hydrophobicity of both Ca-PIII treated surfaces. In vitro cell adhesion, viability assay, alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen secretion analyses disclose improved the adhesion, proliferation, and osteo-differentiation of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) on Ca-PIII treated surfaces. The obtained results indicate that PEEK surface with enhanced osteogenic activity can be produced by calcium incorporation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modification of Poly(ether ether ketone Polymer for Fuel Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devesh Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM is an important part of PEM fuel cell. Nafion is a commercially known membrane which gives the satisfactory result in PEM fuel cell operating at low temperature. Present research paper includes functionalization of Poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK polymer with phosphonic acid group. The functionalization was done with the help of nickel-based catalyst. Further, the polymer was characterized by the FTIR, EDAX, DSC, TGA, and 1H NMR, and it was found that PEEK polymer was functionalized with phosphonic acid group with good thermal stability in comparison to virgin PEEK. Finally, the thin films of functionalized polymer were prepared by solution casting method, and proton conductivity of film samples was measured by impedance spectra whose value was found satisfactory with good thermal stability in comparison to commercially available Nafion membrane.

  19. Dielectric properties of poly (1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone)

    CERN Document Server

    Spasevska, H

    2002-01-01

    Dielectric properties of Poly (1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone) are obtained from dielectric spectroscopy of the polymer pellet. The values of relative dielectric constant epsilon', dielectric losses epsilon sup , dielectric dissipation factor tan delta and complex impedance are obtained at temperature of 75 sup o C. The temperature dependence of these parameters is investigated for three frequencies (8x10 sup 4 Hz; 8x10 sup 5 Hz; 8x10 sup 6 Hz) of applied electric field. The specific conductivity sigma, which depends on temperature, is related to the ohmic resistance R, at temperature in the interval from 66 to 83 sup o C. Fitting the experimental data, the value of the activation energy U is obtained. (Original)

  20. Characterization of melt-blended graphene – poly(ether ether ketone) nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewatia, Arya; Hendrix, Justin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Dong, Zhizhong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Taghon, Meredith [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Tse, Stephen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rutgers University, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Chiu, Gordon; Mayo, William E.; Kear, Bernard; Nosker, Thomas [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States); Lynch, Jennifer, E-mail: jklynch@rci.rutgers.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, 607 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854 (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Using a high shear melt-processing method, graphene-reinforced polymer matrix composites (G-PMCs) were produced with good distribution and particle–matrix interaction of bi/trilayer graphene at 2 wt. % and 5 wt. % in poly ether ether ketone (2Gn-PEEK and 5Gn-PEEK). The morphology, structure, thermal properties, and mechanical properties of PEEK, 2Gn-PEEK and 5 Gn-PEEK were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), flexural mechanical testing, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Addition of graphene to PEEK induces surface crystallization, increased percent crystallinity, offers a composite that is thermally stable until 550 °C and enhances thermomechanical properties. Results show that graphene was successfully melt-blended within PEEK using this method.

  1. Characterization of melt-blended graphene – poly(ether ether ketone) nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewatia, Arya; Hendrix, Justin; Dong, Zhizhong; Taghon, Meredith; Tse, Stephen; Chiu, Gordon; Mayo, William E.; Kear, Bernard; Nosker, Thomas; Lynch, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Using a high shear melt-processing method, graphene-reinforced polymer matrix composites (G-PMCs) were produced with good distribution and particle–matrix interaction of bi/trilayer graphene at 2 wt. % and 5 wt. % in poly ether ether ketone (2Gn-PEEK and 5Gn-PEEK). The morphology, structure, thermal properties, and mechanical properties of PEEK, 2Gn-PEEK and 5 Gn-PEEK were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), flexural mechanical testing, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Addition of graphene to PEEK induces surface crystallization, increased percent crystallinity, offers a composite that is thermally stable until 550 °C and enhances thermomechanical properties. Results show that graphene was successfully melt-blended within PEEK using this method.

  2. Analysis of electron-irradiated poly-ether ether ketone by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyabu, Matashige; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Seguchi, Tadao; Sasuga, Tsuneo; Kudoh, Hisaaki.

    1995-01-01

    Organic polymers used in atomic power plants or space are damaged by ionizing irradiation. Radicals produced by irradiation cause oxidation, chain scission and crosslinking, all of which lead to degradation of the material. In this paper, the surface of electron-irradiated poly-ether ether ketone (PEEK) was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The irradiation in air was found to oxidize the PEEK surface producing carboxyl groups, the content of which dependant on the dose. Carboxyl groups were not produced in helium gas. Quantitative spectral analysis indicated that the aromatic structure might be decomposed. Some comparison was made between the semicrystalline and amorphous samples. The oxygen content resulting from irradiation, of semicrystalline PEEK increased more than that of amorphous PEEK. (author)

  3. Structuring of poly ether ether ketone by ArF excimer laser radiation in different atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Gottmann, J.; Kreutz, E.W.

    2003-01-01

    Structuring of poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) by 193 nm ArF excimer laser radiation has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in different atmospheres (air, vacuum, Ar, O 2 ) in order to study its influence on the quality of the structures and the formation of the debris. Repetition rate makes little effect on the ablation rate and roughness of the structure in presence of any kind of atmosphere, indicating for the structuring of PEEK by ArF laser radiation a large window of processing. The roughness at the bottom of the structures and the morphology of the side walls are strongly affected by the properties of the atmosphere. The smallest roughness is achieved at 0.6 J/cm 2 for all kinds of processing gases. Debris around the structures can be diminished by structuring in vacuum. Plasma expansion speed has been measured by using high speed photography

  4. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liu, Baijun [JILIN UNIV.; Hu, Wei [JILIN UNIV.; Jiang, Zhenhua [JILIN UNIV.; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  5. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.bacsa@cemes.fr [CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, 29 Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe [Université de Toulouse, Institut Clément Ader, I.U.T. Université Paul Sabatier - 133C Avenue de Rangueil - B.P. 67701, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Sapelkin, Andrei [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri [AIRBUS FRANCE (B.E. M and P Toulouse), 316 Route de Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse (France)

    2014-06-21

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  6. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test. (author)

  7. Molecular structure and transport dynamics in Nafion and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.Y.; Chiu, C.P.; Hong, C.W. [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kwang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013 (China)

    2009-12-01

    An atomistic simulation technique is performed to investigate the molecular structure and transport dynamics inside a hydrated Nafion membrane and a hydrated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) membrane. The simulation system consists of the representative fragments of the polymer electrolytes, hydronium ions and solvent molecules, such as water plus methanol molecules. Simulation results show that the hydrated SPEEKK has less phase separation among hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in comparison with the Nafion. Those water channels formed in the SPEEKK are much narrower compared to those in the Nafion. These characteristics lead to a lower mobility of hydronium ions and water molecules and hence relatively lower diffusion coefficient of methanol in the SPEEKK. It results in the reduction of the methanol permeation problem in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  8. Preparation and tribological behaviors of poly (ether ether ketone) nanocomposite films containing graphene oxide nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Haojie, E-mail: shj6922@163.com; Li Na; Yang Jin; Min Chunying [Jiangsu University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Zhang Zhaozhu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics (China)

    2013-02-15

    The composite films of poly (ether ether ketone) (PEEK) filled with different proportions of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets were prepared by the cast method. The tribological behaviors of the composite films under boundary lubrication (water and liquid paraffin oil lubrication) were investigated and compared with that under dry sliding on an UMT-2 friction and wear machine, by running a steel sphere against the composite films. The results were as follows: GO nanosheets as the filler greatly improve the wear resistance of PEEK under boundary lubrication, though the composites show a different dependence of wear resistance on the filler content. Scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy performed to analyze the wear scar surfaces after friction confirmed that the outstanding lubrication performance of GO could be attributed to their small size and extremely thin laminated structure, which allow the GO to easily enter the contact area, thereby preventing the rough surfaces from coming into direct contact.

  9. Poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Choi, Jisun; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kumar, Vinod; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa, E-mail: shinj@kaeri.re.kr

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • PEEK-g-PVBSA, a polymer electrolyte membrane was prepared by a radiation grafting technique. • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), an aromatic hydrocarbon polymer was used as a grafting backbone film. • The water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the membranes were evaluated. • PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes show considerably lower methanol permeability compared to a Nafion membrane. -- Abstract: In this study, an aromatic hydrocarbon based polymer electrolyte membrane, poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK-g-PVBSA), has been prepared by the simultaneous irradiation grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto a PEEK film and subsequent sulfonation. Each chemical conversion was monitored by FT-IR and SEM–EDX instruments. The physicochemical properties including IEC, water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also investigated and found that the values of these properties increase with the increase of degree of grafting. It was observed that the IEC values of the prepared PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes with 32%, 58%, and 80% DOG values were 0.50, 1.05, and 1.22 meq/g while the water uptakes were 14%, 20%, and 21%, respectively. The proton conductivities (0.0272–0.0721 S/cm at 70 °C) were found to be somewhat lower than Nafion 212 (0.126 S/cm at 70 °C) at a relative humidity of 90%. However, the prepared membranes showed a considerably lower methanol permeability (0.61–1.92 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s) compared to a Nafion 212 membrane (5.37 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s)

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    Besides diet, house dust has been recognized as an important exposure media for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) [1]. Our previous work showed significant associations between levels in dust and in human plasma, for the congeners BDE-28, BDE-47 and BDE-100 as well as for ΣPBDEtri hexa [2......, the objectives were to study whether i) the associations observed for plasma also existed for human milk, ii) the PBDE profiles in dust and milk could provide insights into the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of individual congeners, iii) NFRs were measurable in human milk, and iv) infants were exposed...... of BDE-99 in milk compared with plasma (100% vs. 37%). Hexabromocyclododecane and the NFRs bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 2,3-dibromopropyl-2...

  11. Crown ether derivatives of EDTA: Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongqun; Qin Shengying; Chen Shaojin; Tan Lin

    1988-01-01

    EDTA-diaminodibenzo-18-crown-6 (cis- and trans-) condensation polymer is a new compound of crown ether derivatives of EDTA. In this paper the adsorption behaviors of U(IV) and U(VI) on this polymer from chloride solutions and effects of hydrochloric acid concentrations, salting-out agents and organic solvents on distribution coefficient (K d ) of uranium are investigated. Adsorption mechanism of uranyl ion (UO 2 2+ ) on this polymer was studied with IR spectra and by means of the adsorption behaviors of compounds of similar structure. Experimental results show that both polyether section and carboxyl groups in EDTA-diaminodibenzo-18-crown-6 take part in complexation with uranyl ion and synergistic effect appeared

  12. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  13. Cationic Poly(benzyl ether)s as Self-Immolative Antimicrobial Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergene, Cansu; Palermo, Edmund F

    2017-10-09

    Self-immolative polymers (SIMPs) are macromolecules that spontaneously undergo depolymerization into small molecules when triggered by specific external stimuli. We report here the first examples of antimicrobial SIMPs with potent, rapid, and broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Their antibacterial and hemolytic activities were examined as a function of cationic functionality. Polymers bearing primary ammonium cationic groups showed more potent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, relative to tertiary and quaternary ammonium counterparts, whereas the quaternary ammonium polymers showed the lowest hemolytic toxicity. These antibacterial polycations undergo end-to-end depolymerization when triggered by an externally applied stimulus. Specifically, poly(benzyl ether)s end-capped with a silyl ether group and bearing pendant allyl side chains were converted to polycations by photoinitiated thiol-ene radical addition using cysteamine HCl. The intact polycations are stable in solution, but they spontaneously unzip into their component monomers upon exposure to fluoride ions, with excellent sensitivity and selectivity. Upon triggered depolymerization, the antibacterial potency was largely retained but the hemolytic toxicity was substantially reduced. Thus, we reveal the first example of a self-immolative antibacterial polymer platform that will enable antibacterial materials to spontaneously unzip into biologically active small molecules upon the introduction of a specifically designed stimulus.

  14. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  15. Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Hirai, M; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1990-06-01

    Glycol ethers have been extensively used in industry over the past 40-50 years. Numerous studies on the toxicity of glycol ethers have been performed, however, the effects of glycol ethers on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes are still unknown. We studied the changes of the putative metabolic enzymes, that is, the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, by the oral administration of diEGME and EGME. Adult male Wistar rats were used. DiEGME was administered orally; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days and EGME was 100, 300 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days. Decreases in liver weights were produced by highest doses of diEGME (2000 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days) and EGME (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days). DiEGME increased hepatic microsomal protein contents and induced cytochrome P-450, but not cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was not affected by diEGME administration. On the other hand, EGME did not change cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was increased by repeated EGME treatment. Therefore it is suspected that the enzyme which takes part in the metabolism of diEGME is different from that of EGME, although diEGME is a structural homologue of EGME.

  16. Formulating liquid ethers for microtubular SOFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Kevin; Slinn, Matthew; Preece, John

    One of the key problems of applying solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in transportation is that conventional fuels like kerosene and diesel do not operate directly in SOFCs without prereforming to hydrogen and carbon monoxide which can be handled by the nickel cermet anode. SOFCs can internally reform certain hydrocarbon molecules such as methanol and methane. However, other liquid fuels usable in petrol or diesel internal combustion engines (ICEs) have not easily been reformable directly on the anode. This paper describes a search for liquid fuels which can be mixed with petrol or diesel and also injected directly into an SOFC without destroying the nickel anode. When fuel molecules such as octane are injected onto the conventional nickel/yttria stabilised zirconia (Ni/YSZ) SOFC fuel electrode, the anode rapidly becomes blocked by carbon deposition and the cell power drops to near zero in minutes. This degeneration of the anode can be inhibited by injection of air or water into the anode or by some upstream reforming just before entry to the SOFC. Some smaller molecules such as methane, methanol and methanoic acid produce a slight tendency to carbon deposition but not sufficient to prevent long term operation. In this project we have investigated a large number of molecules and now found that some liquid ethers do not significantly damage the anode when directly injected. These molecules and formulations with other components have been evaluated in this study. The theory put forward in this paper is that carbon-carbon bonds in the fuel are the main reason for anode damage. By testing a number of fuels without such bonds, particularly liquid ethers such as methyl formate and dimethoxy methane, it has been shown that SOFCs can run without substantial carbon formation. The proposal is that conventional fuels can be doped with these molecules to allow hybrid operation of an ICE/SOFC device.

  17. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene and 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one, two alternative metabolites of 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin-Jie; Zeng, Fang-Mao; An, Jing; Yu, Ying-Xin; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Elfarra, Adnan A

    2013-08-15

    The cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity of 1-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-butene (CHB), a known in vitro metabolite of the human carcinogen 1,3-butadiene, have not previously been investigated. Because CHB can be bioactivated by alcohol dehydrogenases to yield 1-chloro-3-buten-2-one (CBO), a bifunctional alkylating agent that caused globin-chain cross-links in erythrocytes, in the present study we investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of CHB and CBO in human normal hepatocyte L02 cells using the MTT assay, the relative cloning efficiency assay and the comet assay. We also investigated the mutagenic potential of these compounds with the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA1535 and TA1537. The results provide clear evidence for CHB and CBO being both cytotoxic and genotoxic with CBO being approximately 100-fold more potent than CHB. Interestingly, CHB generated both single-strand breaks and alkali-labile sites on DNA, whereas CBO produced only alkali-labile sites. CHB did not directly result in DNA breaks, whereas CBO was capable of directly generating breaks on DNA. Interestingly, both compounds did not induce DNA cross-links as examined by the comet assay. The Ames test results showed that CHB induced point mutation but not frameshift mutation, whereas the toxic effects of CBO made it difficult to reliably assess the mutagenic potential of CBO in the two strains. Collectively, the results suggest that CHB and CBO may play a role in the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and corrosion inhibition properties of benzamide-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid and anthranilic acid-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid for mild steel corrosion in acidic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Archana; Verma, Chandrabhan; Singh, B.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2018-03-01

    The present study deals with the synthesis of two new compounds namely, benzamide - 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (BENCNBA) and anthranilic acid-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (AACNBA) using solid phase reactions. The phase diagram studies revealed that formation of the investigated compounds occurs in 1:1 molar ratio. The synthesized compounds were characterized using several spectral techniques such as FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV-Vis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Single crystal XRD (SCXRD) study showed that both BENCNBA and AACNBA compounds crystallize in triclinic crystal system with P-1 space group. Further, the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the constituent components was also supported by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) method. Heat of mixing, entropy of fusion, roughness parameter, interfacial energy and excess thermodynamic functions have also been computed using the enthalpy of fusion values derived from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) study. The inhibition effect of BENCNBA and AACNBA on the mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was tested using electrochemical methods. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study revealed that both BENCNBA and AACNBA behaved as interface corrosion inhibitors and showed maximum inhibition efficiencies of 95.71% and 96.42%, respectively at 400 ppm (1.23 × 10-3 M) concentration. Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements suggested that BENCNBA and AACNBA acted as mixed type corrosion inhibitors. EIS and PDP results showed that BENCNBA and AACNBA act as efficient corrosion inhibitors for mild steel and their inhibition efficiencies enhances on increasing their concentrations.

  19. Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie; Xiong, Desen; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Yi; Xia, Xiangcheng; Yang, Yongqi

    2017-06-15

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m 3 ). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  1. Characterization of Microsolvated Crown Ethers from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie; Blanco, Susana; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Since they were first synthetized, crown ethers have been extensively used in organometallic chemistry due to their unparalleled binding selectivity with alkali metal cations. From a structural point of view, crown ethers are heterocycles containing oxygen and/or other heteroatoms, although the most common ones are formed from ethylene oxide unit. Crown ethers are conventionally seen as being hydrophilic inside and hydrophobic outside when the structures found for the metal cation complexes are considered. However, crown ethers are extremely flexible and in isolation may present a variety of stable conformations so that their structure may be easily adapted in presence of a strong ligand as an alkali metal cation minimize the energy of the resulting complex. Water can be considered a soft ligand which interacts with crown ethers through moderate hydrogen bonds. It is thus interesting to investigate which conformers are selected by water to form complexes, the preferred interaction sites and the possible conformational changes due to the presence of one or more water molecules. Previous studies identified microsolvated crown ethers but in all cases with a chromophore group attached to the structure. Here we present a broadband rotational spectroscopy study of microsolvated crown ethers produced in a pulsed molecular jet expansion. Several 1:1 and 1:2 crown ether:water aggregates are presented for 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. Unambiguous identification of the structures has been achieved using isotopic substitution within the water unit. The subtle changes induced in the structures of the crown ether monomer upon complexation and the hydrogen-bonding network that hold them together will be also discussed. F. Gámez, B. Martínez-Haya, S. Blanco,J. C. López and J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 14 12912-12918 V. A. Shubert, C.W. Müller and T. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113 8067-8079

  2. Deuterium isotopic effects connected with unimolecular and concerted mechanisms. The case of 1-deutero-2-chloro alcohols; Effets isotopiques du deuterium attaches a des mecanismes unimoleculaires et concertes. Cas des deutero-1-chloro-2 alcools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jambon, C

    1962-07-01

    After a bibliographic analysis of the probable causes of isotopic effects and their comparison, with the simplifications provided by the athermal model, a discussion of the isotopic effect of deuterium in organic molecules in terms of structural influences is presented, showing the important role of the C-D bond length which is shorter than the C-H bond length, and of the D atom's Van der Waals radius, shorter than that of the H atom. Kinetic measurements were carried out on some reactions involving the mechanisms proposed: unimolecular ionizations and halogen concentrates. The structural models chosen are: 2-chloro-cyclo-hexanols cis and trans 1-H and 2-D; 2-chloro-cyclo-pentanols cis trans 1-H and 1-D; 1-phenyl-l-chloro-2-propanol threo 2-H and 2-D. (author) [French] Apres une analyse bibliographique des causes probables d'effets isotopiques et leur comparaison, avec les simplifications qu'apporte le modele athermique, on a entrepris l'etude de la discussion isotopique du deuterium dans des molecules organiques en termes d'influences structurelles, cherchant a degager le role important de la longueur de la liaison C-D plus courte que C-H, et du rayon de Van der Waals de l'atome de D plus petit que celui de H. On a effectue des mesures cinetiques sur quelques reactions invoquant les mecanismes envisages: ionisations unimoleculaires et concentrees d'halogenes. Les modeles structuraux choisis sont: chloro 2 - cyclohexanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; chloro 2 - cyclopentanols cis et trans H 1 et D 1; phenyl 1 - chloro 1 - propanol 2 threo H 2 et D 2. (auteur)

  3. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  4. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  5. Purification and characterization of the 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-phenylacetate reductive dehalogenase of Desulfitobacterium hafniense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nina; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Wohlfarth, Gert

    1998-01-01

    The membrane-bound 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetate (Cl-OHPA) reductive dehalogenase from the chlorophenol- educing anaerobe Desulfitobacterium hafniense was purified 11.3-fold to apparent homogeneity in the presence of the detergent CHAPS. The purified dehalogenase catalyzed the reductive...... dechlorination of Cl-OHPA to 4-hydroxyphenylacetate with reduced methyl viologen as the electron donor at a specific activity of 103.2 nkat/mg protein. SDS-PAGErevealed a single protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 46.5 kDa. The enzyme contained 0.68±0.2 mol corrinoid, 12.0±0.7 mol iron, and 13...

  6. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, K; Nakayama, E; Oobayashi, H; Nishizawa, T; Okuda, H; Yamazaki, K

    1984-08-01

    Past studies on the toxicological effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers as well as the recent data on these chemicals in Japan are reviewed. Only a few researchers have participated in the study of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. The effects of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers on testis and embryotoxic effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGM) have been studied, as has the teratogenicity of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGdM). Studies on ethylene glycol alkyl ethers and related compounds administered to mice by oral gavage revealed the occurrence of testicular atrophy and decreased white blood cell count by EGM, EGdM, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate, and the toxicity was related to their chemical structure. On the other hand, ethylene glycol, ethylene glycol monopropyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, ethylene glycol monoacetate or ethylene glycol diacetate showed no such an effect. Studies on EGM using hamsters or guinea pigs revealed the occurrence of testicular atrophy similar to that observed in mice. In regard to the methyl ethers of other glycols, there is no convincing evidence that propylene glycol monomethyl ether, diethylene glycol monomethyl ether or diethylene glycol dimethyl ether causes testicular atrophy in mice. Teratological studies of EGM and EGdM revealed embryotoxic effects in mice.

  7. Deuterium isotopic effects connected with unimolecular and concerted mechanisms. The case of 1-deutero-2-chloro alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jambon, C.

    1962-01-01

    After a bibliographic analysis of the probable causes of isotopic effects and their comparison, with the simplifications provided by the athermal model, a discussion of the isotopic effect of deuterium in organic molecules in terms of structural influences is presented, showing the important role of the C-D bond length which is shorter than the C-H bond length, and of the D atom's Van der Waals radius, shorter than that of the H atom. Kinetic measurements were carried out on some reactions involving the mechanisms proposed: unimolecular ionizations and halogen concentrates. The structural models chosen are: 2-chloro-cyclo-hexanols cis and trans 1-H and 2-D; 2-chloro-cyclo-pentanols cis trans 1-H and 1-D; 1-phenyl-l-chloro-2-propanol threo 2-H and 2-D. (author) [fr

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone) Random and Segmented Copolymers for Membrane Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebipasagil, Ali

    (arylene ether sulfone) copolymers with controlled molecular weights were synthesized and chemically modified to obtain poly(arylene ether sulfone) polyols with aliphatic hydroxyethyl terminal functionality. The hydroxyethyl-terminated oligomers and a,u-hydroxy-terminated PEO were chain extended with a diisocyanate to obtain polyurethanes. Compositions with high poly(arylene ether sulfone) content relative to the hydrophilic PEO blocks were of interest due to their mechanical integrity. The membranes were characterized to analyze their compositions, thermal and mechanical properties, water uptake, and molecular weights. These membranes were also evaluated by collaborators at the University of Texas at Austin to explore single gas transport properties. The results showed that both polymer and transport properties closely related to PEO-content. The CO2/CH4 gas selectivity of our membranes were improved from 25 to 34 and the CO2/N2 gas selectivity nearly doubled from 25 to 46 by increasing PEO-content from 0 to 30 wt.% in polyurethanes. Chapter four also focuses on polymers for gas separation membranes. Disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) and poly(ethylene oxide)-containing polyurethanes were synthesized for potential applications as gas separation membranes. Disulfonated polyols containing 20 and 40 mole percent of disulfonated repeat units with controlled molecular weights were synthesized. Poly(arylene ether sulfone) polyols and alpha,o-hydroxy-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) were subsequently chain extended with a diisocyanate to obtain polyurethanes. Thermal and mechanical characterization revealed that the polyurethanes had a phase-mixed complex morphology.

  9. Cleavage reactions of the lead-carbon bond II. The reaction of tetraorganolead compounds with 1-chloro-1,2,3-benzotriazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, Bhuvan C.; Noltes, J.G.

    1972-01-01

    1-(Triorganoplumbyl)-1,2,3-benzotriazoles were synthesized in excellent yields by the cleavage of an organic group from tetraorganolead derivatives with 1-chloro-1,2,3-benzotriazole in benzene at 50–60°. The order of ease of cleavage of organic groups by 1-chloro-l,2,3-benzotriazole in the case of

  10. Evaluation of crystallization kinetics of poly (ether-ketone-ketone and poly (ether-ether-ketone by DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibran da Cunha Vasconcelos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The poly (aryl ether ketones are used as matrices in advanced composites with high performance due to its high thermal stability, excellent environmental performance and superior mechanical properties. Most of the physical, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of semi-crystalline polymers depend on the degree of crystallinity and morphology of the crystalline regions. Thus, a study on the crystallization process promotes a good prediction of how the manufacturing parameters affect the developed structure, and the properties of the final product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the thermoplastics polymers PEKK e PEEK by DSC, aiming to obtain the relationship between kinetics, content, nucleation and geometry of the crystalline phases, according to the parameters of the Avrami and Kissinger models. The analysis of the Avrami exponents obtained for the studied polymers indicates that both showed the formation of crystalline phases with heterogeneous nucleation and growth geometry of the type sticks or discs, depending on the cooling conditions. It was also found that the PEEK has a higher crystallinity than PEKK.

  11. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 3-Chloro-1-(4-perimidine methylcarbonylamino-4-phenyl-azetidin-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh R. Panchasara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Perimidine-1-acetic acid hydrazide (1 undergoes facile condensation with aromatic aldehydes to afford the corresponding azomethine (i.e. Schiff base derivatives (2a-h in good yield. Cyclocondensation of compounds (2a-h with chloro acetyl chloride affords 3-chloro-1-(4-perimidine methylcarbonylamino-4-phenyl-azetidin-2-ones (3a-h. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of analytical and spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  12. Identification of α-Chloro-2,2',4,4',6,6'-Hexanitrobibenzyl as an Impurity in Hexanitrostilbene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The final intermediate in the Shipp synthesis of 2,2‧,4,4‧,6,6‧-hexanitrostilbene (HNS) from TNT, α-chloro-2,2‧,4,4‧,6,6‧-hexanitrobibenzyl, has been extracted and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, chlorine elemental analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It has also been shown that digestion in NMP of HNS containing α-chlorohexanitrobibenzyl generates another chlorine-containing by-product, 2-chloro-2‧,4,4‧,6,6‧-pentanitrostilbene. This too has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, chlorine elemental analysis, and HPLC.

  13. Aquatic Life Criteria - Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information pertaining to the 1999 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) for freshwater and salt water. Information includes the safe levels of MTBE that should protect the majority of species.

  14. The zeolite mediated isomerization of allyl phenyl ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebriana, R.; Mujahidin, D.; Syah, Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Allyl phenyl ether is an important starting material in organic synthesis that has several applications in agrochemical industry. The green transformation of allyl phenyl ether assisted by heterogeneous catalyst is an attractive topic for an industrial process. In this report, we investigated the isomerization of allyl phenyl ether by heating it in zeolite H-ZSM-5 and Na-ZSM-5. The conversion of allyl phenyl ether (neat) in H-ZSM-5 was 67% which produced 40% of 2-allylphenol, 17% of 2-methyldihydrobenzofuran, and other product (4:1.7:1), while in Na-ZSM-5 produced exclusively 2-allylphenol with 52% conversion. These results showed that zeolite properties can be tuned to give a selective transformation by substitution of metal ion into the zeolite interior.

  15. Nickel-catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    oxymethylene ethers) from alcohols and paraformaldehyde in the presence of commercially available nickel(II) salt is described. The reaction proceeds readily under neutral, solvent-free conditions using paraformaldehyde as a C1 source.

  16. Nickel-catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MURUGAN SUBARAMANIAN

    free condition. 1. Introduction. Ethers constitute the most diverse family of organic compounds and are ubiquitous in many natural prod- ucts and pharmaceuticals.1 The extent to which they can be utilized as an organic intermediate in contempo-.

  17. SYNTHESIS AND BIOACTIVITY OF ROTENONE OXIME O-ETHER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    mail: g.cao@mail.scut.edu.cn. SYNTHESIS AND BIOACTIVITY OF ROTENONE OXIME O-ETHER DERIVATIVES. Gao Cao*, Zhen Zhou and Ying Wang. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University,.

  18. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were analyzed in young of the year bluefish collected along the U.S. Atlantic coastline from...

  19. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Reductive Insertion of Alcohols into Aryl Ether Bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meng [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Camaioni, Donald M. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Lercher, Johannes A. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Department of Chemistry and Catalysis Research Institute, TU München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4 85748 Garching Germany

    2018-03-06

    Pd/C catalyzes C-O bond cleavage of aryl ethers (diphenyl ether and cyclohexyl phenyl ether) by methanol in H2. The aromatic C-O bond is cleaved by reductive methanolysis, which is initiated by Pd-catalyzed partial hydrogenation of one phenyl ring to form an enol ether. The enol ether reacts rapidly with methanol to form a ketal, which generates methoxycyclohexene by eliminating phenol or an alkanol. Subsequent hydrogenation leads to methoxycyclohexane.

  2. Synthesis and Characterisation of Macrocyclic Diamino Chiral Crown Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Scott

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available A benign and efficient synthesis of chiral macrocyclic ‘aza-crown’ ethers of varying ring size is reported. The synthesis involves a Schiff base condensation of ether linked dialdehydes of varying chain length and (1R,2R-(–-1,2-diaminocyclohexane under mild conditions to yield the macrocycles, which are subsequently reduced to yield the diamino analogues.

  3. Marine Sponge Dysidea herbacea revisited: Another Brominated Diphenyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce F. Bowden

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A pentabrominated phenolic diphenyl ether (1 that has not previously been reported from marine sources has been isolated from Dysidea herbacea collected at Pelorus Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The structure was determined by comparison of NMR data with those of known structurally-related metabolites. NMR spectral assignments for (1 are discussed in context with those of three previously reported isomeric pentabrominated phenolic diphenyl ethers.

  4. Chloro-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazole Derivatives Displaying Anti-HIV Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Saturnino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the progress achieved by anti-retroviral drug research in the last decades, the discovery of novel compounds endowed with selective antiviral activity and reduced side effects is still a necessity. At present, the most urgent requirement includes the improvement of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus prevention and sexual transmission and the development of new drugs to treat the chronic lifelong infection. Methods: Six chloro-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles (2a,b–4a,b have been prepared following opportunely modified known chemical procedures and tested in luciferase and Escherichia coli β-galactosidase expressing CD4+, CXCR4+, CCR5+ TZM-bl cells. Results and Conclusion: a preliminary biological investigation on the synthesized small series of chloro-1,4-dimethyl-9H-carbazoles has been carried out. Among all tested compounds, a nitro-derivative (3b showed the most interesting profile representing a suitable lead for the development of novel anti-HIV drugs.

  5. Metabolism of chinoform(5-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinol)-14C in dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urakubo, Goro; Kido, Yasumasa; Ikebuchi, Hideharu; Nagamatsu, Kunisuke

    1975-01-01

    Chinoform (6-chloro-7-iodo-8-quinolinol)- 14 C (302.4μCi/83 mg) packed in a capsule was given orally to a dog weighing 10.5 kg, and the urine and feces were collected for 5 days after dosing. Excretion of a large portion of the radioactivity in urine and feces was observed on the 1st day and 3rd day after dosing. The total radioactivity in both excreta in 5 days was about 70% of dose. The urine was used for the study of metabolites. The urine was extracted with a mixture of benzene and pyridine (9:1), and an organic layer and an aqueous layer were obtained. Intact chinoform and 5-chloro-8-quinolinol (a deiodinated product of chinoform) were identified in the organic layer by radiochromatography and by an isotope dilution method. From the water layer of urine, glucuronides of chinoform and the deiodinated product, and sulfate of chinoform were identified as the metabolites. (author)

  6. Novel electrochemical route to cleaner fuel dimethyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassone, Giuseppe; Pietrucci, Fabio; Saija, Franz; Guyot, François; Sponer, Jiri; Sponer, Judit E; Saitta, A Marco

    2017-07-31

    Methanol, the simplest alcohol, and dimethyl ether, the simplest ether, are central compounds in the search for alternative "green" combustion fuels. In fact, they are generally considered as the cornerstones of the envisaged "Methanol Economy" scenario, as they are able to efficiently produce energy in an environmentally friendly manner. However, despite a massive amount of research in this field, the synthesis of dimethyl ether from liquid methanol has never so far been reported. Here we present a computational study, based on ab initio Molecular Dynamics, which suggests a novel synthesis route to methanol dehydration - leading thus to the dimethyl ether synthesis - through the application of strong electric fields. Besides proving the impressive catalytic effects afforded by the field, our calculations indicate that the obtained dimethyl ether is stable and that it can be progressively accumulated thanks to the peculiar chemical pathways characterising the methanol reaction network under electric field. These results suggest that the experimental synthesis of dimethyl ether from liquid methanol could be achieved, possibly in the proximity of field emitter tips.

  7. Effects of the ether phospholipid AMG-PC on mast cells are similar to that of the ether lipid AMG but different from that of the analogue hexadecylphosphocholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosman, Nina

    1991-01-01

    Farmakologi, ether phospholipid, hexacylphosphocholine, miltefosine, protein kinase C, AMG-PC(alkyl-methyl-glycero-phosphocholine), Histamine release, mast cell......Farmakologi, ether phospholipid, hexacylphosphocholine, miltefosine, protein kinase C, AMG-PC(alkyl-methyl-glycero-phosphocholine), Histamine release, mast cell...

  8. Review on Modification of Sulfonated Poly (-ether-ether-ketone Membranes Used as Proton Exchange Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin GAO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is a type of modern power, but the traditional proton exchange membranes (PEM of PEMFC are limited by high methanol permeability and water uptake. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK is a widely used thermoplastic with good cost-effective property. Sulfonated poly (-ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK has high electric conductivity and low methanol permeability, as well as comprehensive property, which is expected to be used as PEMs. However, the proton exchange ability, methanol resistance, mechanical property and thermal stability of SPEEK are closely related to the degree of sulfonation (DS of SPEEK membranes. Additionally, the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and stability of SPEEK membranes applied in various conditions need to be further improved. In this paper, the research into modification of SPEEK membranes made by SPEEK and other polymers, inorganic materials are introduced. The properties and modification situation of the SPEEK and the composite membranes, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of membranes prepared by different materials are summarized. From the results we know that, the methanol permeability of SPEEK/PES-C membranes is within the order of magnitude, 10-7cm2/s. The proton conductivity of the SPPESK/SPEEK blend membrane reaches 0.212 S cm-1 at 80 °C. The cross-linked SPEEK membranes have raised thermal and dimensional stability. The non-solvent caused aggregation of the SPEEK ionomers. The proton conductivity of SPEEK/50%BMIMPF6/4.6PA membrane maintains stable as 2.0 x 10-2S cm-1 after 600 h at 160 °C. Incorporation of aligned CNT into SPEEK increases the proton conductivity and reduces the methanol permeability of the composite membranes. The PANI improves the hydrothermal stability. More proton transfer sites lead to a more compact structure in the composite membranes. According to the results, the proton exchange capacity, water uptake, and conductivity of

  9. Radiation induced crosslinking of cellulose ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, A.R.; Mitomo, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high-energy radiation on four ethers of cellulose: carboxymethyl (CMC); hydroxypropyl (HPC), hydroxyethyl (HEC) and methylcellulose (MC) were investigated. Polymers are irradiated in solid state and in aqueous solutions at various concentrations. Degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives, the concentration of their aqueous solutions and irradiation conditions had a significant impact on the obtained products. Irradiation of polymers in solid state and in diluted aqueous solutions resulted in their degradation. However, it was found that for concentrated solutions gel formation occurred. Paste-like form of the initial material, when water plasticizes the bulk of polymer as well as the high dose rate, what prevents oxygen penetration of the polymer during irradiation, have been found favourable for hydrogel formation. Up to 95% of gel fraction was obtained from solutions of CMC with concentration over 50% irradiated by γ-rays or electron beam. It was pointed out that the ability to the formation of the three-dimensional network is related to the DS of anhydroglucose units and a type of chemical group introduced to main chain of cellulose. Produced hydrogels swelled markedly in water. Despite of the crosslinked structure they underwent degradation by the action of cellulase enzyme or microorganisms from compost, and can be included into the group of biodegradable materials. (author)

  10. Aromatic polymers obtained by precipitation polycondensation, 2a) Synthesis of poly(ether ketone ether ketone ketone) (PEKEKK)

    OpenAIRE

    Zolotukhin, Mikhail K.; Rueda, Daniel R.; Baltá Calleja, Francisco José; Bruix, M.; Cagiao, M. E.; Bulai, Anna; Gileva, Natalia G.

    1997-01-01

    A high molecular weight, linear aromatic poly(ether ketone ether ketone ketone) (PEKEKK) has been synthesized by electrophilic Friedel-Crafts acylation condensation of 1,4-diphenoxybenzophenone with terephthaloyl chloride. The syntheses were performed as precipitation polycondensations, and the polyketones were obtained in particle form. The viscosity (molecular weight), shape and size of these particles were found to be strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. For low monomer concen...

  11. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body has a problem producing alpha globin Beta thalassemia : when the body has a problem producing beta ... Transfusion Blood Test: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Sickle Cell Disease Beta Thalassemia Blood All About Genetics Prenatal Genetic Counseling Genetic ...

  12. Enhanced osteoblast responses to poly ether ether ketone surface modified by water plasma immersion ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heying; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-05-01

    Poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) offers a set of characteristics superior for human implants; however, its application is limited by the bio-inert surface property. In this work, PEEK surface was modified using single step plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment with a gas mixture of water vapor as a plasma resource and argon as an ionization assistant. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructure and composition of the modified PEEK surface. The water contact angle and zeta-potential of the surfaces were also measured. Osteoblast precursor cells MC3T3-E1 and rat bone mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the PEEK samples to evaluate their cytocompatibility. The obtained results show that the hydroxyl groups as well as a "ravined structure" are constructed on water PIII modified PEEK. Compared with pristine PEEK, the water PIII treated PEEK is more favorable for osteoblast adhesion, spreading and proliferation, besides, early osteogenic differentiation indicated by the alkaline phosphatase activity is also up-regulated. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblast responses to the PEEK surface modified by water PIII, which gives positive information in terms of future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and characterization of poli composites (ether ether ketone)(PEEK)(Hydroxyapatite(HA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, V.P.; Santos, F.S.F.; Sa, M.D. de; Fook, M.V.L.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop PEEK / HA composites, combining the biological activity of the ceramic phase with the properties of the polymer phase, the materials used in this research were Poly (ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) and Hydroxyapatite (HA) (50, 60, 70 and 80% m / v HA), this material was subjected to a load of two tons followed by a thermal treatment at 390 ° for a period of 30 minutes. Then they were characterized by FTIR, DRX and MO. In the physical-chemical characterization of FTIR and XRD, it was not possible to identify significant alterations. In the FTIR spectra of the composites, there is no formation of new identifiable chemical bonds. In the composites XRD diffractograms a profile similar to the ceramic phase was observed, with peaks increasing in intensity and narrowing proportional to the increase of the hydroxyapatite concentration in the composites. In optical microscopy it is possible to observe surfaces with heterogeneous morphology, with signs of roughness and in the cross section we observe a heterogeneous aspect, rich in regions with large agglomerates and lighter particles. Considering the processing aspects, the technique proved to be effective for the development of PEEK /HA composites. (author)

  14. Rheological, mechanical and tribological properties of carbon-nanofibre reinforced poly (ether ether ketone composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Altstaedt

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Poly(ether ether ketone nanocomposites containing vapour-grown carbon nanofibres (CNF were produced using standard polymer processing techniques. At high shear rates no significant increase in resin viscosity was observed. Nevertheless, the addition of the CNFs results in a higher melt strength at 360°C. Electron microscopy confirmed the homogeneous dispersion and alignment of nanofibres in the polymer matrix. Evaluation of the mechanical composite properties revealed a linear increase in tensile stiffness and strength with nanofibre loading fractions up to 15 wt% whilst matrix ductility was maintained up to 10 wt%. An interpretation of the composite performance by short-fibre theory resulted in rather low intrinsic stiffness properties of the vapour-grown CNF. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate crystallization kinetics and degree of crystallinity. The CNFs were found not to act as nucleating sites. Furthermore, unidirectional sliding tests against two different counterpart materials (100Cr6 martensitic bearing steel, X5CrNi18-10 austenitic stainless steel were performed. The carbon nanofibres were found to reduce the wear rate of PEEK significantly.

  15. Evaluation of workers exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoung; Yoon, Chungsik; Byun, Hyaejeong; Kim, Yangho; Park, Donguk; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Sang man; Park, Sungki; Chung, Eunkyo

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) are widely used in industries as solvents for coatings, paint and ink, but exposure data are limited because they are minor components out of mixed solvents, as well as because of inconsistency in desorption solvent use. The objective of this study was to investigate the worker exposure profile of EGME and EGMEA. Our study investigated 27 workplaces from June to September 2008 and detected EGME and EGMEA in 20 and 13, respectively. Both personal and area sampling were conducted using a charcoal tube to collect EGME and EGMEA. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to analyze these compounds after desorption using a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol. The arithmetic mean concentrations of EGME and EGMEA during periods of full work shifts were 2.59 ppm and 0.33 ppm, respectively. The exposure levels were lower than the Korean Ministry of Labor (MOL) OEL (5 ppm) but higher than the ACGIH TLV (0.1 ppm). In general, the working environments were poor and required much improvement, including the use of personal protective equipment. Only 50% of the workplaces had local exhaust ventilation systems in operation. The average capture velocity of the operating local exhaust ventilation systems was 0.27 m/s, which did not meet the legal requirement of 0.5 m/s. Educating workers to clearly understand the handling and use of hazardous chemicals and improving working conditions are strongly suggested.

  16. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Dae Sik [CANADA NRC; Robertson, Gilles [CANADA NRC; Guiver, Michael [CANADA NRC

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  17. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Rebecca S. L.; Zhang, Kaisong; Ladewig, Bradley P.

    2013-01-01

    A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:24956945

  18. A novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and cross-linked membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongtao; Zhang, Gang; Wu, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Han, Miaomiao; Lin, Haidan; Zhu, Jing; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2010-10-01

    A novel poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) containing pendant carboxyl groups has been synthesized by a nucleophilic polycondensation reaction. Sulfonated polymers (SPEEKs) with different ion exchange capacity are then obtained by post-sulfonation process. The structures of PEEK and SPEEKs are characterized by both FT-IR and {sup 1}H NMR. The properties of SPEEKs as candidates for proton exchange membranes are studied. The cross-linking reaction is performed at 140 C using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as the cross-linker. In comparison with the non-cross-linked membranes, some properties of the cross-linked membranes are significantly improved, such as water uptake, methanol resistance, mechanical and oxidative stabilities, while the proton conductivity decreases. The effect of PVA content on proton conductivity, water uptake, swelling ratio, and methanol permeability is also investigated. Among all the membranes, SPEEK-C-8 shows the highest selectivity of 50.5 x 10{sup 4} S s cm{sup -3}, which indicates that it is a suitable candidate for applications in direct methanol fuel cells. (author)

  19. Nafion {sup registered} /nitrated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Jie-Cheng; Kuo, Jen-Feng; Chen, Chuh-Yung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, 70148 (China)

    2009-10-20

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s (SPEEKs) are substituted on the main chain of the polymer by nitro groups and blended with Nafion {sup registered} to attain composite membranes. The sulfonation, nitration and blending are achieved with a simple, inexpensive process, and the blended membranes containing the nitrated SPEEKs reveal a liquid-liquid phase separation. The blended membranes have a lower water uptake compared to recast Nafion {sup registered}, and the methanol permeability is reduced significantly to 4.29 x 10{sup -7}-5.34 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for various contents of nitrated SPEEK for S63N17, and 4.72 x 10{sup -7}-7.11 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for S63N38, with a maximum proton conductivity of {proportional_to}0.085 S cm{sup -1}. This study examines the single-cell performance at 80 C of Nafion {sup registered} /nitrated SPEEK membranes with various contents of nitrated SPEEK and a degree of nitration of 23-25 mW cm{sup -2} for S63N17 and 24-29 mW cm{sup -2} for S63N38. Both the power density and open circuit voltage are higher than those of Nafion {sup registered} 115 and recast Nafion {sup registered}. (author)

  20. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. L. Yee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK. This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems.

  1. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Kimball S.

    2010-07-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels and the increasing impact of greenhouse gases on the environment lead to an extensive development of more efficient or renewable energy sources. The direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) as a portable energy source is a promising and fast growing technology which meets these demands. Up to now, methanol is mostly studied as a fuel for these devices, however, applying ethanol has some evident advantages over methanol. The major challenges in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) research on component level are the catalyst development and the electrolyte membrane development. The focus of this thesis lies on the development and characterization of proton conductive membranes for application in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC). Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) based organic-inorganic mixed-matrix membranes are developed and, in addition, the inorganic phase is modified with functional silanes carrying basic groups. The membranes are characterized with respect to fuel crossover, proton conductivity, membrane stability and direct ethanol fuel cell tests. (orig.)

  2. Interface and properties of inorganic fullerene tungsten sulphide nanoparticle reinforced poly (ether ether ketone) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Yang, Zhuxian; Wang, Yuan; Thummavichai, Kunyapat; Xia, Yongde; Ghita, Oana; Zhu, Yanqiu

    We report a simple and effective method to fabricate PEEK (poly ether ether ketone)/IF-WS2 (Inorganic Fullerene Tungsten Sulphide) nanocomposites with IF-WS2 content up to 8 wt%. We have used electron microscopies to characterise the morphology and structural features of the nancomposites, and FTIR and XPS to show that some chemical interface bondings were formed between the PEEK and IF-WS2. We demonstrate that the resulting PEEK/IF-WS2 nanocomposites showed an extraordinary 190% increase in thermal conductivity, 50 °C higher in degradation temperature, and mild improvements in strength and hardness. The increased degradation activation energy from 64 to 76 kJ/mol for neat PEEK and PEEK/IF-WS2 nanocomposites, respectively, is attributed to the synergistic interface between the PEEK matrix and IF-WS2 nanoparticles. The enhancements in both the mechanical and thermal properties will significantly expand the capacities of PEEK-based nanocomposites towards applications where thermal conductivity and stability are important.

  3. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-02-01

    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  4. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9750 - 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine, dihydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... terrestrial organisms and plants. Notice to users: Release to water restrictions apply. (ii) Disposal... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Chloro-4,6-bis(substituted)-1,3,5-triazine, dihydrochloride. 721.9750 Section 721.9750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester. 721.304 Section 721.304 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances ...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. 721.10074 Section 721.10074 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  8. NMR study of the epoxidation of liquid hydrolyzed poly-butadiene and meta-chloro-per-benzoic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Marcelo; Akcelrud, L.; Menezes, Sonia Cabral de

    1993-01-01

    This work presents a study concerning the selectivity of the different configurations of the double bond present in liquid hydrolyzed poly-butadiene towards the epoxidation reaction with meta-chloro-per-benzoic acid through hydrogen-1, carbon-13 NMR aiming the production of new materials, varying the epoxidation level

  9. A facile one-pot synthesis of (Z-α-chloro-α,β-unsaturated esters from alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Karama

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of N-Chlorosuccinimide with (ethoxycarbonylmethylene-triphenylphosphorane followed by oxidation of alcohol using DMSO/SO3.Pyridine complex as a mild oxidant and trapping of the aldehydes constitutes a stereoselective single flask procedure for the preparation of Z-configured α-chloro-α,β-unsaturated esters.

  10. Reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide and 2-methyl-N-phenylaziridine with lithium aluminium hydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Østergaard, Lars Frøsig; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2008-01-01

    The reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide with LiAlH4 has been re-examined. In contrast to previous findings, we obtain in almost equal quantities two amines from this reaction, namely N-propylaniline and the rearranged product N-isopropylaniline. 2-Methyl-N-phenylaziridine is an intermediate...

  11. Expression of triplicated and quadruplicated alpha globin genes in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Pieragostini, E; Yang, F; di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    In the sheep alpha alpha alpha globin gene haplotype, the three genes display from the 5' to the 3' end the percentage efficiencies of about 30:14:6, as indicated by the amounts of the three types of alpha chain produced in the alpha alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha homozygotes. The 3' gene in the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotype appears to have an efficiency around 1%, as suggested by analysis of one quadruple alpha homozygote. Moreover, the total outputs of the alpha alpha alpha as well as of the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotypes do not substantially differ from that of the common alpha alpha haplotype.

  12. Mutagenicity testing of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, E D; Coppinger, W J; Valencia, R; Iavicoli, J

    1984-01-01

    The mutagenic potential of diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (diEGBE) was examined with a Tier I battery of in vitro assays followed by a Tier II in vivo Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal assay. The in vitro battery consisted of: the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the L5178Y mouse lymphoma test, a cytogenetics assay using Chinese hamster ovary cells and the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay in rat hepatocytes. Results of the Salmonella mutagenicity test, the cytogenetics test, and the rat hepatocyte assay were negative at concentrations up to 20 microL/plate, 7.92 microL/mL, and 4.4 microL/mL, respectively. Toxicity was clearly demonstrated at all high doses. A weak, but dose-related increase in the mutation frequency (4-fold increase over the solvent control at 5.6 microL/mL with 12% survival) was obtained in the L5178Y lymphoma test in the absence of metabolic activation. Results of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay were negative in the presence of the S-9 activation system. The significance of the mouse lymphoma assay results were assessed by performing the Tier II sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila in which the target tissue is maturing germinal cells. Both feeding (11,000 ppm for 3 days) and injection (0.3 microL of approximately 14,000 ppm solution) routes of administration were employed in the Drosophila assay. Approximately 11,000 individual crosses with an equal number of negative controls were performed for each route of administration. diEGBE produced no increase in recessive lethals under these conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6389113

  13. The study of antimicrobial properties of immobilized fibrous N-chloro sulfonamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Toropіn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The determination of antibacterial and antifungal action of nonwoven form of N-chloro sulfonamides immobilized on a polypropylene fiber with a graft copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene. Materials and methods. The object of the study was a non-woven form of sodium N-chloro sulfonamides immobilized on a polypropylene fiber with a graft copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal action of the material was carried out by the "agar plate" at the meat peptone agar (МPA. As the test cultures of microorganisms we used: E.coli, S.aureus and C.albicans. Microbial load was 1х107 TEM/ml. Results. The growing delay for such test microorganisms as E. coli strains, S.aureus and C.albicans fungi has been observed only for samples of material. Lack of microbial growth delay zones outside the samples occurs due to poor contact with the surface of the MPA. The method of "agar plate" has been changed to obtain reliable results of antibacterial and antifungal action of the material. The test material samples were placed in uncured MPA, the further experiment was carried out according to standard procedures of the "agar plates" method. Latency test microorganism growth around the sample material lies in the range 6,0 -7,0 mm – for E.coli; 16,0 -25,0 mm – for S.aureus; 4,0 -6,0 mm – for C.albicans. These results are explained by activation with the help of ammonium salts and amino acids, which release the active material of chlorine in case when the material contacts with the liquid nutrient medium. Evidently, this way the material will behave in contact with the skin of human (or animal. In contact with the dry skin covering the material will remain inactive, but in contact with the wound the release of active chlorine will occur within a specified period of time, whereby the material can protect the wound from infection. Conclusions. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of non-woven form of sodium N-chloro

  14. Solubility of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in ten organic solvents from T = (288.15 to 323.15) K: Determination and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Cunbin; Xu, Renjie; Han, Shuo; Xu, Jian; Meng, Long; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Hongkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in ten solvents were determined. • The solubility were correlated with four models. • The solution properties were evaluated. - Abstract: The solubility of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in acetonitrile, methanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, 1,4-dioxane and acetic acid were obtained experimentally with the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis at temperature ranging from (288.15 to 323.15) K under 0.1 MPa. The solubility values of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in those solvents increased with an increase in temperature, and decreased from high to low based on the following order: 1,4-dioxane > acetone > ethyl acetate > acetonitrile > acetic acid > (n-propanol, n-butanol) > (methanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol) > isopropanol. The obtained solubility data of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in the studied solvents were correlated by using four models, the modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson model and NRTL model. The calculated solubility using the modified Apelblat equation provided better agreement with those evaluated by the other three models. In general, the four models were all acceptable for correlating the solubility data of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in the studied solvents. In addition, the change of molar Gibbs energy, molar solution enthalpy, molar solution entropy and excess enthalpy of the solution for per 1 mol of mixture of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in these solvents were evaluated at mean harmonic temperature. The dissolution process of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in the selected solvents was exothermic and entropy-driving. The study concerning the solubility of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide in the selected solvents and solution properties can provide fundamental data in the manufacturing and separating process of 3-chloro-N-phenylphthalimide.

  15. On the ether-like Lorentz-breaking actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, A.Yu; Nascimento, J.R.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the generation of the CPT-even, ether-like Lorentz-breaking actions for the scalar and electro-magnetic fields via their appropriate Lorentz-breaking coupling to spinor fields in three, four and five space-time dimensions. Besides, we show that the ether-like terms for the spinor field also can be generated as a consequence of the same couplings. The key result which will be presented here is the finiteness of the ether-like term for the electromagnetic field not only in three and five space-time dimensions where it is natural due to known effects of the dimensional regularization but also in four space-time dimensions. Moreover, we present the calculation of the last result within different calculational schemes and conclude that the result for the four-dimensional ether-like term for the electromagnetic field essentially depending on the calculation scheme, similarly to the result for the Carroll-Field-Jackiw (CFJ) term which probably signalizes a possibility for arising of a new anomaly. Also we discuss the dispersion relations in the theories with ether-like Lorentz-breaking terms which allows to discuss the consistency of the Lorentz-breaking modified theories for different (space-like or time-like) Lorentz-breaking vectors and find the tree-level effective (Breit) potential for fermion scattering and the one-loop effective potential corresponding to the action of the scalar field. (author)

  16. [3-Chloro-N′-(2-oxidonaphthalen-1-ylmethylidenebenzohydrazidato]methanol(methanolatooxidovanadium(V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Ming Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [V(C18H11ClN2O2(CH3OO(CH3OH], the VV ion is coordinated by a tridendate 3-chloro-N′-(2-oxidonaphthalen-1-ylmethylidenebenzohydrazidate ligand, one oxido ligand and by O atoms from a methanol and a methoxide ligand, forming a distorted octahedral geometry. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the naphthylene ring system is 6.4 (3°. The deviation of the VV ion from the plane defined by the three donor atoms of the tridentate ligand and the methoxy O atom towards the oxido O atom is 0.323 (2 Å. In the crystal, pairs of intermolecular O—H...N hydrogen bonds form centrosymmetric dimers.

  17. Rotational study on the van der Waals complex 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane-argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Chen, Junhua; Feng, Gang; Xia, Zhining; Gou, Qian

    2018-03-15

    The rotational spectrum of the van der Waals complex formed between 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane and argon has been investigated by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. Only one set of rotational transitions belonging to the lowest energy conformer has been observed and assigned, although theoretical calculations suggest six stable conformers that might be observed. The observed conformer, according to the experimental evidence from two isotopologues ( 35 Cl and 37 Cl), adopts a configuration in which the argon atom is located, close to the CF 2 Cl top, between the CCF and CCCl planes (the dihedral angle ∠ArCCCl is 65.2°). The distance between argon atom and the center of mass of CH 3 CF 2 Cl is 3.949(2) Å. The dissociation energy, with pseudo diatomic approximation, is evaluated to be 2.4kJmol -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation of 4-Chloro phenol by gamma radiation of 137Cs and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J. C.; Jimenez B, J.; Cejudo A, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results of radiolytic degradation of 4-chloro phenol in the presence of TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 , using different radiation sources than 60 Co, which is so common in this type of experiment. The radiation sources used were X-rays with energy of 100 keV and radiation from 137 Cs (662 keV). After irradiation with a dose of 50 c Gy X-ray and TiO 2 obtained a degradation of about 5%, no degradation was obtained with 137 Cs source and other oxides. This may be due to the fact that X-rays have a linear energy transfer greater value, and in the case of TiO 2 present a crystalline structure, whereas the other two oxides are amorphous. Both characteristics result in better formation of a reactive species that allows the degradation of the compound. (Author)

  19. Synthesis, antileishmanial activity and QSAR studies of 2-chloro- N -arylacetamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefânia Neiva Lavorato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe herein the synthesis and evaluation of the antileishmanial activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis and cytotoxicity to murine macrophages of a series of 2-chloro-N-arylacetamide derivatives. All compounds were active, except one (compound 3. Compound 5 presented the most promising results, showing good antileishmanial activity (CI50=5.39±0.67 µM and moderate selectivity (SI=6.36, indicating that further development of this class is worthwhile. Preliminary QSAR studies, although not predictive, furnished some insights on the importance of electronic character of aryl substituent to biological activity, as well as an indirect influence of hydrophobicity on activity.

  20. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  1. An allosteric modulator of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor possessing cognition-enhancing properties in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Daniel B; Grønlien, Jens Halvard; Kohlhaas, Kathy L; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Dam, Eva; Jørgensen, Tino D; Ahring, Philip K; Peters, Dan; Holst, Dorte; Christensen, Jeppe K; Chrsitensen, Jeppe K; Malysz, John; Briggs, Clark A; Gopalakrishnan, Murali; Olsen, Gunnar M

    2007-10-01

    Augmentation of nicotinic alpha7 receptor function is considered to be a potential therapeutic strategy aimed at ameliorating cognitive and mnemonic dysfunction in relation to debilitating pathological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In the present report, a novel positive allosteric modulator of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), 1-(5-chloro-2-hydroxy-phenyl)-3-(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-urea (NS1738), is described. NS1738 was unable to displace or affect radioligand binding to the agonist binding site of nicotinic receptors, and it was devoid of effect when applied alone in electrophysiological paradigms. However, when applied in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh), NS1738 produced a marked increase in the current flowing through alpha7 nAChRs, as determined in both oocyte electrophysiology and patch-clamp recordings from mammalian cells. NS1738 acted by increasing the peak amplitude of ACh-evoked currents at all concentrations; thus, it increased the maximal efficacy of ACh. Oocyte experiments indicated an increase in ACh potency as well. NS1738 had only marginal effects on the desensitization kinetics of alpha7 nAChRs, as determined from patch-clamp studies of both transfected cells and cultured hippocampal neurons. NS1738 was modestly brain-penetrant, and it was demonstrated to counteract a (-)-scopolamine-induced deficit in acquisition of a water-maze learning task in rats. Moreover, NS1738 improved performance in the rat social recognition test to the same extent as (-)-nicotine, demonstrating that NS1738 is capable of producing cognitive enhancement in vivo. These data support the notion that alpha7 nAChR allosteric modulation may constitute a novel pharmacological principle for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction.

  2. Fluorescence and physical properties of the organic salt 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoate–3-ammonium-phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Rajaboopathi, E-mail: mrajaboopathi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Rietveld, Ivo B.; Nicolaï, Béatrice [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université Paris Descartes, 75006 Paris (France); Varadharajan, Krishnakumar, E-mail: vkrishna_kumar@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta [Department of Chemical Technology, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Narasimhan, Surumbarkuzhali [Department of Physics, Government Arts College (Autonomous), Salem 636 007, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-09-08

    Highlights: • Organic salt of 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoate–3-ammonium-phenol (CNBA{sup −} · AP{sup +}) was grown by solution growth technique. • Single crystal X-ray diffraction demonstrate that two molecules were linked via N{sup +}–H⋯O{sup −} interactions. • The narrow spatial overlap between HOMO and LUMO leads to low ΔE{sub ST} = 73 meV. • The fluorescence emission was observed at ≈338 nm with Stokes shift of 53 nm. • The melting point of CNBA{sup −} · AP{sup +} is 187 °C which is higher than the individual components. - Abstract: Organic salt 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoate (CNBA{sup −}) 3-ammonium-phenol (AP{sup +}) exhibits fluorescence at 338 nm in solution and frontier molecular orbitals generated from TDDFT calculations indicate that the ground state and the excited state are physically separated on AP{sup +} and CNBA{sup −}. The crystal structure and physical–chemical properties of the CNBA{sup −} · AP{sup +} were investigated using X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction, SEM, FTIR, UV–Vis–NIR, and fluorescence spectrometry. X-ray diffraction demonstrates that the two molecules are linked via N{sup +}–H⋯O{sup −} ammonium–carboxylate interactions, as expected considering their interaction propensities. Proton transfer has been confirmed by FTIR analysis. The melting point of CNBA{sup −} · AP{sup +} was observed at 186 °C, which is higher than pure CNBA (140 °C) or AP (120 °C). The observation of a spatially separated HOMO and LUMO possessing a narrow ΔE{sub ST} = 73.3 meV and an emission in the blue region is promising as an alternative method for the production of OLED materials.

  3. Short communication. N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (4-CPPU) enhances in vitro direct shoot organogenesis of Citrus aurantium L. epicotyl segments compared to other commonly used cytokinins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussos, P. A.; Dimitriou, G.; Voloudakis, A. E.

    2011-07-01

    The effect of three concentrations of five different cytokinins, i.e. 6-benzylamino purine, 2-isopentyl adenine, kinetin (Kin), thidiazuron and N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea (4-CPPU), was evaluated on the in vitro direct shoot organogenesis of epicotyl explants of sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.). The basal medium used was that of Murashige and Tucker and epicotyl explants were incubated in medium supplemented with the prementioned cytokinins for 45 days. The addition of Kin and 4-CPPU in the medium enhanced the direct shoot organogenesis of sour orange epicotyl segments. The concentration of each of these two cytokinins which gave the best results, was combined with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or {alpha}-naphthalene acetic acid ({alpha}-NAA) at concentrations ranging from 0.01 mg L{sup -}1 to 0.2 mg L{sup -}1. The inclusion of IAA at 0.2 mg L{sup -}1 in the medium with 4-CPPU at 0.05 mg L{sup -}1 resulted in 100% successful direct shoot organogenesis, while the combination of Kin at 0.25 mg L{sup -}1 with IAA or {alpha}-NAA each at 0.01 mg L{sup -}1 presented equally high organogenesis percentages (91.7%). The incubation of the produced shoots, in medium supplemented with either indole-3-butyric acid or {alpha}-NAA resulted in high rooting percentages (up to 90%) and the rooted explants were successfully acclimatized under mist (85%). Although 4-CPPU has been used in in vitro culture of various species, this is the first report on its use in the direct shoot organogenesis of citrus species and could be of great value in citrus genetic transformation protocols using epicotyl segments, since this cytokinin resulted in the absolute organogenesis percentage. (Author) 20 refs.

  4. Mechanical Properties Optimization of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone via Fused Deposition Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohu Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the common selective laser sintering (SLS manufacturing method, fused deposition modeling (FDM seems to be an economical and efficient three-dimensional (3D printing method for high temperature polymer materials in medical applications. In this work, a customized FDM system was developed for polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK materials printing. The effects of printing speed, layer thickness, printing temperature and filling ratio on tensile properties were analyzed by the orthogonal test of four factors and three levels. Optimal tensile properties of the PEEK specimens were observed at a printing speed of 60 mm/s, layer thickness of 0.2 mm, temperature of 370 °C and filling ratio of 40%. Furthermore, the impact and bending tests were conducted under optimized conditions and the results demonstrated that the printed PEEK specimens have appropriate mechanical properties.

  5. Biofilm behavior on sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) (sPEEK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, Juan F.D.; Tajiri, Henrique A.; Barra, Guilherme M.O.; Fredel, Márcio C.; Benfatti, Cesar A.M.; Magini, Ricardo S.; Pimenta, Andréa L.; Souza, Júlio C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) has also shown to be very attractive for incorporating therapeutic compounds thanks to a sulfonation process which modifies the material structure resulting in a sulfonated-PEEK (sPEEK). Concerning biomedical applications, the objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of different sulfonation degree of sPEEK on the biofilm growth. PEEK samples were functionalized by using sulphuric acid (98%) and then dissolved into dimethyl-sulfoxide. A dip coating technique was used to synthesize sPEEK thin films. The sulfonation degree of the materials was analyzed by FT-IR, H NMR, TG and IEC. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, profilometry and contact angle analyses. Subsequently, the biofilm formation on sulfonated-PEEK based on Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis was measured by spectrophotometry, colony forming units (CFU mL −1 ) and SEM. Results obtained from thermal and chemical analyses showed an intensification in sulfonation degree for sPEEK at 2 and 2.5 h. The E. faecalis or S. mutans biofilm growth revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between 2 and 3 h sulfonation groups. A significant decrease (p < 0.05) in CFU mL −1 was recorded for S. mutans or E. faecalis biofilm grown on 2.5 or 3 h sPEEK. Regarding the thermal-chemical and microbiologic analyses, the sulfonation degree of sPEEK ranging from 2 up to 3 h was successful capable to decrease the biofilm growth. That revealed an alternative strategy to embed anti-biofilm and therapeutic compounds into PEEK avoiding infections in biomedical applications. - Highlights: • PEEK can be dissolved to incorporate therapeutic compounds. • High sulfonation degree on sPEEK affected the biofilm growth. • The sulfonation degree must be controlled to maintain the properties of sPEEK.

  6. Fuel cell performance of pendent methylphenyl sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanyu; Stanis, Ronald J.; Song, Yang; Hu, Wei; Cornelius, Chris J.; Shi, Qiang; Liu, Baijun; Guiver, Michael D.

    2017-11-01

    Meta- and para-linked homopolymers bearing 3-methylphenyl (Me) pendent groups were postsulfonated to create sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) (SPEEKK) backbone isomers, which are referred to as Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK. Their thermal and oxidative stability, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, methanol permeability, and proton conductivity are characterized. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK proton conductivities at 100 °C are 116 and 173 mS cm-1, respectively. Their methanol permeabilities are 3.3-3.9 × 10-7 cm2 s-1, and dimensional swelling at 100 °C is 16.4-17.5%. Me-p-SPEEKK and Me-m-SPEEKK were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and electrochemical properties were evaluated within a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). When O2 is used as the oxidant at 80 °C and 100% RH, the maximum power density of Me-m-SPEEKK reaches 657 mW cm-2, which is higher than those of Nafion 115 (552 mW cm-2). DMFC performance is 85 mW cm-2 at 80 °C with 2.0 M methanol using Me-p-SPEEKK due to its low MeOH crossover. In general, these electrochemical results are comparable to Nafion. These ionomer properties, combined with a potentially less expensive and scalable polymer manufacturing process, may broaden their potential for many practical applications.

  7. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dae Sik, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu Seung, Kim [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilles, Robertson [CANADA-NRC; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA-NRC

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  8. Polydopamine-functionalized poly(ether ether ketone) tube for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wenpeng; Liu, Yikun; Yu, Xinhong; Chen, Zilin

    2017-09-22

    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is a hyphenated technique that combines the advantages like low sample consumption, high separation efficiency, short analytical time in CE and high sensitivity, powerful molecular structure elucidation in MS. Polyimide-coated fused silica capillary has become the most dominant capillary for CE, but it suffers from swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating when treated with organic solvents and alkaline buffer in the CE-MS interface in which the polyimide coating at the end of the capillary is exposed to the solution, and this phenomenon can result in current instability, irregular electrospray and clogging at outlet after prolonged use. In this work, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) capillary was explored as separation capillary for CE-MS. The problems like swelling and aminolysis of polyimide coating were solved due to the high thermal and chemical stability of PEEK material. After modification with polydopamine, PEEK capillary (PD-PEEK) can generate adjustable electroosmotic flow and provide good separation selectivity. The zwitterion polymer of polydopamine can provide cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) at high pH value (pH ≥ 5) and anodic EOF at low pH value (pH ≤ 4), and the EOF mobility can also be adjusted by controlling the modification time of polydopamine. Good separation performance was obtained in the analysis for several classes of compounds including amino acids, phenols and plant hormones at rational EOF direction. Repeatability of the PD-PEEK capillary was studied, with relative standard deviations for intra-day, inter-day runs and between tubes less than 4.94%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress of pancreatitis disease biomarker alpha amylase enzyme by new nano optical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, M S; Al-Radadi, Najlaa S

    2016-12-15

    A new nano optical sensor binuclear Pd-(2-aminothiazole) (urea), Pd(atz,ur) complex was prepared and characterized for the assessment of the activity of alpha amylase enzyme in urine and serum samples for early diagnosis of Pancreatitis disease. The assessment of alpha amylase activity is carried out by the quenching of the luminescence intensity of the nano optical sensor binuclear Pd(atz,ur) complex at 457nm by the 2-chloro-4-nitrophenol (2-CNP) which produced from the reaction of the enzyme with 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-d-maltotrioside (CNPG3) substrate. The remarkable quenching of the luminescence intensity at 457nm of nano Pd(atz,ur) doped in sol-gel matrix by various concentrations of the 2-CNP was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of α-amylase activity. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 8.5×10(-6) to 1.9×10(-9)molL(-1) 2-CNP with a correlation coefficient of (0.999) and a detection limit of (7.4×10(-10)molL(-1)). The method was used satisfactorily for the assessment of the α-amylase activity over activity range (3-321U/L) in different urine and serum samples of pancreatitis patients. The assessment of the alpha amylase biomarker by the proposed method increases its sensitivity (96.88%) and specificity (94.41%) for early diagnosis of pancreatitis diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing nitrile groups and their composite membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Meimei; Liu, Baijun; Guan, Shaowei; Li, Long; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Yunhe; Jiang, Zhenhua [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2010-08-01

    A series of novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing a cyanophenyl group (SPEEKCNxx) are prepared based on (4-cyano)phenylhydroquinone via nucleophilic substitution polycondensation reactions. To further improve their properties, novel composite membranes composed of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s containing cyanophenyl group as an acidic component and aminated poly(aryl ether ketone) as a basic component are successfully prepared. Most of the membranes exhibit excellent thermal, oxidative and dimensional stability, low-swelling ratio, high proton conductivity, low methanol permeability and high selectivity. The proton conductivities of the membranes are close to Nafion 117 at room temperature. And especially, the values of SPEEKCN40 and its composite membranes are higher than Nafion 117 at 80 C (0.17 S cm{sup -1} of Nafion, 0.26 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40, 0.20 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40-1, and 0.18 S cm{sup -1} of SPEEKCN40-2). Moreover, the methanol permeability is one order magnitude lower than that of Nafion 117. All the data prove that both copolymers and their composite membranes may be potential proton exchange membrane for fuel cells applications. (author)

  11. Monte Carlo alpha deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, T.L.; Evans, F.

    1988-01-01

    Prior work demonstrated the importance of nuclear scattering to fusion product energy deposition in hot plasmas. This suggests careful examination of nuclear physics details in burning plasma simulations. An existing Monte Carlo fast ion transport code is being expanded to be a test bed for this examination. An initial extension, the energy deposition of fast alpha particles in a hot deuterium plasma, is reported. The deposition times and deposition ranges are modified by allowing nuclear scattering. Up to 10% of the initial alpha particle energy is carried to greater ranges and times by the more mobile recoil deuterons. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting......-Against-Beta and Quality-Minus-Junk factors. Further, we estimate that Buffett’s leverage is about 1.6-to-1 on average. Buffett’s returns appear to be neither luck nor magic, but, rather, reward for the use of leverage combined with a focus on cheap, safe, quality stocks. Decomposing Berkshires’ portfolio into ownership...

  13. Synthesis and Biophysical Characterization of Chlorambucil Anticancer Ether Lipid Prodrugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Christensen, Mikkel Stochkendahl; Ruysschaert, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis and biophysical characterization of four prodrug ether phospholipid conjugates are described. The lipids are prepared from the anticancer drug chlorambucil and have C16 and C18 ether chains with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol headgroups. All four prodrugs have the ability...... to form unilamellar liposomes (86-125 nm) and are hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2, resulting in chlorambucil release. Liposomal formulations of prodrug lipids displayed cytotoxicity toward HT-29, MT-3, and ES-2 cancer cell lines in the presence of phospholipase A2, with IC50 values in the 8-36 μM range....

  14. Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers. A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-30

    Triazole’Subcyclic Unit 14. Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers Containing Sulfonamide Groups 15. Miscellaneous Proton-Ionizable Crown Ethers 1. INTRODUCTION. ""Since...the diaza dinitrile crown. Subsequent hydrolysis produced the diacid 33 (Procedure E). 27 Monoaza-crowns 35-38 (Figure V, Table 5) were obtained by the...followed by hydrolysis of the cetidi to f the acid.3o Complextion by th~eam crownsJ hasJ boon extensively castudieon and transportat es of thos ecaions have

  15. Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S

    2009-01-16

    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  16. In vitro pharmacological characterization of a novel selective alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist ABT-107.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysz, John; Anderson, David J; Grønlien, Jens H; Ji, Jianguo; Bunnelle, William H; Håkerud, Monika; Thorin-Hagene, Kirten; Ween, Hilde; Helfrich, Rosalind; Hu, Min; Gubbins, Earl; Gopalakrishnan, Sujatha; Puttfarcken, Pamela S; Briggs, Clark A; Li, Jinhe; Meyer, Michael D; Dyhring, Tino; Ahring, Philip K; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan; Timmermann, Daniel B; Gopalakrishnan, Murali

    2010-09-01

    Enhancement of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activity is considered a therapeutic approach for ameliorating cognitive deficits present in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. In this study, we describe the in vitro profile of a novel selective alpha7 nAChR agonist, 5-(6-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2,2,2]oct-3-yloxy]pyridazin-3-yl)-1H-indole (ABT-107). ABT-107 displayed high affinity binding to alpha7 nAChRs [rat or human cortex, [(3)H](1S,4S)-2,2-dimethyl-5-(6-phenylpyridazin-3-yl)-5-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (A-585539), K(i) = 0.2-0.6 nM or [(3)H]methyllycaconitine (MLA), 7 nM] that was at least 100-fold selective versus non-alpha7 nAChRs and other receptors. Functionally, ABT-107 did not evoke detectible currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing human or nonhuman alpha3beta4, chimeric (alpha6/alpha3)beta4, or 5-HT(3A) receptors, and weak or negligible Ca(2+) responses in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells (alpha3* function) and human alpha4beta2 and alpha4beta4 nAChRs expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ABT-107 potently evoked human and rat alpha7 nAChR current responses in oocytes (EC(50), 50-90 nM total charge, approximately 80% normalized to acetylcholine) that were enhanced by the positive allosteric modulator (PAM) 4-[5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-2-methyl-3-propionyl-pyrrol-1-yl]-benzenesulfonamide (A-867744). In rat hippocampus, ABT-107 alone evoked alpha7-like currents, which were inhibited by the alpha7 antagonist MLA. In dentate gyrus granule cells, ABT-107 enhanced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current activity when coapplied with A-867744. In the presence of an alpha7 PAM [A-867744 or N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-120596)], the addition of ABT-107 elicited MLA-sensitive alpha7 nAChR-mediated Ca(2+) signals in IMR-32 cells and rat cortical cultures and enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in differentiated PC-12 cells. ABT-107 was also effective in protecting rat

  17. Response of ammonia oxidizing archaea and bacteria to decabromodiphenyl ether and copper contamination in river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linqiong; Li, Yi; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Zhang, Huanjun; Wang, Longfei; Wang, Peifang

    2018-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation plays a fundamental role in river nitrogen cycling ecosystems, which is normally governed by both ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Co-contamination of typical emerging pollutant Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metal on AOA and AOB communities in river sediments remains unknown. In this study, multiple analytical tools, including high-throughput pyrosequencing and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), were used to reveal the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) activity, subunit alpha (amoA) gene abundance, and community structures of AOA and AOB in river sediments. It was found that the inhibition of AMO activities was increased with the increase of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209, 1-100 mg kg -1 ) and copper (Cu, 50-500 mg kg -1 ) concentrations. Moreover, the synergic effects of BDE 209 and Cu resulted in a higher AMO activity reduction than the individual pollutant BDE 209. The AOA amoA copy number declined by 75.9% and 83.2% and AOB amoA gene abundance declined 82.8% and 90.0% at 20 and 100 mg kg -1 BDE 209 with a 100 mg kg -1 Cu co-contamination, respectively. The pyrosequencing results showed that both AOB and AOA community structures were altered, with a higher change of AOB than that of AOA. The results demonstrated that the AOB microbial community may be better adapted to BDE 209 and Cu pollution, while AOA might possess a greater capacity for stress resistance. Our study provides a better understanding of the ecotoxicological effects of heavy metal and micropollutant combined exposure on AOA and AOB in river sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sulphonated biphenylated poly(aryl ether ketone)s for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, W.; Jiang, Z. [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Robertson, G.P.; Guiver, M.D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Kim, Y.S. [Electronic and Electrochemical Materials and Devices, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Liu, B.

    2010-02-15

    New series of fully aromatic poly(ether ketone)s with a biphenyl pendant groups were synthesised. A direct comparison of sulphonation reaction among monophenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (Ph-PEEK), biphenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (BiPh-PEEK) and PEEK (Victrex) was thoroughly investigated. Several advantages of the pendant-phenyl poly(ether ketone)s compared with commercial PEEK were identified, including ready control over the site of sulphonation and degree of sulphonation (DS), and mild and rapid sulphonation. The basic membrane physical properties comprising of thermal and mechanical properties, dimensional stability and proton conductivity were studied. One new membrane, sulphonated biphenylated poly(ether ether ketone) (BiPh-SPEEKDK) having a good combination of membrane properties was fabricated into a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), and it showed excellent direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  20. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul

    2015-01-01

    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  1. Molecular structure impacts on secondary organic aerosol formation from glycol ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijie; Cocker, David R.

    2018-05-01

    Glycol ethers, a class of widely used solvents in consumer products, are often considered exempt as volatile organic compounds based on their vapor pressure or boiling points by regulatory agencies. However, recent studies found that glycol ethers volatilize at ambient conditions nearly as rapidly as the traditional high-volatility solvents indicating the potential of glycol ethers to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA). This is the first work on SOA formation from glycol ethers. The impact of molecular structure, specifically -OH, on SOA formation from glycol ethers and related ethers are investigated in the work. Ethers with and without -OH, with methyl group hindrance on -OH and with -OH at different location are studied in the presence of NOX and under "NOX free" conditions. Photooxidation experiments under different oxidation conditions confirm that the processing of ethers is a combination of carbonyl formation, cyclization and fragmentation. Bulk SOA chemical composition analysis and oxidation products identified in both gas and particle phase suggests that the presence and location of -OH in the carbon bond of ethers determine the occurrence of cyclization mechanism during ether oxidation. The cyclization is proposed as a critical SOA formation mechanism to prevent the formation of volatile compounds from fragmentation during the oxidation of ethers. Glycol ethers with -CH2-O-CH2CH2OH structure is found to readily form cyclization products, especially with the presence of NOx, which is more relevant to urban atmospheric conditions than without NOx. Glycol ethers are evaluated as dominating SOA precursors among all ethers studied. It is estimated that the contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources. The contribution of glycol ethers to anthropogenic SOA is roughly 1% of the current organic aerosol from mobile sources and will play a more important role in future anthropogenic SOA

  2. Bioactivation mechanism of the cytotoxic and nephrotoxic S-conjugate S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine.

    OpenAIRE

    Dekant, W; Lash, L H; Anders, M W

    1987-01-01

    The bioactivation of S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (CTFC) was studied with purified bovine kidney cysteine conjugate beta-lyase and with N-dodecylpyridoxal bromide in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles as a pyridoxal model system. The beta-lyase and the pyridoxal model system converted CTFC to chlorofluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride, which were identified by 19F NMR spectrometry. 2-Chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethanethiol and chlorofluorothionoacetyl fluoride were formed a...

  3. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of 2-(2-butyl- 4-chloro-1H-imidazol-5-yl-methylene-substituted-benzofuran-3-ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar S. Dawane

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the oxidation of 3-(4-chloro-1H-imidazol-5-yl-1-(2-hydroxyphenylprop-2-en-1-ones with mercuric(II acetate in in polyethylene glycol (PEG-400 gave the corresponding 2-((4-chloro-1H-imidazol-5-ylmethylenebenzofuran-3(2H-ones. Newly synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity.

  4. Removal of P-chloro Phenol from Aqueous Solutions Using Chestnut Shell Modified by Sulfuric Acid: Study of Adsorption Kinetic and Isotherm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatam Godini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Present of p-chloro phenol in the environment due to high toxicity, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, powerful odor production and stability in the environment caused to be categorized as priority pollutants. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of p-chloro phenol from aqueous solution using chestnut shell modified by sulfuric acid. Methods: This study was an experimental study and chestnut shell (Quercus brantii Var. persica was used as an adsorbent. The effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial concentration on the adsorption process were evaluated, in a batch scale. The characterizations of the raw and modified adsorbent were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffractometer (XRD. Langmuir and Fruindlich isotherm models and pseudo-first order kinetic, pseudo-second order kinetic were evaluated by experimental data. Results: The results showed that the removal efficiency of p-chloro phenol increased with increasing of the contact time and adsorbent dosage, and had a reverse effect with increasing of pH and p-chloro phenol initial concentration. The maximum adsorption capacity of p-chloro phenol by modified chestnut shell adsorbent was achieved of 3.33 mg/g and the maximum removal efficiency of p-chloro phenol was 87 percent at pH=4. The experimental data were well descripted by Freundlich isotherm (R2>0.92 and pseudo-second order kinetic (R2>0.94. Conclusion: This study showed that the chestnut shell could be effectively used at removal of p-chloro phenol from aqueous solutions. As the chestnut shell is a waste, so it can be applied as an adsorbent for removal of pollutants such as p-chloro phenol.

  5. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  6. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of 5-chloro-2(3H)-benzoxazolinone-3-acetyl-2-(o/p-substituted benzal) hydrazone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Mehtap; Geciken, Ahmet Emin; Yildirim, Engin; Tosuni, Ali Ulvi

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that some hydrazone derivatives of both 2-oxobenzoxazoline and 2-oxobenzothiazoline exhibit potent anticonvulsant activity. In order to investigate the effects of structural modifications on the biological properties, 14 new hydrazones of 5-chloro-2(3H)-benzox-azolinone-3-acetyl hydrazide were synthesized. The chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were established by IR, 1H-NMR spectral analyses and elementary analyses. The anticonvulsant activities of the title compounds were tested by the penthylenetetrazole induced seizure test. 5-Chloro-2(3H)-benz-oxazolinone-3-acetyl-2-(o-methoxy-benzaldehyde)-hydrazone 4d, 5-chloro-2(3H)-benzoxazolinone-3-acetyl-2-(o-methybenzaldehyde)-hydrazone 4g, 5-chloro-2(3H)-benzoxazolinone-3-acetyl-2-(p-methylbenzaldehyde)-hydrazone 4h, 5-chloro-2(3H)-benzoxazolino-ne-3-acetyl-2-(p-nitrobenzaldehyde)-hydrazone 4m, and 5-chloro-2(3H)-benzox-azolinone-3-acetyl-2-(p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde)-hydrazone 4n were found more active than phenytoin (CAS 57-41-0) in the tests.

  7. Synthesis of 1-chloro-1-phenylethyl-telechelic polyisobutylene, a new potential macroinitiator by living cationic polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivan, Bela; Chen, Xianyi; Kops, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    1-Chloro-1-phenylethyl-telechelic polyisobutylene (PIB) was synthesized by living carbocationic polymerization (LCCP). LCCP of isobutylene was induced by a difunctional initiator in conjunction with TiCl4 as coinitiator in the presence of N,N-dimethylacetamide in CH2Cl2/hexane (40:60 v/v) solvent...... mixture at -78 degrees C. After complete isobutylene conversion a small amount of styrene was added leading to a rapid crossover reaction and thus to the attachment of short outer polystyrene (PSt) blocks to the PIB segment. Quenching the living polymerization of styrene yielded 1-chloro-1-phenylethyl...... terminal groups. The resulting telechelic polymer (Cl-PSt-PIB-PSt-Cl) is a potential new macroinitiator for atom transfer radical polymerization of a variety of vinyl monomers....

  8. Pulse-radiolytic one-electron reduction of anthraquinone and chloro-anthraquinones in aqueous-isopropanol-acetone mixed solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, M.C.; Pal, H.; Mukherjee, T.

    1996-01-01

    One-electron reduction of 9,10-anthraquinone and some chloro-anthraquinones and the characteristics of the semiquinones thus formed have been investigated in aqueous-isipropanol-acetone mixed solvent using electron pulse radiolysis technique. Spectroscopic characteristics, kinetic parameters of formation and decay, and the acid/base behaviour of the semiquinones have been investigated. The one-electron reduction potential of the quinones have been measured following electron transfer equilibria with a reference redox system (methyl viologen) and the values thus obtained have been compared with those of some other anthrasemiquinone systems. An analysis of the characteristics of the semiquinones shows that α-chloro substituents adjacent to the C=O group act as electron withdrawing groups. (author)

  9. Identification of cysteine as the reactive group in pyruvate kinase alkylated by 5-chloro-4-oxopentanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkley, R A; Bloxham, D P

    1976-11-01

    4-Hydroxypentanoic acid alanine thioether was synthesized and characterized by n.m.r. spectroscopy. This derivative corresponded to the modified amino acid obtained by allowing 5-chloro-4-oxo[3,5-3H]pentanoic acid to react with rabbit muscle pyruvate kinase. Performic acid oxidation of 4-oxo[3,5-3H]pentanoic acid alanine thioether in pyruvate kinase gave [3H]succinate (67%) and [3H]carboxymethylcysteine (33%) as expected. Evidence is presented to show that NaBH4 reduction followed by periodate oxidation and analysis of radioactive formaldehyde production may provide a convenient method for distinguishing between thiol and amino alkylation by halogenomethyl ketone compounds. Peptide 'mapping' confirms that the modification by 5-chloro-4-oxopentanoic acid occurs primarily at one region of pyruvate kinase.

  10. Fluorescence Sensing Properties of Thiazolobenzo-crown Ether Incorporating Coumarin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Helal, Aasif; Kim, Hong Seok

    2010-01-01

    A new coumarin-thiazolobenzo-crown ether based fluorogenic chemosensor BTC (1) was reported. The ion-selective binding properties of 1 with different alkali, alkaline earth metals and transitional metals were investigated in an ethanol- DMSO system. BTC (1) showed the highest binding constant toward Hg 2+ over Ag + , Pb 2+ and Cu 2+

  11. High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Flexible Cyclic Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, F.; Martínez-Haya, B.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    Crown ethers stand as one cornerstone molecular class inhost-guest Supramolecular Chemistry and constitute building blocks for a broad range of modern materials. We report here the first high resolution rotational study of a crown ether: 1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane (15-crown-5 ether,15c5). Molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy has been employed. The liquid sample of 15c5 has been vaporized using heating methods. The considerable size of 15c5 and the broad range of conformations allowed by the flexibility of its backbone pose important challenges to spectroscopy approaches. In fact, the ab-initio computational study for isolated 15c5, yields at least six stable conformers with relative free energies within 2 kJ Mol-1 (167 Cm-1). Nevertheless, in this investigation it has been possible to identify and characterize in detail one stable rotamer of the 15c5 molecule and to challenge different quantum methods for the accurate description of this system. The results pave the ground for an extensive description of the conformational landscape of 15c5 and related cyclic ethers in the near term. J. L. Alonso, F. J. Lorenzo, J. C. López, A. Lesarri, S. Mata and H. Dreizler, Chem. Phys., 218, 267 (1997) S. Blanco, J.C López, J.L. Alonso, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 880 (2003) S.E. Hill, D. Feller, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 201, 41 (2000)

  12. Evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These highly hazardous organic pollutants of concern are persistent, can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic organism especially fish, and there appears to be no clear strategy for managing them. In this study, levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers were determined in sediments collected from Lagos lagoon with ...

  13. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of Petroleum Ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic Activities of. Petroleum Ether Fruit Extract of Fruits of Brucea javanica. (Simarubaceae). Zhiwei Su1,2, Huijuan Huang3, Jinlian Li1,4, Yuehui Zhu1, Riming Huang1 and. Samuel X Qiu1*. 1Program for Natural Product Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Key Laboratory of Plant ...

  14. Why do crown ethers activate enzymes in organic solvents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Unen, D.J.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    One of the major drawbacks of enzymes in nonaqueous solvents is that their activity is often dramatically low compared to that in water. This limitation can be largely overcome by crown ether treatment of enzymes. In this paper, we describe a number of carefully designed new experiments that have

  15. Evaluation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediment of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    environmental concerns. New organic pollutants especially polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) employed in electronic equipment and in some household items as flame retardants are now finding their way into the aquatic environment as components of waste discharge into the water body. These highly hazardous ...

  16. Bio-inspired ion selective crown-ether polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    Development of unctional membranes that are capable of selectively recognizing and transporting ions have key importance for the recovery and separation of specific icons (e.d. K+, Li+, Na+) from multicomponent mixtures. In this thesis, new membrane materials based on crown ether-metal ion

  17. Dimethyl ether in diesel engines - progress and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C

    2001-01-01

    A review of recent developments related to the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in engines is presented Research work discussed is in the areas of engine performance and emissions, fuel injection systems, spray and ignition delay, and detailed chemical kinetic modeling. DME's properties and safety...

  18. Binary mixtures of carbon dioxide and dimethyl ether as alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data were predicted for the binary mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl ether (DME) at ten temperatures ranging from 273.15 to 386.56 K and pressure upto 7.9 MPa to observe this mixture's potential of COP enhancement and capacity modulation as a working fluid in a refrigeration ...

  19. Diethyl Ether Production as a Substitute for Gasoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alviany Riza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diethyl ether is one of alternative fuel that could be used as a significant component of a blend or as a complete replacement for transportation fuel. The aim of this research is to produce diethyl ether through dehydration reaction of ethanol with fixed bed reactor using nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 catalyst. Nanocrystalline γ-Al2O3 catalyst was synthesized by precipitation method using Al(NO33.9H2O as precursors and NH4OH as the precipitating agent. Dehydration reaction was performed at temperature range of 125 to 225°C. The result shows that synthesized γ-Al2O3 catalyst gave higher ethanol conversion and diethyl ether yield than that of commercial Al2O3 catalyst. The use of synthesized γ-Al2O3 catalyst could reach ethanol conversion as high as 94.71% and diethyl ether yield as high as 11,29%.

  20. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    OpenAIRE

    Espartero Sánchez, José Luis; Madrona, Andrés; Pereira Cano, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández Bolaños, Juan

    2009-01-01

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  1. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  2. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, B.D.; Goad, P.T.; Burg, J.R.

    1984-08-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four times daily on days 7 to 16 of gestation to the shaved interscapular skin with an automatic pipetter. Volumes of EGEE (0.25 mL), EGEEA (0.35 mL), and diEGEE (0.35 mL) were approximately equimolar (2.6 mmole per treatment). EGBE at 0.35 mL four times daily (approximately 2.7 mmole per treatment) killed 10 of 11 treated rats, and was subsequently tested at 0.12 mL (0.9 mmole) per treatment. EGEE- and EGEEA-treated rats showed a reduction in body weight relative to water controls that was associated with completely resorbed litters and significantly fewer live fetuses per litter. Fetal body weights were also significantly reduced in those groups. Visceral malformations and skeletal variations were significantly increased in EGEE and EGEEA groups over the negative control group. No embryotoxic, genotoxic, or teratogenic effects were detected in the EGBE- or diEGEE-treated litters. 16 references, 4 tables.

  3. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, B D; Goad, P T; Burg, J R

    1984-08-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four times daily on days 7 to 16 of gestation to the shaved interscapular skin with an automatic pipetter. Volumes of EGEE (0.25 mL), EGEEA (0.35 mL), and diEGEE (0.35 mL) were approximately equimolar (2.6 mmole per treatment). EGBE at 0.35 mL four times daily (approximately 2.7 mmole per treatment) killed 10 of 11 treated rats, and was subsequently tested at 0.12 mL (0.9 mmole) per treatment. EGEE- and EGEEA-treated rats showed a reduction in body weight relative to water controls that was associated with completely resorbed litters and significantly fewer live fetuses per litter. Fetal body weights were also significantly reduced in those groups. Visceral malformations and skeletal variations were significantly increased in EGEE and EGEEA groups over the negative control group. No embryotoxic, fetotoxic, or teratogenic effects were detected in the EGBE- or diEGEE-treated litters.

  4. Calix salophen crown ethers as receptors for neutral molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichwein, A.M.; Reichwein, Arjen M.; Verboom, Willem; Harkema, Sybolt; Spek, Anthony L.; Reinhoudt, David

    1994-01-01

    The calix[4]arene based salophen crown ethers 7 and 8 were synthesized as lipophilic carriers for neutral molecules. The X-ray structures of the H2O, CH3OH and (CH3)2SO complexes of 8a have been determined.

  5. Synthesis and reduction of 2-nitroalkyl polysaccharide ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, A.; Spoelma, F.F.; Doren, H.A. van; Gotlieb, K.F.; Bleeker, I.P.; Kellogg, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Several 2-nitroalkyl polysaccharide ethers (from pullulan (1), guar (2), agarose (3), inulin (4), cellulose (5), Na-α-polyglucuronate (6) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (7)) were synthesized by reaction with 2-nitro-1-alkenes (2-nitro-1-propene and 2-nitro-1-butene) formed in situ from 2-nitroalkyl

  6. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers | Kaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been used to establish the regio- and stereochemistry of novel dibornyl ethers, obtained by acid-catalysed condensation of camphor-derived a-hydroxybornanones. South African Journal of Chemistry Vol.55 2002: 111-118 ...

  7. Ether and interpretation of some physical phenomena and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzayev, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of existence of an ether representation about time, space, matters and physical field are profound and also the essence of such phenomena, as corpuscular - wave dualism, change of time, scale and mass at movement body's is opened. The opportunity of transition from probability-statistical interpretation of the quantum phenomena to Laplace's determinism is shown

  8. A novel chlorinated diphenyl ether from Byrsonima microphylla (Malpighiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João H C; Cardoso, Manuela P; David, Juceni P; David, Jorge M

    2006-11-01

    The isolation is described of an unusual chlorinated diphenyl ether named methyl 3,5-dichloro-6-(6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2-methylphenoxy)-2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzoate that was obtained from the trunk of Byrsonima microphylla (Malpighiaceae). The structure was elucidated by a spectroscopic data analysis, and the presence of this compound in heartwood was confirmed by HPLC and HPTLC analyses.

  9. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates - substituted ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-01-01

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE)

  10. Comparative evaluation of direct stool smear and Formol-ether ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium is a common cause of diarrhoea in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Unfortunately this pathogen is not often checked for in Microbiology laboratories because the formol-ether stool concentration method for identification of Cryptosporidium is ...

  11. Determination of bisphenol a diglycidyl ether content in foods from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to avoid migration issues of chemical compounds from tin cans to foods, covering internal surface of the tin cans with epoxyphenolic and organosol resins is widespread. However, monomers like Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), number among the constituents of these resins capable of migrating to foods.

  12. Ether lipids of planktonic archae in the marine water column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hoefs, M.J.L.; Schouten, S.; King, L.L.; Wakeham, S.G.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1997-01-01

    Acyclic and cyclic biphytanes derived from the membrane ether lipids of archaea were found in water column particulate and sedimentary organic matter from several oxic and anoxic marine environments. Compound-specific isotope analyses of the carbon skeletons suggest that planktonic archaea utilize

  13. Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B C; Destaillats, H; Hodgson, A T; Nazaroff, W W

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m3 room ventilated at approximately 0.5/h. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 microg/m3 for individual terpenoids, including alpha-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and alpha-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or d-limonene were 300-6000 microg/m3 after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, and approximately 25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were approximately 35-70% with towels retained, and 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-citronellol) were emitted at 35-180 mg/day over 3 days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 microg/m3. While effective cleaning can improve the healthfulness of indoor environments, this work shows that use of some consumer cleaning agents can yield high levels of volatile organic compounds, including glycol ethers--which are regulated toxic air contaminants--and terpenes that can react with ozone to form a variety of secondary pollutants including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles. Persons involved in cleaning, especially those who clean occupationally or often, might encounter

  14. Radiation decomposition of alcohols and chloro phenols in micellar systems; Descomposicion por irradiacion de alcoholes y clorofenoles en sistemas micelares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno A, J

    1998-12-31

    The effect of surfactants on the radiation decomposition yield of alcohols and chloro phenols has been studied with gamma doses of 2, 3, and 5 KGy. These compounds were used as typical pollutants in waste water, and the effect of the water solubility, chemical structure, and the nature of the surfactant, anionic or cationic, was studied. The results show that anionic surfactant like sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), improve the radiation decomposition yield of ortho-chloro phenol, while cationic surfactant like cetyl trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), improve the radiation decomposition yield of butyl alcohol. A similar behavior is expected for those alcohols with water solubility close to the studied ones. Surfactant concentrations below critical micellar concentration (CMC), inhibited radiation decomposition for both types of alcohols. However radiation decomposition yield increased when surfactant concentrations were bigger than the CMC. Aromatic alcohols decomposition was more marked than for linear alcohols decomposition. On a mixture of alcohols and chloro phenols in aqueous solution the radiation decomposition yield decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. Nevertheless, there were competitive reactions between the alcohols, surfactants dimers, hydroxyl radical and other reactive species formed on water radiolysis, producing a catalytic positive effect in the decomposition of alcohols. Chemical structure and the number of carbons were not important factors in the radiation decomposition. When an alcohol like ortho-chloro phenol contained an additional chlorine atom, the decomposition of this compound was almost constant. In conclusion the micellar effect depend on both, the nature of the surfactant (anionic or cationic) and the chemical structure of the alcohols. The results of this study are useful for wastewater treatment plants based on the oxidant effect of the hydroxyl radical, like in advanced oxidation processes, or in combined treatment such as

  15. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of 2-Chloro-5-Nitrophenol Degradation in a Newly Isolated Bacterium,Cupriavidussp. Strain CNP-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jun; Chen, Weiwei; Wang, Jinpei; Hu, Xiaoke

    2017-01-01

    Compound 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP) is a typical chlorinated nitroaromatic pollutant. To date, the bacteria with the ability to degrade 2C5NP are rare, and the molecular mechanism of 2C5NP degradation remains unknown. In this study, Cupriavidus sp. strain CNP-8 utilizing 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP) and meta -nitrophenol (MNP) via partial reductive pathways was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil. Biodegradation kinetic analysis indicated that 2C5NP degradation by this strain was concentration dependent, with a maximum specific degradation rate of 21.2 ± 2.3 μM h -1 . Transcriptional analysis showed that the mnp genes are up-regulated in both 2C5NP- and MNP-induced strain CNP-8. Two Mnp proteins were purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. In addition to catalyzing the reduction of MNP, MnpA, a NADPH-dependent nitroreductase, also catalyzes the partial reduction of 2C5NP to 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol via 2-chloro-5-nitrosophenol, which was firstly identified as an intermediate of 2C5NP catabolism. MnpC, an aminohydroquinone dioxygenase, is likely responsible for the ring-cleavage reaction of 2C5NP degradation. Gene knockout and complementation indicated that mnpA is necessary for both 2C5NP and MNP catabolism. To our knowledge, strain CNP-8 is the second 2C5NP-utilizing bacterium, and this is the first report of the molecular mechanism of microbial 2C5NP degradation.

  16. Genetic and Biochemical Characterization of 2-Chloro-5-Nitrophenol Degradation in a Newly Isolated Bacterium, Cupriavidus sp. Strain CNP-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Min

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Compound 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP is a typical chlorinated nitroaromatic pollutant. To date, the bacteria with the ability to degrade 2C5NP are rare, and the molecular mechanism of 2C5NP degradation remains unknown. In this study, Cupriavidus sp. strain CNP-8 utilizing 2-chloro-5-nitrophenol (2C5NP and meta-nitrophenol (MNP via partial reductive pathways was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil. Biodegradation kinetic analysis indicated that 2C5NP degradation by this strain was concentration dependent, with a maximum specific degradation rate of 21.2 ± 2.3 μM h−1. Transcriptional analysis showed that the mnp genes are up-regulated in both 2C5NP- and MNP-induced strain CNP-8. Two Mnp proteins were purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. In addition to catalyzing the reduction of MNP, MnpA, a NADPH-dependent nitroreductase, also catalyzes the partial reduction of 2C5NP to 2-chloro-5-hydroxylaminophenol via 2-chloro-5-nitrosophenol, which was firstly identified as an intermediate of 2C5NP catabolism. MnpC, an aminohydroquinone dioxygenase, is likely responsible for the ring-cleavage reaction of 2C5NP degradation. Gene knockout and complementation indicated that mnpA is necessary for both 2C5NP and MNP catabolism. To our knowledge, strain CNP-8 is the second 2C5NP-utilizing bacterium, and this is the first report of the molecular mechanism of microbial 2C5NP degradation.

  17. Oxidative alkylation of azoles. 1. Reaction of N-chloro-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazoles with methyl iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pevzner, M.S.; Kurunkov, A.A.; Trubitsin, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    By the methods of chemical analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy it has been ascertained that interaction of methyl iodide with N-chloro-3-nitro- and 5-methyl-3-nitro-1,2,4-triazols results in iodine isolation and formation of a mixture of compounds: nonsubstituted in terms of nitrogen 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazols, N-mono- and N,N-dimethylated derivatives and products of their further transformations (1,4-dimethyl-5-triazolons)

  18. Demystifying AlphaGo Zero as AlphaGo GAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiao; Wu, Jiasong; Zhou, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The astonishing success of AlphaGo Zero\\cite{Silver_AlphaGo} invokes a worldwide discussion of the future of our human society with a mixed mood of hope, anxiousness, excitement and fear. We try to dymystify AlphaGo Zero by a qualitative analysis to indicate that AlphaGo Zero can be understood as a specially structured GAN system which is expected to possess an inherent good convergence property. Thus we deduct the success of AlphaGo Zero may not be a sign of a new generation of AI.

  19. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  20. Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic, mindfulness, mood, health and sport implications. ... the single alpha theta meditation was associated with elevated alpha and theta activity, as well as decrease in negative mood perceptions, especially with regard to anxiety, sadness and confusion scores.

  1. Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol in a Gram-positive bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Pankaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloronitrophenols (CNPs are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. Results A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA, which uses 4C2NP as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a chemically-contaminated site in India. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP with the release of stoichiometeric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. The effects of different substrate concentrations and various inoculum sizes on degradation of 4C2NP were investigated. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP up to a concentration of 0.6 mM. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry identified 4-chloro-2-aminophenol (4C2AP and 2-aminophenol (2AP as possible metabolites of the 4C2NP degradation pathway. The crude extract of 4C2NP-induced PMA cells contained enzymatic activity for 4C2NP reductase and 4C2AP dehalogenase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of 4C2NP. Microcosm studies using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C2NP were carried out to monitor the bioremediation potential of Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. The bioremediation of 4C2NP by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA was faster in non-sterilized soil than sterilized soil. Conclusions Our studies indicate that Exiguobacterium sp. PMA may be useful for the bioremediation of 4C2NP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of (i the formation of 2AP in the 4C2NP degradation pathway by any bacterium and (iii the bioremediation of 4C2NP by any bacterium.

  2. Synthesis of 1-chloro-1-phenylethyl-telechelic polyisobutylene, a new potential macroinitiator by living cationic polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivan, Bela; Chen, Xianyi; Kops, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    1-Chloro-1-phenylethyl-telechelic polyisobutylene (PIB) was synthesized by living carbocationic polymerization (LCCP). LCCP of isobutylene was induced by a difunctional initiator in conjunction with TiCl4 as coinitiator in the presence of N,N-dimethylacetamide in CH2Cl2/hexane (40:60 v/v) solvent...... terminal groups. The resulting telechelic polymer (Cl-PSt-PIB-PSt-Cl) is a potential new macroinitiator for atom transfer radical polymerization of a variety of vinyl monomers.......1-Chloro-1-phenylethyl-telechelic polyisobutylene (PIB) was synthesized by living carbocationic polymerization (LCCP). LCCP of isobutylene was induced by a difunctional initiator in conjunction with TiCl4 as coinitiator in the presence of N,N-dimethylacetamide in CH2Cl2/hexane (40:60 v/v) solvent...... mixture at -78 degrees C. After complete isobutylene conversion a small amount of styrene was added leading to a rapid crossover reaction and thus to the attachment of short outer polystyrene (PSt) blocks to the PIB segment. Quenching the living polymerization of styrene yielded 1-chloro-1-phenylethyl...

  3. ChloroSeq, an Optimized Chloroplast RNA-Seq Bioinformatic Pipeline, Reveals Remodeling of the Organellar Transcriptome Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Castandet

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although RNA-Seq has revolutionized transcript analysis, organellar transcriptomes are rarely assessed even when present in published datasets. Here, we describe the development and application of a rapid and convenient method, ChloroSeq, to delineate qualitative and quantitative features of chloroplast RNA metabolism from strand-specific RNA-Seq datasets, including processing, editing, splicing, and relative transcript abundance. The use of a single experiment to analyze systematically chloroplast transcript maturation and abundance is of particular interest due to frequent pleiotropic effects observed in mutants that affect chloroplast gene expression and/or photosynthesis. To illustrate its utility, ChloroSeq was applied to published RNA-Seq datasets derived from Arabidopsis thaliana grown under control and abiotic stress conditions, where the organellar transcriptome had not been examined. The most appreciable effects were found for heat stress, which induces a global reduction in splicing and editing efficiency, and leads to increased abundance of chloroplast transcripts, including genic, intergenic, and antisense transcripts. Moreover, by concomitantly analyzing nuclear transcripts that encode chloroplast gene expression regulators from the same libraries, we demonstrate the possibility of achieving a holistic understanding of the nucleus-organelle system. ChloroSeq thus represents a unique method for streamlining RNA-Seq data interpretation of the chloroplast transcriptome and its regulators.

  4. Improved synthetic route to quinoxyfen photometabolite 2-chloro-10-fluorochromeno[2,3,4-de]quinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Peter L; Kister, Jeremy; Thornburgh, Scott

    2017-08-01

    Quinoxyfen is a fungicide developed by Dow AgroSciences for the control of powdery mildew. Re-registration studies required gram quantities of 2-chloro-10-fluorochromeno[2,3,4-de]quinoline, a photometabolite of quinoxyfen. The only previous method of preparation of this photometabolite was by photolysis of quinoxyfen in less than 1% yield. Therefore, a new method allowing for the preparation of this photometabolite in gram quantities was required. Several different metal catalyzed intramolecular cyclization approaches were investigated for the synthesis of 2-chloro-10-fluorochromeno[2,3,4-de]quinoline. While most methods failed to provide the desired product from a 2-bromophenyl derivative of quinoxyfen, a novel one-pot two-step synthesis led to the desired material in good yield from quinoxyfen. A short and efficient synthetic route was developed to access 2-chloro-10-fluorochromeno[2,3,4-de]quinoline from readily available (4-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)boronic acid and quinoxyfen and was found to be scalable, which enabled the preparation of the desired photometabolite in gram quantities thus meeting material requirements to complete regulatory studies for the re-registration of quinoxyfen. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of N1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl-N4-substituted semicarbazone derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jawed Ahsan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 16 N1-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl-N4-substituted semicarbazone derivatives were synthesized and subjected to computational pharmacokinetic studies to predict molecular properties. All the title compounds (4a–p followed the Lipinski “Rule of Five”. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses and spectral data and the compounds (4a–p were evaluated for antimicrobial activities. Among them the compound 2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene-N-(3-chloro-4-fluorolphenylhydrazinecarboxamide (4f was found to be the most active compound that showed good antibacterial activity while the compound 2-(4-methoxybenzylidene-N-(3-chloro-4-fluorolphenylhydrazinecarboxamide (4g was moderately active against fungal strains. We have noticed that the compounds, (4f, 4k and 4d bearing OH and NO2 groups on the phenyl ring at position 4 exhibited good antibacterial activity while compound (4g bearing OCH3 on the phenyl ring at position 4 exhibited moderate antifungal activity.

  6. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  7. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion ® . • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion ® . • Nafion ® shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion ® . The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion ® , resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria

  8. Modified nanocrystal cellulose/fluorene-containing sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) composites for proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingcong; Shang, Yabei; Ni, Chuangjiang; Zhang, Hanyu; Li, Xiaobai; Liu, Baijun; Men, Yongfeng; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Highly sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) with sulfonation degrees of 2.34 (SFPEEKK5) and 2.48 (SFPEEKK10) were synthesized through the direct sulfonation of a fluorene-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone) under a relatively mild reaction condition. Using the solution blending method, sulfonated nanocrystal cellulose (sNCC)-enhanced SFPEEKK composites (SFPEEKK/sNCC) were successfully prepared for investigation as proton exchange membranes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that sNCC was uniformly distributed in the composite membranes. The properties of the composite membranes, including thermal stability, mechanical properties, water uptake, swelling ratio, oxidative stability and proton conductivity were thoroughly evaluated. Results indicated that the insertion of sNCC could contribute to water management and improve the mechanical performance of the membranes. Notably, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK5/sNCC-5 was as high as 0.242 S cm-1 at 80 °C. All data proved the potential of SFPEEKK/sNCC composites for proton exchange membranes in medium-temperature fuel cells.

  9. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail: sangeetha@annauniv.edu

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  10. A mild and efficient procedure for the synthesis of ethers from various alkyl halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosstafa Kazemi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, mild and practical procedure has been developed for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers by using DMSO, TBAI in the presence of K2CO3. We extended the utility of Potassium carbonate as an efficient base for the preparation of ethers. A wide range of alkyl aryl and dialkyl ethers are synthezied from treatment of aliphatic alcohols and phenols with various alkyl halides in the prescence of efficient base Potassium carbonate. Secondary alkyl halides were easily converted to corresponding ethers in releatively good yields . This is a mild, simple and practical procedure for the preparation of ethers in high yields and suitable times under mild condition.

  11. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  12. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  13. Biodegradability of fuel-ethers in environment; Biodegradabilite des ethers-carburants dans l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayolle-Guichard, F.

    2005-04-01

    Fuel ethers (methyl tert-butyl ether or MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether or ETBE and tert-amyl methyl ether or TAME have been used as gasoline additives since about twenty years in order to meet the requirements for the octane index and to limit the polluting emission in exhaust pipe gas (unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide). The high water solubility and the poor biodegradability of these compounds make them pollutants frequently encountered in aquifers. The present manuscript summarizes the knowledge concerning the biodegradability of fuel ethers obtained both at IFP and during collaborations with the Pasteur Institute (Paris), the Biotechnology Research Institute (Montreal, Canada) and the Center for Environmental Biotechnology (University of Tennessee, USA). Rhodococcus ruber IFP 2001 and Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012, two microorganisms isolated at IFP for their ability to grow, respectively, on ETBE and MTBE, were studied in order to determine the intermediates produced during MTBE and ETBE biodegradation and the enzymes required for each biodegradation step, thus allowing us to propose MTBE and ETBE catabolic pathways. A proteomic approach, from the protein induced during the degradation of ETBE or MTBE to the genes encoding these different enzymes, was carried out. The isolation of such genes is required:1) to use them for help in determining the bio-remediation capacities in polluted aquifers (DNA micro-arrays), 2) to monitor the microorganisms isolated for their degradative capacities during bio-remediation processes (fluorescent in situ hybridization or FISH) and 3) to create new tools for the detection and the quantification of ETBE or MTBE in contaminated aquifers (bio-sensor). The manuscript also describes the different ways for the adaptation of microorganisms to the presence of a xenobiotic compound. (author)

  14. Degradation of 4-Chloro phenol by gamma radiation of {sup 137}Cs and X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, J. C. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Jimenez B, J.; Cejudo A, J., E-mail: jaime.jimenez@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents results of radiolytic degradation of 4-chloro phenol in the presence of TiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}, using different radiation sources than {sup 60}Co, which is so common in this type of experiment. The radiation sources used were X-rays with energy of 100 keV and radiation from {sup 137}Cs (662 keV). After irradiation with a dose of 50 c Gy X-ray and TiO{sub 2} obtained a degradation of about 5%, no degradation was obtained with {sup 137}Cs source and other oxides. This may be due to the fact that X-rays have a linear energy transfer greater value, and in the case of TiO{sub 2} present a crystalline structure, whereas the other two oxides are amorphous. Both characteristics result in better formation of a reactive species that allows the degradation of the compound. (Author)

  15. Kinetic evaluation of the solvolysis of isobutyl chloro- and chlorothioformate esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hee Choi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The specific rates of solvolysis of isobutyl chloroformate (1 are reported at 40.0 °C and those for isobutyl chlorothioformate (2 are reported at 25.0 °C, in a variety of pure and binary aqueous organic mixtures with wide ranging nucleophilicity and ionizing power. For 1, we also report the first-order rate constants determined at different temperatures in pure ethanol (EtOH, methanol (MeOH, 80% EtOH, and in both 97% and 70% 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE. The enthalpy (ΔH≠ and entropy (ΔS≠ of activation values obtained from Arrhenius plots for 1 in these five solvents are reported. The specific rates of solvolysis were analyzed using the extended Grunwald–Winstein equation. Results obtained from correlation analysis using this linear free energy relationship (LFER reinforce our previous suggestion that side-by-side addition–elimination and ionization mechanisms operate, and the relative importance is dependent on the type of chloro- or chlorothioformate substrate and the solvent.

  16. Spectroscopic investigations of Nd3+ doped flouro- and chloro-borate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Shaweta; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Sharma, Gopi; Gerward, Leif

    2008-10-01

    Spectroscopic and physical properties of Nd3+ doped sodium lead flouro- and chloro-borate glasses of the type 20NaX-30PbO-49.5B2O3-0.5Nd2O3 (X=F and Cl) have been investigated. Optical absorption spectra have been used to determine the Slater Condon (F2, F4, and F6), spin orbit xi4f and Racah parameters (E1, E2, and E3). The oscillator strengths and the intensity parameters Omega2, Omega4 and Omega6 have been determined by the Judd-Ofelt theory, which in turn provide the radiative transition probability (A), total transition probability (A(T)), radiative lifetime (tauR) and branching ratio (beta) for the fluorescent level 4F3/2. The lasing efficiency of the prepared glasses has been characterized by the spectroscopic quality factor (Omega4/Omega6), the value of which is in the range of 0.2-1.5, typical for Nd3+ in different laser hosts. Nephelauxetic effect results in a red shift in the energy levels of Nd3+ for chloroborate glass. The radiative transition probability of the potential lasing transition 4F3/2-->4I11/2 of Nd3+ ions is found to be higher for flouroborate as compared to chloroborate glass.

  17. Removal of 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy acetic acid pesticide using coffee wastes from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Al-Zaben

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the use of coffee waste (CW to remove the 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxy acetic acid (MCPA from aqueous solutions. To prepare CW, it was first washed and boiled to remove color and impurities then it was air dried at room temperature for 48 h. Afterward the particle size distribution and zeta potential of the CW ground were determined. The porous texture of coffee was proved by scanning and transition electron microscopy. Batch adsorption tests were performed at 298 K. The effects of contact time, MCPA concentration, and pH were investigated. It was observed that the adsorption of MCPA by using CW is independent of the solution pH level. The Langmuir isotherm provided the best correlation for MCPA adsorption onto CW, showing that the adsorption was favorable. The Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 0.34 g/g. The second-order model provided the best description of MCPA adsorption onto CW when compared with the first order model. Infrared spectral studies revealed that acidic groups carboxyl and hydroxyl, are predominant contributors to MPCA adsorption by coffee.

  18. Exposure characteristics of positive tone electron beam resist containing p-chloro-α-methylstyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Shunsuke; Takayama, Tomohiro; Kishimura, Yukiko; Asada, Hironori; Sonoda, Manae; Iwakuma, Minako; Hoshino, Ryoichi

    2017-07-01

    The positive tone resist consisted of methyl-α-chloroacrylate (ACM) and α-methylstyrene (MS) has higher sensitivity and higher dry etching resistance than poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) due to the presence of a chlorine atom and a phenyl group. Copolymers consisted of ACM and p-chloro-α-methylstyrene (PCMS), where the additional chlorine atom is introduced in phenyl group compared with ACM-MS resist are synthesized and their exposure characteristics are investigated. ACM-PCMS resist with the ACM:PCMS composition ratio of 49:51 indicates the high solubility for amyl acetate developer. As the ACM composition ratio increases, the solubility of ACM-PCMS resist is suppressed. In both ACM-PCMS and ACM-MS resists, the sensitivity decreases while the contrast increases with increasing ACM ratio. When the composition ratio of ACM:PCMS is 69:31, 100/100 nm line and space pattern having a good shape is obtained at 120 μC/cm2 which is comparable to the required exposure dose for conventional ACM-MS resist with ACM:MS=50:50. Dry etching resistance of ACM:PCMS resists for Ar gas is also presented.

  19. Effect of the modification of a natural mexican zeolite in the sorption of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes M, R.

    2007-01-01

    Clinoptilolite type zeolite is a material of relative abundance in Mexico, which possess ion exchange properties and it can be used in the removal of metal ions from polluted waters. The external surface of zeolites can be modified with cationic surfactants. This modification could have a negative effect on the removal of metal ions and provides to the material the capacity to adsorb phenolic compounds. For this reason, it is important to know the capability of the modified material on the sorption of metal ions and phenolic compounds, simultaneously. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the external surface modification with surfactant of a Mexican zeolite over its sorption capacity of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol, in batch and column systems. To accomplish that, a clinoptilolite type zeolitic rock from a deposit located in the state of Sonora, Mexico, was used. It was ground, sieved and characterized with different techniques; and its external surface area was modified with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br). A grain size fraction was selected to carry out sorption kinetics and equilibrium experiments, as well as packed column tests with zeolitic material and solutions of cadmium and 4-chloro phenol. There are different models proposed in literature that are used to describe sorption kinetics and equilibrium. In this work, the sorption experimental results were adjusted to some of these models to identify controlling mechanisms on the kinetics and equilibrium of the studied systems. The results showed that the cadmium adsorption on natural and modified zeolite was similar in batch systems. For the case of 4-chloro phenol sorption, it was observed that natural zeolite does not retain this compound, while in modified zeolite the sorption is better than other comparable materials. The results also showed that for the case of cadmium sorption, the mechanism involved was ion exchange; while for sorption of 4-chloro phenol, a partition mechanism

  20. Investigation of Volumetric Properties of Some Glycol Ethers Using a Simple Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, M.; Goharshadi, E. K.

    2006-09-01

    In this work, a simple equation of state (EoS) has been used to predict the density and other thermodynamic properties such as the isobaric expansion coefficient, α P , the isothermal compressibility, κ T , and the internal pressure, P i , of six glycol ethers including diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (DEGBE), propylene glycol propyl ether (PGPE), diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME), diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DEGEE), triethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TriEGDME), and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) at different temperatures and pressures. A comparison with literature experimental data has been made. Additionally, statistical parameters between experimental and calculated densities for the GMA EoS and four other EoSs (Soave Redlich Kwong, Peng Robinson, Soave Redlich Kwong with volume translation, and Patel Teja) indicate the superiority of the GMA EoS.

  1. Crown ethers as size-selective synergists in solvent extraction systems: a new selectivity parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; McDowell, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Mixtures of macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) and organic-phase-soluble liquid cation exchangers have been found to produce a synergistic effect in the extraction of metal ions. The synergistic effect is size selective; that is, it tends to be greatest for those ions that best fit the crown ether cavity. The mixtures of a liquid cation exchanger and a crown ether also allow metal ion extraction from common mineral-acid anion systems (NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- ) that would be impossible with the crown ether alone, because of the difficulty of solubilizing those anions in nonpolar solvents. This cooperation makes the use of crown ethers as size-selective coordinators available for process applications. Size selectivity of compounds such as crown ethers may thus become a useful new parameter in designing selective solvent extraction systems. Results are reported for alkali (including Cs) and alkaline earth (including Sr) extraction by HDEHP mixed with various crown ethers. (author)

  2. Biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan by Aspergillus sydoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Supriya; Vig, Komal; Singh, Dileep K

    2009-05-01

    The biodegradation of endosulfan and the metabolites formed were studied using fungi both in broth culture as well as in soil microcosm. Fungal strains were isolated from soil and grown in broth Czapek-dox medium. The strain which utilized endosulfan and showed maximum growth was selected for detailed studies. Maximum degrading capability in shake flask culture was shown by Aspergillus sydoni which degraded 95% of endosulfan alpha and 97% of endosulfan beta in 18 d of incubation. Soil microcosm study was also carried out using this strain in six different treatments. Endosulfan sulfate was the main metabolite formed along with small quantity of endosulfan ether and endosulfan lactone both in broth culture and soil microcosm. This isolated fungal strain will be a potential source for endosulfan degrading enzymes and can be used for bioremediation at the contaminated sites.

  3. A mild and efficient method for the selective deprotection of silyl ethers using KF in the presence of tetraethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hailong; Oh, Joong-Suk; Song, Choong Eui

    2011-12-07

    A mild and efficient protocol for the deprotection of silyl ethers using KF in tetraethylene glycol is reported. A wide range of alcoholic silyl ethers can be selectively cleaved in high yield in the presence of certain acid- and base-labile functional groups. Moreover, the phenolic silyl ethers were cleaved exclusively, without affecting the alcoholic silyl ethers, at room temperature.

  4. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  5. Zinc(II) and chloroindium(III) phthalocyanines bearing ethyl 7-oxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate groups: Synthesis, characterization and investigation of their photophysicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruca, Halid; Köksoy, Baybars; Karapınar, Begümhan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bulut, Mustafa

    In this study, ethyl 7-hydroxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate (1), ethyl 7-(2,3-dicyanophenoxy)-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate (2), ethyl 7-(3,4-dicyanophenoxy)-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate (3), ethyl 4-chloro-5-(7-oxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate)phthalonitrile (4) were synthesized. The phthalonitrile derivatives (2, 3 and 4) were converted to their peripheral tetra, non-peripheral tetra and peripheral chlorocta substituted zinc(II) and chloroindium phthalocyanine derivatives. All novel compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectral data. Additionally, the spectral, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation under light irradiation) properties of the resulting substituted phthalocyaninatozinc(II) and indium(III) chloride complexes (5-10) were investigated in DMF, and the obtained results were compared for determination of the effects of the substituents’ positions and the variety of the central metal atom on these properties. The fluorescence quenching behavior of these phthalocyanines (5-10) were also investigated using 1,4-benzoquinone as a quencher. The obtained ethyl 7-oxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate bearing phthalocyaninatozinc(II) (5, 7 and 9) and indium(III) chloride (6, 8 and 10) complexes showed excellent solubility in most organic solvents. They produced high singlet-oxygen and showed appropriate photodegradation which is very important for photodynamic therapy applications. The novel ethyl 7-oxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate substituted zinc(II) and cloroindium(III) phthalocyanines were synthesized and characterized by using different spectroscopic methods such as 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, mass spectroscopy. The photophysical and photochemical properties as fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence, singlet oxygen and photodegredation quantum yields were

  6. Progress towards the development of a rapid analytical approach for separation of 226Ra using dibenzo-18-crown-6 ether functionalised silica (SiO2) disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, H.; van Es, E. M.; Sainsbury, T.; Ivanov, P.; Russell, B.; Regan, P. H.; Ward, N. I.

    2017-11-01

    A novel dibenzo-18-crown-6 ether (DB-18CE-6)- functionalised silica (SiO2) disk was found to be a capable source preparation technique for the rapid analysis of 226Ra by alpha-spectrometry. DB-18CE-6 was chemically immobilised onto the surface of SiO2 disks. It is anticipated that the high levels of selectivity of DB-18CE-6 for radium will allow for an efficient chemical separation of 226Ra from other elements present in sample matrices. 226Ra was adsorbed as a monolayer onto the surface of the silica disks, attaching to the functionalised centres of the DB-18CE-6 structure, forming a high resolution counting source for alpha-spectrometry. The chemical recovery of radium from synthetic samples was 2.3% at pH 2, with higher recoveries expected over the pH range of 4-10.

  7. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Modification of certain pharmacological effects of ethanol by lipophilic alpha-1 adrenergic agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, M.K.; Dinovo, E.C.; Haddox, V.G.

    1987-09-28

    The influence of four centrally-acting alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonists, namely, 2(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethylphenylimino) imidazolidine (St 587), cirazoline, (-) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-methoxy-5-methylthio-2-naphthalenamine ((-)SKF 89748A) and 2-(2-methylindazol-4-imino)imidazolidine (Sgd 101/75) on the pharmacological effects of ethanol was investigated. All four drugs reduced the duration of ethanol-induced hypnosis in C57B1/6 mice, this effect being proportional to their relative potencies to exert central alpha-1 agonism. In prazosin-pretreated mice, St 587 failed to reduce the hypnotic effect of ethanol, which provided strong evidence for the role of alpha-1 agonism for the hypnosis reducing effect of St 587. Hyperactivity induced in C57B1/6 mice by a subhypnotic dose of ethanol and St 587 was reported earlier. In the present study, St 587, cirazoline and (-)SKF 89748A produced similar response, but no correlation between this effect and ethanol hypnosis blockade could be established. 19 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  9. The alpha effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the recent interest in RAM system reliability stems from concern over alpha particle soft error rates reported for the initial 64 k RAMs. With increasing memory density likely in the next few years the problem of soft errors is rearing its head again. A few years ago ITT carried out experiments on 16k RAMs and found no significant problems. However, recent tests have shown a raise in the number of soft errors with 64k RAMs, and the launch of 256k and 512k memories is likely to make the problem acute

  10. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  11. Sorption-desorption behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara; Vetter, Walter; Chefetz, Benny

    2011-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that are commonly found in commercial and household products. These compounds are considered persistent organic pollutants. In this study, we used 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-15) as a model compound to elucidate the sorption and desorption behavior of PBDEs in soils. The organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient (K(OC)) of BDE-15 was more than three times higher for humin than for bulk soils. However, pronounced desorption hysteresis was obtained mainly for bulk soils. For humin, increasing concentration of sorbed BDE-15 resulted in decreased desorption. Our data illustrate that BDE-15 and probably other PBDEs exhibit high sorption affinity to soils. Moreover, sorption is irreversible and thus PBDEs can potentially accumulate in the topsoil layer. We also suggest that although humin is probably a major sorbent for PBDEs in soils, other humic materials are also responsible for their sequestration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SYNTHESIS OF ALLYL PHENYL ETHER AND CLAISEN REARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Torosyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been established the possibility for phenol allylation on natural zeolites and them analogs. Here is demonstrated the synthesis of allyl phenol, which has wide industrial applications. The offered method in comparison with the traditional methods has more advantages – higher selectivity, smaller material and power resources consumption. It has been obtained the mixture of allylating phenols (30% in general with allyl phenyl ether (1 with 80% yields. At 600 K is obtained allylphenyl ether, at 700 K beginning the formation of allyl phenols, which is the result of direct C-allylation of the aromatic ring. It has been investigated the possibility of Claisen rearrangement in the same conditions. All of that are established by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography data.

  13. Structural Study of Mismatched Disila-Crown Ether Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Reuter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mismatched complexes of the alkali metals cations Li+ and Na+ were synthesized from 1,2-disila[18]crown-6 (1 and 2 and of K+ from 1,2,4,5-tetrasila[18]crown-6 (4. In these alkali metal complexes, not all crown ether O atoms participate in the coordination, which depicts the coordination ability of the C-, Si/C-, and Si-bonded O atoms. Furthermore, the inverse case—the coordination of the large Ba2+ ion by the relatively small ligand 1,2-disila[15]crown-5—was investigated, yielding the dinuclear complex 5. This structure represents a first outlook on sandwich complexes based on hybrid crown ethers.

  14. [Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers - Reproductive and developmental toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starek-Świechowicz, Beata; Starek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively) are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  15. Ether and ester derivatives of the perborate icosahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, M. Frederick; Peymann, Toralf; Maderna, Andreas

    2003-12-16

    New boron icosahedral ethers and esters formed from Cs.sub.2 [closo-B.sub.12 (OH).sub.12 ],; Cs[closo-1-H-1-CB.sub.11 (OH).sub.11 ]; and closo-1,12-H.sub.2 -1,12-C.sub.2 B.sub.10 (OH).sub.10 are disclosed. Also set forth are their preparation by reacting the icosahedral boranes [closo-B.sub.12 H.sub.12 ].sup.2-, [closo-1-CB.sub.11 H.sub.12 ].sup.- and closo-1,12-(CH.sub.2 OH).sub.2 -1,12-C.sub.2 B.sub.10 H.sub.10 with an acid anhdride or acid chloride to form the ester or an alkylating agent to form the ether.

  16. Increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Ali K.; Grace, Iain; Lambert, Colin J.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate strategies for increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones. The novel design feature of these molecules is the presence of either (1) crown-ether or (2) diaza-crown-ether bridges attached to the side of the current-carrying anthraquinone wire. The crown-ether side groups selectively bind alkali-metal cations and when combined with TCNE or TTF dopants, provide a large phase-space for optimising thermoelectric properties. We find that the optimum combination of cations and dopants depends on the temperature range of interest. The thermopowers of both 1 and 2 are negative and at room temperature are optimised by binding with TTF alone, achieving thermpowers of -600 μV K-1 and -285 μV K-1 respectively. At much lower temperatures, which are relevant to cascade coolers, we find that for 1, a combination of TTF and Na+ yields a maximum thermopower of -710 μV K-1 at 70 K, whereas a combination of TTF and Li+ yields a maximum thermopower of -600 μV K-1 at 90 K. For 2, we find that TTF doping yields a maximum thermopower of -800 μV K-1 at 90 K, whereas at 50 K, the largest thermopower (of -600 μV K-1) is obtain by a combination TTF and K+ doping. At room temperature, we obtain power factors of 73 μW m-1 K-2 for 1 (in combination with TTF and Na+) and 90 μW m-1 K-2 for 2 (with TTF). These are higher or comparable with reported power factors of other organic materials.We investigate strategies for increasing the thermopower of crown-ether-bridged anthraquinones. The novel design feature of these molecules is the presence of either (1) crown-ether or (2) diaza-crown-ether bridges attached to the side of the current-carrying anthraquinone wire. The crown-ether side groups selectively bind alkali-metal cations and when combined with TCNE or TTF dopants, provide a large phase-space for optimising thermoelectric properties. We find that the optimum combination of cations and dopants depends on the temperature range of interest. The

  17. Detonation characteristics of dimethyl ether and ethanol-air mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakow, P.; Cross, M.; Ciccarelli, G.

    2015-05-01

    The detonation cell structure in dimethyl ether vapor and ethanol vapor-air mixtures was measured at atmospheric pressure and initial temperatures in the range of 293-373 K. Tests were carried out in a 6.2-m-long, 10-cm inner diameter tube. For more reactive mixtures, a series of orifice plates were used to promote deflagration-to-detonation transition in the first half of the tube. For less reactive mixtures prompt detonation initiation was achieved with an acetylene-oxygen driver. The soot foil technique was used to capture the detonation cell structure. The measured cell size was compared to the calculated one-dimensional detonation reaction zone length. For fuel-rich dimethyl ether mixtures the calculated reaction zone is highlighted by a temperature gradient profile with two maxima, i.e., double heat release. The detonation cell structure was interpreted as having two characteristic sizes over the full range of mixture compositions. For mixtures at the detonation propagation limits the large cellular structure approached a single-head spin, and the smaller cells approached the size of the tube diameter. There is little evidence to support the idea that the two cell sizes observed on the foils are related to the double heat release predicted for the rich mixtures. There was very little influence of initial temperature on the cell size over the temperature range investigated. A double heat release zone was not predicted for ethanol-air detonations. The detonation cell size for stoichiometric ethanol-air was found to be similar to the size of the small cells for dimethyl ether. The measured cell size for ethanol-air did not vary much with composition in the range of 30-40 mm. For mixtures near stoichiometric it was difficult to discern multiple cell sizes. However, near the detonation limits there was strong evidence of a larger cell structure similar to that observed in dimethyl ether air mixtures.

  18. Ring-opening of cyclic ethers by aluminum hydridotriphenylborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debabrata; Osseili, Hassan; Truong, Khai-Nghi; Spaniol, Thomas P; Okuda, Jun

    2017-03-25

    Molecular aluminum hydride [(L)AlH 2 ] (L = Me 3 TACD) reacted with 2 equiv. of BPh 3 in THF or THP to give the cationic alkoxides [(L)Al(OR)][HBPh 3 ] (R = nBu, nPent) by facile ring-opening of the cyclic ethers. The C α -O bond cleavage which involves the isolable intermediate [(L)AlH][HBPh 3 ] is a result of hydride transfer to C α from [HBPh 3 ] - .

  19. Extraction separation of lithium isotopes with crown-ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsivadze, A.Yu.; Demin, S.V.; Levkin, A.V.; Zhilov, V.I.; Nikol'skij, S.F.; Knyazev, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    By the method of extraction chromatography lithium isotope separation coefficients are measured during chemical isotope exchange between lithium aquocomplex and its complex in chloroform with crown-ethers: benzo-15-crown-5, 15crown-5, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 and dibenzo-18-crown-6. Lithium perchlorate and trichloroacetate are the salts extracted. Values of 6 Li/ 7 Li isotope separation are 1.0032-1.020

  20. Photochemical Degradation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Microreactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vajglová, Zuzana; Veselý, M.; Hejda, S.; Vondráčková, Magdalena; Křišťál, Jiří; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Křesinová, Zdena; Tříska, Jan; Klusoň, Petr; Jiřičný, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 12 (2015), s. 9373-9381 ISSN 0922-6168. [Pannonian Symposium on Catalysis /12./. Castle Trest, 16.09.2014-20.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/12/0664; GA ČR GA104/09/0880 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388971 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : polybrominated diphenyl ethers * photochemical microreactor * debromination * photo degradation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2015

  1. Numerical investigation on the effect of injection pressure on the internal flow characteristics for diethyl ether, dimethyl ether and diesel fuel injectors using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar Thulasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The spray characteristics of the diesel fuel are greatly affected by the cavitation formed inside the injector due to the high pressure differential across the nozzle. Many researchers across the globe are exploring the potential of using diethyl ether and dimethyl ether as an alternate for diesel fuel to meet the strict emission norms. Due to the variation in the fuel properties the internal flow characteristics in injectors for ether fuels are expected to be different from that of the diesel fuel. In this paper computational technique is used to study and compare the internal flow characteristics of diethyl ether, dimethyl ether and diesel fuel. The two phase flow model considering the fuel as a mixture of liquid and vapor is adopted for the simulation study. The injection pressure is varied from 100 to 400 bar and the flow characteristics of all three fuels are simulated and compared. Results indicate that all three fuels have distinct cavitating patterns owing to different property values. The dimethyl ether is found to be more cavitating than diesel and diethyl ether fuels as expected. The mass of fuel injected are found to be decreasing for the ether fuels when compared with diesel fuel at all injection pressures.

  2. Diethyl Ether Production Process with Various Catalyst Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widayat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several H-zeolite and HZSM-5 catalysts was preparated and their characters have also been investigated. H-zeolit Catalyst was preparated from Natural Zeolite that obtained from Malang District and Gunung Kidul District. Diethyl ether was produced by Ethanol with concentration of 95%. This research use fixed bed reactor that 1 gram of catalyst as bed catalyst, atmospheric pressure and temperature 140oC as the operating condition. Ethanol vapor from vaporization tank was driven by 200 ml/min Nitrogen stream. The responds in this research is liquid product concentration; diethyl ether, ethanol, methanol and water concentration. The results showed that the largest ethanol conversion was produced by the use of 56.44% HZSM-5 and the largest yield of diethyl ether diethyl was produced by the use of alumina and H-zeolite catalyst. The larger ratio between natural zeolite with HCl solvent will produce the larger surface area of catalyst and ethanol conversion. The largest ethanol conversion was produced at reactan ratio 1:20.

  3. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Hitsman, V.M.

    1991-01-01

    Our research has focused on modeling the constraints on free-radical reactions that might be imposed in coal as a consequence of its cross-linked macromolecular structure by covalently bonding diphenylalkanes to an inert silica surface. A surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether ({approx}PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}POh, or {approx}PPE-3) has been prepared as a model for ether linkages in lignin by the condensation of p-HOPhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh with the surface hydroxyls of a high purity fumed silica. Thermolysis of {approx}PPE-3 at saturation surface coverage at 375{degree}C produces {approx}PhCH = CH{sub 2} and PhOH as the major products which are consistent with the proposed free-radical chain mechanism for the decomposition of fluid-phase phenethyl phenyl ether. However, significant quantities of {approx}PhCH{sub 3} and PhCHO (ca. 18% of the products) are produced indicating the emergence of a new reaction pathway on the surface. The mechanism for the decomposition of {approx}PPE-3 will be discussed in light of this new information. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Isotopic exchange of cyclic ethers with deuterium over metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchet, J.C.; Cornet, D.

    1976-01-01

    The exchange reaction between deuterium and cyclic ethers (oxolane and α-methyl derivatives) has been investigated using rhodium and palladium catalysts. The first hydrogen undergoing exchange has been found to be located on a β-carbon. This fact, and the poisoning of the exchange of cyclopentane in the presence of ether, suggest that the O atom participates in the exchange mechanism of ethers. It appears, however, that the oxygen--metal bonding occurs only during this simple exchange process; simultaneous adsorption of oxygen and a vicinal carbon causes hydrogenolysis of the O--C bond. In each case multiple exchange is important. In the oxolane molecule two sets of exchangeable hydrogens are distinguished according to their reactivities, as could be expected by analogy with cycloalkanes. However, this distinction is not so clear in the exchange patterns of substituted oxolanes, since intermediate maxima are observed in these cases. It is suggested that the conformational properties of the substituted rings cause a constraint in the formation of 3,4-diadsorbed oxolanes. Thus, multiple exchange, based on α,β-process, and epimerization via the ''roll-over'' mechanism occur preferentially in certain parts of the molecules

  5. Alpha activity measurement with lsc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R. I.; Dulama, C. N.; Ciocirlan, C. N.; Toma, A.; Stoica, S. M.; Valeca, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the alpha activity in liquid samples can be measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer without alpha/beta discrimination capability. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performances of the method and to optimize the procedure of the sample preparation. A series of tests was performed to validate the procedure of alpha emitting radionuclides extraction in aqueous samples with Actinide Resin, especially regarding to the contact time required to extract all alpha nuclides. The main conclusions were that a minimum 18 hours stirring time is needed to achieve a percent recovery of the alpha nuclides grater than 90% and that the counting efficiency of alphas measurements with LSC is nearly 100%. (authors)

  6. Synthesis of duloxetine intermediate (S)-3-Chloro-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol with liquid-core immobilized Candida pseudotropicalis 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhimin, Ou; Xingyuan, Sun; Hanbing, Shi; Hongxia, Bi

    2012-12-01

    (S) -3-Chloro-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol was synthesized by the asymmetric reduction of 3-chloro-1-(2-thienyl)propanone with liquid-core immobilized Candida pseudotropicalis 104. The optimum time was 28 h for the re-cultivation of immobilized cells. The optimum film solvent for the liquid-core capsule was 0.3 % chitosan (M (w) 1.0 × 10(5)). Conversion decreased with the increase of the liquid-core capsule diameter and with the addition of more substrates at the same reduction time. The immobilized cells show good reduction ability in a potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.6~7.2). The material outside the spread speed of immobilized cells was not restricted when the shaking speed was higher than 160 r/min. Liquid-core immobilized cells can be reused 11 times. Compared with the batch reduction, the continuous reduction of 3-chloro-1-(2-thienyl)propanone in the membrane reactor with liquid-core immobilized cells as catalyst can relieve the inhibition from a high-concentration substrate. Conversion and enantiometric excess of (S)-3-chloro-1-(2-thienyl)-1-propanol reached 100 % and >99 % in a continuous reduction of 12 g/L 3-chloro-1-(2-thienyl)propanone for 10 days.

  7. Organoselenium group is critical for antioxidant activity of 7-chloro-4-phenylselenyl-quinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ane G; Voss, Guilherme T; de Oliveira, Renata L; Paltian, Jaini J; Duarte, Luis F B; Alves, Diego; Jesse, Cristiano R; Roman, Silvane S; Roehrs, Juliano A; Wilhelm, Ethel A; Luchese, Cristiane

    2018-02-25

    The quinolone compounds have been reported for many biological properties, especially as potent antioxidants. This study investigated the antioxidant effect of 7-chloro-4-phenylselenyl-quinoline (PSQ), a quinolone derivative with organoselenium group, against oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in brains of mice. A second objective was to verify the importance of phenylselenyl group presents at position 4 of the quinoline structure to antioxidant effect of compound. So, it was compared the antioxidant effect of PSQ with a quinoline without organoseleniun group (7-chloroquinoline [QN]). Swiss mice were used and received SNP (0.335 μmol/site, intracerebroventricular) 30 min after treatment with PSQ or QN, at the doses of 50 mg/kg (intragastrically). After 1 h, animals were sacrificed and the brains were removed to biochemistry analysis. Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), protein carbonyl (PC) and non-protein thiol (NPSH) levels, as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST) and δ -aminolevulinic acid (δ-ALA-D) activities were determined. SNP increased TBARS and PC levels, and reduced the enzymatic (CAT and GST activity) and non-enzymatic (NPSH levels) antioxidant defenses and inhibited the δ-ALA-D activity. PSQ avoided the increase in the lipid peroxidation and PC levels, as well as the decrease in the NPSH levels, CAT, GST and δ-ALA-D activities QN partially avoided the increase in lipid peroxidation, but it not protected against alterations induced by SNP. In conclusion, phenylselenyl group present in quinoline structure is critical for antioxidant activity of PSQ. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetic and metabolic disposition of p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorantes, A; Stavchansky, S

    1992-05-01

    The pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile of p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX) was studied in healthy mongrel dogs after intravenous and oral administration of single doses of 200 and 2000 mg of PCMX, respectively. Calculation of pharmacokinetic parameters was based on compartmental and noncompartmental methods. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters of elimination half-life and mean residence time were 1.84 and 1.69 hr, respectively. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state was estimated to be 22.4 liters, and the plasma clearance was 14.6 liters/hr. The bioavailability of PCMX was 21%, indicating low absorption for this drug. PCMX's metabolite data show that a presystemic elimination process (first-pass effect) is also occurring. PCMX plasma concentrations after intravenous administration of 500-, 200-, and 100-mg doses were found to be proportional to the dose given, demonstrating that the pharmacokinetic profile of PCMX is linear over the dose range studied. Biotransformation studies showed that urinary excretion was not the major route for rapid elimination of unchanged PCMX and almost all material excreted in urine was associated with the conjugated species (glucuronides and sulfates). Statistical significant differences were not found (P greater than 0.05) between the percentages excreted in urine of PCMX and its conjugated metabolites after intravenous and oral administration. The percentages excreted in urine after iv and oral doses of unchanged PCMX were, respectively, 0.45 and 0.37; total conjugates, 46.3 and 43.3; sulfates, 38.1 and 33.2; and glucuronides, 8.2 and 10.2.

  9. Structure and absolute configuration of some 5-chloro-2-methoxy-N-phenylbenzamide derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galal, Alaaeldin M. F.; Shalaby, Elsayed M.; Abouelsayed, Ahmed; Ibrahim, Medhat A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad; Hanna, Atef G.

    2018-01-01

    The absolute configuration of 5-chloro-2-methoxy-N-phenylbenzamide single crystal [compound (1)] and the effect of introducing -[CH2]n-, n = 1,2 group adjacent to the amide group [compounds (2) and (3)], were studied. Furthermore, the replacement of the methoxy group with a hydroxy group [compound (4)] was defined. Proton and carbon-13 NMR spectrometer were used to record the structural information of the prepared compounds. X-ray single crystal diffractometer were used to elucidate the 3D structural configurations. Intensity data for the studied compounds were collected at room temperature. The X-ray data prove that compound (1) is almost planar, with maximum r.m.s. deviations of 0.210(3) Å corresponds to C13. This planarity starts to disturb by adding -[CH2]n-, n = 1,2 groups between the NH group and the phenyl ring in compounds (2) and (3), respectively. By replacing the OCH3 group by an OH group in compound (4), the plane of the chlorophenyl moiety is nearly perpendicular to that of the phenyl ring. Such new structural configurations were further illustrated by the infrared, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy measurements in the frequency range 400-4000 cm-1 and 190-1100 nm, respectively. Spectroscopic analyses were verified with the help of molecular modeling using density functional theory. The estimated total dipole moment for the prepared compounds reflects its ability to interact with its surrounding molecules. The higher dipole moment for a given structures is combined with the higher reactivity for potential use in medicinal applications.

  10. Effects of diphenyl and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenides on feeding behavior of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolatto, Cristiani F; Heck, Suélen O; Gai, Bibiana M; Zborowski, Vanessa A; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2015-07-01

    The searching for safe and effective antiobesity drugs has been the subject of intense research. Previous studies have shown several pharmacological applications of organoselenium compounds; however, their possible anorectic-like actions have not been investigated. This study aims to investigate the effects of (PhSe)2 and (p-ClPhSe)2 on feeding behavior of rats and their potential as weight-reducing agents. The effects of intraperitoneal administration of diselenides were investigated through the microstructural pattern of feeding behavior, behavioral satiety sequence (BSS), hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT) uptake, body weight, and epididymal fat content of male rats. Our findings demonstrated that food intake of fasted rats was reduced by both diselenides (1 and 10 mg/kg). Diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] (1 mg/kg) and p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide [(p-ClPhSe)2] (10 mg/kg) decreased the frequency, mean duration, and mean size of meals compared with the control treatment. The BSS structure was preserved when organoselenium compounds (1 mg/kg) were administered, and it was associated to a displacement to the left when the resting period started indicating a satiating action. Inhibition of 5-HT uptake in the hypothalamus (∼20 %) was also found in rats treated with low doses of (PhSe)2 and (p-ClPhSe)2 (1 mg/kg). Treatments with a high dose of both diselenides (10 mg/kg) carried out for 7 days induced weight loss and epididymal fat reduction in sated rats. This study suggests that diselenides caused a satiating action in rats that could be partially explained by the inhibition of hypothalamic 5-HT uptake. These organoselenium compounds were potential weight-reducing agents when repeatedly administered.

  11. Microwave spectra of 2-phenylethyl methyl ether and 2-phenylethyl methyl ether-argon: Conformation-dependent tunneling and complexation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusinghe, Ranil M.; Tubergen, Michael J.

    2018-04-01

    High-resolution rotational spectra were recorded for 2-phenylethyl methyl ether and the 2-phenylethyl methyl ether - argon complex using a cavity-based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. The spectra were assigned to the aao and g-ao monomer conformations and the g-ao - argon complex. Small tunneling splittings arising from more than one internal motion were resolved for eight transitions of the aao conformer; no tunneling splittings were observed in the spectra of the g-ao conformer or the argon complex. The calculated barriers (ωB97XD/6-311++G(d,p)) for methyl and phenyl internal rotations were found to be very similar for both conformers. The observation of tunneling splittings is limited to the aao conformer by relatively large barriers for the internal motions and sensitivity to the rotor axis angles within the two conformers.

  12. Preparation of poly(ether ether ketone)-based polymer electrolytes for fuel cell membranes using grafting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Shin; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Yasunari

    2008-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) was successfully prepared by radiation grafting of a styrene monomer into PEEK films and the consequent selective sulfonation of the grafting chains in the film state. Using milder sulfonation, the sulfonation reactions proceeded at the grafted chains in preference to the phenylene rings of PEEK main chains; as a result, the grafted films could successfully transform to a PEM with conductivity of more than 0.1 S/cm. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and conductivity of the grafted PEEK electrolyte membranes were controlled to the ranges of 1.2-2.9 mmol/g and 0.03-0.18 S/cm by changing the grafting degree. It should be noted that this is the first example of directly transforming super-engineering plastic films into a PEM using radiation grafting

  13. Preparation and characterization of poly (methyl methacrylate) and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) blend ultrafiltration membranes for protein separation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthanareeswaran, G.; Thanikaivelan, P.; Raajenthiren, M.

    2009-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly (methyl methacrylate)/sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) blend membranes were prepared by phase inversion technique in various composition using N,N'-dimethylformamide as solvent. The prepared membranes were characterized in terms of pure water flux, water content, porosity and thermal stability. The addition of SPEEK to the casting solution resulted in membranes with high pure water flux, water content, porosity and slightly low thermal stability. The cross sectional views of the blend membranes under electron microscope confirm the porosity and water flux results. The effect of the addition of SPEEK into the PMMA matrix on the extent of bovine serum albumin (BSA) separation was studied. It was found that the permeate flux increased significantly while the rejection of BSA from aqueous solution reduced moderately during ultrafiltration (UF) process. The effect was attributed to the increase in porosity and charge of the membrane due to the addition of SPEEK into the PMMA blend solution

  14. Pressure and temperature dependence of excess enthalpies of methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether and methanol + polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.R.; Coxam, J.Y.; Fernandez, J.; Grolier, J.P.E.

    1999-12-01

    The excess molar enthalpies at 323.15 K, 373.15 K, and 423.15 K, at 8 MPa, are reported for the binary mixtures methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and methanol + poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME 250). Excess molar enthalpies were determined with a Setaram C-80 calorimeter equipped with a flow mixing cell. For both systems, the excess enthalpies are positive over the whole composition range, increasing with temperature. The H{sup E}(x) curves are slightly asymmetrical, and their maxima are skewed toward the methanol-rich region. The excess enthalpies slightly change with the pressure, the sign of this change being composition-dependent. In the case of mixtures with TEGDME, the experimental H{sup E} values have been compared with those predicted with the Gmehling et al. version of UNIFAC (Dortmund) and the Nitta-Chao and DISQUAC group contribution models.

  15. A new catalyst layer based on in situ pore generation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wan-Keun; Sung, Kyung A; Oh, Keun-Hwan; Choo, Min-Ju; Park, Jung-Ki [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and WCU Energy Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea); Cho, Kuk Young [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 303-717 (Korea); Cho, Ki-Yun [Fuel Cell Vehicle Team, Hyundai Motor Company and Kia Motors Corp., 104, Mabuk-Dong, Giheung-Gu, Yongin-Si, Gyunggi-Do 446-912 (Korea)

    2009-08-15

    A new concept of in situ pore generation to reduce water flooding in cathode catalyst layer (CCL) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is proposed with the introduction of water soluble poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a porogen to CCL based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK). In this new type of CCL, PEG is directly removed by water produced during the cathode reaction. The new CCL exhibited much higher cell performance especially in mass transport limitation region compared to the pristine sPEEK-CCL. In addition, the presence of PEG in the new CCL lowered the glass transition temperature of the sPEEK binder, and it could improve the transference of catalyst layer onto the polymer electrolyte membrane. (author)

  16. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells; Membranas de poli (eter eter cetona) sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D., E-mail: jacquecosta@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hui, Wang S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Vivianna S. de [Escola Tecnica Rezende-Rammel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  17. Poly(mono/diethylene glycol n-tetradecyl ether vinyl ethers with Various Molecular Weights as Phase Change Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfang Pei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, research on the relationship of comb-like polymer phase change material structures and their heat storage performance is scarce. Therefore, this relationship from both micro and macro perspectives will be studied in this paper. In order to achieve a high phase change enthalpy, ethylene glycol segments were introduced between the vinyl and the alkyl side chains. A series of poly(mono/diethylene glycol n-tetradecyl ether vinyl ethers (PC14EnVEs (n = 1, 2 with various molecular weights were polymerized by living cationic polymerization. The results of PC14E1VE and PC14E2VE showed that the minimum number of carbon atoms required for side-chain crystallization were 7.7 and 7.2, which were lower than that reported in the literature. The phase change enthalpy 89 J/g (for poly(mono ethylene glycol n-tetradecyl ether vinyl ethers and 86 J/g (for poly(hexadecyl acrylate were approximately equal. With the increase of molecular weight, the melting temperature, the melting enthalpy, and the initial thermal decomposition temperature of PC14E1VE changed from 27.0 to 28.0 °C, from 95 to 89 J/g, and from 264 to 287 °C, respectively. When the number average molar mass of PC14EnVEs exceeded 20,000, the enthalpy values remained basically unchanged. The introduction of the ethylene glycol chain was conducive to the crystallization of alkyl side chains.

  18. 12alpha-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one: a new bioactive steroid from Toona ciliata (Meliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, R; Rashid, R B; Sohrab, M H; Hasan, C M

    2003-04-01

    In a bioassay guided phytochemical investigation of Toona ciliata (Fam. Meliaceae), a new hydroxy steroidal ketone, 12alpha-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one (1) was isolated from the petroleum ether extract of the plant together with two known steroids and three C-methyl coumarins. The structure of 1 was established by means of spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 was found cytotoxic in a brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 of 9.9 microg/ml and it also showed significant antitumor activity with Ti50 value of 14.1 microg/ml in a potato disc bioassay.

  19. Densely quaternized poly(arylene ether)s with distinct phase separation for highly anion-conductive membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanfang; Wang, Bingxi; Li, Xiao; Chen, Dongyang; Zhang, Weiying

    2018-05-01

    To develop high performance anion exchange membranes (AEMs), a novel bisphenol monomer bearing eight benzylmethyl groups at the outer edge of the molecule was synthesized, which after condensation polymerization with various amounts of 4,4‧-dihydroxydiphenylsulfone and 4,4‧-difluorobenzophenone yielded novel poly(arylene ether)s with densely located benzylmethyl groups. These benzylmethyl groups were then converted to quaternary ammonium groups by radical-initiated bromination and quaternization in tandem, leading to the emergence of densely quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s (QA-PAEs) with controlled ion exchange capacities (IECs) ranging from 1.61 to 2.32 mmol g-1. Both small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed distinct phase separation in the QA-PAEs. The QA-PAE-40 with an IEC of 2.32 mmol g-1 exhibited a Br- conductivity of 9.2 mS cm-1 and a SO42- conductivity of 14.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature, much higher than those of a control membrane with a similar IEC but without obvious phase separation. Therefore, phase separation of AEMs was validated to be advantageous for the efficient conducting of anions. The experimental results also showed that the QA-PAEs were promising AEM materials, especially for non-alkaline applications.

  20. Molecular characterization of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R

    1991-02-01

    Three 'alpha 1-adrenoceptors' and three 'alpha 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.

  1. The breakdown of vinyl ethers as a two-center synchronous reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokidova, T. S.; Shestakov, A. F.

    2009-11-01

    The experimental data on the molecular decomposition of vinyl ethers of various structures to alkanes and the corresponding aldehydes or ketones in the gas phase were analyzed using the method of intersecting parabolas. The enthalpies and kinetic parameters of decomposition were calculated for 17 reactions. The breakdown of ethers is a two-center concerted reaction characterized by a very high classical potential barrier to the thermally neutral reaction (180-190 kJ/mol). The kinetic parameters (activation energies and rate constants) of back reactions of the formation of vinyl ethers in the addition of aldehydes or ketones to alkanes were calculated using the method of intersecting parabolas. The factors that influenced the activation energy of the decomposition and formation of ethers were discussed. Quantum-chemical calculations of several vinyl ether decomposition reactions were performed. Ether formation reactions were compared with the formation of unsaturated alcohols as competitive reactions, which can occur in the interaction of carbonyl compounds with alkenes.

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Coumarine Derivatives Synthesized from 4-Chloro-chromen-2-one. The Comparison with Standard Drug.

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Behrami

    2014-01-01

    This work reports the synthesis of some new derivatives from 4-Chloro-chromen-2-one and describe the results of antibacterial activity of purified compounds. Compounds 4-Butylamino-chromen-2-one (1a) , 4-Butylamino-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-sulfonyl chloride (2a) , 4-Butylamino-2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-sulfonic acid (2-hydroxy-phenyl)-amide (3a), 4-Butylamino-5-ethyl-2-oxo-7-(N'-phenyl-hydrazino)-2H-chromene-3-sulfonic acid (2-hydroxy-phenyl)-amide (4a) , have been synthesized and characterized using me...

  3. Bis[5-chloro-2-(phenyldiazenyl-κN2pyridine-κN]bis(thiocyanato-κNiron(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luksamee Vittaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Fe(NCS2(C11H8ClN32], the FeII atom is coordinated by two N atoms from the thiocyanate ligands and four N atoms from two chelating 5-chloro-2-(phenyldiazenylpyridine ligands, generating a fairly regular FeN6 octahedral coordination geometry. The thiocyanate ions are in a cis disposition and the pyridine N atoms are in a trans orientation. In the crystal, a short intermolecular Cl...S contact [3.366 (3 Å] is observed.

  4. Hybrid Molecules Containing a 7-Chloro-4-aminoquinoline Nucleus and a Substituted 2-Pyrazoline with Antiproliferative and Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Montoya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four new hybrid analogues (15–38 containing 7-chloro-4-aminoquinoline and 2-pyrazoline N-heterocyclic fragments were synthesized. Twelve of the new compounds were evaluated against 58 human cancer cell lines by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI. Compounds 25, 30, 31, 36, and 37 showed significant cytostatic activity, with the most outstanding GI50 values ranging from 0.05 to 0.95 µM. The hybrid compounds (15–38 were also evaluated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. From the obtained results some structure–activity relationships were outlined.

  5. Some Anilides of 2-Alkylthio- and 2-Chloro-6-Alkylthio-4-Pyridinecarboxylic Acids: Synthesis and Photosynthesis-Inhibiting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Macháček

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds containing a -CONH- group display photosynthesis inhibiting activity. Based on this structural feature, a group of anilides of 2-alkylthio-(1b-4f or 2-chloro-6-alkylthio-4-pyridinecarboxylic acids (5a-6c was synthesised. The prepared compounds were tested for their inhibition of the oxygen evolution rate (OER in spinach chloroplasts. A quasi-parabolic dependence between photosynthesis-inhibiting activity and the lipophilicity of the compounds was determined for 1b-4f as well as for 5a-6c. The inhibitory activity of compounds 1b-4f was higher than that of 5a-6c for comparable lipophilicity values.

  6. Visible properties of Sm{sup 3+} ions in chloro-fluoro-borate glasses for reddish - orange emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. Venkata, E-mail: drvenkataraok@gmail.com [Department of Physics, S.B.V.R. Degree College, Badvel - 516227, A.P. (India); Babu, S.; Ratnakaram, Y. C. [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati- 517502 (India); Rao, B. Venkata [Department of Physics, Loyola Degree College, Pulivendula- 516390, A.P. (India)

    2016-05-23

    Optical properties of different concentration (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 mol %) of Sm{sup 3+} doped chloro-fluoro-borate glasses have been synthesized and discussed. Structural characterizations have been studied through XRD analysis. Spectroscopic analysis has done from absorption spectra, luminescence spectra and decay lifetime profiles. From the emission spectra, concentration quenching is observed, with increase of samarium concentration and discussed behind the phenomena. The nature of decay curve analysis was performed for the {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} level. These glasses are expected to give interesting application in the field of optics.

  7. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in alpha-TEA mediated TRAIL/DR5 death receptor dependent apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Tiwary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-TEA (RRR-alpha-tocopherol ether-linked acetic acid analog, a derivative of RRR-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E exhibits anticancer actions in vitro and in vivo in variety of cancer types. The objective of this study was to obtain additional insights into the mechanisms involved in alpha-TEA induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.alpha-TEA induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress as indicated by increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP as well as by enhanced expression or activation of specific markers of ER stress such as glucose regulated protein (GRP78, phosphorylated alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (peIF-2alpha, and spliced XBP-1 mRNA. Knockdown studies using siRNAs to TRAIL, DR5, JNK and CHOP as well as chemical inhibitors of ER stress and caspase-8 showed that: i alpha-TEA activation of DR5/caspase-8 induces an ER stress mediated JNK/CHOP/DR5 positive amplification loop; ii alpha-TEA downregulation of c-FLIP (L protein levels is mediated by JNK/CHOP/DR5 loop via a JNK dependent Itch E3 ligase ubiquitination that further serves to enhance the JNK/CHOP/DR5 amplification loop by preventing c-FLIP's inhibition of caspase-8; and (iii alpha-TEA downregulation of Bcl-2 is mediated by the ER stress dependent JNK/CHOP/DR5 signaling.Taken together, ER stress plays an important role in alpha-TEA induced apoptosis by enhancing DR5/caspase-8 pro-apoptotic signaling and suppressing anti-apoptotic factors c-FLIP and Bcl-2 via ER stress mediated JNK/CHOP/DR5/caspase-8 signaling.

  8. Alpha wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouvenot, P.

    2000-01-01

    Alter 2004, the alpha wastes issued from the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique installations will be sent to the CEDRA plant. The aims of this installation are decontamination and wastes storage. Because of recent environmental regulations concerning ozone layer depletion, the use of CFC 113 in the decontamination unit, as previously planned, is impossible. Two alternatives processes are studied: the AVD process and an aqueous process including surfactants. Best formulations for both processes are defined issuing degreasing kinetics. It is observed that a good degreasing efficiency is linked to a good decontamination efficiency. Best results are obtained with the aqueous process. Furthermore, from the point of view of an existing waste treatment unit, the aqueous process turns out to be more suitable than the AVD process. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 721.1729 - Boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether. 721.1729 Section 721.1729 Protection... acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol mono Me ether... identified as boric acid (H3BO3), mixed esters with polyethylene glycol mono-Bu ether and polyethylene glycol...

  10. Gold-catalyzed alkylation of silyl enol ethers with ortho-alkynylbenzoic acid esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Yamamoto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Unprecedented alkylation of silyl enol ethers has been developed by the use of ortho-alkynylbenzoic acid alkyl esters as alkylating agents in the presence of a gold catalyst. The reaction probably proceeds through the gold-induced in situ construction of leaving groups and subsequent nucleophilic attack on the silyl enol ethers. The generated leaving compound abstracts a proton to regenerate the silyl enol ether structure.

  11. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  12. Integrated catalytic and electrocatalytic conversion of substituted phenols and diaryl ethers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Chia, Shao H.; Sanyal, Udishnu; Gutierrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-10-17

    Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and catalytic thermal hydrogenation of substituted phenols and diaryl ethers were studied on carbon-supported Rh. For electrocatalytic and catalytic thermal hydrogen addition reactions, the dominant reaction pathway is hydrogenation to cyclic alcohols and cycloalkyl ethers. The presence of substituting methyl or methoxy groups led to lower rates compared to unsubstituted phenol or diphenyl ether. Methoxy or benzyloxy groups, however, undergo C-O bond cleavage via hydrogenolysis and hydrolysis (minor pathway).

  13. Mind Your p's and Alphas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    In the educational research literature alpha, the a priori level of significance, and p, the a posteriori probability of obtaining a test statistic of at least a certain value when the null hypothesis is true, are often confused. Explanations for this confusion are offered. Paradoxically, alpha retains a prominent place in textbook discussions of…

  14. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  15. Effective Biotransformation of Ethyl 4-Chloro-3-Oxobutanoate into Ethyl (S)-4-Chloro-3-Hydroxybutanoate by Recombinant E. coli CCZU-T15 Whole Cells in [ChCl][Gly]-Water Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yong; Huan, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Sheng; He, Yu-Cai

    2017-04-01

    To increase the biocatalytic activity of Escherichia coli CCZU-T15 whole cells, choline chloride/glycerol ([ChCl][Gly]) was firstly used as biocompatible solvent for the effective biotransformation of ethyl 4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (COBE) into ethyl (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate [(S)-CHBE]. Furthermore, L-glutamine (150 mM) was added into [ChCl][Gly]-water ([ChCl][Gly] 12.5 vol%, pH 6.5) media instead of NAD + for increasing the biocatalytic efficiency. To further improve the biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (>99 % e.e.) by E. coli CCZU-T15 whole cells, Tween-80 (7.5 mM) was also added into this reaction media, and (S)-CHBE (>9 % e.e.) could be effectively synthesized from 2000 and 3000 mM COBE in the yields of 100 and 93.0 % by whole cells of recombinant E. coli CCZU-T15, respectively. TEM image indicated that the cell membrane was permeabilized and lost its integrity and when the cell was exposed to [ChCl][Gly]-water media with Tween-80. Clearly, this bioprocess has high potential for the effective biosynthesis of (S)-CHBE (>99 % e.e.).

  16. Yield and composition of grape seed oils extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide and petroleum ether: varietal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Thomas H J; Girard, Benoit; Kopp, Thomas; Drover, John C G

    2005-03-09

    Grape seed has a well-known potential for production of oil as a byproduct of winemaking and is currently produced as a specialty oil byproduct of wine manufacture. Seed oils from eight varieties of grapes crushed for wine production in British Columbia were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCE) and petroleum ether (PE). Oil yields by SCE ranged from 5.85 +/- 0.33 to 13.6 +/- 0.46% (w/w), whereas PE yields ranged from 6.64 +/- 0.16 to 11.17 +/- 0.05% (+/- is standard deviation). The oils contained alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tocopherols and alpha- and gamma-tocotrienols, with gamma-tocotrienol being most important quantitatively. In both SCE- and PE-extracted oils, phytosterols were a prominent feature of the unsaponifiable fraction, with beta-sitosterol quantitatively most important with both extractants. Total phytosterol extraction was higher with SCE than with PE in seven of eight variety extractions. Fatty acid composition of oils from all varieties tested, and from both extraction methods, indicated linoleic acid as the major component ranging from 67.56 to 73.23% of the fatty acids present, in agreement with literature reports.

  17. Polyaza crown ether as non-nucleosidic building blocks in DNA-conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Rohr, Katja; Madsen, Rasmus K

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of amphiphilic polyaza crown ether monomers X (palmityl-substituted), Y (cholesteryl-substituted) and Z (dipalmityl-subtituted) and their incorporation into oligonucleotides are described. Their effects on thermal duplex stability were investigated by UV melting curve analysis....... Thermal denaturation experiments showed remarkable stabilization of dsDNA by polyaza crown ether monomers when incorporated in opposite positions. The series of polyaza crown ether monomers (X, Y, and Z) with different lipophilicity showed a trend of increased stability of the corresponding ds......DNA with increasing lipophilicity of the polyaza crown ether monomer....

  18. Selective catalytic dehydration of furfuryl alcohol to 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether using a polyoxometalate catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaoxiang; Hao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jialin; Wang, Hao; Zheng, Yimeng; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Sun, Baoguo

    2017-10-11

    The spice flavour compound 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether (DFE) is widely utilised in the food industry as it has a coffee-like, nutty, earthy, mushroom-like odour. However, despite intensive research efforts, to date, an environmentally friendly and practical synthetic preparation technique for 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether is still unavailable. Here, we investigate a new approach using polyoxometalate catalysts to selectively catalytically dehydrate furfuryl alcohol to 2, 2'-difurfuryl ether. We have successfully applied this methodology using the polyoxometalate (POMs) catalyst {[(CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ) 4 N] 2 [SMo 12 O 40 ]} to produce 2,2'-difurfuryl ether in a 30.86% isolated yield.

  19. Synthesis of Poly(vinyl ether) Thermoplastic Elastomers Having Functional Soft Segments

    OpenAIRE

    今枝, 嗣人; 漆崎, 美智遠; 阪口, 壽一; 橋本, 保; Tsuguto, IMAEDA; Michio, URUSHISAKI; Toshikazu, SAKAGUCHI; Tamotsu, HASHIMOTO

    2013-01-01

    The ABA-type triblock copolymers consisting of poly(2-adarnantyl vinyl ether) [poly(2-AdVE) as outer hard segments and poly(6-acetoxyhexyl vinyl ether) [poly(AcHVE)] poly(6-hydroxyhexyl vinyl ether) [poly(H HVE)], or poly(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl vinyl ether [poly(MOEOVE)] as inner soft segments were synthesized by sequential living cationic polymerization. Despite the presence of polar functional groups such as ester, hydroxy, and oxyethylene units in their soft segments, the two polymer seg...

  20. AIRBORNE POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN A COMPUTER CLASSROOM OF COLLEGE IN TAIWAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Chang ، C. R. Yang ، C. Y. Tsai ، W. C. Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study characterized the airborne exposure of students to thirty polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners inside and outside a computer classroom in a southern Taiwan college. Arithmetic mean values of total indoor and outdoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were 125.0 pg/m3 (89.8 to 203.9 pg/m3 and 110.3 pg/m3 (83.5 to 157.0 pg/m3, respectively. Total indoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were one order of magnitude lower than those detected in homes in Birmingham, United Kingdom and in Ottawa, Canada but were several times higher than those measured in the ambient air in Ottawa, Canada and from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic. The five highest indoor concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners were decabromodiphenyl ether (23.0 pg/m3, 4,4’-dibromodiphenyl ether (15.9 pg/m3, 2,2’,3,4,4’,5,5’,6-octabromodiphenyl ether (10.6 pg/m3, 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether (10.3 pg/m3 and 2,2’,3,4,4’,5’,6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (10.0 pg/m3. Although indoor and outdoor total polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations did not significantly differ, the indoor concentrations of 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,4,4’-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 2,3’,4’,6-tetrabromodiphenyl ether were significantly higher than their outdoor concentrations. This study suggests the following measures: 1 to increase the air exchange rate and open classroom doors and windows for several minutes before classes to reduce indoor PBDE concentrations; 2 to reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions from new devices, it’s better to use computer-related products that meet the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive adopted by the European Union.

  1. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous a-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase...... inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases...... in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological...

  2. A general three-step one-pot synthesis of novel (E)-6-chloro-2-(aryl/hetarylvinyl)quinoline-3-carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Yang; Zou, Hongtao

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a facile and general three-step one-pot synthesis of structurally new (E)-6-chloro-2-(aryl/hetarylvinyl)quinoline-3-carboxylic acid derivatives has been achieved from easily available ethyl 6-chloro-2-(chloromethyl) quinoline-3-carboxylate and aromatic or heteroaromatic aldehydes. This strategy features simple one-pot operation, tolerance of a wide range of substituents, and good yields. Moreover, these newly synthesized compounds belong to a new class of quinoline derivatives and could be good candidates for the development of more complex quinoline compounds for use in medicinal chemistry.

  3. Biotransformation of trans-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tobias; Bertermann, Rüdiger; Rusch, George M; Tveit, Ann; Dekant, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    trans-1-Chloro-3,3,3-trifluoropropene (trans-HCFO-1233zd) is a novel foam blowing and precision cleaning agent with a very low impact for global warming and ozone depletion. trans-HCFO-1233zd also has a low potential for toxicity in rodents and is negative in genotoxicity testing. The biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd and kinetics of metabolite excretion with urine were assessed in vitro and in animals after inhalation exposures. For in vitro characterization, liver microsomes from rats, rabbits and humans were incubated with trans-HCFO-1233zd. Male Sprague Dawley rats and female New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 2,000, 5,000 and 10,000ppm for 6h and urine was collected for 48h after the end of the exposure. Study specimens were analyzed for metabolites using (19)F NMR, LC-MS/MS and GC/MS. S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-glutathione was identified as predominant metabolite of trans-HCFO-1233zd in all microsomal incubation experiments in the presence of glutathione. Products of the oxidative biotransformation of trans-HCFO-1233zd were only minor metabolites when glutathione was present. In rats, both 3,3,3-trifluorolactic acid and N-acetyl-(3,3,3-trifluoro-trans-propenyl)-l-cysteine were observed as major urinary metabolites. 3,3,3-Trifluorolactic acid was not detected in the urine of rabbits. Quantitation showed rapid excretion of both metabolites in both species (t1/2trans-HCFO-1233zd was determined as approximately 0.01% of received dose in rabbits and approximately 0.002% in rats. trans-HCFO-1233zd undergoes both oxidative biotransformation and glutathione conjugation at very low rates. The low extent of biotransformation and the rapid excretion of metabolites formed are consistent with the very low potential for toxicity of trans-HCFO-1233zd in mammals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of (R)-Ethyl-4-Chloro-3-Hydroxybutanoate Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOL151W Reductase Immobilized onto Magnetic Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2015-11-01

    For the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, chiral alcohols are useful intermediates. Among them, (R)-ethyl-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((R)-ECHB) is an important building block for the synthesis of L-carnitine. (R)-ECHB is produced from ethyl-4-chloro-3-oxobutanoate (ECOB) by a reductase-mediated, enantioselective reduction reaction. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YOL151W reductase that is expressed in Escherichia coli cells exhibited an enantioselective reduction reaction toward ECOB. By virtue of the C-terminal His-tag, the YOL151W reductase was purified from the cell-free extract using Ni(2+)-NTA column chromatography and immobilized onto Ni(2+)-magnetic microparticles. The physical properties of the immobilized reductase (Imm-Red) were measured using electron microscopy, a magnetic property measurement system, and a zeta potential system; the average size of the particles was approximately 1 μm and the saturated magnetic value was 31.76 emu/g. A neodymium magnet was used to recover the immobilized enzyme within 2 min. The Imm-Red showed an optimum temperature at 45°C and an optimum pH at 6.0. In addition, Bacillus megaterium glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was produced in the E. coli cells and was used in the coupling reaction to regenerate the NADPH cofactor. The reduction/oxidation coupling reaction composed of the Imm-Red and GDH converted 20 mM ECOB exclusively into (R)- ECHB with an e.e.p value of 98%.

  5. Reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide and 2-methyl-N-phenylaziridine with lithium aluminium hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Ostergaard, Lars Frøsig; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Hammerum, Steen

    2008-05-21

    The reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide with LiAlH(4) has been re-examined. In contrast to previous findings, we obtain in almost equal quantities two amines from this reaction, namely N-propylaniline and the rearranged product N-isopropylaniline. 2-Methyl-N-phenylaziridine is an intermediate in the reduction and can be isolated from reactions with less LiAlH(4). Reduction of 2-methyl-N-phenylaziridine itself proceeds non-regioselectively to provide a mixture of propyl- and isopropylanilines. Formation of the amines by reduction of the aziridine is much slower than formation by reduction of the 2-chloropropanamide, which indicates that Lewis acid catalysis (by aluminium chlorohydrides) facilitates the reduction of the aziridine. In addition, Lewis acid catalysis increases the relative yield of the propylamine product. The reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide furnishes 2-phenylamino-1-propanol as a by-product, rather than the previously proposed 1-phenylamino-2-propanol.

  6. Synthesis and Physico-Chemical Properties of Zinc Layered Hydroxide-4-Chloro-2-Methylphenoxy Acetic Acid (ZMCPA) Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, N. M.; Mohsin, SM N.; Sarijo, S. H.; Ghazali, S. A. I. S. M.

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid nanocomposite zinc layered hydroxide-4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (ZMCPA) was successfully synthesized via direct reaction of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) with zinc oxide (ZnO) under an aqueous environment. The pure phase and well-ordered ZMCPA was obtained when ZMCPA was synthesized at 0.3 M MCPA. The resulting nanocomposite, ZMCPA was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), fourier transform infrared(FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analyses (TGA/DTG) and CHNS Analyzer. Basal spacing showed that the gallery height of zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) expanded from 11.Å to 24.1 Å, indicating that the MCPA anions were successfully intercalated into the interlayer space of ZLH. The FTIR spectrum of the ZMCPA shows it resembles the spectra of ZnO and MCPA that confirms the intercalation of MCPA between the ZLH sheets. FESEM shows the ZnO precursor has granular structure and transformed into a flake-like structure when the nanohybrid is formed. Percentage loading of MCPA interleaved in the nanohybrid is 50.2%.

  7. Crystal structure of Boc-(S)-ABOC-(S)-Ala-(S)-ABOC-(S)-Phe-OBn chloro-form monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Emmanuel; Moulat, Laure; Legrand, Baptiste; Amblard, Muriel; Calmès, Monique; Didierjean, Claude

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, phenyl (S)-2-[(S)-(1-{2-[(S)-(1-{[(tert-but-oxy)carbon-yl]amino}-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-2-yl)formamido]-propanamido}-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-2-yl)formamido]-3-phenyl-propano-ate chloro-form monosolvate, C42H56N4O7·CHCl3, the α,β-hybrid peptide contains two non-proteinogenic amino acid residues of (S)-1-amino-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-2-carb-oxy-lic acid [(S)-ABOC], two amino acid residues of (S)-2-amino-propanoic acid [(S)-Ala] and (S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-propanoic acid [(S)-Phe], and protecting groups of tert-but-oxy-carbonyl (Boc) and benzyl ester (OBn). The tetra-mer folds into a right-handed mixed 11/9 helix stabilized by intra-molecular i,i + 3 and i,i - 1 C=O⋯H-N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, the oligomers are linked by N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The chloro-form solvent mol-ecules are inter-calated between the folded chains via C-H⋯O=C inter-actions.

  8. Radiochemical determination of 210Pb using crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Bodizs, D.; Vodicska, M.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma spectrometric determination of 210 Pb following chemical separation has been performed very precisely and with high sensitivity, due to the low and constant self-absorption of the chemically pure sample. A simple and quick method for the chemical separation of lead using crown ether has been developed. Its four steps are described in detail. The new method was verified using phosphate ore and gypsum samples that were measured in an interlaboratory comparison and with a standard reference material. This method can also be used for self-absorption correction in direct gamma spectrometry of 210 Pb. (N.T.) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Lanthanide crown ether complexes of p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgarno, Scott J; Hardie, Michaele J; Warren, John E; Raston, Colin L

    2004-08-21

    Two types of arrays are formed in water involving aza-crown ethers, p-sulfonatocalix[5]arene and europium(III) ions. One is a co-ordination polymer connecting calixarenes, sodium ions and lanthanide ions based on "ferris wheel" moieties incorporating aza-18-crown-6 and sodium ions. The second structure is a host-guest arrangement with di-protonated diaza-18-crown-6 in the cavity of the calixarenes as part of secondary coordination spheres of aquated europium(iii) ions.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the soil of typical industrial city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K; Fu, S; Yang, Z Z; Xu, X B

    2009-12-01

    Linfen is generally recognized as one of the most polluted industrial cities in China. Indeed, Linfen is affected by heavy polluting industries and faces pollution by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). For this study, ten surface soil samples covering all of Linfen were collected and analyzed for 42 BDE congeners. The total PBDEs concentration ranged from 0.064 to 136.1 ng g−1. Moreover, source analysis indicated that PBDEs may be associated with the prevalent use of Deca-BDE in the industrial area of the city. Furthermore, higher levels of PBDE contamination were observed in south Linfen due to the distribution of industrial plants.

  11. Performance of long straw tubes using dimethyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Gianotti, P.; Giardoni, M.; Guaraldo, C.; Lanaro, A.; Lucherini, V.; Mecozzi, A.; Passamonti, L.; Russo, V.; Sarwar, S.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical tracking detector with an inner radius of one meter employing straw tubes is being envisaged for the FINUDA experiment aimed at hyper-nuclear physics at DAΦNE, the Frascati φ-factory. A prototype using several 10 mm and 20 mm diameter, two meter long aluminized mylar straws has been assembled and tested with a one GeV/c pion beam. While operating with dimethyl ether, gas gain, space resolution, and device systematics have been studied. A simple method of correction for systematics due to straw eccentricity has been developed and, once applied, a space resolution better than 40 μm can be reached. (orig.)

  12. Chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high-temperature high-performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles) were investigated. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of aromatic bis(imidazolephenols) with activated aromatic difluoro compounds. The amorphous thermoplastic polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures from 230 to 301 C, inherent viscosities from 0.46 to 1.46 dL/g, and number-average molecular weights as high as 59,300 g/mole. The polymers exhibit good toughness, adhesive, composite, and film properties. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of these materials are discussed.

  13. Novel 1,3-alternate calix[4]thiacrown ethers

    CERN Document Server

    Sim, W B; Kwon, J C; Kim, J S; Kim, M J

    2002-01-01

    A series of novel 1,3-alternate calix[4]-mono-thiacrown and -bis-thiacrowns were synthesized within good yields. The three dimensional 1,3-alternate conformation was confirmed by X-ray crystal structure. From the results of two phase extraction and NMR studies on the ligand-metal complex, one can conclude that the calix[4]thiacrown ethers showed the very high selectivity for silver ion over other metal ions by an electrostatic interaction between sulfur atom and silver ion and by a pi-metal complexation.

  14. Total syntheses of naturally occurring diacetylenic spiroacetal enol ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Naoki; Aburano, Daisuke; Mukai, Chisato

    2005-07-22

    A highly stereoselective method for constructing a (2E)-methoxymethylidene-1,6-dioxaspiro[4.5]decane skeleton has been developed on the basis of the palladium(II)-catalyzed ring-closing reaction of the 3,4-dioxygenated-9-hydroxy-1-nonyn-5-one derivatives as a crucial step. The newly developed procedures could be successfully applied to the first total synthesis of five diacetylenic spiroacetal enol ether natural products starting from commercially available (R,R)- or (S,S)-diethyl tartrate.

  15. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli

    2015-02-17

    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  16. Direct dimethyl ether high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng

    A high temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer fuel cell was fed with dimethyl ether (DME) and water vapour mixture on the anode at ambient pressure with air as oxidant. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was achieved at 200°C. A conventional polymer based direct DME fuel cell is liquid fed...... and suffers from low DME solubility in water. When the DME - water mixture is fed as vapour miscibility is no longer a problem. The increased temperature is more beneficial for the kinetics of the direct oxidation of DME than of methanol. The Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) with DME operation was 50 to 100 m...

  17. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  18. Isolation of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids as COX-1 and -2 inhibitors in rose hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, A K; Petersen, K N; Thomasen, G; Christensen, S Brøgger

    2008-07-01

    Rose hip has previously shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and organic solvent extracts of rose hip have showed inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. A petroleum ether extract of rose hip was fractioned by VLC on silica; on a C-18 column and by HPLC. Each step was COX-1/2 activity-guided. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of linoleic acid (the IC50 for COX-1 was 85 microm and 0.6 microM for COX-2) and alpha-linolenic acid (the IC50 for COX-1 was 52 microM and 12 microM for COX-2). The COX-2/COX-1 ratio was 0.007 for linoleic acid and 0.2 for alpha-linolenic acid. Linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid contribute to the COX-1 and -2 inhibitory activity of rose hip.

  19. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  20. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disorder associated with the development of liver and lung disease. AAT is a 52-kD glycoprotein, produced mainly by hepatocytes and secreted into the blood. Agglomeration of the AAT-protein in hepatocytes can result in liver disease. Exposure to smoke is the major risk factor for the development of lung disease characterised as early chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Diagnosis is based on the analysis of the AAT genotype and phenotype. The measurement of the AAT serum level is useful as screening test. Liver biopsy is not necessary to establish the diagnosis. Therapy for AAT-related liver disease is supportive, a specific therapy is not available. AATD is a rare condition (1:5000-10000) and, as a consequence, data and information on diagnosis and treatment are not easily accessible. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview on AATD, covering basic biology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and emerging halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in human hair and nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Salamova, Amina; He, Ka; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-08-07

    A method for the digestion, extraction, fractionation, and analysis of three classes of flame retardants, including 36 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 9 halogenated alternative flame retardants (AFRs), and 12 organophosphate esters (OPEs) in human hair and nail samples was developed. The method employed HNO3/H2O2 digestion, liquid-liquid extraction with (4:1 vol) hexane:dichloromethane, fractionation on a 6g column of 2.5% water deactivated Florisil, and analysis by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. The accuracy and precision of the method was validated using spiked samples of 6 replicates for both hair and nail samples. The method validation results showed good accuracy and precision for all PBDEs except BDE-209, all AFRs except hexabromobenzene (HBB), and all of the 12 OPEs, with average recovery efficiencies>90% and relative standard deviations (RSDs)<10%. The average recovery efficiencies for HBB were between 60% and 86%, with RSDs<10%. BDE-209 had recovery efficiencies of 64% (RSD, 13%) for hair and 71% (RSD, 10%) for nail. This method was applied to analyze 5 human hair and 5 fingernail samples from the general student population at Indiana University Bloomington campus. BDE-47 and BDE-99 were the predominant PBDEs detected in both hair and nail samples, with a concentration range of 11-620 and 4.6-780ng/g (dry weight) in hair and 7.3-43 and 2.1-11ng/g in nails, respectively. Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) were detected in all the samples, with concentrations of 20-240 and 11-350ng/g in hair and <17-80 and <9.2-71ng/g in nails, respectively. Among the 12 OPEs analyzed, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were most often detected. The concentrations of these OPEs (summed together) were 1100-3900 and 380-18,000ng/g in hair and nails, respectively. These levels

  2. Measurement of $\\alpha_{s}$ with Radiative Hadronic Events

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, R J; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, M; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, F; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, D; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krasznahorkays, A Jr; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, H; Lanske, D; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schiecks, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, J; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2008-01-01

    Hadronic final states with a hard isolated photon are studied using data taken at centre-of-mass energies around the mass of the Z0 boson with the OPAL detector at LEP. The strong coupling alpha S is extracted by comparing data and QCD predictions for event shape observables at average reduced centre-of-mass energies ranging from 24 GeV to 78 GeV, and the energy dependence of alpha S is studied. Our results are consistent with the running of alpha S as predicted by QCD and show that within the uncertainties of our analysis event shapes in hadronic Z0 decays with hard and isolated photon radiation can be described by QCD at reduced centre-of-mass energies. Combining all values from different event shape observables and energies gives alpha S (Mz)=0.1182 pm 0.0015(stat.) pm 0.0101(syst.).

  3. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Beelen, A.; Henkel, C.; Cen, R.; De Breuck, C.; Francis, P.; Kovacs, A.; Lagache, G.; Lehnert, M.; Mao, M.; Menten, K. M.; Norris, R.; Omont, A.; Tatemastu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the rad...

  4. Alpha heating in toroidal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ignition (or near-ignition) by alpha heating is a key objective for the achievement of economic fusion reactors. While good confinement of high-energy alphas appears possible in larger reactors, near-term tokamak-type ignition experiments as well as some concepts for small reactors (e.g., the Field-Reversed Mirror or FRM) potentially face marginal situations. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to develop methods to evaluate alpha losses and heating profiles in some detail. Such studies for a TFTR-size tokamak and for a small FRM are described here.

  5. Sorption-desorption behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Vetter, Walter [Institute of Food Chemistry (170b), University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Chefetz, Benny, E-mail: chefetz@agri.huji.ac.il [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)

    2011-10-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that are commonly found in commercial and household products. These compounds are considered persistent organic pollutants. In this study, we used 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-15) as a model compound to elucidate the sorption and desorption behavior of PBDEs in soils. The organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub OC}) of BDE-15 was more than three times higher for humin than for bulk soils. However, pronounced desorption hysteresis was obtained mainly for bulk soils. For humin, increasing concentration of sorbed BDE-15 resulted in decreased desorption. Our data illustrate that BDE-15 and probably other PBDEs exhibit high sorption affinity to soils. Moreover, sorption is irreversible and thus PBDEs can potentially accumulate in the topsoil layer. We also suggest that although humin is probably a major sorbent for PBDEs in soils, other humic materials are also responsible for their sequestration. - Highlights: > BDE-15 exhibited pronounced desorption hysteresis. > BDE-15 sowed higher sorption affinity to humin as compared to the bulk soils. > Sequestration of PBDEs depends on soil organic matter constitutes other than humin. - Pronounced desorption hysteresis was observed for BDE-15 in natural soils.

  6. Entropy Generation Minimization in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián César

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization is a method that helps improve the efficiency of real processes and devices. In this article, we study the entropy production (due to chemical reactions, heat exchange and friction) in a conventional reactor that synthesizes dimethyl ether and minimize it by modifying different operating variables of the reactor, such as composition, temperature and pressure, while aiming at a fixed production of dimethyl ether. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce the entropy production rate by nearly 70 % and that, by changing only the inlet composition, it is possible to cut it by nearly 40 %, though this comes at the expense of greater dissipation due to heat transfer. We also study the alternative of coupling the reactor with another, where dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane takes place. In that case, entropy generation can be reduced by 54 %, when pressure, temperature and inlet molar flows are varied. These examples show that entropy generation analysis can be a valuable tool in engineering design and applications aiming at process intensification and efficient operation of plant equipment.

  7. Synthesis of hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Brajendra K; Adhvaryu, A; Erhan, S Z

    2006-12-27

    Bio-based additives are desirable commodities due to their eco-friendly nature. These additives can demonstrate physical and chemical properties comparable to those of conventional mineral oil-based products. Sulfur incorporated triacylglycerol can function as an antiwear/antifriction additive for lubricants. The synthesis of four useful hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oils, from commercially available epoxidized soybean oil and common organic thiols, is reported in this paper. The common thiols used herein were 1-butanethiol, 1-decanethiol, 1-octadecanethiol, and cyclohexyl mercaptan. Currently, there is no reported literature describing the synthesis of hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil. The reaction was monitored, and products were confirmed by NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. Experimental conditions involving various thiols, solvent, catalyst amount, time, and temperature were optimized for research quantity and laboratory scale-up. The synthetic process retains the vegetable oil structure, eliminates polyunsaturation in the molecule, and adds polar functional groups on triacylglycerol. These products can be used as agriculturally-based antiwear additives for lubricant applications.

  8. Novel Ordered Crown Ether-Containing Polyimides for Ion Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Jennifer A.; Stasko, Daniel; Fallis, Stephen; Guenthner, Andrew J.; Webber, Cynthia; Blackwell, John; Chvalun, Sergei N.

    2003-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of thermally-stable polyimides for use as battery and fuel cell electrolyte membranes. Dianhydrides used were 1,4,5,8- naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride and/or 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride. Diamines used were anti-4,4-diaminodibenzo-l8-crown-6, 4,4'- diaminodibenzo-24-crown-8, 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, and/or 2,5- diaminobenzenesulfonic acid. The polymers were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. Polymers containing the hexafluoroisopropylidene (HFIP) group were soluble in common organic solvents, while polymers without the HFIP group were very poorly soluble. Sulfonation yields polymers that are sparingly soluble in aqueous base and/or methanol. Degree of sulfonation, determined by titration, was between one and three sulfonate groups per repeat unit. Proton conductivity was determined as a function of water content, with a maximum conductivity of l x 10(exp -2) per centimeter when fully hydrated. Crown ether-containing polymers exhibit a high degree of order that may be indicative of crown ether channel formation, which may facilitate Li(+) transport for use in battery membranes.

  9. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Spann, J W; LeCaptain, L J; Bunck, C M; Rattner, B A

    1991-11-01

    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crown-rump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radius-ulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crown-rump, humerus, radius-ulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofen-treated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDH-L in the 250-mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50- and 250-mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  10. Crystal structure and thermal property of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jie-yun; Tang, Xiao-fen; Li, Wei; Shi, Hai-feng; Zhang, Xing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The crystal structure of C18En for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. ► Polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether crystallizes perfectly. ► The number of repeat units has significant effect on the melting, crystallizing temperature and enthalpy. ► The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat unit. - Abstract: The crystal structure, phase change property and thermal stable temperature (T d ) of polyethylene glycol octadecyl ether [HO(CH 2 CH 2 O) n C 18 H 37 , C18En] with various numbers of repeat units (n = 2, 10, 20 and 100) as phase change materials (PCMs) were investigated using temperature variable Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). C18En crystallizes perfectly at 0 °C; and the crystal structure for n ≥ 20 is a monoclinic system. The number of repeat units has great effect on the phase change properties of C18En. The thermal stable temperature increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. They approach to that of PEG-2000 as the number of repeat units is more than 10. T d increases rapidly with increasing the number of repeat units. C18En are a series of promising polymeric PCMs

  11. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffieux, A.; Young, J.A.; Hsieh, W.C.; Squire, D.R.; Stannett, V.

    1983-01-01

    The influences of the polymerization media, the monomer and solvent concentrations and the temperature on the radiation-induced polymerization of isopropyl vinyl ether (IPVE) have been studied in detail under super-dry conditions. Rates of polymerization were measured and estimates of the rate constants of polymerization were calculated according to the simplified Hayashi-Williams equation. A comparison of the results with those previously reported for ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) is made. The much higher reactivity of IPVC in low polar solvents is interpreted by a drastic reduction of the polymer intramolecular solvation of the growing chain ends. This is ascribed to the bulkiness of the isopropyl side-chain groups. The radiation-induced polymerization of IPVE in bulk and in various solvents with different physical and solvating properties was studied. This was to obtain further information on the kinetics and the mechanisms involved with this monomer and also the role of the polymerization media. The influence of the monomer and solvent concentrations and of the polymerization temperature on the rate of polymerization have also been investigated. (author)

  12. Determination of Icing Inhibitors (Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether) in Ground Water by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Sang; Jung, Dong Gyun [Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    A gas chromatography/mass spectrometric assay method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of icing inhibitors, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether in ground water contaminated with JP-8. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether were used as the internal standard and surrogate, respectively. 100 mL of ground water was extracted twice with 20 mL of methylene chloride. The extract was concentrated to dryness, dissolved with 100 μL of methanol and analyzed by GC-MS (SIM). The use of an Innowax column gave the peaks good chromatographic properties, and the extraction of these compounds from samples gave recoveries of about 50% with small variations. The method detection limits of the target compounds were in a range of 0.5-0.8 ng/mL in ground water.

  13. Novel sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with pendant benzimidazole groups as a proton exchange membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yang; Shao, Ke; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Li, Hongtao; Fu, Tiezhu; Na, Hui [Alan G MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Qianjin Street 2699, Changchun 130012, Jilin (China)

    2009-10-20

    A series of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s bearing pendant carboxylic acid groups (C-SPEEKs) have been prepared and subsequently react with 1,2-diaminobenzene to obtain sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)s with pendant benzimidazole groups (BI-SPEEKs). The expected structures of the sulfonated copolymers are confirmed by {sup 1}H NMR. The resulting copolymers all show good thermal and mechanical properties. It should be noted that the introduction of benzimidazole groups into the copolymer improves its thermal and oxidative stability obviously. Meanwhile, compared to C-SPEEK, BI-SPEEK membranes show much lower water uptake and methanol permeability with the same sulfonation degree (DS). In order to study morphological changes of C-SPEEK and BI-SPEEK membranes, hydrophilic domains sizes from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) are investigated. (author)

  14. Biodegradation of alpha and beta endosulfan in broth medium and soil microcosm by bacterial strain Bordetella sp. B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Supriya; Singh, Dileep K

    2009-04-01

    Bacterial strains were isolated from endosulfan treated soil to study the microbial degradation of this pesticide in broth medium and soil microcosm. The isolates were grown in minimal medium and screened for endosulfan degradation. The strain, which utilized endosulfan and showed maximum growth, was selected for detail studies. Maximum degrading capability in shake flask culture was shown by Bordetella sp. B9 which degraded 80% of alpha endosulfan and 86% of beta endosulfan in 18 days. Soil microcosm study was also carried out using this strain in six different treatments. Endosulfan ether and endosulfan lactone were the main metabolites in broth culture, while in soil microcosm endosulfan sulfate was also found along with endosulfan ether and endosulfan lactone. This bacterial strain has a potential to be used for bioremediation of the contaminated sites.

  15. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ether, and ethylene oxide. 721.7000 Section 721.7000 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ethylene oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  16. Synthesis of Novel Bibrachial Lariat Ethers (BiBLEs) Containing [1,2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A practical and regioselective method for the synthesis of cis-diastereomers of bibrachial lariat ethers (BiBLEs) bearing ester and amide groups is reported. The novel bibrachial lariat ethers (BiBLEs) 3a–d with neutral side chains were prepared by reaction of the corresponding aza-crown macrocycles 1a–b with ethyl ...

  17. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Wachem, Pauline B.; van Luyn, Marja J.A.; Hendriks, Marc; Cahalan, Patrick T.; Feijen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE. Linearization of the

  18. The kinetics of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether crosslinking of dermal sheep collagen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, R; Dijkstra, PJ; van Wachem, PB; van Luyn, MJA; Hendriks, M; Cahalan, PT; Feijen, J

    2000-01-01

    Dermal sheep collagen was crosslinked with 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE) or modified with glycidyl isopropyl ether (PGE). The reduction in amine groups as a function of time was followed to study the overall reaction kinetics of collagen with either BDDGE or PGE;. Linearization of the

  19. The antifungal activity of methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    extracts from the leaves of Leonotis nepetafolia showed that they contain quinones, saponosides, flavonoids and tannins. The high amount of quinones was remarked in both methanol and ether extracts while saponins were more well extracted by methanol compared to ether. Tannins and flavonoids found in methanol ...

  20. Aspects of reaction of N-oxide radical with ethers in 13C NMR spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodziejski, W.

    1980-01-01

    The stable radical N-oxide 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine was dissolved in ethers. The 13 C NMR spectra were recorded in the temperature 313K at the frequency 22,625 MHz on the spectrometers with Fourier transformation. The dissolution of the radical in ether caused the contact shifts in NMR spectra. The shifts were measured. (A.S.)

  1. Ether-Directed ortho-C–H Olefination with a PdII/MPAA Catalyst**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Leow, Dasheng; Wan, Li; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Weak coordination is powerful! A PdII-catalyzed olefination of ortho-C–H bonds of arenes directed by weakly coordinating ethers is developed using mono-protected amino acid (MPAA) ligands. This finding provides a method for chemically modifying ethers, which are abundant in natural products and drug molecules. PMID:23239120

  2. Direct dimethyl ether fueling of a high temperature polymer fuel cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vassiliev, Anton; Olsen, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Direct dimethyl ether (DME) fuel cells suffer from poor DME–water miscibility and so far peak powers of only 20–40 mW cm−2 have been reported. Based on available literature on solubility of dimethyl ether (DME) in water at ambient pressure it was estimated that the maximum concentration of DME at...

  3. IRON(III) NITRATE-CATALYZED FACILE SYNTHESIS OF DIPHENYLMETHYL (DPM) ETHERS FROM ALCOHOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diphenyl methyl (DPM) ethers constitute important structural portion of some pharmaceutical entities and also as protective group for hydroxyl groups in synthetic chemistry. DPM ethers are normally prepared using concentrated acids or base as catalysts, which may result in the fo...

  4. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Allyl and benzyl groups are commonly employed for the protection of alcohol and phenol moieties for ease of synthesis and convenient deprotection. Allyl and benzyl ethers are also intermediates in sigmatropic rearrangement reactions such as the Claisen and the. Cope rearrangements. Allyl ethers can be prepared from ...

  5. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, E.J.; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal

  6. Synthesis of Novel Bibrachial Lariat Ethers (BiBLEs) Containing [1,2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Salt formation was allowed to proceed at room temperature for 10 min and ethyl chloroacetate or chloro- acetamide (1.1 mmol) was added and the solution stirred for 5 h at room temperature. After the completion of the reaction, the solvent was removed under vacuum and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was ...

  7. Reduced muscle strength in ether lipid-deficient mice is accompanied by altered development and function of the neuromuscular junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorninger, Fabian; Herbst, Ruth; Kravic, Bojana; Camurdanoglu, Bahar Z.; Macinkovic, Igor; Zeitler, Gerhard; Forss-Petter, Sonja; Strack, Siegfried; Khan, Muzamil Majid; Waterham, Hans R.; Rudolf, Rüdiger; Hashemolhosseini, Said; Berger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Inherited deficiency in ether lipids, a subgroup of phospholipids whose biosynthesis needs peroxisomes, causes the fatal human disorder rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata. The exact roles of ether lipids in the mammalian organism and, therefore, the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease are

  8. Neurotoxicological and thyroid evaluations of rats developmentally exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDICPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate(TCEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDICPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate (TCEP) are organophosphorous flame retardants with widespread usage and human exposures through food, inhalation, and dust ingestion. They have been detected in human tissues including ur...

  9. Reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide and 2-methyl-N-phenylaziridine with lithium aluminium hydride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Mie Højer; Østergaard, Lars Frøsig; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2008-01-01

    -chloropropanamide, which indicates that Lewis acid catalysis (by aluminium chlorohydrides) facilitates the reduction of the aziridine. In addition, Lewis acid catalysis increases the relative yield of the propylamine product. The reduction of 2-chloro-N-phenylpropanamide furnishes 2-phenylamino-1-propanol as a by......-product, rather than the previously proposed 1-phenylamino-2-propanol....

  10. Thermodynamic study of solubility for 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine in twelve organic solvents at temperatures from 273.15 K to 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Ganbing; Xia, Zhanxiang; Li, Zhihui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 2-Amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine solubility in twelve solvents were determined. • The solubility were correlated with four models. • The mixing properties were derived. - Abstract: The solubility of 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine in methanol, ethanol, chloroform, toluene, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, n-propanol, acetone, N,N-dimethylformamide, isopropanol, 1,4-dioxane and ethyl benzene was obtained experimentally using the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis at temperatures ranging from (273.15 to 323.15) K under atmospheric pressure. The solubility of 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine in a fixed solvent increased with an increase in temperature. At a certain temperature, the mole fraction solubility in different solvents decreased according to the following order: N,N-dimethylformamide > dioxane > acetone > ethyl acetate > chloroform > (acetonitrile, n-propanol) > (ethanol, isopropanol) > methanol > toluene > ethyl benzene. Four models, modified Apelblat equation, λh equation, Wilson model and NRTL model were applied to correlate of the experimental solubility results. The largest values of relative average deviation and root-mean-square deviation acquired by the four models are 1.21% and 10.71 × 10 −4 , respectively. The modified Apelblat model is regarded as the best one for describing the experimental values. Furthermore, the mixing Gibbs energy, mixing enthalpy, and mixing entropy, activity coefficient and reduced excess enthalpy at infinitesimal concentration were obtained based on the mole fraction solubility. The mixing process of 2-amino-4-chloro-6-methoxypyrimidine in the selected solvents is discussed.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS AND TOXICITY OF THE DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT 3-CHLORO-4(DICHLOROMETHYL)-5-HYDROXY-2[5H]-FURANONE (MX) TO MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The compound 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone, also known as MX, is a by-product of wood pulp manufacture and a contaminant of chlorinated drinking and sewage water. MX has recently been shown to be carcinogenic to rodents. However, no data exist for its effec...

  12. Bioactivation mechanism of the cytotoxic and nephrotoxic S-conjugate S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, W; Lash, L H; Anders, M W

    1987-11-01

    The bioactivation of S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine (CTFC) was studied with purified bovine kidney cysteine conjugate beta-lyase and with N-dodecylpyridoxal bromide in cetyltrimethylammonium bromide micelles as a pyridoxal model system. The beta-lyase and the pyridoxal model system converted CTFC to chlorofluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride, which were identified by 19F NMR spectrometry. 2-Chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethanethiol and chlorofluorothionoacetyl fluoride were formed as metabolites of CTFC and were trapped with benzyl bromide and diethylamine, respectively, to yield benzyl 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl sulfide and N,N-diethyl chlorofluorothioacetamide, which were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The bioactivation mechanism of CTFC therefore involves the initial formation of the unstable thiol 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethanethiol, which loses hydrogen fluoride to form the acylating agent chlorofluorothionoacetyl fluoride; hydrolysis of the thionoacyl fluoride affords the stable, terminal metabolites chlorofluoroacetic acid and inorganic fluoride. The intermediate acylating agent and chlorofluoroacetic acid may contribute to the cytotoxic effects of CTFC.

  13. Iodine catalyzed one-pot synthesis of chloro-substituted linear and angular indoloquinolines and in vitro antiproliferative activity study of different indoloquinolines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvatkar, P.T.; Ajay, A.K.; Bhat, M.K.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Tilve, S.G.

    -substituted 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline 3c to be the most active and the parent 6H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline 3a to be the least active, while the other compounds including the different chloro derivatives exhibited only intermediate activity....

  14. 4-(1-Aryl-5-chloro-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-indol-3-ylideneamino-N-substituted benzene sulfonamides: Synthesis, antimicrobial, anticancer evaluation and QSAR studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Kumar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A series of 4-(1-aryl-5-chloro-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-indol-3-ylideneamino-N-substituted benzenesulfonamide derivatives (1–20 was synthesized and evaluated for its in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Antimicrobial results indicated that compounds N-(4-(1-benzoyl-5-chloro-2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino phenylsulfonyl-4-isopropoxy benzamide (9 and N-(4-(5-chloro-1-(2-chlorobenzoyl-2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino phenylsulfonyl-4-isopropoxybenzamide (19 were found to be the most effective ones. The anticancer results indicated that almost all the synthesized compounds were more active than the standard drug carboplatin but less active than the standard drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU against both the cell lines (HCT116 and RAW 264.7. 4-(1-Benzoyl-5-chloro-2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino-N-(pyrimidin-2-yl benzenesulfonamide (3 was found to be most potent and exhibited selectivity toward HCT 116. QSAR studies indicated that antimicrobial activity of isatin derivatives against different microbial strains was governed by lipophilic parameter, log P and topological parameters valance zero and third order molecular connectivity indices (0χv and 3χv.

  15. 8-Chloro-dGTP, a hypochlorous acid-modified nucleotide, is hydrolyzed by hMTH1, the human MutT homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Katsuyoshi; Yakushiji, Hiroyuki; Nakabeppu, Yusaku; Suzuki, Toshinori; Masuda, Mitsuharu; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hiroshi

    2002-02-13

    The human mutT homolog, hMTH1, suppresses spontaneous mutations by degrading the endogeneous mutagen, 8-hydroxy-dGTP. We previously reported the broad substrate specificity of hMTH1, which also degrades the oxidatively damaged purine nucleotides, 2-hydroxy-dATP, 8-hydroxy-dATP, 2-hydroxy-ATP, and 8-hydroxy-GTP, in addition to 8-hydroxy-dGTP. In this paper, we describe the hMTH1 activity for 8-chloro-dGTP, which could be formed in inflamed tissue by the reaction of dGTP with hypochlorous acid, a product of myeloperoxidase from activated human neutrophils. The hMTH1 protein was mixed with 1-20 microM of 8-chloro-dGTP and 8-hydroxy-dGTP, and the reaction products were quantified by anion-exchange HPLC to measure the pyrophosphatase reaction rate. The kinetic parameters revealed that 8-chloro-dGTP was degraded by hMTH1 with 50% efficiency as compared with that of 8-hydroxy-dGTP. This result suggests that 8-chloro-dGTP is an intrinsic substrate for hMTH1.

  16. Oil recovery with sulfomethylated poly (lower alkyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1973-05-22

    Lower alkyl vinyl ether e.g., methyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, isopropyl vinyl ether, hexyl vinyl ether, is copolymerized conventionally with maleic anhydride, the resulting copolymer is treated with ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to form the partial amide-ammonium salt, and this salt is in turn treated with formaldehyde and thereafter or simultaneously with ammonium or alkali metal salt sulfite (including bisulfites, etc.) to form an at least partially sulfomethylated copolymer. Aqueous solutions of the sulfomethylated copolymer are useful in increasing the viscosity of drive fluids used in the supplemented recovery of petroleum from subterranean formations. In general, enhancing the polyionic character of mobility control agents used in supplemented recovery of petroleum provides enhanced recovery. Achieving this enhancement of polyionic character through use of sulfonate groups provides a mobility control agent with good ability to sustain viscosity in the presence of brine and lime, usually present in the connate waters of petroleum-bearing formations. (7 claims)

  17. Degradation of Perfluorinated Ether Lubricants on Pure Aluminum Surfaces: Semiempirical Quantum Chemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Scott M.; Ewing, David W.; Zehe, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    The AM1 semiempirical quantum chemical method was used to model the interaction of perfluoroethers with aluminum surfaces. Perfluorodimethoxymethane and perfluorodimethyl ether were studied interacting with aluminum surfaces, which were modeled by a five-atom cluster and a nine-atom cluster. Interactions were studied for edge (high index) sites and top (low index) sites of the clusters. Both dissociative binding and nondissociative binding were found, with dissociative binding being stronger. The two different ethers bound and dissociated on the clusters in different ways: perfluorodimethoxymethane through its oxygen atoms, but perfluorodimethyl ether through its fluorine atoms. The acetal linkage of perfluorodimeth-oxymethane was the key structural feature of this molecule in its binding and dissociation on the aluminum surface models. The high-index sites of the clusters caused the dissociation of both ethers. These results are consistent with the experimental observation that perfluorinated ethers decompose in contact with sputtered aluminum surfaces.

  18. Williamson alkylation approach to the synthesis of poly(alkyl vinyl ether) copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, D.; Christova, D.; Velichkova, R.

    2008-01-01

    A method for synthesis of poly(alkyl vinyl ether-co-vinyl alcohol) copolymers was developed based on the Williamson's alkylation of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) with alkyl iodides. The influence of the alkylating agent and the reaction conditions on the efficiency of the modification reaction was investigated. The copolymers obtained were characterized by means of 1 H NMR and GPC. It was proved that by applying the proposed method copolymers of different composition and properties containing methyl vinyl ether, ethyl vinyl ether as well as n-butyl vinyl ether units could be prepared. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-vinyl alcohol)s of high degree of methylation exhibit sharp temperature response at 38-39 deg C in aqueous solution typical of the so-called smart polymers. (authors)

  19. Halogen derivatives of benzo- and dibenzocrown ethers: synthesis, structure, properties and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluzhnik-Gladyr, S M

    2016-01-01

    Methods of synthesis of halogenated benzo- and dibenzocrown ether derivatives are surveyed: halogenation of benzo- and dibenzocrown ethers with molecular halogens, N-halosuccinimides in the solid phase and different media (water, ethanol, halohydrocarbons) and hypohalites in water, as well as the 'assembly' method. Reactions of these compounds are considered: synthesis of phosphorus-containing crown ethers, organometallic synthesis, the Heck and Sonogashira reactions, synthesis of acetylene derivatives and other reactions. Special attention is focused on the complexing properties of halogenated benzocrown ethers with respect to ionic guests and neutral organic molecules. The possibility of synthesis of complexes of such compounds in the solid phase is demonstrated. The extraction and sorption properties of halogenated benzo- and dibenzocrown ethers are considered. Examples of practical use of these compounds are presented. The bibliography includes 203 references

  20. Anaerobic degradation of glycol ether-ethanol mixtures using EGSB and hybrid reactors: Performance comparison and ether cleavage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, P; San-Valero, P; Gabaldón, C; Martínez-Soria, V; Penya-Roja, J M

    2018-05-01

    The anaerobic biodegradation of ethanol-glycol ether mixtures as 1-ethoxy-2-propanol (E2P) and 1-methoxy-2-propanol (M2P), widely used in printing facilities, was investigated by means of two laboratory-scale anaerobic bioreactors at 25 o C: an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor and an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR), which incorporated a packed bed to improve biomass retention. Despite AHR showed almost half of solid leakages compared to EGSB, both reactors obtained practically the same performance for the operating conditions studied with global removal efficiencies (REs) higher than 92% for organic loading rates (OLRs) as high as 54 kg of chemical oxygen demand (COD) m -3 d -1 (REs of 70% and 100% for OLRs of 10.6 and 8.3 kg COD m -3 d -1 for E2P and M2P, respectively). Identified byproducts allowed clarifying the anaerobic degradation pathways of these glycol ethers. Thus, this study shows that anaerobic scrubber can be a feasible treatment for printing emissions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel sulfonated poly (ether ether keton)/polyetherimide acid-base blend membranes for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Wang, Lihua; Ding, Yue; Liu, Biqian; Han, Xutong; Song, Yanlin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SPEEK/PEI acid-base blend membranes are prepared for VRB applications. • The acid-base blend membranes have much lower vanadium ion permeability. • The energy efficiency of SPEEK/PEI maintain around 86.9% after 50 cycles. - Abstract: Novel acid-base blend membranes composed of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The blend membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The ion exchange capacity (IEC), proton conductivity, water uptake, vanadium ion permeability and mechanical properties were measured. As a result, the acid-base blend membranes exhibit higher water uptake, IEC and lower vanadium ion permeability compared to Nafion117 membranes and all these properties decrease with the increase of PEI. In VRB single cell test, the VRB with blend membranes shows lower charge capacity loss, higher coulombic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) than Nafion117 membrane. Furthermore, the acid-base blend membranes present stable performance up to 50 cycles with no significant decline in CE and EE. All experimental results indicate that the SPEEK/PEI (S/P) acid-base blend membranes show promising prospects for VRB

  3. Molecular motions of non-crystalline poly(aryl ether-ether-ketone) PEEK and influence of electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, T.; Hagiwara, M.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical relaxation of non-crystalline poly(aryl ether-ether-ketone) PEEK and the one irradiated with electron beam were studied. The three distinct γ, β, α' relaxation maxima were observed in unirradiated PEEK from low to high temperature. It was revealed from the study on the irradiation effects that three different molecular processes are overlapped in γ relaxation peak, i.e., molecular motion of water bound to main chain, local motion of main chain, and local mode of the aligned and/or oriented moiety. The β relaxation connected with the glass transition occurred at 150 deg C and it shifted to higher temperature by irradiation. The α' relaxation which can be attributed to rearrangement of molecular chain due to crystallization was observed in unirradiated PEEK approx. 180 deg C and its magnitude decreased with the increase in irradiation dose. This effect indicates the formation of structures inhibiting crystallization such as crosslinking and/or short branching during irradiation. A new relaxation, β', appeared in the temperature range of 40 deg to 100 deg C by irradiation and its magnitude increased with dose. This relaxation was attributed to rearrangement of molecular chain from loosened packing around chain ends, which were introduced into the non-crystalline region by chain scission under irradiation, to more rigid molecular packing. (author)

  4. Effect of surface finishing on friction and wear of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK under oil lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Fontoura de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract The tribological properties of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK containing 30% of carbon fiber were studied in an oil-lubricated environment and different surface finishing of the metallic counterbody. Four different finishing processes, commonly used in the automotive industry, were chosen for this study: turning, grinding, honing and polishing. The test system used was tri-pin on disc with pins made of PEEK and counterbody made of steel; they were fully immersed in ATF Dexron VI oil. Some test parameters were held constant, such as the apparent pressure of 2 MPa, linear velocity of 2 m/s, oil temperature at 85 °C, and the time - 120 minutes. The lubrication regime for the apparent pressure of 1 MPa to 7 MPa range was also studied at different sliding speeds. A direct correlation was found between the wear rate, friction coefficient and the lubrication regime, wherein wear under hydrodynamic lubrication was, on average, approximately 5 times lower, and the friction coefficient 3 times lower than under boundary lubrication.

  5. Effect of chemical etching on the Cu/Ni metallization of poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Lizhi; Liu Bin; Song Jianjing; Shan Dan; Yang Dean

    2011-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites (PEEK/Cf) were chemical etched by Cr 2 O 3 /H 2 SO 4 solution, electroless plated with copper and then electroplated with nickel. The effects of chemical etching time and temperature on the adhesive strength between PEEK/Cf and Cu/Ni layers were studied by thermal shock method. The electrical resistance of some samples was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface composition and functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe the surface morphology of the composite, the chemical etched sample, the plated sample and the peeled metal layer. The results indicated that C=O bond increased after chemical etching. With the increasing of etching temperature and time, more and more cracks and partially exposed carbon fibers appeared at the surface of PEEK/Cf composites, and the adhesive strength increased consequently. When the composites were etched at 60 deg. C for 25 min and at 70-80 deg. C for more than 15 min, the Cu/Ni metallization layer could withstand four thermal shock cycles without bubbling, and the electrical resistivity of the metal layer of these samples increased with the increasing of etching temperature and time.

  6. Nanocomposite Based on Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Membranes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Venditti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles, capped by 3-mercapto propane sulfonate (Au-3MPS, were synthesized inside a swollen sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone membrane (sPEEK. The formation of the Au-3MPS nanoparticles in the swollen sPEEK membrane was observed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nanocomposite containing the gold nanoparticles grown in the sPEEK membrane, showed the plasmon resonance λmax at about 520 nm, which remained stable over a testing period of three months. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was assessed, and the sPEEK membrane roughness, both before and after the synthesis of nanoparticles, was studied by AFM. The XPS measurements confirm Au-3MPS formation in the sPEEK membrane. Moreover, AFM experiments recorded in fluid allowed the production of images of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK composite in water at different pH levels, achieving a better understanding of the membrane behavior in a water environment; the dynamic hydration process of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK membrane was investigated. These preliminary results suggest that the newly developed nanocomposite membranes could be promising materials for fuel cell applications.

  7. Novel proton exchange membranes based on structure-optimized poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s and nanocrystalline cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chuangjiang; Wei, Yingcong; Zhao, Qi; Liu, Baijun; Sun, Zhaoyan; Gu, Yan; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Two sulfonated fluorenyl-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) were synthesized as the matrix of composite proton exchange membranes by directly sulfonating copolymer precursors comprising non-sulfonatable fluorinated segments and sulfonatable fluorenyl-containing segments. Surface-modified nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was produced as the "performance-enhancing" filler by treating the microcrystalline cellulose with acid. Two families of SFPEEKK/NCC nanocomposite membranes with various NCC contents were prepared via a solution-casting procedure. Results revealed that the insertion of NCC at a suitable ratio could greatly enhance the proton conductivity of the pristine membranes. For example, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK-60/NCC-4 (SFPEEKK with 60% fluorenyl segments in the repeating unit, and inserted with 4% NCC) composite membrane was as high as 0.245 S cm-1 at 90 °C, which was 61.2% higher than that of the corresponding pure SFPEEKK-60 membrane. This effect could be attributed to the formation of hydrogen bond networks and proton conduction paths through the interaction between -SO3H/-OH groups on the surface of NCC particles and -SO3H groups on the SFPEEKK backbones. Furthermore, the chemically modified NCC filler and the optimized chemical structure of the SFPEEKK matrix also provided good dimensional stability and mechanical properties of the obtained nanocomposites. In conclusion, these novel nanocomposites can be promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cells at moderate temperatures.

  8. Highly stable ionic-covalent cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Linfeng; Zhu, Xingye; Xu, Jianfeng; Qian, Huidong; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui

    2017-05-01

    A novel ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing equal content of sulfonic acid and pendant tertiary amine groups (TA-SPEEK) has been initially synthesized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). By adjusting the ratio of p-xylene dibromide to tertiary amine groups of TA-SPEEK, a series of ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes (C-SPEEK-x) with tunable degree of cross-linking are prepared. Compared with the pristine membrane, the ionic and ionic-covalent cross-linked proton exchange membranes (PEMs) exhibit reduced methanol permeability and improved mechanical properties, dimensional and oxidative stability. The proton conductivity and methanol selectivity of protonated TA-SPEEK and C-SPEEK-x at 25 °C is up to 0.109 S cm-1 and 3.88 × 105 S s cm-3, respectively, which are higher than that of Nafion 115. The DMFC incorporating C-SPEEK-25 exhibits a maximum power density as high as 35.3 mW cm-2 with 4 M MeOH at 25 °C (31.8 mW cm-2 for Nafion 115). Due to the highly oxidative stability of the membrane, no obvious performance degradation of the DMFC is observed after more than 400 h operation, indicating such cost-effective ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes have substantial potential as alternative PEMs for DMFC applications.

  9. Electrochemical investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay nanocomposite membranes for moderate temperature fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Sarikhani, Kaveh [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Majedi, Fatemeh S. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, polyelectrolyte membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with various degrees of sulfonation are prepared. The optimum degree of sulfonation is determined according to the transport properties and hydrolytic stability of the membranes. Subsequently, various amounts of the organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) are introduced into the sPEEK matrices via the solution intercalation technique. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements of the fabricated composite membranes reveal a high proton to methanol selectivity, even at elevated temperatures. Membrane based on sPEEK and 1 wt% of MMT, as the optimum nanoclay composition, exhibits a high selectivity and power density at the concentrated methanol feed. Moreover, it is found that the optimum nanocomposite membrane not only provides higher performance compared to the neat sPEEK and Nafion {sup registered} 117 membranes, but also exhibits a high open circuit voltage (OCV) at the elevated methanol concentration. Owing to the high proton conductivity, reduced methanol permeability, high power density, convenient processability and low cost, sPEEK/MMT nanocomposite membranes could be considered as the alternative membranes for moderate temperature direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  10. Novel modification method to prepare crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/silica hybrid membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Liu, Guoshun; Dong, Wenqi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jingming [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mathur, V.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of New Hampshire, NH 03824 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Crosslinked organic-inorganic hybrid membranes are prepared from hydroxyl-functionalized sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and various amounts of silica with the aims to improve dimensional stability and methanol resistance. The partially hydroxyl-functionalized SPEEK is prepared by the reduction of some benzophenone moieties of SPEEK into the corresponding benzhydrol moieties which is then reacted with (3-isocyanatopropyl)triethoxysilane (ICPTES) to get a side chained polymer bearing triethoxysilyl groups. These groups are subsequently co-hydrolyzed with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and allow the membrane to form a crosslinked network via a sol-gel process. The obtained hybrid membranes with covalent bonds between organic and inorganic phases exhibit much lower methanol swelling ratio and water uptake. With the increase of silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increased. At silica content of about 6 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient reaches a minimum of 7.15 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, a 5-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPEEK. Despite the fact that the proton conductivity is decreased to some extent as a result of introduction of the silica, the hybrid membranes with silica content of 4-8 wt.% shows higher selectivity than Nafion117. (author)

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone) (SPEEK) Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ning; Zhou, Chaofan; Wang, Yong; Ju, Hong; Tan, Dongyang; Li, Jin

    2018-03-28

    As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion) membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG) was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Graphene Oxide Reinforced Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone (SPEEK Composites for Proton Exchange Membrane Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy utilization device, full cell is gaining more and more attention. Proton exchange membrane (PEM is a key component of the full cell. The commercial-sulfonated, tetrafluoroethylene-based fluoropolymer-copolymer (Nafion membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity under a fully humidified environment. However, it also has some disadvantages in practice, such as high fuel permeability, a complex synthesis process, and high cost. To overcome these disadvantages, a low-cost and novel membrane was developed. The sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone (SPEEK was selected as the base material of the proton exchange membrane. Sulfonated graphene (SG was cross-linked with SPEEK through the elimination reaction of hydrogen bonds. It was found that the sulfonic acid groups and hydrophilic oxygen groups increased obviously in the resultant membrane. Compared with the pure SPEEK membrane, the SG-reinforced membrane exhibited better proton conductivity and methanol permeability prevention. The results indicate that the SG/SPEEK could be applied as a new proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  13. Effect of chemical etching on the Cu/Ni metallization of poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lizhi; Liu Bin [Tianjin Medical College, Tianjin 300222 (China); Song Jianjing; Shan Dan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yang Dean, E-mail: dayang@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Poly(ether ether ketone)/carbon fiber composites (PEEK/Cf) were chemical etched by Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, electroless plated with copper and then electroplated with nickel. The effects of chemical etching time and temperature on the adhesive strength between PEEK/Cf and Cu/Ni layers were studied by thermal shock method. The electrical resistance of some samples was measured. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface composition and functional groups. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to observe the surface morphology of the composite, the chemical etched sample, the plated sample and the peeled metal layer. The results indicated that C=O bond increased after chemical etching. With the increasing of etching temperature and time, more and more cracks and partially exposed carbon fibers appeared at the surface of PEEK/Cf composites, and the adhesive strength increased consequently. When the composites were etched at 60 deg. C for 25 min and at 70-80 deg. C for more than 15 min, the Cu/Ni metallization layer could withstand four thermal shock cycles without bubbling, and the electrical resistivity of the metal layer of these samples increased with the increasing of etching temperature and time.

  14. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, D W; D'Addario, A P; Bruner, R H; Uddin, D E

    1986-02-01

    Diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (DEGME) has been selected as a replacement anti-icing additive for ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) in Navy jet aircraft fuel. This experiment was performed to determine whether DEGME produced similar toxicity to EGME following dermal exposure. Male guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 1.00, 0.20, 0.04, or 0 (control) g/kg/day DEGME for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day. Another group of animals was similarly exposed to 1.00 g/kg/day EGME. Body weights as well as testicular and splenic weights were reduced as a result of exposure to EGME, DEGME-exposed animals exhibited decreased splenic weight in the high- and medium-dose (1.00 and 0.20 g/kg/day) exposure groups only. Hematologic changes in EGME-exposed animals included mild anemia with increased erythrocytic mean corpuscular volumes and a lymphopenia with increased neutrophils. Similar hematological changes were not observed in any animals exposed to DEGME. Serum creatine kinase activity was increased in animals exposed to EGME, and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was increased in EGME and 1.00 g/kg/day DEGME-exposed animals. In general, DEGME produced minimal toxicological changes following dermal exposure, whereas the toxicological changes observed following similar exposure to EGME were much more profound.

  15. Effect of H4R antagonist N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-chloro-1H-indol-2-carboxamides and 5-chloro-2-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazole on histamine and 4-methylhistamine-induced mast cell response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Gomathi; Mariappanadar, Vairamani; Tamizh, Muthu; Kaliappan, Ilango; Elden, Berla Thangam

    2017-06-01

    The histamine plays a decisive role in acute and chronic inflammatory responses and is regulated through its four types of distinct receptors designated from H1 to H4. Recently histamine 4 receptor (H4R) antagonists have been reported to possess various pharmacological effects against various allergic diseases. To investigate the inhibitory effect of N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-chloro-1H-indol-2-carboxamide (Compound A) and 5-chloro-2-(piperazin-1-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (Compound L) on H4R-mediated calcium mobilization, cytokine IL-13 production, ERK1/2, Akt and NF-κB activation in human mastocytoma cells-1 (HMC-1). Compounds A and L were synthesized chemically and their inhibitory effect on intracellular calcium release was analyzed by Fluo-4 calcium assay, cytokine measurement through ELISA and activation of signaling molecules by western blot. Pre-treatment with compounds A and L significantly reduced the H4R-mediated intracellular calcium release. Histamine and 4-methylhistamine (4-MH) induced Th2 cytokine IL-13 production in HMC-1 cells, was inhibited by compound A (77.61%, 74.25% at 1 μM concentration) and compound L (79.63%, 81.70% at 1 μM concentration). Furthermore, histamine induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt and NF-κB was suppressed by compounds A and L at varying levels, ERK1/2 (88%, 86%), Akt (88%, 89%) and NF-κB (89%, 87%) in HMC-1 cells. Taken together these data demonstrate that compound A and compound L may block H4R-mediated downstream signaling events.

  16. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  17. Biosynthesis of ether-phospholipids including plasmalogens, peroxisomes and human disease: new insights into an old problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Brites, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Ether-phospholipids represent an important subclass of phospholipids in animal cell membranes characterized by the presence of an ether bond at the sn-I position and the enrichment of PUFAs at the sn-2 position. Of the different ether-phospholipids, plasmalogens are the most abundant form and their

  18. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  19. Ultrasound Irradiation Promoted Enzymatic Transesterification of (R/S-1-Chloro-3-(1-naphthyloxy-2-propanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available (R-1-Chloro-3-(1-naphthyloxy-2-propanol (3, which is the key intermediate of (S-propranolol, was successfully prepared via enantioselective transesterification catalyzed by lipase under ultrasound irradiation. Compared with conventional shaking, the enzyme activity and enantioselectivity were dramatically increased under ultrasound exposure. Effects of various reaction conditions on the synthetic activity of enzyme as well as enantioselectivity, including the type of enzyme, ultrasound power, solvent, acyl donor, temperature and substrate molar ratio, were investigated. Pseudomonas sp. lipase (PSL showed an excellent catalytic performance under optimum conditions (enzyme activity: 78.3 ± 3.2 μmol·g−1·min−1, E value: 98 ± 6.

  20. Effect of DDT and MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) on reproduction of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woin, P.; Broenmark, C. (Univ. of Lund (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    Reproduction is the single most important function in the life cycle of an organism. Successful reproduction determines fitness of organisms. The inability of an organism to complete any one stage of the reproductive process severely reduces its lifetime reproductive success. Disruptions in the reproduction will ultimately affect the abundance and distribution of the species. Therefore, laboratory tests of long-term impact of sublethal pollutant concentrations on organisms preferably is done on the reproductive success. Pollutants of diverse structure may affect the reproductive system which is sensitive to toxic agents. Certain pollutants, notably the organochlorine compounds, have been shown to affect the male and female reproductive systems. The authors have studied the effect of sublethal concentrations of DDT and the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) on the reproductive output of the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis under a 2-mon exposure period.

  1. Electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol over a carbon paste electrode modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez F, D.; Palomar P, M.; Licona S, T. de J.; Romero R, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, 02200 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: mepp@correo.azc.uam.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-07-01

    A study is presented on the electrochemical oxidation of 4-chloro phenol (4cp) in aqueous solution using a bare carbon paste electrode, Cpe, and another one that was modified with Zn Al layered double hydroxides (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The electro-oxidation was effected at ph values ranging from 3 up to 11. It was found through cyclic voltammetry that this process was irreversible, namely, there were no reduction peaks, and that depending on the nature of the electrode, the anodic current was limited either by adsorption (Cpe) or diffusion (Cpe/Zn Al-LDH). The energy required and the oxidation reaction rate depended on the ph and on the nature of the electrode, such that the greater rates were obtained when the Cpe/Zn Al-LDH electrode and acid ph were used. The Zn Al-LDH was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  2. Theoretical Study of Chloro-N-(4-methoxybenzylideneaniline Derivatives as Corrosion Inhibitors for Zinc in Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The density functional theory (DFT was used to investigate the corrosion inhibition of three inhibitors on zinc. Quantum chemical parameters such as the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO, the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (ELUMO, energy gap (ΔE, hardness (η, softness (σ, electrophilicity index (ω, the fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN from inhibitor molecule to the metal surface, energy change when both processes occur, namely, charge transfer to the molecule and backdonation from the molecule (ΔEbackdonation, natural charge (qN, and Fukui functions have been calculated by using B3LYP/6-31+G(d basis set. The relation between the inhibition efficiency and quantum chemical parameters has been discussed in order to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of the chloro-N-(4-methoxybenzylideneaniline derivatives.

  3. In vitro phenotypic screening of 7-chloro-4-amino(oxy)quinoline derivatives as putative anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Berzal, Cristina; Rojas Ruiz, Fernando A; Escario, José A; Kouznetsov, Vladimir V; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia

    2014-02-15

    In this study, a series of 22 pre-synthesized 7-chloro-4-amino(oxy)quinoline derivatives was assayed in vitro as potential antichagasic agents. A primary screening against Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes and a non-specific cytotoxicity assay on murine fibroblasts were simultaneously performed, resulting quinolines 3, 7 and 12 with great selectivity (SI) on the extracellular parasite (SI7, SI3, SI12 and SIBZ >9.44). Therefore, the activity of these derivatives was evaluated on intracellular amastigotes, achieving derivative 7 the best SI (SI=12.73). These results, supported by the in silico prediction of a good oral bioavailability and a suitable risk profile, propose the 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline scaffold as a potential template for designing trypanocidal prototypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Triplication of alpha-globin genes is responsible for unusual alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-globin chain ratios in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Masina, P; Rando, A; Testa, A; Di Gregorio, P

    1987-10-01

    By investigations at the DNA and protein level, it has been shown that in sheep a previously detected, presumed quantitative allele of the II alpha 113His gene, displaying a reduced efficiency (called the II alpha 113His decreases gene), is carried by a chromosome bearing three alpha-globin loci. In particular, five sheep having an alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-chain ratio of about 13:1 (13:1 phenotype) possessed the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype. One sheep showing a alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-chain ratio of about 3:1 (3:1 phenotype) had the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113His-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype, while one sheep having a chain ratio of about 6:1 (6:1 phenotype) carried the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113His decreases-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype. Nineteen sheep, displaying the common phenotypes, all possessed the alpha alpha/alpha alpha gene arrangement. Furthermore, the possible location of the gene with reduced efficiency and the expression of the three genes in the triple alpha-globin loci chromosome are discussed.

  5. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone against Candida strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Staniszewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone (compound 4. The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of β-chloro β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of sixty three clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species towards compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 µg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG, was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (

  6. 18F-fluorination by crown ether-metal fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, T.; Fukushi, K.; Ido, T.; Kasida, Y.; Nozaki, T.

    1984-01-01

    For non-carrier-added 18 F-labeling of organic compounds, details were studied concerning the previously developed KF-crown ether method. In the modified method, a minute amount of KOH instead of carrier KF is added for the preparation of the anhydrous 18 F from aqueous carrier-free 18 F. The following factors were examined in order to determine optimum conditions for the preparation of the anhydrous non-carrier-added 18 F and the labeling synthesis with it: effects of the vessel on the evaporation of the 18 F-KOH solution and the amount of added KOH for the conversion of aqueous 18 F to anhydrous 18 F, the solubilized activity of the 18 F obtained by the evaporation in organic solutions containing 18-Crown-6 and the labeling reaction, as exemplified by the synthesis of 21-fluoroprogesterone. (author)

  7. Poly(phenylene ether Based Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward N. Peters

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenylene ether (PPE telechelic macromonomers are unique hydrophobic polyols which have been used to prepare amphiphilic block copolymers. Various polymer compositions have been synthesized with hydrophilic blocks. Their macromolecular nature affords a range of structures including random, alternating, and di- and triblock copolymers. New macromolecular architectures can offer tailored property profiles for optimum performance. Besides reducing moisture uptake and making the polymer surface more hydrophobic, the PPE hydrophobic segment has good compatibility with polystyrene (polystyrene-philic. In general, the PPE contributes to the toughness, strength, and thermal performance. Hydrophilic segments go beyond their affinity for water. Improvements in the interfacial adhesion between polymers and polar substrates via hydrogen bonding and good compatibility with polyesters (polyester-philic have been exhibited. The heterogeneity of domains in these PPE based block copolymer offers important contributions to diverse applications.

  8. Calorimetric study of binding of some disaccharides with crown ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, Olga I.; Lebedeva, Nataliya Sh.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2004-01-01

    Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of binding of β-lactose, α,α-trehalose and sucrose with 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6 in water at 298.15 K. The formation of 1:1 molecular associates has been found for the systems studied except 18-crown-6 and β-lactose. The associates are preferentially or completely entropy stabilized. The most stable associate is formed between α,α-trehalose and 18-crown-6. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters of binding are discussed from the point of view of solute-solvent interactions as well as conformational and structural peculiarities of the disaccharides (DS) and crown ethers (CE)

  9. Degradation of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Transgenic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mnich, Ewelina

    of the cell wall. The aim of the study was to alter lignin structure by expression in plants of the enzymes from S. paucimobilis involved in ether bond degradation (LigDFG). Arabidopsis thaliana and Brachypodium distachyon transgenic lines were generated and characterized with respect to lignin structure...... and cell wall polysaccharide extractability. Structural changes in lignin detected by 2D HSQC NMR analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis stems correlated with a slight increase in the saccharification yield. An increase in oxidized guaiacyl and syringyl units resulting from the action of LigDFG was observed...... be degraded by LigDFG, which can presumably cause loosening of the lignin-ferulate-polysaccharide matrix. In a xylanase hydrolysis of Brachypodium transgenic stems, the release of arabinose and xylose was increased compared to wild type. The data presented demonstrate that introduction of lignin degrading...

  10. Probing supramolecular complexation of cetylpyridinium chloride with crown ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Supramolecular complexations of cetylpyridinium chloride with three comparable cavity dimension based crown ethers, namely, dibenzo-18-crown-6, 18-crown-6 and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 have been explored and adequately compared in acetonitrile with the help of conductivity in a series of temperatures to reveal the stoichiometry of the three host-guest complexes. Programme based mathematical treatment of the conductivity data affords association constants for complexations from which the thermodynamic parameters were derived for better comprehension about the process. The interactions at molecular level have been explained and decisively discussed by means of FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies that demonstrate H-bond type interactions as the primarily force of attraction for the investigated supramolecular complexations.

  11. Metagenomic discovery of polybrominated diphenyl ether biosynthesis by marine sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Sheila; Taton, Arnaud; Schorn, Michelle A.; Busch, Julia; Lin, Zhenjian; Schmidt, Eric W.; Jensen, Paul R.; Paul, Valerie J.; Biggs, Jason S.; Golden, James W.; Allen, Eric E.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2017-01-01

    Naturally produced polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) pervade the marine environment and structurally resemble toxic man-made brominated flame retardants. PBDEs bioaccumulate in marine animals and are likely transferred to the human food chain. However, the biogenic basis for PBDE production in one of their most prolific sources, marine sponges of the order Dysideidae, remains unidentified. Here, we report the discovery of PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters within sponge microbiome-associated cyanobacterial endosymbionts by employing an unbiased metagenome mining approach. By expression of PBDE biosynthetic genes in heterologous cyanobacterial hosts, we correlate the structural diversity of naturally produced PBDEs to modifications within PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters in multiple sponge holobionts. Our results establish the genetic and molecular foundation for the production of PBDEs in one of the most abundant natural sources of these molecules, further setting the stage for a metagenomic-based inventory of other PBDE sources in the marine environment. PMID:28319100

  12. Synthesis and characterization of ether-linked porphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radchada Buntem

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ether-linked porphyrin dimers in this research work were prepared from coupling reaction between suitableporphyrin precursors and linkers in the presence of potassium carbonate. The structures of all synthesized compounds werecharacterized by spectroscopic methods. The UV/Visible absorption maxima and extinction coefficients did not show any significant difference among these porphyrin dimers. This indicates that the length of the linker did not affect the absorption property of the dimers. However, different metal ions bonding to the porphyrin moiety affect the different absorption maxima of the porphyrin dimers. It was also found that the position of the linker on the phenyl ring of porphyrin does not affect the visible absorption pattern or the proton chemical shifts of the porphyrin core as found in the case of Zn2(metaC-dimer (13(compared with the data obtained for Zn2C2-dimer (3.

  13. Poly (ether imide sulfone) membranes from solutions in ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-11-20

    A membrane manufacture method based on non-volatile solvents and a high performance polymer, poly (ether imide sulfone) (EXTEM™), is proposed, as greener alternative to currently industrial process. We dissolved EXTEM™ in pure ionic liquids: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([EMIM]SCN), 1-butyl-3-methylimidalzolium thiocyanate ([BMIM]SCN), and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidalzolium acetate ([EMIM]OAc). The following polymer solution parameters were evaluated to optimize the manufacture: Gibbs free energy of mixing (G), intrinsic viscosity ([]) and hydrodynamic diameter. Membranes with sponge-like structure and narrow pore size distribution were obtained from solutions in [EMIM]SCN. They were tested for separation of proteins and deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). Due to the polymer stability, we foresee that applications in more demanding chemical separations would be possible. [EMIM]SCN was 96 % purified and recovered after the membrane fabrication, contributing to the sustainability of the whole manufacturing process.

  14. (R,R-Disynephrine ether bis(hydrogen sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Arbuckle

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: (R,R-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl-N,N′-dimethyl-3-oxapentane-1,5-diammonium bis(hydrogen sulfate], C18H26N2O32+·2HSO4−, contains one half-cation and one hydrogen sulfate anion. The cation has crystallographically imposed twofold symmetry with the rotation axis passing through the central ether O atom. Hydrogen bonds between the hydroxy group and amine H atoms of the cation to two hydrogen sulfate anions link the three ions in a ring motif. A three-dimensional network is accomplished by additional O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the anions and by N—H...O hydrogen bonds between the cations. Disorder with equally occupied sites affects the H-atom position in the anion.

  15. Application of Dimethyl Ether in Compression Ignition Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Rene

    . The elastomer seals that provided the sealing instead of the metal-to-metal contact could do that because of the low injection pressure. The engine developed in this way was based on a 50cc Peugeot two-stroke engine. The fuel injector used was a Bosch HDEV originally developed for direct injection of gasoline......This study has its roots in two separate events at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at DTU. In 1995 the first attempt to operate a diesel engine on dimethyl ether (DME) was successfully concluded. In 2004 the department decided to compete in the vehicle fuel efficiency competition Shell Eco......-Marathon. The diesel engine test results from 1995 showed that DME is a superb diesel fuel. DME is easy to ignite by compression ignition and it has a molecular structure that results in near-zero emission of particulates when burned. These are features of a fuel that are highly desirable in a diesel engine...

  16. Sulfonation of alkyl phenyl ether self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katash, Irit; Luo, Xianglin; Sukenik, Chaim N

    2010-02-02

    The sulfonation of phenyl ether decorated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) was studied with an eye toward creating surfaces with a particularly high negative charge density based on a close-packed array of phenyl rings with more than one sulfonic acid group per molecule. The product distribution and kinetics of this process were studied by ultraviolet, infrared, and photoelectron spectroscopies and by monitoring changes in the thickness and wetting properties of the SAM. The sulfonation chemistry could be effected without undermining monolayer integrity and the isomer distribution of ortho- and para-monosulfonated material, along with the percentages of mono- and disulfonated molecules could be established throughout the process. As doubly sulfonated molecules appeared, the reaction slowed drastically. Ultimately, sulfonation stops completely with approximately 60% of the molecules disulfonated and 20% each of the two monosulfonated isomers. This striking constraint on monolayer reactivity and the relationship between the surface chemistry and variations in SAM structure are discussed.

  17. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C

    2015-10-01

    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH 3 CH 2 OCH 3 , through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10 15 cm -2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10 15 cm -2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH 3 OCOH, CH 3 CH 2 OCOH, CH 3 OCH 3 , CH 3 OH, and CH 3 CH 2 OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N (CH 3 OCH 3 )/ N (tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  18. Impaired neurotransmission in ether lipid-deficient nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodde, Alexander; Teigler, Andre; Brugger, Britta; Lehmann, Wolf D; Wieland, Felix; Berger, Johannes; Just, Wilhelm W

    2012-06-15

    Isolated defects of ether lipid (EL) biosynthesis in humans cause rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2 and type 3, serious peroxisomal disorders. Using a previously described mouse model [Rodemer, C., Thai, T.P., Brugger, B., Kaercher, T., Werner, H., Nave, K.A., Wieland, F., Gorgas, K., and Just, W.W. (2003) Inactivation of ether lipid biosynthesis causes male infertility, defects in eye development and optic nerve hypoplasia in mice. Hum. Mol. Genet., 12, 1881-1895], we investigated the effect of EL deficiency in isolated murine nerve terminals (synaptosomes) on the pre-synaptic release of the neurotransmitters (NTs) glutamate and acetylcholine. Both Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and Ca(2+)-independent efflux of the transmitters were affected. EL-deficient synaptosomes respire at a reduced rate and exhibit a lowered adenosin-5'-triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate (ATP/ADP) ratio. Consequently, ATP-driven processes, such as synaptic vesicle cycling and maintenance of Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) homeostasis, might be disturbed. Analyzing reactive oxygen species in EL-deficient neural and non-neural tissues revealed that plasmalogens (PLs), the most abundant EL species in mammalian central nervous system, considerably contribute to the generation of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde. Although EL-deficient tissue contains less lipid peroxidation products, fibroblasts lacking ELs are more susceptible to induced oxidative stress. In summary, these results suggest that due to the reduced energy state of EL-deficient tissue, the Ca(2+)-independent efflux of NTs increases while the Ca(2+)-dependent release declines. Furthermore, lack of PLs is mainly compensated for by an increase in the concentration of phosphatidylethanolamine and results in a significantly lowered level of lipid peroxidation products in the brain cortex and cerebellum.

  19. Evaluating the swelling, erosion, and compaction properties of cellulose ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghori, Muhammad U; Grover, Liam M; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Smith, Alan M; Conway, Barbara R

    2018-02-01

    Swelling, erosion, deformation, and consolidation properties can affect the performance of cellulose ethers, the most commonly used matrix former in hydrophilic sustained tablet formulations. The present study was designed to comparatively evaluate the swelling, erosion, compression, compaction, and relaxation properties of the cellulose ethers in a comprehensive study using standardised conditions. The interrelationship between various compressional models and the inherent deformation and consolidation properties of the polymers on the derived swelling and erosion parameters are consolidated. The impact of swelling (K w ) on erosion rates (K E ) and the inter-relationship between Heckel and Kawakita plasticity constants was also investigated. It is evident from the findings that the increases in both substitution and polymer chain length led to higher K w , but a lower K E ; this was also true for all particle size fractions regardless of polymer grade. Smaller particle size and high substitution levels tend to increase the relative density of the matrix but reduce porosity, yield pressure (P y ), Kawakita plasticity parameter (b -1 ) and elastic relaxation. Both K W versus K E (R 2  = 0.949-0.980) and P y versus. b -1 correlations (R 2  = 0.820-0.934) were reasonably linear with regards to increasing hydroxypropyl substitution and molecular size. Hence, it can be concluded that the combined knowledge of swelling and erosion kinetics in tandem with the in- and out-of-die compression findings can be used to select a specific polymer grade and further to develop and optimize formulations for oral controlled drug delivery applications.

  20. Contribution to the study of the alpha-alpha interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1965-01-01

    The new variable energy cyclotron at Berkeley that can accelerate an alpha beam up to an energy of 130 MeV and the mass production of lithium diffused junctions have enabled us to perform 2 series of measurement, in the first one we use alpha beams with an energy ranging between 50 and 120 MeV to study alpha-alpha forces in the second one we use the flexibility of the variable energy cyclotron the resonances around 40 MeV, region that can not yet be reached by tandem accelerators. This work is divided into 6 chapters. The first chapter is dedicated to the formalism of partial wave analysis and the theory of the compound nucleus. In the second chapter the author presents the 88 cyclotron at Berkeley and the diffusion chamber, the alpha detectors are lithium diffused junctions made of silicon. The third chapter deals with the experimental methods used and the issue of the reduction of the volume of data. In the fourth chapter the results obtained in the upper part of the energy range are described in terms of complex shifts that allow the description of the α-α interaction at high energy. The very low impact parameter has enabled us to find 2 new components (l=6 and l=8) of the rotational spectrum and to define a more accurate phenomenological potential. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the narrow resonances we have found between 12 and 27 MeV. We present in the last chapter a calculation of the binding energy of C 12 in which we have considered the 12 C nucleus as formed by 3 alpha particles interacting with each other through the phenomenological potential defined above

  1. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  2. The influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of glycol ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traynor, Matthew J.; Wilkinson, Simon C.; Williams, Faith M.

    2007-01-01

    Glycol ethers are solvents widely used alone and as mixtures in industrial and household products. Some glycol ethers have been shown to have a range of toxic effects in humans following absorption and metabolism to their aldehyde and acid metabolites. This study assessed the influence of water mixtures on the dermal absorption of butoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol in vitro through human skin. Butoxyethanol penetrated human skin up to sixfold more rapidly from aqueous solution (50%, 450 mg/ml) than from the neat solvent. Similarly penetration of ethoxyethanol was increased threefold in the presence of water (50%, 697 mg/ml). There was a corresponding increase in apparent permeability coefficient as the glycol ether concentration in water decreased. The maximum penetration rate of water also increased in the presence of both glycol ethers. Absorption through a synthetic membrane obeyed Fick's Law and absorption through rat skin showed a similar profile to human skin but with a lesser effect. The mechanisms for this phenomenon involves disruption of the stratum corneum lipid bilayer by desiccation by neat glycol ether micelles, hydration with water mixtures and the physicochemical properties of the glycol ether-water mixtures. Full elucidation of the profile of absorption of glycol ethers from mixtures is required for risk assessment of dermal exposure. This work supports the view that risk assessments for dermal contact scenarios should ideally be based on absorption data obtained for the relevant formulation or mixture and exposure scenario and that absorption derived from permeability coefficients may be inappropriate for water-miscible solvents

  3. Absorption of decabromodiphenyl ether and other organohalogen chemicals by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Gareth O.; Moss, Simon E.W.; Asplund, Lillemor; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2005-01-01

    An input-output balance study was performed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorine pesticides on three captive, juvenile grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). The animals were fed a diet of herring for six months, during the last three months of which this study was performed. A supplement of decabromodiphenyl ether was included in the diet during the second month of the study. Consistently high absorption (>89%) was observed for all of the chemicals studied, whereas work on other animals has generally shown high (>80%) net absorption at log K OW OW , and very low absorption of decabromodiphenyl ether. The half-life of decabromodiphenyl ether in blood was estimated to be between 8.5 and 13 days. Measurable concentrations of decabromodiphenyl ether were detected in seal blubber at the end of the study, indicating that this chemical can be stored in adipose and may bioaccumulate. Current understanding of the mechanism of absorption of organohalogen chemicals and the potential for accumulation of decabromodiphenyl ether will need reassessing in the light of these results. - Decabromodiphenyl ether is absorbed effectively from the diet by grey seals, and can be stored in the blubber even after exposure ceases

  4. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. EXPOSURE TO ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER AND RELATED WORKERS HABITS IN AN INK FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Lin, H. Y. Chang, F. H. Chang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty six workers from an ink factory were included in this study, in which, passive badge sampler and questionnaire interview were used to assess the concentrations of airborne exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether during work shifts and to understand the subjects' working habits. The geometric mean value (95% confidence interval of the airborne ethylene glycol monobutyl ether concentrations was 0.12(0.08-0.19ppm, with a range of <0.02-1.82ppm. The exposure group was exposed to statistically significantly higher ethylene glycol monobutyl ether concentrations than the control group (geometric mean value: 0.14vs. 0.03ppm; P=0.017. Some chromatograms showed that subjects were co-exposed to m-xylene, ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate. According to the completed questionnaires, subjects might also be exposed to 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, propylene glycol ethers, ethanol, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, methanol and diisononyl phthalate. This study also suggests that, the Taiwan occupational time-weighted average level of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether be reconsidered with a view to being lowered.

  6. Anhydrous proton exchange membrane of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) enabled by polydopamine-modified silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingtao; Bai, Huijuan; Zhang, Haoqin; Zhao, Liping; Chen, Huiling; Li, Yifan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of acid/base pairs was employed to design anhydrous PEMs. • Polydopamine-modified silica particles were uniformly dispersed in SPEEK membrane. • The membranes displayed enhancement in both stability and anhydrous proton conductivity. - Abstract: Novel anhydrous proton exchange membrane is (PEM) facilely prepared by embedding dopamine-modified silica nanoparticles (DSiOis 2 ) into sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) polymer matrix. DSiO 2 bearing -NH 2 /-NH- groups are synthesized inspired by the bioadhesion principle, which are uniformly dispersed within SPEEK membrane due to the good interfacial compatibility. The interfacial electrostatic attractions render unique rearrangement of the nanophase-separated structure and the chain packing of the resultant hybrid membranes. As a result, the thermal and mechanical stabilities as well as structural stability of the hybrid membranes are enhanced when compared to SPEEK control membrane. On the other hand, induced by the attractions, acid–base pairs are formed at the SPEEK/DSiOarewere 2 interface, where fast proton transfer via Grotthuss mechanism is expected. These features confer much higher proton conductivities on the DSiO 2 -filled membranes under both hydrated and anhydrous conditions, compared to those of the SPEEK control membrane and SiO 2 -filled membranes. Particularly, the hybrid membrane with 15 wt% DSiO 2 achieve the highest conductivities of 4.52achieveachieved × 10 −3 S cm −1 at 120 °C under anhydrous condition, which is much higher than the SPEEK control membrane and the commercial Nafion membrane (0.1iswas × 10 −3 S cm −1 ). The membrane with 9 wt% DSiO 2 show an open cell potential of 0.98showshowed V and an optimum power density of 111.7 mW cm −2 , indicative of its potential application in fuel cell under anhydrous condition

  7. Dispersibility and chemical bonds between multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(ether ether ketone) in nanocomposite fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanmei, Jin; Haihui, Liu; Ning, Wang; Lichen, Hou; Xing-Xiang, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A series of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK) nanocomposite fibers were fabricated by mixing, melt extruding PEEK with different loadings and species of MWNTs, and melt-spun the blended chips. Nanocomposite fibers were heat-stretched and heat-treated. The morphology and dispersibility of MWNTs in nanocomposite fibers were observed using a field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The thermal and crystallization behavior of nanocomposite fibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Mechanical properties were tested using a tensile strength tester. MWNTs tend to aggregate when the loading exceeds 0.8 wt%. Functional groups on MWNTs improve the hydrophobicity and the dispersibility of MWNTs in PEEK matrix. The enhancement of mechanical properties depends on the loading and species of functional groups. The most effectively reinforced effect is in the sequence, carboxylic MWNTs (MWNT–COOH) > hydroxyl MWNTs (MWNT–OH) > MWNTs, which can be explained by the strong hydrogen bonding and the affinity between MWNT–COOH and PEEK, MWNT–OH and PEEK, and possible formation of a chemical bond between MWNT–COOH and PEEK. A nanocomposite fiber with excellent mechanical property was fabricated using 0.8 wt% MWNT–COOH as filler. The Young's modulus is 1.7 GPa; and the stress is 648 MPa. -- Highlights: ► Functional groups on MWNTs improve their hydrophobility and dispersability. ► Mechanical properties depend on the content and species of the functional groups. ► The reinforced effect is in the sequence, carboxylic MWNTs > hydroxyl MWNTs > MWNTs. ► The strength behavior was result of hydrogen bond, affinity and chemical bond. ► Dispersability of MWNTs in matrix was analyzed by calculating solubility parameter.

  8. Composite electrolytes composed of Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acid and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) for fuel cell systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Song-Yul, E-mail: ms089203@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Go [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Muto, Hiroyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kurume National College of Technology, 1-1-1 Komorino, Kurume, Fukuoka 830-8555 (Japan); Sakai, Mototsugu [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Matsuda, Atsunori, E-mail: matsuda@tutms.tut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Composite electrolytes composed of cesium hydrogen sulfate containing phosphotungstic acids (CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) (SPEEK) were prepared by casting the corresponding precursor for application in fuel cells. Partially Cs-substituted phosphotungstic acids (Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}) were formed in the CsHSO{sub 4}-H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} system by mechanochemical treatment. SPEEK was prepared from PEEK by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. Flexible composite electrolytes were obtained and their electrochemical properties were markedly improved with the addition of Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, into the SPEEK matrix. A maximum power density of 213 mW cm{sup -2} was obtained from the single cell test for 50H{sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}-50CsHSO{sub 4} in SPEEK (1/5 by weight) composite electrolyte at 80 deg. C and at 80 RH%. Electrochemical properties and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results suggest that three-dimensional cluster particles were formed and homogeneously distributed in the SPEEK matrix. The mechanochemically synthesized Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} incorporated into the SPEEK matrix increased the number of protonate sites in the electrolyte. The composite electrolytes were successfully formed with Cs{sub x}H{sub 3-x}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}, which consist of hydrogen bonding between surface of inorganic solid acids and not only -HSO{sub 4}{sup -} dissociated from CsHSO{sub 4} but also -SO{sub 3}H groups in the SPEEK.

  9. Dihydrogenimidazole modified silica-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) hybrid materials as electrolyte membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelofs, Kimball S.; Hirth, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schiestel, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.Schiestel@igb.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-25

    The present study reports on dihydrogenimidazole modified inorganic-organic mixed matrix membranes for possible application as a proton exchange membrane in direct ethanol fuel cells. The polymeric phase consisted mainly of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with a sulfonation degree of 55%. The inorganic phase was built up from hydrophilic fumed silica particles interconnected with partially hydrolyzed and condensed tetraethoxysilane with a total inorganic loading of 27.3%. This inorganic phase was further modified with N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole (DHIM), which consists of an hydrolyzable inorganic part and a functional organic group. The influence of the modifier on the mixed matrix system was studied by means of various modifier concentrations in various aqueous-ethanolic systems (water, 2 M and 4 M ethanol). Modifier concentration and ethanol concentration of the ethanol-water mixture exhibited significant but opposite effects on the liquid uptake of the mixed matrix membranes. The proton conductivity as well as the proton diffusion coefficient as a function of modifier content showed a linear decrease. The proton conductivity as a function of temperature showed Arrhenius behavior and the activation energy of the mixed matrix membranes was 43.9 {+-} 2.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. High selectivity of proton diffusion coefficient to ethanol permeability coefficient was obtained with high modifier concentrations. At low modifier concentrations, this selectivity was dominated by ethanol permeation and at high modifier concentrations by proton diffusion. The main electrolyte properties can be optimized by setting the DHIM content in mixed matrix membrane. With this approach, tailor-made membranes can be prepared for possible application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  10. State of the water in crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). Two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Lafi, Abdul G. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Hay, James N., E-mail: cscientific9@aec.org.sy [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • 2D-DSC mapping was applied to analyze the heat flow responses of hydrated crosslinked sPEEK. • Two types of loosely bond water were observed. • The first was bond to the sulfonic acid groups and increased with ion exchange capacity. • The second was attributed to the polar groups introduced by ions irradiation and increased with crosslinking degree. • DSC combined with 2D mapping provides a powerful tool for polymer structural determination. - Abstract: This paper reports the first application of two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping, 2D-DSC-CM to analyze the heat flow responses of sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone), sPEEK, films having different ion exchange capacity and degrees of crosslinks. With the help of high resolution and high sensitivity of 2D-DSC-CM, it was possible to locate two types of loosely bound water within the structure of crosslinked sPEEK. The first was bound to the sulfonic acid groups and dependent on the ion exchange capacity of the sPEEK. The second was bound to other polar groups, either introduced by irradiation with ions and dependent on the crosslinking degree or present in the polymer such as the carbonyl groups or terminal units. The results suggest that the ability of the sulfonic acid groups in the crosslinked sPEEK membranes to adsorb water molecules is increased by crosslinking, probably due to the better close packing efficiency of the crosslinked samples. DSC combined with 2D correlation mapping provides a fast and powerful tool for polymer structural determination.

  11. Dispersibility and chemical bonds between multi-walled carbon nanotubes and poly(ether ether ketone) in nanocomposite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanmei, Jin, E-mail: jinyanmei818@163.com [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Institute of Functional Fibers, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Haihui, Liu; Ning, Wang; Lichen, Hou [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Institute of Functional Fibers, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Xing-Xiang, Zhang, E-mail: zhangpolyu@gmail.com [Tianjin Municipal Key Lab of Fiber Modification and Functional Fiber, Institute of Functional Fibers, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)

    2012-08-15

    A series of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)/poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK) nanocomposite fibers were fabricated by mixing, melt extruding PEEK with different loadings and species of MWNTs, and melt-spun the blended chips. Nanocomposite fibers were heat-stretched and heat-treated. The morphology and dispersibility of MWNTs in nanocomposite fibers were observed using a field emission environmental scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The thermal and crystallization behavior of nanocomposite fibers were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). Mechanical properties were tested using a tensile strength tester. MWNTs tend to aggregate when the loading exceeds 0.8 wt%. Functional groups on MWNTs improve the hydrophobicity and the dispersibility of MWNTs in PEEK matrix. The enhancement of mechanical properties depends on the loading and species of functional groups. The most effectively reinforced effect is in the sequence, carboxylic MWNTs (MWNT-COOH) > hydroxyl MWNTs (MWNT-OH) > MWNTs, which can be explained by the strong hydrogen bonding and the affinity between MWNT-COOH and PEEK, MWNT-OH and PEEK, and possible formation of a chemical bond between MWNT-COOH and PEEK. A nanocomposite fiber with excellent mechanical property was fabricated using 0.8 wt% MWNT-COOH as filler. The Young's modulus is 1.7 GPa; and the stress is 648 MPa. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functional groups on MWNTs improve their hydrophobility and dispersability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical properties depend on the content and species of the functional groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reinforced effect is in the sequence, carboxylic MWNTs > hydroxyl MWNTs > MWNTs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strength behavior was result of hydrogen bond, affinity and chemical bond. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispersability of MWNTs in matrix was analyzed by

  12. The effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

    1992-11-22

    In this paper, we determined whether ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (diEGME) induce hepatic gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Male adult Wistar rats weighing 220 g were used as experimental animals. EGME (100, 300 mg/kg per day) and diEGME (500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg per day) were administered by gavage for 1, 2 or 5 days or 4 weeks. In the 4-week study, experimental animals were administered EGME or diEGME once a day orally, 5 days/week. EGME treatment increased the serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level significantly, however, diEGME did not. The activities of three other enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP) in serum were not altered by EGME or diEGME treatment and thus there was no biochemical indices of hepatic damage by EGME or diEGME. EGME treatment increased the GGT activities in the liver and lungs. Of the organs examined, the induction of GGT was the greatest in the liver. The inducibility in the liver was 216% for the 5-day treatment and 460% for the 4-week treatment. A dose-dependent increase of hepatic microsomal GGT activity by EGME was observed. On the other hand, renal GGT activities were declined to 72% and 60% of control by the 5-day and 4-week EGME treatments, respectively. DiEGME did not affect the GGT activities in any of the tissues except those of the brain. In the histochemical study, most hepatocytes at the periportal zones were stained with GGT staining after the 4-week treatment. However, the hepatocytes at the central zones were negative.

  13. The Preparation and Intramolecular Radical Cyclisation Reactions of Chiral Oxime Ethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booth Susan E.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral oxime ether 2 and Oxime ester 4 have been prepared by alkylation and esterification of the oxime 1. Racemic hydroxylamine 6 and chiral hydroxylamine 10 have been synthesised from N-hydroxysuccinimide and the corresponding alcohol in the presence of diethylazodicarboxylate, the two products were converted into the oxime ethers 7 and 11 respectively. The intramolecular radical cyclisation reactions of these oxime ethers and esters has been studied, successful reaction was observed to produce alkyl hydroxylamines 3, 8 and 12.

  14. Conversion of dimethyl ether--boron trifluoride complex to potassium fluoborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, A.R.

    1957-06-18

    A method of preparing KBF/sub 4/ from the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ is given. This may be accomplished by introducing the dimethyl ether complex of BF/sub 3/ into an aqueous solution of KF and alcohol, expelling the ether liberated from the complex by heating or stirring and recovering the KBF/sub 4/ so formed. The KBF/sub 4/ is then filtered from the alcohol-water solution, which may be recycled, to reduce the loss of KBF/sub 4/ which is not recovered by filtration.

  15. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  16. Improved Alpha Testing Using Hashed Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Chris; McGuire, Morgan

    2017-08-14

    We further describe and analyze the idea of hashed alpha testing from Wyman and McGuire [1], which builds on stochastic alpha testing and simplifies stochastic transparency. Typically, alpha testing provides a simple mechanism to mask out complex silhouettes using simple proxy geometry with applied alpha textures. While widely used, alpha testing has a long-standing problem: geometry can disappear entirely as alpha mapped polygons recede with distance. As foveated rendering for virtual reality spreads, this problem worsens as peripheral minification and prefiltering introduce this problem on nearby objects.

  17. ALPHA,·ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-06

    Feb 6, 1971 ... Lieberman," in fact, found that 15·2% of 66 patients hospitalized with pulmonary emphysema had heterozygous alpha,-antitrypsin deficiency. The over-all incidence of the deficiency was 25'8% in this group. Of patients under the age of 50 years, 47·8% had deficient levels. If such observations are confirmed ...

  18. Alpha sources deposit by sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudry, F.; Eloy, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    We studied and realized a device able to perform some very thin substracts used for alpha spectrometry measurements. Sources are prepared by sublimation of the sample in a vacuum container. The energy required for this sublimation is furnished by a laser beam [fr

  19. Halogenated organics in Vietnamese and in Vietnam food. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and selected pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schecter, A.; Tung, K.C. [Univ. of Texas School of Public Health at Dallas, TX (United States); Quynh, Hong Trong [Oncology Institute, Ha Noi, Vietnam (Viet Nam); Paepke, O. [ERGO Research Laboratory, Hamburg (Germany); Malisch, R. [State Laboratory for Chemical and Veterinary Analysis, Freiburg (Germany); Constable, J.D. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Vietnam is frequently thought of as the location of the world's largest dioxin contamination, with over 400 pounds of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from Agent Orange defoliant sprayed from 1962 to 1971. Although this is true, distribution of dioxin from Agent Orange is far from ubiquitous in Vietnam. The north was never sprayed and only certain areas of central and south Vietnam were sprayed. Dioxins have been found in very high levels in human milk and in food in some select areas of Vietnam from the 1970s to the present. Other pesticides including DDT and metabolites, {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} HCH, and HCB have also been found in humans and in food. We review dioxin ''hot spots'' studied in the past with current suspect hot spots and also add to the chemicals studied in Vietnamese by measuring polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in nursing Vietnamese women's milk and compare these to levels from other countries.

  20. Crystal structures of pinoresinol-lariciresinol and phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductases and their relationship to isoflavone reductases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Tongpil; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Bedgar, Diana L.; Youn, Buhyun; Lawrence, Paulraj K.; Gang, David R.; Halls, Steven C.; Park, HaJeung; Hilsenbeck, Jacqueline L.; Davin, Laurence B.; hide

    2003-01-01

    Despite the importance of plant lignans and isoflavonoids in human health protection (e.g. for both treatment and prevention of onset of various cancers) as well as in plant biology (e.g. in defense functions and in heartwood development), systematic studies on the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis have only recently begun. In this investigation, three NADPH-dependent aromatic alcohol reductases were comprehensively studied, namely pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase (PLR), phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and isoflavone reductase (IFR), which are involved in central steps to the various important bioactive lignans and isoflavonoids. Of particular interest was in determining how differing regio- and enantiospecificities are achieved with the different enzymes, despite each apparently going through similar enone intermediates. Initially, the three-dimensional x-ray crystal structures of both PLR_Tp1 and PCBER_Pt1 were solved and refined to 2.5 and 2.2 A resolutions, respectively. Not only do they share high gene sequence similarity, but their structures are similar, having a continuous alpha/beta NADPH-binding domain and a smaller substrate-binding domain. IFR (whose crystal structure is not yet obtained) was also compared (modeled) with PLR and PCBER and was deduced to have the same overall basic structure. The basis for the distinct enantio-specific and regio-specific reactions of PCBER, PLR, and IFR, as well as the reaction mechanism and participating residues involved (as identified by site-directed mutagenesis), are discussed.

  1. Identification of oxygenated ions in premixed flames of dimethyl ether and oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøsig Østergaard, L.; Egsgaard, H.; Hammerum, S.

    2003-01-01

    dimethyl ether, (CH3)(2)OH+. The flame-ion m/z 61 is a mixture of the trimethyloxonium ion, (CH3)(3)O+ and lesser amounts of protonated methyl formate and/or protonated ethyl methyl ether. The viability of an ionic mechanism to soot formation for dimethyl ether-oxygen flames is discussed on the background......The structure of characteristic flame-ions in premixed flames of dimethyl ether and oxygen was studied by ion-molecule reactions with ammonia and collision activation with argon. The results obtained show that the flame-ions m/z 45 and m/z 47 are the methoxymethyl cation, CH3OCH2+, and protonated...

  2. Recommended Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data. Part 5. Ether-Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góral, Marian; Måczyński, Andrzej; Oracz, Paweł

    2007-12-01

    Recommended liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for 12 binary ether-water systems have been obtained after the critical evaluation of all data (168 data sets) reported for 17 systems in the open literature up to the end of 2006. An equation for the prediction of the ether solubilities in water was developed. The predicted ether solubilities were used for the calculation of water solubility in the ether-rich phase. The LLE calculations were done with the equation of state appended with a chemical term (EoSC) proposed by Góral [Fluid Phase Equilib. 118, 27 (1996)]. The recommended data are presented in the form of individual tables with references. Using these recommended data, predictive ability has been tested for several UNIFAC and ASOG group-contribution methods.

  3. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita

    2016-01-01

    A series of (E)-11-isonitrosostrychnine oxime ethers, 2-aminostrychnine, (strychnine-2-yl)propionamide, 18-oxostrychnine, and N-propylstrychnine bromide were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors in a functional fluorescence-based and a whole-cell patch......-clamp assay and in [(3)H]strychnine binding studies. 2-Aminostrychnine and the methyl, allyl, and propargyl oxime ethers were the most potent α1 and α1β antagonists in the series, displaying IC50 values similar to those of strychnine at the two receptors. Docking experiments to the strychnine binding site...... of the crystal structure of the α3 glycine receptor indicated the same orientation of the strychnine core for all analogues. For the most potent oxime ethers, the ether substituent was accommodated in a lipophilic receptor binding pocket. The findings identify the oxime hydroxy group as a suitable attachment...

  4. Rate Constants for the Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical with Several Alkanes, Cycloalkanes, and Dimethyl Ether

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMore, W.; Bayes, K.

    1998-01-01

    Relative rate experiements were used to measure rate constants and temperature denpendencies of the reactions of OH with propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-hexane, cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclopentane, and dimethyl ether.

  5. A superconcentrated ether electrolyte for fast-charging Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuki; Yaegashi, Makoto; Abe, Takeshi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2013-12-11

    We have found ultrafast Li(+) intercalation into graphite in a superconcentrated ether electrolyte, even exceeding that in a currently used commercial electrolyte. This discovery is an important breakthrough toward fast-charging Li-ion batteries far beyond present technologies.

  6. The smallest quaternary ammonium salts with ether groups for high-performance electrochemical double layer capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Taihee; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Jeonghun; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Ketack

    2016-03-01

    Electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLCs) are energy storage devices that have been used for a wide range of electronic applications. In particular, the electrolyte is one of the important components, directly related to the capacitance and stability. Herein, we first report a series of the smallest quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), with ether groups on tails and tetrafluoroborate (BF 4 ) as an anion, for use in EDLCs. To find the optimal structure, various QASs with different sized head groups and ether-containing tail groups were systematically compared. Comparing two nearly identical structures with and without ether groups, QASs with oxygen atoms showed improved capacitance, proving that ions with oxygen atoms move more easily than their counterparts at lower electric fields. Moreover, the ether containing QASs showed low activation energy values of conductivities, leading to smaller IR drops during the charge and discharge processes, resulting in an overall higher capacitance.

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination levels in fish from the Antarctic and the Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghesi, N.; Corsolini, S.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Brandsma, S.H.; de Boer, J.

    2009-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations and congener profiles were evaluated in four species of Antarctic fish (Chionodraco hamatus, Chaempsocephalus gunnari, Gymnoscopelus nicholsi, Trematomus eulepidotes) and in one Mediterranean species (Tuna, Thunnus thynnus). The GC/MS-ECNI

  9. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene

    2010-09-08

    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  10. Modeling of a Reaction-Distillation-Recycle System to Produce Dimethyl Ether through Methanol Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharam, Y.; Zulkarnain, L. M.; Wirya, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The increase in the dimethyl ether yield through methanol dehydration due to a recycle integration to a reaction-distillation system was studied in this research. A one-dimensional phenomenological model of a methanol dehydration reactor and a shortcut model of distillation columns were used to achieve the aim. Simulation results show that 10.7 moles/s of dimethyl ether is produced in a reaction-distillation system with the reactor length being 4 m, the reactor inlet pressure being 18 atm, the reactor inlet temperature being 533 K, the reactor inlet velocity being 0.408 m/s, and the distillation pressure being 8 atm. The methanol conversion is 90% and the dimethyl ether yield is 48%. The integration of the recycle stream to the system increases the dimethyl ether yield by 8%.

  11. SYNTHESIS, COMPLEXATION BEHAVIOR AND REACTIONS OF THIA-CROWN ETHERS INCORPORATING PROPAN-2-ONE UNITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KELLOGG, RM; VANBOLHUIS, F

    1991-01-01

    Thia-crown ethers containing ketone functionality derived from 1,3-dichloroacetone have been prepared in 70-80% yields; the crystal structures of one free macrocycle and two Ag1 complexes have been determined.

  12. Protective effects of ether, oxygen and their mixture for radiation in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megumi, Tsuneo; Tsujii, Yukio; Gamo, Sumiko

    1992-01-01

    Protective effects of ether mixed with air or oxygen against ionizing radiation damages were demonstrated in adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster. The protective effects against knock-down on the second day and lethality on the eighth day after irradiation were not affected by the radiation sensitivity and DNA repair capacity of the strains. Ether (4.2%) in oxygen was more effective than ether in air for both endpoints. The protective effects may be due to damages not involving cell division, since no mitotic cells are observed in adult flies except in gonadal glands. A change in the orderliness of the cell membrane by ether is suggested to be the cause of the protective effects. (author). 16 refs.; 3 tabs

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  14. 6-C-METHYLQUERCETIN-3, 3', 4'-TRIMETHYL ETHER FROM THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ether and a 2-phenoxychromone ( Piliostigmin) and were isolated along with quercetin, quercetrin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The chemotaxonomic significance of the findings is briefly discussed. Key Words: Piliostigma reticulatum; Caesalpinaceae; leaves; 2-phenoxychromone; C- methylflavonols; chemotaxonomy.

  15. Water-filled telescopes and the pre-history of Fresnel's ether dragging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller Pedersen, K.

    2000-06-01

    This essay examines the development of the optics of moving transparent bodies during the 19th century. In particular, it highlights how the discussion of stellar and terrestrial aberration influenced the formulation of Fresnel's theory of ether dragging.

  16. Magnetic, thermal and spectroscopic properties of 5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATA BOCIAN

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The 5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II were synthesized as solids and their magnetic, spectral and thermal properties studied. The complexes possess colours typical of the M(II ions. The thermal stabilities were examined in air and nitrogen atmospheres and the products of decompositions were also identified. The magnetic susceptibilities of the complexes were measured over the temperature range 4.4–300 K and the magnetic moments were calculated. The results show that the 5-chloro-2-methoxybenzoates of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II are octahedral, high-spin complexes.

  17. Investigating Spectrum of Biological Activity of 4- and 5-Chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[2-(arylamino-1-alkyl-2-oxoethyl]benzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Stolarikova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a series of twenty-two 5-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[2-(arylamino-1-alkyl-2-oxoethyl]benzamides and ten 4-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-[2-(arylamino-1-alkyl-2-oxoethyl]benzamides is described. The compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC to determine lipophilicity. Primary in vitro screening of the synthesized compounds was performed against mycobacterial, bacterial and fungal strains. They were also evaluated for their activity related to the inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport (PET in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. chloroplasts. The compounds showed biological activity comparable with or higher than the standards isoniazid, fluconazole, penicillin G or ciprofloxacin. For all the compounds, the relationships between the lipophilicity and the chemical structure of the studied compounds as well as their structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  18. Complexation of molecular clips containing fragments of diphenylglycoluril and benzocrown ethers with paraquat and its derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Kikot'

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexation of molecular clips containing fragments of diphenylglycoluril and benzocrown ethers with paraquat and its derivatives has been studied both in solution and in the solid state. In this paper we studied the influence of the crown ether ring size and the nature of the substituents at the nitrogen atoms of the paraquat derivatives on the composition and stability of these complexes.

  19. Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Nitschke, L; Boehmer, S; Kiranoglu, M; Göen, T

    2013-03-01

    Glycol ethers are a class of semi-volatile substances used as solvents in a variety of consumer products like cleaning agents, paints, cosmetics as well as chemical intermediates. We determined 11 metabolites of ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in 44 urine samples of German residents (background level study) and in urine samples of individuals after exposure to glycol ethers during cleaning activities (exposure study). In the study on the background exposure, methoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) could be detected in each urine sample with median (95th percentile) values of 0.11 mgL(-1) (0.30 mgL(-1)) and 0.80 mgL(-1) (23.6 mgL(-1)), respectively. The other metabolites were found in a limited number of samples or in none. In the exposure study, 5-8 rooms were cleaned with a cleaner containing ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), propylene glycol monobutyl ether (PGBE), or ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (EGPE). During cleaning the mean levels in the indoor air were 7.5 mgm(-3) (EGBE), 3.0 mgm(-3) (PGBE), and 3.3 mgm(-3) (EGPE), respectively. The related metabolite levels analysed in the urine of the residents of the rooms at the day of cleaning were 2.4 mgL(-1) for butoxyacetic acid, 0.06 mgL(-1) for 2-butoxypropionic acid, and 2.3 mgL(-1) for n-propoxyacetic acid. Overall, our study indicates that the exposure of the population to glycol ethers is generally low, with the exception of PhAA. Moreover, the results of the cleaning scenarios demonstrate that the use of indoor cleaning agents containing glycol ethers can lead to a detectable internal exposure of residents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The action of certain antibiotics and ether on swine enzootic pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, R G

    1971-01-01

    The susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to the action of three antibiotics and diethyl ether was determined. Infected swine were used in an in vivo sensitivity detection system. The parameter of susceptibility was lesion prophylaxis. In vivo, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae appeared to be resistant to diethyl ether, tylosin tartrate, and erythromycin, but was susceptible to the action of chlortetracycline. Chlortetracycline was effective in preventing the development of lesions when given at levels which would be practical in commercial swine operations.