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Sample records for alpacas vicugna pacos

  1. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  2. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Liguori; Salvatore Paino; Caterina Squillacioti; Adriana De Luca; Sabrina Alì; Emilia Langella; Nicola Mirabella

    2013-01-01

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxilase (TH), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) was analyzed in the epididymis by using immunohistochem...

  3. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    HYUGA, Ayako; Matsumoto, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts o...

  4. The Genetic Inheritance of the Blue-eyed White Phenotype in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Jackling, Felicity C.; Warren E. Johnson; Appleton, Belinda R

    2012-01-01

    White-spotting patterns in mammals can be caused by mutations in the gene KIT, whose protein is necessary for the normal migration and survival of melanocytes from the neural crest. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) blue-eyed white (BEW) phenotype is characterized by 2 blue eyes and a solid white coat over the whole body. Breeders hypothesize that the BEW phenotype in alpacas is caused by the combination of the gene causing gray fleece and a white-spotting gene. We performed an association study usi...

  5. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyuga, Ayako; Matsumoto, Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts of Eimeria punoensis and/or E. alpacae were found in 69.8%, E. lamae in 1.9% and E. macusaniensis in 7.5%. We found that alpacas raised in Japan have gastrointestinal parasitic fauna similar to those in other countries. PMID:26725443

  6. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America.

  7. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  8. Double ovulation and occurrence of twinning in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A J; Pearson, L K; Spencer, T E; Tibary, A

    2015-08-01

    Twin births are rare in alpacas despite the high incidence of double ovulation and are undesirable because they contribute to early and late pregnancy loss, abortion, and birth of nonviable neonates. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and outcome of twin pregnancy in double-ovulating alpacas by retrospective and prospective analysis. Data from double-ovulating females (N = 41) presented for pregnancy diagnosis were analyzed to determine pregnancy status at three stages after mating (14-16, 25-30, and 45-53 days). In a prospective study, adult reproductively sound alpacas (n = 21) were examined by ultrasonography to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. A subset of those alpacas (n = 10) were euthanized either at 9 days (n = 5) or 14 days (n = 5) after a single mating and administration of GnRH to determine presence and number of embryos. A total of 31 cycles were included in the study to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. In the retrospective study, twin pregnancies were identified between 25 and 30 days in 47.1% of double-ovulating females. There were more twins from bilateral ovulations (62.5%) than from unilateral ovulations (37.5%). Twin pregnancies were either reduced to a singleton (62.5%) or lost completely (37.5%). One set of twins remained viable until Day 52. In the prospective study, double ovulation occurred in 18.8% of the cycles. Two embryos were collected from two of the four double-ovulating females. In conclusion, twin conception is not rare in alpacas. A high rate of spontaneous reduction of twin pregnancies occurs before Day 45. However, a significant proportion of twin pregnancy may result in loss of both embryos. Determination of the number of ovulations (CL) at the time of early pregnancy diagnosis (14-16 days) should be an integral part of any pregnancy evaluation. PMID:25963129

  9. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  10. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid (Vicugna pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Liguori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpacas (Vicugna pacos are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, neuropeptide Y (NPY, tyrosine hydroxilase (TH, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP was analyzed in the epididymis by using immunohistochemical methods. Specimens of the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis with primary antibodies against PGP 9.5, NPY, TH, CGRP and SP. Immunopositivity to PGP 9.5 and TH and NPY was observed in nerve fibre bundles and in single nerve fibres contained into the peritubular connective tissue. Many TH and NPY immunopositive cells were found to innervate blood vessels. Rare CGRP and SP immunopositive nerves were observed. Several PGP 9,5 and NPY immunopositive epithelial cells were observed in the caput epididymis. The results of the present study suggest a role for the innervations in modulate reproductive functions in the alpaca epididymis.

  11. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex. PMID:26243695

  12. Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuju; He, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Junbing; He, Junping; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; Geng, Jianjun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling has been considered as a key pathway in both melanocyte development and melanogenesis. To understand better the expression patterns and tissue distribution characterization of HGF and its receptor c-Met in skin of white versus brown alpaca (Vicugna pacos), we detected the tissue distribution of HGF and c-Met using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the expression patterns by using Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that HGF staining robustly increased in the dermal papilla and mesenchymal cells of white alpaca skin compared with that of brown. However, c-Met staining showed strongly positive result, particularly inhair matrix and root sheath in brown alpaca skin. Western blot and qPCR results suggested that HGF and c-Met were expressed at significantly high levels in white and brown alpaca skins, respectively, and protein and transcripts possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. The results suggested that HGF/c-Met signaling functions in alpaca coat color formation offer essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of HGF/c-Met signaling in pigment formation. PMID:26099836

  13. Outbreak of sarcoptic mange in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and control with repeated subcutaneous ivermectin injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, D F; Birch, E S; Schock, A

    2009-02-01

    An outbreak of sarcoptic mange was investigated in an alpaca herd. Clinical disease occurred 2 months after the introduction of four alpacas with dry seborrhoeic skin lesions, the cause of which was not investigated. Initially a group of females was affected, despite repeated topical treatment with ivermectin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg bodyweight. One female died and post-mortem examination indicated sarcoptic mange as the cause of death. Infection with Sarcoptes scabiei was also demonstrated on microscopic examination of skin scrapes taken from clinically affected cohorts. Later in the outbreak, a separate group of male alpacas was also affected. Treatment using subcutaneous ivermectin injections at a dose of 0.2mg/kg, administered at 14-day intervals, was evaluated. During this course of treatment, another female died. A successful response in the other alpacas was eventually reached following 12 treatments of the female group and 8 treatments of the male group. PMID:19019545

  14. Molecular analysis of methanogenic archaea in the forestomach of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Pierre Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanogens that populate the gastrointestinal tract of livestock ruminants contribute significantly to methane emissions from the agriculture industry. There is a great need to analyze archaeal microbiomes from a broad range of host species in order to establish causal relationships between the structure of methanogen communities and their potential for methane emission. In this report, we present an investigation of methanogenic archaeal populations in the foregut of alpacas. Results We constructed individual 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from five sampled animals and recovered a total of 947 sequences which were assigned to 51 species-level OTUs. Individuals were found to each have between 21 and 27 OTUs, of which two to six OTUs were unique. As reported in other host species, Methanobrevibacter was the dominant genus in the alpaca, representing 88.3% of clones. However, the alpaca archaeal microbiome was different from other reported host species, as clones showing species-level identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were the most abundant. Conclusion From our analysis, we propose a model to describe the population structure of Methanobrevibacter-related methanogens in the alpaca and in previously reported host species, which may contribute in unraveling the complexity of symbiotic archaeal communities in herbivores.

  15. Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended. PMID:26331964

  16. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas. PMID:19144029

  17. Genetic diversity in alpaca (Vicugna pacos) populations using 10 microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpacas from Puno, Junin and Huancavelica were analysed by a panel of 10 microsatellite markers in order to determine the level of genetic diversity among these populations. A sample of two hundred and sixty five non-related alpacas showed allelic polymorphism identifying a total of 144 microsatellite alleles. Alleles number ranged from 6 (YWLL40) to 28 (YWLL08), with a mean number of alleles per locus (MNA) of 14.40. The polymorphic information content ranged from 0.635 (YWLL40) to 0.942 (YWLL08) with a mean of 0.7975, while expected heterozygosity (HE) ranged from 0.692 (YWLL40) to 0946 (YWLL08) with a mean of 0.8207. All loci except LCA37 (heterozygote deficit, P IS = 0.015) with the highest value of 0.046 for Sector Carniceria B - Huancavelica. No significant (P > 0.01) inbreeding effect (FIS) was detected in alpaca populations. FIT value was 0.037 (RhoIT = 0.0318) for all population and FST value for all populations was 0.024 (RhoST = 0.0171). A FST value of 0.024 (P ST value (0.753) and RhoST (0.736) with a frequency of private alleles of 0.0207 and number of migrants of 7.8359 in all alpaca populations. A Neighbor-joining tree was constructed based in Nei's genetic distance DA and standard genetic distance DS using DISPAN software. Four cluster were identified: Junin (Cochas and Pachacayo), Puno (Munani and Lacchoc), Huancavelica 1 (Sector Carniceria A) and Huancavelica 2 (Sector Pallccapampa). Individual assignment test and Bayesian clustering analysis were used to evaluate population structure using Structure v2.2 software. Structure analysis showed three clusters: (i) Sector Carniceria A - Huancavelica, (ii) Sector Pallccapampa - Huancavelica (include Sector Carniceria B) and (iii) Junin - Puno (include Cochas, Pachacayo from Junin, Munani from Puno and Lacchoc from Huancavelica). Substancial genetic differentiation between Huancavelica with Junin and Puno were found. The preliminary results showed that alpaca populations in Peru maintained high genetic

  18. Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Fan, R; Shi, Z; Ji, K; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Herrid, M; Zhang, Q; Yao, J; Smith, G W; Dong, C

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coat colors in animals are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and coat color in mammals. In a previous study, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles in alpaca skin with brown and white coat color and identified a novel miRNA (named lpa-miR-nov-66) that is expressed significantly higher in white skin compared to brown skin. The present study was conducted to determine the functional roles of this novel miRNA in the regulation of melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. lpa-miR-nov-66 is predicted to target the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) gene based on presence of a binding site in the sGC coding sequence (CDS). Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in alpaca melanocyes upregulated the expression of sGC both at the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocyes also resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Our ELISA assays showed increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) but decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in melanocytes overexpressing lpa-miR-nov-66. In addition, overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 also reduced melanin production in cultured melanocytes. Results support a role of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocytes by directly or indirectly targeting , which regulates melanogenesis via the cAMP pathway. PMID:26020184

  19. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production. PMID:25917946

  20. Biochemical composition and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) oviductal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Miceli, D C; Stelletta, C

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge and assessment of the constituents of the oviductal fluid (OF) in camelids is necessary for a correct formulation of specific culture media for the development of reproductive biotechnology. This study is the first describing the biochemical composition and SDS-PAGE protein profile of alpaca oviductal fluid in non-pregnant animals and animals that have completed the first month and second month of gestation. Samples were also classified into oviducts that were ipsilateral or contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. No differences were found between both oviducts, whereas pregnant and non-pregnant females displayed significant differences in the biochemical composition and protein profile of the oviductal fluid. Relative albumin content was higher in non-pregnant females. Relative creatinine content in OF from females that have completed the second month of gestation was lower than non-pregnant females and females that have completed the first month of gestation. Ion Na(+) concentration was higher in OF from non-pregnant females when compared with pregnant ones. The protein profile of non-pregnant females showed five protein bands of 70, 42, 25, 24 and 19kDa that were significantly more intense compared with pregnant animals. Bands were identified as moesin, actin cytoplasmic 2, hydroxypyruvate isomerase, ferritin light chain and peroxiredoxin-6 with MALDI/MS. Our results encourage more thorough future studies, in order to unravel the complex reproductive processes of the South American camelid oviduct. PMID:25592861

  1. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

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    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue. PMID:25981447

  2. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos), llamas (Lama glama) guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    M Celedón; Sandoval, A.; J. Droguett; R. Calfio; L. Ascencio; Pizarro, J.; Navarro, C.

    2001-01-01

    Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN) para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina) y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1), en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos ), 43 llamas (Lama glama ), 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe ) y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna ), procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,...

  3. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca.

  4. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru. PMID:26932444

  5. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries) grazed on pasture in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive s...

  6. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  7. Parentage testing and molecular sexing in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) using microsatellite markers and ZFY/ZFX genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess and apply a microsatellite multiplex system for parentage determination and sex identification test by analysis of the ZFX and ZFY genes in alpacas. A panel of 10 microsatellites were evaluated for parentage testing in a population of 329 unrelated alpacas and 121 related alpacas from a pedigree book (Mallkini Breeding Center - Puno). All microsatellite markers, which amplified in two multiplex reactions, were highly polymorphic with a mean of 14.5 alleles per locus (six to 28 alleles per locus) and an average expected heterozygosity (HE) of 0.8185 (range of 0.698 to 0.946). The total parentage exclusion probability was 0.999456 for excluding a candidate parent from parentage of an arbitrary offspring, given only the genotype of the offspring, and 0.999991 for excluding a candidate parent from parentage of an arbitrary offspring, given the genotype of the offspring and the other parent. In a case test of parentage assignment, the microsatellite panel assigned 53 (from 53 cases) offspring parentage to 15 sires with LOD scores ranging from 2.19 · 10+13 to 1.34 · 10+15 and D values ranging from 2.80 · 10+12 to 1.34 · 10+15 with an estimated pedigree error rate of 13.2%. The performance of this multiplex panel of markers suggests that it will be useful in parentage testing of alpacas. Primers from ungulates conserved ZFY and ZFX loci were used to amplify 450 bp of the ZFX/ZFY loci by PCR from female and male alpaca DNA. Both strands of the PCR products (417 bases) were sequenced on a ABI3130 Genetic Analyzer (ABI). Eleven gender-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed and used to design sex-specific primers. Three specific primers were designed for the differential PCR amplification of the ZFY and ZFX sequence in alpacas. Primers were tested with thirty unrelated alpacas (15 female and 15 males); female alpaca DNA produced a 238 bp single fragment and male alpacas showed two fragments (238 and 127bp) by PCR. Both

  8. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures. PMID:26751874

  9. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos, llamas (Lama glama guanacos (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Celedón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1, en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,7% ovinos, en 21 (6,5% caprinos, en 8 (10,8% alpacas y en 6 (14% llamas. Los guanacos y vicuñas fueron seronegativos para pestivirus. Para herpesvirus, la seropositividad se obtuvo en 8 (2,5% ovinos y 62 (19,3% caprinos. No se detectaron anticuerpos para herpesvirus en las muestras de camélidos. Según la distribución geográfica los mayores porcentajes de positividad resultaron ser: para pestivirus en ovinos de 2/3 predios de la XII Región (con positividad de 66,7% y 82,1%, con rangos de títulos de 16 a 710 y, para herpesvirus en caprinos de 5/6 predios de la IV Región (con positividad de 4,2%, 13,3%, 28,6%, 61,5% y 66,7%, con rango de títulos de 2 a 45. Las alpacas y llamas serorreaccionantes a pestivirus se encontraban ubicadas en la Región Metropolitana, en confinamiento en conjunto con otras especies de rumiantes, en cambio que las especies silvestres, guanacos y vicuñas fueron muestreadas en sus lugares de origen. Se confirma que en Chile existe infección por pestivirus en ovinos, caprinos, llamas y alpacas y por herpesvirus en ovinos y caprinosMicrotitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhea virus (NADL strain and herpesvirus: bovine herpes virus 1 (Los Angeles strain in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , from several Regions of Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found

  10. Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, P D; Mackie, I; Perry, J; Caraguel, C; Townsend, K; Reichel, M P

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. PMID:27021895

  11. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  12. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  13. Miljöberikning för domesticerade lamadjur i en djurpark : En studie om lama (Lama glama) och alpacka (Vicugna pacos) och deras beteenden

    OpenAIRE

    Pörhölä, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to enrich the environment for llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in a zoo. The zoo is located in northern Sweden (Umeå, Mickelträsk). The llama herd consists of three individuals of breed qara, two males and one female and the alpaca herd consists of six individuals of breed huacaya, one male, four females and one foal. The species lived in separate enclosures, they lived outside all year round and they had a shelter for wind and rain protection. They ...

  14. Successful treatment of atlantooccipital luxation in an alpaca (Lama pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Aiken, Sean W; Calle, Paul P

    2006-03-01

    A 7-mo-old male alpaca (Lama pacos) presented with an abnormal lowered posture of the head and neck and reluctance to walk. Cervical radiographs demonstrated atlantooccipital luxation. Successful manual closed reduction was achieved while the animal was anesthetized, resulting in complete return to normal gait and posture. PMID:17312819

  15. Caracterización fenotípica y molecular de poblaciones de alpaca (Vicugna pacos) de las comunidades altoandinas y aplicación al programa de mejora de la calidad de la fibra

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Peralta, Marcia Marisol

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo, busca contribuir a los programas de mejora genética que se están emprendiendo en el sector de los Camélidos Sudamericanos para la mejora de la capacidad productiva de la alpaca, incidiendo sobre todo en la calidad de la fibra. Las poblaciones de Alpacas peruanas del presente trabajo proceden de ganaderías localizadas en las comunidades más representativas de la Reserva Nacional de Salinas y Aguada Blanca (RNSAB) que son referentes de producción en la reg...

  16. Testicular length as an indicator of the onset of sperm production in alpacas under Swedish conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Maria Celina; Puhakka, Johanna; Ruete, Alejandro; Al-Essawe, Essraa M; Verdier, de kerstin SVA; Morrell, Jane; Båge, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Background: The popularity of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) is increasing in Sweden as well as in other countries; however, knowledge about optimal management practices under Swedish conditions is still limited. The wide age range reported when the onset of puberty can occur, between 1 and 3years of age, makes management decisions difficult and may be influenced by the conditions under which the alpacas are kept. The aim of this study was to find out when Swedish alpacas can be expected to start pr...

  17. Tuberculosis in Alpacas (Lama pacos) Caused by Mycobacterium bovis▿

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bocanegra, I.; Barranco, I.; Rodríguez-Gómez, I. M.; Pérez, B.; Gómez-Laguna, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Ruiz-Villamayor, E.; Perea, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of tuberculosis in alpacas from Spain caused by Mycobacterium bovis. The animals revealed two different lesional patterns. Mycobacterial culture and PCR assay yielded positive results for M. bovis. Molecular typing of the isolates identified spoligotype SB0295 and identical variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) allele sizes.

  18. Farmacocinética de la ampicilina en Alpacas (Lama pacos ) Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in Alpacas (Lama pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    V Kreil; C LUDERS; R HALLU; M. Rebuelto; Betancourt, L.

    2001-01-01

    La ampicilina es un antibiótico betalactámico de uso frecuente en medicina veterinaria. Dada la escasa o nula información existente en alpacas, en el presente estudio se plantea como objetivo describir el comportamiento farmacocinético en esta especie. Para ello se utilizaron 6 alpacas a las cuales se les administraron por las vías endovenosa e intramuscular, 15 mg/kg de ampicilina. Las concentraciones en suero fueron obtenidas por el método microbiológico, usando Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 ...

  19. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    OpenAIRE

    JUAN C MARÍN; BEATRIZ ZAPATA; González, Benito A.; CRISTIAN BONACIC; JANE C WHEELER; CIARA CASEY; Bruford, Michael W.; R. EDUARDO PALMA; ELIE POULIN; M. ANGÉLICA ALLIENDE; Spotorno,Ángel E.

    2007-01-01

    Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe) y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna), y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos) y llama (Lama glama), cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares...

  20. Farmacocinética de la ampicilina en Alpacas (Lama pacos Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin in Alpacas (Lama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V KREIL

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La ampicilina es un antibiótico betalactámico de uso frecuente en medicina veterinaria. Dada la escasa o nula información existente en alpacas, en el presente estudio se plantea como objetivo describir el comportamiento farmacocinético en esta especie. Para ello se utilizaron 6 alpacas a las cuales se les administraron por las vías endovenosa e intramuscular, 15 mg/kg de ampicilina. Las concentraciones en suero fueron obtenidas por el método microbiológico, usando Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 como microorganismo patrón. Las concentraciones decayeron en forma biexponencial. Los parámetros obtenidos en suero para la vía endovenosa e intramuscular fueron respectivamente (media ± desviación estandar: t ½alfa = 0,14 ± 0,08 y 0,35 ± 0,12 horas; t½beta = 0,60 ± 0,20 y 0,79 ± 0,52 horas; Vd ss = 0,63 ± 0,05 y 0,80 ± 0,25 l/kg; Cl total = 15,96 ± 3,00 y 15,79 ± 2,89 ml/min/kg; ABC = 16,43 ± 3,44 y 17,22 ± 2,20 my g/ml*h. Cuando se administró por la vía i.m., el valor de t½a fue de 0,05 ± 0,01 horas; Cmax = 18,38 ± 3,8 ug/ml y t max = 0,16 ± 0,04 horas. La biodisponibilidad fue de 107 ± 20 %. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los parámetros obtenidos por las distintas vías de administración. La ampicilina demostró alcanzar concentraciones efectivas en suero que superan la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM para la mayoría de los patógenos gram positivos de interés veterinario hasta 3,5 horas después de la administración, teniendo una rápida y completa absorción desde sitio de aplicación y una corta vida media biológica.Ampicillin is a betalactamic antibiotic of frequent use in human and veterinary medicine. Ampicillin pharmacokinetics was determined in 6 alpacas after intravenous and intramuscular injection of 15 mg/kg body weight. Serum concentrations were obtained by the microbiologic method, using Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 as the test microorganism. Results best fitted

  1. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  2. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Haidong Wang; Yanjun Dong; Wenhua Chen; Junping Hei; Changsheng Dong

    2011-01-01

    During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF) may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn) alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (...

  3. Tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos on a farm in ireland. 2. results of an epidemiological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly DJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice, the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

  4. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed nosignificant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis,which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis.

  5. Presencia y distribución de las papilas linguales en la alpaca (Lama pacos Linnaeus, 1758 Presence and distribution of lingual papillae in alpaca (Lamapacos Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Butendieck

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En 12 lenguas de alpacas se estudió la presencia y distribuciónde las papilas linguales. Las papilas circunvaladas se encuentran en laparte posterior del dorso del cuerpo lingual y se disponen formando unafila, que puede estar conformada por una a cinco papilas. Las papilas fungiformesse distribuyen mayoritariamente en el dorso y superficie ventral del ápexlingual. Se comprobó la no existencia de papilas foliadas. Las papilasfiliformes son aguzadas, están orientadas aboralmente y forman unacapa muy densa en la superficie dorsal por delante de la fosa lingual.Las papilas cónicas son muy variadas y una derivación deellas es particularmente notoria por su forma, disposición y desarrollopor lo que deberían recibir el nombre de papilas bunoformes. Seanalizan las características morfológicas de las diferentespapilas, se las compara con las de otros rumiantes y se discute su posiblesignificancia, lo que permite clasificar a la alpaca como de tipo intermedioentre herbívoros y ramoneadoresIn order to study the presence, location and distribution of thelingual papillae in alpacas (Lama pacos, 12 tongues were studied. The vallatae papillae were observed in the posterior part of the tonguebody and arranged on both sides as a line of 1 to 5 papillae. The fungiformpapillae were distributed mainly in the dorsal and ventral surface of thetip of the tongue. No foliate papillae were observed. The filiform papillaewere fine thread-like cornified processes with caudal direction mainlyclosely packed rostral to the lingual fossa. The conical papillae presenteddiverse morphological features, but a derivation of conical papillae thatwas identificated by shape, disposition and development was clearly observed,proposing their name as bunoformes papillae. The morphological features of each type of papillae were compared withthe papillae of other ruminants and their possible significance discussed

  6. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, David R; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2007-07-31

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the smaller, more tractable and widely available alpaca is an excellent source of VHH coding DNA. Alpaca sera IgG consists of about 50% HCAbs, mostly of the short-hinge variety. Sequencing of DNA encoding more than 50 random VHH and hinge domains permitted the design of PCR primers that will amplify virtually all alpaca VHH coding DNAs for phage display library construction. Alpacas were immunized with ovine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and a VHH phage display library was prepared from a lymph node that drains the sites of immunizations and successfully employed in the isolation of VHHs that bind and neutralize ovine TNFalpha. PMID:17568607

  7. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. PMID:27010259

  8. Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Eliana; Sánchez, Manuel Lisardo; Aguilar, Luís Ángel; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Ángel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca brainstem. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the whole brainstem: 34 brainstem nuclei/regions showed a high or a moderate density of these fibers. Perikarya containing the peptide were widely distributed throughout the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. Cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) were observed in the lateral and medial divisions of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, reticular formation (mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata), inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, and in the substantia nigra. This widespread distribution indicates that somatostatin-28 (1-12) is involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem. PMID:25754727

  9. Effects of vasectomy on seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase in male alpacas (Vicugña pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, L K; Campbell, A J; Sandoval, S; Tibary, A

    2013-12-01

    Azoospermia is a common finding in male alpacas which present for infertility. The challenge is to differentiate azoospermia of testicular origin from non-testicular origin. In several species, alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in seminal plasma have been used as a diagnostic marker of contributions of the testis and epididymis to the ejaculate. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AP assay could differentiate testicular from non-testicular azoospermia in male alpacas. An experimental model of bilateral outflow obstruction (pre-scrotal vasectomy) was used in 22 male alpacas, aged 2-9 years. No reproductive history was available. Animals were submitted for electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia and vasectomy performed. Five weeks later, animals were submitted for EE. Vasectomy was not successful in one animal, which was removed from analysis. AP levels were compared in seminal plasma in the pre- and post-vasectomy samples. The mean ± SEM concentration of AP in pre-vasectomy seminal plasma was 504.29 ± 166.45 U/l (range 10-2910); the post-vasectomy levels were 252.48 ± 81.77 U/l (range 0-1640; p = 0.06). In 71.4% of animals, AP levels decreased, varying from 18% to 100% reduction. Results of this study suggest that AP is not produced exclusively by the testis and epididymis in alpacas and that AP assay is not a valid diagnostic test for determination of origin of azoospermia; the gold standard for diagnosis of origin of azoospermia remains testicular biopsy. PMID:23790090

  10. Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadio, R; Londoñe, P; Pérez, D; Castillo, H; Véliz, A; Llanco, L; Yaya, K; Maturrano, L

    2010-02-26

    Histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from Clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the Departments of Arequipa, Puno and Cusco of southern Peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (January-March), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic enteritis. It is proposed that damage to the mucosa produced by coccidial infections may facilitate overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens with toxin production leading to fatal enterotoxemia. PMID:19926224

  11. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Changsheng Dong; Junping Hei; Wenhua Chen; Yanjun Dong; Haidong Wang

    2011-01-01

    During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF) may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn) alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differenc...

  12. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn.) Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn.) en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    G Castellaro; F Squella N; F León C; A Raggi S

    2008-01-01

    The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas) in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn.) in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season). The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of spars...

  13. Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Akazawa, Yoko; Takashima, Mizuki; Hagihara, Yosihisa; Inoue, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ogawa, Ryu; Inoue, Seiya; Ito, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning. PMID:25888581

  14. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p < 0.05; 12- and 24-month old alpacas showed no significant differences (p > 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 55–61

  15. Molecular analysis of methanogenic archaea in the forestomach of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    St-Pierre Benoit; Wright André-Denis G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Methanogens that populate the gastrointestinal tract of livestock ruminants contribute significantly to methane emissions from the agriculture industry. There is a great need to analyze archaeal microbiomes from a broad range of host species in order to establish causal relationships between the structure of methanogen communities and their potential for methane emission. In this report, we present an investigation of methanogenic archaeal populations in the foregut of alp...

  16. Aislamiento e identificación de pestivirus obtenidos de alpacas (Lama pacos) y llamas (Lama glama) de la Región Metropolitana, Chile Isolation and identification of pestiviruses in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) introduced to the Región Metropolitana, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    M O Celedón; Osorio, J.; Pizarro, J.

    2006-01-01

    El ambiente natural para más del 90% de las alpacas (Lama pacos) y llamas (Lama glama), camélidos sudamericanos (CSA) domésticos de Chile, se ubica entre los 11° y 21° latitud sur a 3.800 y 5.000 m de altitud. En el último tiempo las alpacas y las llamas han sido introducidas en otros lugares geográficos del país, donde toman contacto con rumiantes domésticos, facilitándose la infección con el virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB) que está presente en bovinos, ovinos y caprinos de Chile. El VDVB ...

  17. Estudio epidemiológico de larvas de nemátodos gastrointestinales en praderas pastoreadas por alpacas (Lama pacos) en Valdivia, Chile Epidemiological studies on infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes on pasture grazed by alpacas (Lama pacos) in Valdivia, Southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    G. VALENZUELA; M.P. Leiva; I. QUINTANA

    1998-01-01

    Con el objeto de conocer la epidemiología de nemátodos Trichostrongilidos en alpacas (Lama pacos) en el Sur de Chile, se realizó un estudio en el predio Teja Norte ubicado en la comuna de Valdivia (39° 48’ S, 73° 14’ W) mediante exámenes de material fecal (técnicas de Mc Master y Sedimentación-Flotación) y de pasto (técnica de Parffit); la frecuencia de muestreo fue mensual, durante 15 meses a partir de enero de 1995. Se utilizaron 47 animales, en número de: 4 alpacas (Grupo A, < de 1 año), 1...

  18. Aislamiento e identificación de pestivirus obtenidos de alpacas (Lama pacos y llamas (Lama glama de la Región Metropolitana, Chile Isolation and identification of pestiviruses in alpacas (Lama pacos and llamas (Lama glama introduced to the Región Metropolitana, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M O Celedón

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El ambiente natural para más del 90% de las alpacas (Lama pacos y llamas (Lama glama, camélidos sudamericanos (CSA domésticos de Chile, se ubica entre los 11° y 21° latitud sur a 3.800 y 5.000 m de altitud. En el último tiempo las alpacas y las llamas han sido introducidas en otros lugares geográficos del país, donde toman contacto con rumiantes domésticos, facilitándose la infección con el virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB que está presente en bovinos, ovinos y caprinos de Chile. El VDVB incluye a dos especies, VDVB genotipo I y VDVB genotipo II, que junto con el virus de la enfermedad de la frontera (VEF y el virus de la peste porcina clásica (PPC conforman el género Pestivirus de la familia Flaviviridae. Este estudio evalúa la hipótesis que los CSA introducidos en la Región Metropolitana (R.M. de Chile están infectados con pestivirus. Para hacer el aislamiento viral se tomaron muestras de 80 CSA de la RM, 42 alpacas y 35 llamas vivas, 2 llamas muertas y un feto abortado provenientes de 4 rebaños sospechosos de estar infectados con pestivirus. Las muestras fueron inoculadas en cultivos celulares primarios de pulmón fetal bovino (libre de VDVB, subcultivando por 5 veces cada muestra. Para detectar antígenos de pestivirus, las células con las muestras fueron analizadas por prueba de inmunofluorescencia directa y de inmunoperoxidasa indirecta. Para la caracterización molecular, una fracción del fragmento no traducido del genoma viral (5’UTR de los aislados fue amplificado por RT-PCR y posteriormente, para identificar las especies virales, fue tratado con las enzimas de restricción Bgl I, Pst I y Xho I. Los resultados muestran que 18 CSA, 10 de alpacas y 8 de llamas de los 4 rebaños estudiados estaban infectadas con pestivirus. Todos los aislados fueron no citopáticos. En 6 alpacas se aisló VDVB I y en 4 alpacas y 8 llamas se aisló VDVB II. El virus fue obtenido desde 8 alpacas sanas, 2 alpacas con aborto, 5 llamas

  19. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  20. Presencia y distribución de las papilas linguales en la alpaca (Lama pacos Linnaeus, 1758) Presence and distribution of lingual papillae in alpaca (Lamapacos Linnaeus, 1758)

    OpenAIRE

    E. Butendieck; L. Vargas

    1998-01-01

    En 12 lenguas de alpacas se estudió la presencia y distribuciónde las papilas linguales. Las papilas circunvaladas se encuentran en laparte posterior del dorso del cuerpo lingual y se disponen formando unafila, que puede estar conformada por una a cinco papilas. Las papilas fungiformesse distribuyen mayoritariamente en el dorso y superficie ventral del ápexlingual. Se comprobó la no existencia de papilas foliadas. Las papilasfiliformes son aguzadas, están orientadas aboralmente y forman unaca...

  1. ESTS from skin and PBMC cDNA subtractive library of alpaca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: As an effort to map and identify genes and genetic markers that influence the fibre quality in alpacas, cDNA subtractive libraries of Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) were constructed in order to find differentially expressed genes in skin. Skin and blood samples were removed from six adult Alpaca (1.5 year old). Total RNA was extracted using Trizol (Invitrogen) and mRNA was purified using the Gene Elute mRNA purification kit (Sigma). Suppression PCR was used to construct the library using mRNA from skin as a tester and the mRNA from PBMC as a driver. The subtracted PCR products were inserted into the TA cloning vector and the ligation reaction was transformed into TOP10 E. coli cells. Randomly selected clones were sequenced and a total of 2280 high quality 5' end sequences were generated. Clustering analysis using StackPACK version 2.2.0 resulted in 1075 unique transcripts, consisting of 347 consensi and 728 singletons. BLAST analysis of the generated sequences revealed skin associated transcripts such as hair keratin 6A, keratin 10, keratin KA27, keratin 34, wool keratin microfibril type I, and collagen. A total of 27 microsatellite loci were also uncovered. Further work is in progress to generate more sequences in order to build an EST database of differentially expressed genes from Alpaca skin and PBMC, and for the generation of genetic molecular markers such as microsatellites and SNP for Alpaca. (author)

  2. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos) and pigs (Sus scrofa) from an endemic region in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Sánchez; Omar Cáceres; César Náquira; Eduardo Miranda; Franklyn Samudio; Octavio Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE) is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4) in Puno and pigs (8) in Ayacucho in Peru, ...

  3. Estudio epidemiológico de larvas de nemátodos gastrointestinales en praderas pastoreadas por alpacas (Lama pacos en Valdivia, Chile Epidemiological studies on infective larvae of gastrointestinal nematodes on pasture grazed by alpacas (Lama pacos in Valdivia, Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valenzuela

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de conocer la epidemiología de nemátodos Trichostrongilidos en alpacas (Lama pacos en el Sur de Chile, se realizó un estudio en el predio Teja Norte ubicado en la comuna de Valdivia (39° 48’ S, 73° 14’ W mediante exámenes de material fecal (técnicas de Mc Master y Sedimentación-Flotación y de pasto (técnica de Parffit; la frecuencia de muestreo fue mensual, durante 15 meses a partir de enero de 1995. Se utilizaron 47 animales, en número de: 4 alpacas (Grupo A, In order to study the epidemiology of Trichostrongylid parasites in alpacas (Lama pacos, a study was undertaken in Valdivia, Chile, Xth Region (39° 48’ S, 73° 14’ W based on faecal and grass examinations, during a period of fifteen months, starting in January 1995. Animal were grouped according to the age as follows: Group A, 4 animals up to one year old; group B, 11 animals between 1 to 2 years old and 32 animals more than 2 years old. The most frequent genus or species of infective larvae identified were: Nematodirus spathiger, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus filicollis and Cooperia. During the 1995 summer, a low number of infective larvae were observed as a consequence of the low contamination of the grass during the previous year, and to the dry period in the summer months. In autumn, larvae increased reaching a peak in April with 447 larvae per Kg dry matter. The greatest contribution was given by N. spathiger. The other species were less frequently identified. Strongylid type eggs, Nematodirus, Trichuris sp. and Capillaria sp. were observed, few eggs were seen during the observation period. Related with Strongylid type eggs, more eggs were seen in group A. Related with Nematodirus eggs, few eggs were seen in group B and C. More eggs were seen in group A. Trichuris sp. and Capillaria sp. eggs were less frequently observed. It can be concluded that: weather conditions influence the number of infective larvae on the grass. Strongylid egg

  4. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Castellaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn. in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season. The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of sparse shrubland dominated by Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. and annual species in the herbaceous stratum, which were continually grazed by five male alpacas. The botanical composition and the forage dry matter available for grazing in the pasture was evaluated. Botanical composition of diets was estimated with the microhistological technique, using dung samples collected directly from the rectum. During the vegetative season, the most consumed plant species were annual and perennial grasses. In the reproductive season, the most important components of the diet were woody plant species, annual grasses and forbs. In the dry season, the diet was composed of a high percentage of woody plant species.La reintroducción de camélidos sudamericanos domésticos (alpaca y llamas en la zona central de Chile, hace necesario estudiar su comportamiento y adaptabilidad. En este contexto, la caracterización de la dieta es fundamental. Por ello, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las especies vegetales seleccionadas por las alpacas en diferentes etapas fenológicas del pastizal (vegetativo, reproductivo y seco. El estudio se realizó durante tres temporadas en un potrero de 2,5 ha ocupado por un matorral claro dominado por Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. y especies anuales en el estrato herbáceo, las cuales fueron pastoreadas continuamente por cinco alpacas macho. En la pradera se evaluó la composición botánica y la disponibilidad de la materia seca bajo pastoreo. La

  5. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakritz J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  6. Contribuição ao estudo de parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos de alpacas (Lama pacos) e guanacos (Lama guanicoe) da fauna de camelídeos sulamericanos

    OpenAIRE

    Cartelli, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    O principal objetivo do presente trabalho é o de estudar algumas características dos eritrócitos, particularmente o fluxo glicolítico, de camelídeos sulamericanos, a alpaca, Lama pacos, e o guanaco, Lama guanicoe. Uma revisão de literatura revelou que a informação científica sobre esse assunto é muito escarça. Estudos foram levados a efeito, sobre o hemograma, o conteúdo de enzimas séricas, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase do lactato, e de uréía sérica e glicose plasmática no sangue...

  7. Composición botánica de la dieta de alpacas (Lama pacos L.) y llamas (Lama glama L.) en dos estaciones del año, en praderas altiplánicas de un sector de la Provincia de Parinacota, Chile Botanical composition of alpaca (Lama pacos L.) and llama (Lama glama L.) diets in two seasons of the year on highland ranges of Parinacota province, Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Castellaro G; Tamara Ullrich R.; Birgit Wackwitz; Alberto Raggi S.

    2004-01-01

    Se determinó la composición de las dietas de alpacas (Lama pacos L.) y llamas (Lama glama L.) que pastorearon praderas altiplánicas de Parinacota, Chile (18°12' lat. Sur; 69°16' long. Oeste; 4390 m.s.n.m.) utilizando microhistología fecal. Las evaluaciones se realizaron en la época seca-invernal y la lluviosa-estival. Se midió la disponibilidad de materia seca (MS) y composición botánica (CB) de la principal pradera, el "bofedal". La disponibilidad de MS varió entre 1860 y 2940 kg ha-1, y la ...

  8. Detección de anticuerpos séricos contra Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle y Manceaux, 1909 en llamas (Lama glama Linneaus, 1758 y alpacas (Lama pacos Linneaus, 1758 de Chile Sera antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lamas and alpacas of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Patitucci

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se obtuvieron 113 sueros de llamas y 127 de alpacas de criaderos ubicados en la IX y V Regiones del país respectivamente para determinar la presencia de infección de T. gondii. Para el análisis de los sueros se utilizó el "test" modificado de aglutinación (MAT a diluciones 1:25; 1:50, 1:500; 1:5000. Del total de 113 sueros de llamas estudiados 49 (43,3% de ellas presentaron anticuerpos contra T. gondii, mientras que en las alpacas 15 de las 127 (11,8% fueron positivas. El número de animales positivos en las diluciones 1/25; 1/50; 1/500; 1/5000 fue de 20 (17,6%; 9 (7,9%; 16 (10,6%; 4 (3,5% en las llamas, respectivamente. En las alpacas los valores fueron de 0 (0%; 3 (2,3%; 1 (0,7%; 11 (8,6%, respectivamente. Aunque no existen antecedentes clínicos de la infección en los establecimientos estudiados, su potencial implicancia en este tipo de patología debería ser considerada a base de los resultados del presente trabajo que demuestra que llamas y alpacas del centro-sur de Chile son reaccionantes a la infección por T. gondii.Sera samples from 113 llamas (Lama glama and 127 alpacas (Lama pacos from the IX and V Regions, respectively, of Chile were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The modified agglutination test (MAT was used in both species and titers 1:25 were considered diagnostically significant based in previously published data. Sera from 49 lamas (43.3% and 15 alpacas (11.8% were positive to T. gondii. Percentaje seropositivity in serum dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, 1:500 and 1:5000 was 17.6%; 7.9%; 14.1% and 3.5% in lamas and 0%; 2.3%; 0.7% and 8.6% in alpacas, respectively. The rather low prevalence in alpacas may be associated with geographical conditions, management practices or contacts with cats rather than different species susceptibility. As expected, older animals showed higher reactivity of T. gondii than young animals.

  9. Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae” Strain Purdue, a Red Blood Cell Pathogen of Alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and Llamas (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    Guimaraes, Ana M. S.; Toth, Balazs; Santos, Andrea P.; do Nascimento, Naíla C; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Joanne B Messick

    2012-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae,” an endemic red-cell pathogen of camelids. The single, circular chromosome has 756,845 bp, a 39.3% G+C content, and 925 coding sequences (CDSs). A great proportion (49.1%) of these CDSs are organized into paralogous gene families, which can now be further explored with regard to antigenic variation.

  10. Composición botánica de la dieta de alpacas (Lama pacos L. y llamas (Lama glama L. en dos estaciones del año, en praderas altiplánicas de un sector de la Provincia de Parinacota, Chile Botanical composition of alpaca (Lama pacos L. and llama (Lama glama L. diets in two seasons of the year on highland ranges of Parinacota province, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Castellaro G.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la composición de las dietas de alpacas (Lama pacos L. y llamas (Lama glama L. que pastorearon praderas altiplánicas de Parinacota, Chile (18°12' lat. Sur; 69°16' long. Oeste; 4390 m.s.n.m. utilizando microhistología fecal. Las evaluaciones se realizaron en la época seca-invernal y la lluviosa-estival. Se midió la disponibilidad de materia seca (MS y composición botánica (CB de la principal pradera, el "bofedal". La disponibilidad de MS varió entre 1860 y 2940 kg ha-1, y la CB fue dominada por Oxychloe andina (Cyperaceae y Festuca nardifolia (Poaceae. En las dietas dominaron especies del bofedal, especialmente gramíneas (F. nardifolia, Deschampsia caespitosa y Agrostis tolucensis y graminoides (O. andina, destacando también, especies del "pajonal" y el "tolar", Festuca orthophylla y Parastrephia lucida, respectivamente, especialmente en invierno y en las dietas de llamas. Las dietas difirieron en composición y diversidad, existiendo una interacción entre el tipo de herbívoro y la época del año, con una significativa superposición de 61,4% en verano y de 73,6%, en invierno, lo que sugiere un manejo del pastoreo diferenciado de estos camélidos para evitar una eventual competencia. El índice de selectividad de Ivlev, destaca a las gramíneas A. tolucensis y D. caespitosa y la ranunculácea Ranunculus uniflorus, las que obtuvieron valore positivos y cercanos a uno, indicando una alta preferencia por parte de los herbívoros. Contrariamente, la especie dominante del bofedal, O. andina, obtuvo un valor negativo (rechazo y, en consecuencia, tenderá a dominar en la CB de la pradera, teniendo un efecto negativo en la tendencia de la condición de la misma.The botanical composition of alpaca (Lama pacos L. and llama (Lama glama L. diets was determined, grazing on a highland range of Parinacota, Chile (18°12' S lat; 69°16' W long; 4390 m.o.s.l., using microhistological analysis of feces. The evaluations were carried out

  11. 羊驼毛纤维中黑色素含量的相关性研究%The Correlationship Between Different Kinds of Melanins in the Fleece of Alpaca (Lama Pacos)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 白俊明; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    To supply the evidence of identification of alpaca hair color, the difference and correlation between different melanins in alpaca hair was studied. According to the visual inspection, 22 different hair color genotypes with 3 alpacas each were selected. Alpaca fleece was taken from the back and then dissolved with different solution to get melanins. The Amount of Total Melanins (ASM), Eumelanin (EM) and Pheomelanin (PM) in alpaca fleece with different hair color were measured with spectrophotometric assay, sepia as a standard for the spectrophotometric assay. Then the difference and correlation between the amount of melanins were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and linear regression curve method, respectively. The results showed that there were difference in ASM (P0.05) between alpaca fleece with different hair color, and that two models were deduced from the linear regression curve analysis:model 1: Sp.ASM=-0.313+3.168×Sp.EM+E (R2:0.902, t=-3.732, P=0.000); model 2: Sp.EM=0.285+0.143× Sp.ASM+E(R2:0.902,t=6.769,P=0.000). It was suggested that ASM and EM could be used as the parameters to differentiate hair color of alpaca because of significant correlation to hair color, moreover, both of them have the relation of linear regression curve.%  为研究羊驼毛纤维中黑色素含量的相关性,以为建立鉴定羊驼毛色的参数标准提供理论依据。选择肉眼观察认为表型不同的22种自然毛色的羊驼,每个表型选取3只羊驼,从背部采集羊驼毛,用不同的方法溶解,以乌贼黑为标准品,用紫外分光光度计法测定羊驼毛纤维中碱性可溶总黑色素(ASM)、真黑素(EM)和褐黑素(PM)的含量,通过单因素方差和线性回归曲线分别分析不同毛色羊驼毛纤维中黑色素的差异性和相关性。结果表明:ASM和EM在不同毛色的毛纤维中呈差异显著(分别为P<0.01和P<0.05),而 PM 呈差异不显著(P>0.05)。线性回归曲线

  12. Detección de anticuerpos séricos contra Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle y Manceaux, 1909) en llamas (Lama glama Linneaus, 1758) y alpacas (Lama pacos Linneaus, 1758 ) de Chile Sera antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in lamas and alpacas of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    A.N. Patitucci; M.J. Pérez; Barril, G. (Guillermina); C.M. Cárcamo; Muñoz, A.

    2006-01-01

    Se obtuvieron 113 sueros de llamas y 127 de alpacas de criaderos ubicados en la IX y V Regiones del país respectivamente para determinar la presencia de infección de T. gondii. Para el análisis de los sueros se utilizó el "test" modificado de aglutinación (MAT) a diluciones 1:25; 1:50, 1:500; 1:5000. Del total de 113 sueros de llamas estudiados 49 (43,3%) de ellas presentaron anticuerpos contra T. gondii, mientras que en las alpacas 15 de las 127 (11,8%) fueron positivas. El número de animale...

  13. Alpacas and Ecosystems Management

    OpenAIRE

    Charry, Al A.; Kemp, David R.; Lawrie, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Alpacas are a species that present physiological, anatomical, morphological and behavioural distinctive characteristics compared to other species used in animal production. Empirical observation of a herd, grazing under time management controlled conditions, allowed to approximate some initial observations about the effect of alpacas in the management of ecosystems. Larger green matter availability in the paddocks grazed by alpacas, evident natural weed control, better plants distribution and...

  14. Studies on the reproductive physiology of the Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) is a wild South American camelid found in the Andean altiplano. Apart from information on its niche in the ecology of the altiplano and its behaviour in the wild, little is known about its reproduction, health and nutrition. The aim of the present research was to acquire knowledge on the reproductive processes considered essential in order to design rational management schemes for conservation and exploitation. The general objective was to characterize the endocrinology of the vicuna reproductive cycle, both in the male and the female, relating the data to behaviour and seasonal changes. Captive experimental vicuna, in sex and age groupings similar to their natural social structure, were confined in corrals in the Lauca National Park, Region I of Chile at an altitude of 4470 m above sea level. Feeding was based on ad libitum supplies of alfalfa hay and water. Mean plasma progesterone (P4) found in individually confined females was 1.26±1.11 nmol/L; in females grouped with intact males, P4 levels were 2.61±0.99, 4.93±3.07 and 7.62±2.99 nmol/L in yearling, non-pregnant and pregnant animals respectively. In females kept with vasectomized males, mean P4 values found 12 h after mating were 0.53±0.49 nmol/L, increasing to 10.26±3.81 nmol/L on day 8. Plasma oestradiol concentrations were generally very low and not detectable by the RIA techniques used. Plasma testosterone concentration in males ranged from 0.35 to 126.6 nmol/L. Although high values were more frequently found during the summer, there was no statistical difference between mean monthly testosterone values in the year, except for February, which was higher. Mating marks were found from mid-February until early August, being most intense in March. (author). 19 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  15. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Labarca Encina; Alfredo Prieto Iglesias

    2009-01-01

     Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP), ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile). Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la regió...

  16. Cantharidin toxicosis in 2 alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; de Souza, Patricia; Genova, Suzanne G.; Morgan, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult alpacas were presented for recumbency and reluctance to rise. Cantharidin toxicosis was suspected based on clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of gastric contents and urine. Despite medical treatment, neither alpaca survived. Blister beetle toxicosis has not been previously described in camelids. Challenges in treatment of affected ruminants or pseudoruminants are noted.

  17. Pregnancy diagnosis from urine in even-toed ungulates

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This master thesis reviewed possible non-invasive pregnancy diagnostic methods in ungulates with special attention to diagnosis from urine. The practical part was focused on pregnancy diagnosis from urine in alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The aims of the thesis were to examine the possibility of catching fresh urine directly from female alpacas and to evaluate three pregnancy diagnostic tests from urine in alpacas – the seed germination test, the barium chloride test, and the Cuboni reaction. The r...

  18. The Effects of Endothelin-3 on the Melanocyte Characteristic and Expression of Hair Color Genes in Melanocytes from Alpaca (Lama Pacos) in vitro%内皮素-3对羊驼黑色素细胞特征及细胞内毛色基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建军; 白俊明; 范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 庞亚妙; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of endothelin-3 (EDN3) on the expression of hair color genes of alpaca.The activity of melanocyte,the production of melanin in melanocytes and the expressions of related genes and proteins including Endothelin receptor B (EDNRB),KIT,Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) in alpaca melanocytes in cultures with addition of different dose of EDN3(0,10-9,10-8,10-7mol · L-1),were examined by MTT,ultraviolet spectrophotometry,qRT-PCR and Western blotting,respectively.The results showed that the amount of melanocytes was increased with the increasing double-or tri-dendrites; At the addition dose of 10-8 mol · L-1 for 72 h after adding EDN3,compared to control group,the proliferation of melanocytes was obvious and the expressions of EDNRB,KIT,MITF and TYR significantly up-regulated at the level of both transcription and translation in melanocytes(P<0.05).Moreover,the production of melanin in melanocytes significantly increased(P<0.05).These findings indicate that EDN3 play an important role in regulating melanins production in melanocytes in alpaca.%为了研究内皮素-3(Endothelin-3,EDN3)对羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞内毛色形成相关基因的影响.本研究在体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加不同浓度(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol· L-1)的EDN3,通过MTT法、紫外分光光度法、qRT-PCR和Western blotting技术分别检测黑色素细胞活力、黑色素产量、相关基因和蛋白(包括内皮素受体B(Endothelin receptor B,EDNRB)、KIT、小眼畸形相关转录因子(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR))的表达情况.结果表明,在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞添加EDN3 72 h 后,黑色素细胞呈双树突或三树突状,且细胞数量明显增加;在添加适当浓度10-8mol·L-1时,细胞具有明显的增殖,细胞内EDNRB、KIT、MITF和TRY在转录水平和蛋白水平的表达量被上调,

  19. Record of vicunas (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 as host of Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltrán-Saavedra L. Fabián

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Adult stage Ixodidae mites were collected from wild vicuna (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782, captured at three locations from the Área Natural de Manejo Integrado Nacional Apolobamba, in the Department of La Paz, Bolivia. The collected ticks corresponded to the species Amblyomma parvitarsum (Neumann 1901. This paper constitutes the second report of A. parvitarsum in Bolivia and the first confirmed report for vicuna as definitive hosts in the Andean region of this country.

  20. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Stacey R.; Evermann, James F.; Bradway, Daniel S; Grimm, Amanda L.; Ridpath, Julia F.; Parish, Steven M.; Tibary, Ahmed; Barrington, George M.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing in recent years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report characterizes the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected (PI) alpacas to BVDV naïve alpacas, documents shedding patterns, and characterizes the disease effects in both PI and transiently infected alpacas. Two PI alpacas shed BVDV Type 1b virus in most body fluids, and commonly available diagnost...

  1. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this

  2. Haemonchus contortus Infections in Alpacas and Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Casey, Sarah Jane

    2014-01-01

    The blood feeding nematode Haemonchus contortus infects the abomasum of small ruminants and compartment three (C-3) of camelids. Heavy infections may cause severe anemia and death. Alpacas were first introduced into the U.S. in the 1980s. Although not true ruminants, alpacas may become infected with H. contortus and develop the same clinical signs as sheep and goats. Even though alpacas may become infected with the parasite, prior research by Hill et al. (1993) and Green et al. (1996) indicat...

  3. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, David R.; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the...

  4. Prospección serológica del virus parainfluenza 3 en camélidos sudamericanos en Chile A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CP Cepeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En un total de 370 sueros obtenidos de 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Llama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 106 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos para el virus parainfluenza 3 (VPI-3. La prueba de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación mostró que 91 (24,6% de los camélidos sudamericanos (CSA distribuidos en 18 (20,7% alpacas, 36 (40,9% llamas, 27 (18,9% vicuñas y 10 (11,2% guanacos tenían anticuerpos. El rango de los títulos de las muestras positivas estuvo entre 8 y 256 con una media geométrica de 31. Los resultados establecen que los CSA en Chile están infectados con VPI-3.A total of 370 sera collected from 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Lama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 106 vicunas (Vicugna vicugna were investigated for the presence of antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV-3. Hemagglutination inhibition test indicated that a total of 91 (24.6% South American camelids (SAC had PIV-3 antibodies, including 18 (20.7% alpacas, 36 (40.9% llamas, 27 (18.9% vicunas and 10 (11.2% guanacos. Titers of the positive samples ranged from 8 to 256 with a geometric mean of 31. These results establish that SAC in Chile are infected with PIV-3.

  5. Morphometrische Untersuchung des Wachstums beim Alpaka (Vicugna pacos) von der Geburt bis zu einem Alter von 36 Monaten

    OpenAIRE

    Grund, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Außerhalb ihrer ursprünglichen Heimat in Südamerika steigt die Anzahl der Alpakas stetig an. Die Tiere erfreuen sich auch in Deutschland einer großen Beliebtheit. Aktuellen Schätzungen zufolge leben in Deutschland circa 10.000 Alpakas. Siewerden zur Wollgewinnung, sowie als Begleit- und Therapietiere in kleinen Hobbyhaltungen oder in Beständen mit einer Herdengröße von bis zu 150 Tieren gehalten. Damit verbunden werden auch zunehmende Ansprüche an die Qualität der tierärztlichen Betreuung die...

  6. Reproductive physiology of the alpaca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpaca and llama are considered to be seasonally reproductive (from December to March) and given good feeding conditions are reproductively active throughout the year. The males reach puberty at the age of about 2 years when they are free from peno-preputial adhesions. Puberty in the females is affected by body weight and may be reached at the age of 12 months. The females do not have sexual cycles but follicular waves, therefore oestrus varies from 2 to 36 days. Copulation takes place in a seated position and lasts from 5 to 50 minutes; ovulation is induced by coitus, hCG, GnRH and the semen of the alpaca and the bull. 'Spontaneous' ovulation has been observed at the height of the reproductive season and is caused by mechanisms which are not well defined. Multiple ovulation occurs in 10% of females but the number of multiple births is very low. The corpus luteum (CL) forms after mating, attaining maximum size and having the greatest secretory activity on day 9(14.0 nmol/L); it lasts for the 11 months of gestation. If there is no pregnancy, shrinkage of the corpus luteum begins between days 10 and 13 and the progesterone levels fall rapidly. The incidence of embryonic mortality during the first two months of gestation is high. Gestation lasts approximately 342 days, and 93.5% of births occur during the daytime when the environmental conditions are favourable for the newborn animal. The placenta is diffuse and epitheliochorial. Uterine involution is completed within 20 days after birth. Intra- and inter-specific artificial insemination tests have been carried out with intra-uterinal implantation of semen. Embryonic transplant tests have also been conducted. (author)

  7. Congenital nasolacrimal atresia in 4 alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmeyer, Lynne S.; Bauer, Bianca S.; Breaux, Carrie B.; Grahn, Bruce H.

    2011-01-01

    Four alpacas, 2 wk to 1 y of age, were diagnosed with congenital atresia of the nasal puncta of the nasolacrimal duct. Dacryocystorhinography confirmed and localized the atresia. All animals were treated successfully by surgical creation of nasal puncta and patency was ensured by placement of a surgical stent for several weeks.

  8. Reproductive biotechnologies in Swedish male alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Maria Celina

    2016-01-01

    Alpacas have become more popular during the last decades. The herds have been built up by importing live animals since reproductive biotechnologies, for example artificial insemination and semen preservation, are not well-developed in this species. A major problem is the viscosity of the seminal plasma which hinders processing or evaluation of the semen. Enzymes have been used to deal with the viscous seminal plasma but they may damage spermatozoa or render them incapable of fertilization. Th...

  9. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  10. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ) and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos) after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

    OpenAIRE

    Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary ...

  11. Prospección serológica del virus parainfluenza 3 en camélidos sudamericanos en Chile A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    CP Cepeda; Navarro, C.; MO Celedón

    2011-01-01

    En un total de 370 sueros obtenidos de 87 alpacas (Lama pacos), 88 llamas (Llama glama), 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe) y 106 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos para el virus parainfluenza 3 (VPI-3). La prueba de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación mostró que 91 (24,6%) de los camélidos sudamericanos (CSA) distribuidos en 18 (20,7%) alpacas, 36 (40,9%) llamas, 27 (18,9%) vicuñas y 10 (11,2%) guanacos tenían anticuerpos. El rango de los títulos de las muestras positi...

  12. Flamenco guitarist Paco Peña tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    CERN continues to attract a wide variety of visitors. On 5 June, it was the turn of renowned flamenco guitarist Paco Peña. With a broad interest in science, Peña was here to celebrate his 60th birthday, accompanied by friends David Ashton and Chrissie Twigg, and his wife Karin.     Paco Peña during his visit to ATLAS. Paco Peña’s most famous compositions include Misa Flamenca, a Flamenco Mass, and Requiem for the Earth. In 1997, he was named Oficial de la Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil by King Juan Carlos of Spain. "This is truly amazing!" said Peña after seeing the ATLAS detector. His wife confessed that she had never seen him take so many pictures. The group asked numerous questions during their visit. It is not always easy to impress world travellers, but the ATLAS detector did the trick.

  13. First report of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbar, Abdul; Campbell, Angus JD; Charles, Jennifer A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic nematodes can cause substantial clinical and subclinical problems in alpacas and anthelmintics are regularly used to control parasitic nematodes in alpacas. Although anthelmintic resistance has been reported in ruminants worldwide, very little is known about anthelmintic resistance in alpacas. The present study was carried out to confirm a suspected case of anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus contortus in alpacas in Australia. Methods Post mortem examination of an alpac...

  14. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Gary; Durr, Peter A; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  15. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  16. A three-step approach to minimise the impact of a mining site on vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and to restore landscape connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Galaz, José Luis; Cadorzo, César; Lagunas, Héctor

    2016-07-01

    Resource extraction projects generate a diversity of negative effects on the environment that are difficult to predict and mitigate. Consequently, adaptive management approaches have been advocated to develop effective responses to impacts that were not predicted. Mammal populations living in or around mine sites are frequently of management concern; yet, there is a dearth of published information on how to minimise the negative effects of different phases of mining operations on them. Here, we present the case study of a copper mine in the Chilean Altiplano, which caused roadkills of the protected vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). This issue led to a three-step solution being implemented: (1) the initial identification of the problem and implementation of an emergency response, (2) the scientific analysis for decision making and (3) the planning and informed implementation of responses for different future scenarios and timescales. The measures taken under each of these steps provide examples of environmental management approaches that make use of scientific information to develop integrated management responses. In brief, our case study showed how (1) the timescale and the necessity/urgency of the case were addressed, (2) the various stakeholders involved were taken into account and (3) changes were included into the physical, human and organisational elements of the company to achieve the stated objectives. PMID:27300165

  17. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D. González-Acuña; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L.; Castro, D.

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in an alpaca cria

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; Genova, Suzanne G.

    2011-01-01

    A 7-hour-old alpaca was presented for lethargy and depression. The cria responded favorably to initial treatment but developed acute-onset dyspnea 48 hours later. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed by thoracic imaging and blood gas analysis. The cria was successfully treated with corticosteroids and discharged from the hospital.

  19. The expression of KRT2 and its effect on melanogenesis in alpaca skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yucong; Song, Yajun; Geng, Qingling; Ding, Zengfeng; Qin, Yilong; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng; Geng, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the keratin 2 (KRT2) on alpaca melanocyte in vivo and vitro, the immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and alpaca melanocytes transfection methods were used. The results showed that mRNA and protein expression of KRT2 was highly expressed in brown skin in comparison with that in white skin. Moreover, we found that KRT2 was expressed in alpaca melanocytes in vitro by immunocytochemistry. After transfection with KRT2 in alpaca melanocytes, the relative mRNA and protein expression of KRT2, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) in alpaca skin melanocytes was increased with significant differences; a further result was the increase of melanin production. The results suggested that KRT2 functions in alpaca hair color formation, which offered an essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of melanogenesis. PMID:27265811

  20. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Jaswant; Huanca Wilfredo; Ratto Marcelo H; Adams Gregg P

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Camelids are induced (reflex) ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per gro...

  1. Detection of an Antigenic Group 2 Coronavirus in an Adult Alpaca with Enteritis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Genova, Suzanne G.; Streeter, Robert N.; Simpson, Katharine M.; Kapil, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic group 2 coronavirus was detected in a fecal sample of an adult alpaca by reverse transcription-PCR. The presence of alpaca coronavirus (ApCoV) in the small intestine was demonstrated by immune histochemistry with an antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibody that reacts with group 2 coronaviruses. Other common causes of diarrhea in adult camelids were not detected. We conclude that nutritional stress may have predisposed the alpaca to severe ApCoV infection.

  2. PACTEL OECD project planning (PACO). PACTEL OECD project planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OECD launched the SETH project to investigate issues relevant for accident prevention and management and to ensure the existence of integral thermal hydraulic test facilities. The facilities included in the SETH project are PKL from Germany and PANDA from Switzerland. At the early stages of the SETH project an idea was raised to exploit the PACTEL facility in a similar OECD project. Without any external funding the analytical work in the required extent would not be possible within Lappeenranta University of Technology, the party responsible of operating PACTEL. This fact directed the PACO project proposal to be conducted for the SAFIR programme. The aim of the PACO project is to prepare a project proposal to OECD of a PACTEL related project. To attain this objective some preliminary analyses have to be performed to ensure the relevancy of the proposed topic. The low power situation, i.e. midloop state was chosen to be the topic in the PACO studies and project planning basis. The plan is to use PACTEL to examine vertical steam generator behaviour during the midloop operation and the following loss of residual heat removal system transient. Such a possibility is acknowledged with special alterations to PACTEL. The APROS code version 5.04.07 was selected as a tool for the preanalyses. The virtual simulation of the chosen experimental situation would give a preconception on the phenomena to be expected and the progression of the transient. Originally the PACO project was planned to continue only for a few months, ending up with the project proposal to OECD during the summer time 2004. During the pre-calculation process it became obvious that the time expected was not enough to establish good pre-calculation results. The reasons for this relates to time used to learn and adapt the use of the chosen code, improvements and corrections in modelling as well as the code ability to manage the special conditions defined for the project topic. Another aspect on completing a

  3. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (Pviscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as γ-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands were not present in all samples of alpaca seminal plasma. There were no significant changes in the concentration of any protein fractions during the four periods. Moreover, the protein fraction of the 60-kDa (total protein

  4. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  5. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Shelley; Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown her...

  6. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  7. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    Full Text Available Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  8. Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-01-01

    The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (Pviscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (Pviscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

  9. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jaswant

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelids are induced (reflex ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per group in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the effect of seminal plasma versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS given by intramuscular injection, by intrauterine infusion, or by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage. Specifically, alpacas in the respective groups were given 1 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma intramuscularly, 2 2 ml of PBS intramuscularly (negative control group, 3 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion, 4 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion (negative control group, 5 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, or 6 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage (negative control group. The alpacas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and measure follicular and luteal diameters. Results Intramuscular administration of seminal plasma resulted in a higher ovulation rate than intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (93% versus 41%; P Conclusion We conclude that 1 OIF in seminal plasma effects ovulation via a systemic rather than a local route, 2 disruption of the endometrial mucosa by curettage facilitated the absorption of OIF and increased the ovulatory effect of seminal plasma, and 3 ovulation in alpacas is not associated with a physical stimulation of the genital tract, and 4 the alpaca represents an excellent biological model to evaluate the bioactivity of OIF.

  10. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:26135031

  11. Benefits of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Nutrient Cycling and Forage Growth in Alpaca Pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaudin, Mary Elin

    2012-01-01

    Alpacas have been gaining prominence in the U.S. since the early 1980s. In pastures, dung beetle activity has been shown to enhance the degradation and incorporation of dung into the soil. The benefits of this activity have been quantified for cattle, but not for alpacas. The objectives of this study were to document the dung beetle species present in alpaca pastures, and to evaluate the impact of dung beetle activity on the growth of a common summer annual grass. In 2010 and 2011, dun...

  12. Automatic Feature Interaction Analysis in PacoSuite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Vanderperren

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we build upon previous work that aims at recuperating aspect oriented ideas into component based software development. In that research, a composition adapter was proposed in order to capture crosscutting concerns in the PacoSuite component based methodology. A composition adapter is visually applied onto a given component composition and the changes it describes are automatically applied. Stacking multiple composition adapters onto the same component composition can however lead to unpredictable and undesired side-effects. In this paper, we propose a solution for this issue, widely known as the feature interaction problem. We present a classification of different interaction levels among composition adapters and the algorithms required to verify them. The proposed algorithms are however of exponential nature and depend on both the composition adapters and the component composition as a whole. In order to enhance the performance of our feature interaction analysis, we present a set of theorems that define the interaction levels solely in terms of the properties of the composition adapters themselves.

  13. Distribución de neuropéptidos en el tronco del encéfalo de la alpaca (lama pacos): estudio inmunocitoquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Eliana de Souza

    2010-01-01

    [ES]Esta tesis doctoral trata de la distribución de los neuropéptidos en el Sistema Nervioso Central de mamíferos después de la aplicación de técnicas inmunocitoquímica. Hasta hoy hemos descrito en el Sistema Nervioso Central de los mamíferos la distribución de fibras y/o somas con neuropéptidos pertenecientes a numerosas familias. Ya hemos publicados trabajos con CGRP y Leucina-encefalina y este estudio es continuación de la línea que se viene desarrollando sobre la distribuci...

  14. Effects of a Commercial Canine Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Vaccination on Intact Male Llamas and Alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of immunization against gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) using a commercial canine GnRH vaccine on testosterone concentration, testicular volume, testicular histology, and intermale behavior in intact male llamas and alpacas. Llamas (n=28) and alpacas (n=20) were either immunized (received 3 mL of vaccine given intramuscularly) or treated as controls (received 3 mL of sterile diluent given intramuscularly) at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. Blood samples and testicular...

  15. Analysis of Heavy-Chain Antibody Responses and Resistance to Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in Experimentally Infected Alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Purdy, S. R.; Gagliardo, L. F.; Lefman, S.; Hamel, P. J. S.; Ku, S.; Mainini, T.; Hoyt, G.; Justus, K.; Daley-Bauer, L. P.; Duffy, M. S.; Appleton, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is an important cause of neurologic disease of camelids in central and eastern North America. The aim of this study was to determine whether alpacas develop resistance to disease caused by P. tenuis in response to a previous infection or a combination of controlled infection and immunization. Alpacas were immunized with a homogenate of third-stage larvae (L3) and simultaneously implanted subcutaneously with diffusion chambers containing 20 liv...

  16. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  17. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and subcutaneous cefovecin in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S; Sommardahl, C; Seddighi, R; Videla, R; Hayes, J; Pistole, N; Hamill, M; Doherty, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose of 8 mg/kg to alpacas. Bacterial infections requiring long-term antibiotic therapy such as neonatal bacteremia, pneumonia, peritonitis, dental, and uterine infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. However, few antimicrobials have been evaluated and proven to have favorable pharmacokinetics for therapeutic use. Most antimicrobials that are currently used require daily injections for many days. Cefovecin is a long-acting cephalosporin that is formulated for subcutaneous administration, and its long-elimination half-life allows for 14-day dosing intervals in dogs and cats. The properties of cefovecin may be advantageous for medical treatment of camelids due to its broad spectrum, route of administration, and long duration of activity. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of antimicrobial drugs in camelids is essential for the proper treatment and prevention of bacterial disease, and to minimize development of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains due to inadequate antibiotic concentrations. Cefovecin mean half-life, volume of distribution at steady-state, and clearance after intravenous administration were 10.3 h, 86 mL/kg, and 7.07 mL·h/kg. The bioavailability was 143%, while half-life, C(max), and T(max) were 16.9 h, 108 μg/mL, and 2.8 h following subcutaneous administration. In the absence of additional microbial susceptibility data for alpaca pathogens, the current cefovecin dosage regimen prescribed for dogs (8 mg/kg SC every 14 days) may need to be optimized for the treatment of infections in this species. PMID:25407784

  18. A cytogenetic and comparative map of camelid chromosome 36 and the minute in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Merriwether, David A; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Rubes, Jiři; Kutzler, Michelle A; Chowdhary, Renuka; Janečka, Jan; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in camelid genomics have provided draft sequence assemblies and the first comparative and gene maps for the dromedary (CDR) and the alpaca (LPA). However, no map information is currently available for the smallest camelid autosome-chr36. The chromosome is also of clinical interest because of its involvement in the minute chromosome syndrome (MCS) in infertile alpacas. Here, we developed molecular markers for camelid chr36 by direct sequencing CDR36 and LPA minute and by bioinformatics analysis of alpaca unplaced sequence scaffolds. We constructed a cytogenetic map for chr36 in the alpaca, llama, and dromedary and showed its homology to human chromosome 7 (HSA7) at 49.8-55.5 Mb. The chr36 map comprised seven markers, including two genes-ZPBP and WVC2. Comparative status of HSA7 was further refined by cytogenetic mapping of 16 HSA7 orthologs in camelid chromosomes 7 and 18 and by the analysis of HSA7-conserved synteny blocks across 11 vertebrate species. Finally, mapping chr36 markers in infertile alpacas confirmed that the minute chromosome was a derivative of chr36, but the small size was not a result of a large deletion or a translocation. Instead, cytogenetic mapping of 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA genes (nucleolus organizer region (NOR)) revealed that the size difference between chr36 homologs in infertile alpacas was due to a heterozygous presence of NOR, whereas chr36 in fertile alpacas had no NOR. We theorized that the heterozygous NOR might affect chr36 pairing, recombination, and segregation in meiosis and, thus fertility. PMID:25634498

  19. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M; Pott, F; Madsen, P L; van Lieshout, J J

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...

  20. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia

    OpenAIRE

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Mathews, Lindsey A.; Firshman, Anna M.; Quandt, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult.

  1. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  2. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  3. Quality characteristics of Huacaya alpaca fibre produced in the Peruvian Andean Plateau region of Huancavelica

    OpenAIRE

    Montes, M.; Quicaño, I.; Quispe, R; Quispe, E.; Alfonso Ruiz, Leopoldo

    2008-01-01

    Se describe la calidad de la fibra de alpacas Huacaya producida en la región de Huancavelica (Perú), utilizando una muestra de 203 alpacas pertenecientes a ocho comunidades de alpaqueros ubicadas entre 4.100 y 4.750 m de altitud. El diámetro medio de la fibra, 22,7 μm (SE 0,2), fue inferior a los valores referidos para la raza Huacaya en otras zonas, variando con el sexo, la edad y la comunidad de origen (P < 0,01). Los machos mostraron tener una fibra más fina que las hembras, en contraste c...

  4. Resident lymphocytes in the epidermis and adnexal epithelia of normal dorsolateral thorax of alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Mitzi D.; Peters-Kennedy, Jeanine; Scott, Danny W.

    2013-01-01

    A small population of resident T-lymphocytes is present in the normal epidermis of skin from humans, mice, sheep, and cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells (T-lymphocytes) and CD79a+ cells (B-lymphocytes and plasma cells), in the epidermis and adnexal epithelia of alpacas. Skin-biopsy specimens from the normal skin of the dorsolateral thorax of 31 alpacas were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for the presence of CD3+ ce...

  5. Effect of genotype and sex on fiber growth rate of alpacas for their first year of fleece production

    OpenAIRE

    EC Quispe-Peña; AG Poma-Gutiérrez; BA McGregor; J Bartolomé-Filella

    2014-01-01

    The sale of alpaca fiber is the main income for thousands of families in the Central Andes of Peru. Little information exists on the fiber length growth rate of alpaca (FLG), especially throughout their first year of life when the fiber is most valuable. We aimed to determine the monthly FLG of 22 alpaca offspring of two genotypes (9 Suri, 13 Huacaya) and considering sex differences (10 females, 12 males) in the High Andes of Peru. FLG growth was determined using dye-bands. An additive lineal...

  6. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary)

    OpenAIRE

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m), Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m) y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m), cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal pr...

  7. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m), Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m) y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m), cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal pr...

  8. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M;

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...... Vmean and the end-tidal carbon-dioxide tension (PETCO2) decrease, suggesting that PaCO2 contributes to the reduction in MCA Vmean. In a fixed body position, PETCO2 tracks changes in the PaCO2 but when assuming the upright position, cardiac output (Q) decreases and its distribution over the lung changes...

  9. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas. PMID:26965230

  10. Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Cullen, Cheryl L.; Lamont, Leigh A.

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: 1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and 2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes and incipient cataracts.

  11. Ventricular septal defect and double-chambered right ventricle in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Helen; Dalla Pria, Angela; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Stelletta, Calogero; Berlanda, Michele; Guglielmini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    A 20-month-old male alpaca was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur evident since birth. Echocardiography identified a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and a fibro-muscular band causing a stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. Right ventricular catheterization and selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of VSD and double-chambered right ventricle with bidirectional shunting. PMID:25595611

  12. Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shen; Yu, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Hai-Dong, Wang; Jian-Shan, Xie; Shu-Yuan, Gao; Jia-Qi, Cheng; Xiu-Ju, Yu; Ting, Wang; Chang-Sheng, Dong; Xiao-Yan, He

    2016-02-10

    The young male alpaca ear and the back skins were used to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor receptor-β I (TGFβR I) on alpaca hair follicles and hair growth. The expression level and location of TGFβR I in alpaca ear and dorsal skin were detected through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and paraffin section immunohistochemical technique (ICC-P). The results shown TGFβR I was lower expression in back skin compared to ear skin and the mean density of the positive reaction in ear skin was significantly higher than back skin. The targeted relationship with let-7b was detected using the dual-luciferase reporter vector of TGFβR I, which showed a significant target relationship between let-7b and TGFβR I. After transfection with let-7b eukaryotic expression vector, the relative mRNA expression of TGFβR I in alpaca skin fibroblasts did not differ, while the relative protein level was significantly decreased. In summary, a higher TGFβR I expression level in the ear skin suggests that TGFβR I may inhibit coat hair elongation. Further studies showed TGFβR I protein was downregulated by let-7b through transcriptional repression. PMID:26611528

  13. Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in Alpacas on Two Maryland Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one fecal samples were collected from adult alpacas and crias (ages 10 wk to 10 yr) on two farms in central Maryland. The farms raised both suri (silky-haired) and huacaya (crimpy-haired) breeds. Females and crias were housed together on pasture, whereas older/breeding males were maintained o...

  14. Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Jennifer H; Edmondson, Misty A; Wolfe, Dwight F; Bayne, Jenna E

    2015-07-01

    A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved. PMID:26130840

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  17. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the communit

  18. Mange in alpacas, llamas and goats in the UK: incidence and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusat, J; Morgan, E R; Wall, R

    2009-07-01

    A retrospective postal questionnaire was used to obtain information about the prevalence of mange and its association with husbandry-related risk factors, in alpaca, llama and goat herds in the UK. In total 1797 questionnaires were sent out to members of the British Alpaca Society, the British Llama Society and the British Goat Society, giving response rates of 40.4%, 29.3% and 22.8% from the three groups, respectively. Between January and December 2007, mange was reported in 52.2% (151 of 292), 14% (9 of 66) and 21% (41 of 194) alpaca, llama and goat herds, respectively. However, these figures must be treated with some caution as only 37-51% of the farmers had their diagnosis of mange confirmed by a veterinarian or animal health laboratory. In herds where the causal agent was confirmed: psoroptic, sarcoptic, chorioptic and mixed infections were all reported, with chorioptic mange reported most frequently. Risk analysis showed that the prevalence of reported cases mange in alpacas was significantly associated with herd size and the country from which the animals were imported. Alpaca farmers who had larger herds were more likely to report mange and farmers who imported their animals from Peru were 1.5 times more likely to report mange than farmers who imported animals from elsewhere or who did not import. There was no significant confounding between these two risk factors. The results show that mange continues to be a major problem for camelids and goats in the UK, and suggests that inadequate control on farms and lack of control when in quarantine are two factors that contribute to ongoing problems with mange. However, given the relatively low contribution of imported animals to the national herd each year, it is likely that poor on-farm control may be of greatest importance. PMID:19446959

  19. Serological and genetic characterisation of putative new serotypes of bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus isolated from an Alpaca / Isabella Maria Wright

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Isabella Maria

    2014-01-01

    Alpacas were first introduced into South Africa during the year 2000. They are valuable because of the fine quality wool they produce which has much better insulation properties than that of merino wool fibres. Alpacas are also used to act as guards of sheep herds against predators. During 2008, blood samples from an alpaca that died acutely with severe lung oedema, respiratory distress and froth exuding from the nose were received at Elsenburg Veterinary Laboratory. The alp...

  20. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Stacy H; Mathews, Lindsey A; Firshman, Anna M; Quandt, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. PMID:25829556

  1. Claves para una lectura musical de la obra de Paco de Lucía

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Cortés, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    A modo de homenaje, nuestro texto propone la lectura musical de la obra de Paco de Lucía a partir del análisis de cinco claves: la técnica de guitarra, el ritmo, la armonía, la melodía y los préstamos de otras músicas en torno a dos ejes, el grupo flamenco y el cajón. Acotaciones sobre el concepto de “toque flamenco”, sobre el Niño Ricardo y sobre Sabicas completan esta lectura de la obra del recién fallecido Maestro de Algeciras

  2. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Jeanne M.; Valentine, Beth A.; Cebra, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical signs, duration of illness, clinicopathologic findings, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors (MRCT). All but 1 animal died or was euthanized. Common clinical findings were anorexia, recumbency or weakness, and weight loss or poor growth. Peripheral lymphadenomegaly occurred in only 7 animals and was detected more often at necropsy than during physical examination. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were hypoalbu...

  3. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA and brown alpaca (BA skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation.

  4. Generation of an alpaca-derived nanobody recognizing γ-H2AX

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Malini; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Hastert, Florian D.; Schmidthals, Katrin; Rapp, Alexander; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Highlights • An alpaca-derived γ-H2AX nanobody was generated. • γ-H2AX chromobody was able to bind and precipitate phosphorylated H2AX peptide. • γ-H2AX chromobody could be produced in bacterial as well as mammalian cells. • Alternative epitope recognition by γ-H2AX chromobody was induced by ectopic XRCC1. • Accessibility of γ-H2AX chromobody was hindered by MDC1 masking in vivo.

  5. Genetic parameters and relationships between fibre and type traits in two breeds of Peruvian alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Cervantes, Isabel; Pérez-Cabal, M.A. (M.); Morante, R.; Burgos, A.; SALGADO, Carlos; Nieto, B; Goyache, Félix; Gutiérrez, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Four fibre traits (fibre diameter, FD; coefficient of variation of FD, comfort factor; and standard deviation of FD) were jointly analysed with six subjectively scored type traits (fleece density, crimp, lock structure, head, coverage, and balance) in two breeds of Peruvian Altiplano alpaca (Suri, SU; and Huacayo, HU) to ascertain their genetic relationship. A total of 2405 fibre records and 2194 type scores were available for the HU breed whereas these figures were 709 for fibre records and ...

  6. Diagnosis and surgical removal of brain abscesses in a juvenile alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Catherine E; Mueller, Karin; Granger, Nicolas; Jeffery, Nick D.

    2007-01-01

    Case Description—A 1-month-old female alpaca was examined because of progressive clinical signs consistent with an intracranial lesion. Clinical Findings—Clinical signs included signs of depression, lethargy, tetraparesis, and neck weakness. Two large isointense intracranial masses could be seen on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. On T2-weighted images, the masses contained concentric rings of hypointense and hyperintense material. Treatment and Outcome—2 abscesses were removed via a cr...

  7. Effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Doherty, Thomas J; da Cunha, Anderson F; Leonardi, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in alpacas. Eight healthy, intact male, adult alpacas were studied on 2 separate occasions. Anesthesia was induced with SEVO, and baseline MAC (MACB) determination began 45 min after induction. After MACB determination, alpacas were randomly given either an intravenous (IV) loading dose (LD) and infusion of saline or a loading dose [ketamine = 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW); lidocaine = 2 mg/kg BW] and an infusion of ketamine (25 μg/kg BW per minute) in combination with lidocaine (50 μg/kg BW per minute), and MACSEVO was re-determined (MACT). Quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were also evaluated. Mean MACB was 1.88% ± 0.13% and 1.89% ± 0.14% for the saline and ketamine + lidocaine groups, respectively. Ketamine and lidocaine administration decreased (P < 0.05) MACB by 57% and mean MACT was 0.83% ± 0.10%. Saline administration did not change MACB. Time to determine MACB and MACT was not significantly different between the treatments. The quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were not different between groups. The infusion of ketamine combined with lidocaine significantly decreased MACSEVO by 57% and did not adversely affect time-to-standing or quality of recovery. PMID:27127341

  8. Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Wittek, Thomas; Joachim, Anja; Hinney, Barbara; Dadak, Agnes M

    2015-06-01

    There are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of South American camelids (SACs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. Camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of SACs generally requires off-label use of drugs. Endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and economic losses. There is still a lack of work on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy for most antiparasitic drugs used in SACs. Even when choosing an appropriate route of administration, several aspects must be considered such as the fact that pour-on formulations are largely ineffective in camelids due to the unique features of llama and alpaca skin and hair that result in extremely low drug bioavailability. This review focuses on the main endoparasites of the digestive tract in llamas and alpacas in Europe and pharmacotherapeutic options based on current knowledge. PMID:25933827

  9. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  10. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project: the bright sample

    CERN Document Server

    Massardi, Marcella; Bonavera, Laura; López-Caniego, Marcos; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Ekers, Ronald D

    2011-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) have provided flux density measurements at frequencies below and overlapping with Planck frequency bands of suitably chosen samples of AT20G radio sources, almost simultaneously with Planck observations. On the whole, we have observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) 482 sources in the frequency range between 4.5 and 40 GHz in the period between July 2009 and August 2010. Several sources were observed more than once. In this paper we present the aims of the project, the selection criteria, and the observation and data reduction procedures. We also present the data in total intensity for a complete sample of 189 sources with S(20 GHz)>500 mJy, Galactic latitude |b|>5{\\deg}, and declination <-30{\\deg}, and some statistical analysis of the spectral behaviour and variability of this sample, referred to as the "bright PACO sample". These data are important to investigate confusion effects affecting Planck data on radio sources. On the other hand, comp...

  11. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% (18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. This study was carried out in the Histology and Embriology laboratory at the Medicine Veterinary and Zootecny of the Altiplano National University, with alpacas coming from the EPS Rural Alliance (4140 m.a.s.l., Quimsachata Research Center (4050 m.a.s.l. and the Raya Research Center (4130 m.a.s.l. whose objective was the study the process of the uterine involution after parturition from day 0 to 30. For such purpose 34 multiparous alpacas from 4 to 6 year old were selectec. The results were: Macroscopically the uterusweight lost 71,07% (385,25g, 25,54% (138,55g and 3,42% (18,6g at first

  12. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    OpenAIRE

    Crossley, Beate M.; Mock, Richard E.; Scott A. Callison; Hietala, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike ...

  13. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    OpenAIRE

    Hietala, Sharon K.; Mock, Richard E.; Scott A. Callison; Crossley, Beate M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of s...

  14. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased. PMID:26072370

  15. Tracking time-varying cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in respiratory PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV—from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO2. Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a CO2/air mixture (5% CO2, 30% O2 and 65% N2) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function following the step-wise increase in PaCO2 (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO2 occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation

  16. Florfenicol Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Adult Alpacas after Subcutaneous and Intramuscular Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, K; Bedenice, D.; Papich, M G

    2011-01-01

    A single dose of florfenicol (Nuflor®) was administered to eight healthy adult alpacas, at 20mg/kg IM (intramuscular) and 40mg/kg SC (subcutaneous) using a randomized, cross-over design and 28-day washout period. Subsequently, 40mg/kg florfenicol was injected SC every other day for 10 doses to evaluate long-term effects. Maximum plasma florfenicol concentrations (Cmax, measured via high-performance-liquid-chromatography) were achieved rapidly, leading to a higher Cmax of 4.31+/−3.03 μg/ml fol...

  17. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Xue; Jiang Junbing; Fan Ruiwen; Wang Haidong; Meng Xiaolin; He Xiaoyan; He Junping; Li Hongquan; Geng Jianjun; Yu Xiuju; Song Yunfei; Zhang Danli; Yao Jianbo; Smith George W; Dong Changsheng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white ver...

  18. Utilidad de marcadores SNP en la mejora genética de poblaciones altoandinas de alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Paucar Chanca, Rufino

    2011-01-01

    La correcta asignación de las relaciones de parentesco de los animales es una parte fundamental de cualquier programa de mejora genética ya que permite mejorar la precisión de la evaluación genética y por tanto el progreso genético. En poblaciones donde predominan los sistemas extensivos la identificación de parentesco vía control genealógico de los apareamientos es difícil de implementar. Es el caso de las poblaciones de alpacas en sistemas de crianza alto-andinos. En estos casos la utilizac...

  19. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xue; JIANG, Junbing; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; MENG Xiaolin; He, Xiaoyan; He, Junping; Li, Hongquan; Geng, Jianjun; Yu, Xiuju; Song, Yunfei; Zhang, Danli; Yao, Jianbo; Smith, George W; Dong, Changsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown...

  20. Construction of phage display VHH antibody library against avian H5N1 virus from alpaca%抗H5N1禽流感病毒VHH抗体库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严安; 熊慧; 王颖; 孙冰玉; 夏立亮; 吴标; 包文静; 车小燕; 孙志伟; 金维荣; 赵国屏

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To construct phage display variable domain of heavy chain antibody library (VHH antibody library) from alpaca immunized with inactivated H5N1 vaccine for the future screening of VHH antibodies against avian H5N1 influenza virus. Methods: The camelid species (alpaca, Lama pacos ) was selected for immunization with inactivated H5N1 vaccine. Hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) assay of serum from immunized alpaca was performed against H5N1 avian influenza virus one week after the fourth inntmization. Peripheral lymphocytes were isolated for the amplification of VHH fragments by RT-PCR. PCR products were then purified and inserted into phagemid vector pCANTAB5E. The VHH antibody gene library was obtained by electroporating recombinant pCANTAB5E-VHH vectors into E. coli TG1 cells.The library capacity and diversity of VHH antibody gene library was determined by sequencing analysis. The HI assay was performed with the culture supernatant of primary phage display VHH antibody library. Results:After four rounds of immunization with inactivated H5N1 vaccine,HI antibody titer of the alpaca serum reached to 1: 2 560, which was higher than those fiom immunized mice. A first set of antibody gene library totalling 3 × l08 members were created after cloning VHH genes into a phagemid vector pCANTAB5E. The sequence of 14 members of the unselected library indicated that the camelid VHH antibody library we constructed possessed high diversity and good capacity. The supematant from the primary phage display library displayed effieient HI effect against avian H5N1 influenza virus. And the titration of our phage display VHH library reached 2.17 × l011. Conclusion: Taken together, phage display VHH antibody library from immunized alpaca is successfully constructed,which provides a platform for VHH antibody preparation against H5N1 virus. This will give light to future study on treatment and diagnosis of avian H5N1 influenza virus.%目的:构建抗H5N1禽流感病毒的小羊驼免

  1. Effect of genotype and sex on fiber growth rate of alpacas for their first year of fleece production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EC Quispe-Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sale of alpaca fiber is the main income for thousands of families in the Central Andes of Peru. Little information exists on the fiber length growth rate of alpaca (FLG, especially throughout their first year of life when the fiber is most valuable. We aimed to determine the monthly FLG of 22 alpaca offspring of two genotypes (9 Suri, 13 Huacaya and considering sex differences (10 females, 12 males in the High Andes of Peru. FLG growth was determined using dye-bands. An additive lineal model with three factors (genotype, sex, month was used for statistic analysis. To evaluate the effect of genotype and sex on the profile of the FLG throughout the year a two factor repeated-measures model was used. The results showed that FLG was affected by genotype and month but not sex. The Suri genotype had 20% higher FLG than Huacaya genotype alpacas (1.34 vs 1.10 cm/month, P < 0.001. FLG increased over each of the first three months (P < 0.05 and then maintained a near constant rate for the remainder of the first year. The resulting staple length indicates that shearing at ages from 8 to 12 months of age will provide fleeces of sufficient length for textile processing.

  2. Absorption and disposition of florfenicol after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Werle, Nicholas; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to define disposition and systemic availability of florfenicol in alpacas. Administration of 20 mg/kg doses to 8 male alpacas by i.v., i.m. and s.c. routes was performed by randomized, 3-way crossover design. Clearance and steady state volumes (Vdss) after i.v. injection were 5 ml/min/kg and 775 ml/kg respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) and terminal phase half-life (T1/2λz) were 2.8 h and 2 h respectively. Maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) after i.m. were higher than s.c. administration (p = 0.034). After s.c. dosing, T1/2λz and MRT were greater than after i.m. injection (p  0.05). Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 µg/ml for 20 h after i.m. dosing. Differences in rate and extent of florfenicol absorption after extravascular dosing could influence therapeutic outcomes. PMID:25744433

  3. Pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas following administration of an oral or subcutaneous formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquyt, Christine M; Van Amstel, Sarel; Cox, Sherry; Rohrbach, Barton; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas after single subcutaneous injection of a non-aqueous formulation or oral administration of an aqueous drench at 0.2mg∗kg(-1). Plasma moxidectin concentrations were measured with reverse phase HPLC, and data analyzed using non-compartmental methods. Half-life was longer (p=0.02) after subcutaneous administration than oral (292+/-170 vs 33+/-39h). The area under the concentration-time curve was greater (p=0.04) following subcutaneous administration (1484.8+/-1049.5h∗ng∗ml(-1)) than oral (157.6+/-85.9h∗ng∗ml(-1)). The peak concentration (Cmax) was higher and the after subcutaneous administration, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The relative bioavailability of the oral moxidectin to the subcutaneous moxidectin was 11%. The data suggest a higher relative bioavailability following subcutaneous compared to oral administration. Further studies are needed to determine the therapeutic concentrations of moxidectin in alpacas. PMID:27033926

  4. Prediction of alpaca fibre quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaza-Cayo, A W; Alomar, D; Quispe, E

    2013-07-01

    Rapid and efficient methods to evaluate variables associated with fibre quality are essential in animal breeding programs and fibre trade. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated to predict textile quality attributes of alpaca fibre. Raw samples of fibres taken from male and female Huacaya alpacas (n = 291) of different ages and colours were scanned and their visible-near-infrared (NIR; 400 to 2500 nm) reflectance spectra were collected and analysed. Reference analysis of the samples included mean fibre diameter (MFD), standard deviation of fibre diameter (SDFD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD), mean fibre curvature (MFC), standard deviation of fibre curvature (SDFC), comfort factor (CF), spinning fineness (SF) and staple length (SL). Patterns of spectral variation (loadings) were explored by principal component analysis (PCA), where the first four PC's explained 99.97% and the first PC alone 95.58% of spectral variability. Calibration models were developed by modified partial least squares regression, testing different mathematical treatments (derivative order, subtraction gap, smoothing segment) of the spectra, with or without applying spectral correction algorithms (standard normal variate and detrend). Equations were selected through one-out cross-validation according to the proportion of explained variance (R 2CV), root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) and the residual predictive deviation (RPD), which relates the standard deviation of the reference data to RMSECV. The best calibration models were accomplished when using the NIR region (1100 to 2500 nm) for the prediction of MFD and SF, with R 2CV = 0.90 and 0.87; RMSECV = 1.01 and 1.08 μm and RPD = 3.13 and 2.73, respectively. Models for SDFD, CVFD, MFC, SDFC, CF and SL had lower predictive quality with R 2CV validation performed for MFD and SF on 91 samples was slightly poorer than cross-validation, with R 2 of 0.86 and

  5. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. PMID:25683297

  6. Generation of an alpaca-derived nanobody recognizing γ-H2AX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Malini; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Hastert, Florian D.; Schmidthals, Katrin; Rapp, Alexander; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications are difficult to visualize in living cells and are conveniently analyzed using antibodies. Single-chain antibody fragments derived from alpacas and called nanobodies can be expressed and bind to the target antigenic sites in living cells. As a proof of concept, we generated and characterized nanobodies against the commonly used biomarker for DNA double strand breaks γ-H2AX. In vitro and in vivo characterization showed the specificity of the γ-H2AX nanobody. Mammalian cells were transfected with fluorescent fusions called chromobodies and DNA breaks induced by laser microirradiation. We found that alternative epitope recognition and masking of the epitope in living cells compromised the chromobody function. These pitfalls should be considered in the future development and screening of intracellular antibody biomarkers. PMID:26500838

  7. Progesterone levels in the ovarian, uterine, and systemic venous blood in alpacas with embryo mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryo mortality was studied in a group of 20 pregnant alpacas. The reproductive organs of the females were monitored by ultrasound examination to determine signs of sustained pregnancy or embryo mortality. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein twice weekly from mating to determine progesterone levels through gestation or until the occurrence of embryo mortality. Ovarian hysterectomy was conducted in four animals at day nine post-mating, in three animals at the time of embryo mortality detection and in two others at day 73 of gestation. Blood samples from the ovarian and uterine veins were collected during the surgery and prior to hysterectomy for progesterone determination. The remnant of embryo membranes and the uterus and ovarian structures were macroscopically examined after surgery. The three cases of embryo mortality occurred at days 19, 40 and 69 of gestation. Progesterone levels were high during the process of embryo mortality. (author)

  8. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% 18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. Histológicamente: durante los primeros días la superficie uterina es irregular y presenta proyecciones endometriales de aspecto fungiforme y esta cubierto por células pavimentosas, estroma con la presencia de linfocitos, macrófagos y fibroblastos, glándulas reducidas en su diámetro. A partir del sexto día, muestra cambio en el regenerativo, el epitelio de hace predominantemente cúbico, Del sexto al doceavo día el epitelio continua irregular con pequeñas áreas con células epiteliales pavimentosas y cúbicas, lo cual coincide con el cambio en el peso del útero en forma significativa

  9. Analysis of the existence of major genes affecting alpaca fiber traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cabal, M A; Cervantes, I; Morante, R; Burgos, A; Goyache, F; Gutiérrez, J P

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of major genes for fiber diameter (FD), SD of FD (SDFD), CV of FD, and comfort factor (CF) in Huacaya (HU) and Suri (SU) Peruvian alpaca breeds. Bayesian segregation analyses with relaxed transmission probabilities were performed using 1,906 and 6,592 available records for SU and HU breeds. Evidence for the presence of major genes was statistically supported when the 95% posterior density did not include zero. Significant major genes were found associated with decreased FD, SDFD, CV values, and increased CF values. Additive effects of the major genes were 4.18 and 4.23 μm for FD, 1.67 and 1.61 μm for SDFD, 3.32 and 3.76% for CV, and 15.03 and 14.90% for CF in HU and SU breeds, respectively. Dominance effects were -1.98 and -2.03 μm for FD, -0.88 and -1.11 μm for SDFD, -1.37 and -2.17% for CV, and 13.0 and 11.8% for CF in HU and SU breeds, respectively. Major gene variance was larger than the polygenic variance for all traits. Major gene allelic frequencies for FD, SDFD, and CV ranged from 0.81 to 0.86 for HU breed and from 0.70 to 0.77 for the SU breed and were 0.24 and 0.36, respectively, for CF. It can be concluded that a major gene affecting these traits could be segregating. Then, molecular identification and monitoring of animals carrying favorable genes throughout the worldwide alpaca population would allow for a quick genetic improvement. PMID:20656969

  10. Progesterone levels in the ovarian uterine and systematic venous blood in alpacas with embryo mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South American camelids is one the limited options that Peruvian Highland people, has to get economic incomes. It is possible to get fibre, meat, and animals as product from this animal production system; however, reproductive efficiency is not good because birth rate and embryo mortality are around 45-55% and 50%, respectively (Fernandez Baca, 1970). There is not so much information about between age, pathogen agents, and genital tract alterations in relation to embryo mortality. This means that improving genetic programmes or breeding systems cannot fulfil the goals of an efficient production system. New Zealand reports 24% embryo mortality between 21-30 days of gestation (Ridland et al., 1993). According to Boland (2000), there is no relation between peripheral serum levels and ovaryuterus circulation levels of progesterone; so embryo survival would be relational to progesterone levels in the ovarian and uterine veins. In this study we have considered serum progesterone levels, in uterus-ovarian circulation in luteal phase animals compared with early pregnancy and embryo mortality process. Twenty open female alpacas with recorded previous parturitions were used. They were breed with a male when they showed sexual receptivity and was found an 8 mm follicle in any of the ovaries (Bravo, 1999). Ovario-hysterectomy was performed in four animals nine days after breeding to use their serum samples as diestrus references, and the rest (16 animals), ovario-hysterectomy was performed after positive pregnancy diagnosis, that was monitored every other day by ultrasound during gestation or until embryo mortality occurred. There was an ultrasound evaluation of ovaries and uterus from day 15 post breeding until day 90 or when embryo mortality evidences was found. This was considered to have occurred when embryo cardiac beat decreased, embryo motility lost, or suspended particles in foetal fluids apparition. (Adams, 1989; Parraguez,1997). Blood samples were taken from jugular

  11. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K. Hietala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960’s to early 1980’s. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960’s, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans.

  12. PETCO2 measured by a new lightweight mainstream capnometer with very low dead space volume offers accurate and reliable noninvasive estimation of PaCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daijiro Takahashi, Takehiko Hiroma, Tomohiko NakamuraDivision of Neonatology, Nagano Children’s Hospital, Nagano, JapanObjective: Although capnometers are widely used in adult and pediatric intensive care units, they are not widely used in neonatal intensive care units due to issues such as the weight of sensors, dead space, and leakage from tracheal intubation tubes. These authors developed a light and low dead space airway adaptor of end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2 and evaluated the correlations between PETCO2 and partial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 in rabbits while changing tidal volume and leakage volume.Methods: Firstly, Japanese rabbits weighing 2 kg were divided into three tidal volumes (6 mL/kg, 10 mL/kg, or 15 mL/kg, and PETCO2 and PaCO2 were measured. Secondly, the respiratory apparatus was set to a tidal volume/body weight ratio of 10 mL/kg, leakage rates were divided into seven groups, and PETCO2  and PaCO2 were measured.Results: PETCO2 and PaCO2 were significantly correlated (r2 = 0.9099, P < 0.0001 when there was no leakage in the tracheal intubation tubes. No significant differences were observed between PaCO2 and PETCO2 (Pa-ETCO2 in the three tidal volume/body weight groups or for groups in which leakage rate was <60%, but significant deviations in Pa-ETCO2 were noted in groups with leakage rate 60%.Conclusion: There was a strong correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2 when tidal volume/body weight ratio was 6–15 mL/kg with leakage rate <60%. Lightweight mainstream capnometer with a low amount of dead space airway adaptor might be useful in very low birth weight infants with small tidal volume.Keywords: capnography, mainstream, neonate

  13. Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbedanu, Prince N; Anderson, Kristi L; Brewer, Matthew T; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-09-15

    Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies

  14. Development and Utilization of Camelid VHH Antibodies from Alpaca for 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabrominated Diphenyl Ether Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bever, Candace R. S.; Majkova, Zuzana; Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian; McCoy, Mark; Wang, Yanru; Dechant, Julie; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRN...

  15. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  16. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), HCO3-, pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO3- and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO2, end-tidal CO2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2, but correlated with arterial HCO3- and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO3- and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

  17. Isotropic and anisotropic components of neutron emissions at the FN-II and PACO dense plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average angular distribution of neutron emissions has been measured in the Fuego Nuevo II (FN-II) dense plasma focus device (5 kJ) by means of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. When pure deuterium is used as the filling gas, the data can be adjusted to a Gaussian function, related to anisotropic emission, superposed on a constant pedestal, related to isotropic emission. When deuterium-argon admixtures are used, the anisotropic contribution is best represented by a parabola. The same analysis is applied to previously reported results, for fewer shots, in pure deuterium from the PACO device, which is similar in size to the FN-II. In both devices the anisotropic component is smaller than the isotropic one, but with different features. In PACO the anisotropic component is concentrated on a large narrow beam around the axis, but its contribution to the total neutron yield is significantly smaller than in the FN-II, where the anisotropic component spreads over a wider range. The neutron flux per shot is monitored in both devices with calibrated silver activation detectors, at 20 deg. and at 90 deg. from the axis. The average values of the neutron flux at these two angles are used, along with the angular distributions obtained form the track detectors, in order to estimate the absolute neutron yield of both the isotropic and the anisotropic contributions. From examining different groups of shots, it is found that the shape of the angular distribution is important in the estimation of anisotropy, and that the value usually reported, as the ratio of neutron counts head-on and side-on, as measured by activation counters, may be misleading

  18. Cerebral autoregulation and flow/metabolism coupling during cardiopulmonary bypass: the influence of PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of 133Xe clearance and effluent cerebral venous blood sampling were used in 38 patients to determine the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, and of maintaining temperature corrected or noncorrected PaCO2 at 40 mm Hg on regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and flow/metabolism coupling. After induction of anesthesia with diazepam and fentanyl, mean CBF was 25 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 and cerebral oxygen consumption, 1.67 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1. Cerebral oxygen consumption during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass at 26 degrees C was reduced to 0.42 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in both groups. CBF was reduced to 14-15 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in the non-temperature-corrected group (n = 21), was independent of cerebral perfusion pressure over the range of 20-100 mm Hg, but correlated with cerebral oxygen consumption. In the temperature-corrected group (n = 17), CBF varied from 22 to 32 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1, and flow/metabolism coupling was not maintained (i.e., CBF and cerebral oxygen consumption varied independently). However, variation in CBF correlated significantly with cerebral perfusion pressure over the pressure range of 15-95 mm Hg. This study demonstrates a profound reduction in cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermic nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. When a non-temperature-corrected PaCO2 of approximately 40 mm Hg was maintained, CBF was lower, and analysis of pooled data suggested that CBF regulation was better preserved, i.e., CBF was independent of pressure changes and dependent upon cerebral oxygen consumption

  19. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  20. Weighting fibre and morphological traits in a genetic index for an alpaca breeding programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I; Pérez-Cabal, M A; Burgos, A; Morante, R

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, the fibre diameter (FD) is considered the main selection objective in alpaca populations all over the world. International Committee for Animal Recording recommendations define the FD and its CV as the first two traits to be considered in breeding programmes for this specie. In addition to these main criteria, other selection criteria of economic value used are comfort factor (CF) or standard deviation (s.d.); also other less important traits being used as selection objectives are these morphological traits: density (DE), crimp (CR) or lock structure (LS) for, respectively, Huacaya (HU) and Suri (SU) ecotypes, head (HE), coverage (CO) and balance (BA). The goal of this study was to establish how to implement a combined selection index starting from genetic parameters and to study the expected correlation between genetic trends by considering different alternative procedures of weighting all the involved traits, and the consequences of a wrongly proceeding way. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from the data set belonging to the PACOMARCA experimental farm for SU and HU. Two approaches were used to check the consequences of a set of subjective weights essayed. The coefficients of selection indexes were obtained for two sets of reference weights. In addition, equivalent weights were drawn if applied those reference values as coefficients of hypothetical selection indexes directly on phenotypes; relative expected genetic responses were computed in different cases. Results showed that almost in all cases for both ecotypes, the weight applied to CF should be surprisingly negative. Concerning genetic responses, only CO was compromised in some cases for the HU ecotype. The essayed methodology allowed explaining the differences between ecotypes in the genetic trends. The proposed methodology was shown to be effective to study the relative importance of the traits granted by the manager of a breeding scheme. PMID:24423382

  1. Development and utilization of camelid VHH antibodies from alpaca for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bever, Candace R S; Majkova, Zuzana; Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian; McCoy, Mark; Wang, Yanru; Dechant, Julie; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRNA coding for the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) were isolated, transcribed to cDNA, and cloned into a phagemid vector for phage display library construction. Selection of VHHs recognizing BDE-47 was achieved by panning under carefully modified conditions. The assay sensitivity for detecting BDE-47 was down to the part-per-billion (microgram per liter) level. Cross-reactivity analyses confirmed that this method was highly selective for BDE-47 and selected hydroxylated metabolites. When exposed to elevated temperatures, the camelid VHH antibodies retained more reactivity than a polyclonal antibody developed to the same target analyte. The use of this VHH antibody reagent immobilized onto a Au electrode for impedance biosensing demonstrates the increased versatility of VHH antibodies. PMID:25005746

  2. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitric oxide (NO) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of α-MSH to stimulate α-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to α-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm2 of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 μM L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of α-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the α-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance α-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete α-MSH to enhance the α-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  3. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China); Dong, Changsheng, E-mail: cs_dong@sxau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China)

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  4. El primer cuento marxista para niños en el Perú: El caso de “Paco Yunque” de César Vallejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Valenzuela Garcés

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es demostrar que “Paco Yunque”, de César Vallejo, es el primer cuento plenamente marxista para niños de nuestra tradición narrativa. Sustentamos esta tesis a partir del análisis del sistema ideológico presente en la historia, la funcionalización de los personajes y sus respectivos programas narrativos. Nuestro marco teórico comprende categorías propias del marxismo clásico. Finalmente, nos interesa problematizar el tipo de cuento que constituye “Paco Yunque” para sostener que, en su caso, estamos ante un relato que revoluciona el cuento infantil tradicional.

  5. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  6. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I125LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 μ3g L-1. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 μg L-1, declined to 15% at 4 μg L-1 and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 μg L-1. The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 μg L-1), 16% (7.1 μg L-1) and 9.8% (19 μg L-1). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 μL to 100 μL (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 μg L-1. The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs

  7. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aba, M.A.; Forsberg, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I{sup 125}LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 {mu}3g L{sup -1}. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, declined to 15% at 4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}), 16% (7.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and 9.8% (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 {mu}L to 100 {mu}L (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs.

  8. The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2013-05-01

    In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (Pviscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (Pviscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation. PMID:23537479

  9. Pärnu mudaravila restaureerimine ja juurdeehitus = Restoration and extension of the Pärnu mud baths / Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teedumäe, Tarmo, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Restaureeritud ja uue juurdeehitusega Pärnu mudaravila Ranna puiestee 1, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Inga Raukas, Arhitektuuriagentuur, Allianss Arhitektid. Sisearhitektid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Tuuli Trei, Margit Teikari (Vaikla Stuudio). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  10. Anti-idiotypic nanobody as citrinin mimotope from a naive alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Xiong, Liang; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    Compared with peptide-based mimotope, anti-idiotypic antibodies (AIds) are considered as promising biosynthetic surrogate antigen because these antibodies display stable protein conformation. Nevertheless, conventional AIds are generated by immunizing animals with heterologous idiotypic antibody in vivo; isolated AIds commonly exhibit a higher affinity to primary antibodies than target analytes because AIds undergo an affinity-matured process during immune responses, resulting in low sensitivity in competitive immunoassay. In the present study, an anti-citrinin monoclonal antibody (anti-CIT McAb) was designed as primary antibody; one β-type AI alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody (β-AI VHH) was selected as a citrinin (CIT) surrogate from a naive phage-displayed VHH library. The affinity constant (K D) of obtained β-AI VHH to anti-CIT McAb (160 nM) is 2.35 times lower than that of CIT and ovalbumin conjugates (CIT-OVA) to anti-CIT McAb (68 nM). The developed VHH-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (V-ELISA) can be used to perform dynamic linear detection of CIT in 10% (v/v) methanol/PBS from 5.0 to 300.0 ng/mL, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 44.6 ng/mL (n = 3); this result was twice as good as that of indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA, IC50 = 96.2 ng/mL) with CIT-OVA as a coating antigen. Moreover, the precision of V-ELISA was evaluated by analyzing average recoveries and coefficient of variations of CIT-spiked cereal sample; the reliability of V-ELISA was also validated with a conventional ic-ELISA. In summary, the proposed strategy has a great potential for panning other β-AI VHH toward small organic molecules from a naive VHH library. PMID:25910884

  11. Review of Research Progress on the Related Genes with the Coat Color of Alpaca%羊驼毛色相关基因研究进展的综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邸文达; 杨川

    2012-01-01

    羊驼毛纤维颜色丰富,具有22种天然色,与其他哺乳动物一样,主要由遗传基因决定。掌握控制羊驼毛色基因的改变,可以有效地控制羊驼毛色的转变。哺乳动物的毛色表型与动物体内黑色素的种类、数量、合成及分布有关。在羊驼皮肤组织中,Agouti基因、MC1R基因、酪氨酸酶基因家族、KIT基因、AIF基因、β-catenin基因、Wnt3α基因、Mitf-M基因、EDNRA基因、EDNRB基因、CDK5基因、PRS5基因、P基因及花斑突变都参与羊驼毛色的形成与调控。综述了羊驼毛色相关基因的研究进展。%The hair fiber color of alpaca,with 22 natural colors, is mainly determined by heredity gene like other mammals . To master and control the changes the hair color genes of alpaca could effectively regulate the changes of hair colors of alpaca. The hair phenotypes of mammals are related to the types, amount,composition and distribution of melanin in animals. In the skin tissue of alpaca, Agouti gene ,MC1R gene, tyrosine gene family, KIT gene ,A1F gene ,~-catenin gene, Wnt3et gene ,Mitf-M gene ,EDNRA gene ,EDNRB gene, CDK5 gene, PRS5 gene, P gene and piebaldness mutation all participated in the formation and regulation of alpaca hair color.

  12. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department)

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani Paredes, Javier; Condemayta Condemayta, Zacarias; Calle Charaja, Leoncio

    2009-01-01

    ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de ...

  13. Analysis and Evaluation of the Components and Flavouring Substances in Alpaca Meat%羊驼肉成分分析及评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晋华; 李鹏飞; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    为分析羊驼肉营养成分、矿物质元素及维生素,采集9头羊驼肉,用常规方法测定常量营养素,等离子体发射光谱法分析矿物元素,氨基酸分析法测定氨基酸,高效液相色谱法(HPLC)测定维生素.结果显示,羊驼肉蛋白质含量高,占原样基础的25.6%;矿物质含量为1.9%、尤以钾、磷和钠含量最多,钙、镁、锌含量也较高;维生素含量丰富,其中VC含量最高,脂溶性VE含量也较高;羊驼肉中舍有17种氨基酸,其中7种人体必需氨基酸(赖氨酸、苯丙氨酸、蛋氨酸、苏氨酸、异亮氨酸、亮氨酸、缬氨酸)占肌肉(干样)总量的31.64%,4种鲜味氨基酸(谷氨酸、丙氨酸、甘氨酸和天冬氨酸)占肌肉(干样)总量的31.61%,谷氨酸含量高达13.12%,赖氨酸含量较高(7.47%),缺乏色氨酸,是一种优质的肉类资源.%In order to analyze the nutritional components,mineral elements and the vitamine content of the Alpaca Meat.The raw meat was collected from the nine white Alpaca; Macronutrients was detected by routine methods ; Mineral elements were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mission spectrometry; Amino acid was detected by amino acid analyzer;the Vitamine was analysed by HPLC.The result displayed,Alpaca meat protein content was high,accounting for 25.6%(original sample) ; Mineral content was 1.9%,most especially in potassium,phosphorus and sodium,calcium,magnesium,zinc content were also higher; Vitamin content was rich,the highest content of VC,fat-soluble VE content were also higher; Alpaca meat contains 17 kinds of amino acids,of which 7 kinds of essential amino acid (lysine,phenylalanine,methionine,threonine,isoleucine,leucine,valine) accounted for 31.64% (dry sample),four kinds of umami amino acid (glutamic acid,alanine,glycine and aspartic acid) accounted for 31.61% (dry sample) ; Especially the glutamate content as high as 13.12%,lysine content was higher (7.47%),lacking of tryptophan.So that it

  14. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani Paredes, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de producción de 1998 – 2000. Determinándose que las principales causas de mortalidad dealpacas son: Agentes infecciosos 51.70%, anormalidades orgánicas24.08%, causas accidentales 13.36%, causas nutricionales 7.83% yenfermedades parasitarias 3.03%. Las causas infecciosas de mayorfrecuencia fueron: Las neumonías 31.12%, entero toxemia 20.90%,estomatitis 17.46% y otras en menor frecuencia. La mortalidad por causas orgánicas son la Caquexia de los animales 58.88%, aunque en puna seca la torsión intestinal y atonía ruminal son de mayor frecuencia. Se encontró como causas accidentales de muerte a: Traumatismos 50.30%, depredadores 28.63%, falsa deglución 7.35%, asfixia 7.16% y otros con menor frecuencia. Las principales causas nutricionales de mortalidad son:Desnutrición 27.12%, inanición 23.73%, falta de leche 19.32% y otras en menor proporción. Las causas parasitarias de mortalidad se determino: Sarna 33.33%, sarcosistiosis 28.95%, coccidiosis 25.44%, gastroenteritis verminosa 10.52%, dictiocaulosis e hidatidosis 0.88% respectivamente.SummaryThe present study took place in three main centers of alpaquera production of the department of Puno: Rural Alliance EPS, CIP “the Ray” - a Fist located in the zone ecological land of humid Fist and Quimsachata Annex of INIA - Fist located in the ecological zone land of dry Fist; with the aim of determining the main causes of mortality of alpacas. By means of an analytical observacional study

  15. Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Wang, H D; Shen, Y; Liu, N; Cao, J; Yu, X J; Dong, C S; He, X Y

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are very small endogenous RNA molecules that play a crucial role in an array of biological processes, including regulation of skin morphogenesis. The microRNA let-7b is thought to modulate animal hair growth, by binding target genes that encode growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) has been previously reported to be involved in the initiation of the catagen phase of hair growth. In this study, we combined previous reports with bioinformatic analysis techniques to identify and validate FGF5 and, using lucerifase assay, confirmed targeted binding of let-7b to FGF5. To investigate the interaction between let-7b and FGF5, alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with let-7b over-expression vectors, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF5 and the gene encoding its receptor, FGFR1, were evaluated. Levels of FGF5 mRNA and protein were remarkably lower in transfected groups, as compared to controls. In summary, this study confirmed that let-7b acts as a regulator of skin morphogenesis, by directly targeting FGF5 and down-regulating its expression. It provides the evidence of hair growth regulated by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production. PMID:26535691

  16. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles. PMID:25921796

  17. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  18. Propuesta de un matadero de alpacas y planta de elaboración de charqui mediante el uso de las tecnologías apropiadas para el distrito de Cotaruse (departamento de Apurimac, Perú)

    OpenAIRE

    Boronat Gil, María Isabel

    2013-01-01

    El deterioro de los recursos naturales y la falta de seguridad alimentaria revelan una compleja problemática en el medio rural, en el que la sociedad campesina juega un papel determinante. En las zonas más elevadas de los Andes la crianza de alpacas constituye la principal actividad agraria. Los campesinos son mayoritariamente indígenas y viven con deficiencias en los servicios básicos y una grave carencia económica. El objetivo general del presente trabajo es contribuir al desarrollo sosteni...

  19. Changes in blood hemoglobin and blood gases PaO2 and PaCO2 in severe COPD overa three-year telemonitored program of long-term oxygen treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Negro Roberto W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the effects of long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT on blood hemoglobin (Hb in severe COPD are limited. The aim was to assess blood Hb values in severe COPD, and investigate the time-course of both Hb and blood gas changes during a 3-year telemetric LTOT. Methods A cohort of 132 severe COPD patients (94 males; 71.4 years ± 8.8 sd, newly admitted to the tele-LTOT program, was investigated. Subjects were divided according to their original blood Hb: group A: 2 and PaCO2 (mmHg, SaO2 (%, and BMI were measured at LTOT admission (t0, and at least quarterly over three years (t1-t3. Wilcoxon test was used to compare t0 vs. t1 values; linear regression to assess a possible Hb-BMI relationship; ANOVA to compare changes in Hb time-courses over the 3 years. Results LTOT induced a systematic increase of PaO2, and changes were significant since the first year (from 52.1 mmHg ± 6.6sd to 65.1 mmHg ± 8.7 sd, p 2 were quite similar. Comparable and equally significant trends were seen in all subgroups (p 2 dropped within the first year of LTOT (from 49.4 mmHg ± 9.1sd to 45.9 mmHg ±7.5 sd, p 0-t1 comparison proved significant (p 2 decline over the remaining two years (p  15 g/dl (ANOVA p 2, PaCO2 and SaO2 dramatically improved. In anemic subjects effects were smaller and slower, oxygenation being equally ameliorated by LTOT. Conclusions LTOT effects on Hb and PaCO2 are regulated by an Hb-dependent gradient which seems independent of the original impairment of blood gases and of effects on oxygenation.

  20. Más allá de Paco de Lucía. Una aproximación a la tradición del flamenco en el Campo de Gibraltar, Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia, mediática, histórica y artística generada por Paco de Lucía, tanto por el mismo como en su acompañamiento a ya mítico Camarón de la Isla ha generado un velo que enturbia al arte flamenco de todo el Campo de Gibraltar. Sin minusvalorar el aporte de la familia algecireña Sánchez la tradición jonda se puede rastrear hasta el siglo XVII y pervive en jóvenes valores del cante, el toque y el baile hasta el día de hoy. Como ejemplo basta mencionar dos nombres que son ejemplo de la pervivencia flamenca Corruco y la zaga de Los Chaqueta.

  1. Limitations of Spoligotyping and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing for Molecular Tracing of Mycobacterium bovis in a High-Diversity Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucía; Sáez-Llorente, José Luis; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Jiménez, Antonio; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the attempt to trace the first Mycobacterium bovis outbreak in alpacas (Lama pacos) in Spain by spoligotyping and variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis. Due to high genotype diversity, no matching source was identified, but local expansion of a clonal group was found and its significance for molecular tracing is discussed.

  2. 半巢式PCR法构建天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库%Construction of Alpaca-derived Naive Single-domain Antibody Phage Display Library by Semi-nested PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂追; 许杨; 何庆华; 陶勇

    2010-01-01

    目的:构建天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库,淘选可应用于食品安全检测的单域重链抗体.方法:以未经免疫的健康羊驼(Lama pacos)外周血为起始材料,提取RNA反转录为cDNA,根据重链抗体保守序列设计引物,通过半巢式PCR法扩增获得全套重链抗体可变区编码基因,将其克隆至噬菌粒pHEN1,电转化大肠杆菌TG1得到初级抗体库,辅助噬菌体KM13感染后得到噬菌体展示库.采用固相淘选法分别对3种人工抗原进行淘选.结果:单域重链抗体编码基因得到有效扩增,经10次电转化获得初级文库,命名为SNAL,实际库容量达到1.6×107个独立克隆,菌落PCR鉴定结果表明,克隆效率约为87%,辅助噬菌体救援后得到的展示文库命名为SNA-PDL,滴度达1013CFU/mL.对3种不同人工抗原DON-MBSA、NOR-BSA和AFB1-OVA的淘选均有富集现象.结论:构建了天然噬菌体单域重链抗体文库,文库的多样性较好,可以用于后续淘选.

  3. Magnetosome Expression of Functional Camelid Antibody Fragments (Nanobodies) in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Pollithy, Anna; Romer, Tina; Lang, Claus; Müller, Frank D.; Helma, Jonas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Schüler, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Numerous applications of conventional and biogenic magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), such as in diagnostics, immunomagnetic separations, and magnetic cell labeling, require the immobilization of antibodies. This is usually accomplished by chemical conjugation, which, however, has several disadvantages, such as poor efficiency and the need for coupling chemistry. Here, we describe a novel strategy to display a functional camelid antibody fragment (nanobody) from an alpaca (Lama pacos) on the surf...

  4. Effect of ET-1 on Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Skin Melanocytes in vitro%内皮素-1(ET-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖和黑素生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建军; 张杰; 穆晓丽; 白瑞; 董彦君; 白俊明; 董常生

    2011-01-01

    旨在研究内皮素-1 (Endothelin-1,ET-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞(Melanocyte,MC)增殖和黑素合成的影响.本研究中,体外培养正常羊驼皮肤黑素细胞,观察不同浓度ET-1(0、0.1、1、10、100 nmol·L-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、黑素含量、内皮素受体B(Endothelin recepter B,EDNRB)基因、酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)基因、酪氨酸相关蛋白-1(Tyrosinase related protein 1,TRP-1)基因和表皮黑皮素1受体(Melanocortin 1 receptor,MC1R)基因表达量的影响.结果表明,ET-1处理羊驼皮肤黑素细胞3d后,羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增多,黑素含量、EDNRB、TRP-1和TYR基因表达量都明显增加(P<0.05),以10 nmol·L-1组最为显著.ET-1能诱导羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、树突增长,诱导EDNRB、TYR和TRP-1基因表达量增高,使黑素合成增加;同时诱导MC1R基因表达量增高,从而通过α-MSH信号通路对羊驼黑色素的生成产生影响.%To study the effects of Endothelin-l(ET-l) on the proliferation and melanin synthesis of cultured alpaca skin melanocytes, the cultured alpaca skin melanocytes were treated with various concentrations of ET-KO, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nmol · L-1) in vitro. The effects of ET-1 on mel-anocyte proliferation, melanin contents, EDNRB, TYR, TRP-1 and MC1R gene expeession in cultured melanocytes were observed. Three days after treatment with ET-1, the number of melanocytes increased and melanin contents, EDNRB, TYR and TRP-1 gene expression levels also remarkably increased in treated cells compared to those in untreated cells(P<0. 05), especially when the concentration was 10 nmol · L-11. The result indicate that ET-1 can induce the dendrites elongated, proliferation and the expression of EDNRB, TYR and TRP-1, and induce the melanin synthesis; Also, ET-1 induce the expression of MC1R gene, and affect the melanin synthesis of alpaca by the pathway of a-MSH.

  5. PACo: A Novel Procrustes Application to Cophylogenetic Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balbuena, J. A.; Míguez-Lozano, R.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), e61048. E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 252124 - PARAPOPGENE Grant ostatní: National Scientific Research of Spain(ES) CGL2008-02701; Generalitat Valenciana(ES) Prometeo Grant 2011-040 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : host-parasite cospeciation * phylogenetic trees * statistical tests * mitochondrial-DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  6. miR-663通过靶向 TGF-β1调控羊驼黑色素细胞的黑色素生成%Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Melanocytes Regulated by miR-663 Through Targeting TGF-β1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小云; 金雷皓; 苗潋涓; 丁娜; 范瑞文; 董常生

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the present study is to identify the target genes of miR-663 and investigate the role of miR-663 in melanin synthesis in alpaca melanocytes.[Method]The potential targets and binding sites of TGF-β1 were predicted and analyzed by Targetscan, RNAhybrid and RNA22. The similarity of 3′UTR of TGF-β1 sequences from various species was analyzed by DNAMAN. The dual-luciferase construct of pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was created by inserting partial TGF-β1 3′UTR into the pmirGLO vector by SacⅠ and XbaⅠ restriction sites. The regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 was validated by co-transfecting pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR construct with miR-663 mimic into 293T cells. The over-expression of miR-663 was achieved by transfecting melanocytes with miR-663 mimic. The mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7 and β-catenin in melanocytes transfected with miR-663 mimic were analyzed by qRT-PCR or Western blotting, respectively. The effects of miR-663 on melanin synthesis were evaluated by measuring the melanin content of the cells.[Result]There are 68 potential targets for miR-663 predicted by bioinformatics, including 74 conserved binding sites and 44 less conserved binding sites. DNAMAN analysis showed that all 3′UTR sequences of TGF-β1 from analyzed species are highly conserved and enriched potential target sites. One of the potential targets of miR-663 is TGF-β1, which is involved in the development of hair follicle as well as melanin pigmentation. The alpaca 3′UTR sequence of TGF-β1 contains three miR-663 potential binding sites. To confirm the regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 through its 3′UTR, a dual-luciferase reporter vector pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was successfully constructed and co-transfected into 293T cells with miR-663 mimic. The luciferase assay experiments showed that the luciferase activity was 31.01%lower in cells co-transfected with pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR and miR-663 mimic than that in control cells, suggesting

  7. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol.

    OpenAIRE

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term "Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia". These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or si...

  8. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term “Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia”. These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or sim...

  9. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    Lear, Andrea S.; Byers, Stacey R.; Robert J. Callan; McArt, Jessica A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and...

  10. Mantous and alpacas as weapons of the weak: Chinese spoof video and self-expression online

    OpenAIRE

    Lugg, Alexander Neish

    2013-01-01

    Chinese Web users are using video spoofs in an attempt to reclaim expressive space in Chinese-language cyberspace. In a manner reminiscent of shunkouliu (humorous sayings), that circulated particularly widely during the late 20th century, video spoofs are being used to express discontent with a range of political and social issues and policies while using a veil of humour to obfuscate the target of the satire. These spread of these videos and the ideas they express have caused changes to Chin...

  11. Long-bone fractures in llamas and alpacas: 28 cases (1998–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Knafo, S. Emmanuelle; Getman, Liberty M.; Richardson, Dean W.; Fecteau, Marie-Eve

    2012-01-01

    Treatment and outcome of camelids with long-bone fractures are described. Medical records (1998–2008) of camelids (n = 28) with long-bone fractures were reviewed for signalment, time to presentation, fracture type, method of repair, duration of hospitalization, and post-operative complications. Follow-up information was obtained via telephone interviews with owners. Mean age and weight at presentation were 3.4 years and 56.3 kg, respectively. Twenty-six fractures were treated with internal fi...

  12. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. February 2003 actualization, no.9; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation de fevrier 2003, no.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on february 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components), the hydrogen production (low temperature methane reforming, hydrogen and methane production from biomass, PEM hydrogen cells, hydrogen production for hybrid fuel cell vehicle) and hydrogen storage (catalytic de-hydrogeno-aromatization of the decalin for the hydrogen storage, calcium and lithium hydrides utilization, the Ti-Mg-Ni alloy capacity for the hydrogen storage, metallic hydrides, iron oxido-reduction for the PEMFC). For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  13. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. May 18, 2004 update no. 24; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 18 mai 2004, no. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)comparison of the costs between the electric-powered vehicles and the fuel cell vehicles 2)fuel savings of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles 3)direct formic acid fuel cells producing high current density 4)use of biogas in a SOFC 5)test unit for the determination of the seasonal performance of fuel cell residential systems 6)new management technique of fuel cells for optimizing the output power and the fuel use yield 7)SOFC/micro-turbines systems: current progress achieved and future development 8)advances in the field of the PEMFC 9)advances in the field of new materials for PEMFC 10)hybridization of fuel cell vehicles: an accessible solution for efficient traction systems 11)exergy life cycle analysis of systems of production and storage of hydrogen for mobile application 12)hydrogen and electric power production from coal with CO{sub 2} sequestration 13)H{sub 2}S low temperature removal with ZnO in gas mixtures containing vapor for applications in fuel cells 1-ZnO particles and extruded compounds 14)catalytic nano-composite membranes for CO abatement in fuel cell applications 15)activity and stability of Cu-CeO catalysts in the water-gas conversion for fuel cell applications 16)hydrogen production for fuel cell by ethanol partial oxidation on a nickel based catalyst 17)micro-reactor for hydrogen production in micro-fuel cell applications 18)hydrogen storage capacity and electrochemical properties of the electrode material La{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}Ni{sub 3.825}Co{sub 0.675}Mn{sub x}(A) 19)hydrogen storage and desorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  14. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). September 19, 2001 update, no. 1; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 19 septembre 2001, no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: dynamical behaviour of a PEM fuel cell for stationary applications; characterization of the Ballard's MK5-E PEMFC; modeling and analysis of a PEM system for transportation system applications; increase of the performances of a PEMFC by the optimization of the membrane and of the conditions of humidification; SOFC: exo-thermal reaction and heat source; average temperature SOFCs; performance and structure of a new CoO/Ni-based cathode for MCFC; choice of materials for fuel cell technology; recent trends of fuel cell-powered vehicles; hydrogen production in supercritical liquids for fuel cell use; on-board fuel conversion for fuel cells: comparison of the different fuels by numerical simulation; hydrogen production systems for fuel cells; reactor for the preferential catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (PROX) for PEMFC systems devoted to automotive vehicles; study of a gasoline reformer for fuel cell-powered vehicle applications; experimental research about hydrogen production from n-octane partial oxidation and vapo-reforming; simulation study of hydrogen storage in mono-sheet carbon nano-tubes; hydrogen adsorption in carbonized nano-structures; specific properties of the hydrogen engine; biomass power plants: a spectacular expansion in Germany. (J.S.)

  15. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). March 13, 2002 update, no. 6; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 13 mars 2002, no. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells and hydrogen production: 'giant jumps' in PEMFC technology from 1960 to the present day; SOFC systems: from 100 kW atmospheric systems to 300 kW pressurized systems; fields of application of PEM fuel cells on the energy market; numerical analysis of the production characteristics of a tubular SOFC with internal reforming; comparative study of the performances obtained with sulfonated poly(butadiene-styrene) membranes; non-planar architecture for PEM fuel cells; mass and heat transfer simulation inside a fuel cell for various channel sections; less expensive and more efficient fuel cells: the abatement of manufacturing costs can lead to products commercialization; comparison between fuel cell powered vehicles and future conventional vehicles; hydrogen produced from ethanol by indirect internal reforming in a MCFC system. (J.S.)

  16. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. February 26, 2004 update no. 21; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 26 fevrier 2004, no. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage, environment. Their different titles are given below: 1)a 10 kW pressurized SOFC unit 2)design of a SOFC system for unstable network 3)demonstration for the general public of high and low temperature fuel cells 4)development of an APU for mobile application based on the SOFC technology 5)fuel cells as continuous supply source 6)PEM fuel cells with carbon nano-tubes electrodes 7)a temperature control system of a reformer fed by a fuel cell 8)the hybridization, a solution for fuel cell vehicles 9)hydrogen production by ethanol auto-thermal reforming on a Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst 10)partial oxidation reforming catalyst for fuel cells vehicles 11)hydrogen production increased by a reactive mixture of alkaline aqueous solutions of an alkaline metal borohydride for fuel cells 12)development of an hydrogen generator (of about 10 kW) using chemical hydrides 13)device for pure gases production, in particular hydrogen and oxygen, from gaseous or liquid mixtures, for stationary and mobile applications 14)hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by pyrolysis with a nickel-lanthanum catalyst 15)estimation of the new energetic and transport systems; the case of fuel cells, part 2: environmental performances. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  17. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). May 13, 2003 update no. 12; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 13 mai 2003, no. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)the running of a fuel cell enriched in oxygen 2)the electricity production from solid oxide fuel cells running with a fuel whose composition is the same as a synthesis gas produced by coal gasification 3)a fuel cell/gas turbine system for electricity and heat production from biomass 4)the SOFC systems with CO{sub 2} isolation 5)the hybrid systems for the decentralized production of electricity based on the pressure getting up and the heat recovery of a MCFC unit of 100 kW 6)the technical assessment of a fuel cell fed with gas produced from municipal organic wastes of the Groton dump (Connecticut) 7)the energetic and exergetic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol 8)choice of fuel for fuel cell vehicle: analysis 9)stainless steel as material for bipolar plates of PEMFC 10)catalysts for low temperature fuel cells, 3. part: the challenges concerning the DMFC 11)additives addition in fuels for fuel cells 12)natural gas and LPG desulfurization unit for reformers 13)a control system of the fuel cell temperature 14)the natural gas reforming in SOFC systems 15)a gas oil partial oxidation for SOFC used for stationary and mobile applications. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  18. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. Actualization of the 04 march 2003, no.10; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation de 04 mars 2003, no.10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on march 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low and medium power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components), the hydrogen production (catalytic burner for carrier hydrogen production, catalysts, fuel reforming for fuel cell vehicles). For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 22, 2003 update no. 19; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 decembre 2003, no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, the means of transport, the hydrogen production and with the different new other energies. Their different titles are given below : 1)gas turbine/fuel cell arrangement 2)design and fabrication of a SOFC by CERAMIC FUEL CELLS 3)a 'microbial' fuel cell able of converting glucose in electricity with high yields and velocity 4)a hybrid system: combined cycle gas turbine - multi-stage SOFC 5)a SOFC as auxiliary generator of electricity in an aircraft 6)recent development results of fuel in the Juelich research center 7)state of development of the SOFC at Haldor Topsoe/Risoe 8)a cost/advantage analysis of 'clean cars': methodology and applications to the electric cars 9)the generation of current and heat in a aerostat 10)hydrogen free from CO, produced from bio-ethanol steam reforming on cobalt catalysts supported on ZnO. Effect of the metallic precursor 11)device and method based on the cyclic auto-thermal reforming 12)the ammonia, source of hydrogen for a hybrid system: alkaline fuel/battery 13)effect of the Nafion on the activity of Pt-Ru electrocatalysts for the methanol electro-oxidation 14)'VISION 21': an integration of systems based on coal. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  20. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network (PACO). January 28, 2004 update no. 20; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 janvier 2004, no. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the characteristics of PEMFC running at negative exterior temperatures 2)the effects of CO poisoning on PEMFC at temperatures until 200 C 3)the mechanical properties of tubular SOFC 4)fuel cells fed with coal 5)analysis of cogeneration system: planar SOFC/gas turbine 6)modelling of fuel cells for transport, according to the neuronal networks method 7)design of hybrid fuel cell systems 8)a comparative study of direct methanol fuel cells for vehicles 9)desulfurization by adsorption and catalytic steam reforming of gas oil for applications in fuel cells 10)feasibility study of hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles by naphtha on-board steam reforming 11)reforming catalyst of kerosene for fuel cell, kinetics and modelling of steam reforming 12)reforming by partial oxidation of low lubricant power gas oil, of dimethyl ether and methane for SOFC 13)conversion of solar heat in fuels by solar thermochemistry 14)hydrogen purification for fuel cells: selective oxidation of CO on Pt-Fe / zeolite catalysts 15)hydrogen photo-production from cellulose derived compound, with a system: chlorophyll / platinum nano-particles 16)hydrogen storage in commercial activated carbon. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  1. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 28, 2005 update no. 32; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 28 juin 2005, no. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)advantages of the use of hydrogen compared with kerosene 2)comparative study of three types of microbial fuel cells 3)carbon nano-tubes for electric applications 4)separation of the CO{sub 2} during the hydrocarbons gasification 5)hydrogen production from hydrocarbons assisted by plasma 6)plasma pyrolysis of biomass for synthesis gas and carbonaceous adsorbent production 7)fast starting reformer for automobile applications 8)development of a unit of hydrogen production from LPG for PEM systems: assessment at the laboratory scale of the sub-units of auto-thermal reforming and of selective oxidation 9)hydrogen and electric power production, with CO{sub 2} sequestration, by redox species chemical cycle reforming (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as support) 10)exergy and economic analysis of a PEM electrolyser running at different temperatures and pressures 11)nano-structured materials for hydrogen storage 12)composite materials based on light elements for hydrogen storage. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  2. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 22, 2004 update no. 22; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 mars 2004, no. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and renewable energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)recent developments in the field of polymer electrolyte fuel cells membranes running above 100 C 2)a new study method of a two-phase flow in a direct methanol fuel cell 3)fuel cell system 4)direct polymer electrolyte fuel cells running with dimethyl ether for portable applications 5)new fuel cells developments for aerospace equipment 6)anode materials for SOFC 7)application of the fuel cell technology to the rail transport 8)hydrogen production by hydrocarbons steam reforming on Ni or Fe based catalysts which are modified by an alkaline earth metal 9)thermochemical hydrogen production from Pacinum virgatum plant 10)development of a catalyst for biomass gasification, in a double-bed gasifier 11)the role of hydrogen in the development of wind power electric systems: the case of Ireland 12)feasibility study of a hydrogen distribution basic equipment for fuel cells vehicles, based on the use of electric power produced in off-peak hours in Japan 13)'bio-hydrogen' production: future developments and limits to a practical application 14)improvement of the hydrogen production from a biomass gasification process, indirectly heated. Removal of carbon dioxide releases with a new biological reformer 15)storage of hydrogen cooled with liquid nitrogen 16)ten years of running of a renewable energy production system based on hydrogen. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  3. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 16, 2004 update no. 23; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 16 avril 2004, no. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the importance of the fuel choice in the efficiency of the SOFC 2)assessment model of a centralized electric power system: SOFC/gas turbine 3)a direct borohydride fuel cell 4)thermodynamic optimization of the internal structure of a fuel cell 5)a SOFC/gas turbine cogeneration system 6)micro-fuel cells for portable applications 7)comparison of performances of direct alcohol fuel cells using different anode catalysts 8)materials and designs for SOFC used in stationary and mobile applications 9)development of measurement techniques for two-phase hydrogen weight flow 10)semi-conductors potentiometric probe for the hydrogen detection in air 11)integration of a fuel cell in an electric system, using a regulator based on the theory of regulation by disturbances accommodation 12)'greening London's black cabs': a study of the use potential of fuel cells cabs in London 13)gasification of leather residues - part 1 - experimental study in a pilot gasifier with a descending current 14)use of composite conducting membranes to produce hydrogen by water dissociation 15)molybdenum carbide based catalyst for the water gas reaction used in fuel cells vehicles applications 16)hydrogen production process from methane hydrates with carbon dioxide hydrates sequestration 17)comparative study between the hydrogen adsorption on super activated carbon and on carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  4. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 14, 2005 update no. 29; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 mars 2005, no. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)thermodynamic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol and running in internal reforming mode 2)effect of the methanol and ethanol permeation on the efficiencies of a direct alcohol fuel cell with a PtRu/C anode 3)analysis of an hybrid SOFC micro-turbine micro-generation system 4)dynamic modelling and simulation of a small hybrid wind-fuel cell system 5)simulation of a system combining SOFC and PEMFC 6)assessment of the impacts and of the economical aspects of the fuel cell APU part 1: modelling of the cost and the efficiencies of the system part 2)impacts on the health and on the environment, analysis of the life cycle and optimization 7)efficiencies of vehicles equipped with direct hydrogen or reformed methanol PEMFC 8)methods for supplying fuel cell devices 9)auxiliary fuel cell system 10)analysis of life cycle of maritime applications of fuel cells 11)critical analysis of different hydrogen production and uses ways 12)comparison of the hydrogen and natural gas production processes in a thermodynamical and environmental point of view 13)research and development on the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  5. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 14, 2004 update no. 25; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 juin 2004, no. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the American plan of de-regulated electric power production with fuel cells 2)application of single wall carbon nano-tubes in fuel cells 3)scenarios of SOFC introduction on the Japanese market 4)advanced SOFC technology and developments at the Siemens Westinghouse firm 5)manufacture and optimal size of a PEMFC cogeneration system for multi-residential application: application to the decomposition strategy 6)analysis of the life cycle of fuel cells using disposal gas 7)technical and economical analysis of a three-generation SOFC system 8)use of APU-FC for an average class tactical lorry, during a use in partial electric power supply or in condition of a silent stand by 9)modelling of the current supply of a lorry at stop: comparison between a idling engine and a APU 10)production of hydrogen and carbon nano-tubes by methane decomposition in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor 11)hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of gas-oil 12)simulations of cold starting of a gasoline reformer for mobile applications of fuel cells 13)ethanol production by steam reforming on a Pd/{gamma}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trading catalyst 14)control of the CO{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and of the deactivation of the catalyst for the gasoline steam reforming 15)comparison of three integrated processes of partial oxidation producing hydrogen for fuel cells applications 16)search of new methods of the mixture: natural gas/hydrogen production for use in natural gas systems in The Netherlands 17)outline of the energy/hydrogen storage: progress achieved with the different techniques and future prospect of nano-materials 18) hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by solar way 19)forecast and measurement of the limits of the flammability domain of fuel cells. The references of these articles rae detailed. (O.M.)

  6. Hravé chování u kopytníků

    OpenAIRE

    Janíčková, Ladislava

    2014-01-01

    Play behaviour is important category in animal´s behaviour in ungulates. In this thesis was compared display play behaviour in this animails: cattle, horse, pig and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis),, black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus),, vicugna (Vicugna vicugna), proghorn (Antilocapra americana) and Cuvier´s gazelle (Gazella cuvieri). According to the available literature play behaviour is divided to 3 main categories: locomotor play, object play and social play. Social play ...

  7. Methane emission by camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  8. Carpal valgus in llamas and alpacas: Retrospective evaluation of patient characteristics, radiographic features and outcomes following surgical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Barbara; Duesterdieck-Zellmer, Katja F.; Huber, Michael J.; Parker, Jill E.; Semevolos, Stacy A.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated outcomes of surgical treatment for carpal valgus in New World camelids and correlated successful outcome (absence of carpal valgus determined by a veterinarian) with patient characteristics and radiographic features. Univariable and multivariable analyses of retrospective case data in 19 camelids (33 limbs) treated for carpal valgus between 1987 and 2010 revealed that procedures incorporating a distal radial transphyseal bridge were more likely (P = 0.03) to result in suc...

  9. Noninvasive monitoring of PaCO2 during one-lung ventilation and minimal access surgery in adults: End-tidal versus transcutaneous techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Paul; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2) may be inaccurate during one-lung ventilation (OLV). This study was performed to compare the accuracy of the noninvasive monitoring of PCO2 using transcutaneous CO2 (TC-CO2) with ET-CO2 in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) during OLV. Materials and Methods: In adult patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgical procedures, PCO2 was simultaneously measured with TC-CO2 and ET-CO2 devices and compa...

  10. Apuntes para una valoración del retrato fotográfico del arquitecto: Paco Gómez y Juan Daniel Fullaondo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Moreno, Lucía Carmen; Bergera Serrano, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    La epistemología contemporánea de la fotografía aborda aspectos clave para valorar y entender el alcance del retrato, género fotográfico que ha sustituido al retrato pictórico como instrumento visual para representar la identidad física y caracterológica de los individuos. El arquitecto es retratado en sociedad, para poder asociar su imagen personal a su obra o viceversa. Durante los años sesenta, el protagonismo que la revista Nueva Forma otorga al retrato de los arquitectos en sus portad...

  11. 7 CFR 760.404 - Eligible livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alpacas, adult or non-adult dairy cattle, beef cattle, buffalo, beefalo, elk, emus, equine, llamas, sheep... bulls; (6) Adult dairy cows; (7) Alpacas; (8) Chickens, broilers, pullets; (9) Chickens, chicks;...

  12. Expression of the Structure Gene (Pro)collagen of Alpaca Skin%羊驼皮肤结构基因(原)胶原的表达特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑞文; 杜红阳; 刘一飞; 董常生

    2009-01-01

    为了揭示羊驼皮肤胶原蛋白(Collagen)在皮肤结构发生中的分子机制,本研究通过构建羊驼皮肤cD-NA文库并进行大规模测序分析,结果表明:在羊驼皮肤内发现只有纤维类胶原表达,即type Ⅰ,type Ⅲ,type Ⅴ collagen,其中type Ⅰ表达最高,type Ⅲ和type Ⅴ表达低;然而,在羊驼皮肤内未发现各类collagen相对应的原胶原(proeollagen),其成员procollagen type Ⅰ,typeⅢ,type Ⅳ,type Ⅵ,typeⅦ,typeⅤⅧ在表达,且type Ⅰ远远高于其他家族成员的表达,由此推断collagen和procollagen type Ⅰ在羊驼皮肤结构发生中起主要作用,羊驼皮肤内的蛋白水解机制可能使procollagen产生不同类型的collagen.

  13. Montagem e caracterização elétrica de pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (PaCOS Assembly and electrical characterization of solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosane Aparecida Tarôco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a review of the design features and the electrochemistry characterization of anode-supported planar SOFC. Studies and results of metallic alloy interconnectors and recovery for protection against corrosion and for contact layer are showed. Moreover a discussion of examples of measurements of impedance spectrometry, according to the literature and our experimental results are made. For the anode supported fuel cells the power density varies from 0.1 to 0.5 Wcm², according to results in the literature (showed in this paper. For electrolyte supported fuel cell the power density can be 10 Wcm-2 for high temperatures. An English-Portuguese glossary of most used terms in SOFC stack is given for greater clarity and to introduce new terms to the reader.

  14. Analýza užitkových vlastností alpak na vybrané farmě v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Veselá, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The Analysis of performance traits of alpaca in chosen farm in USA The aim of this work was to evaluate the selected farm engaged in breeding alpaca breeding and production indicators and compare the findings with data in the literature. I chose the Fir Cove Alpacas farm in Rochester and Alpacas at Windy Oaks located in Tenino located in Washington, and both these farms I visited in August of 2011. At work I have indicated the characteristics of these two farms - the owner, addr...

  15. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACoR, for real-time systems which deals with resource- constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACoR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to explicitly express preemptiveness...... preserves the original semantics of PACoR and enables the verification of PACoR systems using symbolic model checking in Uppaal and statistical model checking UppaalSMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACoR, translation and verification....

  16. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la osteometría a dos muestras óseas de camélidos de sitios de la época Mochica (siglos I y VII d.C. en la costa norte de Perú. Los huesos analizados en este estudio son primeras falanges que provienen de dos sitios arqueológicos Mochica (Cerro Chepén y Zona Urbana Moche. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes a una muestra de 44 primeras falanges, tomando en cuenta las cinco variables que son medidas en este hueso. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la identificación de dos especies de camélidos domésticos en ambos sitios, Lama glama “llama” y Lama pacos “alpaca”. La interpretación de los resultados es discutida mediante la explicación de un modelo de especiación geográfica o vicariante de los camélidos que habitaron la costa peruana en la época Mochica. Este modelo toma en cuenta que actualmente en esta ecología no hay crianza de camélidos, así como factores genéticos y evolutivos de una nueva forma doméstica, incluyendo el efecto de la Regla de Bergmann y los nuevos pastos en la morfología de esta nueva forma de camélido doméstico que vivió en la época Mochica.Palabras claves: osteometría, genética, camélidos, especiación, Mochica  AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacosalpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast

  17. Determinación de la calidad de fibra de alpaca en Huancavelica (Perú): validación de los métodos de muestreo y valoración

    OpenAIRE

    Manso Martínez, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo fue verificar el método de muestreo MidSide (toma de muestra de la zona del “MidSide”, localizada horizontalmente a nivel de la tercera costilla y perpendicularmente a nivel de la parte media entre las líneas superior dorsal e inferior ventral) para los parámetros que determinan la calidad de la fibra: diámetro de fibra, coeficiente de variación del diámetro de fibra, longitud de mecha, índice de curvatura y spinning fineness. Para ello se tomaron muestras de 20 vello...

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of cerebral oxygen during assisted ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, Erin A.; Dukatz, Christopher; Sood, Beena G.; Wider, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: Changes in the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) has a direct though transient effect on the cerebral vasculature and cerebral circulation. Decreased PaCO2 levels lead to vasoconstriction and can result in dangerously low levels of cerebral perfusion that resolve in 4–6 h. It is currently believed that perfusion abnormalities contribute to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) in the neonate. PaCO2-induced vasoconstriction may contribute t...

  19. Analýza srsti alpak na vybrané farmě

    OpenAIRE

    Švingr, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the selected alpaca hair farm and then comparing the measured results with the available literature. For my analysis I chose the Sezemic Veská farm, which is located near Pardubice and with the permission and assistance of her owner, hair samples were collected from a total of 7 alpacas of all ages and gender. Subsequent analysis of the samples was carried out in the laboratories at the Czech University of Life Sciences Prague. From each of the alpacas we...

  20. Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control ani...

  1. The Politics of Livestock Sector Policy and the Rural Poor in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Fairfield, Tasha

    2006-01-01

    This working paper explores public policies that would advance pro-poor development in the livestock sector, with special attention to organized actors, their interests, and the political feasibility of state initiatives. It focuses on two sub-sectors that involve large numbers of small producers: the dairy sector and the alpaca sector. Emphasis is placed on the latter, since there is a greater potential role for Peru's weak, neo-liberal state in promoting pro-poor development in the alpaca s...

  2. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.;

    2009-01-01

    In the upright position, cerebral blood flow is reduced, maybe because arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreases. We evaluated the time-dependent influence of a reduction in Pa(CO(2)), as indicated by the end-tidal Pco(2) tension (Pet(CO(2))), on cerebral perfusion during head...

  3. Probing Brain Oxygenation with Near Infrared spectroscopy, the Role of Carbon Dioxide and Blood Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. A simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2 is presented. It can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. It enable the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. Controlled breathing can change the PaCO2. Experiments on human subjects relating the PaCO2 to rSO2, measured with brain oximeters, are presented. A simple model relating the mean blood pressure to CBF is worked out.

  4. The application of transcutaneous CO2 pressure monitoring in the anesthesia of obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiang Liu

    Full Text Available To investigate the correlation and accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PTCCO2 with regard to arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Twenty-one patients with BMI>35 kg/m(2 were enrolled in our study. Their PaCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2, as well as PTCCO2 values were measured at before pneumoperitoneum and 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after pneumoperitoneum respectively. Then the differences between each pair of values (PetCO2-PaCO2 and. (PTCCO2-PaCO2 were calculated. Bland-Altman method, correlation and regression analysis, as well as exact probability method and two way contingency table were employed for the data analysis. 21 adults (aged 19-54 yr, mean 29, SD 9 yr; weight 86-160 kg, mean 119.3, SD 22.1 kg; BMI 35.3-51.1 kg/m(2, mean 42.1,SD 5.4 kg/m(2 were finally included in this study. One patient was eliminated due to the use of vaso-excitor material phenylephrine during anesthesia induction. Eighty-four sample sets were obtained. The average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference was 0.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (mean ± SD. And the average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference was 10.3 ± 2.3 mmHg (mean ± SD. The linear regression equation of PaCO2-PetCO2 is PetCO2 = 11.58+0.57 × PaCO2 (r(2 = 0.64, P<0.01, whereas the one of PaCO2-PTCCO2 is PTCCO2 = 0.60 + 0.97 × PaCO2 (r(2 = 0.89. The LOA (limits of agreement of 95% average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference is 10.3 ± 4.6 mmHg (mean ± 1.96 SD, while the LOA of 95% average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference is 0.9 ± 2.6 mmHg (mean ± 1.96 SD. In conclusion, transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring provides a better estimate of PaCO2 than PetCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

  5. 驼源天然单域重链抗体库的构建与鉴定%Construction and Biopanning of Camelid Naive Single-domain Antibody Phage Display Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂追; 许杨; 刘夏; 何庆华; 陶勇

    2011-01-01

    从未经主动免疫的健康羊驼(Lamapacos)外周血淋巴细胞中提取总RNA,反转录后作为第一轮PCR的模板.根据重链抗体保守区域设计引物,经巢式PCR法扩增获得了全套重链抗体可变区基因,将其克隆至噬菌粒 pHENl,电转化大肠杆菌TG1得到初级抗体库NAL,含有2×10个独立克隆,菌落PCR和Hinf Ⅰ酶切分析结果显示,克隆效率大于97%,文库的多样性良好.辅助噬菌体救援后,得到噬菌体展示文库命名为NA-PDL,滴度达10CFU/ml.以真菌毒素人工抗原DON-MBSA为目标抗原,对NA-PDL进行了淘选,第二轮洗脱物中,阳性克隆率达36.4%,提示针对目标抗原的噬菌体颗粒得到了有效富集,文库NA-PDL多样性较好,为后续淘选针对特定抗原的单域重链抗体奠定了基础.%The objective is to construct a camelid na(i)ve single-domain heavy chain antibody phage display library. Total RNA was purified from 30ml blood of two healthy non-immune alpacas ( Lama pacos) and directly used for complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis. Three sets of primers were designed based on the conserved region of heavy-chain antibody. The repertoire of VHH coding sequence was amplified by nested PCR, and the PCR products were cloned into a phagemid vector pHEN1. By electroporation of E. coli TG1 , the primary library (designate NAL) was obtained containing more than 107 independence clones. After helper phage rescue, the phage display library ( designate SNA-PDL) was generated with a titre up to 1013 CFU/ml. The library exhibited high diversity as judged by the Hinf Ⅰ restriction pattern. Solid phage biopanning against artificial antigen DONMBSA showed significant enrichment of binding phage particles. The positive rate of panning round two was 36.4% . The data indicated that a na(i)ve single-domain antibody phage display library was constructed. which has good diversity and would be useful for generating VHHs with specific binding affinity.

  6. The application of transcutaneous CO2 pressure monitoring in the anesthesia of obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijiang; Sun, Jie; Chen, Xing; Yu, Yingying; Liu, Xuan; Liu, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation and accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PTCCO2) with regard to arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Twenty-one patients with BMI>35 kg/m(2) were enrolled in our study. Their PaCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2), as well as PTCCO2 values were measured at before pneumoperitoneum and 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after pneumoperitoneum respectively. Then the differences between each pair of values (PetCO2-PaCO2) and. (PTCCO2-PaCO2) were calculated. Bland-Altman method, correlation and regression analysis, as well as exact probability method and two way contingency table were employed for the data analysis. 21 adults (aged 19-54 yr, mean 29, SD 9 yr; weight 86-160 kg, mean 119.3, SD 22.1 kg; BMI 35.3-51.1 kg/m(2), mean 42.1,SD 5.4 kg/m(2)) were finally included in this study. One patient was eliminated due to the use of vaso-excitor material phenylephrine during anesthesia induction. Eighty-four sample sets were obtained. The average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference was 0.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (mean ± SD). And the average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference was 10.3 ± 2.3 mmHg (mean ± SD). The linear regression equation of PaCO2-PetCO2 is PetCO2 = 11.58+0.57 × PaCO2 (r(2) = 0.64, Ptranscutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring provides a better estimate of PaCO2 than PetCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. PMID:24699267

  7. Carbon dioxide monitoring during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery in severely obese patients: transcutaneous versus end-tidal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Joanna M; McKee, Chris; Tobias, Joseph D; Herz, Daniel; Sohner, Paul; Teich, Steven; Michalsky, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Various factors including severe obesity or increases in intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy can lead to inaccuracies in end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) monitoring. The current study prospectively compares ET and transcutaneous (TC) CO2 monitoring in severely obese adolescents and young adults during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery. Carbon dioxide was measured with both ET and TC devices during insufflation and laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The differences between each measure (PETCO2 and TC-CO2) and the PaCO2 were compared using a non-paired t test, Fisher's exact test, and a Bland-Altman analysis. The study cohort included 25 adolescents with a mean body mass index of 50.2 kg/m2 undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. There was no difference in the absolute difference between the TC-CO2 and PaCO2 (3.2±3.0 mmHg) and the absolute difference between the PETCO2 and PaCO2 (3.7±2.5 mmHg). The bias and precision were 0.3 and 4.3 mmHg for TC monitoring versus PaCO2 and 3.2 and 3.2 mmHg for ET monitoring versus PaCO2. In the young severely obese population both TC and PETCO2 monitoring can be used to effectively estimate PaCO2. The correlation of PaCO2 to TC-CO2 is good, and similar to the correlation of PaCO2 to PETCO2. In this population, both of these non-invasive measures of PaCO2 can be used to monitor ventilation and minimize arterial blood gas sampling. PMID:24916514

  8. Noninvasive Measurement of Carbon Dioxide during One-Lung Ventilation with Low Tidal Volume for Two Hours: End-Tidal versus Transcutaneous Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Dong-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background There may be significant difference between measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) during one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO2) monitoring can be used continuously to evaluate PaCO2 in a noninvasive fashion. In this study, we compared the accuracy between PetCO2 and PtcCO2 in predicting PaCO2 during prolonged one-lung v...

  9. Alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen measured by a helium washout technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordanoglou, J.; Tatsis, G; Danos, J; Gougoulakis, S; Orfanidou, D; Gaga, M

    1990-01-01

    A non-invasive technique was developed for measuring alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tension during tidal breathing. This was achieved by solving the Bohr equations for mean alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tensions (PACO2, PAO2) from known values of the dead-space:tidal volume ratio measured by helium washout, and from the mixed expired partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen. The derived values of wPACO2 and wPAO2 were compared with PaCO2 obtained from arterial gas analysis and P...

  10. Effect of α-MSH on Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Skin Melanocytes in vitro%α-黑素细胞刺激素(α-MSH)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖和黑素生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志慧; 白瑞; 范瑞文; 杨刚; 董彦君; 贺俊平; 董常生

    2010-01-01

    旨在研究α-黑素细胞刺激素(α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone,α-MSH)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞(Melano-cyte,MC)增殖和黑素合成的影响.体外培养正常羊驼皮肤黑素细胞,观察不同浓度α-MSH(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol·L-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、黑素含量、表皮黑皮素-1受体(Melanocortin 1 receptor,MC1R)基因、小眼畸形相关转录因(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)基因表达量的影响.结果表明,α-MSH处理羊驼皮肤黑索细胞3 d后,羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增多,黑素含量、MC1R和TYR基因表达量都明显增加(P<0.05),以10-8mol·L-1组最为显著,MITF基因表达量也明显增加(P<0.05),以10-7mol·L-1组最为显著.α-MSH能诱导羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、树突增长、黑素合成增加、MC1R、MITF和TYR基因表达量增高.

  11. Kahe näoga maja / Mark Soosaar, Leele Välja, Tarmo Teedumäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tervisekeskus ja hotell "Hedon" Pärnu ajaloolises mudaravilahoones ja selle juurdeehituses. Arhitektuur: Inga Raukas, Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman (arhitektuuriagentuur Allianss Arhitektid). Sisearhitektuur: Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio). Valmimisaasta: 2014

  12. Moemärke Hispaaniast / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Kuulsad Hispaania moekunstnikud Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Cristobal Balenciaga, Agatha Ruiz de la Prada (sünd. 1960), Oscar de la Renta (1932), Paloma Picasso (1949). Rõivapoodide ketid Zara, Mango ja El Corte Ingles

  13. Plaadid / Villu Päärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Nelly "Da Derrty Versions The reinvention", Zero 7 "When It Falls", Ilya "They Died For Beauty", Paco De Lucia "Costas Buenas", Murphy Lee "Da Skool Boy Presents", To Rococo Rot "Hotel Morgen"

  14. Eksperimendid ruumis / Toomas Tammis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammis, Toomas, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuriteaduskonnas tehakse erialaprojekti kõrval väga erinevaid ruumilisi harjutusi. Esitletud on valik väiksemate töötubade ja kursuste töid: Kineetilise arhitektuuri töötuba "Volditav, klapitav, rullitav, pakitav", 2014 (juhendaja Renee Puusepp); Parameetrilise disaini valikaine, 2011 (juhendaja Raul Kalvo, assistent Kristjan Männigo); Maketistuudio, 2014 (juhendaja Paco Ulman); Eksperimentaalse arhitektuuri problemaatika, 2014 (juhendajad Martin Melioranski ja Paco Ulman)

  15. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU, but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values of clinically stable children on mechanical ventilation were recorded. Children with extra-pulmonary ventriculoatrial shunts were excluded. The P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 difference and its variability and reproducibility were studied. Results: A total of 624 concurrent readings were obtained from 105 children (mean age [SD] 5.53 [5.43] years requiring invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the PICU. All had continuous P ET CO 2 monitoring and an arterial line for blood gas measurement. The mean (SD number of concurrent readings obtained from each child, 4-6 h apart was 6.0 (4.05. The P ET CO 2 values were higher than PaCO 2 in 142 observations (22.7%. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual admission specific (ANOVA, P < 0.001. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference correlated positively with the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension [P(A-aO 2 ] difference (ρ = 0.381 P < 0.0001. There was a fixed bias between the P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 measuring methods, difference +0.66 KPa (95% confidence interval: +0.57 to +0.76. Conclusions: The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual specific. It was not affected by the primary disorder leading to the ventilation.

  16. Cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation changes induced by inner and heard speech: a study combining functional near-infrared spectroscopy and capnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholkmann, Felix; Klein, Sabine D.; Gerber, Ursina; Wolf, Martin; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inner and heard speech on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and to test whether potential effects were caused by alterations in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2). Twenty-nine healthy adult volunteers performed six different tasks of inner and heard speech according to a randomized crossover design. During the tasks, we generally found a decrease in PaCO (only for inner speech), tissue oxygen saturation (StO), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentration and an increase in deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HHb]). Furthermore, we found significant relations between changes in [OHb], [HHb], [tHb], or StO and the participants' age, the baseline PETCO2, or certain speech tasks. We conclude that changes in breathing during the tasks led to lower PaCO (hypocapnia) for inner speech. During heard speech, no significant changes in PaCO occurred, but the decreases in StO, [OHb], and [tHb] suggest that changes in PaCO were also involved here. Different verse types (hexameter and alliteration) led to different changes in [tHb], implying different brain activations. In conclusion, StO, [OHb], [HHb], and [tHb] are affected by interplay of both PaCO reactivity and functional brain activity.

  17. Chov lamy krotké v ČR

    OpenAIRE

    KREJNÍKOVÁ, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    During the past few years a development of breeding llamas and alpacas took place in Czech Republic. Increasing interest in those animals entails the need to determine how they respond to the conditions of our country. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the growth ability of crias, some of the physical dimensions (withers height) and bodyweight of adult llamas. The same indicators are to be evaluated for alpacas as well. The results are to be compared with the standard for llamas and alpac...

  18. ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA DE LA ALDEA FORMATIVA DE PALO BLANCO (TINOGASTA, CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / Zooarchaeology of the formative village of Palo Blanco (Tinogasta, Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Miyano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se abordan los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos de la localidad arqueológica de Palo Blanco recuperados en intervenciones realizadas en la década de 1960 y en la década de 2000. Esta localidad se encuentra emplazada en el sector norte del bolsón de Fiambalá (Tinogasta, Catamarca y se compone de varios núcleos habitacionales de distribución dispersa, predominantemente rectangulares y con muros de tapia. Su ocupación no fue sincrónica y se extiende desde el siglo III al siglo X A.D. La tendencia en el aprovechamiento de recursos faunísticos identificada fundamentalmente a partir del abordaje de los conjuntos de dos núcleos habitacionales sugiere que los camélidos fueron el principal recurso de origen animal utilizado en la aldea, en donde se encontraron especies tanto domesticadas (Lama glama como silvestres (Vicugna vicugna. Además, la presencia predominante de camélidos subadultos sugiere una estrategia de pastoreo vinculada al aprovechamiento de recursos primarios como carne, médula y grasa. Los resultados a los que se arribaron permiten profundizar en el conocimiento de las actividades económicas de los grupos humanos que habitaron la aldea de Palo Blanco a lo largo del primer milenio de la era. AbstractIn this paper we approach the archaeofaunistic remains recovered during excavations of the archeological locality of Palo Blanco in the decades of 1960 and 2000. Palo Blanco is located in the north sector of the Bolsón of Fimabalá area (Tinogasta, Catamarca and it is composed of several rectangular shaped dwellings with tapia-style walls and dispersed distribution. The period of occupation of the village was between the third and tenth century A.D. although the dwellings were not inhabited synchronously. The identified tendency in the exploitation of faunal resources indicates that the camelids were the main resources. Osteometric studies show that domestic and wild camelids (Lama glama and Vicugna vicugna

  19. Heterogeneity of cerebral vasoreactivity in preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of cerebral blood flow to acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and mean arterial blood pressure was determined in 57 preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation (mean gestational age 30.1 weeks) during the first 48 hours of life. All infants had normal brain sonograms at the time of the investigation. In each infant, global cerebral blood flow was determined by xenon-133 clearance two to five times within a few hours at different levels of PaCO2. Changes in PaCO2 followed adjustments of the ventilator settings. Arterial oxygen pressure was intended to be kept constant, and mean arterial blood pressure fluctuated spontaneously between measurements. The data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression, with changes in global cerebral blood flow, PaCO2, mean arterial blood pressure, and postnatal age or intracranial hemorrhage used as variables. In infants with persistently normal brain sonograms, the global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity was markedly lower during the first day of life (mean 11.2% to 11.8%/kPa PaCO2) compared with the second day of life (mean 32.6/kPa PaCO2), and pressure-flow autoregulation was preserved. Similarly, global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity and pressure-flow autoregulation were present in infants in whom mild intracranial hemorrhage developed after the study. In contrast, global cerebral blood flow reactivity to changes in PaCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure was absent in infants in whom ultrasonographic signs of severe intracranial hemorrhage subsequently developed. These infants also had about 20% lower global cerebral blood flow before hemorrhage, in comparison with infants whose sonograms were normal, a finding that suggests functional disturbances of cerebral blood flow regulation

  20. 19 CFR 10.244 - Certificate of Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Group: Group Each Description Below Is Only a Summary of the Cited CFR Provision. 19 CFR A Apparel... preference group which applies to the article according to the description contained in the CFR provision... llama, alpaca or vicuña fabrics, fabric components, or knit-to-shape components, from Andean yarns...

  1. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    HECTOR ALCAINO; TEXIA GORMAN

    1999-01-01

    PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  2. 9 CFR 130.2 - User fees for individual animals and certain birds quarantined in the APHIS-owned or -operated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... limited to, alpacas, llamas, goats, sheep, and swine 38.00 39.00 40.00 42.00 43.00 Equines (including zoo... quarantine facility, for any animal or bird that requires a diet other than standard feed, including but...

  3. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  4. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ALCAINO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  5. The influence of oxygenotherapy on the hypercapnia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxygen therapy is a necessary therapeutic method in treatment of severe chronic respiratory failure (CRF, especially in phases of acute worsening. Risks which are to be taken into consideration during this therapy are: unpredictable increase of carbon dioxide in blood, carbonarcosis, respiratory acidosis and coma. The aim of this study was to show the influence of oxygen therapy on changes of arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure. Methods. The study included 93 patients in 104 admittances to the hospital due to acute exacerbation of CFR. The majority of the patients (89.4% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, while other causes of respiratory failure were less common. The effect of oxygenation was controlled through measurement of PaO2 and PaCO2 in arterial blood samples. To analyze the influence of oxygen therapy on levels of carbon dioxide, greatest values of change of PaO2 and PaCO2 values from these measurements, including corresponding PaO2 values from the same blood analysis were taken. Results. The obtained results show that oxygen therapy led to the increase of PaO2 but also to the increase of PaCO2. The average increase of PaO2 for the whole group of patients was 2.42 kPa, and the average increase of PaCO2 was 1.69 kPa. There was no correlation between the initial values of PaO2 and PaCO2 and changes of PaCO2 during the oxygen therapy. Also, no correlation between the produced increase in PaO2 and change in PaCO2 during this therapy was found. Conclusion. Controlled oxygen therapy in patients with severe respiratory failure greatly reduces the risk of unwanted increase of PaCO2, but does not exclude it completely. The initial values of PaO2 and PaCO2 are not reliable parameters which could predict the response to oxygen therapy.

  6. Pulmonary Arterial Lesions in New World Camelids in Association With Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, M; Robert, N; Pospischil, A; Gerspach, C

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, dicrocoeliasis is regarded as the most significant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas. Fasciola hepatica infestation is also a problem but less common. The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the lungs of New World camelids (NWCs) for evidence of arterial hypertension in association with liver changes due to liver fluke infestation. The lungs of 20 llamas and 20 alpacas with liver fluke infestation were histologically evaluated. The hematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson (VG)-elastica stains as well as immunohistology for the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were used to visualize the structures of arterial walls. Parasitology of fecal matter (11 llamas and 17 alpacas) confirmed that most of these animals were infested with both Dicrocoelium dendriticum and other gastrointestinal parasites. In most cases (10/12 llamas, 4/6 alpacas), liver enzyme activity in serum was elevated. Histologically, arteries in the lungs of 9 of 20 llamas (45%) and 3 of 20 alpacas (15%) showed severe intimal and adventitial and slight to moderate medial thickening, which was confirmed with α-SMA and VG-elastica staining. All animals exhibited typical liver changes, such as fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, in association with the presence of liver flukes. This study shows that liver flukes can induce proliferative changes in lung arteries in NWCs that resemble those seen with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to liver parasites in humans. However, the degree of liver fluke infestation was not correlated with the extent of liver damage, or with the amount of thoracic or abdominal effusion or pulmonary arterial changes. PMID:25637085

  7. Deciphering the role of multiple hydrogen bonding sites on the microsolvation of 3-(phenylamino)-2-cyclohexen-1-one with water in the excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PACO.3H2O microcluster formation in the ground and excited states are explored. • Microhydration gives stabilization to S1 and S2 states compared to the S0 state. • The S1 and S2 states of PACO appear to cross each other following microhydration. - Abstract: We report here our investigations on the H-bonding modifications of molecular electronic structures and properties of 3-(phenylamino)-2-cyclohexen-1-one (PACO) and its 1:3 microhydrated cluster in the ground (S0) and first two excited states (S1 and S2). The changes in bond lengths, atomic charges, natural bond order and aromaticity in the S0, S1 and S2 states have been analysed. The electronic state dependence of the hydrogen bonding strengths at different H-bonding sites of PACO has been looked into. The hydrogen bonds formed through the H-bond accepting carbonyl moiety in PACO.3H2O cluster appears to get weaker in the excited states while that formed through the H-bond donating amino moiety gets much stronger, compared to their ground state counterpart. The simultaneous strengthening of H-bonds at one site and weakening at another in the S1 and S2 states may have link to the overall stabilization of the clusters in the excited states relative to the ground state as observed experimentally

  8. Influence of intravenously administered lidocaine on cerebral blood flow in a baboon model standardized under controlled general anaesthesia using single-photon emission tomography and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The baboon under general anaesthesia as a model to assess druginduced cerebral blood flow changes (Δ CBF) using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) offers great in vivo possibilities but has to comply with demands on control of anaestesia-related influencing factors, such as PaCO2 changes. The model sought in this study and described here allows control of PaCO2, in the baboon under thiopentone anaesthesia by ventilation, and was evaluated for the functioal dependence of Δ CBF vs Δ PaCO2, using SPET technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and the split-dose method together with controlled ventilation. During the experiment the model was validated for normal reactivity to PaCO2 changes, and subsequently applied to investigate the mechanisms (still uncertain) of CBF increase known to follow administration of the local anaesthetic lidocaine. Six baboons received 6 mg/kg lidocaine intravenously. CBF was measured between two consecutive SPET acquisitions (split-dose method) respectively relating to HMPAO distributions in the brain before and after the injection of lidocaine. Meanwhile the animals were maintained at constant respiratory rate and volume. The results indicate that the correlation between D CBF and the ensuing fall in PaCO2 deviated from the baseline pattern from the model and confirmed a cerebrovascular contribution to the lidocaine-induced CBF increase. This agreed well with mean and systolic blood pressure changes and heart rate. (orig.)

  9. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  10. Comunidades locales, conservación de recursos naturales y mercado global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the interserction between public policies on biodiversity conservation, poverty reduction and husbandry production and the different agendas and perspectives from the social actorsinvolved from the international to the national level. Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna management for fibre commercialization by Andean communities from Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia is used as a case study. Vicunas are wild South American Camelids that were at the brink of extinction in the 1960’ due to their characteristics of common pool resource (CPR managed as open access, and the high commercialvalue of their fibre at international markets. The species recovered due to international, national and local conservation efforts. After a period of strict preservation, management was shifted to sustainableuse for the benefit of Andean communities. However, given the high economic value of the fibre at the international market, and the lack of sufficient legislation, in recent years the fibre has turned into acommodity. This paper enables us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the need to develop public policies that promote a more equitable distribution of benefits in projects that aim at addressing conservation and poverty reduction.

  11. Peculiarities of Brain's Blood Flow : Role of Carbon Dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. This research resulted in a simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy manner, directly from the experimental data. With this model earlier experimental data sets of Rhesus monkeys and rats were well fitted. Human data were also fitted with this model. Exact formulae were found, which can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. The merit of this transformation is that it enable us the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. This transformation makes possible the use of experimental animal data instead of human ones.

  12. Evaluation of the Extension of the Cerebral Blood Flow and its Main Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, A

    1999-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF) - cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), cerebral metabolism, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and cardiac output, the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in being independent of autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and it allows to explore the full range of the CBF. We have developed a simple physical model, and have derived a simple four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy way, directly from the experimental data. With this model five experimental data sets of human, rats, baboons and dogs were well fitted. The same type of parametrization was also used successfully for fitting experimental data of PaO2 of dogs. We have also looked on the dependence of the parameters on other factors and were able to evaluate their dependence on the mean arterial blood pressure.

  13. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H;

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2 the......This review summarizes evidence in humans for an association between hyperventilation (HV)-induced hypocapnia and a reduction in cerebral perfusion leading to syncope defined as transient loss of consciousness (TLOC). The cerebral vasculature is sensitive to changes in both the arterial carbon...... contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...

  14. [Lung dysfunction in patients with severe chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2005-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TCL, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 36 patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease (FEV1 TGV, and TLC, and by decreased VC and FVC; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as lowered PaO2 and DLCO-SS, as decreased or increased PaCO2. The observed bronchial patency disorders varied from significant to severe; functional changes in lung volumes and capacities were mild to severe. PMID:15938497

  15. The ventilatory responses of conscious dogs to isocapnic oxygen tests. a method of exploring the central component of respiratory drive and its dependence on O2 and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, A; Bouverot, P

    1980-02-01

    Conscious unrestrained dogs trained to breathe through a respiratory mask or, after chronic tracheostomy, through a cuffed endotracheal tube were studied in an altitude chamber operated in such a way that end-tidal PO2 was maintained at 100, 75 or 60 Torr. Each hypoxic experiment was completed within 1 h of the onset of hypoxia. At all levels of oxygenation, resting pulmonary ventilation (V), obtained from the tidal volume (VT) and ventilatory period (T), and alveolar gas tensions (PAO2, PACO2) were measured cycle-by-cycle before and during isocapnic O2-tests (IOT) at various steady levels of alveolar PCO2 ranging from 30 to 48 Torr. For this, PCO2 in the inspired gas before and during IOT was adjusted so that PACO2 remained unchanged in the course of the first few breaths which followed the switch to hyperoxia. In analysing the transient changes of V in the course IOT, it was considered that an apnoea occurred when there was no measurable deflection on the integrated pneumotachogram past a duration twice the control T from the beginning of the last recorded ventilatory cycle. (1) Control V vs. PACO2 relationships showed classic positive interaction between hypercapnia and hypoxia; (2) during IOT at PAO2 of 100, 75 or 60 Torr, an apnoea occurred, V invariably falling to zero, provided that PACO2 was below 38-35 Torr according to the level of oxygenation; (3) above that threshold PACO2 value, the residual minimum ventilation (Vres) observed during IOT was linearly related to PACO2; (4) Vres vs. PACO2 relationships showed negative interaction between hypercapnia and hypoxia. It is concluded that (a) through isocapnic O2-tests, both the peripheral and central components of the ventilatory drive can be quantitatively estimated; (b) in conscious dogs, the pulmonary ventilation appears to be entirely driven by afferent activity from the arterial chemoreceptors, even in eucapnic normoxia; (c) the lower minimum ventilation seen in the course of O2-tests from a hypoxic

  16. Correlation of end tidal and arterial carbon dioxide levels in critically Ill neonates and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiren Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the Study: End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2 monitoring is considered to reflect real-time estimation of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO 2 noninvasively. However, knowledge about its relationship with PaCO 2 in critically ill pediatric and neonatal patients is limited. The primary objective was to evaluate predictive capability of end tidal carbon dioxide monitoring and secondary objective was to determine the influence of severity of lung disease on EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 relationship. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized, consecutive enrollment study carried out in neonatal and pediatric intensive care units of a tertiary care children hospital. It was conducted in 66 neonates and 35 children receiving mechanical ventilation. Severity of lung disease was estimated by ventilation index and PaO 2 /FiO 2 (P/F ratio. Simultaneous recording of EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 levels was done and data were analyzed for correlation and agreement. Results: In neonates, 150 EtCO 2 and PaCO 2 pairs were recorded. The mean weight ± SD of patients was 2.1 ± 0.63 kg. PaCO 2 had a positive correlation with EtCO 2 (r = 0.836, 95% CI = 0.78-0.88. P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. In infants and children, 96 pairs were recorded. Mean age ± SD of patients was 4.20 ± 4.92 years and mean weight ± SD was 13.1 ± 9.49 kg. PaCO 2 had an excellent correlation with EtCO 2 (r = 0.914, 95% CI = 0.87 and 0.94. P/F ratio <200 adversely affected relationship. Conclusion: EtCO 2 monitoring displayed a good validity to predict PaCO 2 . Correlation was affected by low P/F ratio (<200; hence, it is recommended that blood gases be measured in these patients until such time that a good relation can be established between end tidal and arterial CO 2 values.

  17. Oxygenator Exhaust Capnography for Prediction of Arterial Carbon Dioxide Tension During Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    OpenAIRE

    Baraka, Anis; El-Khatib, Mohamad; Muallem, Eva; Jamal, Salim; Haroun-Bizri, Sania; Aouad, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Continuous monitoring and control of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is essential. A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive system is not currently available. This study was undertaken to assess whether the continuous monitoring of oxygenator exhaust carbon dioxide tension (PexCO2) can be used to reflect PaCO2 during CPB. A total of 33 patients undergoing CPB for cardiac surgery were included in the study. During normothermia (37°C) and stable hypother...

  18. The Application of Transcutaneous CO2 Pressure Monitoring in the Anesthesia of Obese Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shijiang; Sun, Jie; Chen, Xing; Yu, Yingying; Liu, Xuan; Liu, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation and accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PTCCO2) with regard to arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Twenty-one patients with BMI>35 kg/m2 were enrolled in our study. Their PaCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2), as well as PTCCO2 values were measured at before pneumoperitoneum and 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after pneumoperitoneum respectively. ...

  19. Caffeine and human cerebral blood flow: A positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to quantify the effect of caffeine on whole brain and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans. A mean dose of 250 mg of caffeine produced approximately a 30% decrease in whole brain CBF; regional differences in caffeine effect were not observed. Pre-caffeine CBF strongly influenced the magnitude of the caffeine-induced decrease. Caffeine decreased paCO2 and increased systolic blood pressure significantly; the change in paCO2 did not account for the change in CBF. Smaller increases in diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine, and subjectively reported anxiety were also observed

  20. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    OpenAIRE

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera; Alison Goodwin; Yanzhong Wang; James Goodman; Akash Deep

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 ) is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 ) as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values o...

  1. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. PMID:25553413

  2. Income Analysis in South American Domestic Camelid Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Ansaloni; Francesco Pyszny; Rodolfo Marquina; Alvaro Claros Liendo; Alvaro Claros Goitia; José Luis Quispe Huanca; Japhet Zapana Pineda

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining...

  3. Generation and characterization of heavy chain antibodies derived from Camelids

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidthals, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies and antibody fragments are essential tools in basic research, diagnostics and therapy. Conventional antibodies consist of two heavy and two light chains with both chains contributing to the antigen-binding site. In addition to these conventional antibodies, camelids (llamas, alpacas, dromedaries and camels) possess so-called heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs) that lack the light chains. The antigen binding site of these unusual antibodies is formed by one single domain only, the so cal...

  4. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean K. Stolworthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (LBP is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the camelid (specifically, alpaca and llama cervical spine as a model of the human lumbar spine. Cervical spines were obtained from four alpacas and four llamas and individual segments were used for segmental flexibility/biomechanics and/or morphology/anatomy studies. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared for the alpaca and llama cervical spines, and human lumbar specimens in addition to other published large animal data. Results indicate that a camelid cervical intervertebral disc (IVD closely approximates the human lumbar disc with regard to size, spinal posture, and biomechanical flexibility. Specifically, compared with the human lumbar disc, the alpaca and llama cervical disc size are approximately 62%, 83%, and 75% with regard to area, depth, and width, respectively, and the disc flexibility is approximately 133%, 173%, and 254%, with regard to range of motion (ROM in axial-rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral-bending, respectively. These results, combined with the clinical report of disc degeneration in the llama lower cervical spine, suggest that the camelid cervical spine is potentially well suited for use as an animal model in biomechanical studies of the human lumbar spine.

  5. Explorando la variabilidad morfométrica del conjunto de camélidos pequeños durante el Arcaico Tardío y el Formativo Temprano en Quebrada Tulán, norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Cartajena Fasting

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, it is possible to differentiate among large and small size camelids when analysing registers from archaeological sites located at the occidental slope of Puna de Atacama. However, larger animals have received most of the attention having less knowledge about the group of small size camelids. In this paper and by using osteometric methods we study this small size later group. On one hand, we analyse different variables that may affect variability among modern alpacas and vicuñas co...

  6. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Abdolrazagh; Geissbühler, Urs; Schellenberger, Frank; Zanolari, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Using ...

  7. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages.

    OpenAIRE

    Rostami, Abdolrazagh; Geissbühler, Urs; Schellenberger, Frank; Zanolari, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Us...

  8. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Smith; David Kovalik; Anita Varga

    2015-01-01

    Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species m...

  9. Culicoides fauna and bluetongue virus serotype 8 infection in South American camelid herds in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a Culicoides-born infectious disease caused by bluetongue virus (BTV). From 2006 to 2010, BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) spread throughout Europe, causing severe disease in domestic and some wild ruminant species and in an alpaca. Compulsory vaccination of susceptible animals was the most effective strategy to control and eradicate the BTV-8 epizootic in Europe. However, South American camelids (SAC) were not included in the BTV-8 vaccination programmes in Europe. The presented...

  10. A Broad Set of Different Llama Antibodies Specific for a 16 kDa Heat Shock Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Trilling, Anke K.; Hans de Ronde; Linda Noteboom; Adèle van Houwelingen; Margriet Roelse; Saurabh K Srivastava; Willem Haasnoot; Maarten A Jongsma; Arend Kolk; Han Zuilhof; Jules Beekwilder

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) binding to M. tuberculosis an...

  11. «El irracional es el otro»: Los mecanismos de la interpretación en Antropología

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Ricard Lanata

    2005-01-01

    This article examines two dialogues between the anthropologist and alpaca shepherds of the Ausangate mountains (Cusco region, province of Canchis). Parting from the description and analysis of the concrete interpretation mechanisms used in the anthropological discipline (establishment of a lexicon, logical inferences, etc.), and of its consequences (in particular, the attribution of a pre-rational or irrational mentality, on behalf of the anthropologist, to his farmer-indigent interpreters), ...

  12. Novel approaches in andrology examination and follicular fluid biochemical characterization in the optimization of reproductive technologies in farm animals

    OpenAIRE

    Vencato, Juri

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the studies reported in this Thesis was to increase our understanding of two aspects of the reproductive system in farm animals: the andrological evaluation and the follicular fluid composition. The final aim was to give some tools that can be helpful in optimizing the application of assisted reproductive technologies. Studies were conducted in bulls, rams, alpacas, lamas and dairy buffalo cows. The first study was designed to investigate the efficacy of scrotal thermograp...

  13. Monitoring carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients during hyperbaric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregård, Asger; Jansen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) is an established part of the monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Other ways to get information about carbon dioxide in the patient are measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PTCCO2...

  14. Noored filmimeistrid võistlesid Tartu festivalil / Kai Väärtnõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väärtnõu, Kai

    2005-01-01

    6.-8. jaanuarini 2005 toimus teist korda Tartus noorte amatöörfilmifestival (NAFF). Peapreemia andis žürii (esimees Ilmar Raag) filmile "Kahekümnes" (autorid Andris Feldmanis, Rein Jakobson, Björn Piibur, Paco Ulman). Lisatud osalenud huvitavamate filmide ja võitjate nimekiri

  15. Cerebrovascular response to acute metabolic acidosis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Kersten, B.T.P.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the cerebrovascular response (delta CBV/delta PaCO2) during baseline metabolic conditions and acute metabolic acidosis. METHODS: 15 healthy subjects, 5 m, 10 f, 56 +/- 10 yrs were investigated. For acidification, NH4Cl was given orally. CBV was measured using Near Infrared

  16. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). O

  17. Fandango in the Franco Era: The Politics of Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Goldbach

    2015-01-01

    folclóricas del fandango funcionaban como puente entre el uso del imaginario andaluz por parte del gobierno, con fines turísticos, y la ortodoxia de puristas flamencos. Este trabajo considera también la importancia de especialistas como Paco Toronjo para asegurarsupervivencia del fandango como parte del canon flamenco.

  18. Heliox in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, R.; Lynch, M

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if breathing helium oxygen mixtures in addition to conventional therapy in non-intubated adult chronic obstructive airways disease (COPD) patients reduces the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) more than conventional treatment alone, and confers an advantage in terms of the odds of intubation in the acute setting.

  19. Pildid räägivad lugusid, vorstid samuti / Andry Ervald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ervald, Andry

    2006-01-01

    Koomiksinäitus Rakvere galeriis. Osa võtavad Peeter Krosmann (1971), Kristel Maamägi (1986), Lilli-Krõõt Repnau (1982), Elina Sildre (1980), Joonas Sildre (1980), Veiko Tammjärv (1967), Paco Ulman (1980), Edvin Aedma ja rühmitus Endorfin Fractured Communications. Kristel Maamägi oma töödest

  20. Automated mechanical ventilation: adapting decision making to different disease states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Zahonero, S; Gottlieb, D; Haberthür, C; Guttmann, J; Möller, K

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce a novel methodology for adapting and upgrading decision-making strategies concerning mechanical ventilation with respect to different disease states into our fuzzy-based expert system, AUTOPILOT-BT. The special features are: (1) Extraction of clinical knowledge in analogy to the daily routine. (2) An automated process to obtain the required information and to create fuzzy sets. (3) The controller employs the derived fuzzy rules to achieve the desired ventilation status. For demonstration this study focuses exclusively on the control of arterial CO(2) partial pressure (p(a)CO(2)). Clinical knowledge from 61 anesthesiologists was acquired using a questionnaire from which different disease-specific fuzzy sets were generated to control p(a)CO(2). For both, patients with healthy lung and with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the fuzzy sets show different shapes. The fuzzy set "normal", i.e., "target p(a)CO(2) area", ranges from 35 to 39 mmHg for healthy lungs and from 39 to 43 mmHg for ARDS lungs. With the new fuzzy sets our AUTOPILOT-BT reaches the target p(a)CO(2) within maximal three consecutive changes of ventilator settings. Thus, clinical knowledge can be extended, updated, and the resulting mechanical ventilation therapies can be individually adapted, analyzed, and evaluated. PMID:21069471

  1. Disainikaart : Baskimaa / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Baskimaa skulptoritest, moekunstnikest, disaineritest, arhitektidest, kunstnikest. Edouardo Chillida (1924-2002), Cristóbal Balenciaga (1895-1972), Koldo Barroso, Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Iñaki Aspiazu (sünd. 1955), Nisa Goiburu (sünd. 1946), Jose Maria González Castillo (1927-2003), Itziar Okariz (sünd. 1965)

  2. Kinetics of carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, L; Söderberg, D; Henneberg, S;

    1986-01-01

    ; improved cardiac output during CPR resulted in more efficient tissue CO2 elimination and was associated with increased survival rates. PaCO2 was also somewhat reduced by efficient alveolar hyperventilation. The arterial PCO2 and pH did not reflect the acid-base balance in peripheral tissues. During CPR...

  3. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...

  4. Comparison of the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin on the hypercapnic cerebral blood flow increase in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Pelligrino, D A; Paulson, O B;

    1994-01-01

    The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, on the rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanying increasing levels of hypercapnia (paCO2 = 40-135 mmHg) were studied in anesthetized rats. CBF...

  5. Cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity in normotensive and hypertensive man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tominaga, S; Strandgaard, S; Uemura, K; Ito, Kenichi; Kutsuzawa, T; Lassen, Niels Alexander

    1976-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2 inhalation and voluntary hyperventilation was studied in seven normotensive subjects and nine hypertensive patients without clinical or angiographical signs of arteriosclerosis. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by the intracarotid 133Xe clearance method and...... calculated as the initial slope index. Three to five CBF measurements were made in each patient in the PaCO2 range of 20 to 55 mm Hg. No difference was observed in reactivity between hypertensive and normotensive patients, either during CO2 inhalation or during hyperventilation. The shape of the CBF:PaCO2...... curve suggested a decrease in reactivity below a PaCO2 of 30 to 35 mm Hg in both groups. Above a PaCO2 of 35 mm Hg, exponential regression analysis yielded a mean reactivity of 6 +/- 2%, whereas below a PaCO2 of 30 mm Hg it was about 2%. The rise in CBF during CO2 inhalation was not influenced by the...

  6. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin. PMID:26904899

  7. Transcutaneous continuous carbon dioxide tension monitoring reduced incidence, degree and duration of hypercapnia during combined regional anaesthesia and monitored anaesthesia care in shoulder surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Werner; Keselj, Marija; Baulig, Barbara; Guzzella, Sandra; Borgeat, Alain; Aguirre, José

    2015-08-01

    We studied the impact of transcutaneous continuous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO2) monitoring on ventilation and oxygenation during monitored anaesthesia care (MAC) in patients scheduled for shoulder surgery with continuous interscalene block. 50 patients were randomised either to the intervention (I-group) or the control (C-group) group. In both groups MAC was performed using target controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil. MAC regimen was adapted to PtcCO2 values in the I-group, whereas the C-group was blinded for these values. Primary outcome was the incidence, degree and duration of hypoventilation stages. In the I-group and the C-group the mean ± SD [range] of PtcCO2 and PaCO2 was 5.79 ± 0.84 [4.37] and 5.44 ± 0.59 [2.78] kPa, as well as 6.41 ± 1.17 [6.29] and 6.01 ± 0.96 [7.15] kPa. Periods of PtcCO2/PaCO2 > 6.5 kPa were 21.0 ± 35.7/1.2 ± 4.2 min in the I-group and 45.6 ± 40.0/18.6 ± 26.8 min in the C-group. Severe hypercapnia (PtcCO2 and/or PaCO2 > 7.5 kPa) was dected in 3/0 patients of the I-group and in 10/3 patients of the C-group. PtcCO2 and PaCO2 showed a strong correlation (r = 0.78), but only moderate agreement with a mean bias (LOA) of -0.37 (-1.69; +0.95) kPa showing an overestimation of the PaCO2. Sensitivity and specificity of PtcCO2 to detect changes of PaCO2 was 0.94 and 0.56, respectively. In no patient SpO2 or SaO2 values lower than 90% were measured. Despite a moderate agreement between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 the PtcCO2 monitoring significantly reduced incidence, degree and duration of hypercapnia in shoulder surgery patients with MAC. PMID:25312782

  8. The effect of PCO2 on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, W H; Kay, J C; Fisher, J A

    1981-09-01

    Lung areas with a low V/Q ratio cause hypoxaemia. The low alveolar oxygen concentration may cause local hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) which reduces perfusion, raises the V/Q ratio, and hence reduces the tendency to a low PaO2. By changing PCO2, the HPV response can be altered. We examined this relationship in anaesthetized dogs by using a tracheal divider to separate hypoxic (nitrogen ventilated) from oxygenated (100 per cent oxygen ventilated) lung. Relative perfusion was assessed from total 133Xe exhaled from each lung area after intravenous infusions. When PaCO2 was changed by changing ventilation, we found that an increasing PaCO2 increased HPV and also PaO2. At a PaCO2 of 3.3 kPa, HPV was abolished and PaO2 fell. We also changed PaCO2 by altering PICO2 to one or both lung areas while ventilation remained constant throughout the experiment. Again as PaCO2 increased, HPV and PaCO2 increased. When PaCO2 fell and end tidal carbon dioxide in the hypoxic lung (PETCO2) remained elevated by maintaining PICO2 in the hypoxic lung and removing CO2 from the oxygenated lung) HPV was maintained. Thus it is the alveolar concentration of CO2 in the hypoxic lung which is important in modifying HPV. We conclude that in this model a low PETCO2 (3.3 kPa) in hypoxic lung will reduce HPV, and will result in more severe hypoxaemia. This may have relevance in both anaesthetized and intensive care unit patients when a higher PaO2 may be obtained by increasing hypoxic lung PETCO2. The effect of PETCO2 on PaO2 will be influenced by other variables, but when hypoventilated or hypoxic exist, increasing PETCO2 may reinforce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and thus may increase PaO2. PMID:6793220

  9. Hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow: Assessment by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) has been well documented as a relatively noninvasive method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), both globally and regionally. The utility of readily detecting alterations in CBF is apparent, particularly when applied to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions thought to influence CBF. We report the effects of hypocapnia, an experimental condition of known cerebral vasoconstriction, in ten normal volunteers. Subjects had brain blood flow evaluated utilizing H215O as the positron emitter before and after approximately five minutes of hyperventilation. Baseline CBF was measured as a mean +/- SD of 61.2 +/- 16.3 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Mean baseline arterial blood gas values were PaO2 107.4 +/- 14 mm Hg, PaCO2 37.7 +/- 0.89 mm Hg, and pH 7.39 (calculated from mean [H+]). Post hyperventilation, global CBF was measured as 31.1 +/- 10.8 mL/min/100 g. Mean arterial blood gas values were PaO2 141.7 +/- 21 mm Hg, PaCO2 19.7 +/- 5 mm Hg, and pH 7.63 (calculated from mean [H+]). CBF decreased by a mean of 49.5 +/- 11 percent. Data analysis using the Student's t-test showed a significant change over baseline in PaCO2 (p less than 0.001) and CBF (p less than 0.001), in the hyperventilated state. Correlations were noted between the decrease in CBF and change in PaCO2 (r = 0.81) as well as between hyperventilation PaCO2 and the change in CBF (r = 0.97). We conclude that, as measured by PET, CBF decreases significantly during a state of artificial hyperventilation to a degree consistent with results seen using other methods. PET appears to be a valuable tool in the assessment of interventions that could influence CBF

  10. [Use of microstream capnography and alveolar recruitment during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suborov, E V; Postnikova, E A; Kapinos, A A; Kuz'kov, V V; Smetkin, A A; Kirov, M Iu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate changes in EtCO2 and its correlation with PaCO2, and cardiac function during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) and to evaluate whether the recruitment maneuver was effective in improving gas exchange after OPCAB. Twenty adult patients scheduled for elective OPCAB were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Anesthesia was maintained with midazolam, propofol, and fentanyl. After OPCAB the patients were randomized to a control group receiving conventional ventilation (n=10) or to a RM group (n=10) having ventilation and RM. RM was performed at min 15 after transfer to an ICU, by increasing airway pressure to 40 cm H2O for 40 sec subsequently adjusting PEEP to a level of 2 cm H2O above the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve. The measurements included hemodynamics, microstream capnography, respiratory parameters, and blood gasses. The baseline EtCO2 correlated with PaCO2 and cardiac index in both group (r = 0.7 and 0.81, respectively; p recruitment, EtCO, increased transiently whereas PaO2/FiO2 return to the baseline level. There was a moderate correlation between EtCO2 and PaCO2 before and after RM (r = 0.7 and 0.8, respectively; p < 0.05). The Bland-Altman analysis has shown that the difference between PaCO2 an EtCO2 was 1.9 +/- 11.4 mm Hg (M +/- 2SD). Thus, during OPCAB, EtCO2 measured by microstream capnography cor related well with PaCO2 and cardiac function. The use of RM after OPCAB increases CO2 elimination and improve arterial oxygenation. PMID:19824412

  11. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuña in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez

    2007-02-01

    The vicuña's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was 566/kg dollars, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuña grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuña has little value for poachers, so shearing vicuñas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuña fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuña in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicuñas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicuñas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable. PMID:17298515

  12. End tidal CO2 versus arterial CO2 monitoring in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Measuring end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCo2 is one of the methods used for estimating arterial carbon dioxide (PaCo2 during general anesthesia. ETCo2 measurements maybe obviate the need for repeating arterial puncture for determination of arterial PaCo2. This study performed to determine the accuracy of ETCo2 levels as a measure of PaCo2 levels in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft and also to evaluate variation of the gradient between PaCo2 and ETCo2, peri- cardiopulmonary bypass operation."n"nMethods: In a prospective, cross-sectional study, a total of 40 patients with age 57±11 (35-73 years old undergoing coronary artery bypass graft were enrolled. ETCo2 levels (mmHg were recorded using side stream capnography at the time of arterial blood gas sampling, before (T0 and after (T1 cardiopulmonary bypass."n"nResults: Mean P(a-ETCo2 at T0 was 4.3±4.4mmHg, with the mean PaCo2, 33±6mmHg and mean ETCo2, 29±5mmHg and these values at T1 were 4.5±4.1mmHg, 33±5mmHg and 29±2mmHg respectively. There was no variation of the mean gradient (PaCo2-PETCo2 during, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (p>0.870. Significant correlation was found between ETCo2 and PaCo2 at T0 and T1 (r=0.754 and 0

  13. Influência da insuflação de gás traqueal sobre a capnografia de pacientes anestesiados Influencia de la insuflación de gas traqueal sobre la capnografía de pacientes anestesiados Influence of tracheal gas insufflation during capnography in anesthetized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ortiz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A insuflação de gás traqueal (TGI - Tracheal Gas Insufflation é uma técnica que consiste em injetar gás na traquéia (geralmente oxigênio. É usada em pacientes portadores de síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto para reduzir a capnometria. Em Anestesiologia, a redução da capnometria pode ser útil, mas não existem estudos sobre a redução da capnometria com o uso da TGI. O presente estudo avaliou as alterações proporcionadas pela TGI sobre a capnografia em pacientes anestesiados. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados prospectivamente 11 pacientes, 18 a 60 anos, ASA I ou II, não-pneumopatas. Após a intubação traqueal foi inserido cateter para TGI a 2 ou 3 cm da carina. Os pacientes foram submetidos à ventilação controlada a volume. Registrou-se a curva de capnografia volumétrica durante 20 minutos e colheu-se amostra sangüínea para medir PaCO2. Após 20 minutos de TGI registrou-se a curva de capnografia e foi colhida nova amostra sangüínea para medir PaCO2. Avaliou-se pressão parcial de CO2 no fim da expiração (P ET CO2 e PaCO2, antes e após TGI. Observou-se curva de capnografia, antes e durante TGI. RESULTADOS: A PaCO2 e P ET CO2 sem TGI foram, respectivamente (média ± desvio-padrão: 33,48 ± 6,81 e 36,91 ± 6,54 mmHg e, após TGI, 33,85 ± 8,31 e 36,55 ± 7,93 mmHg, não havendo diferença estatística entre os valores antes e após TGI, tanto para a PaCO2 quanto para a P ET CO2 (p = 0,65 e 0,82. A curva de capnografia apresentou alterações na fase de expiração do ar alveolar. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação da TGI não resultou em diminuição da PaCO2 e nem na P ET CO2, porém alterou a morfologia da curva de capnografia.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La insuflación de gas traqueal (TGI - Tracheal Gas Insufflation es una técnica que consiste en inyectar gas en la tráquea (generalmente oxígeno. Se usa en pacientes portadores del síndrome de la angustia respiratoria del adulto para reducir

  14. The noninvasive carbon dioxide gradient (NICO2G) during hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Berry, John S; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Kendrick, Chonna; Necsoiu, Corina; Jordan, Bryan S; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2014-07-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a setting in which both pulmonary and cutaneous perfusion may be impaired. The goals of this study were to evaluate the relationship between end-tidal (etCO2), transcutaneous (tPCO2), arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and lactate during lethal HS and to assess the effect of progressive HS on those variables and on a new variable, the noninvasive CO2 gradient ([NICO2G] or the difference between tPCO2 and etCO2). Ten consciously sedated swine were hemorrhaged, by means of a computerized exponential protocol, of up to 80% estimated blood volume for 20 min. End-tidal carbon dioxide, tPCO2, PaCO2, and lactate measurements were taken at baseline and every 5 min thereafter, that is, after 25%, 44%, and 62% total blood volume hemorrhage (TBVH) and at cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest occurred on average at 67% TBVH. Data were analyzed by linear regression and one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and are presented as means ± SD. Forty-nine paired measurements were made. There was no overall relationship between NICO2 variables and PaCO2: PaCO2 vs. tPCO2 (r2 = 0.002, P = 0.78); PaCO2 vs. etCO2 (r2 = 0.0002, P = 0.93). Rather, NICO2G increased at each level of blood loss: 4.0 ± 24.9 at baseline, 6.3 ± 35.7 at 25% TBVH, 25.0 ± 37.6 at 44% TBVH, 55.0 ± 33.9 at 62% TBVH, and 70.0 ± 33.2 at cardiac arrest (P monitors lose accuracy for approximating the PaCO2 but gain usefulness as hemodynamic monitors. Also, by combining data from two different organ systems, NICO2G demonstrated improved correlation with lactate than did either etCO2 or tPCO2 alone. PMID:24667626

  15. Advances in sarcocystiosis diagnosis in South American camelids in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Sarcocystiosis in south-American camelids has a high prevalence, about 94% and affects alpacas and llamas by producing cysts either in skeletal muscle or heart muscle and is caused aucheniae and S. lamacanis. The approach of this investigation was to identify the species involves their pathogenicity, protein structure and the antibody kinetics of animals raised under field conditions, in isolation and under experimental infection and immunization by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Also a PCR assay was developed for diagnosis of the disease in live animals, because so far this parasitic disease is diagnosed at the post mortem examination in the slaughterhouse. PCR product was sequenced and registered in the GeneBank for S. lamacanis. To learn about antibody kinetics under field conditions a group of 30 alpacas and their offspring raised in the Andean region of Huancavelica was sampled. Blood samples were collected and assayed by ELISA for 6 months after lambing. Similarly, a group of alpaca crias kept in isolation in Lima was monitored for antibodies. A group of 20 pregnant alpacas raised in the Andean region of Puno was transferred to our station in Lima and raised in sarcocystis-free pens. These alpacas were monitored for antibody to sarcocystis by ELISA and blood parasitemia by PCR for 2 years. A group of alpaca crias was immunized using a bradyzoite protein suspension, and blood samples were collected for monitoring antibody by ELISA and western blot. In order to identify genes coding surface antigens, bradkyzoites of S. aucheniae were collected for total RNA and mRNA isolation. From this mRNA a cDNA library will be constructed, using ligation, transformation and sequencing. Alpacas from Huancavelica assayed by ELISA showed antibody (93.3%) up to 4 months after parturition, and then 100% of them were positive. This result indicates the high rate of the infection in field conditions. A 30% of their offspring showed antibody up to 2 months of age being

  16. Effect of graded hyperventilation on cerebral metabolism in a cisterna magna blood injection model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Bay-Hansen, Rikke; Hauerberg, John;

    2006-01-01

    In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with cerebrovascular instability, hyperventilation may induce a risk of inducing or aggravating cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2), glucose (CMRglc), and lactate (CMRlac) at different PaCO2 levels...... after experimental SAH in rats (injection of 0.07 mL of autologous blood into the cisterna magna). Four groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats were studied at predetermined PaCO2 levels: group A: normocapnia (5.01-5.66 kPa [38.0-42.0 mm Hg]); group B: slight hyperventilation (4.34-5.00 kPa [32.5-37.5 mm Hg...

  17. Pathophysiological analysis of hypoxaemia during acute severe asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Hori, T.

    1985-01-01

    Blood gas measurements obtained during 35 episodes of acute, severe asthma in 19 children were analysed. Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) was mean (SD) 5.7 (1.2) kPa and the arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) was 7.7 (1.1)kPa. Hypoxaemia was severe (PaO2 less than or equal to 7.9 kPa) on 19 occasions, was present alone (type I) on eight of these, and was associated with hypercapnia (type II) on 11. The PaO2 was similar in both the type I and type II subgroups, but PaCO2 was significantly h...

  18. Computed tomography and blood gas analysis of anesthetized bloodhounds with induced pneumothorax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly severe degrees of pneumothorax were produced in 6 adult anesthetized bloodhounds. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed on each dog to evaluate the effects of pneumo thorax on thoracic and on pulmonary cross-sectional area (TA and PA). Arterial PO2 (PaO2) and PCO2 (PaCO2), heart rate (HR), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were determined and related to the severity of pneumothorax. Volumes of air equal to 1, 1.5 and 2 times functional residual capacity of the lung produced approximately 33%, 40%, and 50% reductions in pulmonary area respectively. These amounts of atelectasis correspond to a radiographically “moderate” degree of pneumothorax. As severity of pneumothorax increased, thoracic area consistently increased, PaO2 consistently decreased, and PaCO2 consistently increased, with all being statistically significant relationships (p0.2)

  19. Cerebral hemodynamics in moyamoya disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuild-up phenomenon, an electroencephalographic pathological finding in moyamoya disease, was evaluated in the context of dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. Sequential functional angiography after hyperventilation, measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by the outflow method, and Kr-81m single photon emission tomography were employed for clarification of the sequential dynamic changes in cerebral circulation after hyperventilation. In most cases there was a persistent decrease in CBF even after arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) had been normalized, which suggests that the response of the cerebral circulation to the changes in PaCO2 is delayed. Moreover, this feature was most prominent in the superficial layer of the cerebrum. For the most part, coincidence and synchronization were documented between rebuild-up and the delayed response of the cerebral circulation. These findings indicate that the delayed CBF response to hyperventilation contributes pathogenetically to rebuild-up in moyamoya disease. (author)

  20. Capnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, B D; Shapiro, B A

    1995-09-01

    Capnography measures exhaled carbon dioxide and is most useful when applied directly to patient care. This is in circumstances of detecting misplacement of the tracheal tube, dysfunction of respiratory apparatuses, detection of abnormal lung function, successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and trending of deadspace changes. The least reliable application is to reflect alveolar ventilation (PaCO2). This application is most common during general anesthesia and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Provided the patient has a stable cardiac status, stable body temperature, absence of lung disease, and normal capnogram, PETCO2 monitoring may assist in estimating PaCO2. The use of capnography in patients with severe respiratory failure should be applied with careful reflection. The increased V/Q mismatch that is consistent with a widened P(a-ET) gradient, as well as worsening hypercapnea with increased peripheral carbon dioxide production, can lead to erroneous PETCO2 values. Capnography may be least useful in the sickest patients. PMID:9390853

  1. Cerebral blood flow, oxidative metabolism and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Thomsen, Gerda;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)CO(2)) in patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is unknown and controversial. The objective of this study was to measure global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity (CO(2)R), and cerebral metabolic rates...... to baseline ventilation, whereas CMR(glu) increased. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, we found variable levels of CBF and cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity, a low a-v DO(2), low cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose, and a cerebral lactate efflux. In these patients, a...... ventilation strategy guided by jugular bulb oximetry and/or repeated CBF measurements may be more optimal in terms of cerebral oxygenation than a strategy aiming at identical levels of P(a)CO(2) for all patients....

  2. Severe hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in an elderly patient with IgG-kappa type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenrick BerendSt Elisabeth Hospital, Willemstad, CuraçaoImashuku et al1 describe a 77-year-old male patient with multiple myeloma who was admitted to the hospital after suffering a pelvic bone fracture due to a road traffic accident. Several days after admission the arterial blood gas showed a pH of 7.481; arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 of 28.2 mmHg; arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 of 84.0 mmHg; HCO3- of 20.8 mmol/L (normal; 23–31 mmol/L; and an anion gap of 8.9 mmol/L (normal;12 mmol/L. These data, as the authors concluded, were suggestive of metabolic acidosis. First, this is not true because a high pH and low PaCO2 confirm a respiratory alkalosis. Since the test was conducted days later we may expect a chronic respiratory alkalosis to be present, perhaps because of pain or a secondary pulmonary problem, as may be expected with a relatively low PaO2. In chronic respiratory alkalosis one would expect the HCO3- to decrease about 4 mmol/L with every 10 mmHg decrease of PaCO2.2 If the initial HCO3- had been about 25 mmol/L, the expected PaCO2 would be about 20.28 mmol/L, almost identical with the patient’s HCO3-.View original paper by Imashuku and colleagues.

  3. Eesti parim väikeehitis asub Võrumaal Lasval / Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu konkursi "Väike 2007-2009" parimaks arhitektuuriliseks väikeobjektiks nimetati Lasva veetorn-galerii (Veronika Valk) Võrumaal, II preemia said Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli esisele väljakule paigaldatud pinkide eest Martin Pärn ja Edina Dufala-Pärn, III preemia läks aiamajale (Toomas Tammis, Paco Ulman) Meriväljal. Parimate väikevormide väljapanek Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis 19. juunini 2010

  4. The use of capnometry to predict arterial partial pressure of CO2 in non-intubated breathless patients in the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    NIK AB RAHMAN, Nik Hisamuddin; Mamat, Amiruddin Fairuz

    2010-01-01

    Background Capnometry measures carbon dioxide in expired air and provides the clinician with a noninvasive measure of the systemic metabolism, circulation and ventilation. This study was carried out on patients with acute breathlessness to define the utility and role of capnometry in the emergency department. Aim The objectives of the study were: To determine the correlation between end tidal CO2 and PaCO2 in non-intubated acutely breathless patients. To determine factors that influence the e...

  5. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Recognizing Face Expressions in Mild Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sapey-Triomphe, Laurie-Anne; Heckemann, Rolf A.; Boublay, Nawele; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Hénaff, Marie-Anne; Rouch, Isabelle; Padovan, Catherine; Hammers, Alexander; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2015-01-01

    Early Alzheimer's disease can involve social disinvestment, possibly as a consequence of impairment of nonverbal communication skills. This study explores whether patients with Alzheimer's disease at the mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia stage have impaired recognition of emotions in facial expressions, and describes neuroanatomical correlates of emotion processing impairment. As part of the ongoing PACO study (personality, Alzheimer's disease and behaviour), 39 patients with Alzheim...

  6. Bench-to-bedside review: Carbon dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Curley, Gerard; Laffey, John G; Kavanagh, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a waste product of aerobic cellular respiration in all aerobic life forms. PaCO2 represents the balance between the carbon dioxide produced and that eliminated. Hypocapnia remains a common - and generally underappreciated - component of many disease states, including early asthma, high-altitude pulmonary edema, and acute lung injury. Induction of hypocapnia remains a common, if controversial, practice in both adults and children with acute brain injury. In contrast, hypercap...

  7. Voluntary suppression of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation mitigates the reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Ikebe, Yusuke; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-04-15

    Hyperthermia during prolonged exercise leads to hyperventilation, which can reduce arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 ) and, in turn, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and thermoregulatory response. We investigated 1) whether humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise and 2) the effects of voluntary breathing control on PaCO2 , CBF, sweating, and skin blood flow. Twelve male subjects performed two exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C, 50% relative humidity) for up to 60 min. Throughout the exercise, subjects breathed normally (normal-breathing trial) or they tried to control their minute ventilation (respiratory frequency was timed with a metronome, and target tidal volumes were displayed on a monitor) to the level reached after 5 min of exercise (controlled-breathing trial). Plotting ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses against esophageal temperature (Tes) showed that minute ventilation increased linearly with rising Tes during normal breathing, whereas controlled breathing attenuated the increased ventilation (increase in minute ventilation from the onset of controlled breathing: 7.4 vs. 1.6 l/min at +1.1°C Tes; P blood flow velocity (MCAV) with rising Tes, but controlled breathing attenuated those reductions (estimated PaCO2 -3.4 vs. -0.8 mmHg; MCAV -10.4 vs. -3.9 cm/s at +1.1°C Tes; P = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively). Controlled breathing had no significant effect on chest sweating or forearm vascular conductance (P = 0.67 and 0.91, respectively). Our results indicate that humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise, and this suppression mitigates changes in PaCO2 and CBF. PMID:25632021

  8. Uus plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Helloween "Rabbit Don't Come Easy", David Byrne "grown Backwards", Joss Stone "The Soul Session", Bass boom 3 "Faster Harder Louder", Lisa Miskovsky "Fallingwater", Paco de Lucia "Cositas Buenos", Soundtrack "Once Upon A Time In Mexico", Vanilla Ninja "Don't Go Too Fast", Novaspace "Cubes", "Elmari tantsuõhtu 4.", The Von Bondies "Pawn Snappe Heart", Godsmack "The Other Side", George Michael "Patience", Eric Clapton "Me and Mr Johnson"

  9. Helium-oxygen mixture does not improve gas exchange in mechanically ventilated children with bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Matthew F; Spear, Robert M.; Peterson, Bradley M

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Heliox has been found to reduce both the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and work of breathing in children and adults with status asthmaticus. We hypothesized that, in mechanically ventilated children with bronchiolitis, increasing the ratio of helium:oxygen concentrations would improve both ventilation and oxygenation. Objective: To examine the effect of varying concentrations of heliox mixtures on ventilation and oxygenation in mechanically ventilated children with bro...

  10. Evaluation of PO2 and PCO2 Changes During Surgical Removal of Third Molars Utilizing Enflurane Anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kraut, Richard A.; Rubal, Bernard; Bush, Bruce

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in partial pressure of oxygen during surgical removal of wisdom teeth utilizing a spontaneous ventilation general anesthesia technique with enflurane. Simultaneous transcutaneous and arterial blood gas determination confirmed the presence of two oxygen patterns. Normal preoperative pulmonary function tests, coupled with the stability of the Paco2 between surgery and extubation, indicates that the 23±10 mmHg increase in transcutaneous oxygen (Ptco2) reported...

  11. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...... burning. The aim was to determine the accuracy and precision of tcPCO2 at reduced electrode temperature....

  12. Predictive Value of Capnography for Suspected Diabetic Ketoacidosis in the Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Taghizadieh, Ali; Niafar, Mitra; Rahmani, Farzad; Golzari, Samad EJ; Mehdizadeh Esfanjani, Robab

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic acidosis confirmed by arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is one of the diagnostic criteria for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Given the direct relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETco2), arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and metabolic acidosis, measuring ETco2 may serve as a surrogate for ABG in the assessment of possible DKA. The current study focuses on the predictive value of capnography in diagnosing DKA in patients referring to the emergency department (ED) ...

  13. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  14. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Talha Khan; Rose Amy Franco

    2014-01-01

    Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour) persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP) and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continu...

  15. Nõela all : Igakuine vinüülitutvustus / DJ Drummie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Drummie

    1999-01-01

    Plaatidest Sandy Rivera feat. LT Brown "Come Into My Room", Deep Sensation "Somehow, Shomewhere (Soul Heaven)", Brothers of Soul "Eyes of Love", Dr.Gary Henry "'Faith", Royal Palm "Hecho En Inglaterra", La Cellule "Sweet Entourage EP", Antonio "Hyperfunk", DJ Paco & Terry Laird feat. MC Adrian "M.U.G. EP vol 1", DJ Brockie & Ed Solo "Represents/Shodown", Fresh and Vegas "Otto's Way/ Heatwave"

  16. Relationship between hyperventilation and intracranial pressure in patients with severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@With high fatality rate and disability rate, the pathophysiologic changes of severe head injury are complicated. But the method of lowering intracranial pressure (ICP) through artificial hyperventilation is called in question recently. To understand the related changes of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2) and the ICP at the acute period of severe head injury, a total of 64 patients with severe head injury were monitored and analyzed on the 3rd day after injury.

  17. Diagnostic value of gas exchange tests in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Prediletto, Renato; Miniati, Massimo; Tonelli, Lucia; Formichi, Bruno; Di Ricco, Giorgio; Marini, Carlo; Bauleo, Carolina; Allescia, Germana; Cocci, Franca; Monti, Simonetta; Pistolesi, Massimo; Giuntini, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of parameters derived from arterial blood gas tests in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Method: We measured alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A–a)O2] gradient, PaO2 and arterial partial pressure of carbon diaxide (PaCO2) in 773 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism who were enrolled in the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Diagnosis: The study design required pulmonary angiography in all patients with...

  18. Micromusic / Gino Esposto ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esposto, Gino

    2006-01-01

    Šveitsis Gino Esposto poolt 1999. a. rajatud Micromusic loob ja kogub muusikat, mis on loodud ajalooliste arvutitega või kõlab selliselt, kuid on mõeldud praeguste tantsusõprade jaoks. 1999. aastast on koos tegutsenud Paco Manzanares (alias Wanga, sünd. 1962), Michael Burkhardt (alias SuperB, sünd. 1966) ja G. Esposto (alias Carl, sünd. 1973). 17. XI 2000. a. peetud telefonivestlus G. Espostoga

  19. [Pulmonary function in patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2008-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rcx, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS/VA, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 40 patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 75%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 57.5 and 25%, respectively. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared mainly as increased TGV and PRV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, PaO2, and PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. TGV and PRL increased up to 148-187 and 142-223% of the normal values, respectively; MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC%, and DLCO decreased to 59-24, 58-26, 78-57, and 78-67% of the normal values and PaO2 and PaCO2 did to 79-69 and 34-30 cm Hg. PMID:18450075

  20. [Efficacy and safety of the use of levodropropizine in patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunella, G; Zanasi, A; Massimo Vanasia, C B

    1991-02-28

    Efficacy and tolerability of an antitussive drug, levodropropizine, in 21 adult patients with interstitial lung disorders was evaluated in this study. Levodropropizine dosage was 60 mg t.i.d. for four days of therapy. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the antitussive therapy and, on the other hand, the tolerability of levodropropizine in these patients, monitoring PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values. The changes in cough frequency (34.1 +/- 5.6 20.4 +/- 5.4 mean +/- d.s. before and after treatment) and the overall efficacy judgment as reported by the doctor indicate a decrease in cough as confirmed by the significance of Kruskal-Wallis test (p less than 0.05). Furthermore the tolerability has been excellent, because the PaO2, PaCo2 ad pH values before and after treatment were unchanged (PaO2 mmHg: basal 71 +/- 16.6, after treatment 73.8 +/- 14.2; PaCO2 mmHg: basal 36.6 +/- 5, after treatment 36.6 +/- 4.6; pH basal 7.4 +/- 0.03, after treatment 7.4 +/- 0.02). PMID:1827388

  1. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  2. An introduction to South American camelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The South American camelids - the domesticated alpaca and llama, and the wild vicuna and guanaco - which belong to the Camelidae family of the Artiodactyla order are of considerable sociological, economic and ecological importance to the native populations living in the high plateau (altiplano) of the central Andes. Owing to their biological characteristics they are able to provide meat, wool, hides and transportation without disrupting the fragile ecosystem. Increasing interest is being taken in these animals, both in their native lands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru and in other parts of the world. (author). 55 refs, 5 figs

  3. New polymorpic microsatellite loci for analysis of genetic diversity in camel species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this study, new microsatellite loci were screened and sequenced on the basis of the genomic DNA of a male Camelus bactrianus (bactrian). The DNA was restricted with Sau3AI, and the restriction fragments were enriched using magnetic beads (Dynabeads, DYNAL) coated with the biotinylated oligonucleotides (CA)10/(GT)10 and (ATCC)7. The enriched fragments were cloned and then sequenced. Primers were defined for PCR and applied to genomic DNA from 20 bactrians from the Russian Altai region, 220 dromedaries from four Kenyan breeds, and 7 bactrians, 6 llamas and 4 alpacas from German zoos. Locus specific allelic fragment sizes were analysed on an automated DNA sequencer. Basic statistical tests were conducted using the software package BIOSYS-1.7. The between breed diversity was measured using the bootstrapping procedure of PHYLIP and the standard Nei's distance. Among 32 sequenced microsatellite loci, specific PCR products were generated for the 23 loci in bactrian as well as in dromedary. Amongst them, 19 loci could be amplified in llama and 20 in alpaca. Different repeat motifs were found, which were not always complementary to the oligonucleotides used for screening. Fragment lengths per locus were more similar between llama and alpaca and between dromedary and bactrian than between New and Old World Camelides. The loci were largely different with regard to their polymorphism. No significant (p<0.05) deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for all animal groups. Five of the investigated loci were monomorphic and had identical fragment sizes in all investigated species. One locus was monomorphic in bactrian and dromedary and could not be amplified in the other species. Three loci were monomorphic in each of the species, but had different fragment sizes in individual species. More than one allele within a species were observed in 13 loci for bactrian, 12 loci for dromedary, 11 loci for llama and 12 loci for alpaca. Seven (50%) of the

  4. Desarrollo rural y conservación de la naturaleza en áreas protegidas de Bolivia: la Puna de Sajama (Bolivia)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Santa Cecilia; Roberto Martín Arroyo; Rafael Mata Olmo

    2009-01-01

    En pleno altiplano central de Bolivia está situado el Parque Nacional Sajama, el primer espacio protegido creado en la república boliviana, en 1939. Al pie del imponente nevado, en la dilatada puna que supera aquí los 4.200 m de altitud, viven comunidades aymarás dedicadas tradicionalmente al pastoreo de llamas y alpacas, organizadas social y territorialmente en torno a la institución del ayllu. Los cambios político-administrativos y las reformas de la propiedad y tenencia de la tierra impuls...

  5. Camelid single domain antibodies (VHHs) as neuronal cell intrabody binding agents and inhibitors of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay, Jacqueline M.; Kuo, Chueh-Ling; Abeijon, Claudia; Sepulveda, Jorge; Oyler, George; Hu, Xuebo; Jin, Moonsoo M.; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2010-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) function by delivering a protease to neuronal cells that cleave SNARE proteins and inactivate neurotransmitter exocytosis. Small (14 kDa) binding domains specific for the protease of BoNT serotypes A or B were selected from libraries of heavy chain only antibody domains (VHHs or nanobodies) cloned from immunized alpacas. Several VHHs bind the BoNT proteases with high affinity (KD near 1 nM) and include potent inhibitors of BoNT/A protease activity (Ki near 1 nM)....

  6. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus. Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species may be applicable to goats, and existing respiratory pathology may predispose goats to a less favorable outcome.

  7. Human cerebral circulation. Positron emission tomography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the literature on human cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism, as measured by positron emission tomography (PET), with respect to normal values and of regulation of cerebral circulation. A multicenter study in Japan showed that between-center variations in cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) values were not considerably larger than the corresponding within-center variations. Overall mean±SD values in cerebral cortical regions of normal human subjects were as follows: CBF=44.4±6.5 ml/100 ml/min; CBV=3.8±0.7 ml/100 ml; OEF=0.44±0.06; CMRO2=3.3±0.5 ml/100 ml/min (11 PET centers, 70 subjects). Intrinsic regulation of cerebral circulation involves several factors. Autoregulation maintains CBF in response to changes in cerebral perfusion pressure; chemical factors such as PaCO2 affect cerebral vascular tone and alter CBF; changes in neural activity cause changes in cerebral energy metabolism and CBF; neurogenic control of CBF occurs by sympathetic innervation. Regional differences in vascular response to changes in PaCO2 have been reported, indicating regional differences in cerebral vascular tone. Relations between CBF and CBV during changes in PaCO2 and during changes in neural activity were in good agreement with Poiseuille's law. The mechanisms of vascular response to neural activation and deactivation were independent on those of responses to PaCO2 changes. CBV in a brain region is the sum of three components: arterial, capillary and venous blood volumes. It has been reported that the arterial blood volume fraction is approximately 30% in humans and that changes in human CBV during changes in PaCO2 are caused by changes in arterial blood volume without changes in venous blood volume. These findings should be considered in future studies of the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. (author) 136 refs

  8. Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation in acute hemorrhagic shock and evaluation of gastric luminal and transcutaneous Pco2 in Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Morena B; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Martin-Jurado, Olga; Howard, Judith; Vogler, Barbara; Vogt, Rainer; Codron, Daryl; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly

  9. Leptospirosis en camélidos sudamericanos. Estudio de prevalencia serológica en distintas regiones de la Argentina Leptospirosis in south-american camelids. A study on the serological prevalence in different regions of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. LLORENTE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la seroprevalencia en Camélidos Sudamericanos de Leptospirosis, zoonosis de distribución mundial, producida por espiroquetas patógenas del género Leptospira. Se examinaron 494 animales (llamas, guanacos y vicuñas, clínicamente sanos sin vacunar, de diferentes regiones geográficas de la República Argentina. Se utilizó la técnica, serovar específica, de microaglutinación (MAT. El estudio reveló prevalencias entre 47.3 y 96.2% en llamas, entre 0 y 13% en guanacos y entre 9 y 62.8% en vicuñas. De los serovares que se usaron como antígeno en las determinaciones, los que más frecuentemente reaccionaron con los anticuerpos séricos de los camélidos, fueron copenhageni y castellonisLeptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease, affecting wild and domestic animals and human beings, caused by pathogenic spirochetes, spread world wide, belonging to the genus Leptospira. It is transmited by direct contact with infected animal urine or tissues, and indirectly through contaminated water and soil. Leptospirosis has a negative economic impact on porcine and bovine productions. It causes abortions, stillbirths, placental retention, infertility and chronical renal deficiency, causing disturbance of flow milk and quality in dairy cattle. Studies on south-american camelids productive aspects, have increased during the last decades, in order to promote alternative regional economies. There exist three species in Argentina, llama (Lama glama, guanaco (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna. The knowledge of physiological parameters and susceptibility and immune response to infectious agents of these animals, are required to improve their breeding efficiency. Leptospirosis is an infectious disease, which may affect reproduction efficiency. Leptospira antibody prevalence in 494 sera obtained from healthy non vaccinated llamas, vicuñas and guanacos from different geographic zones in Argentina, was evaluated. The serovar specific

  10. Chesapeake Resources Ltd. application for a well licence, Whitemud area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-04

    An application was made for a license to drill an oil or gas well in a populated area near Edmonton, Alberta. A public hearing was held to examine issues related to the well application. Issues considered at the hearing were the need for the well, the effects of drilling the well on the neighboring residences, and the impact of drilling on a nearby alpaca ranch. The need for the well was confirmed, as there is no other existing well in the section capable of draining any reserves that may be in the targeted formation. The effects of drilling on the residences, such as noise and spills, were considered to be capable of being reduced to acceptable levels. Discussion of the impact of drilling on the alpacas focused on noise pollution. It was concluded that the relatively short duration of drilling, and the commitments made by the applicant to minimize noise levels, mean that these impacts would not be significant. The application was accordingly approved, with certain conditions imposed on the applicant to control noise and other impacts. 1 fig.

  11. Testing Dark Energy with the Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Corasaniti, P S; Crotts, A; Blake, C; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Verde, Marilena Lo; Crotts, Arlin; Blake, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-meter liquid mirror telescope surveying ~1000 square degree of the southern-hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope, that nonetheless will deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consists of nightly, high signal-to-noise, multiband light curves of SN Ia. At the end of the three-years run ALPACA is expected to collect >100,000 SNe Ia up to z~1. This will allow to accurately calibrate the standard-candle relation and reduce present systematic uncertainties. The survey will also provide several other datasets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SN Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two datasets will provide competitive constraints...

  12. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. PMID:25680921

  13. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. PMID:23153624

  14. Prolonged expiratory method and curve fitting method used in exploratory study of expiratory capnography in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%延长呼气法和曲线拟合法在老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病呼吸衰竭患者呼出气二氧化碳图中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 陈荣昌; 陈瑞; 纪笑英; 王华; 钟南山

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)呼吸衰竭患者应用呼出气二氧化碳分压(PCO2)监测估算动脉血PCO2(PaCO2)的方法,为无创动态监测COPD呼吸衰竭患者的PaCO2提供方法学依据.方法 30例COPD急性加重期(AECOPD)患者给予常规药物治疗,部分患者联用BiPAP呼吸机鼻(面)罩双水平正压辅助通气,疗程为5~7d,治疗前后均采用平静呼气法和延长呼气法记录呼出气PCO2曲线图.结果 患者治疗前平静呼吸呼气末PCO2[PETCO2(Q)]为(50.72±8.93)mm Hg(1mm Hg=0.133 kPa),延长呼气第5s末PCO2[(PETCO2(P)]为(70.35±8.91)mm Hg,PaCO2为(71.25±9.08)mm Hg.治疗前PETCO2(Q)显著低于PaCO2(F=38.73,P<0.01),PETCO2(P)与PaCO2基本一致(P>0.05),PETCO2(P)基本能反映PaCO2;治疗后复查的结果与治疗前类似.治疗前和治疗后PETCO2(P)和PaCO2均呈正相关(r=0.96和r=0.97,P<0.01).治疗前,根据从呼气开始到PCO2与PaCO2相等的时间(TABG)呼气时间,从平静呼气二氧化碳-时间拟合曲线公式求得PCO2(C)为(71.78±9.04)mm Hg,与PaCO2比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后复查的结果与治疗前类似.治疗前后PCO2(C)与PaCO2均呈正相关(r=0.97和r=0.98,P<0.01).结论 对于COPD伴Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者,延长呼气法测定PETCO2(P)可较准确地预测PaCO2,适合于PaCO2的动态预测.对于部分重度和极重度COPD患者,延长呼气法测定受到一定限制,平静呼气外推PCO2(C)值与延长呼气法测定PETCO2(P),均可较准确地预测PaCO2.%Objective To find noninvasive estimation of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2) by measuring the end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PETCO2) in elderly patients with respiratory failure with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods All the 30 acutely exacerbated COPD subjects received routine clinical treatment including bronchodilators,mucolytics, glucocorticosteroid, antibiotics and oxygen therapy for 5-7 days, and part of them received

  15. Migraciones en la puna: su relación con el uso de los recursos naturales del departamento Los Andes Migraciones en la puna: su relación con el uso de los recursos naturales del departamento Los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Barbarán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From an historic and demographic perspective, as well as the use of natural resources, we analyzed the relationship between human migrations and the economic activities of Los Andes Department, West of the Salta Province, in NW Argentina. Using the residual method, we calculated migratory balances between Argentinean population censuses carried out in 1947,1960, 1970, 1980 and 2001. The migratory balances were negative for all the periods studied. When the train started to run through Ramal C-14, the workers who built it have to find jobs somewhere else. At the same time, the railway made easier for the natives, to find better economicopportunities out of the Puna. The close of mine La Casualidad by the end of the 70’s, the low creation of jobs by the remaining mining operations, focused in to hire qualified technicians no available in Los Andes and the privatization of the railway in early 90’s, were important factors of emigration. Despite of cattle rising as the main economic activity in rural areas, it is practiced without any technology of management. The overgrazing caused for that reason, has reduced almost to the half the quantity of sheep by inhabitant between 1947 and 2001. That is why the local people have to press more on the wildlife, trading illegally with vicuña (Vicugna vicugna fiber. Despite of a touristic development plan, a law promoting sheep rising and a census of vicuña population carried out by the provincial government, these recent actions should be part of a development project of regional scale, oriented to the sustainable use of the natural resources of Los Andes Department. That project would create jobs and discourage emigration.Desde una perspectiva histórica, demográfica y del uso de los recursos naturales, analizamos la relación existente entre las migraciones humanas y las actividades económicas en el departamento Los Andes, ubicado al W de la provincia de Salta, en el Noroeste Argentino. Usando el m

  16. Porcine MAP3K5 analysis: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variations associated with residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, L; Zhang, L C; Zhang, J S; Song, X; Wang, L G; Liang, J; Zhang, Y B; Liu, X; Yan, H; Zhang, T; Yue, J W; Li, N; Wu, Q Q; Wang, L X

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively. The deduced MAP3K5 protein sequence contains two conserved domains: a DUF4071 domain and a protein kinase domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that porcine MAP3K5 forms a separate branch to vicugna and camel MAP3K5. Tissue expression analysis using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that MAP3K5 was expressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, pancrea, ileum, and stomach tissues. Copy number variation was detected for porcine MAP3K5 and validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, a significant increase in average copy number was detected in the low RFI group when compared to the high RFI group in a Duroc pig population. These results provide useful information regarding the influence of MAP3K5 on RFI in pigs. PMID:27525933

  17. Análise dos efeitos da manobra de recrutamento alveolar na oxigenação sanguínea durante procedimento bariátrico Análisis de los efectos de la maniobra de reclutamiento alveolar en la oxigenación sanguínea durante el procedimiento bariátrico Analysis of the effects of the alveolar recruitment maneuver on blood oxygenation during bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Paiva de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A manobra de recrutamento alveolar (MRA é indicada no tratamento de atelectasias intraoperatórias. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar duas técnicas de MRA por meio da resposta da relação PaO2/FiO2 e da soma [PaO2+PaCO2], em pacientes obesos grau III. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo aberto em pacientes adultos, obesos grau III, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico bariátrico em ventilação controlada a volume, pressão positiva no final da expiração (PEEP de 5 cmH2O e divididos em três grupos: G CONT: PEEP de 5 cmH2O; G MRA10/15/20 após sutura da aponeurose: aumento progressivo da PEEP para 10,15 e 20 cmH2O, pausa de 40 segundos e manutenção de cada valor da PEEP por 2 minutos; G MRA30: após sutura da aponeurose: aumento súbito da PEEP para 30 cmH2O, 40 segundos de pausa e manutenção da PEEP em 30 cmH2O por dois minutos. Foram analisadas as variáveis frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial média, sistólica, diastólica, pressão média das vias aéreas (P MVA e de platô (P PLAT, pressão arterial de oxigênio (PaO2, pressão arterial de CO2 (PaCO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 (fração inspiratória de oxigênio e soma [PaO2+PaCO2]. RESULTADOS: As variáveis que apresentaram diferença estatística significativa entre os três grupos foram: P PLAT, P MVA, PaO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 e soma [PaO2+PaCO2] (p JUSTIFICATIVAS Y OBJETIVOS: La maniobra de reclutamiento alveolar (MRA se indica en el tratamiento de atelectasias intraoperatorias. El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar dos técnicas de MRA por medio de la respuesta de la relación PaO2/FiO2 y de la suma [PaO2+PaCO2], en pacientes obesos con grado III. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo abierto en pacientes adultos, obesos grado III, sometidos a procedimiento quirúrgico bariátrico en ventilación controlada a volumen, presión positiva al final de la expiración (PEEP de 5 cmH2O y divididos en tres grupos: G CONTROL: PEEP de 5 cmH2O; G MRA10

  18. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with blood gas parameters in crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane Pressão intra-ocular e sua correlação com parâmetros hemogasométricos em caracarás (Caracara plancus anestesiados com isofluorano e sevofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular pressure (IOP and its correlations with arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and arterial pH were studied in five crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane (ISO and sevoflurane (SEV. Baseline IOP values were measured in both eyes (M0. Brachial artery was previously catheterized to obtain blood gas and cardiorespiratory analysis. Anesthesia was induced with 5% ISO and maintained with 2.5% for 40 minutes. IOP measurements and blood samples were evaluated in different moments until the end of the procedure. After recovering, a second anesthesia was induced with 6% SEV and maintained with 3.5%. Parameters were evaluated at the same time points of the previous procedure. IOP reduced significantly (P= 0.012 from M0 at all time points and no significative changes were observed between ISO and SEV anesthesias. Correlation between IOP and PaCO2 and between PIO and blood pH were found only for SEV. IOP and blood pH decreased in parallel with IOP, whereas values of PaCO2 increased in caracaras anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane.Avaliou-se a pressão intra-ocular (PIO e estimaram-se as correlações entre PIO e pressão de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pH arterial de cinco caracarás (Caracara plancus, anestesiados com isofluorano (ISO ou sevofluorano (SEV. Valores basais da PIO foram aferidos em ambos os olhos (M0. Cateterizou-se previamente a artéria braquial para obtenção de parâmetros hemogasométricos e cardiorrespiratórios. Anestesia foi induzida com ISO a 5V% e mantida por 40 minutos com 2,5V%. PIO e amostras de sangue foram avaliadas em diferentes momentos até o final do procedimento. Após recuperação, uma segunda anestesia foi realizada com SEV a 6% e mantida com 3,5%. Os parâmetros foram aferidos nos mesmos momentos estabelecidos previamente. A PIO decresceu significativamente (P=0,012 de M0 em todos os momentos e não houve diferença estatística entre ISO e SEV. Correla

  19. Influence of floating thoracic wall on dogs pulmonary function and curative effect of pressure dressing on chest%浮动胸壁对犬呼吸功能的影响及加压包扎治疗效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志明; 陈拥; 王泽学; 孙颢洁; 梁磊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the inlfuence of lfoating thoracic wall on dogs pulmonary function and the curative effect of pressure dressing on chest.Methods Floating thoracic wall models of large areas(20 cm2/kg ) and small areas(10 cm2/kg ) were established in 18 hybrid dogs. the intrpleural pressure(iPP), partial pressure of oxygen in artery(Pao2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery(Paco2) and arterial oxygen saturation(sao2) were measured with blood gas analysis and intrathoracic cannula. and the curative effect of pressure dressing on chest on pulmonary function was studied, too.Results Pao2 and sao2 decreased(P <0.05), but Paco2 increased (P <0.05) in large areas group. Pao2 and sao2 decreased(P <0.05) in small areas group. Compared with the lfoating thoracic wall models, after treatment of pressure dressing on chest, pulmonary function data had no statistical signiifcance in large areas group. PaO2 and SaO2 increased (P <0.05), Paco2 decreased(P <0.05) in small areas group after treatment of pressure dressing on chest.Conclusion The lfail chest of large areas group had a great effect on pulmonary function, but the pressure dressing on chest did not show the therapeutic efifcacy. The pressure dressing on chest was an effective way for improvement of pulmonary function in lfail chest of small areas.%目的:观察浮动胸壁对犬呼吸功能的影响以及胸壁加压包扎的疗效。方法实验用杂交犬18只建立大面积(20cm2/kg)和小面积(10cm2/kg)两组胸壁浮动动物模型,用胸腔置管和血气分析等观察胸膜腔内压(iPP)、动脉血氧分压(Pao2)、动脉血二氧化碳分压(Paco2)及动脉血氧饱和度(sao2)变化和加压包扎治疗的效果。结果大面积组Pao2和sao2下降(P<0.05),Paco2升高(P<0.05);小面积组Pao2和sao2下降(P<0.05)。同模型制作后比较,加压包扎治疗后,大面积组呼吸功能指标差异无显著性意义;小面积

  20. Effects of various combinations of benzodiazepines with buprenorphine on arterial blood gases in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Stéphane O; Mégarbane, Bruno; Borron, Stephen W; Risède, Patricia; Monier, Claire; Ricordel, Ivan; Baud, Frédéric J

    2008-09-01

    Fatalities have been attributed to combinations of high-dose buprenorphine with benzodiazepines. In rats, high-dose buprenorphine combined with midazolam was shown to induce sustained respiratory acidosis, while buprenorphine alone did not. However, the effects of buprenorphine combined with pharmacological doses of benzodiazepines remain unknown. Our objective was to compare the acute effects of four selected benzodiazepines used intravenously at equi-efficacious doses in rats, alone and in combination with buprenorphine on sedation, respiratory rate and arterial blood gases. Buprenorphine (30 mg/kg) did not significantly modify sedation level or respiratory rate, but induced mild and transient effects on pH and PaCO(2) (P < 0.05). Similarly, despite having no effects on respiratory rate, nordiazepam (10 mg/kg), bromazepam (1 mg/kg) and oxazepam (12 mg/kg) mildly and transiently altered pH and PaCO(2) (P < 0.05), whereas clonazepam (5 mg/kg) did not. Buprenorphine combined with each benzodiazepine induced no significant effects on respiratory rate or blood gases, in comparison with buprenorphine alone. However, combinations of oxazepam or nordiazepam with buprenorphine significantly deepened sedation. While both combinations reduced respiratory rate, buprenorphine + 30 mg/kg clonazepam significantly increased PaCO(2) and buprenorphine + 30 mg/kg nordiazepam decreased PaO(2). In conclusion, not all benzodiazepines induce significant respiratory depression at therapeutic doses. We were unable to demonstrate significant effects on rat ventilatory parameters of buprenorphine combined with equi-efficacious pharmacological doses of benzodiazepines in comparison with buprenorphine alone. Our results may suggest that effects of these combinations are rather mild. Respiratory failure may, however, result from the association of buprenorphine with elevated doses of benzodiazepines. PMID:18684226

  1. Clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Hua Xu; Xin Lin; Mi-Jia Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia.Methods:A total of 100 newborns with asphyxia who visited in our hospital were collected, and divided into severe group (n=20) and mild group (n=80) according to the asphyxia degree, and 50 healthy newborns regarded as control group. The 3 groups received blood gas analysis (pH, BE and PaCO2), electrolyte (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) and 3 kinds of enzymes (CK, CK-MB and HBDH) were tested and compared.Results: Compared with control group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, the level of Ca2+ decreased significantly in severe group (P<0.05); Compared with control group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe and mild group (P<0.05). Compared with mild group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The detection of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH can provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and estimation of severity degree which was helpful in clinical treatment.

  2. Influence of low molecular heparin on blood coagulation function and lung function in AECOPD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Deng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of low molecular heparin on the blood coagulation function and lung function in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients.Methods:A total of 100 cases AECOPD patients were divided into observation group and control group according to the present order and odd number by half. They were all given AECOPD conventional symptomatic treatment, on this basis, patients in the observation group were treated with low molecular heparin, 10 d after treatment, arterial blood gas index such as oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), oxygen saturation (SaO2), carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), pulmonary function index such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, blood coagulation function index such as fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) between two groups before and after treatment were compared.Results:Compared with before treatment, the levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC in control group after treatment were significantly elevated, PaCO2, D-D were significantly reduced, the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05); The levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC, PT, TT and APTT in observation group after treatment were significantly increased, and were significantly higher than the control group after treatment, PaCO2, D-D, Fib were significantly lower, and were lower than the control group after treatment, the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05).Conclusions:AECOPD patients treated with low molecular heparin can help to improve the arterial blood gas, lung function and blood coagulation function.

  3. Clinical predictors of a low central venous oxygen saturation after major surgery: a prospective prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, E; Silbert, B; Ho, K M

    2015-01-01

    Optimising perioperative haemodynamic status may reduce postoperative complications. In this prospective prevalence study, we investigated the associations between standard haemodynamic parameters and a low central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in patients after major surgery. A total of 201 patients requiring continuous arterial and central venous pressure monitoring after major surgery were recruited. Simultaneous arterial and central venous blood gases, haemodynamic and biochemical data and perfusion index were obtained from patients at a single time-point within 24 hours of surgery. A low ScvO2 (ventilation, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, haemoglobin concentrations, arterial pH and lactate concentrations, arterial oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) were all associated with a low ScvO2 in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analysis, only a higher perfusion index (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 0.98), PaO2 (OR 0.98 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99) and PaCO2 (OR 0.88 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95) and a lower central venous pressure (OR 1.14 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25) were significantly associated with a reduced risk of a low ScvO2, all in a linear fashion. In conclusion, PaO2, PaCO2, perfusion index and central venous pressure were significant predictors of a low ScvO2 in patients after major surgery including cardiac surgery. PMID:25579290

  4. Long-term gas exchange characteristics as markers of deterioration in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramana Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF the architecture of the developing lungs and the ventilation of lung units are progressively affected, influencing intrapulmonary gas mixing and gas exchange. We examined the long-term course of blood gas measurements in relation to characteristics of lung function and the influence of different CFTR genotype upon this process. Methods Serial annual measurements of PaO2 and PaCO2 assessed in relation to lung function, providing functional residual capacity (FRCpleth, lung clearance index (LCI, trapped gas (VTG, airway resistance (sReff, and forced expiratory indices (FEV1, FEF50, were collected in 178 children (88 males; 90 females with CF, over an age range of 5 to 18 years. Linear mixed model analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to define predominant lung function parameters influencing oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. Results PaO2 decreased linearly from age 5 to 18 years, and was mainly associated with FRCpleth, (p 1 (p 50 (p p 2 showed a transitory phase of low PaCO2 values, mainly during the age range of 5 to 12 years. Both PaO2 and PaCO2 presented with different progression slopes within specific CFTR genotypes. Conclusion In the long-term evaluation of gas exchange characteristics, an association with different lung function patterns was found and was closely related to specific genotypes. Early examination of blood gases may reveal hypocarbia, presumably reflecting compensatory mechanisms to improve oxygenation.

  5. Effects of regulation mode of cabin gas on arterial blood gas of mariners during a prolonged voyage in a nuclear submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-feng LIU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of different regulation modes of the air in cabin on the arterial blood gas of mariners during a prolonged voyage in a nuclear submarine. Methods During three long distance voyages of the same nuclear submarine, the same air-regeneration device was adopted. According to the different doses and percentages of the oxygen-lithium hydroxide absorbers, the mariners of three voyages were divided by sequence of voyages into control group (C, observation group 1 (A, and observation group 2 (B. The change in arterial blood PaO2 and PaCO2 of mariners in the three groups were detected on the third day of surface navigation (T1, 10th day (T2, 12nd day (T3, 13th day (T4 of submarine navigation, and the day before returning (T5. Result There was no difference between the three groups in T1 and T2 (P>0.05. There was a significant difference in PaO2 and PaCO2 between the two observation groups and the control group on T3, T4 and T5 (P<0.05. Conclusions Different amount and percentage of the oxygenlithium hydroxide showed an influence on PaO2 and PaCO2 of the mariners. Optimal amount and percentage of the oxygen-lithium hydroxide is very important in keeping normal physiological status of mariners in a nuclear submarine. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.14

  6. [Experimental evaluation of respiratory assist and hemodynamic changes by veno-venous bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, A

    1989-06-01

    The veno-venous bypass (VVB) with a membrane lung is one of the effective procedures to provide respiratory assistance even in patients with a high mortality rate when assisted only with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this experimental study was to reveal the efficacy of respiratory assistance and the hemodynamic changes by VVB in acute respiratory failure. VVB was carried out in 22 mongrel dogs with acute respiratory failure induced by intratracheal seawater infusion. The ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q) of a membrane lung was changed to 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 for each of the bypass flow rates of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of pre-perfusion cardiac output. For each condition variables indicating blood gas status and hemodynamic parameters were measured. As the indicator evaluating the efficiency of CO2 removal by VVB, the index of VVBCO2R was used, indicating the blood CO2 tension differences between IVC and the pulmonary artery. Arterial oxygen saturation was increased with bypass flow rates greater than 60% compared with pre-VVB, but the change was not marked. VVB was considered to be inadequate as a method of oxygenation. Besides, oxygenation was not able to be controlled by changing V/Q. However, significant reduction of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) could be obtained even with a bypass flow rate of 20%. As the blood flow rate increased, PaCO2 was lowered. But no more significant reductions of PaCO2 were obtained even with the flow rate of 60% and 80%. VVBCO2R was increased by changing the bypass flow rate from 20% to 40%, while no further increases were observed even with changes from 40% to 60% and 80%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2509600

  7. Effects of Breath Training Pattern "End-Inspiratory Pause" on Respiratory Mechanics and Arterial Blood Gas of Patients with COPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永杰; 蔡映云

    2002-01-01

    Objective:In order to explore the mechanism of Chinese traditional breath training, theeffects of end-inspiratory pause breathing (EIPB) on the respiratory mechanics and arterial blood gas werestudied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Ten patients in steadystage participating in the study had a breath training of regulating the respiration rhythm as to having apause between the deep and slow inspiration and the slow expiration. Effect of the training was observed byvisual feedback from the screen of the respiratory inductive plethysmograph. The dynamic change of par-tial pressure of oxygen saturation in blood (SpO2) was recorded with sphygmo-oximeter, the pulmonarymechanics and EIPB were determined with spirometer, and the data of arterial blood gases in tranquilizedbreathing and EIPB were analysed. Results: After EIPB training, SpO2 increased progressively, PaO2 in-creased and PaCO2 decreased, and the PaO2 increment was greater than the PaCO2 decrement. Further-more, the tidal volume increased and the frequency of respiration decreased significantly, both inspirationtime and expiration time were prolonged. There was no significant change in both mean inspiration flowrate (VT/Ti) and expiration flow rate (VT/Te). The baselines in spirogram during EIPB training had noraise. Conclusion: EIPB could decrease the ratio of the dead space and tidal volume (VD/VT), cause in-crease of PaO2 more than the decrease of PaCO2, suggesting that this training could improve both the func-tion of ventilation and gaseous exchange in the lung. EIPB training might be a breathing training patternfor rehabilitation of patients with COPD.

  8. Stability of blood gases when refrigerated

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J.; S. Silva; Rodrigues, P.; Abreu, M.; Maia, J.; Carvalho, D; Carvalho, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Blood gas analysis is a widely used procedure. In clinical practice, the physicians may not always have a blood gas analyzer in their proximity. Not infrequently, blood gas samples are stored in a fridge or on ice and read retrospectively. Continued anaerobic and aerobic metabolism in the blood may alter blood gases in the interval between drawing arterial blood and its analysis, which may cause a fall in the PaO2 and pH and a rise in the PaCO2. Methods: Two s...

  9. Medical image of the week: collapse of the trachea

    OpenAIRE

    Guruguri P; Takyar V; Campion J; Klotz S; Factor P

    2013-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 61 year old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring multiple intubations over the past 2 years as well as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) presented with acute dyspnea, cough and difficulty expectorating sputum over the last 24 hours. His physical exam was notable for expiratory and inspiratory wheezing. ABG revealed a pH of 7.24, PaCO2 of 71, PaO2 of 103, and HCO3 of 29 mMol consistent with an acute ...

  10. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

    OpenAIRE

    Lorgio Verdi-Olivares; Fernando Alcántara-Bocanegra; Luciano Rodríguez-Chu; Fred Chu-Koo; Pedro Ramírez-Arrarte; Salvador Tello-Martín

    2014-01-01

    Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana), Piaractus brachypomus (paco) y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico) fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor renta...

  11. La caída del avechamán

    OpenAIRE

    Isaza Guerrero, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Leticia, esa trifrontera combinada de turistas, antropólogos, biólogos, comerciantes, variedades de etnias indígenas, frutas y animales exóticos; pescado, mucho pescado, motores con llantas y motores de río; drogas prohibidas y alucinógenos permitidos, plantas sagradas, masato, cachaza, tucupi, fariña, almidón, mambe, ambíl y rapé; chontaduro, aguaje, madroña, uva caimarona y asaí; gusanos que se comen asados o moquiados y que les dicen “mojojoy”, peces gigantes como el paco, la gamitana o el...

  12. El perfil del detective en la literatura criminal de Taibo II: Héctor Belascorán Shayne o la humanización del héroe detectivesco

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Sánchez, Diego Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se va a ahondar en la narrativa criminal del autor mexicano Paco Ignacio Taibo II a través de la figura de su investigador principal: Héctor Belascoarán Shayne. Utilizando la conexión del hard boiled de los maestros norteamericanos con la realidad urbana y su inherente capacidad para la reflexión crítica sobre la problemática política y social, Taibo II adapta este discurso literario al caso de México para denunciar el entramado sistemático de prácticas ileg...

  13. Kas sina julgeksid ennustada tulevikku? / Karolin Kuusik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Karolin

    2007-01-01

    Filmid ja nende kostüümikunstnikud, kes on mõjutanud rõivamoodi : "Barbarella" (1968), kostüümikunstnikud Jacques Fonteray ja Paco Rabanne; "Blade Runner" (1982), kunstnikud Charles Knode ja Michael Kaplan; "Matrix" ja selle järjed (1999, 2003), kostüümidisainer Kym Barrett; "Star Wars" ja selle järjed (1977, 1980, 1983, 1999, 2002, 2005), kunstnik John Mollo, hiljem Trisha Biggar; "Aeon Flux" (2005), kostüümikunstnik Beatrix Aruna Pasztor

  14. Education for childhood obesity prevention across the life-course: workshop conclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Hospedales, J; Contreras, A; Kac, G

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to present the conclusions from the workshop ‘Education for childhood obesity prevention: a life-course approach', coordinated by the Pan-American Health Organization and the Pan-American Health and Education Foundation, and held on 14 June 2012 in Aruba, as part of the II Pan-American Conference on Childhood Obesity (http://www.paco.aw/). This workshop focused on the need to recognize the life-course framework and education as a social determinant of health t...

  15. Rumbling Orchids: How To Assess Divergent Evolution Between Chloroplast Endosymbionts and the Nuclear Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Gottschling, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships inferred from multilocus organellar and nuclear DNA data are often difficult to resolve because of evolutionary conflicts among gene trees. However, conflicting or "outlier" associations (i.e., linked pairs of "operational terminal units" in two phylogenies) among these data sets often provide valuable information on evolutionary processes such as chloroplast capture following hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and horizontal gene transfer. Statistical tools that to date have been used in cophylogenetic studies only also have the potential to test for the degree of topological congruence between organellar and nuclear data sets and reliably detect outlier associations. Two distance-based methods, namely ParaFit and Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny (PACo), were used in conjunction to detect those outliers contributing to conflicting phylogenies independently derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. We explored their efficiency of retrieving outlier associations, and the impact of input data (unit branch length and additive trees) between data sets, by using several simulation approaches. To test their performance using real data sets, we additionally inferred the phylogenetic relationships within Neotropical Catasetinae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae), which is a suitable group to investigate phylogenetic incongruence because of hybridization processes between some of its constituent species. A comparison between trees derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data reflected strong, well-supported incongruence within Catasetum, Cycnoches, and Mormodes. As a result, outliers among chloroplast and nuclear data sets, and in experimental simulations, were successfully detected by PACo when using patristic distance matrices obtained from phylograms, but not from unit branch length trees. The performance of ParaFit was overall inferior compared to PACo, using either phylograms or unit branch lengths as input data. Because

  16. Assessment of the right ventricle by magnetic resonance imaging in chronic obstructive lung disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, L W; Ridgway, J P; Biernacki, W; McRitchie, H; Muir, A L; Best, J J; MacNee, W

    1990-01-01

    Right ventricular wall and chamber volume were measured by magnetic resonance imaging in 16 patients with stable chronic obstructive lung disease who subsequently underwent measurement of pulmonary haemodynamics by right heart catheterisation. The patients had a forced expiratory volume in one second of 0.7 (SD 0.3) litres, a forced vital capacity of 2.4 (1.0) l, an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) of 6.5 (1.3) kPa, an arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) of 6.5 (1.0) kPa, and a mean pulmona...

  17. Plasma Orexin-A Levels in COPD Patients with Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Jie-Ming Qu; Hong-Ni Jiang; Lin-Yun Zhu; Hanssa Summah

    2011-01-01

    Orexins have previously been shown to promote wakefulness, regulate lipid metabolism and participate in energy homeostasis. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between plasma orexin-A and body composition in COPD in-patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure. 40 patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure and 22 healthy individuals were enrolled prospectively in this study. Plasma orexin-A levels, BMI, SaO2, PaCO2 and PaO2 were noted for all the patients. Plasma orexin...

  18. Study of Position effect on Results of ABG of Hospitalized Patients in ICU of Open Heart Surgery Center of Mazandaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sadeghi

    2008-12-01

    Conclusion: In this study, it was observed that changing the position and duration don’t significantly change the rate of paO2, paCO2, spO2 and arterial blood gases and therefore these patients should not placed in semi sitting position to improve better gaseous exchange. This position doesn’t cause positive effect on exchange of arterial blood gases and it is better that those patients placed in supine position to prevent bedsore, in vulnerable area, and sliding patient over bed.

  19. The usefulness of end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during apnea test in brain-dead patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Kim, Gaab-Soo; Shin, Young Hee; Cha, So Ra

    2014-01-01

    Background The apnea test (AT) is essential to confirming the diagnosis of brain death, but critical complications can occur if the AT is maintained over a long period. To minimize the AT period, we used end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring because ETCO2 is closely correlated with partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the usefulness of ETCO2 monitoring during apnea testing. Methods We reviewed 61 patients who were pronounced br...

  20. Correlation of end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide during robotic cardiac surgery%机器人心脏手术中呼气末二氧化碳分压与动脉二氧化碳分压的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 肖赛松; 高长青; 陈婷婷; 周琪; 李佳春; 王加利; 王瑶

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨机器人心脏手术中体外循环前后及单肺通气条件下呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)与动脉二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)的相关性.方法 80例行机器人心脏手术的患者,按疾病种类分为三组:先天性心脏病组35例(A组),二尖瓣疾病组27例(B组),冠心病组18例(C组),分别在诱导后双肺通气(TLV)30 min(T1),单肺通气(OLV)30 min(T2),OLV+二氧化碳气胸30 min(T3),OLV+二氧化碳气胸60 min(T4),OLV+二氧化碳气胸90 min(T5),停体外循环后OLV 30 min(T6),恢复TLV 30 min(T7)等时刻抽取动脉血做血气分析,比较PaCO2与PETCO2.结果 三组患者的PETCO2与 PaCO2除了在T2时刻没有相关性外(P>0.05),其余时刻均有相关性(P<0.05);A组和B组的PETCO2、PaCO2和PETCO2与PaCO2的差值(Pa-ETCO2)在体外循环后均增加(P<0.05);C组PETCO2与PaCO2在T3、T4、T5时刻逐渐升高,Pa-ETCO2也逐渐增大(P<0.05).结论 在机器人心脏手术的各类心脏疾病中的PETCO2与PaCO2有良好的相关性,随着二氧化碳气胸时间的延长,两者的差值逐渐增大;在体外循环后两者的差异也比体外循环前明显增大,所以PETCO2监测不能完全替代机器人心脏手术中的PaCO2测定.%Objective This study was performed to estimate the relationship between end - tidal carbon dioxide ( PETCO2 ) and arterial PCO2( PaCO2 ) during robotic cardiac surgery. Methods Eighty patients were divided into three groups: congenital heart disease group ( Group A, n = 35 ), mitral valve disease group ( Group B, n = 27 ), and coronary heart disease group ( Group C, n = 18 ). The premedication were subcutaneous morphine 0. 1 mg/kg and intramuscular scopolamine 0. 15 - 0. 3 mg. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam 1 -5 mg, etomidate 0. 3 mg/kg, lidocaine 1.0 -1.5 mg/kg, pipecuronium 0. 15 mg/kg and sulfentanyl 1.0-1.5 μg/kg. Measurements of PETCO2 from capnography values and PaCO2 from arterial blood gases were registered at seven time points: 30 min after anesthesia

  1. Influencia del reclutamiento alveolar sobre los efectos del surfactante exógeno Influence of pulmonary recruitment on exogenous surfactant effects

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor R. Herrera; Roberto N. Regnicoli; Mario Silvestre Begnis; José Scrigna; Enzo Peralta; Lisandro Quadrelli

    2006-01-01

    Se investigaron los efectos producidos por una maniobra de insuflación sostenida previa a la administración de surfactante exógeno y los producidos por diferentes patrones ventilatorios sobre la respuesta al mismo. Se estudiaron 20 ratas albinas adultas a las que se les produjo una injuria pulmonar por repetidos lavados con solución fisiológica. Se evaluó el pH, PaO2, PaCO2, la presión arterial sistólica, la compliance toracopulmonar y la histología. Los animales se dividieron en 2 grupos seg...

  2. Changes in dead space/tidal volume ratio and pulmonary mechanics after surfactant replacement therapy in respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn infants.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, E. H.; Ko, S. Y.; Kim, I Y; Chang, Y. S.; Park, W. S.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of improved oxygenation after surfactant replacement therapy in respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn infants. In 26 newborns with RDS, end tidal-CO2 tension (PetCO2), arterial blood gas analysis and pulmonary function tests were measured at baseline, 30 min, 2 hr and 6 hr after surfactant administration. The changes in dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD/VT ratio=(PaCO2-PetCO2)/PaCO2), oxygenation index and arterial-alveolar part...

  3. Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring in intensive care.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, D.; Chiu, M. C.; Paky, F; Helms, P

    1985-01-01

    Transcutaneous oxygen (TcPo2) and carbon dioxide (TcPco2) tensions were compared with arterial values in 23 children aged 4 months to 14 years, all requiring some form of respiratory support, but not in shock. Electrodes were placed on the upper chest and were heated to 45 degrees C. For TcPo2 and arterial oxygen (Pao2) a tight linear correlation over the range 6 to 14 kPa was found. Arterial carbon dioxide (Paco2) ranged between 2.63 and 6.8 kPa, and over this range a linear regression adequ...

  4. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Aim The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin burning. The aim was to determine the accuracy and precision of tcPCO2 at reduced electrode temperature. Methods Forty newborns (GA 24.9-41.7) were included. Two tc-monitors were applied (TCM4, R...

  5. Remifentanil versus dexmedetomidina como coadjuvantes de técnica anestésica padronizada em pacientes com obesidade mórbida Remifentanil versus dexmedetomidina como coadyuvantes de técnica anestésica de modelo en pacientes con obesidad mórbida Remifentanil versus dexmedetomidine as coadjutants of standardized anesthetic technique in morbidly obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana Cristina Murari Sudré; Maria do Carmo Salvador; Giuseppina Elena Bruno; Dalton Valentim Vassallo; Gabriela Rocha Lauretti; Gilberto Neves Sudré Filho

    2004-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Comparou-se a ação de duas drogas coadjuvantes da anestesia, remifentanil e dexmedetomidina, na recuperação anestésica e na evolução do pH e da PaCO2, em pacientes com obesidade mórbida que foram submetidos à cirurgia de Capella. MÉTODO: O estudo foi aleatório, prospectivo e duplamente encoberto. Noventa e dois pacientes foram designados a um de dois grupos e submetidos à técnica anestésica (geral/peridural) padronizada. O grupo Remifentanil (Grupo R) e o da Dexmede...

  6. 全麻下老年糖尿病患者连续无创二氧化碳分压监测的准确性%Accuracy of continuous noninvasive partial pressure of carbon dioxide monitoring in old diabetic patients undergoing general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 刘玉华; 于泳浩

    2016-01-01

    目的 评价全麻下老年糖尿病患者连续无创二氧化碳分压监测的准确性.方法 全麻下行择期手术的并存糖尿病的老年患者66例,性别不限,年龄65~76岁,体重49~ 95 kg,ASA分级Ⅰ或Ⅱ级,采用经皮二氧化碳分压监测仪监测经皮二氧化碳分压(TcPCO2).分别于气管插管后30、60 min时采集动脉血样,测定动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2),并记录TcPCO2和呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2).采用Bland-Altman法进行一致性分析.结果 气管插管后30 min时Bland-Altman一致性分析结果:PaCO2与TcPCO2的偏离度为1.3,95%可信区间(CI)为1.0~ 1.6,一致性界限为-1.1~3.7;PaCO2与PETCO2的偏离度为-3.2,95% CI为-3.6~-2.8,一致性界限为-6.6~0.2.气管插管后60 min时Bland-Altman一致性分析结果:PaCO2与TcPCO2的偏离度为1.4,95%CI为1.1~1.7,一致性界限为-1.0~3.4;PaCO2与PETCO2的偏离度为-3.1,95% CI为-3.5 ~-2.7,一致性界限为-6.7~0.5.2个时点PaCO2检测的重复系数为2.1,TcPCO2和PETCO2检测的重复系数均为2.3.结论 全麻下老年糖尿病患者连续无创二氧化碳分压监测的准确性高,可代替PaCO2监测,且准确性高于PETCO2.%Objective To evaluate the accuracy of continuous noninvasive partial pressure of carbon dioxide monitoring in the old diabetic patients undergoing general anesthesia.Methods Sixty-six old diabetic patients of both sexes,aged 65-76 yr,weighing 49-95 kg,of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia,were included in this study.Transcutaneous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (TcPCO2) was monitored by a noninvasive transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitor.Arterial blood samples were collected at 30 and 60 min after endotracheal intubation,partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) was monitored,and TcPCO2 and end-tidal pressure of carbon dioxide (PET CO2) were recorded.Bland-Altman analysis was used to

  7. Cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in young and elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Hartwich, Doreen; Seifert, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    artery blood velocity (MCA V(mean)), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) were measured. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular vein and brachial artery to determine concentration differences for oxygen (O(2......We evaluated cerebral perfusion, oxygenation, and metabolism in eleven young (age 22 ± 1 years) and nine older (age 66 ± 2 years) individuals at rest and during cycling exercise at low (25% W(max)), moderate (50% W(max)), high (75% W(ma)) and exhaustive (100% W(max)) workloads. Mean middle cerebral...

  8. Como llevar un río a un laboratorio

    OpenAIRE

    Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología (CSIC)

    2013-01-01

    5 minutos.- Vídeo realizado dentro del proyecto FECYT "Investiga con nosotros". Producción: FECYT, Delegación del CSIC en Aragón, CSIC. Instituto Pirenáico de Ecología (IPE), CSIC. Operador cámara: Albano Sanchez Técnico de sonido: Paco de Miguel Electrico maquinista: Omar Bartolomé Edición y sonorización: Arodar producciones audivisuales Locución: Megui Cabrera y Enrique Navarro Participan: Enrique Navarro Rodríguez e Iván Monge Adán Banda sonora: "El livre De Loop...

  9. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    OpenAIRE

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO...

  10. Income Analysis in South American Domestic Camelid Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ansaloni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining economic budget income. Statistics and data from 2003 were analysed to determine farm resources and farm production costs, per animal head and net farm income per labour unit and livestock head. This paper is relevant as regards economic data for production systems which are more often analysed for sociological and cultural aspects and less often for economic data and identification of real productive economic data which are not generally market driven.

  11. Model selection as a science driver for dark energy surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, P; Corasaniti, P S; Liddle, A R; Kunz, M; Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Liddle, Andrew R.; Kunz, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A key science goal of upcoming dark energy surveys is to seek time evolution of the dark energy. This problem is one of {\\em model selection}, where the aim is to differentiate between cosmological models with different numbers of parameters. However, the power of these surveys is traditionally assessed by estimating their ability to constrain parameters, which is a different statistical problem. In this paper we use Bayesian model selection techniques, specifically forecasting of the Bayes factors, to compare the abilities of different proposed surveys in discovering dark energy evolution. We consider six experiments -- supernova luminosity measurements by the Supernova Legacy Survey, SNAP, JEDI, and ALPACA, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by WFMOS and JEDI -- and use Bayes factor plots to compare their statistical constraining power. The concept of Bayes factor forecasting has much broader applicability than dark energy surveys.

  12. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  13. Contribution of the radioimmunoassay technique to knowledge of the reproductive physiology of South American camelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review describes several experiments conducted to characterize important reproductive parameters in alpacas and llamas. Nuclear techniques such as radioimmunoassay for measuring levels of reproductive hormones have provided comprehensive knowledge of various reproductive functions and aided the design of rational breeding systems. Profiles of the major steroid hormones and prostaglandins as well as the gonadotrophic hormones in milk, blood plasma or urine have been used to monitor normal ovarian activity and heat symptoms, ovulation, luteal activity in non-pregnant females and following fertile mating, maternal recognition of pregnancy, early embryo death, pregnancy, parturition, post-partum and pregnancy diagnosis in the female. In the male, plasma testosterone levels were determined in an attempt to define the seasonality of reproduction of these domestic animals in the Southern Hemisphere. (author). 39 refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  14. EXPLORANDO LA VARIABILIDAD MORFOMÉTRICA DEL CONJUNTO DE CAMÉLIDOS PEQUEÑOS DURANTE EL ARCAICO TARDÍO Y EL FORMATIVO TEMPRANO EN QUEBRADA TULÁN, NORTE DE CHILE / Exploring the morphometric variability of lesser camelids from Quebrada Tulán (northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cartajena Fasting

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Frecuentemente en el registro arqueofaunístico de sitios arqueológicos ubicados en la vertiente occidental de la puna de Atacama, es posible diferenciar un conjunto de camélidos grandes y otro de menor tamaño. En general, el grupo de camélidos grandes ha recibido mayor atención, existiendo un escaso conocimiento del grupo de tamaño más pequeño. En este trabajo se explora el conjunto de camélidos pequeños a través de la utilización de métodos osteométricos. Por una parte, se consideran colecciones actuales de alpacas y vicuñas en las que se analizan las distintas variables que pudiesen estar incidiendo en la variabilidad de los conjuntos. Se otorga especial énfasis a la diferenciación entre falanges anteriores y posteriores, variación interespecífica y dimorfismo sexual. Por otra parte, se analizan las primeras falanges de los sitios Tulán-52 (Arcaico Tardío ca. 4500-3800 A.P. y Tulán-54 (Formativo Temprano ca. 3200-2300 A.P. con el fin de caracterizar la variabilidad que presentan los conjuntos a través del tiempo, mediante la comparación de los resultados del análisis de muestras actuales y arqueológicas. Ambos conjuntos arqueofaunísticos son muy similares a pesar de las diferencias temporales. Los especimenes analizados corresponderían a vicuñas, lo que denotaría la importancia de la caza de la vicuña a través del tiempo.Palabras clave:arqueofaunas,osteometria, alpacas, vicuñasAbstractFrequently, it is possible to differentiate among large and small size camelids when analysing registers from archaeological sites located at the occidental slope of Puna de Atacama. However, larger animals have received most of the attention having less knowledge about the group of small size camelids. In this paper and by using osteometric methods we study this small size later group. On one hand, we analyse different variables that may affect variability among modern alpacas and vicuñas collections. We focus our work on

  15. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin P. Lyashchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis.

  16. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Lecu, Alexis; Waters, W Ray; Posthaus, Horst; Bodmer, Thomas; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Aloisio, Fabio; Graubner, Claudia; Grosclaude, Eléonore; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Schiller, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs) which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:22567544

  17. «El irracional es el otro»: Los mecanismos de la interpretación en Antropología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Ricard Lanata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two dialogues between the anthropologist and alpaca shepherds of the Ausangate mountains (Cusco region, province of Canchis. Parting from the description and analysis of the concrete interpretation mechanisms used in the anthropological discipline (establishment of a lexicon, logical inferences, etc., and of its consequences (in particular, the attribution of a pre-rational or irrational mentality, on behalf of the anthropologist, to his farmer-indigent interpreters, the article proposes reflection on the methodological obstacles for an adequate anthropological interpretation of the other cultures. It attempts in this way, to contribute to define, from the hermeneutic practice of anthropology, methodological protection that guarantee the constitution of real spaces of intercultural dialogue.

  18. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185

  19. Construction of radiation hybrid panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, John E; Murphy, William J

    2008-01-01

    Whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be a powerful tool for mapping genes and comparing genome architecture. We describe a protocol for constructing RH panels by rescuing irradiated fibroblast donor cells of any mammalian species by polyethylene glycol fusion to a thymidine kinase-deficient hamster cell line. Characterization and expansion of a panel of 90-100 cell lines can be used to map virtually any PCR-based marker that can be distinguished from the recipient hamster genome. The described procedure has been used successfully to create RH panels from diverse mammalian species such as macaques, elephants, alpacas, and armadillos, and may be applicable to nonmammalian vertebrates as well. PMID:18629660

  20. Comparative studies of water permeability of red blood cells from humans and over 30 animal species: an overview of 20 years of collaboration with Philip Kuchel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    NMR measurements of the diffusional permeability of the human adult red blood cell (RBC) membrane to water (P(d)) and of the activation energy (E(a,d)) of the process furnished values of P(d) ~ 4 × 10(-3) cm/s at 25 °C and ~6.1 × 10(-3) cm/s at 37 °C, and E(a,d) ~ 26 kJ/mol. Comparative NMR measurements for other species showed: (1) monotremes (echidna and platypus), chicken, little penguin, and saltwater crocodile have the lowest P(d) values; (2) sheep, cow, and elephant have P(d) values lower than human P(d) values; (3) cat, horse, alpaca, and camel have P(d) values close to those of humans; (4) guinea pig, dog, dingo, agile wallaby, red-necked wallaby, Eastern grey kangaroo, and red kangaroo have P(d) values higher than those of humans; (5) mouse, rat, rabbit, and "small and medium size" marsupials have the highest values of P(d) (>8.0 × 10(-3) cm/s at 25 °C and >10.0 × 10(-3) cm/s at 37 °C). There are peculiarities of E(a,d) values for the RBCs from different species. The maximum inhibition of diffusional permeability of RBCs induced by incubation with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate varied between 0% (for the chicken and little penguin) to ~50% (for human, mouse, cat, sheep, horse, camel, and Indian elephant), and ~60-75% (for rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, alpaca, and all marsupials). These results indicate that no water channel proteins (WCPs) or aquaporins are present in the membrane of RBCs from monotremes (echidna, platypus), chicken, little penguin and saltwater crocodile whereas WCPs from the membranes of RBCs from marsupials have peculiarities. PMID:23104624

  1. Comparisons of mammalian Giardia duodenalis assemblages based on the β-giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Andrea V; Ballweber, Lora R; Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Panuska, Carla; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-10-26

    The objective of this study was to determine and compare the assemblages of Giardia duodenalis isolated from mammalian fecal samples using the β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. A total of 202 samples, either submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Parasitology) at Colorado State University or part of ongoing research studies, were typed. A subset of 50 dog samples were also assessed by the tpi-D-specific primers. Of these, 183 were from dogs, 13 were from cats, two were from llamas, and one each was from a calf, an alpaca, a sheep, and a horse. The majority of the dogs (171 of 183 isolates) in this study were infected with only dog-adapted Assemblage C or D. The tpi-D-specific primers confirmed that 28 of the samples that typed as Assemblage D by the bg and gdh genes were also Assemblage D by the tpi-D-specific primers. Only 12 isolates were Assemblage A alone or Assemblage A and Assemblage C or D. Of the 13 cat isolates, seven were Assemblage F, two were Assemblage D, three were Assemblage A and 1 contained both Assemblages C and D. The calf isolate was Assemblage E (gdh, tpi) and the alpaca (bg, gdh), llamas (gdh), sheep (bg, gdh, tpi) and horse (tpi) isolates were all Assemblage A. When the assemblage could be determined for more than one gene, 91 of 117 dog isolates gave consistent results and 8 of 9 cat isolates gave consistent results. PMID:22652427

  2. Tolerance of hypercapnic acidosis by the European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Dalla Valle, AZ; Steffensen, JF;

    2000-01-01

    uptake. Eels exposed for 3 months to chronic hypercapnia (Pw,CO2 values of control, 15, 30 or 45 mmHg) were anaesthetised, cannulated and recovered as described above, at the appropriate Pw,CO2. In all groups, Pa,CO2 was about 3 mmHg above Pw,CO2, and hypercapnic eels exhibited a marked accumulation......Eels reared intensively in recirculated water can experience chronic hypercapnia from accumulation of metabolic CO2, with water CO2 partial pressures (Pw,CO2) exceeding 30 mmHg, far above that hitherto considered normal for fish (1 to 3 mmHg). The effects on eels of acute and chronic hypercapnia...... to progressive hypercapnia (20 min at Pw,CO2 values of 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg) caused a linear increase in arterial PCO2 (Pa,CO2) from 3.5 ± 0.4 mmHg in normocapnia to 44.9 ± 2.6 at Pw,CO2 = 80 mmHg, coupled to respective declines in arterial pH (pHa) from 7.86 ± 0.02 to 7.16 ± 0.04 and in arterial total O2...

  3. Treatment of life-threatening hypercapnia with isoflurane in an infant with status asthmaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Goto, Kyoko; Imaizumi, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Kimijima, Tomohiko; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2014-08-01

    We encountered a 2-year-old child with life-threatening hypercapnia, with a PaCO(2) of 238 mm Hg and severe respiratory and metabolic acidosis, due to status asthmaticus that was refractory to steroid and bronchodilator therapy. Suspecting ventilatory failure and excessive ventilation-induced obstructive shock, we started respiratory physiotherapy in synchrony with her respiration, to facilitate exhalation from her over-inflated lungs. Isoflurane inhalation was commenced in preparation for extracorporeal circulation, to reduce the hypercapnia. The combination of respiratory physiotherapy and isoflurane inhalation resulted in a rapid decrease in ventilatory resistance and PaCO(2) levels within a few minutes, with recovery of consciousness within 60 min. Isoflurane inhalation was gradually discontinued and steroid and aminophylline therapy were commenced. The patient recovered completely without any recurrence of her bronchospasm and without any residual neurological deficits. In our patient with a severe asthmatic attack, decreased exhalation secondary to asthma and overventilation during artificial ventilation resulted in overinflation of the lungs, which in turn led to cerebral edema and obstructive cardiac failure. The favorable outcome in this case was due to the short duration of hypercapnia. Hence, we conclude that the duration of hypercapnia is an important determinant of the morbidity and mortality of status asthmaticus-induced severe hypercapnia. PMID:24310852

  4. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgio Verdi-Olivares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con  tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  5. Clinical Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Admission for Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Kargar Maher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChildren with severe asthma attack are a challenging group of patients who could be difficult to treat and leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Asthma attack severity is qualitatively estimated as mild, moderate and severe attacks and respiratory failure based on conditions such as respiration status, feeling of dyspnea, and the degree of unconsciousness. part of which are subjective rather than objective. We investigated clinical findings as predictors of severe attack and probable requirement for Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU admission.Materials and MethodsIn a cross sectional and analytical study 120 patients with asthma attack were enrolled from April 2010 to April 2014 (80 admitted in the ward and 40 in pediatric intensive care unit. Predictors of PICU admission were investigated regarding to initial heart rate(HR, respiratory rate (RR, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(SaO2 and PaCo2 and clinically evident cyanosis.ResultsInitial heart rate(p-value=0.02, respiratory rate (p-value=0.03, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(p-value=0.02 and PaCo2(p-value=0.03 and clinically evident cyanosis were significantly different in two groups(Ward admitted and PICU admittedConclusion There was a significant correlation between initial vital sign and blood gas analysis suggesting usefulness of these factors as predictors of severe asthma attack and subsequent clinical course.

  6. Nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with neuromuscular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersanini, Chiara; Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Lofaso, Frédéric; Aubertin, Guillaume; Beydon, Nicole; Mayer, Michèle; Maincent, Kim; Boulé, Michèle; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify daytime predictors of nocturnal gas exchange anomalies in children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and normal daytime gas exchange. Lung function tests, respiratory muscle evaluation and nocturnal gas exchange were obtained as part of routine evaluation. We included 52 consecutive children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 20), spinal muscular atrophy (n = 10) and other NMD (n = 22). 20 patients had nocturnal hypoxaemia, defined as minimal arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (S(p,O(2))) carbon dioxide tension (P(tc,CO(2))) >50 mmHg for ≥ 2% of night time. Forced vital capacity and helium functional residual capacity correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.01, respectively). Daytime pH correlated negatively with maximal nocturnal P(tc,CO(2)) (p=0.005) and daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a,CO(2))) correlated with the percentage of time with a P(tc,CO(2)) >50 mmHg (p = 0.02). Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.02). Daytime P(a,CO(2)) was a weak predictor of nocturnal hypercapnia (sensitivity 80%; specificity 57%). Daytime lung function and respiratory muscle parameters correlate poorly with nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with NMD and normal daytime gas exchange, which necessitates more systematic sleep studies in these children. PMID:22135279

  7. [Function in patients with chronic fibrocavernous tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2008-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, residual volume (RV), R(aw), R(in), R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 62 patients with chronic fibrocavernous tuberculosis. Lung dysfunctions were detected in 96.8% of the patients. Changes in lung volumes and capacities were found in 90.3%, impaired bronchial patency was in 90.3%, and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was in 79.0%. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared as decreased VC and FVC, decreased and increased TLC, TGV, RV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; and increased R(aw), R(in), R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes ranges from slight to significant and drastic with a predominance of considerable and drastic changes in lung volumes and capacities and mild impairments of bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange function. PMID:18507144

  8. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients. PMID:15719666

  9. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional. PMID:17915466

  10. [Pulmonary function in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, TLS, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 29 patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 93.1% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 65.5%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 79.3 and 37.9%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC, FVC, and TLS, decreased and increased TGV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, and FEV1/VC% and increased Raw, Rin, and Rex; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SS and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The observed functional changes varied from slight to significant and pronounced with a preponderance of small disorders, a lower detection rate of significant disorders, and rare detection of very pronounced ones. PMID:18041129

  11. Effects of heliox as carrier gas on ventilation and oxygenation in an animal model of piston-type HFOV: a crossover experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroma Takehiko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to compare gas exchange with heliox and oxygen-enriched air during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV. We hypothesized that helium gas would improve both carbon dioxide elimination and arterial oxygenation during piston-type HFOV. Method Five rabbits were prepared and ventilated by piston-type HFOV with carrier 50% helium/oxygen (heliox50 or 50% oxygen/nitrogen (nitrogen50 gas mixture in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen50 to heliox50 and back was performed five times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Arterial blood gas, vital function and respiratory test indices were recorded. Results Compared with nitrogen50, heliox50 did not change PaCO2 when stroke volume remained constant, but significantly reduced PaCO2 after alignment of amplitude pressure. No significant changes in PaO2 were seen despite significant decreases in mean airway pressure with heliox50 compared with nitrogen50. Conclusion This study demonstrated that heliox enhances CO2 elimination and maintains oxygenation at the same amplitude but with lower airway pressure compared to air/O2 mix gas during piston-type HFOV.

  12. Use of helium-oxygen mixture in adult patients presenting with exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colebourn, C L; Barber, V; Young, J D

    2007-01-01

    We examined systematically all controlled and cross-over randomised trials in patients with acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comparing Heliox against air-oxygen mixtures. Fourteen studies were identified. In asthma studies, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was increased by an average of 29.6% (95% CI 16.6-42.6) by Heliox-driven nebulisers, or by 13.3 l.min(-1) (95% CI 3.71-22.81) absolute. In studies of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving non-invasive ventilation the arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)co(2)) and respiratory rate were unchanged: weighted mean difference for P(a)co(2)-0.29kPa (95% CI - 0.64-0.07) favoured Heliox, and for respiratory rate 1.6 breaths.min(-1) (95% CI - 0.93, 4.14) favoured control. Heliox minimally reduced the work of breathing in intubated patients, and reduced intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure (iPEEP). The use of Heliox to drive nebulisers in patients with acute asthma slightly improves airflow measures. We were unable to determine whether this improved recovery. PMID:17156225

  13. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnthonyRichardBain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  14. Effect of tracheostomy on pulmonary mechanics: An observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to find out the effect of early tracheostomy on weaning from mechanical ventilation. Pulmonary mechanics and arterial blood gases were assessed before and after tracheostomy in patients with severe head injury (Glasgow coma score < 8 requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. Patients and Methods: The study included 20 mechanically ventilated patients of either sex between 20 and 45 years of age, who had suffered brain injury due to head trauma during admission (Glasgow coma scores of < 8. Mean airway pressure, peak airway pressure, plateau pressure, PaO 2 and PaCO 2 were measured 24 h before and after tracheostomy. Static and dynamic compliances were calculated. Results: Plateau airway pressures were not affected by tracheostomy, but peak airway pressure was reduced (29.90 ± 3.21 cm H 2 O before tracheostomy versus 24.30 ± 1.83 cm H 2 O after tracheostomy, P < 0.001. Dynamic compliance, but not static compliance, was improved by tracheostomy. Tracheostomy did not affect PaCO 2 , but it improved PaO 2 (83.09 ± 5.99 mmHg before versus 90.84 ± 5.61 mmHg after, P ≤ 0.001. Conclusions: The work of breathing through a tracheostomy tube may be less than through an endotracheal tube of same internal diameter.

  15. Theoretical investigations and industrial scale tests for proving the function and efficiency of reactor safety elements. Final report; Theoretische Untersuchungen und Grossversuche zum Nachweis der Wirkungsweise und Wirksamkeit von Reaktorsicherheitselementen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwarz, W.; Bounin, D.; Dyllong, N.; Koller, W.; Voss, W.

    1997-09-01

    For new reactor designs, the integrity of the containment must be ensured even in the case of severe accidents, like core-melt accidents, in order to avoid emergency measures outside the reactor plant. With view to this goal the German Interest Group AGIK performed theoretical investigations and industrial scale tests for proving the function and efficiency of innovative reactor safety elements. Within the COMAS project representative experiments on the spreading behaviour of prototypic corium on different substratum materials were carried out accompanied by conceptual work on novel core catcher designs (INKA). Inherent safety against spontaneous failure of the Prestressed Cast Iron Pressure Vessel with special view on its suitability for LWR conditions was investigated in the VGD project. The PACOS work showed the feasibility of passive cooling elements inside the containment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei zukuenftigen Reaktorkonzepten muss die Integritaet des Containments auch bei schweren Stoerfaellen einschliesslich Kernschmelze gewaehrleistet sein, um Notfallmassnahmen ausserhalb der Reaktoranlage ausschliessen zu koennen. Um in diesem Rahmen einen Beitrag zu leisten, fuehrte die deutsche Arbeitsgemeinschaft AGIK theoretische Untersuchungen und grossmassstaebliche Experimente zum Nachweis von Funktion und Effizienz innovativer Reaktorsicherheitselemente durch. Im COMAS-Projekt wurden representative Experimente zum Ausbreitungsverhalten von prototypischen Corium auf unterschiedlichen Bodenmaterialien durchgefuehrt. Das INKA-Projekt lieferte erste Auslegungsideen fuer neuartige Kernschmelze-Auffangsysteme. Beitraege zum Nachweis der inhaerenten Sicherheit eines Vorgespannten Gusseisen-Druckbehaelters gegen spontanes Versagen standen im Mittelpunkt des VGD-Projektes. Im PACOS-Vorhaben wurde schliesslich die Machbarkeit passiver Kuehlelemente fuer den Einsatz innerhalb des Containments aufgezeigt. (orig.)

  16. Effect of ketamine on control of breathing in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspar, N; Mazzarelli, M; Tessier, C; Milic-Emili, J

    1983-09-01

    We studied minute ventilation, breathing pattern, end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PACO2), and tracheal occlusion pressure in cats anesthetized with ketamine (40 and 80 mg/kg) before and after CO2 inhalation. Before CO2 administration ventilation was reduced and PACO2 increased relative to unanesthetized cats at both ketamine doses. Breathing pattern was of the "apneustic" type, being characterized by 1) prolonged inspiratory duration and relatively short expiratory time and 2) markedly curvilinear (convex upward) inspiratory volume-time profile. The latter reflected a similar curvilinearity in the tracheal occlusion pressure waveform. During CO2 inhalation, the ventilatory response to CO2 was similar to that in unanesthetized cats in spite of a depressed tracheal occlusion pressure response. This discrepancy was due to the fact that in the presence of a convex upward inspiratory volume-time profile, the shortening of inspiratory duration with increasing CO2 results in a marked increase of mean inspiratory flow, and hence the ventilatory response to CO2 remains high. PMID:6415013

  17. Meclofenamate increases ventilation in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, F A; Savich, R D; Clyman, R I; Kitterman, J A

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, meclofenamate, on postnatal ventilation, we studied 11 unanaesthetised, spontaneously-breathing lambs at an average age of 7.9 +/- 1.1 days (SEM; range 5-14 days) and an average weight of 4.9 +/- 0.5 kg (range 3.0-7.0 kg). After a 30-min control period we infused 4.23 mg/kg meclofenamate over 10 min and then gave 0.23 mg/h per kg for the remainder of the 4 h. Ventilation increased progressively from a control value of 515 +/- 72 ml/min per kg to a maximum of 753 +/- 100 ml/min per kg after 3h of infusion (P less than 0.05) due to an increased breathing rate; the effects were similar during both high- and low-voltage electrocortical activity. There were no significant changes in tidal volume, heart rate, blood pressure, arterial pH or PaCO2, the increased ventilation resulted from either an increase in dead space ventilation or an increase in CO2 production. This study indicates that meclofenamate causes an increase in ventilation in lambs but no changes in pH of PaCO2. The mechanism and site of action remain to be defined. PMID:2507622

  18. Oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, or noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 3 types of noninvasive respiratory support systems in the treatment of acute pulmonary edema: oxygen therapy (O2, continuous positive airway pressure, and bilevel positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: We studied prospectively 26 patients with acute pulmonary edema, who were randomized into 1 of 3 types of respiratory support groups. Age was 69±7 years. Ten patients were treated with oxygen, 9 with continuous positive airway pressure, and 7 with noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation. All patients received medicamentous therapy according to the Advanced Cardiac Life Support protocol. Our primary aim was to assess the need for orotracheal intubation. We also assessed the following: heart and respiration rates, blood pressure, PaO2, PaCO2, and pH at begining, and at 10 and 60 minutes after starting the protocol. RESULTS: At 10 minutes, the patients in the bilevel positive pressure ventilation group had the highest PaO2 and the lowest respiration rates; the patients in the O2 group had the highest PaCO2 and the lowest pH (p<0.05. Four patients in the O2 group, 3 patients in the continuous positive pressure group, and none in the bilevel positive pressure ventilation group were intubated (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation was effective in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, accelerated the recovery of vital signs and blood gas data, and avoided intubation.

  19. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    The diving response is initiated by apnea and facial immersion in cold water and includes, besides bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, while cerebral perfusion may be enhanced. This study evaluated whether facial immersion in 10 degrees C water has an independent influence on cerebral...... <0.001). Similarly, during 100-W exercise, a breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P <0.001) and MCA V(mean) from 55 to 113 cm/s ( approximately 105%), and facial immersion further increased MCA V(mean) to 122 cm/s ( approximately 88%; both P <0.001). MCA V(mean) also increased during...... 180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P <0.001), although Pa(CO(2)) did not significantly change. These results indicate that a breath hold diverts blood toward the brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...

  20. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Alina L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 2 5.5-8 kPa. All moose were acidemic (ph2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa. Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen.

  1. Effect of breathing fluctuations on cerebral blood flow in demented patients and its correction method using end-tidal CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During mouthpiece respiration of Xe-133 for a measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), the breathing pattern of patients fluctuated and it caused a change of end-tidal CO2 concentration that had an excellent correlation with PaCO2 in patients without respiratory disease. The end-tidal CO2 concentration of demented patients varied within lower ranges than senile control group. The range of fluctuation on the end-tidal CO2 concentration was dependent on the type and the degree of dementia, and it fluctuated most widely at the middle stage of Alzheimer disease. Mean cerebral blood flow increased by 13.9% for each l% increase in end-tidal CO2 concentration (3.6%/mmHg PaCO2) in the case of demented patients without cerebrovascular disease. To improve the reliability of rCBF in demented patients, especially in Alzheimer disease, the correction of rCBF data for end-tidal CO2 concentration should be performed. (author)

  2. Enhanced cerebral CO2 reactivity during strenuous exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Stie, Henrik; Nielsen, Bodil; Nybo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    accounted for by the reduction in the arterial CO(2) tension (P(a)CO(2)). This study evaluated whether the apparently large reduction in MCA V(mean) at the end of exhaustive exercise relates to an enhanced cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity. The CO(2) reactivity was evaluated in six young healthy male...... (double-log slope 1.1 +/- 0.1). However, the relationship became curvilinear during exercise (slope 1.8 +/- 0.1; P < 0.01 vs. rest) and during exercise with hyperthermia (slope 2.3 +/- 0.3; P < 0.05 vs. control exercise). Accordingly, the cerebral CO(2) reactivity increased from 30.5 +/- 2.7% kPa(-1) at...... rest to 61.4 +/- 10.1% kPa(-1) during exercise with hyperthermia (P < 0.05). At exhaustion P(a)CO(2) decreased 1.1+/- 0.2 kPa during exercise with hyperthermia, which, with the determined cerebral CO(2) reactivity, accounted for the 28 +/- 10% decrease in MCA V(mean). The results suggest that during...

  3. Regulation of phenylacetic acid uptake is σ54 dependent in Pseudomonas putida CA-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O' Mahony Mark M

    2011-10-01

    being resolved by primer extension analysis. Comparative analyses of genomes encoding phenylacetyl CoA, (PACoA, catabolic operons identified a common association among styrene degradation linked PACoA catabolons in Pseudomonas species studied to date. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to report RpoN dependent transcriptional activation of the PACoA catabolon paaL gene, encoding a transport protein essential for phenylacetic acid utilisation in P. putida CA-3. Bioinformatic analysis is provided to suggest this regulatory link may be common among styrene degrading Pseudomonads.

  4. Base excess, a marker of chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure and predictor of survival in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the role of base excess (BE as marker of chronic hypercapnia and survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF. Moreover, it was investigated whether the effects of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV on CHRF were reflected in BE and survival. In 240 (160 without exacerbation patients with COPD (mean±SD FEV1 30.7±9.7 %pred; PaCO2 56.9±9.9 mmHg body-mass index (BMI, lung function, respiratory muscle function, blood gases and 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD were assessed prior to initiation of NPPV. In addition, the changes of risk factors 6.3±2.9 months after initiation of NPPV were evaluated. Overall mortality during the follow-up time (26.0±24.5 months was 34.6%. Deaths resulted predominantly from respiratory causes (65.1%; among those, respiratory failure was most frequent (85.2%. Univariate analysis revealed BMI, FEV1, maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, inspiratory load (P0.1, haemoglobin, 6-MWD, hyperinflation (IC/TLC, RV/TLC, blood gases and BE to be associated (p<0.05 each with prognosis. In multivariate analyses, however, only BMI, RV/TLC and BE turned out to be independent cross-sectional predictors (p<0.05. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that BE had predictive value particularly in patients with BMI25 kg·m–2, RV/TLC70 % and PaCO257 mmHg. Furthermore, changes of BMI, RV/TLC and BE (p<0.01 were associated with improved prognosis in severe hypercapnic COPD. In patients with COPD and CHRF, BE was a prognostic marker for mortality, that was independent from other factors, particularly PaCO2. In addition, reversal of CHRF was reflected in BE and appeared to have an impact on prognosis.

  5. RESPIRATORY REHABILITATION IN ACUTE CARE OF PATIENTS WITH NEUROPARALYTIC SNAKE ENVENOMATION: CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Sikka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurotoxic envenomations have the potency to cause a broad spectrum of presentations starting from ptosis and ophthalmoplegia to respiratory arrest. These patients require ventilatory assistance in addition to administration of anti-snake venom (ASV and other supportive measures. Mechanically ventilated patients are at risk for retained secretions due to endotracheal intubation disrupting mucociliary escalator, relative immobility of mechanically patient confined to bed can lead to postoperative atelectasis, impaired cough, and retained secretions and thereby physical therapy may be indicated for patients in the intensive care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of twenty four consecutive patients ranging in age from 25-45 years, who required, mechanical ventilation for respiratory muscle paralysis, secondary to snake envenomation, seen during three months period, recruited from various ICU’s were included in the study. All the patients included were mechanically ventilated on Hamilton Evita ventilator, on volume control (CMV mode with PEEP<10 cmH2O and had stable hemodynamics with heart rate = 60-100 beats/min; MABP = 70-110mm Hg. Patients received chest physiotherapy intervention twice in a day. Effects of physiotherapy treatment were studied on static lung compliance (CST, oxygenation ratio (PaO2:FiO2 ratio, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2 , cologarithm of activity of dissolved hydrogen ions in arterial blood (pH and chest X-rays. Measurements of dependent variables were recorded (PRE before commencement of treatment, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after treatment. Physiotherapy intervention included bronchial hygiene therapy and manual hyperinflation using Mapleson-C circuit. Results: Analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant improvement in CST mean values (p<0.01 and significant improvement

  6. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  7. Regulation of phenylacetic acid uptake is sigma54 dependent in Pseudomonas putida CA-3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Leary, Niall D

    2011-10-13

    primer extension analysis. Comparative analyses of genomes encoding phenylacetyl CoA, (PACoA), catabolic operons identified a common association among styrene degradation linked PACoA catabolons in Pseudomonas species studied to date. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to report RpoN dependent transcriptional activation of the PACoA catabolon paaL gene, encoding a transport protein essential for phenylacetic acid utilisation in P. putida CA-3. Bioinformatic analysis is provided to suggest this regulatory link may be common among styrene degrading Pseudomonads.

  8. Proceedings First International Workshop on Process Algebra and Coordination

    CERN Document Server

    Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.60

    2011-01-01

    Process algebra provides abstract and rigorous means for studying communicating concurrent systems. Coordination languages also provide abstract means for the specifying and programming communication of components. Hence, the two fields seem to have very much in common and the link between these two research areas have been established formally by means of several translations, mainly from coordination languages to process algebras. There have also been proposals of process algebras whose communication policy is inspired by the one underlying coordination languages. The aim of this workshop was to push the state of the art in the study of the connections between process algebra and coordination languages by bringing together experts as well as young researchers from the two fields to communicate their ideas and findings. It includes both contributed and invited papers that have been presented during the one day meeting on Process Algebra and Coordination (PACO 2011) which took place on June 9, 2011 in Reykjav...

  9. Effect of hypotension and carbon dioxide changes in an improved genuine closed cranial window rat model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K A; Dyrby, Lone; Williamson, D;

    2005-01-01

    The genuine closed cranial window model, in which the thinned parietal bone constitutes the covering of the preparation, has contributed to a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms in migraine. In its present form, only measurements of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) are...... performed. The aim of this study was, in addition, to measure pial artery/arteriole (PA) diameter and cortical cerebral blood flux in the same cranial window. The model was evaluated by studying the effects of hypotension and changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2), because these parameters...... might influence the interpretation of pharmacological experiments. Out of 23 successful experiments it was possible to measure all three parameters in 19 animals. In four, PA diameter could not be measured, while MMA diameter and local cortical cerebral blood flux (LCBF(Flux)) always could. Haemorrhage...

  10. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is...... dependent on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve...

  11. A Real-Time Early Cognitive Vision System based on a Hybrid coarse and fine grained Parallel Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With

    Vision has become a widely used sensor in application domains such as robotics and automation.One fundamental, unsolved problem of vision, however, is ambiguity in low level processes. One approach to decrease noise and lower ambiguity involves the so-called Early Cognitive Vision (ECV) stage...... applications using this platform are presented. These applications include the EU-project DRIVSCO, where we have used parts of the vision machine to establish a prototype of a driver assistance system. In another EU-project, called PACO-PLUS, the vision machine is used to process the sensorial input.......The ECV stage has been introduced as a means to bridge the gap between Early Vision (EV) and Cognitive Vision (CV) processes. Where the EV stage deals with analyzing the images through linear and nonlinear local filtering operations on a pixel level, CV deals with higher cognitive processes...

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01683-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available *ihqiillipiahlvvivllqlqhqiq mhl*qiln--- ---ktkfn*n*i*titikfs*ckekddtfanktlqaksdeeecrknytsitdeflkkmve nektfkleirkqirdyvamqvef...abase: 8361 Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Gapped Lambda K H 1.37 0.711 1.31 Matrix: blastn matrix:1 -3 Gap Penalti...0.64 1 ( AC231245 ) Choloepus hoffmanni clone CH281-167B20, WORKING D... 48 0.64 1 ( DH387578 ) Oryzias latipes Fosmid clon...lciparum 3D7 chromosome 2 section 36... 32 5.6 2 ( BB663337 ) Mus musculus 15 days embryo head cDNA, RIKEN f...odelphis domestica clone VMRC18-711P21, WORKIN... 44 10.0 1 ( AC229614 ) Lama pacos clon

  13. Global INET 2012: Meeting at the Crossroads: Imagining the future Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The Internet Society, the world's trusted independent source of leadership for Internet policy and technology standards, celebrates its 20th anniversary this year in Geneva.   Global INET 2012 will take place at the CICG on 22-24 April to discuss the topics and challenges that will shape the future of the Internet.  This is an excellent opportunity to meet, network with and learn from top Internet technologists, policymakers, business executives and other individuals from around the globe. The conference boasts a programme of over 50 speakers and panelists, all offering their insights into topics such as Internet governance, law, ecosystems, intellectual property, social networking and the link between the Internet and economic transformation. Panelists include Slim Amamou, Lynn St Amour, Vint Cerf, Lesley Cowley, Steve Crocker, Dr. Leonard Kleinrock, and co-founder of the Campus Party Paco Ragageles, as well as CERN Director-G...

  14. Capnography During Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Boulos S; Schmidt, Gregory A

    2016-02-01

    Capnography has made steady inroads in the ICU and is increasingly used for all patients who are mechanically ventilated. There is growing recognition that capnography is rich in information about lung and circulatory physiology and provides insight into many diseases and treatments. These include conditions of impaired matching of ventilation and perfusion, such as pulmonary embolism and obstructive lung diseases; circulatory questions, such as the adequacy of chest compressions during cardiac arrest or fluid responsiveness in patients in shock; and the safety of procedural sedation. In this review, we emphasize analysis of the entire capnographic waveform as a way to glean additional useful information. We also discuss important limitations of capnography, especially when it is considered to be a surrogate for Paco2. PMID:26447854

  15. Análise dos efeitos da manobra de recrutamento alveolar na oxigenação sanguínea durante procedimento bariátrico Análisis de los efectos de la maniobra de reclutamiento alveolar en la oxigenación sanguínea durante el procedimiento bariátrico Analysis of the effects of the alveolar recruitment maneuver on blood oxygenation during bariatric surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Alda Paiva de Souza; Márcia Buschpigel; Ligia Andrade Silva Telles Mathias; Carlos Alberto Malheiros; Vera Lucia dos Santos Alves

    2009-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A manobra de recrutamento alveolar (MRA) é indicada no tratamento de atelectasias intraoperatórias. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar duas técnicas de MRA por meio da resposta da relação PaO2/FiO2 e da soma [PaO2+PaCO2], em pacientes obesos grau III. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo aberto em pacientes adultos, obesos grau III, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico bariátrico em ventilação controlada a volume, pressão positiva no final da expiração (PEEP) de 5 cmH...

  16. Observations of the dynamics of ionic potassium-38 in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C C; Lambrecht, R M; Bennett, G W; Rescigno, A; Ment, L R

    1984-01-01

    Short time course potassium dynamics in brain were investigated in the cat. 38K (T1/2 = 7.6m) was prepared on the BNL 60" cyclotron by the 40Ar(p, 3n)38K reaction. Positron decay in brain was measured by the limited angle of view positron camera (LAPC). Radioactivity corrected for physical decay following intravenous bolus injection of 38K showed an initial peak followed by a washout phase with a subsequent monotonic increase. The slope of the washout phase was linearly related to PaCO2 and the subsequent monotonic increase paralleled the arterial concentration of the tracer. No significant changes in 38K radioactivity were determined following coma producing levels of phenobarbital or seizure producing doses of potassium penicillin as compared to control. PMID:6420945

  17. BiPAP plus vibrating sputum-ejection for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with type Ⅱ respiratory failure%双水平气道正压通气联合振动排痰在AECOPD并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林增锐; 黄泽宽; 林武强

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨双水平气道正压通气(BiPAP)结合振动排痰在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的临床应用价值.方法 30例AECOPD患者随机分为对照组和联合组,对照组予双水平气道正压通气辅助呼吸治疗;联合组在对照组治疗基础上联合 振动排痰.结果两组患者治疗后的HR、RR、pH、PaO2、PACO2有明显改善,有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗1天后,联合组有8例患者的PaCO2降至50mmHg以下,对照组无一例;治疗3天后,联合组有10例患者PaCO2降至50 mmHg以下,对照组有6例,联合组的例数仍较多,联合组的患者其HR、RR、pH、PaO2、PaCO2的改善显著优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 双水平气道正压通气结合振动排痰治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者疗效肯定,有临床应用价值.%Objective To explore the values of bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation (BiPAP)combined with vibrating sputum-ejection for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(AECOPD)with type Ⅱ respiratory failure.Methods 30 patients were randomly assigned to receive BiPAP alone(control group),or BiPAP plus vibrating sputum-ejection(combination group).Results HR,RR,pH,PaO2,and PaCO2 were obviously improved in the two groups after treatment,with statistical significances(P<0.01). PaCO2 decreased below 50 mmHg in 8 patients in the combination group ore clay after treatment while stayed still in the control group; and it dropped below 50 mmHg in 10 patients in the combination group three days after treatment but stayed unchanged in 6 patients in the control group.the improvement of HR,RR,pH,PaO2,and PaCO2 in the combination group was obviously superior to that in the control group(P<0.05).Conclusions Bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation combined with vibrating sputum-ejection is more effeetive in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with type

  18. The relationship between cerebral blood flow and volume in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Knudsen, Gitte M; Law, Ian; Holm, Søren; Larsson, Henrik B.W.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2005-01-01

    -labelled water and carbon monoxide, respectively. The mean value of rCBF using PET was 62 +/- 18 ml.100 g(-1) min(-1) during baseline conditions, with an average increase of 46% during hypercapnia, and a decrease of 29% during hypocapnia; baseline rCBV was 7.7 ml/100 g, with 27% increase during hypercapnia and...... no significant decrease during hypocapnia. A regionally uniform exponential relationship was confirmed between P(a)CO(2) and rCBF as well as rCBV. It is shown that the theoretical implication of this is that the rCBV vs. rCBF relationship should be modelled by a power function; however, due to...

  19. High-resolution CT in diffuse panbronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution CT (HRCT) of twenty patients with diffuse panbronchiolitis was reviewed to evaluate the correlation with the stage and pulmonary function. The most basic finding was diffuse small nodules, observed in all twenty patients. Of all HRCT findings diffuse small nodules correlated with %FEV 1 and PaO2 (p 2 and PaCO2 (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis among HRCT features concerning the stage showed that involvement of thin subpleural area (SSA) was the most contributory finding (partial cor. = 0.70830) to the advanced state (stage 3) with statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). The finding concerned with such spared thin subpleural area is an important diagnostic clue in stage 3 as well as a clinical evidence of infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. According to this review, HRCT is considered to be an effective and promising modality in the evaluation of diffuse panbronchiolitis. (author)

  20. Breathing pattern--gas exchange relation and acute effect of almitrine in severe chronic airflow obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, S; Bellone, A; Castelli, T; Mendoza, M; Daniele, R

    1988-01-01

    Using a double-blind cross-over design, a single oral dose of 100 mg almitrine bismethylate and placebo were administered to 7 patients with chronic airflow limitation. In all patients, arterial blood gases at rest, ventilation and breathing pattern at rest and on exercise were measured before and 3 h after administration. Ventilation increased and PaCO2 decreased after almitrine; the mean PaO2 increase was statistically significant after active drug but the value increased more when tidal volume increased. It is concluded that in man the well-documented improvement in the V/Q relationship after almitrine is in part related to a pure ventilatory effect though the possibility of increasing ventilation by mainly increasing tidal volume. PMID:2907669

  1. Gasimetría arterial y espirometría en individuos con lesión medular crónica residentes en Bogotá, D.C / Blood gas and spyrometry in Bogotá inhabitants with chronic spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Vera, Johanna Milena

    2010-01-01

    Describir los valores de gasimetría arterial y espirometría en individuos que presentan lesión medular crónica que residen en la ciudad de Bogotá, D.C. Sujetos y métodos. En 12 sujetos que presentan Lesión Medular Crónica (más de 1 año de evolución) y en 17 controles sanos que residen en la ciudad de Bogotá, se tomó con un equipo I-Stat una gasimetría arterial convencional (pH, PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3, SaO2), Hb, Hcto, Exceso de Base y se calcularon los Hidrógenos metabólicos (H-met). De igual mane...

  2. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B;

    1994-01-01

    . Additional experiments were carried out using a higher spatial resolution. The largest signal increases were noted in areas corresponding to larger vessels, but significant changes were also conspicuous in deeper cortical and central grey matter. The changes appeared linearly related to the arterial CO2......The sensitivity of MR gradient echo imaging towards CO2 induced changes in cerebral blood flow was investigated in 10 normal subjects. The subjects were inhaling 5% and 7% CO2 and the experiments were carried out at 1.5 T (n = 6) and 2.0 T (n = 5), allowing a comparison of field strengths...... tension, within the range of PaCO2 studied. In white matter, the changes were not statistically significant....

  3. DIÁLOGO SOBRE OS FUNDAMENTOS DA EDUCAÇÃO: RECORTES E DISCUSSÕES, VOL. V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pimentel Camillo Barra Nova de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A coleção Fundamentos da Educação: Recortes e Discussões chega ao seu quinto volume todos publicados pela Paco Editorial. O presente volume foi lançado em 2015 e contem 406 páginas, escritas por 21 autores, dentre eles graduados, especialistas, mestrandos, mestres, doutorandos, doutores, pós-doutores, todos estudiosos do campo educacional e comprometidos em compreender melhor tal fenômeno. Para isso buscaram, nesta obra, desvendar o pensamento pedagógico dos seguintes estudiosos: Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, Édouard Claparède, Adolphe Ferrière, Henri Wallon, Roger Cousinet, Alexander Luria, Alexei Leontiev, Ana Teberosky, Emília Ferreiro, Howard Gardner, Hannah Arendt, Augusto Comte, Émile Durkheim, B.F. Skinner, Lawrence Stenhouse, Anton Makarenko, Florestan Fernandes, Louis Althusser e Michel Foucault.

  4. Arrugas. Un viaje al extranjero, desde el comienzo hasta el final

    OpenAIRE

    Yébenes, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Arrugas, dirigida por Ignacio Ferreras, es uno de los últimos largometrajes de animación 2D de factura "made in Spain" que nos deja disfrutar al público adulto de una historia dura y real, pero mágica. Arrugas no es de esas películas que dejan a uno indiferente. Hace pensar, hace entender, hace sentir, hace vivir, aunque el tema principal de la película sea justo lo contrario. Arrugas nació como cómic de las manos de Paco Roca, Premio Nacional de Cómic en España. Con las imágenes de la p...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10881-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available R-369N15 of ... 46 3.3 1 ( AC232177 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-334B22, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46 3.3 1 ( ET240037 ) S0051A14...genome. 46 3.3 1 ( EJ036317 ) 1095454069872 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-26-01-01-1... 42 4.1 2 ( AC214588 ) Bos taurus clone CH240...none) Dictyostelium discoideum chromoso... 38 0.91 AB091487_1( AB091487 |pid:none) Apis dorsata mitochondrial CO2... gen... 37 1.6 AB091488_1( AB091488 |pid:none) Apis dorsata mitochondrial CO2...Contig-U10881-1 gap included 1294 1 4142412 4140936 MINUS 5 7 U10881 0 3 1 0 1 0 0

  6. Design and evaluation of radiotracers for determination of regional cerebral blood flow with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tracer kinetics of 4-Fluoro(18F)-, 4-Bromo(82Br)- and 4-Iodo(125I)-antipyrine and 15O-water were compared in a cat or baboon animal model. First-pass cerebral extraction and clearance with alterations in PaCO2 were measured for whole brain. The Renkin/Crone model was used to evaluate brain capillary permeability-surface area product for 4-18FAP in cats. Positron-emission-tomographic measurements required development of an instrument and technique for control of the arterial concentration of the radiotracer as a ramp function, so that tracer concentration changes due to radioactive decay or altered physiological processes could be accurately described with PET. Pharmacokinetic and tissue-distribution studies in cats were used to determine dosimetry for 4-18FAP. 4-Bromoantipyrine labeled with 78Br (t = 6.5 m) is suggested as a tracer for determination of rCBF with PET

  7. Avaliação da função pulmonar de recém-nascidos com síndrome do desconforto respiratório em diferentes pressões finais expiratórias positivas Assessment of pulmonary function of preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome at different positive end expiratory pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C.T. Consolo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO\tABSTRACT \t Objetivo: verificar as alterações da função pulmonar: complacência dinâmica (Cdyn, volume corrente inspiratório (V Tinsp, pressão arterial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2, em recém-nascidos pré-termo com síndrome do desconforto respiratório. Pacientes e Métodos: estudo de caso controle, incluindo 11 pré-termos com idade gestacional Objective: to verify the alterations of pulmonary function in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The parameters analyzed were Dynamic Compliance (Cdyn, Inspiratory Tidal Volume (TVinsp, partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2. Methods: eleven preterm newborn infants, with gestational age < 35 weeks, and birth weight < 2.500 g, were include in a control case study. All infants presented RDS and were treated with 120 mg/Kg of porcine surfactant. The initial positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP was 3 cm H2O. A pneumotachograph with a graphical monitor was used to assess the pulmonary function. After each increase in the PEEP (4 and 6 cm H2O, there was an interval of 20 minutes before measuring the arterial data of pulmonary function and arterial gases. Results: there were three males and eight females (1:2,7 among the infants with RDS. The mean gestational age was 30.78. 2.05 weeks, ranging from 26 to 34 weeks. The increase in the PEEP from 3 to 6 cm H2O caused significant decrease in the TVinsp (6.46 ±3.43 to 4.20 ±2.35, P=0.0262. With the increase in the PEEP from 4 to 6 cm H2O, there was also a decrease in the TVinsp (5.98.± 3.33 to 4.20.± 2.35, (P=0.0044. Regarding the Cdyn, when there was an increase in the PEEP from 3 to 6 cm H2O, the reduction was statistically significant (0.58.± 0.27 to 0.46± 0.25, P=0.0408 and from 4 to 6 cm H2O, the reduction in the Cdyn was also important (0.77± 0.27 to 0.46± 0.25, (P=0.0164. Increases in the PEEP from 4 to 6 cm H2O caused increases in the PaCO2 (52.81± 15.49 to 64.90± 12.69, (P= 0,0141. A

  8. Ribeyro. El arte de narrar y el placer de leer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Mamani Macedo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El cuento peruano tiene una larga tradicióny esto se constata si hacemos unarevisión diacrónica de este género sintético.Allí encontramos historias y personajesque inmediatamente se incorporarona la memoria de la comunidad lectora peruana.Cuentos como “Paco yunque”, “Elcaballero Carmelo”, “El sueño del pongo”,“El bagrecito” sus tramas y su personajescirculan en la memoria colectiva y atraviesangeneraciones de generaciones, estaexistencia persistente ayuda a configurarel imaginario nuestra nación polisistémica,o esa totalidad contradictoria de laque nos hablaba Antonio Cornejo Polar.

  9. Quantitative evaluation of right ventricular overload in cor pulmonale using 201Tl myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine quantitatively the discriminant and characteristics of cor pulmonale, 201Tl myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 16 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 7 with restrictive pulmonary disease (RPD). One section of the short-axis SPECT image in which the right ventricle was most clearly visualized was selected. Tl-score was defined as the ratio of the sum of counts in the region of interest (ROI) at the anterior, mid, and posterior regions of the right ventricular free wall to the sum of counts in ROI at the posterior, lateral, and anterior walls of the left ventricle, and the anterior and posterior regions of the interventricular septum. In the group of COPD patients, Tl-score was positively correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), total pulmonary vascular resistance (TPR), and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), while it was inversely correlated with arterial oxygen tension (PaO2). However, there was no significant correlation between Tl-score and mPAP, TPR, PaCO2, and PaO2 in the group of RPD patients. In assessing pulmonary hypertension as defined by mPAP over 20 mmHg, a Tl-score greater than 0.25 was useful with a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 90%. The occurrence of cor pulmonale is a major factor in determining the prognosis of COPD patients. It was concluded that 201Tl myocardial SPECT is useful for evaluating right ventricular overload quantitatively, as well as for assessing core pulmonale, especially in COPD patients, since the ratio of Tl counts in the right and left ventricles was significantly correlated with right cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters. (N.K.)

  10. Use of eugenol in Jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus: effects on sedation and evaluation hemogasometry

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    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the use of eugenol as an anesthetic for jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus, measuring the time to anesthesia induction in different concentrações and their effects in gas exchange. The results were analyzed according to a completely randomized design (DIC with eight treatments (control, 10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 150, 200 mg L-1 of eugenol and ten repetitions. Time values of anesthetic induction and recovery, according to the level of eugenol underwent polynomial regression (p<0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and averages were compared by Tukey test. Were determined the time of anesthesia and recovery. The parameters were analyzed blood glucose, pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, concentration of bicarbonate (HCO-3, sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and chloride (Cl. The concentrations of 40 and 80 mg.L-1 of eugenol were the ones who presented time deep anesthesia induction of 59.5 ± 17.5 sec. and 58.4 ± 18.6 sec. respectively. The concentrations above 120 mg. L-¹ presented mortality. These fish subjected to different level of eugenol did not show changes in blood oxygen pressure (PaO2 and carbon dioxide (PaCO2. The fish when subjected to concentrations above 80 mg L-1 showed an increase of bicarbonate. The plasma glucose values showed significant elevation in response to the bath with anesthetic eugenol. The concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and plasma protein remained constants indicating that the process of anesthesia was not long lasting enough to induce changes in the electrolyte balance. Within the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that eugenol is a suitable anesthetic for the silver. This product may be used at a concentration of 40 mg. L-1 without causing changes hemogasométrica.

  11. Predictive Value of Capnography for Suspected Diabetic Ketoacidosis in the Emergency Department

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    Soleimanpour, Hassan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic acidosis confirmed by arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is one of the diagnostic criteria for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. Given the direct relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETco2, arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and metabolic acidosis, measuring ETco2 may serve as a surrogate for ABG in the assessment of possible DKA. The current study focuses on the predictive value of capnography in diagnosing DKA in patients referring to the emergency department (ED with increased blood sugar levels and probable diagnosis of DKA.Methods: In a cross-sectional prospective descriptive-analytic study carried out in an ED, we studied 181 patients older than 18 years old with blood sugar levels of higher than 250 mg/dl and probable DKA. ABG and capnography were obtained from all patients. To determine predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and cut-off points, we developed receiver operating characteristic curves.Results: Sixty-two of 181 patients suffered from DKA. We observed significant differences between both groups (DKA and non-DKA regarding age, pH, blood bicarbonate, PaCO2 and ETco2 values (P≤0.001. Finally, capnography values more than 24.5 mmHg could rule out the DKA diagnosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.90.Conclusion: Capnography values greater than 24.5 mmHg accurately allow the exclusion of DKA in ED patients suspected of that diagnosis. Capnography levels lower that 24.5 mmHg were unable to differentiate between DKA and other disease entities. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(6:590–594.

  12. Arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in neonates with asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-Mei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia.Methods: A total of 100 neonates with asphyxia who were admitted in our department from March, 2013 to March, 2014 were included in the study and divided into the mild asphyxia group and the severe asphyxia group according to Apgar scoring. Moreover, 50 normal neonates were served as the control group and used for comparative analysis. AVL blood-gas analyzer was used to detect the levels of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, BE, PaCO2, K+, Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+.Results:The concentrations of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, and BE in the severe asphyxia group were significantly lower than those in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while PaCO2 level was significantly higher than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group. The comparison of the various indicators between the control group and the mild asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The comparison of serum K+, Na+,and Cl- levels among the control group, the mild asphyxia group, and the severe asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The serum Ca2+ level in the severe asphyxia group was significantly lower than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while the comparison between the mild asphyxia group and the control group was also statistically significant.Conclusions:Blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination to the arterial blood in neonates can compensate for the insufficiency of Apgar scoring and provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the estimation of severity degree. Clinical combination with Apgar scoring is of great significance in enhancing the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the accuracy of severity evaluation.

  13. Variability of Transcutaneous Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Pressure Measurements Associated with Sensor Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, K; Korczyński, P; Maskey-Warzęchowska, M; Chazan, R; Krenke, R

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure (PtcO2 and PtcCO2) is useful in gas exchange monitoring. However, the relationship between PtcO2, pulse oximetry (SaO2) and arterial blood gases (ABG) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare PtcO2 and PtcCO2 with SaO2 and ABG, to evaluate the effect of sensor location on the results and stability of PtcO2 and PtcCO2, and to assess the impact of body composition on PtcO2 and PtcCO2. PtcO2 and PtcCO2 were measured in 20 healthy volunteers at three locations: right second intercostal space, lateral surface of the abdomen, and the inner surface of the left arm. The results were recorded 10, 15, and 20 min after sensor fixation and compared with SaO2 and ABG measured 20 min after electrode placement on the chest. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance. The findings were that PtcO2 was stable on the chest; but on the arm and abdomen it increased and reached maximum at 20 min. Transcutaneous PCO2 stabilized at 10 min in all the three locations. No significant correlations between PtcO2 and SaO2 or PaO2 were found. Transcutaneous PCO2 correlated with PaCO2. Both PtcO2 and PtcCO2 were not influenced by body composition. We conclude that the value of PtcO2 in monitoring of blood oxygenation was not unequivocally confirmed; PtcCO2 reliably reflects PaCO2, irrespective of sensor location. Body composition does not affect PtcO2 and PtcCO2. PMID:25820668

  14. Addressing Assumptions for the Use of Non-invasive Cardiac Output Measurement Techniques During Exercise in COPD.

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    Perrault, Hélène; Richard, Ruddy; Kapchinsky, Sophia; Baril, Jacinthe; Bourbeau, Jean; Taivassalo, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial functional limitation of COPD increasingly demonstrates the need for an integrated circulatory assessment. In this study cardiac output (Qc) derived from non-inert (CO2-RB), inert (N2O-RB) gas rebreathing approaches and bioimpedance were compared to examine the limitations of currently available non-invasive techniques for exercise Qc determination in patients with chronic lung disease. Thirteen COPD patients (GOLD II-III) completed three constant cycling bouts at 20, 35, and 50% of peak work on two occasions to assess Qc with bioimpedance as well as using CO2-RB and N2O-RB for all exercise tests. Results showed significantly lower Qc using the N2O-RB or end-tidal CO2-derived Qc compared to the PaCO2-derived CO2-RB or the bioimpedance at rest and for all exercise intensities. End-tidal CO2-derived values are however not statistically different from those obtained using inert-gas rebreathing. This study show that in COPD patients, CO2-rebreathing Qc values obtained using PaCO2 contents which account for any gas exchange impairment or inadequate gas mixing are similar to those obtained using thoracic bioimpedance. Alternately, the lower values for N2O rebreathing derived Qc indicates the inability of this technique to account for gas exchange impairment in the computation of Qc. These findings indicate that the choice of a gas rebreathing technique to measure Qc in patients must be dictated by the ability to include in the derived computations a correction for either gas exchange inadequacies and/or a vascular shunt. PMID:26408087

  15. Developmental changes in regional cerebral blood flow in fetal and newborn lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymonowicz, W; Walker, A M; Cussen, L; Cannata, J; Yu, V Y

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were determined using radioactively labeled microspheres to measure flow to the cortex, brain stem, cerebellum, white matter, caudate nucleus, and choroid plexus in three groups of chronically catheterized lambs under physiological conditions: 90- to 100-day preterm fetal lambs (n = 14), 125- to 136-day near-term fetal lambs (n = 11), and newborn lambs 5-44 days old (n = 10). We continually monitored heart rate, central venous pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and periodically measured arterial blood O2 and CO2 tensions (PaO2, PaCO2, respectively), pH, hemoglobin, and oxygen saturation (SaO2). The regional CBF measurements (ml.100 g-1.min-1) revealed that in all three age groups the high flow areas are the choroid plexus and caudate nucleus, whereas the lowest flow area is the white matter. There is, however, a different hierarchy of regional CBF in utero (cortex less than cerebellum and brain stem) compared with extrauterine life in the newborn lamb (cortex and cerebellum greater than brain stem). Analysis of regional cerebral oxygen delivery [CBF times arterial oxygen content (CaO2)] demonstrated a progressively increasing oxygen transport to the cortex with increasing gestational maturity and after birth. Oxygen transport to the brain stem, cerebellum, and white matter increased with gestational age, but did not increase after birth. Relationships between regional CBF and natural physiological variations of cardiorespiratory parameters (PaO2, SaO2, CaO2, pH, PaCO2, and MAP) were assessed using regression analysis. Correlations of regional CBF with PaO2 and SaO2 suggest that cerebral perfusion is not primarily determined by CaO2 when variations occur within the physiological range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3337259

  16. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

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    Morgan Karin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET, during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg. Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q was estimated with MIGET. Results During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-aO2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  17. Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Treated by Noninvasive Mechanic Ventilation

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    Zekeriya Küçükdurmaz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to investigate heart rate variability (HRV of patients with severe COPD who are treated by noninvasive mechanic ventilation (NIMV.Patients and Method: Twenty-seven patient (58±8 years, 9 F with severe COPD treated by nocturnal NIMV at home and 23 sex and age matched volunteers (56±8 years, 11 F who has not dyspnea as a control group recruited in the study. Subjects underwent spirometry, blood gas analysis, transthoracic echocardiography, 24 hours ambulatory ECG analysis. Time domain HRV analysis performed from ambulatory ECG records. Results: 52% of patients at NYHA functional class II, 36% at class III, and 12% at class IV when they have been treated by NIMV. Groups were similar for age and sex (p>0.05 for both. Heart rates of patients were higher significantly than controls’ (p0.05. But, systolic pulmonary pressures were higher of COPD group (p<0.01. 24 hours heart rate was higher, and standard deviation of normal R-R intervals (SDNN 24 hours, SDNN night, SDNN day, SDNN index (SDNNI and standard deviation of mean R-R intervals (SDANNI values were lower in COPD group significantly. SDNN was inversely correlated with duration of daily NIMV usage, intensive care unit administration and entubation rate and PaCO2. SDNNI was inversely correlated with functional class, duration of daily NIMV usage, intensive care unit administration rate and PaCO2. Else, SDNNI was correlated with predicted forced vital capacity % (FVC% and predicted forced expiratory volume at 1 second % (FEV1%.Conclusion: Time domain HRV decreases in patients with severe COPD. Decrease is correlated with severity of disease, and it presents in despite of the chronic nocturnal NIMV application. These patients have high risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and should be monitored and manegement for cardiovascular events.

  18. ANTI-HYPOXIA AND ANTI-OXIDATION EFFECTS OF AMINOPHYLLINE ON HUMAN WITH ACUTE HIGH-ALTITUDE EXPOSURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yang; Guang-yi Wang; Bin Chen; Rong-bin Qin; Si Lang Zha Xi; Lian Chen

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-hypoxia and anti-oxidation effects of aminophylline on human with acute high-altitude exposure.Methods Totally 100 young male army members newly recruited from Sichuan province (400 meters above sea level) were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups; 50 in aminophylline group (A group) and 50 in control group (C group). A group and C group orally took aminophylline and placebo respectively for 10 days, 7 days before entering Lhasa (3 658 meters above sea level) by air and 3 days after it Several parameters were measured at three time points: before drug taken, 7 days after drug taken, and 3 days after ascending high altitude. These parameters included serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), hydrogen dioxide (H2O2), lactic acid (LA), as well as arterial oxygen saturation (SO2) , arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2). Statistical analysis was conducted to compare the difference between two groups with Stata 7.0 software system.Results There were no statistical differences between groups in hypoxia and oxidation indicators before and after drug taken in plain area. Three days after ascending high altitude, the serum levels of SOD, CAT, H2O2, LA, PaCO2 increased in both groups, yet to a much larger degree in C group than A group (P < 0.01); and NO, SO2, PaO2 decreased more markedly in C group (P < 0.05 for NO, P < 0.0001 for SO2 and PaO2).Conclusion Aminophylline has significant anti-hypoxia and anti-oxidation effects at high altitude.

  19. Effect of mechanical pressure-controlled ventilation in patients with disturbed respiratory function during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Šurbatović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard for laparoscopic surgical procedures. In ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases, however, creation of pneumoperitoneum and the position of patients during surgery exert additional negative effect on intraoperative respiratory function, thus making a higher challenge for the anesthesiologist than for the surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV and pressure controlled ventilation (PCV during general anesthesia on respiratory function in ASA III patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. The study included 60 patients randomized into two groups depending on the mode of ventilation: IPPV or PCV. Respiratory volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, compliance (C, end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2, oxygen saturation (SpO2, partial pressures of O2, CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2 and pH of arterial blood were recorded within four time intervals. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in VT, SpO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values neither within nor between the two groups. In time interval t1 there were no statistically significant differences in PIP, C, PETCO2 values between the IPPV and the PCV group. But, in the next three time intervals there was a difference in PIP, C, and PETCO2 values between the two groups which ranged from statistically significant to highly significant; PIP was lower, C and PETCO2 were higher in the PCV group. Conclusion. Pressure controlled ventilation better maintains stability regarding intraoperative ventilatory parameters in ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  20. Evaluation of a transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitor in patients with acute respiratory failure

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    Antonello Nicolini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-invasive measurement of oxygenation is a routine procedure in clinical practice, but transcutaneous monitoring of PCO 2 (PtCO 2 is used much less than expected. Methods : The aim of our study was to analyze the value of a commercially available combined SpO 2 /PtCO 2 monitor (TOSCA-Linde Medical System, Basel, Switzerland in adult non-invasive ventilated patients with acute respiratory failure. Eighty critically ill adult patients, requiring arterial blood sample gas analyses, underwent SpO 2 and PtCO 2 measurements (10 min after the probe was attached to an earlobe simultaneously with arterial blood sampling. The level of agreement between PaCO2 - PtCO 2 and SaO 2 - SpO 2 was assessed by Bland-Altman analyses. Results : Both, SaO 2 from blood gas analysis and SpO 2 from the transcutaneous monitor, and PaCO 2 and PtCO 2 were equally useful. No measurements were outside of the acceptable clinical range of agreement of ± 7.5 mmHg. Conclusions : The accuracy of estimation of the TOSCA transcutaneous electrode (compared with the "gold standard" blood sample gas analysis was generally good. Moreover, TOSCA presents the advantage of the possibility of continuous non-invasive measurement. The level of agreement of the two methods of measurement allows us to state that the TOSCA sensor is useful in routine monitoring of adults admitted to an intermediate respiratory unit and undergoing non-invasive ventilation.

  1. Positive End-expiratory Pressure Titration after Alveolar Recruitment Directed by Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Long; Da-Wei Liu; Huai-Wu He; Zhan-Qi Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a real-time bedside monitoring tool,which can reflect dynamic regional lung ventilation.The aim of the present study was to monitor regional gas distribution in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration using EIT.Methods:Eighteen ARDS patients under mechanical ventilation in Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January to April in 2014 were included in this prospective observational study.After recruitment maneuvers (RMs),decremental PEEP titration was performed from 20 cmH2O to 5 cmH2O in steps of 3 cmH2O every 5-10 min.Regional over-distension and recruitment were monitored with EIT.Results:After RMs,patient with arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) + carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) >400 mmHg with 100% of fractional inspired oxygen concentration were defined as RM responders.Thirteen ARDS patients was diagnosed as responders whose PaO2 + PaCO2 were higher than nonresponders (419 ± 44 mmHg vs.170 ± 73 mmHg,P < 0.0001).In responders,PEEP mainly increased recruited pixels in dependent regions and over-distended pixels in nondependent regions.PEEP alleviated global inhomogeneity of tidal volume and end-expiratory lung volume.PEEP levels without significant alveolar derecruitment and over-distension were identified individually.Conclusions:After RMs,PEEP titration significantly affected regional gas distribution in lung,which could be monitored with EIT.EIT has the potential to optimize PEEP titration.

  2. Sleep pattern in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and correlation among gasometric, spirometric, and polysomnographic variables

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    Santos Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are few studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD establishing differences between the functional parameters of the disease and sleep variables. The aim of the study was to describe the sleep pattern of these patients and to correlate spirometric, gasometric and polysomnographic variables. METHODS: Transversal study using COPD patients submitted to spirometry, arterial gasometry, and polysomnography. RESULTS: 21 male patients were studied with average age = 67 ± 9; 7 ± 4 average points in the Epworth sleepiness scale, average Tiffenau's index (FEV1/FVC = 54 ± 13.0%, average PaO2 = 68 ± 11 mmHg, average PaCO2 = 37 ± 6 mmHg. Sleep efficiency decreased (65 ± 16% with the reduction of slow wave sleep (8 ± 9% and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (15 ± 8%. Average T90 was 43 ± 41%. Average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI = 3 ± 5/h, where two patients (9.5% presented obstructive sleep apnea. A significant correlation was observed between PaO2 and T90 (p < 0.01, PaCO2 and T90 (p < 0.05, and AHI and the cardiac rate during REM (p < 0.01. A higher number of arousals and stage change was observed. There was no linear correlation between spirometric and polysomnographic variables. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality of these patients was characterized by low sleep efficiency, high number of awakenings and shift of stages. There were no correlations between the spirometric and polysomnographic variables.

  3. Long-term oxygen therapy: Are we prescribing appropriately?

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    Mª Rosa Güell Rous

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mª Rosa Güell RousDepartament de Pneumologia, Hospital de la Santa Creu I de Sant Pau, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT is the treatment proven to improve survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. It also appears to reduce the number of hospitalizations, increase effort capacity, and improve health-related quality of life. Standard LTOT criteria are related to COPD patients who have PaO2 <60 mmHg, are in a clinical stable situation, and are receiving optimal pharmacological treatment. According to LTOT guidelines, oxygen should be prescribed for at least 18 hours per day although some authors consider 24 hours would be more beneficial. The benefits of LTOT depend on correction of hypoxemia. Arterial blood gases should be measured at rest. During exercise, an effort test should be done to assure adequate SaO2. During sleep, continuous monitoring of SaO2 and PaCO2 should be performed to confirm correction of SaO2 overnight. An arterial blood gas sample should be taken at awakening to assess PaCO2 in order to prevent hypoventilation from the oxygen therapy. Several issues that need to be addressed are the use of LTOT in COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia, the efficacy of LTOT in patients who desaturate during exercise or during sleep, the optimal dosage of oxygen supplementation, LTOT compliance, and the LTOT prescription in diseases other than COPD.Keywords: long-term oxygen therapy, COPD, oxygen supplementation, chronic respiratory failure, hypoxemia

  4. High frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Effect of cerebral blood flow in patients after open heart surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attenuation of ventilator-synchronous pressure fluctuations of intracranial pressure has been demonstrated during high frequency ventilation in animal and human studies, but the consequences of this effect on cerebral blood flow have not been investigated in man. We compared the effects of high frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation on CBF in 24 patients investigated three hours after completion of open-heart surgery. The patients were investigated during three consecutive periods with standard sedation (morphine, pancuronium): a. IPPV; b. HFJV; c. IPPV. Partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2: 4.5-5.5 kPa) and rectal temperature (35.5 to 37.5 degree C) were maintained constant during the study. The CBF was measured by intravenous 133Xe washout technique. The following variables were derived from the cerebral clearance of 133Xe: the rapid compartment flow, the initial slope index, ie, a combination of the rapid and the slow compartment flows, and the ratio of fast compartment flow over total CBF (FF). Compared to IPPV, HFJV applied to result in the same mean airway pressure did not produce any change in pulmonary gas exchange, mean systemic arterial pressure, and cardiac index. Similarly, CBF was not significantly altered by HFJV. However, important variations of CBF values were observed in three patients, although the classic main determinants of CBF (PaCO2, cerebral perfusion pressure, Paw, temperature) remained unchanged. Our results suggest that in patients with normal systemic hemodynamics, the effects of HFJV and IPPV on CBF are comparable at identical levels of mean airway pressure

  5. Efficacy of budesonide in treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Dong Chen; Jun Wei; Jun-Qing Ren; Xue-Fen Shuai; Ling Cheng; Dong-Gen Wu; Wei Wei; Jun Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of budesonide in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).Methods:A total of 60 patients with moderate and severe AECOPD who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2015 to January, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the experiment group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, anti-infection, phlegm dispersing, ipratropium bromide (0.5 mg/time), and aerosol liquid of salbutamol sulfate (2.5 mg/time), 3 times/d, 20 min/time, aerosol inhalation. The patients in the experiment group were given budesonide (2 mg/time), while the patients in the control group were given budesonide (1 mg/time), every 8 h for one aerosol inhalation. The patients in the two groups were continuously treated for 7 d. The changes of PaO2, PaCO2, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC before and after treatment were detected, and the efficacy was evaluated. Results:After treatment, PaO2 and PaCO2 in the two groups were significantly improved when compared with before treatment, and the improved degree in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group. After treatment, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC in the two groups were significantly improved when compared with before treatment, and the improved degree in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group. The total effective rate in the observation group (93.33%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (76.67%).Conclusions:Aerosol inhalation of budesonide in the treatment of AECOPD in a large dose for a short term can significantly improve the blood gas and pulmonary function.

  6. Constant-flow ventilation in canine experimental pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachenberg, T; Wendt, M; Meyer, J; Struckmeier, O; Lawin, P

    1989-07-01

    The efficacy of constant-flow ventilation (CFV) was investigated in eight mongrel dogs before (control-phase) and after development of papain-induced panlobular emphysema (PLE-phase). For CFV, heated, humidified and oxygen-enriched air was continuously delivered via two catheters positioned within each mainstem bronchus at flow rates (V) of 0.33, 0.5 and 0.66 l/s. Data obtained during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) served as reference. In the control-phase, Pao2 was lower (P less than or equal to 0.05) and alveolo-arterial O2 difference (P(A-a)O2) was higher (P less than or equal to 0.01) during CFV at all flow rates when compared with IPPV. This may be due to inhomogeneities of intrapulmonary gas distribution and increased ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) mismatching. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship; constant normocapnia (5.3 kPa) was achieved at 0.48 +/- 0.21 l/s (V53). Development of PLE resulted in an increase of functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV) and static compliance (Cstat) (P less than or equal to 0.05). PaO2 had decreased and P(A-a)O2 had increased (P less than or equal to 0.05), indicating moderate pulmonary dysfunction. Oxygenation during CFV was not significantly different in the PLE-phase when compared with the control-phase. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship and V5.3 was even lower than in the control-group (0.42 +/- 0.13 l/s). In dogs with emphysematous lungs CFV maintains sufficient gas exchange. This may be due to preferential ventilation of basal lung units, thereby counterbalancing the effects of impaired lung morphometry and increased airtrapping. Conventional mechanical ventilation is more effective in terms of oxygenation and CO2-elimination. PMID:2800979

  7. Genomic Data from Extinct North American Camelops Revise Camel Evolutionary History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Peter D; Zazula, Grant D; Cahill, James A; Reyes, Alberto V; MacPhee, Ross D E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. However, a number of enigmatic Quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for DNA preservation. Here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late Pleistocene western camel, Camelops cf. hesternus, a species that was distributed across central and western North America until its extinction approximately 13,000 years ago. Despite a modal sequence length of only around 35 base pairs, we reconstructed high-coverage complete mitochondrial genomes and low-coverage partial nuclear genomes for each specimen. We find that Camelops is sister to African and Asian bactrian and dromedary camels, to the exclusion of South American camelids (llamas, guanacos, alpacas, and vicuñas). These results contradict previous morphology-based phylogenetic models for Camelops, which suggest instead a closer relationship between Camelops and the South American camelids. The molecular data imply a Late Miocene divergence of the Camelops clade from lineages that separately gave rise to the extant camels of Eurasia. Our results demonstrate the increasing capacity of modern paleogenomic methods to resolve evolutionary relationships among distantly related lineages. PMID:26037535

  8. Desarrollo rural y conservación de la naturaleza en áreas protegidas de Bolivia: la Puna de Sajama (Bolivia

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    Fernando Santa Cecilia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En pleno altiplano central de Bolivia está situado el Parque Nacional Sajama, el primer espacio protegido creado en la república boliviana, en 1939. Al pie del imponente nevado, en la dilatada puna que supera aquí los 4.200 m de altitud, viven comunidades aymarás dedicadas tradicionalmente al pastoreo de llamas y alpacas, organizadas social y territorialmente en torno a la institución del ayllu. Los cambios político-administrativos y las reformas de la propiedad y tenencia de la tierra impulsadas por el Estado boliviano en el último medio siglo, así como la propia evolución demográfica de las comunidades, han conducido a una situación de bloqueo del sistema ganadero y del modo de vida tradicional. El parque nacional constituye una oportunidad para el impulso de iniciativas de desarrollo territorial compatibles con los objetivos de conservación del espacio protegido, la salvaguarda del patrimonio cultural y las formas de organización comunitaria y la mejora en la calidad de vida de la población aymara.

  9. Endoparasites of exotic ungulates from the Giraffidae and Camelidae families kept ex situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Paweł; Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wyrobisz, Anna; Skotnicki, Józef; Basiaga, Marta; Plucińska, Natalia E

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes and camels are popular attractions at zoological gardens. In order to present the diversity of parasites infecting exotic ungulates from zoos, faecal samples from three giraffes and six camels from both the Silesian Zoological Garden in Chorzów, and Kraków Zoological Garden, were examined. The research was carried out over a ten-month period in 2013 and 2014. In total, 100 faecal samples from 18 animals were analysed with the use of the McMaster method. Moreover, coccidian oocysts were incubated to investigate their development and larvoscopic examination was conducted to detect the presence of nematode species. Giraffes were infected with coccidia from the genus Eimeria, and gastrointestinal nematodes from the Strongylida order, and Trichuris and Aonhotheca genera. One male giraffe was uninfected. The level of infection in giraffes was low when compared to camels kept in both of the zoos. Limited contact with other animal species contributed greatly to the lower level of infection in camels from Kraków Zoo than those from Chorzów, which were kept in the same enclosure as alpacas and Shetland ponies. PMID:27262960

  10. Explorando la variabilidad morfométrica del conjunto de camélidos pequeños durante el Arcaico Tardío y el Formativo Temprano en Quebrada Tulán, norte de Chile

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    Isabel Cartajena Fasting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, it is possible to differentiate among large and small size camelids when analysing registers from archaeological sites located at the occidental slope of Puna de Atacama. However, larger animals have received most of the attention having less knowledge about the group of small size camelids. In this paper and by using osteometric methods we study this small size later group. On one hand, we analyse different variables that may affect variability among modern alpacas and vicuñas collections. We focus our work on differences among anterior and posterior phalanxes, inter specific variation and sexual dimorphism. On the other hand, we analyse first phalanxes from Tulán-52 (Late Archaic ca. 4500-3800 BP and Tulán-54 (Early Formative ca. 3200-2300 BP characterising their variability through time by comparing current and archaeological samples. Both archaeofaunal assemblages are similar despite their temporal distance. The analyzed specimens correspond to vicuñas denoting the importance of vicuña hunting through time

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  12. How many SNeIa do we need to detect the effect of weak lensing ?

    CERN Document Server

    Munshi, D; Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    We show that as many as 4000 SNeIa may be required to detect the effect of weak lensing on their flux distribution with a high level of significance. However, if the intrinsic SNeIa magnitude dispersion is unknown one needs an even higher number of SNeIa (an order of magnitude more) to reach a similar level of statistical significance. Moreover, the ability to separate the lensing contribution from the intrinsic scatter depends sensitively on the amplitude of the latter. Using a Kolmogorov - Smirnov (K-S) test we check how the required number of SNeIa changes with level of significance. Our model incorporates a completely analytical description of weak lensing which has been tested extensively against numerical simulations. Thus, future missions such as SNAP may be able to detect non-Gaussianity at a lower significance level of 10% (through the K-S test) only if the intrinsic scatter is known from external data (e.g. from low redshift observations) whereas ALPACA with 100,000 SNe will definitely detect non-Ga...

  13. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

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    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  14. Australian methodology for the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: Agriculture: Workbook for livestock: Workbook 6.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    This workbook details a methodology for estimating methane emissions from Australian livestock. The workbook is designed to be consistent with international guidelines and takes into account special Australian conditions. While regarded as a significant source of anthropogenic methane emissions, it is also acknowledged in this document that livestock do not provide sinks for methane or any other greenhouse gas. Methane can originate from both fermentation processes in the digestive tracts of all livestock and from manure under certain management conditions. Methane emissions were estimated from beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, goats, horses, deer, buffalo, camels, emus and ostriches, alpacas and donkeys and mules. Two methodologies were used to estimate emissions. One is the standard Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 methodology that is needed to provide inter-country comparisons of emissions. The other has been developed by the Inventory Methodology Working Group. It represents the best current Australian method for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from Australian livestock. (author). 6 tabs., 22 refs.

  15. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3' UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  16. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes

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    Pengchao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3′ UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF and Tyrosinase (TYR were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5.

  17. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  18. From single nucleotide substitutions up to chromosomal deletions: genetic pause of leucism-associated disorders in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Katharina; Erhardt, Georg; Lühken, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Leucism is characterized by a complete or partial white skin and hair in combination with pigmented irides, which can be vivid blue or heterochromatic. This is due to a complete or partial lack of melanocytes. The underlying pathogenesis is a disturbed emigration or differentiation of neural crest-derived cells. Therefore, leucistic phenotypes can be associated with defects, which mainly impair sensory organs and nerves. In humans, a well-known example is the Waardenburg syndrome. Leucism-associated disorders were also described in mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, mink, cat, dog, pig, sheep, llama, alpaca, cattle and horse. In some of these species already identified causal mutations affect the genes EDN3, EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3, SILV and SOX10. Defect alleles represent different types of genetic variation, ranging from single nucleotide substitutions up to larger chromosomal deletions. Some of the defect alleles produce desired coat color patterns. In some but not all cases, available genetic tests enable breeders to avoid production of animals affected by a leucism-associated disorder. PMID:27529988

  19. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

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    J.A. Hribljan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 The high-altitude (4,500+ m Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia: near the village of Manasaya in the Sajama National Park (Cordillera Occidentale, and in the Tuni Condoriri National Park (Cordillera Real. (2 We cored to 5 m depth in the Manasaya peatland, whose age at 5 m was ca. 3,675 yr. BP with a LARCA of 47 g m-2 yr-1. However, probing indicated that the maximum depth was 7–10 m with a total estimated (by extrapolation carbon stock of 1,040 Mg ha-1. The Tuni peat body was 5.5 m thick and initiated ca. 2,560 cal. yr. BP. The peatland carbon stock was 572 Mg ha-1 with a long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA of 37 g m-2 yr-1. (3 Despite the dry environment of the Bolivian puna, the region contains numerous peatlands with high carbon stocks and rapid carbon accumulation rates. These peatlands are heavily used for llama and alpaca grazing.

  20. A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for a 16 kDa heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Anke K Trilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH binding to M. tuberculosis antigens were isolated. Two phage display selection strategies were followed: one direct selection using semi-purified protein antigen, and a depletion strategy with lysates, aiming to avoid cross-reaction to other mycobacteria. Both panning methods selected a set of binders with widely differing complementarity determining regions. Selected recombinant VHHs were produced in E. coli and shown to bind immobilized lysate in direct Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA tests and soluble antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. All tested VHHs were specific for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and exclusively recognized an immunodominant 16 kDa heat shock protein (hsp. The highest affinity VHH had a dissociation constant (KD of 4 × 10(-10 M. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for 16 kDa heat shock protein of M. tuberculosis is available. This protein is highly stable and abundant in M. tuberculosis. The VHH that detect this protein are applied in a robust SPR sensor for identification of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria.

  1. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

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    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  2. Toracotomia em eqüinos sob anestesia com ventilação mecânica controlada Equine thoracotomy under anesthesia with controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV

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    Raquel Yvonne Arantes Baccarin

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos procedimentos cirúrgicos e diagnósticos podem ser realizados através da cirurgia torácica em eqüinos. Para tanto faz-se necessária a utilização da ventilação controlada mecânica (VCM e a compreensão dos efeitos respiratórios deste tipo de ventilação durante a toracotomia. Foram utilizados seis eqüinos hígidos, sob anestesia com ventilação controlada, para a realização de acesso cirúrgico ao hemitórax direito com o objetivo de se avaliar, através da mensuração dos parâmetros fisiológicos, ventigrafia, pH e gases sangüíneos, a eficácia da ventilação controlada em otimizar a ventilação e a oxigenação e em prevenir a atelectasia pulmonar durante manipulações intratorácicas. Verificou-se diminuição dos valores da PaCO2 e aumento dos valores de pH durante a ventilação controlada, mesmo com o pneumotórax instalado. A pressão interpleural também apresentou aumento de seus valores durante a VCM. Concluiu-se que o uso da VCM, durante a prática da toracotomia, permite a padronização da freqüência respiratória com melhora da ventilação, e subseqüente normalização das alterações da pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono e pH, bem como mantém visualmente adequada a expansão pulmonar. A VCM promove aumento da pressão interpleural, enquanto o tórax permanece fechado.Several surgical and diagnostic procedures can be performed on thoracic surgery in the equine. To carry out these procedures controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV is necessary, as well as full understanding of the possible side effects of this type of ventilation. Six healthy equine were used under anesthesia wiith CMV to do right hemithorax approach. The goals were to evaluate efficiency of CMV in the improvement of ventilation and oxigenation as well as in the prevention of pulmonar atelectasis during intrathoracic manipulation. For such evaluation of physiologic parameters measurement, ventigraphy and blood gas analysis

  3. The effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation in hypercapnic COPD patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

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    De Backer L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available L De Backer¹, W Vos², B Dieriks¹, D Daems¹, S Verhulst¹, S Vinchurkar², K Ides¹, J De Backer², P Germonpre¹, W De Backer¹1Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2FluidDa, Antwerp, BelgiumIntroduction: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is a well-established treatment for acute-on-chronic respiratory failure in hypercapnic COPD patients. Less is known about the effects of a long-term treatment with NIV in hypercapnic COPD patients and about the factors that may predict response in terms of improved oxygenation and lowered CO2 retention.Methods: In this study, we randomized 15 patients to a routine pharmacological treatment (n = 5, age 66 [standard deviation ± 6] years, FEV1 30.5 [±5.1] %pred, PaO2 65 [±6] mmHg, PaCO2 52.4 [±6.0] mmHg or to a routine treatment and NIV (using the Synchrony BiPAP device [Respironics, Inc, Murrsville, PA] (n = 10, age 65 [±7] years, FEV1 29.5 [±9.0] %pred, PaO2 59 [±13] mmHg, PaCO2 55.4 [±7.7] mmHg for 6 months. We looked at arterial blood gasses, lung function parameters and performed a low-dose computed tomography of the thorax, which was later used for segmentation (providing lobe and airway volumes, iVlobe and iVaw and post-processing with computer methods (providing airway resistance, iRaw giving overall a functional image of the separate airways and lobes.Results: In both groups there was a nonsignificant change in FEV1 (NIV group 29.5 [9.0] to 38.5 [14.6] %pred, control group 30.5 [5.1] to 36.8 [8.7] mmHg. PaCO2 dropped significantly only in the NIV group (NIV: 55.4 [7.7] → 44.5 [4.70], P = 0.0076; control: 52.4 [6.0] → 47.6 [8.2], NS. Patients actively treated with NIV developed a more inhomogeneous redistribution of mass flow than control patients. Subsequent analysis indicated that in NIV-treated patients that improve their blood gases, mass flow was also redistributed towards areas with higher vessel density and less emphysema, indicating that flow was

  4. Estudio preliminar de los efectos cardio-respiratorios del fentanilo en caninos anestesiados con halotano Preliminary study of the cardiorespiratory effects of fentanyl in halothane anesthetized dogs

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    P. OTERO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos cardiovasculares y respiratorios del fentanilo administrado en dosis única por vía endovenosa a caninos anestesiados con halotano. Con este fin se utilizaron 12 caninos adultos, sanos, los cuales fueron premedicados con acepromacina y atropina, inducidos con tiopental sódico y mantenidos con halotano en un plano anestésico determinado. Los animales recibieron uno de dos tratamientos: 25 µg/kg de una solución de 50 µg/ml fentanilo en bolo intravenoso (FNT, n = 6 o un mismo volumen de solución salina estéril (SAL, n = 6. Durante la experiencia se registraron, en tiempos predeterminados, antes y después del tratamiento los siguientes parámetros: frecuencia cardíaca (FC, presión arterial sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD y media (PAM, presión venosa central (PVC, temperatura corporal, saturación de oxígeno arterial (SaO2%, presión arterial de anhídrido carbónico (paCO2 y pH. Los resultados mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (PThe purpose of this study was to evaluate selected cardiovascular and respiratory effects of fentanyl administered intravenously to halothane anesthetized dogs. Twelve healthy dogs were anesthetized with halothane, held constant at 1.5 MAC with 2L/min oxygen flow rate up to 40 minutes after treatment was administered. Each dog was given one of 2 treatments: fentanyl (FNT, 25 µg/kg, IV or isotonic saline (SAL, 0.5 ml/kg. The following values were recorded throughout the study: mean (MAP, systolic (SAP and diastolic (DAP arterial blood pressures (mmHg, central venous pressure, (CVP, mmHg, heart rate (HR, beats/minute, oxygen arterial saturation (SaO2,%, pH, arterial carbon dioxide pressure, (paCO2, mm Hg, bicarbonate (CO3H, mmol/l, esophageal temperature (°C, respiratory rate (RR, beats/min. These data were collected at predetermined times before (base line data and after treatment. Results showed statistically significant differences

  5. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios da buprenorfina em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano Cardiorespiratory effects of buprenorphine in dogs anesthetized with desflurane

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    Almir Pereira de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar os efeitos da buprenorfina sobre variáveis cardiovasculares e respiratórias em cães durante anestesia com desfluorano. Para tanto, foram utilizados 20 cães adultos, distribuídos em dois grupos (GB e GC. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol (8mg kg-1 IV e em seguida os animais foram intubados com sonda de Magill, a qual foi conectada ao aparelho de anestesia para administração de desfluorano (1,5 CAM. Após 30 minutos, foi aplicado no GB buprenorfina (0,02mg kg-1 e no GC solução de NaCl à 0,9% (0,05ml kg-1. Avaliaram-se: freqüências cardíaca e respiratória (FC e ¦; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM; débito cardíaco (DC; pressão venosa central (PVC; e as variáveis hemogasométricas pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3, SatO2 e DB. As colheitas dos dados foram feitas aos 30 minutos após o início da administração do desfluorano (MO, 15 minutos após a administração do opióide ou placebo (M15, e a cada 15 minutos após Ml5 (M30, M45, M60 e M75. A avaliação estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de Análise de Perfil (P¦ e o pH tiveram reduções no GB, enquanto a PaCO2 esteve aumentada. Concluiu-se que a inclusão da buprenorfina durante anestesia inalatória pelo desfluorano determina discretas alterações cardiovasculares, bem-como potencializa a hipoventilação promovida pelo desfluorano, com a manifestação de hipercapnia, o que não contra-indica o seu uso em pacientes estáveis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of buprenorphine on cardiovascular and respiratory variables in dogs anesthetized with desflurane. Twenty adult healthy male and female mongrel dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of ten animals each (GB and GC. The anesthetic induction was done using propofol (8mg kg-1, IV, and immediately, the dogs were intubated and submited to desflurane anesthesia administrated at 1.5 MAC. After 30 minutes of induction, animals

  6. Anestesia por isofluorano em eqüinos submetidos à infusão contínua de medetomidina ou xilazina Isoflurane anesthesia in horses during medetomidine or xilazine continuous infusion

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    Renata Gebara Sampaio Dória

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se oito eqüinos sob anestesia geral inalatória com isofluorano (1CAM e infusão contínua de xilazina (0,35mg kg-1h-1 ou medetomidina (3,5µg kg-1h-1, em relação à freqüência cardíaca, ritmo cardíaco, freqüência respiratória, pressão arterial, hemogasometria arterial e temperatura, nos tempos T0 (imediatamente antes do início da infusão contínua e T10 ao T60 (intervalos de 10 minutos, após início da infusão contínua. Houve redução da freqüência cardíaca e da temperatura e elevação da pressão arterial média. A paCO2 (no GM elevou-se e a paO2 mostrou-se maior no GM que no GX. Conclui-se que a infusão contínua de doses equipotentes de xilazina e medetomidina, durante anestesia geral inalatória, com isofluorano, em eqüinos, promove alterações cardiocirculatórias, respiratórias, térmicas e hemogasométricas discretas e equivalentes.Eight horses under inhalant general anesthesia with isoflurane (1MAC and continuous infusion of xylazine (0.35mg kg-1h-1 or medetomidine (3.5µg kg-1h-1 were evaluated for heart rate and rhythm, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gas analysis and temperature immediately before the beginning of the continuous infusion (T0 and in intervals of 10 minutes after the beginning of the continuous infusion (T10 to T60. Heart rate and temperature decreased and mean arterial pressure increased. PaCO2 (in GM increased and GM showed a higher paO2 than GX. We conclude that equipotent doses of continuous infusion of medetomidine and xylazine during inhalant general anesthesia with isoflurane in horses promote slight and equivalent cardiocirculatory, respiratory, thermic and arterial blood gases changes.

  7. Pulmonary Functions After Injection Sclerotherapy Of Esophageal Varices & After Band Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Metwally*, Ahmad Abdelsadek Mohammad,**Galal A. Moawad,*.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To study changes in pulmonary function tests after esophageal variceal injection sclerotherapy in comparison to changes after esophageal variceal band ligation.Patients & methods:This study was designed as non randomized controlled study. Thirty patients with hepatic cirrhosis & portal hypertension who were admitted to Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Infectious Diseases department , Benha university hospital for elective esophageal variceal therapy (secondary prophylaxis were classified into group I:15 patients treated with sclerotherapy by using 5-15 ml ethanolamine oleate and group II:15 patients treated with band ligation. Patients were subjected for full clinical evaluation including history, general, chest, and abdominal examination. Laboratory and radiological investigation including complete blood count, liver function tests, kidney function tests and blood sugar and plain chest x-ray (P.A. and lateral views were done. Pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gasses were done before, one day after and one week after the procedure.Results:The results revealed , significant decrease in vital capacity in group I one day after injection ( p ˂ 0.05,but no significant decrease in vital capacity in group II. There was a significant decrease in PaO2 in group I one day after injection sclerotherapy ( p ˂ 0.05 but no significant changes in group II and no significant changes in PaCO2 in both groups one day after the procedures. The study has also revealed no significant changes in FVC,FEV1/FVC and PaCO2 in group I and group II after procedures. The study revealed significant linear correlation between the decreases in PaO2 and the percentage decrease in vital capacity( p ˂ 0.05. One week after procedure, pulmonary functions that has been affected in group I returned back to baseline values.Conclusions: esophageal injection sclerotherapy produces restrictive defect (decrease in PaO2 and vital capacity in pulmonary functions

  8. Cardiorespiratory responses to hypercarbia in tambaqui Colossoma macropomum: chemoreceptor orientation and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Milsom, W K; Rantin, F T; Reid, S G; Perry, S F

    2005-03-01

    Experiments were carried out to test the hypothesis that ventilatory and cardiovascular responses to hypercarbia (elevated water P(CO2)) in the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum are stimulated by externally oriented receptors that are sensitive to water CO(2) tension as opposed to water pH. Cardiorespiratory responses to acute hypercarbia were evaluated in both the absence and presence of internal hypercarbia (elevated blood P(CO2)), achieved by treating fish with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide. Exposure to acute hypercarbia (15 min at each level, final water CO(2) tensions of 7.2, 15.5 and 26.3 mmHg) elicited significant increases in ventilation frequency (at 26.3 mmHg, a 42% increase over the normocarbic value) and amplitude (128%), together with a fall in heart rate (35%) and an increase in cardiac stroke volume (62%). Rapid washout of CO(2) from the water reversed these effects, and the timing of the changes in cardiorespiratory variables corresponded more closely to the fall in water P(CO2) (Pw(CO2)) than to that in blood P(CO2) (Pa(CO2)). Similar responses to acute hypercarbia (15 min, final Pw(CO2) of 13.6 mmHg) were observed in acetazolamide-treated (30 mg kg(-1)) tambaqui. Acetazolamide treatment itself, however, increased Pa(CO2) (from 4.81+/-0.58 to 13.83+/-0.91 mmHg, mean +/-S.E.M.; N=8) in the absence of significant change in ventilation, heart rate or cardiac stroke volume. The lack of response to changes in blood P(CO2) and/or pH were confirmed by comparing responses to the bolus injection of hypercarbic saline (5% or 10% CO(2); 2 ml kg(-1)) into the caudal vein with those to the injection of CO(2)-enriched water (1%, 3%, 5% or 10% CO(2); 50 ml kg(-1)) into the buccal cavity. Whereas injections of hypercarbic saline were ineffective in eliciting cardiorespiratory responses, changes in ventilation and cardiovascular parameters accompanied injection of CO(2)-laden water into the mouth. Similar injections of CO(2)-free water acidified to the

  9. 兔颈部CO_2和生理盐水灌注内镜甲状腺手术%Endoscopic thyroidectomy with filling the neck of rabbits withcarbon dioxide and saline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢明; 周争; 周梁

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The study was aimed to inverstigate the effects of different levels of pressure and dura-tion of carbon dioxide and saline in the neck of rabbits on metabolic, hemodynamic, serum sodium concentrations and hematocrit changes. Method:Twenty-one New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 7 groups according to the following pressure of CO_2 or saline:0 kPa, 0. 67 kPa CO_2, 1.33 kPa CO_2,2.00 kPa CO_2 , 0.67 kPa saline, 1.33 kPa saline, and 2.00 kPa saline. In order to make a space for the endoscopic thyroidectomy, we filled the neck of rabbits with carbon dioxide and saline . Arterial partial pressure of CO_2(PaCO_2), pH, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP) , central venous pressure (CVP), serum sodium concentration and hematocrit were measured at baseline, 45 min and 90 min after filling with gas or saline and 30 tnin post-filling. Result:Insufflation of CO_2 at 0.67 kPa did not have any significant effect on the parameters. PaCO_2 increased significantly 45 min and 90 min after insufflation of 1.33 kPa CO_2(P0.05). CVP increased significantly 90min after saline irrigation at 1.33 kPa(P 0.05).1.33 kPa生理盐水组在T_2时,2.00 kPa生理盐水组在T1和T2时,CVP显著升高(P<0.05).各组HR和MAP在整个实验过程中变化不明显.结论:生理盐水灌注法不会引起高碳酸血症、酸中毒和稀释性低钠血症,在颈部内镜手术中可作为建立和维持手术空间的一种选择方法.

  10. Prediction of arterial blood gas values from arterialized earlobe blood gas values in patients treated with mechanical ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honarmand Azim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is useful in evaluation of the clinical condition of critically ill patients; however, arterial puncture or insertion of an arterial catheter may sometimes be difficult and cause many complications. Arterialized ear lobe blood samples have been described as adequate to gauge gas exchange in acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. Purpose: This study evaluates whether pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 , base excess (BE, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 values of arterialized earlobe blood samples could accurately predict their arterial blood gas analogs for adult patients treated by mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU. Setting: A prospective descriptive study Methods: Sixty-seven patients who were admitted to ICU and treated with mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously from the radial artery and arterialized earlobe of each patient. Results: Regression equations and mean percentage-difference equations were derived to predict arterial pH, PCO 2 , PO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 -values from their earlobe analogs. pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 all significantly correlated in ABG and earlobe values. In spite of a highly significant correlation, the limits of agreement between the two methods were wide for PO 2 . Regression equations for prediction of pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO3- values were: arterial pH (pHa = 1.81+ 0.76 x earlobe pH (pHe [r = 0.791, P < 0.001]; PaCO 2 = 1.224+ 1.058 x earlobePCO 2 (PeCO 2 [r = 0.956, P < 0.001]; arterial BE (BEa = 1.14+ 0.95 x earlobe BE (BEe [r= 0.894, P < 0.001], and arterial HCO 3 - (HCO 3 -a = 1.41+ earlobe HCO 3 (HCO 3 -e [r = 0.874, P < 0.001]. The predicted ABG values from the mean percentage-difference equations were derived as follows: pHa = pHe x 1.001; PaCO 2 = PeCO 2 x 0.33; BEa = BEe x 0.57; and HCO 3 -a = HCO 3 -e x 1.06. Conclusions: Arterialized

  11. Clinical nursing of pulmonary surfactant in treatment of premature babies with respiratory distress syndrome%肺泡表面活性物质用于早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征治疗的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾艳玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect and nursing ways of pulmonary surfactant in premature babies with respiratory distress syndrome. Methods From July 2008 to January 2011,63 cases of premature babies with respiratory distress syndrome were admitted to our department, pulmonary surfactant was dripped through trachea into these patients, the treatment effect after medication was observed. Results Among these premature babies, one case died of respiratory failure, one case died from pulmonary hemorrhage, sixty-one cases were cured, the cure rate was 96.8%. After treatment, the arterial blood pH, partial pressure of oxygen(PaO2) and oxygen saturation(SaO2) of the 61 patients was significantly higher than before treatment, the arterial blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)、 total carbon dioxide (TCO2)、actual bicarbonate (AB)was significantly lower than before treatment. Conclusions Pulmonary surfactant combined with appropriate nursing ways is able to cure premature babies with respiratory distress syndrome effectively.%目的 探讨肺泡表面活性物质治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征的疗效和护理对策.方法 2008年7月至2011年1月共收治早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征患儿63例,向患儿的气管内滴入肺泡表面活性物质,观察用药后的疗效.结果 63例患儿有1例因合并呼吸衰竭死亡,1例因合并肺出血死亡,余61例治愈出院,治愈率为96.8%.61例治愈的患儿,治疗后动脉血pH、氧分压(PaO2)、血氧饱和度(SaO2)显著高于治疗前.治疗后动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、二氧化碳总量(TCO2)、实际碳酸氢盐(AB)显著低于治疗前.结论 肺泡表面活性物质联合适宜的护理措施能有效地治疗早产儿呼吸窘迫综合征.

  12. Influence of anesthesia by sevoflurane and propofol on the Pulmonary function in patients receiving gynecological laparoscopic surgery%七氟醚与异丙酚麻醉对妇科腹腔镜手术患者肺功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of anesthesia by sevoflurane and propofol on the pulmonary function in patients receiving gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 60 patients receiving gynecological laparoscopic surgery in our hospital.The 30 patients in the PR group were given anesthesia by propofol and remifentanil,while the 30 patients in the SR group were given anesthesia by sevoflu-rane and remifentanil.PaO2,PaCO2,PETCO2,Ppeak,QS/QT and dynamic lung compliance in two groups were compared respec-tively. Results PaCO2 was significantly higer at 5 min after pneumoperitoneum,15 min after pneumoperitoneum and 15 min after deflation than that before anesthesia induction,with statistical difference (P0.05).Ppeak was higher at 5 min after pneumoperitoneum and 15 min after pneumoperitoneum than that at 5 min before pneumoperitoneum,with statistical difference (P0.05).Dynamic lung compliance was lower at 5 min after pneumoperitoneum and 15 min after pneumoperi-toneum than that at 5 min before pneumoperitoneum,with statistical difference (P0.05);两组的Ppeak在气腹后5 min、气腹后15 min较气腹前5 min显著升高,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);两组的肺动态顺应性在气腹后5 min、气腹后15 min较气腹前5 min显著下降,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),SR组的肺动态顺应性在气腹后5 min、气腹后15 min显著低于PR组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论与七氟醚麻醉相比,异丙酚麻醉对患者呼吸功能的影响相对较轻。

  13. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Suchi Chang,1 Jindong Shi,2 Cuiping Fu,1 Xu Wu,1 Shanqun Li1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective: We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods: Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results: Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both; after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05. Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05. The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48

  14. Up-regulation of ICAM-1mRNA and IL-1βmRNA in lung tissues of a rat model of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Mingli; Wang, Yuxia; Li, Xiaopeng; Qian, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease characterized by airflow obstruction that is usually progressive and not fully reversible. It is accompanied by the abnormal inflammatory response of lung to toxic particles or gas. Studies indicate that chronic inflammatory injuries of airway, pulmonary parenchyma and pulmonary vessels are the characteristic changes of COPD. Adhesion of inflammatory cells is the important link of pulmonary infection. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a glycoprotein involved in binding with mediated cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. IL-1β is an important inflammatory mediator as well as the promoter and critical inducer of cytokine cascade reaction. In this study, the rat model of COPD was established by smoking + intratracheal instillation of LPS (the experimental group). PaO2 and PaCO2 were measured. ICAM-1mRNA and IL-1βmRNA level in lung homogenate were detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR and were compared with those of the rats treated by smoke exposure (the control group) and the healthy rats (the blank group) in order to investigate the effect of ICAM-1 and IL-1β in lung injury of COPD. This study showed that the respiratory function of rats with COPD was decreased. PaO2 of rats in the experimental group, the control group and the blank group decreased successively, and the comparison between any two groups had significant difference. PaCO2 increased successively, and the comparison between any two groups had significant difference. Immunohistochemistry results showed that protein expression of ICAM-1 and IL-1β in lung tissues of rats in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group and the blank group, and the comparison between any two groups had significant difference. RT-PCR results showed that ICAM-1mRNA and IL-1βmRNA level of rats in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group and the

  15. 运动并呼吸肌锻炼对COPD患者康复影响的Meta分析%The inlfuence of physical therapy and respiratory muscle training on rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田凌云; 张莹; 田含章; 姜鲜银; 李映兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价运动并呼吸肌锻炼对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者的康复效果是否具有显著影响。方法:通过计算机检索相关文献,按一定标准筛选文献,进行质量评价,共纳入7篇随机对照试验研究文献,采用Cochrane协作网的Rev-Manv5.3软件包处理,以肺功能[FEV1、FEV1%、FEV1/FVC(%)]、动脉血气分析(PaCO2、PaO2)、6min步行距离进行Meta分析。结果:在FEV1方面,运动并呼吸肌锻炼干预组与对照组之间差异不具有统计学意义;而在FEV1%、FEV1/FVC(%)、动脉血气分析(PaCO2、PaO2)、6min步行距离方面,干预组与对照组之间差异有统计学意义。结论:运动并呼吸肌锻炼有益于改善COPD患者肺功能、动脉血气及体能状况。%Objective: To evaluate whether physical therapy and respiratory muscle training have remarkable inlfuence on the rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Methods: Correlative literature was searched through computer. A total of seven studies of randomized controlled trial were brought into this research according to the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was used in six aspects including the FEV1,FEV1%, FEV1/FVC (%), arterial blood gas (PaCO2, PaO2), six minutes walking distance. Results: It showed signiifcant differences in FEV1% , FEV1/FVC (%), arterial blood gas (PaCO2, PaO2), six minutes walking distance, but no signiifcant difference in FEV1. Conclusion: Physical therapy and respiratory muscle training are beneifcial to improving the pulmonary function, arterial blood gas and physical condition of patients with COPD.

  16. 无创机械通气治疗急性呼吸窘迫综合征的临床观察%Clinical observation of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿新普

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察无创机械通气治疗急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)的临床疗效.方法 72例急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者在常规治疗(药物治疗+吸氧)基础上加用无创机械通气,观察患者治疗前后临床症状和动脉血气分析.结果 给予无创机械通气后患者呼吸困难症状明显改善,pH、SaO2、PaO2、PaO2/FiO2等指标上升明显,与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);呼吸频率、心率、血压、PaCO2,等指标明显下降,与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).动脉血气PaO2明显上升(P<0.05),PaCO2下降明显(P<0.05).结论 无创机械通气治疗能有效缓解急性呼吸窘迫综合征患者的临床症状,并改善患者的各项血气指标,值得在临床中推广应用.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of the non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Methods 72 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were used non-invasive mechanical ventilation on the basis of the conventional therapy( drug treatment + oxygen ). Before and after treatment, clinical symptoms and arterial blood gas analysis were measured. Results After treatment, the original dificulty breathing symptoms of patients improved, pH,SaO2 ,PaO2 ,PaO2/FiO2 increased significantly, and there were significant differences compared with before treatment P <0. 05 );respiratory rate, heart rate, blood pressure, PaCO2 decreased significantly compared with before treatment with significant differences( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome can quickly relieve the clinical symptoms and improve the blood gas analysis in patients. It is worthy of clinically use.

  17. Análisis de factores relacionados con hipercapnia crónica en la distrofia miotónica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia K. Aruj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica (DM es la distrofia muscular más común en adultos. Diversos factores pueden explicar la retención crónica de CO2. La selección de pacientes, diferentes estadios evolutivos y formas de evaluación, pueden explicar los resultados disímiles al respecto. Nuestros objetivos fueron caracterizar la función respiratoria y analizar los factores relacionados con la retención crónica de CO2 en la DM. Se incluyeron 27 pacientes ambulatorios consecutivos, estables clínicamente y se los agrupó como normocápnicos e hipercápnicos (PaCO2 ≥ 43 mm Hg. Se determinaron capacidad vital forzada (FVC, presiones estáticas máximas, tiempo de apnea voluntaria, escala de Epworth y gases arteriales. La quimiosensibilidad al CO2 se evaluó mediante la reinhalación de CO2 (método de Read. La pendiente ∆P0.1/∆PCO2 expresa la quimiosensibilidad al CO2. El 59.3% tenían hipercapnia. La FVC y la fuerza muscular respiratoria fueron normales o mostraron disminución leve a moderada, sin diferencias significativas en ambos grupos. La inadecuada respuesta al CO2 (pendientes ∆P0.1/∆PCO2 bajas (< 0.1 cmH2O/mm Hg o planas se asoció con hipercapnia (p < 0.005 y ésta significó un riesgo 11.6 veces mayor de inadecuada respuesta al CO2. El grupo con pendiente ∆P0.1/∆PCO2 baja-plana mostró mayor PaCO2 (p = 0.0017 y tiempo de apnea voluntaria más prolongado (p = 0.002. Concluimos que, en nuestros pacientes con DM, la hipercapnia crónica se asoció a la presencia de anomalías del control central de la respiración. Estos resultados permiten explicar los informes previos que describen la llamativa ocurrencia de insuficiencia respiratoria postoperatoria y las dificultades en el proceso de desvinculación de asistencia ventilatoria mecánica en estos pacientes.

  18. Advances in regional cerebral blood flow measurement and patho-physiological analysis by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, two kinds of radiopharmaceuticals have been developed to represent the biodistribution of regional blood flow, which are N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime (HMPAO). In this paper, I mentioned the charachteristics, clinical usage and imitation of these two radiolabeled agents. The advantage of 123I-IMP is that it has high first-pass extraction and long retention in brain tissue, hence it can be used to measure the absolute values of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). When the kinetics of 123I-IMP is assumed to be freely diffusible in the brain, its behavior is considered by 2-compartment model, especially which is assumed by the microsphere model in the early period after the i.v. injection of 123I-IMP. Comparing the rCBF measured by 123I-IMP with that by 133Xe inhalation SPECT method, we have to consider PaCO2 when both SPECT studies are performed, because PaCO2 is one of the big factors which make effects on the alteration of rCBF. 123I-IMP has an interesting character of the redistribution phenomenon which represrent the degree of ischemia in the cerebrovascular diseases. Distribution volume is one of the important information obtained by the SPECT study with 123I-IMP, which represent the degree of retention, i.e. binding potential of 123I-IMP in the brain tissue. I introduced the usage of the distribution volume of 123I-IMP, which was constructed in the rate constant square method, in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The clinical usage of 99m Tc-HMPAT was mentioned, the advantage of which is the rapid fixation in the brain tissue and the distribution does not change for long time after the i.v. injection. Hence 99mTc-HMPAO is used for the diagnosis of epileptic foci and certain loading tests such as balloon occlusion test, postural test and acetazolamide loading test. (author)

  19. Cardiopulmonary parameters in propofol- or thiopental-anesthetized dogs induced to pulmonary hypertension by serotonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Ferro Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe cardiopulmonary changes in propofol- or thiopental-anesthetized dogs induced to pulmonary hypertension (PH were evaluated. Twenty adult animals were randomly assigned to two groups: propofol group (PG and thiopental group (TG. In PG, propofol was used for induction (8(0.03mg.kg-1 and anesthesia maintenance (0.8mg.kg-1.minute-1, while, in TG, thiopental was used (22±2.92mg.kg-1; 0.5mg.kg-1.minute-1, respectively. Mechanical ventilation using time cycle was started. PH was induced by administration of serotonin (5HT (10µg.kg-1 and 1mg.kg-1.hour-1 through a thermodilution catheter positioned in the pulmonary artery. The measurements were performed before administration of 5HT (T0, after 30 minutes (T30, then at 15-minute intervals (T45, T60, T75 and T90. No differences between groups were registered for systolic (sPAP and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, total peripheral resistance index (TPRI and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI. In PG, sPAP and mPAP increased from T30. While in TG, sPAP and mPAP increased from T75. In PG, heart rate (HR increased from T30, in which PG was higher than TG. The TPRI values decreased from T30 in PG, and in TG, at T45, T60 and T90. In PG, at T0, PVRI was lower than at other times. In PG, arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2 decreased from T60 and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (PA-aO2 increased at T60. In TG, at T0 PaO2 was higher than at T30, T45, T60 and T90, while PA-aO2 at T0 was lower than at T90. From T30 to T90, TG showed higher PaO2 means and lower arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 values when compared to PG. In PG, from T30, PaCO2 increased, while in TG this parameter was stable. In conclusion, thiopental anesthesia attenuated the cardiopulmonary changes resulting from serotonin-induced PH, probably by attenuation of vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction.

  20. PETCO2 measurement and feature extraction of capnogram signals for extubation outcomes from mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capnography is a continuous and noninvasive method for carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, and it has become the standard of care for basic respiratory monitoring for intubated patients in the intensive care unit. In addition, it has been used to adjust ventilatory parameters during mechanical ventilation (MV). However, a substantial debate remains as to whether capnography is useful during the process of weaning and extubation from MV during the postoperative period. Thus, the main objective of this study was to present a new use for time-based capnography data by measuring the end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2), partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2) and feature extraction of capnogram signals before extubation from MV to evaluate the capnography as a predictor of outcome extubation in infants after cardiac surgery. Altogether, 82 measurements were analysed, 71.9% patients were successfully extubated, and 28.1% met the criteria for extubation failure within 48 h. The ROC-AUC analysis for quantitative measure of the capnogram showed significant differences (p < 0.001) for: expiratory time (0.873), slope of phase III (0.866), slope ratio (0.923) and ascending angle (0.897). In addition, the analysis of PETCO2 (0.895) and PaCO2  (0.924) obtained 30 min before extubation showed significant differences between groups. The PETCO2 mean value for success and failure extubation group was 39.04 mmHg and 46.27 mmHg, respectively. It was also observed that high CO2 values in patients who had returned MV was 82.8  ±  21 mmHg at the time of extubation failure. Thus, PETCO2 measurements and analysis of features extracted from a capnogram can differentiate extubation outcomes in infant patients under MV, thereby reducing the physiologic instability caused by failure in this process. (paper)