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Sample records for alpacas vicugna pacos

  1. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  2. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits.

  3. Presence and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rosadio-Alcántara, Raúl; Maturrano-Hernández, Lenin; Luna-Espinoza, Luis; Zanabria-Huisa, Víctor; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2012-07-06

    The presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from Peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rRNA and β-giardin genes from Giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rRNA gene from Cryptosporidium spp. A total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for Giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. In ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found. Herd prevalence was found to be 91.7% (11/12 herds) for Giardia and 58.3% (7/12 herds) for Cryptosporidium. Regarding the age of the animals, although Giardia was detected in animals as young as 1 week, the prevalence increased with age, reaching 80% by 8 weeks. Similarly, the highest percentage of Cryptosporidium detection (20%) was also found in the 8 week-old group. By PCR, 92 of the 274 analysed samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of the amplicons showed the existence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in 67 samples; G. duodenalis assemblage E in 24 samples; and inconsistent results between the two molecular markers used in a further sample. Cryptosporidium was only detected by PCR in 3 of the 274 samples; Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in two samples and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample. This study is the first performing molecular characterisation of both parasites in Peruvian alpacas, and the first report of C. ubiquitum in this host. The identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, suggests that zoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens between alpacas and humans is possible.

  4. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

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    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex.

  5. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  6. Volatile fatty acid profile for grass hay or alfalfa hay fed to alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, C L; Robinson, T F; Hunter, Z R; Taylor, L; White, J; Johnston, N P

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal composition and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) and to determine VFA composition and concentration differences between stomach compartment 1 (C1) and caecum of alpacas fed grass and alfalfa hay. The study was divided into two experiments. In Experiment 1 (EXP 1), 10 male alpacas (3+ years old, 65 kg BW) were divided into two groups, housed in drylot pens, provided ad libitum water and fed alfalfa (AH) or grass hay (GH) for 30 days. The alpacas were slaughtered and the digestive tract collected, divided into sub-tract sections, weighed and digesta sampled for pH, dry matter (DM) and NDF. Volatile fatty acid composition and concentration were determined on C1 and caecal material. Four adult male (3+ years old, 60 kg BW), C1 fistulated alpacas were housed in metabolism crates and divided into two forage groups for Experiment 2 (EXP 2). Alpacas were fed the forages as in EXP 1. Diurnal C1 VFA samples were drawn at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. There were no differences between forages for tract weight, C1 and caecum digesta DM or NDF. Differences were noted (p pH between forages and sub-tract site. Volatile fatty acids concentrations were different (p < 0.05) for forage and site, and total VFA was higher for AH than GH (110.6 and 79.1 mm) and C1 than caecum (40.7 and 27.6 mm). Proportion of VFA was significant (p < 0.05) for forage and site, C1 acetate highest for GH (84.8 vs. 74.0 mm) and caecum acetate 83.7 and 76.2 mm for GH and AH respectively. These data demonstrate the level of VFA produced in C1 and the caecum of alpacas and the diurnal VFA patterns. Composition of VFA is similar to other ruminant species.

  7. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

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    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue.

  8. Presence, distribution and steroidogenic effect of the peptides orexin A and receptor 1 for orexins in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Giovanna; Assisi, Loredana; Squillacioti, Caterina; Paino, Salvatore; Mirabella, Nicola; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The orexins A (oxA) and B are peptides discovered in the rat hypothalamus and successively found in some peripheral organs of the mammalian body. They binds two protein G-coupled receptors defined receptor 1 (ox1r) and 2 for orexins, the first of which is highly specific for oxA while the second binds both the peptides with equal affinity. This work aimed to detect the presence of oxA and ox1r in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and investigate the role played by them on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The species alpaca acquired, in the last years, increasing zootechnical interest for the quality of the wool produced and its breeding spread from the country of origin to USA, Australia and Europe. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to detect oxA in Leydig and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, resting spermatocytes, round and oval spermatids. Ox1r-immunoreactivity was found in Leydig cells and round, oval and elongated spermatids. The expression of the two peptides in tissue extracts was established by using Western blotting technique. Such results demonstrated that in the alpaca testis exists in a cellular complex able to produce and/or internalize oxA. Finally, the effect of oxA on steroidogenesis was investigated by means of in vitro cultured thin testis slices which were added with oxA or/and Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a steroidolitic agent basally produced by the Sertoli cell. OxA evoked increase of testosterone production while MIS a decrease. The consecutive addition of oxA and MIS, or vice versa, highlighted an antagonistic interplay between the two substances which has been thought to be the main molecular event at the basis of the oxA-stimulated steroidogenesis mechanism.

  9. DETERMINACIÓN DE LOS PARÁMETROS FISICOQUÍMICOS ÓPTIMOS PARA LA RECUPERACIÓN DE QUERATINA DE FIBRAS DE Vicugna pacos (ALPACA) MEDIANTE EL USO DE LÍQUIDOS IÓNICOS PRÓTICOS

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    Angulo Vargas, Sheyla Joseline

    2016-01-01

    Los líquidos iónicos próticos (PILs) son una nueva clase de disolventes que entre otras aplicaciones, permiten la disolución de polímeros naturales; en la presente tesis se han sintetizados varios PILs de base amoniacal, utilizando para esto cuatro cationes diferentes (trietanolamina, dietilamina, dietanolamina, dimetiletanolamina) y dos aniones (ácido acético y ácido fórmico), con el objetivo de disolver fibra de Vicugna pacos (alpaca), una forma de queratina, que en su porció...

  10. Determinación de los Parámetros Fisicoquimicos Optimos para la Recuperación de Queratina de Fibras de Vicugna pacos (Alpaca) Mediante el uso de líquidos Ionicos Proticos

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    Angulo Vargas, Sheyla Joseline

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Los líquidos iónicos próticos (PILs) son una nueva clase de disolventes que entre otras aplicaciones, permiten la disolución de polímeros naturales; en la presente tesis se han sintetizados varios PILs de base amoniacal, utilizando para esto cuatro cationes diferentes (trietanolamina, dietilamina, dietanolamina, dimetiletanolamina) y dos aniones (ácido acético y ácido fórmico), con el objetivo de disolver fibra de Vicugna pacos (alpaca), una forma de queratina, que en su porción co...

  11. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

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    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

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    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures.

  13. ALTERACIONES ANÁTOMO-HISTOPATOLÓGICAS TESTICULARES EN ALPACAS (Vicugna pacos) BENEFICIADAS EN NUÑOA, PUNO.

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    Barrios S., William; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Chavera C., Alfonso; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Huamán U., Héctor; Laboratorio de Bioquímica, Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Huanca L., Wilfredo; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal,Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2011-01-01

    Se determinó la frecuencia y se caracterizó las alteraciones anátomo-histopatológicas testiculares en alpacas beneficiadas en la zona de Nuñoa, Puno. Se hizo el examen macroscópico de los testículos de 177 alpacas, donde 102 presentaron tamaño y peso disminuido, además de quistes epididimarios uni o bilaterales. Muestras de tejido testicular se fijaron con Solución de Bouin por 28 horas, y se tiñeron con Hematoxilina y Eosina, Ácido Periódico de Schiff y Tricrómico de Masson. Se encontró una ...

  14. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity.

  15. Localization of orexin B and receptor 2 for orexins in testicular cytotypes of the camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

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    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; Assisi, L; Mirabella, N; Langella, E; Costagliola, A; Vittoria, A

    2017-02-08

    The orexins A (OxA) and B (OxB) are two hypothalamic peptides involved in many physiological functions of the mammalian body. They act through the binding of two G-coupled receptors named receptor 1 (OX1 ) and receptor 2 (OX2 ) for orexins. The first receptor is specific for OxA, while the second binds both the substances with equal affinity. The orexins and the relative receptors have been traced by means of different techniques also at the periphery of the body and particularly in the adrenals, and in gastrointestinal and genital organs. Aim of this work was to investigate the presence of OxB and OX2 by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca, a species primarily breed in Chile and Ecuador and recently diffused in Europe where the quality of its wool is particularly appreciated. OxB immunoreactivity (IR) was found in the tubular compartment of the testis where spermatogonia (resting), zygotene and pachytene spermatocytes, and spermatids clearly showed differently sized and shaped cytoplasmic positive structures. OX2 -IR was found both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the testis and particularly in Leydig cells and round and elongated spermatids. Western blotting analysis of testis lysates showed the presence of a protein band whose molecular weight corresponded to that currently assigned to OX2 . Such findings easily translate the hypothesis that OxB and its receptor 2 play a functional role both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the alpaca testis.

  16. Pesquisa de anticuerpos seroneutralizantes para pestivirus y herpesvirus en ovinos, caprinos y camélidos sudamericanos de Chile Survey for antibodies to pestivirus and herpesvirus in sheep, goats, alpacas (Lama pacos, llamas (Lama glama guanacos (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna from Chile

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    M Celedón

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos por dilución punto final seroneutralizante (DPFSN para pestivirus (cepa NADL del virus de la diarrea viral bovina y para herpesvirus (cepa Los Angeles del virus herpes bovino 1, en muestras de sueros de 321 ovinos, 322 caprinos, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , procedentes de diferentes regiones del país. Para pestivirus se detectó reacción serológica positiva en 60 (18,7% ovinos, en 21 (6,5% caprinos, en 8 (10,8% alpacas y en 6 (14% llamas. Los guanacos y vicuñas fueron seronegativos para pestivirus. Para herpesvirus, la seropositividad se obtuvo en 8 (2,5% ovinos y 62 (19,3% caprinos. No se detectaron anticuerpos para herpesvirus en las muestras de camélidos. Según la distribución geográfica los mayores porcentajes de positividad resultaron ser: para pestivirus en ovinos de 2/3 predios de la XII Región (con positividad de 66,7% y 82,1%, con rangos de títulos de 16 a 710 y, para herpesvirus en caprinos de 5/6 predios de la IV Región (con positividad de 4,2%, 13,3%, 28,6%, 61,5% y 66,7%, con rango de títulos de 2 a 45. Las alpacas y llamas serorreaccionantes a pestivirus se encontraban ubicadas en la Región Metropolitana, en confinamiento en conjunto con otras especies de rumiantes, en cambio que las especies silvestres, guanacos y vicuñas fueron muestreadas en sus lugares de origen. Se confirma que en Chile existe infección por pestivirus en ovinos, caprinos, llamas y alpacas y por herpesvirus en ovinos y caprinosMicrotitration serum virus-neutralization tests were used to determine antibody titres for pestivirus: bovine viral diarrhea virus (NADL strain and herpesvirus: bovine herpes virus 1 (Los Angeles strain in 321 sheep, 322 goats, 74 alpacas (Lama pacos , 43 llamas (Lama glama , 48 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 34 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna , from several Regions of Chile. Antibodies to pestivirus were found

  17. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

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    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-03-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: alpaca [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gna_pacos_L.png Vicugna_pacos_NL.png Vicugna_pacos_S.png Vicugna_pacos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxono...my_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NS ...

  19. Mapping of CGRP in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

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    de Souza, Eliana; Coveñas, Rafael; Yi, Pedro; Aguilar, Luís Angel; Lerma, Luís; Andrade, Roy; Mangas, Arturo; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Angel

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the presence of immunoreactive structures containing calcitonin gene-related peptide in the alpaca brainstem. This is the first time that a detailed mapping of the cell bodies and fibers containing this neuropeptide in the alpaca brainstem has been carried out using an immunocytochemical technique. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were widely distributed throughout the alpaca brainstem. A high density of calcitonin gene-related peptide-immunoreactive perikarya was found in the superior colliculus, the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the trochlear nucleus, the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the motor trigeminal nucleus, the facial nucleus, the pons reticular formation, the retrofacial nucleus, the rostral hypoglossal nucleus, and in the motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, whereas a high density of fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide was observed in the lateral division of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the parvocellular division of the alaminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, the external cuneate nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, the laminar spinal trigeminal nucleus, and in the area postrema. This widespread distribution indicates that the neuropeptide studied might be involved in multiple functions in the alpaca brainstem.

  20. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

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    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information rega...

  1. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

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    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  2. Tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos on a farm in ireland. 2. results of an epidemiological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly DJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice, the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

  3. Effects on the quality of frozen-thawed alpaca (Lama pacos)semen using two different cryoprotectants and extenders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexei Santiani; Wilfredo Huanca; Rómulo Sapana; Teodosio Huanca; Néstor Sepúlveda; Raúl Sánchez

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate two extenders and two cryoprotectant agents (CPA) for alpaca semen cryopreservation. Methods:Semen samples were obtained from four adult alpacas (Lama pacos) and frozen using extender Ⅰ (TRIS, citrate, egg yolk and glucose) or extender Ⅱ (skim milk, egg yolk and fructose), each containing either glycerol (G) or ethylene glycol (EG) as CPA. Consequently, four groups were formed: 1) extender Ⅰ-G; 2) extender Ⅰ-EG; 3) extender Ⅱ-G;and 4) extender Ⅱ-EG. Semen was diluted in a two-step process: for cooling to 5 ℃ (extenders without CPA), and for freezing (extenders with CPA). Viability and acrosome integrity were assessed using trypan blue and Giemsa stains. Results: When compared, the motility after thawing was higher (P < 0.05) in groups Ⅱ-EG (20.0 % ± 6.7 %)and Ⅱ-G (15.3 % ± 4.1%) than that in groups Ⅰ-G (4.0 % ± 1.1%) and Ⅰ-EG (1.0 % ± 1.4 %). Viable spermatozoa with intact acrosomes in groups Ⅱ-EG (18.7 % ± 2.9 %) and Ⅱ-G (12.7 % ± 5.9 %) were higher than that in groups Ⅰ-G (5.7 % ± 1.5 %) and Ⅰ-EG (4.0 % ± 1.0 %). Conclusion: The skim milk- and egg yolk-based extenders containing ethylene glycol or glycerol to freeze alpaca semen seems to promote the survival of more sperm cells with intact acrosomes than the other extenders.

  4. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  5. Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadio, R; Londoñe, P; Pérez, D; Castillo, H; Véliz, A; Llanco, L; Yaya, K; Maturrano, L

    2010-02-26

    Histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from Clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the Departments of Arequipa, Puno and Cusco of southern Peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (January-March), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic enteritis. It is proposed that damage to the mucosa produced by coccidial infections may facilitate overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens with toxin production leading to fatal enterotoxemia.

  6. Characterization of Fusobacterium necrophorum isolated from llama and alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Anderson, David; Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G; Narayanan, Sanjeev K

    2013-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum, a Gram-negative, anaerobic bacterium, is an opportunistic animal and human pathogen that causes a variety of infections termed necrobacillosis. There are 2 subspecies of F. necrophorum (subsp. necrophorum and subsp. funduliforme) that differ morphologically and biochemically and in virulence. Leukotoxin, a secreted protein, is considered to be the major virulence factor. In camelids, F. necrophorum causes a variety of infections, generally involving the lips, tongue, pharynx, interdigital spaces, foot pad, larynx, mandible, or maxillary bones. The objective of the current study was to characterize the presumptive Fusobacterium isolates from a variety of necrotic infections in llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and determine whether the strains possess leukotoxin activities. A total of 7 isolates from alpaca and 2 isolates from llama were characterized. Based on growth characteristics in broth culture, and biochemical and polymerase chain reaction analyses, all 9 isolates belonged to subsp. necrophorum and possessed the putative hemagglutinin gene. Western blot analysis with antileukotoxin antibodies raised in rabbit showed the presence of leukotoxin protein in the culture supernatant of all isolates. Furthermore, flow cytometry of the culture supernatants demonstrated cytotoxicity to bovine and alpaca polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The extent of cytotoxicity to either alpaca or bovine PMNs differed among camelid strains. The cytotoxicity of many of the camelid strains was higher (P llama and alpaca are similar to bovine isolates, and leukotoxin may be a major virulence factor.

  7. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  8. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakritz J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  9. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Castellaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn. in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season. The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of sparse shrubland dominated by Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. and annual species in the herbaceous stratum, which were continually grazed by five male alpacas. The botanical composition and the forage dry matter available for grazing in the pasture was evaluated. Botanical composition of diets was estimated with the microhistological technique, using dung samples collected directly from the rectum. During the vegetative season, the most consumed plant species were annual and perennial grasses. In the reproductive season, the most important components of the diet were woody plant species, annual grasses and forbs. In the dry season, the diet was composed of a high percentage of woody plant species.La reintroducción de camélidos sudamericanos domésticos (alpaca y llamas en la zona central de Chile, hace necesario estudiar su comportamiento y adaptabilidad. En este contexto, la caracterización de la dieta es fundamental. Por ello, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las especies vegetales seleccionadas por las alpacas en diferentes etapas fenológicas del pastizal (vegetativo, reproductivo y seco. El estudio se realizó durante tres temporadas en un potrero de 2,5 ha ocupado por un matorral claro dominado por Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. y especies anuales en el estrato herbáceo, las cuales fueron pastoreadas continuamente por cinco alpacas macho. En la pradera se evaluó la composición botánica y la disponibilidad de la materia seca bajo pastoreo. La

  10. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare.

  11. Distribución de neuropéptidos en el diencéfalo de la alpaca (Lama pacos): estudio inmunocitoquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Medina, Luis Enrique

    2009-01-01

    [ES]En esta tesis se estudia en el diencéfalo de la alpaca la distribución del CGRP y de la leucinaencefalina, tras aplicar una técnica inmunocitoquímica. Para completar los resultados obtenidos previamente en el tronco del encéfalode la alpaca con ambos neuropéptidos. Además se estudia la distribución de neurotensina, somatostatina y ACTH, tras aplicar una técnia inmunocitoquímica. [EN]In this thesis we study in the diencephalon of the alpaca the distribution of CGRP and leucinaencefalina...

  12. Diversity and abundance of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in forestomach of alpacas (Lama pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Cai-Xia; Liu, Qiang; Dong, Chang-Sheng; Li, HongQuan; Jiang, Jun-Bing; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Two bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from the forestomach of alpacas and sheep fed alfalfa. After the amplification using the universal 16S rRNA gene primers, equal quantities of PCR products from the same species were mixed and used to construct the two libraries. Sequence analysis showed that the 60 clones from alpacas were divided into 27 phylotypes with 25% clones affiliated with Eubacterium sp. F1. The 60 clones from sheep were divided into 21 phylotypes with 7 phylotypes affiliated with Prevotella ruminicola (40% clones). Clones closely related to Clostridium proteoclasticum, Eubacterium sp. F1, Clostridium cellobioparum, Mogibacterium neglectum, Eubacterium ventriosum, Clostridiaceae bacterium WN011, Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium orbiscindens, Eubacterium sp. F1, Cytophaga sp. Dex80-37, Treponema bryantii and Pelotomaculum sp. FP were only found in the forestomach of alpacas, and those to Anaerovorax odorimutans, Treponema zioleckii, Bifidobacterium indicum, Paludibacter propionicigenes, Paraprevotella clara, Eubacterium siraeum, Desulfotomaculum sp. CYP1, Clostridium bolteae, Clostridium termitidis and Clostridiaceae bacterium DJF_LS40 only in the rumen of sheep. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the forestomach of alpacas had significantly lower density of bacteria, with bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies (6.89 [Log10 (copies per gram of wet weight)]), than that of sheep (7.71, Pclone libraries also appeared different in Shannon index (library from alpacas 3.30 and from sheep 3.04). Our results showed that there were apparent differences in the bacterial diversity and abundance in the forestomach between alpacas and sheep.

  13. 雌性羊驼子宫的B超检测%The Ultrasonic Monitor of Uterus in Female Alpacas(Lama Pacos)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建山; 贺俊平; 程志学; 董常生

    2012-01-01

    To establish and optimize the ultrasonotomography assay for the inspection of the alpaca uterus and explore the reproductive characters of alpaca, 3 non-pregnant mature alpaca were used for studying through trans-rectum palpation, trans-rectum ultrasonic inspection and dissection. There were the same result using the three inspection methods. The results showed that the uterine horn curled slightly, the uterine wall was echotexture, there was no cavum in the uterus. The alpaca cervix had 3 annular folds.%为建立优化B超对羊驼子宫的系统检测技术,探索羊驼繁殖特性,选用3只未妊娠成年羊驼对子宫进行直肠检测、超声检测和解剖观察研究,结果显示,超声检测下,子宫角略弯,可见子宫壁回声,内无空腔,中间夹杂有点状回声,子宫颈可见3道环形皱褶.超声结果与直肠检测和解剖结果一致.

  14. Comparación de las características físicas de las fibras de la llama ch´aku (Lama glama) y la alpaca Huacaya (Lama pacos) del centro experimental Quimsachata del INIA – Puno

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina. Escuela de Posgrado. Maestría en Producción Animal Los objetivos fueron evaluar los efectos de especie y sexo sobre las características físicas de las fibras de llama Ch´aku y alpaca Huacaya de un año de edad, del Centro Experimental Quimsachata del INIA – Puno y determinar las correlaciones de las principales características. Las muestras de fibra se obtuvieron del C.E. Quimsachata del INIA, ubicada en distrito de Santa Lucia (Puno-Perú); y fueron a...

  15. Inducción de la reacción acrosómica en espermatozoides de ratón mediante solubilizados de zona pelucida de alpaca (Lama pacos L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La acrosina, es uno de los componentes principales del acrosoma, presenta actividad similar a la tripsina, y es liberado luego de la reacción acrosómica (RA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la inducción de la RA en espermatozoides de ratón con zonas pelúcidas homólogas y heterólogas. Espermatozoides de ratón capacitados por 2 horas en medio IVF suplementado con albúmina, heparina y suero sintético a 37 ºC y 5% CO2 fueron incubados en ausencia de Zona Pelucida (ZP o en presencia de solubilizados de ZP aisladas de ratón (0,78 mg/ml y alpaca (0,78 mg/ml y 2,35 mg/ml. La RA se evaluó mediante inmunocitoquímica con anticuerpo monoclonal anti-acrosina humana C5F10 a intervalos de 1 hora durante 4 horas. Los resultados obtenidos en espermatozoides de ratón evidencian un incremento signifi cativo (p< 0,05 de la reacción acrosó- mica inducida con ZP homóloga y heteróloga.

  16. Urogenital leiomyosarcoma in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y; Poulsen, Keith P; McGuirk, Sheila M; Livesey, Michael A; Koch, Christoph; Perrier, Melanie P; Pinkerton, Marie E

    2010-12-01

    A mass in the pelvic canal of a 4-year-old pregnant alpaca hembra diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract was confirmed by biopsy. Following a tube cystotomy, the alpaca was presented 33 d later, 2 d after the tube cystotomy had been dislodged. A dead cria was delivered by caesarean section.

  17. The Effects of Endothelin-3 on the Melanocyte Characteristic and Expression of Hair Color Genes in Melanocytes from Alpaca (Lama Pacos) in vitro%内皮素-3对羊驼黑色素细胞特征及细胞内毛色基因表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿建军; 白俊明; 范瑞文; 杨姗姗; 庞亚妙; 董常生

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of endothelin-3 (EDN3) on the expression of hair color genes of alpaca.The activity of melanocyte,the production of melanin in melanocytes and the expressions of related genes and proteins including Endothelin receptor B (EDNRB),KIT,Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) in alpaca melanocytes in cultures with addition of different dose of EDN3(0,10-9,10-8,10-7mol · L-1),were examined by MTT,ultraviolet spectrophotometry,qRT-PCR and Western blotting,respectively.The results showed that the amount of melanocytes was increased with the increasing double-or tri-dendrites; At the addition dose of 10-8 mol · L-1 for 72 h after adding EDN3,compared to control group,the proliferation of melanocytes was obvious and the expressions of EDNRB,KIT,MITF and TYR significantly up-regulated at the level of both transcription and translation in melanocytes(P<0.05).Moreover,the production of melanin in melanocytes significantly increased(P<0.05).These findings indicate that EDN3 play an important role in regulating melanins production in melanocytes in alpaca.%为了研究内皮素-3(Endothelin-3,EDN3)对羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞内毛色形成相关基因的影响.本研究在体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加不同浓度(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol· L-1)的EDN3,通过MTT法、紫外分光光度法、qRT-PCR和Western blotting技术分别检测黑色素细胞活力、黑色素产量、相关基因和蛋白(包括内皮素受体B(Endothelin receptor B,EDNRB)、KIT、小眼畸形相关转录因子(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR))的表达情况.结果表明,在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞添加EDN3 72 h 后,黑色素细胞呈双树突或三树突状,且细胞数量明显增加;在添加适当浓度10-8mol·L-1时,细胞具有明显的增殖,细胞内EDNRB、KIT、MITF和TRY在转录水平和蛋白水平的表达量被上调,

  18. The PACo channel strategy; La strategie du reseau PACo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The PACo channel was created in june 1999 to answer government demands in the domain of new energies, to stimulate the new technologies development and to participate to enterprises growth. The first year was devoted in particular to the fuel cell and the hydrogen fuel. This document presents an analysis of the first year of program management. (A.L.B.)

  19. Septic orchitis in an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Swor, T M; Löhr, C V; Tibary, A; Barrington, G M

    2000-09-01

    An adult, intact male alpaca was presented with an acute onset of unilateral scrotal swelling. Following complete physical and ultrasonographic examination, the most likely differential diagnoses were orchitis, hematoma, and testicular torsion. The animal was castrated and histopathologic evaluation revealed unilateral orchitis. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was cultured.

  20. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this

  1. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  2. Seasonal effects on gestation length and birth weight in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G H; Dodds, K G; Moore, G H; Bruce, G D

    1997-04-01

    Gestation lengths and birth weights were measured in 162 pregnancies in alpacas (Lama pacos) farmed in the high country of the South Island of New Zealand. A comparison of pregnancies from spring (mid-October to mid-December) and autumn (mid-February to late April) matings showed that gestation lengths were 12.5 days longer in spring (348.9 +/- 1.4 days vs. 336.4 +/- 1.2 days; P gestation length of 0.11 days (P gestation length. After adjustment for gestation length, crias born in autumn weighed 1.0 kg more than those born in spring (8.8 +/- 0.15 kg vs. 7.8 +/- 0.18 kg: P < 0.001). Female crias weighed 0.4 kg less than males at birth (P < 0.05). The results suggest that in this environment it will be difficult to maintain spring-mated females in a 12 month breeding cycle.

  3. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective.

  4. Prospección serológica del virus parainfluenza 3 en camélidos sudamericanos en Chile A serological survey of parainfluenza-3 virus in South American camelids from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CP Cepeda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En un total de 370 sueros obtenidos de 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Llama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe y 106 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna se investigó la presencia de anticuerpos para el virus parainfluenza 3 (VPI-3. La prueba de inhibición de la hemoaglutinación mostró que 91 (24,6% de los camélidos sudamericanos (CSA distribuidos en 18 (20,7% alpacas, 36 (40,9% llamas, 27 (18,9% vicuñas y 10 (11,2% guanacos tenían anticuerpos. El rango de los títulos de las muestras positivas estuvo entre 8 y 256 con una media geométrica de 31. Los resultados establecen que los CSA en Chile están infectados con VPI-3.A total of 370 sera collected from 87 alpacas (Lama pacos, 88 llamas (Lama glama, 89 guanacos (Lama guanicoe and 106 vicunas (Vicugna vicugna were investigated for the presence of antibodies to parainfluenza 3 virus (PIV-3. Hemagglutination inhibition test indicated that a total of 91 (24.6% South American camelids (SAC had PIV-3 antibodies, including 18 (20.7% alpacas, 36 (40.9% llamas, 27 (18.9% vicunas and 10 (11.2% guanacos. Titers of the positive samples ranged from 8 to 256 with a geometric mean of 31. These results establish that SAC in Chile are infected with PIV-3.

  5. Reproductive endocrinology of llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis in endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Basic concepts of ovarian follicular dynamics, endocrine events associated with induction of ovulation, corpus luteum formation, pregnancy, parturition, postpartum interval, puberty, and sexual behavior on the female are reviewed. Pathologic conditions of the reproductive process are also reviewed.

  6. The Late Pleistocene distribution of vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) and the “extinction” of the gracile llama (“Lama gracilis”): New molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jaco; Shapiro, Beth; Prieto, Alfredo; Marín, Juan Carlos; González, Benito A.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-07-01

    We present the results of a palaeogenetic analysis of two Late Pleistocene camelids originating in southern Chile. Our analysis of two mitochondrial DNA fragments (control region and cytochrome b gene) reveals that these specimens do not belong to an extinct taxon, but rather to extant vicuña ( Vicugna vicugna), whose modern distribution is restricted to the extreme elevations of the Andes, more than 3500 km to the north of where these specimens originated. Our results also suggest fossil specimens from Patagonia that are currently assigned to the extinct taxon Lama gracilis, may actually belong to V. vicugna, implying a continuous distribution of the latter from the southern tip of South America to the Andes during the Final Pleistocene. The haplotypes of both specimens are not present in modern populations, suggesting a loss of genetic diversity concomitant with the contraction of the vicuña geographical distribution during the Final Pleistocene or early Holocene.

  7. Variabilidad y estructura genética en dos poblaciones de Vicugna vicugna (Camelidae del norte de Chile Genetic variability and structure in two populations of Vicugna vicugna (Camelidae from northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CECILIA NORAMBUENA

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se estudiaron dos poblaciones de Vicugna vicugna pertenecientes a la Primera y Segunda regiones del país, en base a la determinación electroforética de 28 loci presumtivos. Las diferencias fenotípicas existentes entre las vicuñas de estas poblaciones hace necesario este trabajo con el fin de re-estudiar su posición taxonómica y obtener antecedentes de variabilidad genética y estructura poblacional que podrían resultar útiles en su manejo de conservación. En la población de vicuñas de la Primera Región se detectó un polimorfismo de 17,8 % y un nivel de heterocigosidad de 0,078. En aquellas de la Segunda Región, el polimorfismo y la heterocigosidad se estimaron en 14,3 % y 0,045, respectivamente. Ambos parámetros revelan un alto grado de variabilidad genética poblacional. Se encontró un nivel de subestructuración démica alto (F ST = 0,344 y un grado de diferenciación génico y genotípico significativo entre las poblaciones. Se infiere que la deriva genética y el sistema social poligámico tendrían un rol importante como promotores de las diferencias genéticas observadas. El valor de distancia génica (D = 0,097 no confirmó el estatus subespecífico atribuido en base a sus diferencias morfológicas.Two populations of Vicugna vicugna from regions First and Second of Chile were studied on the basis of the electrophoretic determination of 28 presumptive loci. Due to the phenotypic differences between the populations mentioned above, this kind of study is required to determine some parameters like taxonomic status, genetic variability and population structure in order to help in conservation management of the specie. The percentage of polymorphism and the level of heterozigosity of vicuñas from the First region were 17.8 % and 0.078, respectively. The corresponding figures of vicuñas from the Second were 14.3 % and 0.045, respectively. These two parameters show that the two populations have a high degree of genetic

  8. Pharmacokinetics of intrarectal omeprazole in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmulak, T; Stanley, S; Kass, P H; Wiebe, V; McKemie, D; Pusterla, N

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole in three different vehicles when administered rectally to six alpacas. Alpacas were given single doses of omeprazole (4 mg/kg) in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over design with a 1 week washout period. Omeprazole formulations consisted of (1) Treatment A: omeprazole paste mixed in surgical lubricant (2) Treatment B: omeprazole capsule contents in 8.4% sodium bicarbonate and (3) Treatment C: omeprazole capsule contents in surgical lubricant and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate solution. Plasma samples were drawn at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 300 and 480 min. Omeprazole plasma concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic results demonstrated median peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of 7.35 (3.2-15.2), 7.30 (1.7-10.9) and 8.65 (1.8-19.3) ng/mL and median area under the concentration curve (AUC((0-180))) of 747 (237-1681) min x ng/mL, 552.9 (39-1063) min x ng/mL, and 972 (107-1841) min x ng/mL for treatments A, B and C, respectively. The median half-lives were similar between groups: 38, 50, and 53 min. As a result of the low measured omeprazole plasma concentrations, it is assumed that rectal absorption of omeprazole is poor in alpacas and not an effective route of administration.

  9. Antibodies to pathogenic livestock viruses in a wild vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) population in the Argentinean Andean altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoppido, Gisela; Parreño, Viviana; Vilá, Bibiana

    2010-04-01

    Serum samples from 128 wild vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) were tested for antibodies (Ab) to rotavirus (RV), bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV-1), foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), bluetongue virus (BTV), equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and influenza A virus equine (EIV). Samples were collected in Cieneguillas Province of Jujuy, in northern Argentina. Feces from 44 vicuñas were also collected to investigate RV shedding. Llamas (Lama glama) and domestic cattle (Bos taurus) from the area studied also were tested for antibodies to these viruses. Antibodies against RV (100%) and BPIV-3 (37%) were detected in the vicuñas sampled. No RV antigen was detected in any of the fecal samples tested. One vicuña was positive for Ab to BHV-1 (0.8%) and another for BVDV-1 (0.8%). The Ab prevalences detected in llamas were: 100% (16/16) for RV, 47% (8/17) for BPIV-3, 17.6% (3/17) for BHV-1, and 5.9% (1/17) for BVDV-1. However, domestic cattle had high antibody prevalences for RV and BPIV-3, 100% (13/13) and 73% (11/15), respectively, but were negative for Ab to BHV-1 and BVDV. No antibodies against FMDV, BTV, EHV-1, or EIV were detected in wild vicuñas or domestic species. Because no data of viral circulation on wild vicuñas are available, this report represents the first evidence of viral infection in wild vicuñas from the Argentinean Andean Puna.

  10. Health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Wheeler, Jane Collins; Rosadio, Raúl; García-Peña, Francisco Javier; Arnaiz-Seco, Ignacio; Hoces, Domingo; Castillo, Hugo; Veliz, Álvaro; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2014-04-01

    To determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in Peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic South American camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten Andean communities at the Salinas y Aguada Blanca reserve, province of Arequipa, southern Peru. Samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (FMD), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), brucellosis, bluetongue disease (BT), paratuberculosis, and neosporosis. Serological results showed that 1.9% (4/207) of vicuñas, 18.6% (106/571) of alpacas, and 23.3% (10/43) of llamas were positive to one or more Leptospira serovars. One percent of vicuñas (2/207) and 2.4% of domestic camelids (15/614) had Neospora caninum antibodies tested by ELISA, but only two vicuñas and two alpacas were confirmed by Western blot. Epidemiological evaluation found an association of leptospirosis to sex and age (p < 0.001), with female subjects older than 2.5 years at higher risk of infection. Interestingly, antibodies against Leptospira serovars were only found in captive vicuñas. This is the first study where health status of free-ranging and captive vicuñas has been compared. Results indicate minimal to nil presence of FMD, BVD, BHV-1, brucellosis, BT, paratuberculosis, and neosporosis allied to health disorders in our sample. The detection of seropositive animals against Leptospira, however, unveils the likely significance of leptospirosis in wild and domestic South American camelids, the impact of mixed husbandry over vicuña population and the risk to human health.

  11. Flamenco guitarist Paco Peña tours CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    CERN continues to attract a wide variety of visitors. On 5 June, it was the turn of renowned flamenco guitarist Paco Peña. With a broad interest in science, Peña was here to celebrate his 60th birthday, accompanied by friends David Ashton and Chrissie Twigg, and his wife Karin.     Paco Peña during his visit to ATLAS. Paco Peña’s most famous compositions include Misa Flamenca, a Flamenco Mass, and Requiem for the Earth. In 1997, he was named Oficial de la Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil by King Juan Carlos of Spain. "This is truly amazing!" said Peña after seeing the ATLAS detector. His wife confessed that she had never seen him take so many pictures. The group asked numerous questions during their visit. It is not always easy to impress world travellers, but the ATLAS detector did the trick.

  12. Stable recombinant alpaca antibodies for detection of Tulip virus X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.

    2008-01-01

    For detection of the plant pathogenic Tulip virus X (TuVX), a panel of six recombinant antibodies was identified. To this end, a repertoire of variable domains from heavy-chain immunoglobulins (VHH) was cloned from an alpaca, which had been immunized with TuVX. Binding domains were selected by phage

  13. A three-step approach to minimise the impact of a mining site on vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and to restore landscape connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Galaz, José Luis; Cadorzo, César; Lagunas, Héctor

    2016-07-01

    Resource extraction projects generate a diversity of negative effects on the environment that are difficult to predict and mitigate. Consequently, adaptive management approaches have been advocated to develop effective responses to impacts that were not predicted. Mammal populations living in or around mine sites are frequently of management concern; yet, there is a dearth of published information on how to minimise the negative effects of different phases of mining operations on them. Here, we present the case study of a copper mine in the Chilean Altiplano, which caused roadkills of the protected vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). This issue led to a three-step solution being implemented: (1) the initial identification of the problem and implementation of an emergency response, (2) the scientific analysis for decision making and (3) the planning and informed implementation of responses for different future scenarios and timescales. The measures taken under each of these steps provide examples of environmental management approaches that make use of scientific information to develop integrated management responses. In brief, our case study showed how (1) the timescale and the necessity/urgency of the case were addressed, (2) the various stakeholders involved were taken into account and (3) changes were included into the physical, human and organisational elements of the company to achieve the stated objectives.

  14. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    González-Acuña,D.; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L; Castro, D

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  15. New file format PaCo for standardized data and meta data exchange; PaCo - Ein neues Datenformat zum standardisierten Austausch von Parameterwerten und Meta-Informationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gekeler, M. [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The definition of the PaCo format enables the transport of parameter values as well as qualification stage information. Since PaCo is based on a unified naming of the qualification stage and their meanings, it is possible to exchange data between different companies. Additionally, the use of one PaCo file containing parameter values and qualification stage information together increases process safety. PaCo also provides reliable documentation of the qualification stage for each parameter and allows the user the possibility to estimate the overall project state. (orig.)

  16. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    Full Text Available Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN FENOTÍPICA Y PRODUCTIVA DE LA EXPLOTACIÓN DE ALPACAS EN LA COMUNIDAD DE HUAYTIRE Y ESTABLECIMIENTO DE UNA LÍNEA DE BASE SISTEMATIZADA CON FINES DE MEJORAMIENTO GANADERO – TACNA 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    LA ALPACA. GENERALIDADES LÍNEA DE BASE. GENERALIDADES ASPECTOS METODOLÓGICOS VARIABILIDAD FENOTÍPICA EN ALPACAS ESTRUCTURA POBLACIONAL DE ALPACAS EN LOS REBAÑOS FAMILIARES CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA FIBRA DE ALPACA MALFORMACIONES FENOTÍPICAS EN ALPACAS

  18. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  19. Distribución de sustancia P y metioninaencefalina en el tronco del encéfalo de la alpaca (lama pacos): estudio inmunocitoquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Eliana de Souza

    2009-01-01

    [ES]El presente trabajo trata de la distribución de neuropéptidos en el sistema nervioso central de mamíferos, mediante la aplicación de técnicas inmunocitoquímicas. Hasta hoy hemos descrito en el sistema nervioso central de mamíferos la distribución de fibras y somas que contienen neuropéptidos pertenecientes a numerosas familias de neuropéptidos . Este trabajo es parte de la línea que se viene desarrollando sobre la distribución de neuropéptidos en el sistema nervioso central de la alpac...

  20. Automatic Feature Interaction Analysis in PacoSuite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Vanderperren

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we build upon previous work that aims at recuperating aspect oriented ideas into component based software development. In that research, a composition adapter was proposed in order to capture crosscutting concerns in the PacoSuite component based methodology. A composition adapter is visually applied onto a given component composition and the changes it describes are automatically applied. Stacking multiple composition adapters onto the same component composition can however lead to unpredictable and undesired side-effects. In this paper, we propose a solution for this issue, widely known as the feature interaction problem. We present a classification of different interaction levels among composition adapters and the algorithms required to verify them. The proposed algorithms are however of exponential nature and depend on both the composition adapters and the component composition as a whole. In order to enhance the performance of our feature interaction analysis, we present a set of theorems that define the interaction levels solely in terms of the properties of the composition adapters themselves.

  1. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in females alpacas of SAIS Pachacutec, Central Sierra of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cruz C., Hernán; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Casas A., Eva; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Li E., Olga; Laboratorio de Patología Clínica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in alpacas at the production unit of Cuyo, part of SAIS Pachacutec in the Central Sierra of Peru. Blood samples were collected in 258 female alpacas in January 2003. Sera were tested against T. gondii antibodies by the Indirect Immunoflorescence test (IFI). The results showed that 8.5 ± 3.4% (22/258) of animals had antibodies against the parasite. This frequency is lower than in other alpac...

  3. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  4. Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in Alpacas on Two Maryland Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty one fecal samples were collected from adult alpacas and crias (ages 10 wk to 10 yr) on two farms in central Maryland. The farms raised both suri (silky-haired) and huacaya (crimpy-haired) breeds. Females and crias were housed together on pasture, whereas older/breeding males were maintained o...

  5. Generation of recombinant alpaca VHH antibody fragments for the detection of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwelingen, van A.M.M.L.; Saeger, de T.; Rusanova, T.; Waalwijk, C.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To develop sensor technologies based on genetically engineered recognition elements, recombinant antibodies characterised by high stability are a prerequisite. Here we describe the first successful isolation of recombinant alpaca single-domain antibody fragments with high affinity to the mycotoxin o

  6. Alianzas paródicas y melancolía en Paco Ignacio Taibo II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, C.C. van

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines Paco Ignacio Taibo II’s detective novels, which narrate communitarian battles against power through parody. The essay hones in on the relationship between parody and melancholy, which are relevant to understand that, in Taibo II’s novels, imagining popular alliances is both enter

  7. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas.

  8. [Nonsurgical and surgical treatment of an urachal fistula in an alpaca cria. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubus, K; Wöckel, A; Felton, C; Schwarzenberger, J; Sobiraj, A

    2015-01-01

    Urachal fistula is a neonatal condition. There are two reported forms: a congenital and an acquired form. We describe the case of a 6-hour-old female alpaca cria that was presented with a damp umbilicus and a meconium impaction. Conservative treatment of the urachal fistula with local and systemic medication was unsuccessful after 6 days; therefore, a resection of the umbilicus under general anaesthesia was performed. Reconvalescence was uneventful.

  9. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA and brown alpaca (BA skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation.

  10. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants.

  11. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en alpacas - Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza. Puno-Perú 2005

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% (18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. This study was carried out in the Histology and Embriology laboratory at the Medicine Veterinary and Zootecny of the Altiplano National University, with alpacas coming from the EPS Rural Alliance (4140 m.a.s.l., Quimsachata Research Center (4050 m.a.s.l. and the Raya Research Center (4130 m.a.s.l. whose objective was the study the process of the uterine involution after parturition from day 0 to 30. For such purpose 34 multiparous alpacas from 4 to 6 year old were selectec. The results were: Macroscopically the uterusweight lost 71,07% (385,25g, 25,54% (138,55g and 3,42% (18,6g at first

  12. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...... Vmean and the end-tidal carbon-dioxide tension (PETCO2) decrease, suggesting that PaCO2 contributes to the reduction in MCA Vmean. In a fixed body position, PETCO2 tracks changes in the PaCO2 but when assuming the upright position, cardiac output (Q) decreases and its distribution over the lung changes...

  13. Claves para una lectura musical de la obra de Paco de Lucía

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Cortés, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    A modo de homenaje, nuestro texto propone la lectura musical de la obra de Paco de Lucía a partir del análisis de cinco claves: la técnica de guitarra, el ritmo, la armonía, la melodía y los préstamos de otras músicas en torno a dos ejes, el grupo flamenco y el cajón. Acotaciones sobre el concepto de “toque flamenco”, sobre el Niño Ricardo y sobre Sabicas completan esta lectura de la obra del recién fallecido Maestro de Algeciras

  14. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  15. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species–genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  16. Estudio macro-microscópico de la involución uterina postparto en Alpacas (Macro and microscopic of uterine involution postpartum in alpacas summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MVZ. Augusto Excelmes Loza.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevo a cabo en el Laboratorio de Histología y Embriología de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional del Altiplano; con alpacas provenientes de la Rural Alianza E.P.S. (4,140m.s.n.m, Centro Experimental Quinsachata-INIA (4,050 m.s.n.m y el Centro de Investigación y Producción La Raya (4,130 m.s.n.m, cuyo objetivo fue el estudio del proceso de la involución uterina post parto en la alpaca, desde el parto hasta los 30dpp. Para tal propósito se estudiaron 34 alpacas multíparas de 4 a 6 años de edad. Los resultados fueron: Macroscópicamente: la perdida de peso del útero fue de: 71.07% (385,25g, 25.54% (138.55g y 3.42% (18.6g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo de la involución uterina. La reducción de Peso del cuerno uterino derecho fue de: 55.26% (37.55g, 38.63% (26.25g y 6.11% (4.15g al primer segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. La secuencia de la perdida de peso del cuerno uterino izquierdo fue de: 75.50% (159.5g, 19.58% (41.25g, y 4.92% (10.40g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El descenso de Peso del cuerpo del útero fue de: 76.60% (87.25g, 17.08% (19.45g y 6.32% (7.2g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo sucesivamente. El Peso de reducción gradual de la cervix fue de: 68% (47,15g, 26,10% 18,00g y 5,51% (3,8g al primer, segundo y tercer periodo respectivamente. Histológicamente: durante los primeros días la superficie uterina es irregular y presenta proyecciones endometriales de aspecto fungiforme y esta cubierto por células pavimentosas, estroma con la presencia de linfocitos, macrófagos y fibroblastos, glándulas reducidas en su diámetro. A partir del sexto día, muestra cambio en el regenerativo, el epitelio de hace predominantemente cúbico, Del sexto al doceavo día el epitelio continua irregular con pequeñas áreas con células epiteliales pavimentosas y cúbicas, lo cual coincide con el cambio en el peso del útero en forma significativa

  17. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of pion-pion scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Peláez, J R; Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J

    2009-01-01

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.

  18. In memory of Paco Yndurain: A precise determination of {pi}{pi} scattering from experiment and dispersion relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, J.R.; Garcia Martin, R. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica II, Univ. Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid. Spain (Spain); Kaminski, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Yndurain, F.J. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica, C-XI Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.

  19. Study of Neutron From a Dense Plasma Focus Paco Instrument by Means of Nuclear Tracks Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milanese

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A most interesting feature of dense plasma foci is the acceleration of charge particle at energy in the range of MeV per nucleon. Using deuterium gas, this devices produce fusion D-D reactions, generation fast neutron pulses (~ 2.5 MeV. The device used in the present work is a Mather-type dense plasma focus, called PACO. It is a 2kJ device at 31 kV, with an oxygen-free copper anode, 50 mm long with 40 mm diameter. The coaxial cathode is formed by ten copper rods arranged in a squirrel cage configuration at a radius of 50mm. The insulator in an annular Pyrex® tube located at the base of the anode. The energy store is provided by four 1 µF (40 kV, 40 nH capacitors in parallel. The plasma focus was operated at 1.5 mb deuterium gas pressure. Neutron and accelerated particles are analyzed with material detectors (CR-39 Lantrack® for different conditions. A detailed study is made of track diameters when the plastic is chemically etched with, 6N KOH at 60°C (±1 for 12 h.

  20. Changes in liveweight and behaviour of alpaca dams and offspring following weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J C; Littlejohn, R P; Davis, G H

    1993-12-01

    The effects of offspring sex, weight, age, and level of interaction with the dam on responses to weaning were examined to assist in the development of a weaning protocol for alpacas. In the first study, preand post-weaning activities, and weight change over Days -12-0,0-7 and 7-16 with respect to weaning, were recorded for 20 dam-offspring (hembra-cria) pairs aged 81-200 days. Pre-weaning changes in dam and offspring weights were positively related (Phembra weight change followed the same pattern. Over Days 0-2, grazing and sitting activities of hembras and crias were replaced by standing and walking along paddock fencelines, although by Day 2 fenceline activities had decreased (Phembra-cria pairs aged 124-160 days. During 10 hours of observation on Days -5 and -4, the total duration of sucking by individual crias varied from 0-18 minutes, and the mean +/- SEM duration of sucking was 1.94 +/- 0.113 minutes. Cria sucking behaviour was positively related to growth rate prior to and weight at weaning (Phembras lost weight over Days 0-8 and 8-16. The changes in growth rate and behaviour in Studies 1 and 2 indicated that weaning can be stressful for hembras and crias. However, there was no evidence from either study that pre-weaning behavioural or physical characteristics were related to the changes.

  1. Common Arterial Trunk in a 3-Day-Old Alpaca Cria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumugi Anne Kurosawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-day-old alpaca cria presented for progressive weakness and dyspnea since birth. Complete bloodwork, thoracic radiographs, and endoscopic examination of the nasal passages and distal trachea revealed no significant findings. Echocardiogram and contrast study revealed a single artery overriding a large ventricular septal defect (VSD. A small atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale was also noted. Color flow Doppler and an agitated saline contrast study revealed bidirectional but primarily right to left flow through the VSD and bidirectional shunting through the atrial defect. Differential diagnosis based on echocardiographic findings included common arterial trunk, Tetralogy of Fallot, and pulmonary atresia with a VSD. Postmortem examination revealed a large common arterial trunk with a quadricuspid valve overriding a VSD. Additionally, defect in the atrial septum was determined to be a patent foramen ovale. A single pulmonary trunk arose from the common arterial trunk and bifurcated to the left and right pulmonary artery, consistent with a Collet and Edwards’ type I common arterial trunk with aortic predominance. Although uncommon, congenital cardiac defects should be considered in animals presenting with clinical signs of hypoxemia, dyspnea, or failure to thrive.

  2. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  3. Variation in Bluetongue virus real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay results in blood samples of sheep, cattle, and alpaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Barbara P; Gardner, Ian A; Hietala, Sharon K; Crossley, Beate M

    2011-07-01

    Bluetongue is a vector-borne viral disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants. The epidemiology of this disease has recently changed, with occurrence in new geographic areas. Various real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time qRT-PCR) assays are used to detect Bluetongue virus (BTV); however, the impact of biologic differences between New World camelids and domestic ruminant samples on PCR efficiency, for which the BTV real-time qRT-PCR was initially validated are unknown. New world camelids are known to have important biologic differences in whole blood composition, including hemoglobin concentration, which can alter PCR performance. In the present study, sheep, cattle, and alpaca blood were spiked with BTV serotypes 10, 11, 13, and 17 and analyzed in 10-fold dilutions by real-time qRT-PCR to determine if species affected nucleic acid recovery and assay performance. A separate experiment was performed using spiked alpaca blood subsequently diluted in 10-fold series in sheep blood to assess the influence of alpaca blood on performance efficiency of the BTV real-time qRT-PCR assay. Results showed that BTV-specific nucleic acid detection from alpaca blood was consistently 1-2 logs lower than from sheep and cattle blood, and results were similar for each of the 4 BTV serotypes analyzed.

  4. GAT 3 - fuel cells and their management (PACoGES). Progress report; GAT 3 - piles a combustible et leur gestion (PACoGES). Rapport final (juillet 2002 a juin 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C.

    2005-07-01

    The Topic Analysis Group PACoGES ('Piles a Combustible et leur Gestion') has conducted thoughts on fuel cells and their management with all the searchers concern with researches and developments on fuel cells and in particular on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC, ITSOFC) running at high temperature (600 to 1000 C). This has concerned about 200 searchers working in about fifty laboratories (CNRS, CEA, EDF, GDF, INRETS, CNAM, Armines, and several industrial teams). Here is given the final report 2002-2004 concerning all the researches carried out by this Group. (O.M.)

  5. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China); Dong, Changsheng, E-mail: cs_dong@sxau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China)

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  6. Dense plasma focus PACO as a hard X-ray emitter: a study on the radiation source

    OpenAIRE

    Supán, L.; Guichón, S.; Milanese, Maria Magdalena; Niedbalski, Jorge Julio; Moroso, Roberto Luis; Acuña, H.; Malamud, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The radiation in the X-ray range detected outside the vacuum chamber of the dense plasma focus (DPF) PACO, are produced on the anode zone. The zone of emission is studied in a shot-to-shot analysis, using pure deuterium as filling gas. We present a diagnostic method to determine the place and size of the hard X-ray source by image analysis of high density radiography plates. Fil: Supán, L.. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Insti...

  7. “Sympathetic travelling”: horizontal ethics and aesthetics in Paco Ignacio Taibo’s Belascoarán Shayne novels

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article Jennifer Lewis argues that the detective novels of Paco Ignacio Taibo II adapt the conventions of the detective novel in order to examine and critique the idea of ‘Mexicanness’ in a post-colonial world.. She argues that these novels, with their unlikely (anti)hero, fantastic plots and playfully ironic style, respond in different ways to an array of different questions triggered by Mexico’s violent history: how to represent a city that is both “magical” and monstrous; how to re...

  8. La animalizaci??n como proceso de caracterizaci??n novelesca en la narrativa policiaca de Paco Ignacio Taibo II

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Parra, Diego

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar los mecanismos literarios al servicio de la caracterizaci??n de personajes basados en la animalizaci??n a lo largo de la narrativa polic??aca del autor mexicano Paco Ignacio Taibo II. A partir de un relevamiento l??xico, se trata de estudiar las referencias animales y el campo sem??ntico creado por estas im??genes: en particular uno muy rico ligado a la situaci??n de inestabilidad en el panorama pol??tico, social y econ??mico del M??xico contemp...

  9. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project: analysis of radio source properties between 5 and 217 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Massardi, Marcella; Bonavera, Laura; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Galluzzi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project has yielded observations of 464 sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) between 4.5 and 40 GHz. The main purpose of the project was to investigate the spectral properties of mm-selected radio sources at frequencies below and overlapping with the ESA's Planck satellite frequency bands, minimizing the variability effects by observing almost simultaneously with the first two Planck all-sky surveys. In this paper we present the whole catalogue of observations in total intensity. By comparing PACO with the various measures of Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) flux densities we found the best consistency with the PCCS "detection pipeline" photometry (DETFLUX) that we used to investigate the spectral properties of sources from 5 to 217 GHz. Of our sources, 91% have remarkably smooth spectrum, well described by a double power law over the full range. This suggests a single emitting region, at variance with the notion that "flat" spectra resu...

  10. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aba, M.A.; Forsberg, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I{sup 125}LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 {mu}3g L{sup -1}. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, declined to 15% at 4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}), 16% (7.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and 9.8% (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 {mu}L to 100 {mu}L (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs.

  11. De la relación entre identidad y alteridad en las representaciones televisivas de los usuarios de paco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alvarez Broz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo nos proponemos dar cuenta del modo en que el medio televisivo representa diferencialmente a la diversidad de usuarios de paco. Las imágenes y los discursos que se elaboran en torno de estos actores realizan un reenvío permanente a la clase social a la que pertenecen. De allí, es que nos interesa problematizar la relación entre identidad-alteridad que tematiza la televisión en las configuraciones sociodiscursivas que elabora, poniendo especial atención en las estrategias mediáticas que emplea para argumentar la construcción de tipos de usuarios diferentes.

  12. Effects of various anesthetic techniques and PaCO2 levels on cerebral oxygen balance in neurosurgical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍洋; 王强; 熊利泽; 胡胜; 曾祥龙

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of various anesthetic techniques and PaCO2 levels on cerebral oxygen supply/consumption balance during craniotomy for removal of tumors, and to explore an anesthetic technique for neurosurgery and an appropriate degree of PaCO2 during neuroanesthesia. Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients with supratentorial tumors for elective craniotomy, ASA grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ, were randomly allocated to six groups. Patients were anesthetized with continuous intravenous infusion of 2% procaine 1.0 mg*kg-1*min-1 in Group Ⅰ, inhalation of 1.0%-1.5% isoflurane in Group Ⅱ, and infusion of 2% procaine 0.5 mg*kg-1*min-1 combined with inhalation of 0.5%-0.7% isoflurane in Group Ⅲ during the period of study. The end-tidal pressure of CO2 (PET CO2 )was maintained at 4.0 kPa in these 3 groups. In Group Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ, the anesthetic technique was the same as that in Group Ⅰ but the PETCO2 was adjusted to 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 kPa respectively for 60 min during which the study was performed. The radial arterial and retrograde jugular venous blood samples were obtained at the onset and the end of this study for determining jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2), arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and cerebral extraction of oxygen (CEO2). Results: In Group Ⅰ and Ⅲ SjvO2, AVDO2 and CEO2 remained stable. Although SjvO2 kept constant, AVDO2 and CEO2 decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group Ⅱ. Moreover, AVDO2 and CEO2 in Group Ⅱ were significantly lower than those of Group Ⅲ (P<0.05). In Group Ⅳ, 60 min after hyperventilation, SjvO2 and jugular venous oxygen content(CjvO2) decreased markedly (P<0.01) while CEO2 increased significantly (P<0.01). In addition, SjvO2, CjvO2 and CEO2 in Group Ⅳ were significantly different from the corresponding parameters in Group Ⅴ and Group Ⅵ (P<0.05). In view of sustained excessive hyperventilation, SjvO2 was less than 50% in 37.5% patients of Group Ⅳ. Conclusion: Anesthesia with

  13. Héroïsme et conscience de l’échec chez Paco Ignacio Taibo II : le Mexique selon Cosa Fácil, La

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Michael

    2016-01-01

    « Héroïsme et conscience de l'échec chez Paco Ignacio Taibo II » s'intéresse, grâce à la grille d'identification générique que constitue l'organisation fonctionnelle du roman policier, aux anomalies fondamentales présentes dans l'oeuvre de l'écrivain mexicain Paco Ignacio Taibo II. Si la structure narrative propre au genre est l'illustration de l'indéfectible victoire de la Loi, alors, la décomposition progressive de toute la grammaire fondatrice doit être vue comme l'expression de la défianc...

  14. Uso de dos Análogos de Superóxido Dismutasa para prevenir la Desestabilizaciòn Espermática Prematura durante la Criopreservación y Vitrificación en espermatozoides de Alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Santiani Acosta, Alexei Vicent

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo consta de 3 experimentos y tuvo como objetivo principal evaluar el efecto de 2 antioxidantes análogos de superóxido dismutasa (Tempo y Tempol) durante los procesos de criopreservación y vitrificación de espermatozoides de alpaca sobre parámetros de funcionalidad espermática. En el Experimento 1, 15 muestras espermáticas obtenidas de la cola del epidídimo y 5 muestras de semen de alpaca fueron vitrificadas en medios Tris base y HTF utilizando diferentes azúcares (fructosa, ...

  15. Noninvasive ventilation for hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD and initial post-support deterioration of pH and PaCO2 may not predict failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Raj

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To correlate the degree of encephalopathy, baseline values of PaCO2 and pH, and their early response to NIV with eventual in-hospital outcome in patients of severe acute-on-chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure in COPD. Design: Retrospective review. Setting: Intensive care unit. Material and methods: 24 episodes of acute exacerbation of COPD in 17 patients (10 females, 7 males with a mean age of 59.5 years (range 48 - 82 where NIV was initiated. Data collected: encephalopathy score at baseline and at 24 hours, respiratory rate, breathing pattern, serial arterial blood gases, duration of NIV support per day and hospital days. Results: All patients had severe hypercapnia (mean peak PaCO2 89.0 mm Hg ± 21; range 66-143, respiratory acidosis (mean nadir pH 7.24 ± 0.058, range 7.14 - 7.33 and tachypnoea (mean respiratory rate 29.5 ± 4.69/mt; range 24 - 40. In 17 episodes, altered mental state was present (encephalopathy score 1.92 ± 1.32, median 2.5. Clinically stable condition occurred over several days (mean 13± 9.6 days; range 5 - 40. Intubation was avoided in 22 out of 24 episodes (91.6% despite significant initial worsening of PaCO2 and pH. Two patients died. The mean time on NIV was16.5 hours/day (range 4 - 22. Conclusions: In selected patients of COPD with acute hypercapnic failure on NIV worsening PaCO2 and pH in the initial hours may not predict failure provided the level of consciousness and respiratory distress improve.

  16. Keratins extracted from Merino wool and Brown Alpaca fibres: thermal, mechanical and biological properties of PLLA based biocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, E; Aluigi, A; Armentano, I; Morena, F; Emiliani, C; Martino, S; Santulli, C; Torre, L; Kenny, J M; Puglia, D

    2015-02-01

    Keratins extracted from Merino wool (KM) and Brown Alpaca fibres (KA) by sulphitolysis and commercial hydrolyzed keratins (KH) were used as fillers in poly(l-lactic) acid based biocomposites processed by solvent casting in chloroform. Different contents (1 wt.% and 5 wt.%) of keratins were considered and the morphological, thermal, mechanical, chemical and biological behaviours of the developed PLLA biocomposites were investigated. The results confirmed that surface morphologies of biocomposites revealed specific round-like surface topography function of different microsized keratin particles in different weight contents, such as the analysis of bulk morphologies which confirmed a phase adhesion strictly dependent by the keratin source. Transparency and thermal responses were deeply affected by the presence of the different keratins and their interaction with the PLLA matrix. Tensile test results underlined the possibility to modulate the mechanical behaviour of PLLA selecting the keratin type and content in order to influence positively the elastic and/or plastic response. It was demonstrated that surface characteristics of PLLA/KA systems also influenced the bovine serum albumin adsorption, moreover PLLA and PLLA biocomposites based on different kinds of keratins supported the culture of human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells, indicating that these biocomposites could be useful materials for medical applications.

  17. Parásitos de alevinos de gamitana (Colossoma macropomum y paco (Piaractus brachypomus cultivados en el C.I. Quistococha, Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alcántara Bocanegra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En acuicultura, los peces son susceptibles al ataque de virus, bacterias, hongos y ectoparásitos. Estos organismos se tornan en un serio problema cuando los peces se encuentran con bajas defensas naturales, se crían en altas densidades y/o se altera drásticamente la calidad de agua. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la fauna de parásitos presentes en alevinos de paco (Piaractus brachypomus y gamitana (Colossoma macropomum provenientes de estanques del Centro de Investigación Quistococha del IIAP. Un total de 30 ejemplares de cada especie fueron examinados a través de la preparación de frotis fresco de branquias, piel, aletas y tubo digestivo. Entre las dos especies estudiadas, gamitana demostró una mayor prevalencia de infestación, mayor intensidad de parásitos y mayor índice de infestación parasitaria. Los alevinos de paco mostraron una mayor resistencia a la propagación y al ataque de parásitos. Se identificaron monogeneos de las familias Dactylogyridae y Gyrodactylidae, solo en gamitana, mientras que el protozoo ciliado Trichodina se halló exclusivamente en paco. Los parásitos identificados no causaron ninguna mortalidad en los peces.

  18. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  19. 羊驼垂体催乳素(PRL)基因全长cDNA的克隆及序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the Full-length cDNA of PRL Gene from Alpaca Pituitary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛霖莉; 董常生; 赫晓燕; 范瑞文; 王海东; 曹靖; 郝欢庆

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical basis for studying biological function and application of alpaca prolactin (PRL), the alpaca PRL cDNA sequence were cloned and analyzed.According to the known cDNA sequences from mammals, alpaca PRL primers was designed and the full-length cDNA of PRL from alpaca pituitary was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE techniques.The size of full-length cDNA of PRL from alpaca pituitary was 959 bp and it contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 687 bp which encoded PRL precursor protein with 229 AA.PRL precursor protein was a single-chain polypeptide composed of 30-AA signal peptide and 199-AA mature peptide.The spatial structure of alpaca PRL protein was similar to human GH.The result of the sequence alignment showed that the amino acids composition of alpaca PRL was similar to most mammals, but the methionine at 81-AA (51-AA for mature peptide) might lead to different spatial structure which might impact functions of alpaca PRL.A phylogenetic tree constructed basing on the amino acid sequences of alpaca PRL and other organisms showed that the relationships between alpaca PRL and camel PRL were closest and that the evolution speed of alpaca was very slow with no ' episodic' evolution pattern as most mammals such as primates, rodents and ruminant.%获得并分析羊驼PRL基因cDNA全序列结构,为研究羊驼催乳素(PRL)的各种生物学作用和生产应用提供理论依据.根据已知的不同哺乳动物的PRL基因cDNA序列,设计羊驼PRL引物,运用RT-PCR方法和cDNA末端快速扩增(RACE)技术获得羊驼PRL基因cDNA全序列.羊驼PRL基因cDNA序列全长959 bp,编码区为687bp,编码229个氨基酸的PRL碰前体蛋白.预测羊驼PRL蛋白质的空间结构类似人生长激素(GH),但在81位(成熟肽为51位)为蛋氨酸可能导致蛋白空间结构的不同而影响羊驼PRL的功能;序列比对结果表明,羊驼PRL的cDNA序列与大多数哺乳动物相似.构建的基因进化树分析结果显示,羊驼PRL与骆

  20. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis.

  1. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles Basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1–2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence.

    Organic aerosol (OA is the most significant constituent of Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55% of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively, and that the overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively, with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA in Los Angeles.

    Water soluble organic mass (WSOM reaches maxima near 14:00–15:00 local time (LT, but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation mode aerosol, while afternoon SOA production coincides with the

  2. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO): chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, S. P.; Craven, J. S.; Schilling, K. A.; Metcalf, A. R.; Sorooshian, A.; Chan, M. N.; Flagan, R. C.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-08-01

    The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO) represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1-2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA) is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively). The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively), with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA) in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM) reaches maxima near 14:00-15:00 local time (LT), but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly in accumulation

  3. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1–2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively. The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively, with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM reaches maxima near 14:00–15:00 local time (LT, but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly

  4. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations.

  5. Pärnu mudaravila restaureerimine ja juurdeehitus = Restoration and extension of the Pärnu mud baths / Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teedumäe, Tarmo, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Restaureeritud ja uue juurdeehitusega Pärnu mudaravila Ranna puiestee 1, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Inga Raukas, Arhitektuuriagentuur, Allianss Arhitektid. Sisearhitektid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Tuuli Trei, Margit Teikari (Vaikla Stuudio). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  6. Causas de mortalidad de alpacas en tres principales centros de producción ubicados en puna seca y humeda del departamento de Puno (Causes of mortality of alpacas in three main centers of production located in dry and humid fist of the Puno department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani Paredes, Javier

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio se efectuó en tres principales centros de producción alpaquera del departamento de Puno: Rural Alianza EPS, CIP “La Raya” – UNA Puno ubicados en la zona agro ecológica de Puna húmeda y Anexo Quimsachata de INIA – Puno ubicado en la zona agro ecológica de Puna seca; con el objetivo de determinar las principales causas de mortalidad de alpacas. Mediante un estudio observacional analítico de tipo retrospectivo, utilizando los registros de mortalidad de las campañas de producción de 1998 – 2000. Determinándose que las principales causas de mortalidad dealpacas son: Agentes infecciosos 51.70%, anormalidades orgánicas24.08%, causas accidentales 13.36%, causas nutricionales 7.83% yenfermedades parasitarias 3.03%. Las causas infecciosas de mayorfrecuencia fueron: Las neumonías 31.12%, entero toxemia 20.90%,estomatitis 17.46% y otras en menor frecuencia. La mortalidad por causas orgánicas son la Caquexia de los animales 58.88%, aunque en puna seca la torsión intestinal y atonía ruminal son de mayor frecuencia. Se encontró como causas accidentales de muerte a: Traumatismos 50.30%, depredadores 28.63%, falsa deglución 7.35%, asfixia 7.16% y otros con menor frecuencia. Las principales causas nutricionales de mortalidad son:Desnutrición 27.12%, inanición 23.73%, falta de leche 19.32% y otras en menor proporción. Las causas parasitarias de mortalidad se determino: Sarna 33.33%, sarcosistiosis 28.95%, coccidiosis 25.44%, gastroenteritis verminosa 10.52%, dictiocaulosis e hidatidosis 0.88% respectivamente.SummaryThe present study took place in three main centers of alpaquera production of the department of Puno: Rural Alliance EPS, CIP “the Ray” - a Fist located in the zone ecological land of humid Fist and Quimsachata Annex of INIA - Fist located in the ecological zone land of dry Fist; with the aim of determining the main causes of mortality of alpacas. By means of an analytical observacional study

  7. CDK5对羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞TYR和MITF mRNA表达的调节%Regulation of TYR and MITF mRNA Expression by CDK5 in Alpaca Melanocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞娜; 范瑞文; 程志学; 田雪; 刘佳; 高磊; 马峥; 董常生

    2011-01-01

    为了证实CDK5是否参与羊驼毛色的形成,本研究主要对CDK5在羊驼黑色素细胞中调节TYR和MI TF的表达进行了研究.本研究首先采用免疫组织化学方法检测CDK5在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中的定位,再通过脂质体将CDK5转染于羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞,之后通过Western blot和qRT-PCR的方法检测转染后黑色素细胞中CDK5蛋白、TYR和MITF mRNA的表达.免疫组化结果显示CDK5位于黑色素细胞的胞质和细胞核内;Western blot结果显示转染组黑色素细胞中CDK5蛋白表达量明显高于对照组;qRT-PCR结果显示CDK5可下调MITF的表达,同时上调TYR的表达,转染组黑色素细胞中MITF和TYR mRNA的表达水平分别是对照组细胞的0.264 9和3.931 3倍.结果揭示CDK5可能通过调节黑色素细胞核中TYR和MITF mRNA的表达,从而参与调控羊驼毛色形成.%In order to investigate whether CDK5 could participate in the coat color formation of alpaca, the regulation of CDK5 on TYR and MITF expression in alpaca melanocytes was tested in this study. The localization of CDK5 in cultured alpaca melanocytes was examined by immunohis-tochemistry. Then CDK5 was transfected into cultured alpaca melanocytes by liposomes. Following the transfection, CDK5 protein was detected by Western blot and the expression of MITF and TYR was detected by quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR). The immunohistochemistry results showed that CDK5 was expressed in cytoplasm and nucleus of cultured alpaca melanocytes; Western blot results showed that the level of CDK5 protein was apparently higher in transfected melanocytes than that in normal melanocytes, and qRT-PCR results showed that the mRNA abundance of MITF was down-regulated while the mRNA abundance of TYR was up-regulated by the transfection with CDK5, and the expression level of MITF and TYR mRNA in transfected melanocytes was 0. 264 9 and 3. 931 3 folds higher than that in controlled melanocytes respectively. The results suggest

  8. Identificación de biomarcadores asociados con la infección de Mycobacterium bovis y la respuesta inmunológica protectora a la tuberculosis en alpacas

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculosis bovina es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa que afecta una amplia gama de hospederos en los que se encuentra la alpaca. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las características inmunológicas de la tuberculosis latente, utilizando como herramienta diagnóstica una técnica de inmunoensayo (ELISA) para medición de la citoquina interferón gamma (INF-γ), secretada por los leucocitos sensibilizados durante un periodo de cultivo de 24 horas con antígenos específicos (ESAT-6 y CFP10)...

  9. Evaluation of Differences between PaCO2 and ETCO2 by Age as Measured during General Anesthesia with Patients in a Supine Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Satoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the arterial to end-tidal partial pressure gradient of carbon dioxide according to age in the supine position during general anesthesia. Methods. From January 2001 to December 2013, we evaluated 596 patients aged ≥16 years who underwent general anesthesia in the supine position. The anesthetic charts of these 596 patients, all classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II, were retrospectively reviewed to investigate the accuracy of PaCO2 and ETCO2. Results. The a-ETCO2 was 3.0 ± 2.1 mmHg for patients aged 16 to <65 years and 4.1±3.1 mmHg for patients ≥65 years. The a-ETCO2 was 2.4±3.1 mmHg for patients aged 16 to 25 years, 3.1±2.2 mmHg for patients aged 26 to 35 years, 3.0±2.2 mmHg for patients aged 36 to 45 years, 3.4±2.0 mmHg for patients aged 46 to 55 years, 3.2±2.0 mmHg for patients aged 56 to 64 years, 4.3±3.2 mmHg for patients aged 65 to 74 years, and 3.7±2.8 mmHg for patients aged 75 to 84 years. Conclusion. The arterial to end-tidal partial pressure gradient of carbon dioxide tended to increase with increasing age.

  10. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life

  11. Changes in blood hemoglobin and blood gases PaO2 and PaCO2 in severe COPD overa three-year telemonitored program of long-term oxygen treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dal Negro Roberto W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the effects of long-term oxygen treatment (LTOT on blood hemoglobin (Hb in severe COPD are limited. The aim was to assess blood Hb values in severe COPD, and investigate the time-course of both Hb and blood gas changes during a 3-year telemetric LTOT. Methods A cohort of 132 severe COPD patients (94 males; 71.4 years ± 8.8 sd, newly admitted to the tele-LTOT program, was investigated. Subjects were divided according to their original blood Hb: group A: 2 and PaCO2 (mmHg, SaO2 (%, and BMI were measured at LTOT admission (t0, and at least quarterly over three years (t1-t3. Wilcoxon test was used to compare t0 vs. t1 values; linear regression to assess a possible Hb-BMI relationship; ANOVA to compare changes in Hb time-courses over the 3 years. Results LTOT induced a systematic increase of PaO2, and changes were significant since the first year (from 52.1 mmHg ± 6.6sd to 65.1 mmHg ± 8.7 sd, p 2 were quite similar. Comparable and equally significant trends were seen in all subgroups (p 2 dropped within the first year of LTOT (from 49.4 mmHg ± 9.1sd to 45.9 mmHg ±7.5 sd, p 0-t1 comparison proved significant (p 2 decline over the remaining two years (p  15 g/dl (ANOVA p 2, PaCO2 and SaO2 dramatically improved. In anemic subjects effects were smaller and slower, oxygenation being equally ameliorated by LTOT. Conclusions LTOT effects on Hb and PaCO2 are regulated by an Hb-dependent gradient which seems independent of the original impairment of blood gases and of effects on oxygenation.

  12. Más allá de Paco de Lucía. Una aproximación a la tradición del flamenco en el Campo de Gibraltar, Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia, mediática, histórica y artística generada por Paco de Lucía, tanto por el mismo como en su acompañamiento a ya mítico Camarón de la Isla ha generado un velo que enturbia al arte flamenco de todo el Campo de Gibraltar. Sin minusvalorar el aporte de la familia algecireña Sánchez la tradición jonda se puede rastrear hasta el siglo XVII y pervive en jóvenes valores del cante, el toque y el baile hasta el día de hoy. Como ejemplo basta mencionar dos nombres que son ejemplo de la pervivencia flamenca Corruco y la zaga de Los Chaqueta.

  13. DOSSIER: OSTEOMETRÍA DE CAMÉLIDOS SUDAMERICANOS / South American camelid osteometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés D. Izeta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de elementos óseos y su asignación a una especie animal concreta es un tema central para la zooarqueología. Por ello desde la década de 1970 se han estudiado las diferencias morfométricas que permiten la diferenciación de especies que comparten una morfología ósea similar, especialmente cuando ésta es el resultado de un proceso de domesticación o de mejora de alguno de los caracteres de la población (e.g. Albarella y Payne 2005, von den Driesch 1976, Davis 1996, Payne y Bull 1988, Reitz 1994, Uerpmann 1979, Weinstock 2003 y bibliografía allí citada. Esta similitud morfológica puede tener sus dificultades en casos particulares como el de los camélidos sudamericanos. Esta familia (Camelidae está compuesta actualmente por cuatro especies: Lama guanicoe Muller 1776 (guanaco, Lama glama Linnaeus 1758 (llama, Lama pacos o Vicugna pacos Linnaeus 1758 (alpaca y Vicugna vicugna o Lama (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 (vicuña.Ante la presencia de tantas variedades diferentes de camélidos es sumamente importante el estudio de las variaciones morfológicas, que permitan diferenciar las distintas especies, tema al que la osteometría pretende aportar nuevos datos para esta familia tan conspicua en el registro arqueológico y paleontológico sudamericano. Esto es una cuestión clave si lo que se intenta es realizar una reconstrucción paleoeconómica de las poblaciones humanas del pasado o de la paleoecología del ambiente en donde desarrollaron sus actividades.En los últimos años se ha implementado la aplicación de distintas técnicas sobre los restos de camélidos con el fin de avanzar en el análisis de la composición de los conjuntos recuperados de sitios arqueológicos de varias regiones del país y de países limítrofes (Noroeste argentino, Patagonia argentina y norte de Chile.Estas variaciones han sido estudiadas a través de dos vías de análisis: uno de tipo cualitativo y otro cuantitativo. Las formas de

  14. DOSSIER: Osteometría de camélidos sudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés D. Izeta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de elementos óseos y su asignación a una especie animal concreta es un tema central para la zooarqueología. Por ello desde la década de 1970 se han estudiado las diferencias morfométricas que permiten la diferenciación de especies que comparten una morfología ósea similar, especialmente cuando ésta es el resultado de un proceso de domesticación o de mejora de alguno de los caracteres de la población (e.g. Albarella y Payne 2005, von den Driesch 1976, Davis 1996, Payne y Bull 1988, Reitz 1994, Uerpmann 1979, Weinstock 2003 y bibliografía allí citada. Esta similitud morfológica puede tener sus dificultades en casos particulares como el de los camélidos sudamericanos. Esta familia (Camelidae está compuesta actualmente por cuatro especies: Lama guanicoe Muller 1776 (guanaco, Lama glama Linnaeus 1758 (llama, Lama pacos o Vicugna pacos Linnaeus 1758 (alpaca y Vicugna vicugna o Lama (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 (vicuña.Ante la presencia de tantas variedades diferentes de camélidos es sumamente importante el estudio de las variaciones morfológicas, que permitan diferenciar las distintas especies, tema al que la osteometría pretende aportar nuevos datos para esta familia tan conspicua en el registro arqueológico y paleontológico sudamericano. Esto es una cuestión clave si lo que se intenta es realizar una reconstrucción paleoeconómica de las poblaciones humanas del pasado o de la paleoecología del ambiente en donde desarrollaron sus actividades. En los últimos años se ha implementado la aplicación de distintas técnicas sobre los restos de camélidos con el fin de avanzar en el análisis de la composición de los conjuntos recuperados de sitios arqueológicos de varias regiones del país y de países limítrofes (Noroeste argentino, Patagonia argentina y norte de Chile. Estas variaciones han sido estudiadas a través de dos vías de análisis: uno de tipo cualitativo y otro cuantitativo. Las formas de

  15. Fasciolosis en Vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) de la Sierra Central del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Samamé A., Luis Miguel; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez V., Amanda; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Pinedo V., Rosa; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la presencia de huevos de Fasciola hepatica en vicuñas silvestres presentes en el cerro Pumacocha del distrito de Paccha, Junín, Perú, así como determinar la asociación con las variables sexo y estrato etario. Se recolectaron 143 muestras de heces tomadas directamente del recto. Las vicuñas fueron capturadas mediante un chaccu realizado por la comunidad campesina local durante la época de esquila anual (setiembre). Los huevos fueron analizados m...

  16. Construction of eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA 3 .1 (+)-GFP-MC1R and its expression in alpaca hair follicle stem cells%真核表达载体 pcDN A3.1(+)-G FP-M C1R 的构建及在羊驼毛囊干细胞中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白瑞; 王振华; 尹志红; 弓慧敏; 于志慧; 庞全海

    2015-01-01

    旨在构建含有 MC1R基因的pcDNA3.1(+)真核重组表达载体,为进一步研究 MC1R的生物学功能奠定基础。应用RT‐PCR技术从羊驼皮肤cDNA文库中扩增 MC1R基因全长cDNA ,然后通过双酶切将 MC1R基因全长cDNA克隆到真核表达载体pcDNA3.1(+),然后采用脂质体法转染体外培养的羊驼毛囊干细胞后,通过G418筛选培养,建立稳定的转染体系,直接荧光观察pcDNA3.1/MC1R融合蛋白在细胞中的分布定位,并通过Western Blot方法检测 MC1R在羊驼毛囊干细胞中的表达。结果表明,成功构建了pcDNA3.1/MC1R重组表达载体,并且发现试验组的毛囊干细胞中表达 MC1R蛋白显著高于空白组(P<0.05)。成功构建了含有绿色荧光蛋白基因的真核表达载体pcDNA3.1/MC1R ,且 MC1R基因在羊驼毛囊干细胞中获得表达。%It is the base of further study on MC1R biological functions to construct the pcD‐NA3 .1 eukaryotic expression vector of MC1R gene in alpaca .MC1R gene was amplified by RT‐PCR with the cDNA from alpaca skin library .PCR products and pcDNA3 .1 plasmid were digested and recycled by BamHI and EcoRI endonuclease .The positive clones were selected , from which plasmid DNA was abstracted and identified by restriction endonuclease ,sequence identification and sequencing . The pcDNA3 .1/MC1R recombinant expression plasmid was transfected into alpaca hair follicle stem cells by Lipofectamine TM 2000 .After screening culture by G418 ,a stably‐transfected cell system was established .Fluorescent microscopy was em‐ployed to reveal the localization of MC1R in alpaca hair follicle stem cells ,and the transcrip‐tion and expression of the MC1R were identified by Western Blot .The results show that eu‐karyotic expression vector pcDNA3 .1/MC1R was successfully constructed .When pcDNA3 . 1/MC1R recombinant expression plasmids were transfected into alpaca hair follicle stem cells , the

  17. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  18. Development and application of camelid molecular cytogenetic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Kutzler, Michelle; Owens, Elaine; Perelman, Polina; Rubes, Jiri; Hornak, Miroslav; Johnson, Warren E; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human-camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly.

  19. CHURRERÍA PACO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Calificación del suelo: URBANO CONSOLIDADO Clasificación del suelo: URBANO Declaración BIC:No Fecha de construcción: 1967 Grado de protección: PARCIAL LA CHURRERÍA ESTÁ TOTALMENTE TRANSFORMADA Y NO QUEDA NINGÚN VESTIGIO MATERIAL, A EXCEPCIÓN DE LAS FOTOS ANTIGUAS. LA CHURRERÍA SE LOCALIZA EN UN LATERAL DE LA IGLESIA DE INGENIO, EN LA PLAZOLETA DE SAN BLAS. LOS CHURROS SE REALIZAN LOS SÁBADOS, DOMINGOS Y DÍAS DE FIESTA. EN EL COMEDOR TIENE UN ESCAPA...

  20. Multifrequency polarimetry of a complete sample of PACO radio sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, V.; Massardi, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Casasola, V.; Gregorini, L.; Trombetti, T.; Burigana, C.; De Zotti, G.; Ricci, R.; Stevens, J.; Ekers, R. D.; Bonavera, L.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Liuzzo, E.; López-Caniego, M.; Mignano, A.; Paladino, R.; Toffolatti, L.; Tucci, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present high-sensitivity polarimetric observations (σP ≃0.6 mJy) in six bands covering the 5.5-38 GHz range of a complete sample of 53 compact extragalactic radio sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz. The observations, carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, achieved a 91 per cent detection rate (at 5σ). Within this frequency range, the spectra of about 95 per cent of sources are well fitted by double power laws, both in total intensity and in polarization, but the spectral shapes are generally different in the two cases. Most sources were classified as either steep- or peaked-spectrum but less than 50 per cent have the same classification in total and in polarized intensity. No significant trends of the polarization degree with flux density or with frequency were found. The mean variability index in total intensity of steep-spectrum sources increases with frequency for a 4-5 yr lag, while no significant trend shows up for the other sources and for the 8 yr lag. In polarization, the variability index, which could be computed only for the 8 yr lag, is substantially higher than in total intensity and has no significant frequency dependence.

  1. miR-663通过靶向 TGF-β1调控羊驼黑色素细胞的黑色素生成%Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Melanocytes Regulated by miR-663 Through Targeting TGF-β1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾小云; 金雷皓; 苗潋涓; 丁娜; 范瑞文; 董常生

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of the present study is to identify the target genes of miR-663 and investigate the role of miR-663 in melanin synthesis in alpaca melanocytes.[Method]The potential targets and binding sites of TGF-β1 were predicted and analyzed by Targetscan, RNAhybrid and RNA22. The similarity of 3′UTR of TGF-β1 sequences from various species was analyzed by DNAMAN. The dual-luciferase construct of pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was created by inserting partial TGF-β1 3′UTR into the pmirGLO vector by SacⅠ and XbaⅠ restriction sites. The regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 was validated by co-transfecting pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR construct with miR-663 mimic into 293T cells. The over-expression of miR-663 was achieved by transfecting melanocytes with miR-663 mimic. The mRNA and protein levels of TGF-β1, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7 and β-catenin in melanocytes transfected with miR-663 mimic were analyzed by qRT-PCR or Western blotting, respectively. The effects of miR-663 on melanin synthesis were evaluated by measuring the melanin content of the cells.[Result]There are 68 potential targets for miR-663 predicted by bioinformatics, including 74 conserved binding sites and 44 less conserved binding sites. DNAMAN analysis showed that all 3′UTR sequences of TGF-β1 from analyzed species are highly conserved and enriched potential target sites. One of the potential targets of miR-663 is TGF-β1, which is involved in the development of hair follicle as well as melanin pigmentation. The alpaca 3′UTR sequence of TGF-β1 contains three miR-663 potential binding sites. To confirm the regulation of TGF-β1 by miR-663 through its 3′UTR, a dual-luciferase reporter vector pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR was successfully constructed and co-transfected into 293T cells with miR-663 mimic. The luciferase assay experiments showed that the luciferase activity was 31.01%lower in cells co-transfected with pmirGLO-TGF-β1-3′UTR and miR-663 mimic than that in control cells, suggesting

  2. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on lidocaine and articaine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, K C; Furtado, D P; Ramacciato, J C; Cabral, A M; Haas, D A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO₂ can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO₂ and PaO₂ on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO₂, and PaO₂ were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO₂ from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO₂ from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO₂ and/or increase in PaO₂ raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity.

  3. Multi-frequency polarimetry of a complete sample of PACO radio sources

    CERN Document Server

    Galluzzi, V; Bonaldi, A; Casasola, V; Gregorini, L; Trombetti, T; Burigana, C; De Zotti, G; Ricci, R; Stevens, J; Ekers, R D; Bonavera, L; Alighieri, S di Serego; Liuzzo, E; Lopez-Caniego, M; Mignano, A; Paladino, R; Toffolatti, L; Tucci, M

    2016-01-01

    We present high sensitivity polarimetric observations in 6 bands covering the 5.5-38 GHz range of a complete sample of 53 compact extragalactic radio sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz. The observations, carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), achieved a 91% detection rate (at 5 sigma). Within this frequency range the spectra of about 95% of sources are well fitted by double power laws, both in total intensity and in polarisation, but the spectral shapes are generally different in the two cases. Most sources were classified as either steep- or peaked-spectrum but less than 50% have the same classification in total and in polarised intensity. No significant trends of the polarisation degree with flux density or with frequency were found. The mean variability index in total intensity of steep-spectrum sources increases with frequency for a 4-5 year lag, while no significant trend shows up for the other sources and for the 8 year lag. In polarisation, the variability index, that could...

  4. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  5. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 14, 2005 update no. 29; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 mars 2005, no. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)thermodynamic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol and running in internal reforming mode 2)effect of the methanol and ethanol permeation on the efficiencies of a direct alcohol fuel cell with a PtRu/C anode 3)analysis of an hybrid SOFC micro-turbine micro-generation system 4)dynamic modelling and simulation of a small hybrid wind-fuel cell system 5)simulation of a system combining SOFC and PEMFC 6)assessment of the impacts and of the economical aspects of the fuel cell APU part 1: modelling of the cost and the efficiencies of the system part 2)impacts on the health and on the environment, analysis of the life cycle and optimization 7)efficiencies of vehicles equipped with direct hydrogen or reformed methanol PEMFC 8)methods for supplying fuel cell devices 9)auxiliary fuel cell system 10)analysis of life cycle of maritime applications of fuel cells 11)critical analysis of different hydrogen production and uses ways 12)comparison of the hydrogen and natural gas production processes in a thermodynamical and environmental point of view 13)research and development on the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  6. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 16, 2004 update no. 23; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 16 avril 2004, no. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the importance of the fuel choice in the efficiency of the SOFC 2)assessment model of a centralized electric power system: SOFC/gas turbine 3)a direct borohydride fuel cell 4)thermodynamic optimization of the internal structure of a fuel cell 5)a SOFC/gas turbine cogeneration system 6)micro-fuel cells for portable applications 7)comparison of performances of direct alcohol fuel cells using different anode catalysts 8)materials and designs for SOFC used in stationary and mobile applications 9)development of measurement techniques for two-phase hydrogen weight flow 10)semi-conductors potentiometric probe for the hydrogen detection in air 11)integration of a fuel cell in an electric system, using a regulator based on the theory of regulation by disturbances accommodation 12)'greening London's black cabs': a study of the use potential of fuel cells cabs in London 13)gasification of leather residues - part 1 - experimental study in a pilot gasifier with a descending current 14)use of composite conducting membranes to produce hydrogen by water dissociation 15)molybdenum carbide based catalyst for the water gas reaction used in fuel cells vehicles applications 16)hydrogen production process from methane hydrates with carbon dioxide hydrates sequestration 17)comparative study between the hydrogen adsorption on super activated carbon and on carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  7. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. May 31, 2005 update no. 31; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 31 mai 2005, no. 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)Comparison of the carbon formation domains in a SOFC fed with methane 2)efficiencies of energy storage systems using hydrogen and oxygen 3)electric power and water autonomous generator 4)efficiencies of fuel cells systems running with pure H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} for automobiles applications 5)desulfurization of JP-8 fuel, by selective adsorption on an nickel based adsorbent for micro-SOFC 6)fast response methanol detector running in a wide range of concentrations and temperatures 7)microstructural changes of the unit membrane-electrode during aging tests in strongly wet conditions 8)super-capacitors used as an energy storage system in an hybrid fuel cell system for mobile applications 9)comparison of the steam reforming assisted by hexane and iso-octane microwave plasma 10)continuous production of hydrogen by synthesis gas fermentation (water gas conversion by biological way) 11)titanium coated with carbon nano-tubes as a potential mean to store hydrogen 12)hydrogen storage in magnesium nano-structured composite materials 13)simulation of an hydrogen storage system from hydrides thermally coupled with a fuel cell. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  8. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 8, 2003 update no. 18; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 8 decembre 2003, no. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of different recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and with the different other energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells or internal combustion engine, will it be really a 'or'? 2)fuel cell systems with a high yield using heat generated by the fuel for producing an addition of electricity 3)the design of DFC (Direct Fuel Cell) 4)electricity production by glucose oxidation in bacterial fuels without intermediary 5)simulation of a photovoltaic/micro-hydraulic/hydrogen system for feeding a house in the Alpes area. Part 2: the integrated system 6)recent advances in the field of materials for fuel cells 7)new materials for hydrogen production in PEMFC 8)modelling of the performances of lithium-ion batteries for fuel cells vehicles 9)hydrogen production at low temperature from oxygenated hydrocarbons 10)an alternative system for stationary hydrogen production: the iron sponge reforming cycle 11)a steam reformer for abating the releases of an internal combustion engine 12)hydrogen separation and purification: hydrogen recycling for SOFC 13)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: are carbon nano-tubes good means of hydrogen storage? 14)energetic scenarios until 2050 15)the use of wind energy on the electric network. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  9. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 28, 2005 update no. 32; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 28 juin 2005, no. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)advantages of the use of hydrogen compared with kerosene 2)comparative study of three types of microbial fuel cells 3)carbon nano-tubes for electric applications 4)separation of the CO{sub 2} during the hydrocarbons gasification 5)hydrogen production from hydrocarbons assisted by plasma 6)plasma pyrolysis of biomass for synthesis gas and carbonaceous adsorbent production 7)fast starting reformer for automobile applications 8)development of a unit of hydrogen production from LPG for PEM systems: assessment at the laboratory scale of the sub-units of auto-thermal reforming and of selective oxidation 9)hydrogen and electric power production, with CO{sub 2} sequestration, by redox species chemical cycle reforming (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as support) 10)exergy and economic analysis of a PEM electrolyser running at different temperatures and pressures 11)nano-structured materials for hydrogen storage 12)composite materials based on light elements for hydrogen storage. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  10. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 14, 2004 update no. 25; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 juin 2004, no. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the American plan of de-regulated electric power production with fuel cells 2)application of single wall carbon nano-tubes in fuel cells 3)scenarios of SOFC introduction on the Japanese market 4)advanced SOFC technology and developments at the Siemens Westinghouse firm 5)manufacture and optimal size of a PEMFC cogeneration system for multi-residential application: application to the decomposition strategy 6)analysis of the life cycle of fuel cells using disposal gas 7)technical and economical analysis of a three-generation SOFC system 8)use of APU-FC for an average class tactical lorry, during a use in partial electric power supply or in condition of a silent stand by 9)modelling of the current supply of a lorry at stop: comparison between a idling engine and a APU 10)production of hydrogen and carbon nano-tubes by methane decomposition in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor 11)hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of gas-oil 12)simulations of cold starting of a gasoline reformer for mobile applications of fuel cells 13)ethanol production by steam reforming on a Pd/{gamma}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trading catalyst 14)control of the CO{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and of the deactivation of the catalyst for the gasoline steam reforming 15)comparison of three integrated processes of partial oxidation producing hydrogen for fuel cells applications 16)search of new methods of the mixture: natural gas/hydrogen production for use in natural gas systems in The Netherlands 17)outline of the energy/hydrogen storage: progress achieved with the different techniques and future prospect of nano-materials 18) hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by solar way 19)forecast and measurement of the limits of the flammability domain of fuel cells. The references of these articles rae detailed. (O.M.)

  11. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 22, 2003 update no. 19; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 decembre 2003, no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, the means of transport, the hydrogen production and with the different new other energies. Their different titles are given below : 1)gas turbine/fuel cell arrangement 2)design and fabrication of a SOFC by CERAMIC FUEL CELLS 3)a 'microbial' fuel cell able of converting glucose in electricity with high yields and velocity 4)a hybrid system: combined cycle gas turbine - multi-stage SOFC 5)a SOFC as auxiliary generator of electricity in an aircraft 6)recent development results of fuel in the Juelich research center 7)state of development of the SOFC at Haldor Topsoe/Risoe 8)a cost/advantage analysis of 'clean cars': methodology and applications to the electric cars 9)the generation of current and heat in a aerostat 10)hydrogen free from CO, produced from bio-ethanol steam reforming on cobalt catalysts supported on ZnO. Effect of the metallic precursor 11)device and method based on the cyclic auto-thermal reforming 12)the ammonia, source of hydrogen for a hybrid system: alkaline fuel/battery 13)effect of the Nafion on the activity of Pt-Ru electrocatalysts for the methanol electro-oxidation 14)'VISION 21': an integration of systems based on coal. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  12. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). January 31, 2002 update, no. 5; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 31 janvier 2002, no. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: fuel cells and fuel cell systems with a non-aqueous electrolyte; the co-development of a fuel cell electrode by Mitsubishi Materials, Kansai Electric Power and Fine Ceramics; a tubular fuel cell under development at the Japan national institute of advanced industrial sciences and technologies (AIST); a patent for an essential component (electro-catalyst) of Medis Technologies' fuel cells; a SOFC with good performances; influence of CO concentration and gas pressure on the performances of a PAFC-type cell; analysis of the life cycle of hydrogen fuel: a methodology for a strategic approach of decision; R and D of a clean hydrogen-based energy system; Teledyne Energy Systems proposes a new hydrogen production system; green alga: still more hydrogen; thermodynamic study and optimization of the hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes; large-scale hydrogen production from hydrocarbons; comparative study of fuels for the production of hydrogen on-board of fuel cell powered vehicles; hydrogen storage in carbon nano-structures; fundamental aspects of the Ti-H system: theoretical and experimental behaviour. (J.S.)

  13. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. May 18, 2004 update no. 24; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 18 mai 2004, no. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)comparison of the costs between the electric-powered vehicles and the fuel cell vehicles 2)fuel savings of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles 3)direct formic acid fuel cells producing high current density 4)use of biogas in a SOFC 5)test unit for the determination of the seasonal performance of fuel cell residential systems 6)new management technique of fuel cells for optimizing the output power and the fuel use yield 7)SOFC/micro-turbines systems: current progress achieved and future development 8)advances in the field of the PEMFC 9)advances in the field of new materials for PEMFC 10)hybridization of fuel cell vehicles: an accessible solution for efficient traction systems 11)exergy life cycle analysis of systems of production and storage of hydrogen for mobile application 12)hydrogen and electric power production from coal with CO{sub 2} sequestration 13)H{sub 2}S low temperature removal with ZnO in gas mixtures containing vapor for applications in fuel cells 1-ZnO particles and extruded compounds 14)catalytic nano-composite membranes for CO abatement in fuel cell applications 15)activity and stability of Cu-CeO catalysts in the water-gas conversion for fuel cell applications 16)hydrogen production for fuel cell by ethanol partial oxidation on a nickel based catalyst 17)micro-reactor for hydrogen production in micro-fuel cell applications 18)hydrogen storage capacity and electrochemical properties of the electrode material La{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}Ni{sub 3.825}Co{sub 0.675}Mn{sub x}(A) 19)hydrogen storage and desorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  14. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). August 8, 2002 update, no. 7; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 8 aout 2002, no. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: characteristics of a PEM fuel cell submitted to a transient increase of CO concentration; perspectives of the different fuel cell technologies in transport applications; development of a portable fuel cell system for the soldier's equipment; direct 2-propanol low temperature fuel cell; a fuel cell system quasi-directly supplied with methanol and based on a mixture of electrolytic polymers; catalysis in low temperature fuel cells (part.1: the cathode stakes); manufacturing and performance of the new multi-layer cathodes for SOFCs; patent about intermediate plates for the limitation of the movement of the bolts used for the fastening of a fuel cell core; the Paul Sherrer institute is testing a zinc and synthetic gas production process that use solar energy, natural gas and zinc oxide; experimental evaluation of a combined plasma/catalyst system for the production of hydrogen from the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons; hydrogen production using a new chemo-organo-trophic bacteria: Citrobacter sp. Y19; hydrogen as energy vector: competition or complementarity with fossil fuels; hydrogen storage in general and in light monocrystalline metal hydrides in particular; the nuclear option for the production of hydrogen as energy of the future. (J.S.)

  15. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). June 15, 2001 update, no. 0; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 15 juin 2001, no. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: effect of hydrogen on the magnetic properties of iron nano-crystalline particulates; smaller fuel cells; development of a 1 kW PEMFC; materials for low temperature SOFCs; development and operation of a 150 W DMFC; materials science and engineering: a key-technology for the commercialization of fuel cells; chemical and electrochemical behaviour of Ni-Ti in cathodic conditions as used in a MCFC; patent for stainless steel bipolar plates; development of proton conductive membranes for PEMFCs and DMFCs; development and characterization of acid-doped polymer mixtures (poly-benzimidazole/sulfonated poly-sulfone) used as fuel cell electrolyte; modification of a proton conductive membrane for the reduction of methanol diffusion in a DMFC; DMFC based on a new low cost nano-porous membrane; method for controlling the connexion between a fuel cell and a power grid; steam reforming of biomass-derived ethanol for hydrogen production devoted to fuel cells; hydrogen production by catalytic decomposition of methane; hydrogen storage. (J.S.)

  16. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). September 23, 2003 update no. 16; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 23 septembre 2003, no. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the behaviour of the electrode potential in direct hydrazine fuels 2)a device of desalination fed with a fuel cell 3)experiment in the field of residential fuel cell systems at ECN (Energy Research Center) 4)'design of a divided feeding' for SOFC with an internal reforming system 5)water management and thermal management in a fuel cell vehicle fed with hydrogen extracted from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) 6)a mathematical model of propulsion systems by PEMFC for mobile applications 7)assessment of the feasibility of a DMFC containing an alkaline membrane 8)semi-empirical assessment model of the performance of a DMFC, first part: development of the model and validation 9)PEMFC and the challenge of CO 10)materials for SOFC 11)natural gas and LPG desulfurization for fuel cells reformers 12)heat exchangers for reforming techniques 13)desulfurization of a fuel for fuel cell system 14)hydrogen production from solar thermal reactor 15)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: nano-structured storage materials having modified covalent bonds sp2. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  17. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). July 21, 2003 update no. 14; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 21 juillet 2003, no. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells fed with wood in different buildings 2)use of CO{sub 2} produced in a SOFC in a reactor in which algae are produced 3)PEMFC systems: the requirement of using polymers running at higher temperatures to better manage the heat and water 4)a technical and economical assessment of a fuel cell system decoupled of the electric network to feed buildings located in Sweden 5)use of ammonia as fuel in SOFC 6)direct oxidation fuel cells running with pure propanol-2 6)fuel cells at protonic ceramics for a running at a higher yield with methane 7)future role of gold in fuel cell systems 8)a heat management system in a fuel cell 9)tests in real conditions of the running of a fuel cell hybrid bus 10)a hydrogen production unit from hydrocarbons without releases for fuel cells used for mobile and portable applications 11)development of a methanol reformer for fuel cells 12)the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons for fuel cells used in transport applications 13)the properties of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides with vanadium having a centred cubic structure. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  18. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. November 15, 2004 update no. 28; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 novembre 2004, no. 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)commercialization of fuel cells: technical and economical difficulties to the development of a hydrogen basic equipment 2)public directives to promote the acceptance of fuel cells for automotive industry 3)direct alcohol SOFC: current - voltage characteristics and composition of the fuel gas 4)control by the fuzzy logic method of an autonomous or connected to the electric system SOFC 5)determination of the energetic yield of a DMFC by a fuel circulation system 6)an hybrid system SOFC-Stirling motor of 5 kW 7)control system of PEM type APU feed with gasoline 8)development of a DMFC generator of 2W 8)analysis of the life cycle of the hydrogen production processes 9)hydrogen production for fuel cells by ethanol catalytic steam reforming 10)methanol production from coal: what are the aims of the research? 11)application of a membrane electrochemical reactor to the hydrogen production process by iodine-sulfur thermochemical cycles 12)hydrogen storage in carbonated nano-materials: possibilities and challenges. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  19. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 22, 2004 update no. 22; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 mars 2004, no. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and renewable energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)recent developments in the field of polymer electrolyte fuel cells membranes running above 100 C 2)a new study method of a two-phase flow in a direct methanol fuel cell 3)fuel cell system 4)direct polymer electrolyte fuel cells running with dimethyl ether for portable applications 5)new fuel cells developments for aerospace equipment 6)anode materials for SOFC 7)application of the fuel cell technology to the rail transport 8)hydrogen production by hydrocarbons steam reforming on Ni or Fe based catalysts which are modified by an alkaline earth metal 9)thermochemical hydrogen production from Pacinum virgatum plant 10)development of a catalyst for biomass gasification, in a double-bed gasifier 11)the role of hydrogen in the development of wind power electric systems: the case of Ireland 12)feasibility study of a hydrogen distribution basic equipment for fuel cells vehicles, based on the use of electric power produced in off-peak hours in Japan 13)'bio-hydrogen' production: future developments and limits to a practical application 14)improvement of the hydrogen production from a biomass gasification process, indirectly heated. Removal of carbon dioxide releases with a new biological reformer 15)storage of hydrogen cooled with liquid nitrogen 16)ten years of running of a renewable energy production system based on hydrogen. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  20. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). October 23, 2001 update, no. 2; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 23 octobre 2001, no. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, transportation systems, hydrogen production and energy in general: Japan foresees 10 million of clean vehicles from now to 2010; the fuel cell: a new clean and efficient energy source; development of biogas production units for fuel cells; thermodynamic analysis of an hydrogen-supplied proton conductive SOFC; materials for the high temperature reduction of oxygen in a SOFC; stability of of SOFC components; LaSrMnO metal interface for SOFCs; oxygen ion transport in SOFCs; test of a fuel cell-powered bus in 2002; comparative study of fuels for the on-board hydrogen production; electricity and hydrogen cogeneration from natural gas without emission; solar thermal decarbonization of natural gas; IFC patent: self-thermal reformer of gas fuel for a fuel cell system; some considerations about water electrolysis from a solution of sodium hydroxide; hydrogen production from high temperature water; a more compact and efficient wind turbine. (J.S.)

  1. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. August 13, 2004 update no. 26; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 13 aout 2004, no. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells, hydrogen and energy supply in Australia 2)fuel cell system 3)exergy analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol or methane 4)a SOFC fed with H{sub 2}S 5)challenges to take up in the control of fuel cells systems: role of dynamic models 6)hydrogen as energetic vector for autonomous applications based on renewable energy sources 7)passive feed system for DMFC 8)heterogeneous poly-acids membrane for DMFC 8)ferritic stainless steel assessment as interconnections material for SOFC 9)an approach of super-capacitors integration in fuel cell electric-powered vehicles and emulation of the electric characteristics of the cell using an automatic converter 10)catalytic activity correlations: the difficult case of the hydrogen production from ammonia 11)desulfurization of natural gas and LPG, for reformers, in fuel cells systems 12)Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by an homogeneous precipitation method, and used for methanol steam reforming 13)renewable energy production: role of gas and electric power networks to cope with the intermittence problem, with the hydrogen production and storage 14)comparison of the hydrogen adsorption on carbon nano-structures 15)hydrogen detector based on an optical and an electric switching. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  2. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). December 7, 2001 update, no. 3; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 7 decembre 2001, no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage, and of renewable energies in general: studies of the humidification of PEMFCs; chemical engineering in the automotive industry; environmental impact of the manufacturing of tubular and planar SOFCs; fullerenes for portable fuel cells; hydrogen fuel produced from the gasification of solid municipal fuels; required electric power for a large-scale production of hydrogen for vehicles; hydrogen produced from methane decomposition: an application for the decarbonization of fossil fuels; production of synthesis gas from ethanol vapo-reforming; electrochemical characterization of the hydrogen adsorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), electric arc and laser ablation techniques; hydrogen storage in ultrasound wave processed carbonized materials; hydrogen storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles; year 2000 status of renewable energies in France; renewable energy sources: too insufficient efforts made in the UK; wind turbine in the country of wind mills (Netherlands); a research institute for wind energy in the Netherlands; feasibility study of underwater CO{sub 2} storage. (J.S.)

  3. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. Actualization of the 30 september 2003, no.8; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 30 septembre 2002, no.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on september 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components, vehicles), the hydrogen production (the ethanol reforming), hydrogen storage (materials activation), safety, regulation and standards, carbon dioxide emissions decrease and fuel production. For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network (PACO). January 28, 2004 update no. 20; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 janvier 2004, no. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the characteristics of PEMFC running at negative exterior temperatures 2)the effects of CO poisoning on PEMFC at temperatures until 200 C 3)the mechanical properties of tubular SOFC 4)fuel cells fed with coal 5)analysis of cogeneration system: planar SOFC/gas turbine 6)modelling of fuel cells for transport, according to the neuronal networks method 7)design of hybrid fuel cell systems 8)a comparative study of direct methanol fuel cells for vehicles 9)desulfurization by adsorption and catalytic steam reforming of gas oil for applications in fuel cells 10)feasibility study of hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles by naphtha on-board steam reforming 11)reforming catalyst of kerosene for fuel cell, kinetics and modelling of steam reforming 12)reforming by partial oxidation of low lubricant power gas oil, of dimethyl ether and methane for SOFC 13)conversion of solar heat in fuels by solar thermochemistry 14)hydrogen purification for fuel cells: selective oxidation of CO on Pt-Fe / zeolite catalysts 15)hydrogen photo-production from cellulose derived compound, with a system: chlorophyll / platinum nano-particles 16)hydrogen storage in commercial activated carbon. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  5. Determination of GH and PRL in Alpaca Placenta%羊驼胎盘中GH和PRL含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹丹; 赫晓燕; 张维俊

    2010-01-01

    为了更好的研究羊驼胎盘的再利用,采用放射免疫分析(RIA)方法测定羊驼产后胎盘中生长激素(GH)和催乳素(PRL)的含量,对羊驼产后胎盘中GH和PRL的表达量进行了精确定量.RIA法测定结果显示,平均每只羊驼胎盘含GH为13.084 5 ng,含PRL约153.3 μg,结果提示,羊驼胎盘可作为除垂体外GH和PRL,尤其是PRL天然产物的来源.

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of PaCO2 during one-lung ventilation and minimal access surgery in adults: End-tidal versus transcutaneous techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Paul; Tobias, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2) may be inaccurate during one-lung ventilation (OLV). This study was performed to compare the accuracy of the noninvasive monitoring of PCO2 using transcutaneous CO2 (TC-CO2) with ET-CO2 in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) during OLV. Materials and Methods: In adult patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgical procedures, PCO2 was simultaneously measured with TC-CO2 and ET-CO2 devices and compa...

  7. 78 FR 57808 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... include fibers from camels, alpacas, llamas, and vicunas.\\37\\ The Act further provides that fibers from... the sheep, lamb, angora goat, cashmere goat, camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna.\\39\\ The Commission... Cashmere goat as well as the fibers from the hair of the camel, alpaca, llama, and vicuna. Thus, the...

  8. Montagem e caracterização elétrica de pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (PaCOS Assembly and electrical characterization of solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosane Aparecida Tarôco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a review of the design features and the electrochemistry characterization of anode-supported planar SOFC. Studies and results of metallic alloy interconnectors and recovery for protection against corrosion and for contact layer are showed. Moreover a discussion of examples of measurements of impedance spectrometry, according to the literature and our experimental results are made. For the anode supported fuel cells the power density varies from 0.1 to 0.5 Wcm², according to results in the literature (showed in this paper. For electrolyte supported fuel cell the power density can be 10 Wcm-2 for high temperatures. An English-Portuguese glossary of most used terms in SOFC stack is given for greater clarity and to introduce new terms to the reader.

  9. Characteristic and Mechanism of CO2 Laser-Induced Melting to PA%CO2激光诱导聚酰胺的融化特征与机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭文胜; 周建忠; 黄舒; 樊玉杰

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the melting mechanism between CO2 laser and Polyamide materials,the melting experiment of PA 12 was carried out by low-power CO2 laser with static or scanning way under room temperature,and the morphology of melted samples have been examined by means of light microscopy,scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD),meanwhile,the effect of laser irradiation method and process parameters to melting samples was analyzed.It can be seen that the melting of sample was not obvious with beam 2 mm and power < 1 W,while experimental samples were got pyrogenic ablation with laser power >3 W during irradiating,so power intensity 0.32 W/mm2 is the sample melting threshold.The surface of samples can be melted by static irradiation,while melting depth of samples will increase with the increased laser power and scanning times,and the crystalline of melted samples have obviously improved after irradiation.The results of experiment were in good agreement with theoretical research,which will provide guidance for Polyamide materials micro-processing by CO2 laser.%为了探索CO2激光对聚酰胺材料的热效应融化机理,在常温下,利用低功率CO2激光对聚酰胺PA12进行定位和扫描辐照融化实验,通过光学显微镜和扫描电镜(SEM)观察形貌特征,以及X射线衍射仪(XRD)分析微观结构,研究激光参数和辐照方式对融化特征的影响.实验发现,在光斑直径2 mm时,激光功率<1W试样融化不明显,激光功率>3W热分解显著,激光功率密度0.32 W/mm2是试样融化阈值;激光定位辐照获得固体试样的浅表层融化,当激光扫描辐照时,试样融化深度随激光功率和扫描次数的增大而加深直至完全融化;试样融化后的结晶度有明显提高.实验结果和理论研究相吻合,这对于利用CO2激光进行聚酰胺材料的微成型加工有指导意义.

  10. Síntese e caracterização de perovskitas do tipo LaNi1-xCu xO3 para a purificação de hidrogênio para PaCOS

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, J. S.; Silva, L.A.; Rangel,M.C.; Araújo,G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho, foram estudados sólidos do tipo LaNi1-xCuxO3 (x = 0,0; 0,3 e 0,5), com estrutura perovskita, visando a desenvolver catalisadores destinados à produção de hidrogênio de alta pureza na reforma interna de células a combustível de óxido sólido (SOFC). Observou-se que as condições experimentais usadas na preparação favoreceram a incorporação quantitativa dos cátions ao precursor e a formação dos sólidos com estrutura perovskita. Esses materiais mostraram diferentes propriedades red...

  11. Primer registro de infestación en un reptil por larvas de Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Natalio Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma parvitarsum es una garrapata endémica del Altiplano Andino de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Perú. En la provincia de San Juan adultos de esta garrapata fueron encontrados en el Parque Nacional San Guillermo sobre Vicugna vicugna. En Argentina también existen citas de adultos de A. parvitarsum sobre bovinos, ovinos y el ñandú . El primer caso de parasitismo de larvas de A. parvitarsum en Liolaemus fue realizado en Chile. El presente trabajo menciona por primera vez para Argentina la presencia de larvas de A. parvitarsum parasitando al lagarto Liolaemus eleodori.

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-1884 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-1884 ref|NP_063902.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Lama pacos] emb|CAC00503.1| NADH2 [Lama pac...os] emb|CAD98814.1| NADH2 protein [Lama pacos] NP_063902.1 0.026 24% ...

  13. Effects of exogenous melatonin on blood biochemical index of female alpaca%外源褪黑激素对羊驼部分血液生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海燕; 董宽虎; 李鹏飞

    2006-01-01

    试验将12只雌性阿帕克羊驼随机分为4组,用简易的外科手术在其颈部皮下埋植褪黑激素(MLT)缓释剂,埋植量为0、50、100、150mg,经过对各水平MLT埋植组羊驼血清催乳素(PRL)、血清尿素氮(BUN)、血液中生长激素(GH)和血清总蛋白(TP)影响的分析,探讨MLT促进羊驼绒毛生长的机理.研究结果表明,MLT可显著(P<0.05)降低羊驼血液PRL和BUN的水平,增加了羊驼GH水平和TP含量.

  14. The Effect of TGF-β3 on the Melanocyte Cultured in vitro of Alpaca%TGF-β3对体外培养的羊驼黑色素细胞的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彧; 石占全; 姬凯元; 杨姗姗; 范瑞文

    2015-01-01

    为了研究转化生长因子β3(Transforming growth factor beta3,TGF-β3)对体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞表型的影响.本研究在体外培养的羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加不同浓度TGF-β3(6.25、12.5、25、50 ng·mL-1),通过实时监测和检测细胞增殖、毛色相关基因小眼畸形相关转录因子(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)、酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)和酪氨酸酶相关蛋白2(Tyrosinase related protein 2,TYRP2)表达以及黑色素产量的变化.结果表明:(1)在羊驼皮肤黑色素细胞中添加50 ng·mL-1浓度的TGF-β3后,在前30 h内对细胞增殖有抑制效果,30 h后对细胞增殖有明显的长时程维持细胞数量作用,但对TGF-β3添加的剂量没有依赖性;(2)添加TGF-β3后,黑色素细胞内MITF、TYR和TYRP2的表达量均被下调,而且黑色素细胞产生黑色素的量也被下调,主要以添加50 ng·mL-1时下调最为显著.结果揭示,TGF-β3通过对羊驼黑色素细胞内MITF、TYR和TYRP2的表达的影响,并调控黑色素的产生,对黑色素细胞的生物学功能具有重要的影响.

  15. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la osteometría a dos muestras óseas de camélidos de sitios de la época Mochica (siglos I y VII d.C. en la costa norte de Perú. Los huesos analizados en este estudio son primeras falanges que provienen de dos sitios arqueológicos Mochica (Cerro Chepén y Zona Urbana Moche. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes a una muestra de 44 primeras falanges, tomando en cuenta las cinco variables que son medidas en este hueso. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la identificación de dos especies de camélidos domésticos en ambos sitios, Lama glama “llama” y Lama pacos “alpaca”. La interpretación de los resultados es discutida mediante la explicación de un modelo de especiación geográfica o vicariante de los camélidos que habitaron la costa peruana en la época Mochica. Este modelo toma en cuenta que actualmente en esta ecología no hay crianza de camélidos, así como factores genéticos y evolutivos de una nueva forma doméstica, incluyendo el efecto de la Regla de Bergmann y los nuevos pastos en la morfología de esta nueva forma de camélido doméstico que vivió en la época Mochica.Palabras claves: osteometría, genética, camélidos, especiación, Mochica  AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacosalpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast

  16. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    , urgentness and resource usage over a dense-time model. The semantic interpretation of PACoR is defined in the form of a timed transition system expressing the timed behavior and dynamic creation of processes. We define a translation of PACoR systems to Parameterized Stopwatch Automata (PSA). The translation......This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACoR, for real-time systems which deals with resource- constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACoR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to explicitly express preemptiveness...... preserves the original semantics of PACoR and enables the verification of PACoR systems using symbolic model checking in Uppaal and statistical model checking UppaalSMC. Finally we provide an example to illustrate system specification in PACoR, translation and verification....

  17. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  18. Ejaculatory process and related semen characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P W; Moscoso, R; Alarcon, V; Ordoñez, C

    2002-01-01

    South American camelids are dribble ejaculators, and urethral contractions occur throughout copulation, which may last 25 min. The urethral contractions and their association with semen characteristics during copulation were determined in llamas and alpacas. A transrectal probe was held in the rectum of the male while copulating an artificial vagina, which was accessed underneath the dummy through a hole. The semen-collecting tube was changed every 5 min. Semen characteristics, color, volume, consistency, motility, concentration, and percentage of live sperm were determined at 5-min intervals. Urethral contractions were evenly distributed during copulation: 40 in alpacas and 63 in llamas (p < .05), with a general range of 11 to 132. Semen color was milky in 63%, and translucent in 36.5% for alpacas; and creamy (9.9%), milky (47%), and translucent (42%) for llamas. The mean volume of ejaculate was 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.6, 0.8, 0.3, and 3.0 mL for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min, respectively. Semen consistency was variable: viscous (65%) and semiviscous (34%) in alpacas; and viscous (57%) and semiviscous (42%) in llamas. Spermatic motility varied between 60 and 80% for the llama, and 40 and 80% for the alpaca. Spermatic concentration varied between 60 and 188 x 10(3)/mm3 in llamas, and 30 and 170 x 10(3)/mm3 in alpacas. Percentage of live sperm varied the least: 81 to 90% in llamas and 65 to 90% in alpacas. The ejaculate of llamas and alpacas is not fractionated, urethral contractions are evenly distributed, during copulation, and semen characteristics are present throughout the copulatory period.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U08552-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CING IN PROGRESS *** f... 48 0.57 1 ( AC232186 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-66H15, WO...RKING DRAFT SEQUE... 48 0.57 1 ( AC231687 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-302G14, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.57 1 (....57 1 ( AC229617 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-435F5, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 48 0.57 1 ( AC226638 ) Lama pacos cl...one CH246-281G15, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.57 1 ( AC226637 ) Lama pacos clone C... 1 ( CU462853 ) Pig DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS *** f... 46 2.3 1 ( AC232180 ) Lama pacos clone

  20. End-inspiratory rebreathing reduces the end-tidal to arterial PCO2 gradient in mechanically ventilated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierstra, Jorn; Machina, Matthew; Battisti-Charbonney, Anne; Duffin, James; Fisher, Joseph Arnold; Minkovich, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive monitoring of the arterial partial pressures of CO2 (PaCO2) of critically ill patients by measuring their end-tidal partial pressures of CO2 (PetCO(2)) would be of great clinical value. However, the gradient between PetCO(2) and PaCO2 (Pet-aCO(2)) in such patients typically varies over a

  1. Technology channel fuel cells; Reseau technologique piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the PACo channel, its research and development program and the calendar of the first year. The PACo channel aims at stimulate the technology innovation in the domain of the fuel cells and organize collaborations between enterprises and research laboratories. (A.L.B.)

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U00662-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 66A10 map 8... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232718 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-155B3, WORKING DRAFT ...SEQUE... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232398 ) Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis clone KBrH009C03,... 44 7.9 1 ( AC232356 ) Lama paco

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16225-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available uence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS... 46 4.4 1 ( AC233188 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-474C1, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE...... 46 4.4 1 ( AC231204 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-260A19, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14752-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 2.0 2 ( AC016754 ) Homo sapiens chromosome 11 clone RP11-514F3, WORK... 40 2.0 2 ( AC231556 ) Lama pacos c...map ... 40 2.1 3 ( AC229956 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-269L22, WORKING DRAFT SEQU..

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14977-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available some 5 clon... 48 0.97 1 ( AC232179 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-396L20, WORKING DRAF...T SEQU... 48 0.97 1 ( AC232178 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-380H24, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 48 0.97 1 ( EK496662 )

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12230-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( EU159113 |pid:none) Camelus dromedarius mitochondrion... 35 8.0 Y19184_11( Y19184 |pid:none) Lama pacos co...nspo... 35 8.0 AJ566364_11( AJ566364 |pid:none) Lama pacos complete mitochondrial... 35 8.0 >AC105378_11( AC

  7. Dicty_cDB: SLD388 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6055249 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-30-02-01-1... 40 0.50 2 ( AC232784 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-216B4, WORKING ...DRAFT SEQUE... 44 1.1 1 ( AC232186 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-66H15, WORKING DRAFT SEQUE... 44 1.1 1 ( AC19251

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05111-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e from clone CH211-269M1 in ... 34 0.004 7 ( AC226639 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-29... DNA sequence from clone DKEY-145J6 in l... 38 0.083 4 ( AC232666 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-243P10, WORKING D

  9. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...

  10. Probing Brain Oxygenation with Near Infrared spectroscopy, the Role of Carbon Dioxide and Blood Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. A simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2 is presented. It can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. It enable the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. Controlled breathing can change the PaCO2. Experiments on human subjects relating the PaCO2 to rSO2, measured with brain oximeters, are presented. A simple model relating the mean blood pressure to CBF is worked out.

  11. Effect of α-MSH on Proliferation and Melanin Synthesis of Alpaca Skin Melanocytes in vitro%α-黑素细胞刺激素(α-MSH)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖和黑素生成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志慧; 白瑞; 范瑞文; 杨刚; 董彦君; 贺俊平; 董常生

    2010-01-01

    旨在研究α-黑素细胞刺激素(α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone,α-MSH)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞(Melano-cyte,MC)增殖和黑素合成的影响.体外培养正常羊驼皮肤黑素细胞,观察不同浓度α-MSH(0、10-9、10-8、10-7mol·L-1)对羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、黑素含量、表皮黑皮素-1受体(Melanocortin 1 receptor,MC1R)基因、小眼畸形相关转录因(Microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor,MITF)和酪氨酸酶(Tyrosinase,TYR)基因表达量的影响.结果表明,α-MSH处理羊驼皮肤黑索细胞3 d后,羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增多,黑素含量、MC1R和TYR基因表达量都明显增加(P<0.05),以10-8mol·L-1组最为显著,MITF基因表达量也明显增加(P<0.05),以10-7mol·L-1组最为显著.α-MSH能诱导羊驼皮肤黑素细胞增殖、树突增长、黑素合成增加、MC1R、MITF和TYR基因表达量增高.

  12. Carbon dioxide monitoring during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery in severely obese patients: transcutaneous versus end-tidal techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Joanna M; McKee, Chris; Tobias, Joseph D; Herz, Daniel; Sohner, Paul; Teich, Steven; Michalsky, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Various factors including severe obesity or increases in intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy can lead to inaccuracies in end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) monitoring. The current study prospectively compares ET and transcutaneous (TC) CO2 monitoring in severely obese adolescents and young adults during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery. Carbon dioxide was measured with both ET and TC devices during insufflation and laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The differences between each measure (PETCO2 and TC-CO2) and the PaCO2 were compared using a non-paired t test, Fisher's exact test, and a Bland-Altman analysis. The study cohort included 25 adolescents with a mean body mass index of 50.2 kg/m2 undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. There was no difference in the absolute difference between the TC-CO2 and PaCO2 (3.2±3.0 mmHg) and the absolute difference between the PETCO2 and PaCO2 (3.7±2.5 mmHg). The bias and precision were 0.3 and 4.3 mmHg for TC monitoring versus PaCO2 and 3.2 and 3.2 mmHg for ET monitoring versus PaCO2. In the young severely obese population both TC and PETCO2 monitoring can be used to effectively estimate PaCO2. The correlation of PaCO2 to TC-CO2 is good, and similar to the correlation of PaCO2 to PETCO2. In this population, both of these non-invasive measures of PaCO2 can be used to monitor ventilation and minimize arterial blood gas sampling.

  13. Veno-venous Extracorporeal CO2 Removal: Can We Reduce Dependence on Mechanical Ventilation During En-route Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    sec. MV (L/min), respiratory rate (RR), Hemolung blood flow (BF, L/min), CO2 removal by the Hemolung (VHemolungCO2, ml/min), PaO2 and PaCO2, plasma...Hemolung console (ALung Technologies, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA). Arterial tension of oxygen ( PaO2 , mm Hg) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2, mm Hg) were measured at...changes were not significant. PaO2 was lower at 2 hours, whereas PaCO2 was higher at 48 and 72 hours after insertion when compared to baseline values

  14. Plaadid / Villu Päärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Nelly "Da Derrty Versions The reinvention", Zero 7 "When It Falls", Ilya "They Died For Beauty", Paco De Lucia "Costas Buenas", Murphy Lee "Da Skool Boy Presents", To Rococo Rot "Hotel Morgen"

  15. Kahe näoga maja / Mark Soosaar, Leele Välja, Tarmo Teedumäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tervisekeskus ja hotell "Hedon" Pärnu ajaloolises mudaravilahoones ja selle juurdeehituses. Arhitektuur: Inga Raukas, Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman (arhitektuuriagentuur Allianss Arhitektid). Sisearhitektuur: Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio). Valmimisaasta: 2014

  16. Linnagaleriis avatakse eramunäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" Viljandi Linnagaleriis. Tutvuda saab 21. sajandi esimestel aastatel Eestis valminud huvitavamate väikemajadega. Kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco Ulman

  17. Täiskasvanute lõbustuspark vee peal / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arhitekt Paco Ulmani fotonäitus "Tallinn-Helsinki-Stockholm" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 7. augustini 2011. Eksponeeritud fotoseeria kujutab Tallinn-Helsinki-Stockholm liinidel sõitvate laevade tühje interjööre

  18. Moemärke Hispaaniast / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Kuulsad Hispaania moekunstnikud Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Cristobal Balenciaga, Agatha Ruiz de la Prada (sünd. 1960), Oscar de la Renta (1932), Paloma Picasso (1949). Rõivapoodide ketid Zara, Mango ja El Corte Ingles

  19. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  20. Eksperimendid ruumis / Toomas Tammis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammis, Toomas, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuriteaduskonnas tehakse erialaprojekti kõrval väga erinevaid ruumilisi harjutusi. Esitletud on valik väiksemate töötubade ja kursuste töid: Kineetilise arhitektuuri töötuba "Volditav, klapitav, rullitav, pakitav", 2014 (juhendaja Renee Puusepp); Parameetrilise disaini valikaine, 2011 (juhendaja Raul Kalvo, assistent Kristjan Männigo); Maketistuudio, 2014 (juhendaja Paco Ulman); Eksperimentaalse arhitektuuri problemaatika, 2014 (juhendajad Martin Melioranski ja Paco Ulman)

  1. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulananda Dias Goonasekera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO 2 is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU, but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (P ET CO 2 as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO 2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent P ET CO 2 , fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO 2 , and arterial oxygen tension values of clinically stable children on mechanical ventilation were recorded. Children with extra-pulmonary ventriculoatrial shunts were excluded. The P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 difference and its variability and reproducibility were studied. Results: A total of 624 concurrent readings were obtained from 105 children (mean age [SD] 5.53 [5.43] years requiring invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the PICU. All had continuous P ET CO 2 monitoring and an arterial line for blood gas measurement. The mean (SD number of concurrent readings obtained from each child, 4-6 h apart was 6.0 (4.05. The P ET CO 2 values were higher than PaCO 2 in 142 observations (22.7%. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual admission specific (ANOVA, P < 0.001. The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference correlated positively with the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension [P(A-aO 2 ] difference (ρ = 0.381 P < 0.0001. There was a fixed bias between the P ET CO 2 and PaCO 2 measuring methods, difference +0.66 KPa (95% confidence interval: +0.57 to +0.76. Conclusions: The PaCO 2 -P ET CO 2 difference was individual specific. It was not affected by the primary disorder leading to the ventilation.

  2. ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA DE LA ALDEA FORMATIVA DE PALO BLANCO (TINOGASTA, CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / Zooarchaeology of the formative village of Palo Blanco (Tinogasta, Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Miyano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se abordan los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos de la localidad arqueológica de Palo Blanco recuperados en intervenciones realizadas en la década de 1960 y en la década de 2000. Esta localidad se encuentra emplazada en el sector norte del bolsón de Fiambalá (Tinogasta, Catamarca y se compone de varios núcleos habitacionales de distribución dispersa, predominantemente rectangulares y con muros de tapia. Su ocupación no fue sincrónica y se extiende desde el siglo III al siglo X A.D. La tendencia en el aprovechamiento de recursos faunísticos identificada fundamentalmente a partir del abordaje de los conjuntos de dos núcleos habitacionales sugiere que los camélidos fueron el principal recurso de origen animal utilizado en la aldea, en donde se encontraron especies tanto domesticadas (Lama glama como silvestres (Vicugna vicugna. Además, la presencia predominante de camélidos subadultos sugiere una estrategia de pastoreo vinculada al aprovechamiento de recursos primarios como carne, médula y grasa. Los resultados a los que se arribaron permiten profundizar en el conocimiento de las actividades económicas de los grupos humanos que habitaron la aldea de Palo Blanco a lo largo del primer milenio de la era. AbstractIn this paper we approach the archaeofaunistic remains recovered during excavations of the archeological locality of Palo Blanco in the decades of 1960 and 2000. Palo Blanco is located in the north sector of the Bolsón of Fimabalá area (Tinogasta, Catamarca and it is composed of several rectangular shaped dwellings with tapia-style walls and dispersed distribution. The period of occupation of the village was between the third and tenth century A.D. although the dwellings were not inhabited synchronously. The identified tendency in the exploitation of faunal resources indicates that the camelids were the main resources. Osteometric studies show that domestic and wild camelids (Lama glama and Vicugna vicugna

  3. Estimation of arterial PCO2 from a lung model during ramp exercise in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vincent; Costes, Frédéric; Busso, Thierry

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study is to propose a new approach to estimate non-invasively arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (P(a)CO2) approach was based on the reconstruction of alveolar gas composition over each breath from a tidally ventilated lung model (P(M)(CO2)). Eight healthy young subjects were studied during a ramp exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Arterial samples were drawn at rest and every minute during the exercise test for determination of P(a)CO2 . P(a)CO2 was compared with indirect estimates of P(CO2) : P(M)(CO2), end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET)(CO2)) and an empirical equation involving P(ET)(CO2) and tidal volume (P(J)(CO2)). The difference between estimated and measured P(a)CO2 on the whole ramp exercise was -0.3+/-1.9mmHg for P(M)(CO2), 1.0+/-2.2mmHg for P(ET)(CO2) and -1.7+/-1.7mmHg for P(J)(CO2) . P(ET)(CO2) and P(J)(CO2) were significantly different from actual P(a)CO2 (P<0.001). It is concluded that, on the basis of the bias, the breathing lung model gave better estimates of P(a)CO2 than the two other indirect methods during ramp exercise.

  4. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  5. The influence of oxygenotherapy on the hypercapnia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Zorica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oxygen therapy is a necessary therapeutic method in treatment of severe chronic respiratory failure (CRF, especially in phases of acute worsening. Risks which are to be taken into consideration during this therapy are: unpredictable increase of carbon dioxide in blood, carbonarcosis, respiratory acidosis and coma. The aim of this study was to show the influence of oxygen therapy on changes of arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure. Methods. The study included 93 patients in 104 admittances to the hospital due to acute exacerbation of CFR. The majority of the patients (89.4% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, while other causes of respiratory failure were less common. The effect of oxygenation was controlled through measurement of PaO2 and PaCO2 in arterial blood samples. To analyze the influence of oxygen therapy on levels of carbon dioxide, greatest values of change of PaO2 and PaCO2 values from these measurements, including corresponding PaO2 values from the same blood analysis were taken. Results. The obtained results show that oxygen therapy led to the increase of PaO2 but also to the increase of PaCO2. The average increase of PaO2 for the whole group of patients was 2.42 kPa, and the average increase of PaCO2 was 1.69 kPa. There was no correlation between the initial values of PaO2 and PaCO2 and changes of PaCO2 during the oxygen therapy. Also, no correlation between the produced increase in PaO2 and change in PaCO2 during this therapy was found. Conclusion. Controlled oxygen therapy in patients with severe respiratory failure greatly reduces the risk of unwanted increase of PaCO2, but does not exclude it completely. The initial values of PaO2 and PaCO2 are not reliable parameters which could predict the response to oxygen therapy.

  6. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds.

  7. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean K. Stolworthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (LBP is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the camelid (specifically, alpaca and llama cervical spine as a model of the human lumbar spine. Cervical spines were obtained from four alpacas and four llamas and individual segments were used for segmental flexibility/biomechanics and/or morphology/anatomy studies. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared for the alpaca and llama cervical spines, and human lumbar specimens in addition to other published large animal data. Results indicate that a camelid cervical intervertebral disc (IVD closely approximates the human lumbar disc with regard to size, spinal posture, and biomechanical flexibility. Specifically, compared with the human lumbar disc, the alpaca and llama cervical disc size are approximately 62%, 83%, and 75% with regard to area, depth, and width, respectively, and the disc flexibility is approximately 133%, 173%, and 254%, with regard to range of motion (ROM in axial-rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral-bending, respectively. These results, combined with the clinical report of disc degeneration in the llama lower cervical spine, suggest that the camelid cervical spine is potentially well suited for use as an animal model in biomechanical studies of the human lumbar spine.

  8. Camelid cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiocco, Marco L; Scansen, Brian A; Bonagura, John D

    2009-07-01

    Cardiovascular disorders, although not thoroughly described in the literature, are frequently diagnosed in South American camelids, causing morbidity, mortality, and loss of production. Definitive confirmation concerning the heritability of cardiac defects in these species is lacking; however, this potential exists and should be taken into account when counseling breeders and owners. This article describes the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in llamas and alpacas and reviews the most recent literature. Unique aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in these species are also reviewed.

  9. Capítulo 8. Preguntas por temas de intervención

    OpenAIRE

    Yeckting Vilela, Fabiola

    2013-01-01

    El principal propósito de los talleres participativos fue el seguimiento a las visiones colectivas del impacto de los proyectos de desarrollo, de sus aportes y limitaciones. Las preguntas respondidas en dinámicas grupales permitieron obtener una información asociada a conocimientos, actitudes, creencias y experiencias de los delegados participantes en los programas y estrategias de los proyectos especiales de PAMPA I, PAMPA II y CECI Alpaca. Los temas fueron elegidos de acuerdo a los principa...

  10. Regulation of cerebral blood flow in mammals during chronic hypoxia: a matter of balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, Philip N; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2010-02-01

    Respiratory-induced changes in the partial pressures of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) play a major role in cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation. Elevations in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) lead to vasodilatation and increases in CBF, whereas reductions in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) lead to vasoconstriction and decreases in CBF. A fall in PaO2 (hypoxia) below a certain threshold (balance between the myriad of vasodilators and constrictors derived from the endothelium, neuronal innervations and perfusion pressure. This review examines the extent and mechanisms by which hypoxia regulates CBF. Particular focus will be given to the marked influence of hypoxia associated with exposure to high altitude and chronic lung disease. The associated implications of these hypoxia-induced integrative alterations for the regulation of CBF are discussed, and future avenues for research are proposed.

  11. Evaluation of the Extension of the Cerebral Blood Flow and its Main Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, A

    1999-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF) - cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), cerebral metabolism, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and cardiac output, the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in being independent of autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and it allows to explore the full range of the CBF. We have developed a simple physical model, and have derived a simple four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy way, directly from the experimental data. With this model five experimental data sets of human, rats, baboons and dogs were well fitted. The same type of parametrization was also used successfully for fitting experimental data of PaO2 of dogs. We have also looked on the dependence of the parameters on other factors and were able to evaluate their dependence on the mean arterial blood pressure.

  12. Peculiarities of Brain's Blood Flow : Role of Carbon Dioxide

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. This research resulted in a simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2. The parameters can be extracted in an easy manner, directly from the experimental data. With this model earlier experimental data sets of Rhesus monkeys and rats were well fitted. Human data were also fitted with this model. Exact formulae were found, which can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. The merit of this transformation is that it enable us the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. This transformation makes possible the use of experimental animal data instead of human ones.

  13. Respiratory Dialysis: Reduction in Dependence on Mechanical Ventilation by Venovenous Extracorporeal CO2 Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    console. Arterial tension of oxy- gen ( PaO2 , mm Hg) and CO2 (PaCO2, mm Hg) were measured at baseline, 2 hrs after insertion of the Hemolung and every 6 hrs... PaO2 was lower at 2 hrs, whereas PaCO2 was higher at 48 and 72 hrs after inser- tion when compared to baseline values (Table 1). The pH was unchanged...Tidal volume, mL 650 14 556 24 576 9 574 15 578 15 .087 .084 .16 .18 PaO2 , mm Hg 96 2 77 5 a 103 8 97 16 112 8 .04 .94 .55 .08 PaCO2

  14. Monitoring carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients during hyperbaric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregård, Asger; Jansen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) is an established part of the monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Other ways to get information about carbon dioxide in the patient are measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PTCCO2......). Carbon dioxide in the blood and cerebral tissue has great influence on vasoactivity and thereby blood volume of the brain. We have found no studies on the correlation between P(ET)CO(2) or P(TC)CO(2), and P(a)CO(2) during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)....

  15. Índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus “PACO” en relación a los factores ambientales, en el Centro de Investigaciones Quistococha del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Iquitos – Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Dinis Vásquez, Narda Zaraiva

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar la relación que existe entre los índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus "paco" y las variaciones de los factores ambientales en el Centro de Investigaciones de Quistococha del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana, Iquitos–Perú. Se realizó de junio a agosto del 2010, fueron analizados un total de 180 individuos, repartidos en 60 larvas, 60 post larvas y 60 alevinos de paco colectado...

  16. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    In the upright position, cerebral blood flow is reduced, maybe because arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreases. We evaluated the time-dependent influence of a reduction in Pa(CO(2)), as indicated by the end-tidal Pco(2) tension (Pet(CO(2))), on cerebral perfusion during head......-up tilt. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)), and dynamic cerebral autoregulation at supine rest and 70 degrees head-up tilt were determined during free breathing and with Pet(CO(2)) clamped to the supine level. The postural changes in central...

  17. Adaptive support ventilation with percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veelo, Denise P; Dongelmans, Dave A; Middelhoek, Pauline; Korevaar, Johanna C; Schultz, Marcus J

    2008-09-01

    We determined the need for changes in minute ventilation with adaptive support ventilation after percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy under endoscopic guidance in 34 intensive care unit patients. During the procedure, minute ventilation was not changed; only maximum pressure limits were adjusted, if necessary. After insertion of the tracheotomy, cannula minute ventilation was adjusted only if Paco(2)-values changed >or=0.5 kPa from baseline. In 74% of patients, adaptive support ventilation was unable to maintain minute ventilation during the use of the endoscope, mandating pressure limitation adjustments. In a minority of patients (26%), minute ventilation had to be adjusted to achieve similar Paco(2) values.

  18. Vented Versus Unvented Chest Seals for Treatment of Pneumothorax and Prevention of Tension Pneumothorax in a Swine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    baseline levels of the previously mentioned parameters and confirmed by chest x-ray study. PaO2 and PaCo2 were also measured. RESULTS: PTx produced...that approached 0 mm Hg as expected (Fig. 2) with subsequent significant reductions in percent SpO2, SvO2 (Fig. 3), and PaO2 levels. The VT and RR...Partial pressures of oxygen ( PaO2 ) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in the final blood samples were significantly deranged at the Figure 2. IP measured during

  19. Electroencephalogram investigations of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate and acetate dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during acetate and bicarbonate dialysis in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms was found only during the course of bicarbonate dialysis. However, in acetate dialysis, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2), we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing, dysrhythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during acetate dialysis was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called 'disequilibrium' causing a cessation of dialysis in three patients.

  20. [Electro-encephalographic study of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate dialysis and acetate dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during AHD and BHD in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms could be found only during the course of BHD. However, in AHD, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing down, dysrythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during AHD was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called "disequilibrium" causing a cessation of dialysis in 3 patients.

  1. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  2. Disainikaart : Baskimaa / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Baskimaa skulptoritest, moekunstnikest, disaineritest, arhitektidest, kunstnikest. Edouardo Chillida (1924-2002), Cristóbal Balenciaga (1895-1972), Koldo Barroso, Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Iñaki Aspiazu (sünd. 1955), Nisa Goiburu (sünd. 1946), Jose Maria González Castillo (1927-2003), Itziar Okariz (sünd. 1965)

  3. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: Role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Grüne (Frank); S. Kazmaier (Stephan); R.J. Stolker (Robert J.); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk); A. Weyland (Andreas)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2 -induced changes in CBF, CVR,

  4. Time-course of ventilation, arterial and pulmonary CO(2) tension during CO (2) increase in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Toru; Okada, Yasumasa; Hara, Yasushi; Sakamaki, Fumio; Kyotani, Shingo; Tomita, Takeshi; Nagaya, Noritoshi; Nakanishi, Norifumi

    2012-01-01

    A change of ventilation (VE), PaCO( 2 ) (arterial CO( 2 ) tension) and PvCO( 2 ) (pulmonary arterial CO( 2 ) tension) with time was not evaluated precisely during exercise or CO( 2 ) rebreathing in humans. In this study, changes of these variables with time were fitted to exponential curves {y = Exp ( x/ T + A ) + k} and compared. When exercise pulmonary hemodynamics was examined in 15 cardiac patients to decide therapies, we asked the patients to undergo CO( 2 ) rebreathing using air with supplementation of consumed O( 2 ). Arterial and pulmonary blood was drawn every minute. During exercise, T was 28.2 ± 8.4 and 26.8 ± 12.4, and A was 0.80 ± 0.50 and 0.50 ± 0.90 in VE and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with no statistical differences. During CO( 2 ) rebreathing, T was 18.6 ± 5.8, 41.8 ± 38.0 and 21.6 ± 9.7 and A was 0.39 ± 0.67, 1.64 ± 1.35 and 0.17 ± 0.83 in VE, PaCO( 2 ) and PvCO( 2 ), respectively, with statistical difference of PaCO( 2 ) from other variables, suggesting that VE and PvCO( 2 ) showed same mode of change according to time but PaCO( 2 ) did not.

  5. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...

  6. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). O

  7. Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

    Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

  8. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    . Additional experiments were carried out using a higher spatial resolution. The largest signal increases were noted in areas corresponding to larger vessels, but significant changes were also conspicuous in deeper cortical and central grey matter. The changes appeared linearly related to the arterial CO2...... tension, within the range of PaCO2 studied. In white matter, the changes were not statistically significant....

  9. Comparison of the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin on the hypercapnic cerebral blood flow increase in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Pelligrino, D A; Paulson, O B;

    1994-01-01

    The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, on the rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanying increasing levels of hypercapnia (paCO2 = 40-135 mmHg) were studied in anesthetized rats. CBF...

  10. Hypercapnic acidosis attenuates the pulmonary innate immune response in ventilated healthy mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbertsma, F.J.; Vaneker, M.; Pickkers, P.; Snijdelaar, D.G.; Egmond, J. van; Scheffer, G.J.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation with small tidal volumes reduces the development of ventilator-induced lung injury and mortality, but may increase PaCO2. It is not clear whether the beneficial effect of a lung-protective strategy results from reduced ventilation pressures/tidal volumes or is medi

  11. Pildid räägivad lugusid, vorstid samuti / Andry Ervald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ervald, Andry

    2006-01-01

    Koomiksinäitus Rakvere galeriis. Osa võtavad Peeter Krosmann (1971), Kristel Maamägi (1986), Lilli-Krõõt Repnau (1982), Elina Sildre (1980), Joonas Sildre (1980), Veiko Tammjärv (1967), Paco Ulman (1980), Edvin Aedma ja rühmitus Endorfin Fractured Communications. Kristel Maamägi oma töödest

  12. Human respiration at rest in rapid compression and at high pressures and gas densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, R.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Strauss, R.; Clark, J. M.; Puglia, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The ventilation (V), end-tidal PCO2 (PACO2), and CO2 elimination rate were determined in men at rest breathing CO2-free gas over the pressure range 1-50 ATA and the gas density range 0.4-25 g/l, during slow and rapid compressions, at stable elevated ambient pressures and during slow decompressions. Progressive increase in pulmonary gas flow resistance due to elevation of ambient pressure and inspired gas density to the He-O2 equivalent of 5000 feet of seawater was found to produce a complex pattern of change in PACO2. It was found that as both ambient pressure and pulmonary gas flow resistance were progressively raised, PACO2 at first increased, went through a maximum, and then declined towards values near the 1 ATA level. It is concluded that this pattern of PACO2 change results from the interaction on ventilation of the increase in pulmonary resistance due to the elevation of gas density with the increase in respiratory drive postulated as due to generalized central nervous system excitation associated with exposure to high hydrostatic pressure. It is suggested that a similar interaction exists between increased gas flow resistance and the increase in respiratory drive related to nitrogen partial pressure and the resulting narcosis.

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16087-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e mth2-103l13, WORKING DR... 46 5.4 1 ( AC231342 ) Medicago truncatula clone mth2-33p5, WORKING DRAF... 46 5....4 1 ( AC229616 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-370O14, WORKING DRAFT SEQU... 46 5.4 1 ( AC208349 ) Zea mays chromo

  14. Alates 24. IX on Rotermanni soolalao galeriil...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Narva kolledzhi uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutööde näitus. I preemia - Katrin Koov, Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, II - Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, III - Peeter Varrak, ostupreemiad - Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Paco Ulman ning Koit Ojaliiv, Juhan Rohtla

  15. 10. X avati Sakala keskuses...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Avati Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" ning premeeriti 2004/2005. aasta parimaid eramuid ning Eesti arhitektuurielu positiivselt mõjutanud tellijat, ehitajat ja kriitikut. Näituse kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco-Ernest Ulman

  16. Tehniline ilu ja Norra maastik / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti arhitektid Toomas Tammis ja Paco Ernest Ulman (Allianss Arhitektid) saavutasid Norra elektrifirma Statnett uue kõrgepingemasti kavandi rahvusvahelisel võistlusel kolmanda koha. Tööd kommenteerib Toomas Tammis. 1. koha pälvinud peegelmastist (Bystrup Arkitekter, Taani) ja 2. koha pälvinud tööst (Lalaland Studio, Norra)

  17. Noored filmimeistrid võistlesid Tartu festivalil / Kai Väärtnõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väärtnõu, Kai

    2005-01-01

    6.-8. jaanuarini 2005 toimus teist korda Tartus noorte amatöörfilmifestival (NAFF). Peapreemia andis žürii (esimees Ilmar Raag) filmile "Kahekümnes" (autorid Andris Feldmanis, Rein Jakobson, Björn Piibur, Paco Ulman). Lisatud osalenud huvitavamate filmide ja võitjate nimekiri

  18. Anneteparaad / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia arhitektuuri eriala magistri- ja bakalaureuseõppe lõputööd: 1. Koit Ojaliivi kompleks vaimupuuetega inimestele; 2.Katrin Tääkeri "Eakate Kodu" Seewaldis; 3. Hermas Lilleoru sümbioos kirikust ja kontserdimajast; 4. Paco Ulmani nägemus Lasnamäe seni väljaehitamata osa hoonestamiseks

  19. Bastion kak kemping

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Skoone bastioni ja sellega külgneva staadioni arendamise ideekonkursist, premeeritud töödest. I preemia - Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (AB Salto), II - Timo Subbi, Mihkel Urmet, Taavi Kaldaru (AB Suburb), III - Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür, Paco-Ernest Ulman (AB Kosmos)

  20. Fotograafi inspireerisid reisilaevade interjöörid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Paco Ulmani fotonäitus "Tallinn-Helsingi-Stockholm" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 20. juulist 2011. Pildistatud on Tallinn-Helsingi-Stockholmi liinidel sõitvate laevade interjööre ajal, mil need on rahvast tühjenenud ja paljastanud oma kommertslikkuse

  1. Skoone linnakämping

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Skoone bastioni ja sellega külgneva staadioni arendamise ideekonkursist, premeeritud töödest. I preemia - Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (AB Salto), II - Timo Subbi, Mihkel Urmet, Taavi Kaldaru (AB Suburb), III - Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür, Paco-Ernest Ulman (AB Kosmos)

  2. Cerebrovascular response to acute metabolic acidosis in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Kersten, B.T.P.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the cerebrovascular response (delta CBV/delta PaCO2) during baseline metabolic conditions and acute metabolic acidosis. METHODS: 15 healthy subjects, 5 m, 10 f, 56 +/- 10 yrs were investigated. For acidification, NH4Cl was given orally. CBV was measured using Near Infrared

  3. Eestis avastamata konkurentsieelise allikas - kaubagruppide juhtimine / Krister Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Krister

    2006-01-01

    Kaubagrupist kui strateegilisest äriosast, mida jaekaubandus- ja tootmisettevõtted koostöös juhtivad. Vt. samas: Kaubagruppide juhtimine mahlade puhul; Kaubagruppide juhtimine raamatute puhul. Tabelid. Skeemid. Vt. ka: Kallas, Riina. Nipid, mida nupukamad kaupmehed juba teavad [Rets. rmt.: Paco Underhill. Miks me ostame. Ostuteadus. - Eesti Ekspressi Kirjastus, 2006

  4. Fandango in the Franco Era: The Politics of Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Goldbach

    2015-01-01

    folclóricas del fandango funcionaban como puente entre el uso del imaginario andaluz por parte del gobierno, con fines turísticos, y la ortodoxia de puristas flamencos. Este trabajo considera también la importancia de especialistas como Paco Toronjo para asegurarsupervivencia del fandango como parte del canon flamenco.

  5. Extensive subcutaneous emphysema and hypercapnia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H; Bandai, Y; Ohtomo, Y; Shimomura, K; Nayeem, S A; Idezuki, Y

    1995-06-01

    We report two cases of marked hypercapnia of more than 60 mm Hg (PaCO2) and extensive subcutaneous emphysema noted during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The first case, a 55-year-old man was diagnosed as having cholecystolithiasis and had hypercapnia up to 83.5 mm Hg (PaCO2) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The patient resumed spontaneous respiration under controlled ventilation accompanied by persistent bigeminal pulse. Soon after deflation, CO2 returned to normal range, and extensive subcutaneous emphysema was detected in the recovery room. The second patient, a 53-year-old woman, had cholecystolithiasis and also underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both hypercapnia rising to 61.1 mm Hg (PaCO2) and extensive subcutaneous emphysema appeared just before completion of resection of the gallbladder. Mild hypercapnia during pneumoperitoneum of about 50 mm Hg (PaCO2) has been reported previously. As compared with cases in the literature, the present cases suggest that hypercapnia is due to extensive subcutaneous emphysema. The large absorption surface area in the subcutaneous tissue and the large difference in the partial pressure cause the extensive gaseous interchange of CO2 between subcutaneous tissue and blood perfusing into it at the moment between peritoneal cavity and blood perfused the peritoneum.

  6. Papain and its inhibitor E-64 reduce camelid semen viscosity without impairing sperm function and improve post-thaw motility rates

    OpenAIRE

    Kershaw, C.M.; Evans, G; Rodney, R.; Maxwell, W.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    In camelids, the development of assisted reproductive technologies is impaired by the viscous nature of the semen. The protease papain has shown promise in reducing viscosity, although its effect on sperm integrity is unknown. The present study determined the optimal papain concentration and exposure time to reduce seminal plasma viscosity and investigated the effect of papain and its inhibitor E-64 on sperm function and cryopreservation in alpacas. Papain (0.1 mg mL–1, 20 min, 37°C) eliminat...

  7. Distribución de neuropéptidos en el tronco del encéfalo del hombre y del mono (saimiri sciureus): estudio inmunocitoquímico

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Díaz, Ewing

    2011-01-01

    [ES]Esta tesis doctoral está basada en una pormenorizada consulta bibliográfica, relacionada con los diferentes estudios en cuanto a la distribución de fibras y somas inmunomarcados con los diferentes neuropéptidos en el tronco del encéfalo del hombre y del mono ardilla (Saimiri sciureus), así como también de otras especies de mamíferos (rata, gato, perro y alpaca). Es importante indicar que el estudio de la distribución de neuropéptidos en el sistema nervioso central de mamíferos se remonta ...

  8. Influência da insuflação de gás traqueal sobre a capnografia de pacientes anestesiados Influencia de la insuflación de gas traqueal sobre la capnografía de pacientes anestesiados Influence of tracheal gas insufflation during capnography in anesthetized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ortiz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A insuflação de gás traqueal (TGI - Tracheal Gas Insufflation é uma técnica que consiste em injetar gás na traquéia (geralmente oxigênio. É usada em pacientes portadores de síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto para reduzir a capnometria. Em Anestesiologia, a redução da capnometria pode ser útil, mas não existem estudos sobre a redução da capnometria com o uso da TGI. O presente estudo avaliou as alterações proporcionadas pela TGI sobre a capnografia em pacientes anestesiados. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados prospectivamente 11 pacientes, 18 a 60 anos, ASA I ou II, não-pneumopatas. Após a intubação traqueal foi inserido cateter para TGI a 2 ou 3 cm da carina. Os pacientes foram submetidos à ventilação controlada a volume. Registrou-se a curva de capnografia volumétrica durante 20 minutos e colheu-se amostra sangüínea para medir PaCO2. Após 20 minutos de TGI registrou-se a curva de capnografia e foi colhida nova amostra sangüínea para medir PaCO2. Avaliou-se pressão parcial de CO2 no fim da expiração (P ET CO2 e PaCO2, antes e após TGI. Observou-se curva de capnografia, antes e durante TGI. RESULTADOS: A PaCO2 e P ET CO2 sem TGI foram, respectivamente (média ± desvio-padrão: 33,48 ± 6,81 e 36,91 ± 6,54 mmHg e, após TGI, 33,85 ± 8,31 e 36,55 ± 7,93 mmHg, não havendo diferença estatística entre os valores antes e após TGI, tanto para a PaCO2 quanto para a P ET CO2 (p = 0,65 e 0,82. A curva de capnografia apresentou alterações na fase de expiração do ar alveolar. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação da TGI não resultou em diminuição da PaCO2 e nem na P ET CO2, porém alterou a morfologia da curva de capnografia.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La insuflación de gas traqueal (TGI - Tracheal Gas Insufflation es una técnica que consiste en inyectar gas en la tráquea (generalmente oxígeno. Se usa en pacientes portadores del síndrome de la angustia respiratoria del adulto para reducir

  9. [Inefficacy of theophylline in preventing hypoxemia in abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenesse, D; Berre, A; Ardisson, J L; Blaive, B

    1988-12-01

    It would be very useful to prevent post surgery ventilatory and gazometric insufficiencies that represent a significant risk factor. Ten patients have received proper doses of theophyllin in order to maintain accurate plasmatic concentration immediately after surgery. During the next 24 hours, their respiratory frequency, tidal volume, ventilation per minute, PaO2 and PaCO2 have been recorded. Those data have been compared with a test group (N = 10) having received injections of placebo. No relevant discrepancy exists in the ventilation parameters nor any increase of PaO2. The significant factor is a substantial decrease of PaCO2. It appears that theophyllin has no significatory efficiency for controlling the post surgery hypoventilation and hypoxemia.

  10. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...... perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P...... exercise, a breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P

  11. Effects of acute hypercapnia with and without acidosis on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, L M; Rzezinski, A; Silva, J D; Maron-Gutierrez, T; Ornellas, D S; Henriques, I; Capelozzi, V L; Teodoro, W; Morales, M M; Silva, P L; Pelosi, P; Garcia, C S N B; Rocco, P R M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute hypercapnic acidosis and buffered hypercapnia on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Twenty-four hours after paraquat injection, 28 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n=7/group): (1) normocapnia (NC, PaCO2=35-45 mmHg), ventilated with 0.03%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; (2) hypercapnic acidosis (HC, PaCO2=60-70 mmHg), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; and (3) buffered hypercapnic acidosis (BHC), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2 and treated with sodium bicarbonate (8.4%). The remaining seven animals were not mechanically ventilated (NV). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.003), IL-1β (pacidosis, reduced lung inflammation and lung and kidney cell apoptosis.

  12. Application of high-frequency ventilation to treatment of chemical-warfare casualties: Animal and theoretical studies (application of high-frequency transtracheal jet ventilation to treatment of chemical-warfare casualties). Final report, March 1983-December 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbrecht, P.H.; Bryant, H.J.; Kyle, R.

    1987-08-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of transtracheal jet ventilation in organophosphate-challenged animals. Preliminary studies were done in normal canines to define the effects of ventilator operating parameters on respiratory gas exchange. Nine normal dogs, anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, were ventilated through an eight gauge cricothyrotomy cannula using a controller that allowed separate setting of drive pressure, duty cycle, and frequency. Arterial (partial pressure of oxygen) and (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) were measured after achieving steady state gas exchange at 15-22 different combinations of drive pressure, duty cycle, and frequency in each dog. There were slight increases in PaCO2 and larger decreases in arterial oxygen partial pressure as frequency was increased from 10 to 200 cycles/min. Increases in drive pressure and duty cycle resulted in reductions in PaCO2 and increases in PaO2.

  13. Coagulation Changes to Systemic Acidosis and Bicarbonate Correction in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    a decrease in respiration successfully lowered arterial pH to 7.1 (Acido- sis, Table 2) and significantly elevated PaCO2 and HCO3 and lowered PaO2 ...PaCO2, PaO2 , and BE to near their prehemorrhage levels. CaCl2 was injected i.v. during reinfusion of citrated blood (1 mg/mL of blood), so that the plasma...3.1* 55.0 3.2 PaO2 (mm Hg) 479.8 26.2 464.5 26.1 455.4 16.6 HCO3 (mmol/L) 33.2 0.7 16.2 1.8* 31.4 1.5 BE (mmol/L) 7.0 0.7 -12.5

  14. Dense Plasma Focus as Collimated Source of D-D Fusion Neutron Beams for Irradiation Experiences and Study of Emitted Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Moroso, R.; Guichón, S.; Supán, J.

    2008-04-01

    A "table-top" 2 kJ, 250 kA plasma focus, the PACO (Plasma AutoConfinado), designed by the Dense Plasma Group of IFAS is used in its optimum regime for neutron yield for obtaining collimated pulsed neutron beams (100 ns). A simple and low-cost shielding arrangement was developed in order to fully eliminate the 2.45 MeV neutrons generated in the PACO device (108 per shot at 31 kV, 1-2 mbar). Conventional neutron diagnostics: scintillator-photomultiplier (S-PMT), silver activation counters (SAC), etc., are used to determine the minimum width of the shielding walls. Emission of very hard electromagnetic pulses is also studied. Collimation using lead and copper plates is made to determine the localization of the very hard X-ray source. The maximum energy of the continuum photon distribution is estimated in 0,6 MeV using a system of filters.

  15. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas.

  16. Reproduction in female South American domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumar, J B

    1999-01-01

    Alpacas and llamas are induced ovulators. They show marked reproductive seasonality in the Andean region, but under Northern Hemisphere conditions of feeding and management, they are non-seasonal breeders. Puberty is attained when they reach 50% of adult body weight. When they are not exposed to a male, females show successive waves of follicular maturation and atresia. Growth, maintenance and regression of a follicle each require an average of 4 and 6 days in alpacas and llamas, respectively. After sterile mating, progesterone concentrations in blood were increased from day 5, reached maximum concentrations on day 7-8, and declined rapidly at 9-10 days after mating. A fertile mating results in formation of a corpus luteum that remains functional throughout gestation. The duration of gestation is 340-346 days. Almost all fetuses were found to occupy the left uterine horn, even though ovulation occurs from both ovaries with equal frequency. Several methods of pregnancy diagnosis have been described. Mating is recommended within 15-20 days after parturition to obtain good fertility rates and one offspring per year. The factors that contribute to high rates of embryonic mortality are unknown. Reproductive technologies, such as AI, superovulation, embryo transfer and IVF, have not been used very extensively in these species but can be successfully applied.

  17. Antibody responses in New World camelids with tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium microti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Meylan, M; Burri, I Hengrave; Zanolari, P

    2007-12-15

    Antibody responses in New World camelids (NWC) infected with Mycobacterium microti were studied by two serological methods, multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA) and lateral-flow-based rapid test (RT). Serum samples were collected during 2004-2006 from 87 animals including 1 alpaca and 7 llamas with confirmed or suspected M. microti infection, 33 potentially exposed but clinically healthy animals from known infected herds, and 46 control NWC from herds where infection had not been previously diagnosed. The serological assays correctly identified infection status in 97% (MAPIA) or 87% (RT) cases. In three llamas with confirmed M. microti infection and one llama with gross pathology suggestive of disease, for which multiple serum samples collected over time were available, the antibody-based tests showed positive results 1-2 years prior to the onset of clinical signs or being found dead. In MAPIA, MPB83 protein was identified to be an immunodominant serological target antigen recognized in NWC infected with M. microti. With the limited number of animals tested in this study, the serological assays demonstrated the potential for convenient, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of M. microti infection in live llamas and alpacas.

  18. Surgical repair of femoral fractures in New World camelids: five cases (1996-2003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, R W; Wilson, D G

    2007-04-01

    Five New World camelids were admitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine between 1996 and 2003 for evaluation of femoral fractures. There were three alpacas and two llamas. Four of the animals were female and three were less than 3 months of age. Fracture configurations consisted of distal physeal fractures (three), a comminuted diaphyseal/metaphyseal fracture, and a transverse diaphyseal fracture. Fractures were diagnosed with a combination of physical examination and radiographs in all cases. All five fractures were repaired with internal fixation and three animals were discharged from the hospital with fractures that healed. One cria underwent successful internal fixation but died from pulmonary oedema during recovery from anaesthesia. Postoperative complications were rare and limited to inadequate fracture stability in one alpaca and prolonged recovery to weight bearing in another. One llama with a comminuted metaphyseal fracture, repaired with a 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate, subsequently had catastrophic failure of the bone 17 days after surgery. Overall the clients were pleased with the outcome of discharged animals. Although femoral fractures are considered rare, they pose a unique opportunity for the large animal veterinarian to successfully achieve fracture union with the aid of internal fixation.

  19. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  20. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  1. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...... burning. The aim was to determine the accuracy and precision of tcPCO2 at reduced electrode temperature....

  2. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 24. Equipment Repair Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    ACRYLIC PACO 11 1ELECTROPLATER (SILVER, GOLD AND COPPER) 12 IPANOREX X-RAY UNIT I{ 13 ICASTING MACHINE, CHROME COBALT 14 ICASTING MACHINE, DENTAL METALS...33 1PDBOESt SURG1CAL9 ELECTRIC 34 IMETAL LOCATOR I 35 ICHAIR, SURGEON, RECLINING 36 "|MEDICAL UNIT, RITTER MODEL 37 (DRILL, MICRO SHEA 38 ICAST ...ERGOMETER 44 IHEARING AID KITS 45 IALTERNATING PRESSURE PAD AND MATTRESS 46 *JaRiLt, AIR STRYKER 41 ICASTING MACHINE BROKEN ARM, KERR 48 ISAWo PLASTER

  3. [Respiratory stimulant effect of S 2620 in the dog anesthetized with pentobarbital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaud, M; Dolisi, C; Camous, J P; Gibelli, A; Ripoll, B; Ardisson, J L

    1975-01-01

    In the dog under pentobarbitone anesthesia, the intravenous injection of 1 mg/kg S 2620 is followed by a significant increase in respiratory rate, PaO2 and pHa and by a large decrease in PaCO2. Cervical vagotomy and chemoreceptor denervation reduced and even abolished these effects. They can be induced again by a second intravenous injection or by direct instillation in the fourth ventricle. These results suggest a central action of the drug.

  4. Severe hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in an elderly patient with IgG-kappa type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenrick BerendSt Elisabeth Hospital, Willemstad, CuraçaoImashuku et al1 describe a 77-year-old male patient with multiple myeloma who was admitted to the hospital after suffering a pelvic bone fracture due to a road traffic accident. Several days after admission the arterial blood gas showed a pH of 7.481; arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 of 28.2 mmHg; arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 of 84.0 mmHg; HCO3- of 20.8 mmol/L (normal; 23–31 mmol/L; and an anion gap of 8.9 mmol/L (normal;12 mmol/L. These data, as the authors concluded, were suggestive of metabolic acidosis. First, this is not true because a high pH and low PaCO2 confirm a respiratory alkalosis. Since the test was conducted days later we may expect a chronic respiratory alkalosis to be present, perhaps because of pain or a secondary pulmonary problem, as may be expected with a relatively low PaO2. In chronic respiratory alkalosis one would expect the HCO3- to decrease about 4 mmol/L with every 10 mmHg decrease of PaCO2.2 If the initial HCO3- had been about 25 mmol/L, the expected PaCO2 would be about 20.28 mmol/L, almost identical with the patient’s HCO3-.View original paper by Imashuku and colleagues.

  5. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P...

  6. Effects of high-frequency chest wall oscillation on respiratory control in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, M C; Gelmont, D; Howell, S; Johnson, R; Yang, F; Chang, H K

    1989-05-01

    We studied the spontaneous breathing patterns of 10 normal adult volunteers during high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO), accomplished by inflating and deflating a vest worn around each subject's thorax at 2.5 Hz. Tidal volumes generated by HFCWO averaged 100 ml. Mean vest pressure was maintained at approximately 35 cm H2O throughout each experiment, even when HFCWO was not applied. During HFCWO, subjects were instructed occasionally to exhale deeply to obtain end-tidal samples representative of PACO2. HFCWO increased the breath-to-breath variability of spontaneous respiration in all subjects, prolonging expiratory pauses and producing short apneas in some cases. PACO2 decreased significantly (p less than 0.05). The effects on minute ventilation, tidal volume, and inspiratory and expiratory durations remained variable across subjects, even when differences in PACO2 between control and HFCWO states were reduced through inhalation of a low CO2 mixture. None of the changes were statistically significant, although average expiratory duration increased by 29%. Ventilatory responses to CO2 with and without HFCWO were also measured. Normocapnic (PACO2 = 40 mm Hg) ventilatory drive increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in six subjects (Type 1 response) and decreased substantially in the others (Type 2 response); with hypercapnia, the changes in drive were attenuated in both groups. Consequently, CO2 sensitivity decreased in Type 1 subjects and increased in Type 2 subjects. A simple analysis based on this result shows that with HFCWO, Type 2 subjects breathing air will tend to have a lower spontaneous minute ventilation and become hypercapnic. Type 1 subjects will become hypocapnic, but minute ventilation may be higher or lower than control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Hundo kaj Lupo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heren

    1996-01-01

    En fora profunda montaro sin kaas pen-trinda vilaeto de kelkaj familioj.Ali,izolitakaj kvazaǔ forgesita de la mondo,kondukas nurvojstreko,kiu serpentumas suprenis mont-talio.La unika uzebla transportilo estas azeno.Sed la vilaanoj vivas kaj laboras tie,genera-cion post generacio,en paco,harmonio,amike-co kaj helpemo.Ili agas laǔ sia maniero,mal-multe sciante la mondon ekster la vilaeto.

  8. [Visual evoked potentials (VEP) in anesthesia and intensive care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, W; Krumholz, W; Hempelmann, G

    1984-03-01

    Methodological considerations and different stimulation techniques of visual evoked potentials (VEP) are described. VEP can provide information about neurological function during anaesthesia, surgery and in the unconscious patient after head injury. The feasibility of the method for intraoperative monitoring in neuro- and cardiac surgery and the influence of general anaesthetics and other contributing factors such as temperature, paCO2, pO2, part are discussed.

  9. Eesti parim väikeehitis asub Võrumaal Lasval / Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu konkursi "Väike 2007-2009" parimaks arhitektuuriliseks väikeobjektiks nimetati Lasva veetorn-galerii (Veronika Valk) Võrumaal, II preemia said Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli esisele väljakule paigaldatud pinkide eest Martin Pärn ja Edina Dufala-Pärn, III preemia läks aiamajale (Toomas Tammis, Paco Ulman) Meriväljal. Parimate väikevormide väljapanek Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis 19. juunini 2010

  10. Eesti eramud rändavad Euroopas / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Urmas Oja kureeritud ja Paco Ulmani kujundatud Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" oli 2006. a. aprilli lõpust juuni keskpaigani üleval Praha Rahvusgaleriis. Avamisel olid Eestist Ülar Mark, Margit Mutso ja Hindrek Kesler. 3+1 arhitektide projekteeritud eramu Tallinnas Kuldtiiva t. on Briti kirjastuse Laurence King poolt välja antud raamatus "21st Century House" 50 maailma parima maja hulgas

  11. Kaks linna : Narva kolledzhi arhitektuurivõistlus / Andres Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Žürii koosseis, võistlusest, pikemalt võidutööst. Auhinnatud tööd: I preemia - Katrin Koov, Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, II - Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, III - Peeter Varrak, ostupreemiad - Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Paco Ulman ning Koit Ojaliiv, Juhan Rohtla. Ill.: võidutöö asendiplaan, korruste plaanid, lõiked, vaated

  12. Relationship between hyperventilation and intracranial pressure in patients with severe head injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@With high fatality rate and disability rate, the pathophysiologic changes of severe head injury are complicated. But the method of lowering intracranial pressure (ICP) through artificial hyperventilation is called in question recently. To understand the related changes of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2) and the ICP at the acute period of severe head injury, a total of 64 patients with severe head injury were monitored and analyzed on the 3rd day after injury.

  13. Uus plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Helloween "Rabbit Don't Come Easy", David Byrne "grown Backwards", Joss Stone "The Soul Session", Bass boom 3 "Faster Harder Louder", Lisa Miskovsky "Fallingwater", Paco de Lucia "Cositas Buenos", Soundtrack "Once Upon A Time In Mexico", Vanilla Ninja "Don't Go Too Fast", Novaspace "Cubes", "Elmari tantsuõhtu 4.", The Von Bondies "Pawn Snappe Heart", Godsmack "The Other Side", George Michael "Patience", Eric Clapton "Me and Mr Johnson"

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung blood gas analysis%慢性阻塞性肺疾病与肺心病血气比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨运中

    2015-01-01

    Objective Study of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and cor pulmonale flesh comparative analysis, rich clinical experience.Methods Selection of blood gas analysis in the clinical application of PH, PaCO2 and often PaO2 comparison and difference of the project such as the difference between the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the degree of blood gas changes between the patients who suffered heart disease from lung disorders.Results(1) the copd group and control group comparison, PaCO2 (P>0.05), PH (P>0.05), there was no significant difference between two indicators, PaO2 significant difference (P>0.05); (2) the copd and cor pulmonale group compared with decompensated period, PaCO2 (P0.01), PH (P>0.05), there was no significant difference between two indicators, PaCO2 (P0.05)、PH(P>0.05),两项指标没有显著差异,PaO2(P>0.05)差异显著;(2)慢阻肺组和肺心病组对比失代偿期,PaCO2(P0.01)、PH(P>0.05),两项指标没有显著差异,PaCO2(P<0.01)差异显著.结论:血气比较分析对慢性阻塞肺疾病和肺心病在临床中的诊断治疗和愈后的判断以及预测具备重要的意义.

  15. Micromusic / Gino Esposto ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esposto, Gino

    2006-01-01

    Šveitsis Gino Esposto poolt 1999. a. rajatud Micromusic loob ja kogub muusikat, mis on loodud ajalooliste arvutitega või kõlab selliselt, kuid on mõeldud praeguste tantsusõprade jaoks. 1999. aastast on koos tegutsenud Paco Manzanares (alias Wanga, sünd. 1962), Michael Burkhardt (alias SuperB, sünd. 1966) ja G. Esposto (alias Carl, sünd. 1973). 17. XI 2000. a. peetud telefonivestlus G. Espostoga

  16. Nõela all : Igakuine vinüülitutvustus / DJ Drummie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Drummie

    1999-01-01

    Plaatidest Sandy Rivera feat. LT Brown "Come Into My Room", Deep Sensation "Somehow, Shomewhere (Soul Heaven)", Brothers of Soul "Eyes of Love", Dr.Gary Henry "'Faith", Royal Palm "Hecho En Inglaterra", La Cellule "Sweet Entourage EP", Antonio "Hyperfunk", DJ Paco & Terry Laird feat. MC Adrian "M.U.G. EP vol 1", DJ Brockie & Ed Solo "Represents/Shodown", Fresh and Vegas "Otto's Way/ Heatwave"

  17. Leptospirosis en camélidos sudamericanos. Estudio de prevalencia serológica en distintas regiones de la Argentina Leptospirosis in south-american camelids. A study on the serological prevalence in different regions of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. LLORENTE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la seroprevalencia en Camélidos Sudamericanos de Leptospirosis, zoonosis de distribución mundial, producida por espiroquetas patógenas del género Leptospira. Se examinaron 494 animales (llamas, guanacos y vicuñas, clínicamente sanos sin vacunar, de diferentes regiones geográficas de la República Argentina. Se utilizó la técnica, serovar específica, de microaglutinación (MAT. El estudio reveló prevalencias entre 47.3 y 96.2% en llamas, entre 0 y 13% en guanacos y entre 9 y 62.8% en vicuñas. De los serovares que se usaron como antígeno en las determinaciones, los que más frecuentemente reaccionaron con los anticuerpos séricos de los camélidos, fueron copenhageni y castellonisLeptospirosis is a zoonotic infectious disease, affecting wild and domestic animals and human beings, caused by pathogenic spirochetes, spread world wide, belonging to the genus Leptospira. It is transmited by direct contact with infected animal urine or tissues, and indirectly through contaminated water and soil. Leptospirosis has a negative economic impact on porcine and bovine productions. It causes abortions, stillbirths, placental retention, infertility and chronical renal deficiency, causing disturbance of flow milk and quality in dairy cattle. Studies on south-american camelids productive aspects, have increased during the last decades, in order to promote alternative regional economies. There exist three species in Argentina, llama (Lama glama, guanaco (Lama guanicoe and vicuña (Vicugna vicugna. The knowledge of physiological parameters and susceptibility and immune response to infectious agents of these animals, are required to improve their breeding efficiency. Leptospirosis is an infectious disease, which may affect reproduction efficiency. Leptospira antibody prevalence in 494 sera obtained from healthy non vaccinated llamas, vicuñas and guanacos from different geographic zones in Argentina, was evaluated. The serovar specific

  18. Population pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation of the respiratory effect of acetazolamide in decompensated COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Heming

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients may develop metabolic alkalosis during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Acetazolamide is one of the treatments used to reverse metabolic alkalosis. METHODS: 619 time-respiratory (minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate and 207 time-PaCO2 observations were obtained from 68 invasively ventilated COPD patients. We modeled respiratory responses to acetazolamide in mechanically ventilated COPD patients and then simulated the effect of increased amounts of the drug. RESULTS: The effect of acetazolamide on minute ventilation and PaCO2 levels was analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect model. The effect of different ventilatory modes was assessed on the model. Only slightly increased minute ventilation without decreased PaCO2 levels were observed in response to 250 to 500 mg of acetazolamide administered twice daily. Simulations indicated that higher acetazolamide dosage (>1000 mg daily was required to significantly increase minute ventilation (P0.75 L min(-1 in 60% of the population. The model also predicts that 45% of patients would have a decrease of PaCO2>5 mmHg with doses of 1000 mg per day. CONCLUSIONS: Simulations suggest that COPD patients might benefit from the respiratory stimulant effect after the administration of higher doses of acetazolamide.

  19. [CO2 storage in various organs during chronic experimental hypercapnia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, E; Claudon, F; Sablière, S

    1976-01-01

    The total CO2 is titrated in liver, abdominal and leg's muscles, brain and thigh-bone of rats exposed to 8 +/- 1% of carbon dioxide under normoxic (20-23% of O2) and normobaric conditions during zero, two, four or six weeks. Total (H2Ot) and extracellular (H2Oe) water is measured in these organs by the 3H-inulin method. The CO2 storage in organs is expressed in relation to the PaCO2 increase (mmol-kg-1 fresh tissue-torr-1). During a four week hypercapnia, this CO2 increase is very important in bone and brain compared with that of other organs and of the whole body. With regard to the whole body, the bone CO2 content is still increasing after four weeks. The increase in extracellular bicarbonate (delta[HCO3-e]/delta PaCO2) is negligible (1/100 th) in comparison with the whole carbonic increase (delta CO2/delta PaCO2). The bone extracellular compartment diminishes in relation with the experimentation duration, without any significant change in H2Oi (Student's analysis). A factorial analysis (BENZECRI) shows that the weight of H2Oe in the information diminishes for all organs, both with the duration of normal subjects observation (ageing) and with the hypercapnia duration.

  20. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  1. [Efficacy and safety of the use of levodropropizine in patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunella, G; Zanasi, A; Massimo Vanasia, C B

    1991-02-28

    Efficacy and tolerability of an antitussive drug, levodropropizine, in 21 adult patients with interstitial lung disorders was evaluated in this study. Levodropropizine dosage was 60 mg t.i.d. for four days of therapy. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the antitussive therapy and, on the other hand, the tolerability of levodropropizine in these patients, monitoring PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values. The changes in cough frequency (34.1 +/- 5.6 20.4 +/- 5.4 mean +/- d.s. before and after treatment) and the overall efficacy judgment as reported by the doctor indicate a decrease in cough as confirmed by the significance of Kruskal-Wallis test (p less than 0.05). Furthermore the tolerability has been excellent, because the PaO2, PaCo2 ad pH values before and after treatment were unchanged (PaO2 mmHg: basal 71 +/- 16.6, after treatment 73.8 +/- 14.2; PaCO2 mmHg: basal 36.6 +/- 5, after treatment 36.6 +/- 4.6; pH basal 7.4 +/- 0.03, after treatment 7.4 +/- 0.02).

  2. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, L; Alam, J; Lane, S

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  3. Arterial acid-base status during digestion and following vascular infusion of NaHCO(3) and HCl in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvedsen, Sine K; Andersen, Johnnie B; Zaar, Morten; Andrade, Denis; Abe, Augusto S; Wang, Tobias

    2005-12-01

    Digestion is associated with gastric secretion that leads to an alkalinisation of the blood, termed the "alkaline tide". Numerous studies on different reptiles and amphibians show that while plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)](pl)) increases substantially during digestion, arterial pH (pHa) remains virtually unchanged, due to a concurrent rise in arterial PCO(2) (PaCO(2)) caused by a relative hypoventilation. This has led to the suggestion that postprandial amphibians and reptiles regulate pHa rather than PaCO(2). Here we characterize blood gases in the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) during digestion and following systemic infusions of NaHCO(3) and HCl in fasting animals to induce a metabolic alkalosis or acidosis in fasting animals. The magnitude of these acid-base disturbances were similar in magnitude to that mediated by digestion and exercise. Plasma [HCO(3)(-)] increased from 18.4+/-1.5 to 23.7+/-1.0 mmol L(-1) during digestion and was accompanied by a respiratory compensation where PaCO(2) increased from 13.0+/-0.7 to 19.1+/-1.4 mm Hg at 24 h. As a result, pHa decreased slightly, but were significantly below fasting levels 36 h into digestion. Infusion of NaHCO(3) (7 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in a 10 mmol L(-1) increase in plasma [HCO(3)(-)] within 1 h and was accompanied by a rapid elevation of pHa (from 7.58+/-0.01 to 7.78+/-0.02). PaCO(2), however, did not change following HCO(3)(-) infusion, which indicates a lack of respiratory compensation. Following infusion of HCl (4 mmol kg(-1)), plasma pHa decreased by 0.07 units and [HCO(3)(-)](pl) was reduced by 4.6 mmol L(-1) within the first 3 h. PaCO(2), however, was not affected and there was no evidence for respiratory compensation. Our data show that digesting rattlesnakes exhibit respiratory compensations to the alkaline tide, whereas artificially induced metabolic acid-base disturbances of same magnitude remain uncompensated. It seems difficult to envision that the central and

  4. Hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow: Assessment by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarczyk, E.M.; Rutherford, W.F.; Leisure, G.P.; Munger, M.A.; Panacek, E.A.; Miraldi, F.D.; Green, J.A. (Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) has been well documented as a relatively noninvasive method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), both globally and regionally. The utility of readily detecting alterations in CBF is apparent, particularly when applied to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions thought to influence CBF. We report the effects of hypocapnia, an experimental condition of known cerebral vasoconstriction, in ten normal volunteers. Subjects had brain blood flow evaluated utilizing H215O as the positron emitter before and after approximately five minutes of hyperventilation. Baseline CBF was measured as a mean +/- SD of 61.2 +/- 16.3 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Mean baseline arterial blood gas values were PaO2 107.4 +/- 14 mm Hg, PaCO2 37.7 +/- 0.89 mm Hg, and pH 7.39 (calculated from mean (H+)). Post hyperventilation, global CBF was measured as 31.1 +/- 10.8 mL/min/100 g. Mean arterial blood gas values were PaO2 141.7 +/- 21 mm Hg, PaCO2 19.7 +/- 5 mm Hg, and pH 7.63 (calculated from mean (H+)). CBF decreased by a mean of 49.5 +/- 11 percent. Data analysis using the Student's t-test showed a significant change over baseline in PaCO2 (p less than 0.001) and CBF (p less than 0.001), in the hyperventilated state. Correlations were noted between the decrease in CBF and change in PaCO2 (r = 0.81) as well as between hyperventilation PaCO2 and the change in CBF (r = 0.97). We conclude that, as measured by PET, CBF decreases significantly during a state of artificial hyperventilation to a degree consistent with results seen using other methods. PET appears to be a valuable tool in the assessment of interventions that could influence CBF.

  5. Porcine MAP3K5 analysis: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variations associated with residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, L; Zhang, L C; Zhang, J S; Song, X; Wang, L G; Liang, J; Zhang, Y B; Liu, X; Yan, H; Zhang, T; Yue, J W; Li, N; Wu, Q Q; Wang, L X

    2016-08-12

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively. The deduced MAP3K5 protein sequence contains two conserved domains: a DUF4071 domain and a protein kinase domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that porcine MAP3K5 forms a separate branch to vicugna and camel MAP3K5. Tissue expression analysis using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that MAP3K5 was expressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, pancrea, ileum, and stomach tissues. Copy number variation was detected for porcine MAP3K5 and validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, a significant increase in average copy number was detected in the low RFI group when compared to the high RFI group in a Duroc pig population. These results provide useful information regarding the influence of MAP3K5 on RFI in pigs.

  6. Migraciones en la puna: su relación con el uso de los recursos naturales del departamento Los Andes Migraciones en la puna: su relación con el uso de los recursos naturales del departamento Los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Barbarán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From an historic and demographic perspective, as well as the use of natural resources, we analyzed the relationship between human migrations and the economic activities of Los Andes Department, West of the Salta Province, in NW Argentina. Using the residual method, we calculated migratory balances between Argentinean population censuses carried out in 1947,1960, 1970, 1980 and 2001. The migratory balances were negative for all the periods studied. When the train started to run through Ramal C-14, the workers who built it have to find jobs somewhere else. At the same time, the railway made easier for the natives, to find better economicopportunities out of the Puna. The close of mine La Casualidad by the end of the 70’s, the low creation of jobs by the remaining mining operations, focused in to hire qualified technicians no available in Los Andes and the privatization of the railway in early 90’s, were important factors of emigration. Despite of cattle rising as the main economic activity in rural areas, it is practiced without any technology of management. The overgrazing caused for that reason, has reduced almost to the half the quantity of sheep by inhabitant between 1947 and 2001. That is why the local people have to press more on the wildlife, trading illegally with vicuña (Vicugna vicugna fiber. Despite of a touristic development plan, a law promoting sheep rising and a census of vicuña population carried out by the provincial government, these recent actions should be part of a development project of regional scale, oriented to the sustainable use of the natural resources of Los Andes Department. That project would create jobs and discourage emigration.Desde una perspectiva histórica, demográfica y del uso de los recursos naturales, analizamos la relación existente entre las migraciones humanas y las actividades económicas en el departamento Los Andes, ubicado al W de la provincia de Salta, en el Noroeste Argentino. Usando el m

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11064-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DN... 51 1e-04 FJ647224_2( FJ647224 |pid:none) Murine coronavirus MHV-3, complete... 51 1e-04 AE014188_327( ...licase polyprotein 1ab; Short... 51 2e-04 AF391541_1( AF391541 |pid:none) Bovine coronavirus isolate BCoV-EN...omonas mendocina ymp, comp... 51 2e-04 DQ915164_2( DQ915164 |pid:none) Bovine coronavirus isolate Alpaca,......avirus R-AH187, comple... 51 2e-04 DQ811784_2( DQ811784 |pid:none) Bovine coronav...irus DB2, complete g... 51 2e-04 AB354579_1( AB354579 |pid:none) Bovine coronavirus

  8. Generation of a nanobody targeting the paraflagellar rod protein of trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Obishakin

    Full Text Available Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause diseases in humans and livestock for which no vaccines are available. Disease eradication requires sensitive diagnostic tools and efficient treatment strategies. Immunodiagnostics based on antigen detection are preferable to antibody detection because the latter cannot differentiate between active infection and cure. Classical monoclonal antibodies are inaccessible to cryptic epitopes (based on their size-150 kDa, costly to produce and require cold chain maintenance, a condition that is difficult to achieve in trypanosomiasis endemic regions, which are mostly rural. Nanobodies are recombinant, heat-stable, small-sized (15 kDa, antigen-specific, single-domain, variable fragments derived from heavy chain-only antibodies in camelids. Because of numerous advantages over classical antibodies, we investigated the use of nanobodies for the targeting of trypanosome-specific antigens and diagnostic potential. An alpaca was immunized using lysates of Trypanosoma evansi. Using phage display and bio-panning techniques, a cross-reactive nanobody (Nb392 targeting all trypanosome species and isolates tested was selected. Imunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry assays were combined to identify the target recognized. Nb392 targets paraflagellar rod protein (PFR1 of T. evansi, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. Two different RNAi mutants with defective PFR assembly (PFR2RNAi and KIF9BRNAi were used to confirm its specificity. In conclusion, using a complex protein mixture for alpaca immunization, we generated a highly specific nanobody (Nb392 that targets a conserved trypanosome protein, i.e., PFR1 in the flagella of trypanosomes. Nb392 is an excellent marker for the PFR and can be useful in the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. In addition, as demonstrated, Nb392 can be a useful research or PFR protein isolation tool.

  9. Partitioning evolutive standard base excess determinants in septic shock patients Determinantes da evolução do standard base excess em pacientes com choque séptico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Park

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The amount of metabolic acidosis measured through the standard base excess (SBE has been shown to be an outcome marker and its improvement has been associated with better survival. We studied the mechanism of standard base excess variation in the first three days of intensive care unit (ICU stay through the evaluation of independent variables of physico-chemical approach. METHODS: Data were retrieved from our prospective collected data base from patients with diagnosis of septic shock, daily up to the third day after the ICU admission. Single correlations between SBE and independent variables were performed as well as a mathematical multilinear model was built to disclose the SBE variation determinants. RESULTS: We have shown that in septic shock patients the standard base excess variation during the first three days of ICU stay is weakly correlated to strong ion gap (SIG, lactate, creatinin and PaCO2 when individually analyzed. Analyzing concomitantly those independent variables, we built a mathematical model with a stepwise multilinear regression composed by apparent strong ion difference (SIDa, SIG, PaCO2, albumin and diuresis that resulted in a R² coefficient of 0.866 to determine SBE variation. CONCLUSIONS: Variations of metabolic acidosis measured through the standard base excess in septic shock patients when analyzed until the third day after intensive care unit admission, is resultant of interaction of several independent determinants as PaCO2, diuresis, SIG, SIDa and albumin.JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A acidose metabólica diagnosticada pela mensuração do standard base excess (SBE é indicadora de maior mortalidade e sua melhora temporal é associada à maior sobrevida em pacientes críticos. O objetivo deste estudo foi esclarecer o mecanismo de variação do SBE, em pacientes com choque séptico, durante os três primeiros dias de internação na unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI, através da avaliação f

  10. Hemometabolismo cerebral: variações na fase aguda do coma traumático Cerebral hemometabolism: variability in the acute phase of traumatic coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO L. E. FALCÃO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as interrelações entre as alterações hemometabólicas cerebrais e sistêmicas em pacientes com traumatismo craniencefálico (TCE grave submetidos a um protocolo terapêutico padronizado. DESENHO: estudo prospectivo, intervencionista em pacientes com coma traumático. LOCAL: uma UTI geral em hospital universitário. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: vinte e sete pacientes (21M e 6F, idade 14-58 anos, com TCE grave, com três a oito pontos na escala de coma de Glasgow, foram avaliados prospectivamente segundo um protocolo cumulativo padronizado para tratamento da hipertensão intracraniana aguda, o qual incluía medidas rotineiras da pressão intracraniana (PIC e da extração cerebral de oxigênio (ECO2. Foram analisadas as interrelações hemometabólicas envolvendo: pressão arterial média (PAM, PIC, pressão parcial de gás carbônico arterial (PaCO2, ECO2, pressão de perfusão cerebral (PPC e extração sistêmica de oxigênio (ESO2. INTERVENÇÕES: apenas as padronizadas no protocolo terapêutico. RESULTADOS: não houve correlação entre a ECO2 e a PPC (r = -0,07; p = 0,41. Houve correlação inversa entre a PaCO2 e a ECO2 (r = -0,24; p = 0,005 e direta entre a ESO2 e a ECO2 (r = 0,24; p = 0,01. A mortalidade geral dos pacientes foi de 25,9% (7/27. CONCLUSÃO: 1 a PPC não se correlaciona com a ECO2 em quaisquer níveis de PIC; 2 a ECO2 está estreitamente relacionada aos diferentes níveis de PaCO2 ; e 3 durante a hiperventilação otimizada existe um acoplamento entre a ECO2 e a ESO2.OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the interrelationships between cerebral and systemic hemometabolic alterations in patients with severe traumatic brain injury managed according to a standardized therapeutic protocol. DESIGN: prospective, interventional study in patients with traumatic coma. SETTING: a general Intensive Care Unit in a teaching hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: twenty-seven patients (21M e 6F, aging 14--58 years, with severe acute brain trauma

  11. 经皮氧和二氧化碳分压与动脉血氧和二氧化碳分压的相关性%Correlation of transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide and arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璇; 刘世江; 刘存明

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨经皮氧(PTCO2)和二氧化碳分压(PTCCO2)监测值与动脉血氧(PaO2)和二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)的相关性.方法 拟行开放胰十二指肠切除手术的患者16例,年龄38-68岁,ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ级.在麻醉前(T1)、麻醉诱导后1 h(T2)、2 h(T3)、3 h(T4)、4 h(T5)同时记录并分析PTCO2、PTCCO2、呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)和PaO2、PaCO2值的相关性.结果 PTC CO2、PETCO2和PaCO2以及PTCO2与PaO2在T1-T5各时间点均存在良好的相关性.PTCCO2与PaCO总体线性回归关系:PTCCO2=17.70+0.42×PaCO2(r=0.644,P<0.01).PETCO2与PaCO2总体线性回归关系:PETCO2 =23.44+0.30×PaCO2 (r=0.569,P<0.01).PTCO与PaO2线性回归关系:PTCO2=10.07+0.99×PaO2(r=0.941,P<0.01).结论 在长时间手术患者,PTCCO2和PTCO2可以及时准确地反映动脉血PaO2和PaCO2.%Objective To investigate the correlation of transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen(PTCO2) and carbon dioxide(PTCCO2) and the arterial partial pressures of oxygen(PaO2) and carbon dioxide(PaCO2).Methods Sixteen patients undergoing duodenopancreatectomy(aged 38-68 years old,ASA Ⅰ-Ⅱ) were enrolled in our study.The PTC O2,PTCCO2,end-expired partial pressure of carbon dioxide(PETCO2) and PaO2,PaCO2 (by blood gas analysis) were recorded at the same time points of before anesthesia (T1),at 1 h (T2),2 h (T3),3 h (T4),4 h (T5) during anesthesia.The correlations among PTCCO2,PETCO2 and PaCO2 were analyzed.Results The PTCCO2,PETCO2 and PaCO2 were closely correlated at all time points of T1 to T5 (P<0.01).The equations of linear regression were as follows.PTCCO2 =17.70+0.42 × PaCO2 (r=0.644,P<0.01),PET CO2 =23.44+ 0.30× PaCO2 (r=0.569,P<0.01),and PTC O2 =-10.07 + 0.99 × PaO2 (r=0.941,P<0.01).Conclusion PTCCO2 and PTCO2 can reflect PaCO2 and PaO2 timely and accurately in the patients undergoing surgery for a long time.

  12. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with blood gas parameters in crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane Pressão intra-ocular e sua correlação com parâmetros hemogasométricos em caracarás (Caracara plancus anestesiados com isofluorano e sevofluorano

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    A.P. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular pressure (IOP and its correlations with arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and arterial pH were studied in five crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane (ISO and sevoflurane (SEV. Baseline IOP values were measured in both eyes (M0. Brachial artery was previously catheterized to obtain blood gas and cardiorespiratory analysis. Anesthesia was induced with 5% ISO and maintained with 2.5% for 40 minutes. IOP measurements and blood samples were evaluated in different moments until the end of the procedure. After recovering, a second anesthesia was induced with 6% SEV and maintained with 3.5%. Parameters were evaluated at the same time points of the previous procedure. IOP reduced significantly (P= 0.012 from M0 at all time points and no significative changes were observed between ISO and SEV anesthesias. Correlation between IOP and PaCO2 and between PIO and blood pH were found only for SEV. IOP and blood pH decreased in parallel with IOP, whereas values of PaCO2 increased in caracaras anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane.Avaliou-se a pressão intra-ocular (PIO e estimaram-se as correlações entre PIO e pressão de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pH arterial de cinco caracarás (Caracara plancus, anestesiados com isofluorano (ISO ou sevofluorano (SEV. Valores basais da PIO foram aferidos em ambos os olhos (M0. Cateterizou-se previamente a artéria braquial para obtenção de parâmetros hemogasométricos e cardiorrespiratórios. Anestesia foi induzida com ISO a 5V% e mantida por 40 minutos com 2,5V%. PIO e amostras de sangue foram avaliadas em diferentes momentos até o final do procedimento. Após recuperação, uma segunda anestesia foi realizada com SEV a 6% e mantida com 3,5%. Os parâmetros foram aferidos nos mesmos momentos estabelecidos previamente. A PIO decresceu significativamente (P=0,012 de M0 em todos os momentos e não houve diferença estatística entre ISO e SEV. Correla

  13. Long-term gas exchange characteristics as markers of deterioration in patients with cystic fibrosis

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    Pramana Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim In patients with cystic fibrosis (CF the architecture of the developing lungs and the ventilation of lung units are progressively affected, influencing intrapulmonary gas mixing and gas exchange. We examined the long-term course of blood gas measurements in relation to characteristics of lung function and the influence of different CFTR genotype upon this process. Methods Serial annual measurements of PaO2 and PaCO2 assessed in relation to lung function, providing functional residual capacity (FRCpleth, lung clearance index (LCI, trapped gas (VTG, airway resistance (sReff, and forced expiratory indices (FEV1, FEF50, were collected in 178 children (88 males; 90 females with CF, over an age range of 5 to 18 years. Linear mixed model analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to define predominant lung function parameters influencing oxygenation and carbon dioxide elimination. Results PaO2 decreased linearly from age 5 to 18 years, and was mainly associated with FRCpleth, (p 1 (p 50 (p p 2 showed a transitory phase of low PaCO2 values, mainly during the age range of 5 to 12 years. Both PaO2 and PaCO2 presented with different progression slopes within specific CFTR genotypes. Conclusion In the long-term evaluation of gas exchange characteristics, an association with different lung function patterns was found and was closely related to specific genotypes. Early examination of blood gases may reveal hypocarbia, presumably reflecting compensatory mechanisms to improve oxygenation.

  14. Evolutionary adaptation of the sensitivity of connexin26 hemichannels to CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolf, Elizabeth; Cook, Jonathan; Dale, Nicholas

    2017-02-08

    CO2 readily combines with H2O to form [Formula: see text] and H(+) Because an increase of only 100 nM in the concentration of H(+) (a decrease of 0.1 unit of pH) in blood can prove fatal, the regulated excretion of CO2 during breathing is an essential life-preserving process. In rodents and humans, this vital process is mediated in part via the direct sensing of CO2 via connexin26 (Cx26). CO2 binds to hemichannels of Cx26 causing them to open and allow release of the neurotransmitter ATP. If Cx26 were to be a universal and important CO2 sensor across all homeothermic animals, then a simple hypothesis would posit that it should exhibit evolutionary adaptation in animals with different homeostatic set points for the regulation of partial pressure of arterial CO2 (PaCO2). In humans and rats, PaCO2 is regulated around a set point of 40 mmHg. By contrast, birds are able to maintain cerebral blood flow and breathing at much lower levels of PaCO2 Fossorial mammals, such as the mole rat, live exclusively underground in burrows that are both hypoxic and hypercapnic and can thrive under very hypercapnic conditions. We have therefore compared the CO2 sensitivity of Cx26 from human, chicken, rat and mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber). We find that both the affinity and cooperativity of CO2 binding to Cx26 have been subjected to evolutionary adaption in a manner consistent with the homeostatic requirements of these four species. This is analogous to the evolutionary adaptation of haemoglobin to the needs of O2 transport across the animal kingdom and supports the hypothesis that Cx26 is an important and universal CO2 sensor in homeotherms.

  15. Clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Hua Xu; Xin Lin; Mi-Jia Huang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH changes in neonatal asphyxia.Methods:A total of 100 newborns with asphyxia who visited in our hospital were collected, and divided into severe group (n=20) and mild group (n=80) according to the asphyxia degree, and 50 healthy newborns regarded as control group. The 3 groups received blood gas analysis (pH, BE and PaCO2), electrolyte (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) and 3 kinds of enzymes (CK, CK-MB and HBDH) were tested and compared.Results: Compared with control group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, pH and BE of blood gas indexes decreased significantly and PaCO2 increased significantly in severe group (P0.05). Compared with mild group, the level of Ca2+ decreased significantly in severe group (P<0.05); Compared with control group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe and mild group (P<0.05). Compared with mild group, the levels of CK, CK-MB and HBDH increased significantly in severe group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The detection of blood gas and electrolyte analysis, CK, CK-MB and HBDH can provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and estimation of severity degree which was helpful in clinical treatment.

  16. Cerebral blood volume in humans by NIRS and PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Frank; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Rostrup, Egill; Ide, Kojiro; Secher, Niels H.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined changes in the cerebral blood volume (CBV) were compared to those obtained by positron emission tomography (PET) in five healthy volunteers (2 females). Two NIRS optodes were placed on the left forehead and NIRS-CBV was derived from the sum of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin. CBV changes were induced by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% CO2. After 2 min inhalation of labeled carbon monoxide, data were sampled during 8 min for both PET- and NIRS-CBV as well as for the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). The region of interest for PET-CBV was `banana-shaped' with boundaries corresponding to the position of the NIRS optodes on the transmission scan and to a depth of approximately 2 cm. During hyperventilation, PaCO2 decreased from 5.2 (4.6 - 5.8) to 4.6 (4.2 - 4.9) kPa and equally PET-CBV (from 3.9 (2.5 - 5.2) to 3.6 (3.0 - 4.8) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV were reduced (by -0.14 [-0.38 - 0.50] ml (DOT) 100 g-1). During hypercapnia PaCO2 increased to 6.0 (5.9 - 7.0) kPa accompanied by parallel changes in PET- (to 4.5 (3.9 - 4.9) ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and NIRS-CBV (by 0.04 [-0.02 - 0.30] ml (DOT) 100 g-1) and the two variables were correlated (r equals 0.78, p arterial carbon dioxide tension, the cerebral blood volumes determined by near infrared spectroscopy and by positron emission tomography change in parallel but the change in NIRS-CBV is small compared to that obtained by PET.

  17. Effects of Breath Training Pattern "End-Inspiratory Pause" on Respiratory Mechanics and Arterial Blood Gas of Patients with COPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永杰; 蔡映云

    2002-01-01

    Objective:In order to explore the mechanism of Chinese traditional breath training, theeffects of end-inspiratory pause breathing (EIPB) on the respiratory mechanics and arterial blood gas werestudied in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Ten patients in steadystage participating in the study had a breath training of regulating the respiration rhythm as to having apause between the deep and slow inspiration and the slow expiration. Effect of the training was observed byvisual feedback from the screen of the respiratory inductive plethysmograph. The dynamic change of par-tial pressure of oxygen saturation in blood (SpO2) was recorded with sphygmo-oximeter, the pulmonarymechanics and EIPB were determined with spirometer, and the data of arterial blood gases in tranquilizedbreathing and EIPB were analysed. Results: After EIPB training, SpO2 increased progressively, PaO2 in-creased and PaCO2 decreased, and the PaO2 increment was greater than the PaCO2 decrement. Further-more, the tidal volume increased and the frequency of respiration decreased significantly, both inspirationtime and expiration time were prolonged. There was no significant change in both mean inspiration flowrate (VT/Ti) and expiration flow rate (VT/Te). The baselines in spirogram during EIPB training had noraise. Conclusion: EIPB could decrease the ratio of the dead space and tidal volume (VD/VT), cause in-crease of PaO2 more than the decrease of PaCO2, suggesting that this training could improve both the func-tion of ventilation and gaseous exchange in the lung. EIPB training might be a breathing training patternfor rehabilitation of patients with COPD.

  18. Shaping the cavity of the macrocyclic ligand in metallocalix[4]arenes: the role of the ligand sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, U

    2001-12-17

    The coordination form of calix[4]arene ligands and therefore the cavity of the macrocyclic ligand can be controlled by other ligands in transition metal calix[4]arene complexes, if strong directing coligands such as oxo groups are used. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of the d(0) transition metal complexes [Cax(OMe)(2)O(2)TiCl(2)] 1 (monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, lattice constants a = 21.639(4), b = 20.152(3), c = 12.750(3) A, beta = 95.68(3), V = 5532.6(19) A(3)) and [Cax(OMe)(2)O(2)MoO(2)] 2 (monoclinic, space group P2/c, lattice constants a = 12.433(3), b = 16.348(3), c = 24.774(5) A, beta = 99.15(3), V = 4971.6(17) A(3)). Whereas in 1 the calix[4]arene ligand adopts an elliptically distorted cone conformation, the macrocyclic ligand binds in a paco-like conformation to the metal center of 2, in the solid state and in solution. This was predicted by density functional theory calculations on models of different isomers of 1 and 2: cis,cone-1',2', trans,cone-1',2', and cis,paco-1',2'. According to these calculations, the energetic difference of 72.9 kJ/mol between both cis-dioxomolybdenum compounds is quite pronounced in favor of the cis,paco isomer, and 28.0 kJ/mol for the titanium compounds in favor of the cis,cone isomer.

  19. Hypoxemia during bilevel positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and chronic respiratory insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzecka, Anna; Piesiak, Pawel; Kosacka, Monika; Jankowska, Renata

    2013-01-01

    In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome and chronic respiratory insufficiency one of the options of treatment is bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) during sleep. The aim of the study was to find out what are the factors influencing the early results of BPAP treatment in such OSA patients. The study was carried out in 55 adult obese patients (mean body mass index 45 ± 7 kg/m(2)), severe OSA syndrome (mean apnea/hypopnea index 62 ± 19), and chronic respiratory insufficiency (mean PaCO(2) 54 ± 5.7 torr) who underwent polysomnography during BPAP treatment. In 31 patients (56%) the mean SaO(2) during sleep was <88% despite the optimal BPAP and oxygen titration: 83 ± 4% during NREM and 81 ± 7% during REM sleep vs. 91 ± 2% and 90 ± 3%, respectively, in the remaining 24 patients (p < 0.001). The patients with advanced hypoxemia during sleep and BPAP treatment had lower forced vital capacity (2.2 ± 0.9 vs. 2.7 ± 0.8 l, p < 0.05), lower diurnal PaO(2) (49 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 7 torr), higher diurnal PaCO(2) (57 ± 5 vs. 52 ± 5 torr, p < 0.01), and higher PaCO(2) during sleep (75 ± 13 vs. 59.5 ± 7.5 torr). In conclusion, in obese patients with severe OSA syndrome and chronic alveolar hypoventilation there is a risk of sleep hypoxemia during BPAP treatment, despite optimal pressure titration.

  20. Combination of constant-flow and continuous positive-pressure ventilation in canine pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajder, J I; Becker, C J; Crawford, G P; Wood, L D

    1989-08-01

    Constant-flow ventilation (CFV) maintains alveolar ventilation without tidal excursion in dogs with normal lungs, but this ventilatory mode requires high CFV and bronchoscopic guidance for effective subcarinal placement of two inflow catheters. We designed a circuit that combines CFV with continuous positive-pressure ventilation (CPPV; CFV-CPPV), which negates the need for bronchoscopic positioning of CFV cannula, and tested this system in seven dogs having oleic acid-induced pulmonary edema. Addition of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, 10 cmH2O) reduced venous admixture from 44 +/- 17 to 10.4 +/- 5.4% and kept arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) normal. With the innovative CFV-CPPV circuit at the same PEEP and respiratory rate (RR), we were able to reduce tidal volume (VT) from 437 +/- 28 to 184 +/- 18 ml (P less than 0.001) and elastic end-inspiratory pressures (PEI) from 25.6 +/- 4.6 to 17.7 +/- 2.8 cmH2O (P less than 0.001) without adverse effects on cardiac output or pulmonary exchange of O2 or CO2; indeed, PaCO2 remained at 35 +/- 4 Torr even though CFV was delivered above the carina and at lower (1.6 l.kg-1.min-1) flows than usually required to maintain eucapnia during CFV alone. At the same PEEP and RR, reduction of VT in the CPPV mode without CFV resulted in CO2 retention (PaCO2 59 +/- 8 Torr). We conclude that CFV-CPPV allows CFV to effectively mix alveolar and dead spaces by a small bulk flow bypassing the zone of increased resistance to gas mixing, thereby allowing reduction of the CFV rate, VT, and PEI for adequate gas exchange.

  1. Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2 insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Methods A total of 32 patients underwent thyroid surgery at 6 (n = 15, 9 (n = 15, and 12 (n = 2 mmHg. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, pH, cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were measured at baseline, 30 min and 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after CO2 insufflation, and 30 min after desufflation. Results CO2 insufflation of 12 mmHg caused severe facial subcutaneous emphysema, hypercarbia, and acidosis during robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA. The study was stopped before completion for the patients’ safety in accordance with the study protocol. Applying 6- or 9- mmHg of CO2 insufflation pressure caused increases in PaCO2 and decreases in arterial pH. However, vital signs were stable and pH and PaCO2 were within the physiologic range during the surgery in the 6- and 9-mmHg groups. Conclusions We propose that a CO2 insufflation pressure under 10 mmHg in robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA is the optimal insufflation pressure for patient safety.

  2. Renal Fractional Excretion of Sodium in Relation to Arterial Blood Gas and Spirometric Parameters in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arterial gas derangement could change urinary sodium excretion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients.There are very few and conflicting data in regards to the measurement of fractional excretion of sodium in COPD patients. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between renal fractional excretion of sodium(FeNa with arterial blood gas and spirometric parameters in COPD. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed on 40 consecutive stable COPD outpatients in 2 main general hospitals (Emam Reza, Ghaem in Mashhad/Iran between 2011 and 2012. We investigated the relationship of renal FeNa with arterial blood gas parameters including HCO3, PH, PaCO2 and PaO2, and spirometric parameters. Analysis was done by SPSS v16 with a statistically meaningful p value of less than 0.05. Results: Mean age was 65.97±10.77 SD years and female to male ratio was 0.26. A renal FeNa of less than 1% was presented in 27% patients. There was a significant, positive relationship between renal FeNa and PaO2 (P=0.005, r=0.456. The correlations between PaCO2, HCO3, PH and spirometric parameters were not seen (P>0.05, but there was a significant relationship between Urine Na and PaO2. Outstanding, it seems likely that kidneys of COPD patients are responsible for sodium retaining state particularly in the presence of hypoxemia. Conclusion: This study indicates that in COPD patients, PaO2 but not PaCO2 is related to renal FeNa which shows the probable role of hypoxemia on sodium output in COPD patients. However, some caution is needed for interpretation of the probable role of hypercapnia on sodium retention in COPD.

  3. Influence of low molecular heparin on blood coagulation function and lung function in AECOPD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Deng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the influence of low molecular heparin on the blood coagulation function and lung function in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients.Methods:A total of 100 cases AECOPD patients were divided into observation group and control group according to the present order and odd number by half. They were all given AECOPD conventional symptomatic treatment, on this basis, patients in the observation group were treated with low molecular heparin, 10 d after treatment, arterial blood gas index such as oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), oxygen saturation (SaO2), carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), pulmonary function index such as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC, blood coagulation function index such as fibrinogen (Fib), D-dimer (D-D), activated partial blood coagulation time (APTT) live enzymes, plasma prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) between two groups before and after treatment were compared.Results:Compared with before treatment, the levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC in control group after treatment were significantly elevated, PaCO2, D-D were significantly reduced, the difference were statistically significant (P<0.05); The levels of PaO2, SaO2, FEV1 and FVC, FEV1/FVC, PT, TT and APTT in observation group after treatment were significantly increased, and were significantly higher than the control group after treatment, PaCO2, D-D, Fib were significantly lower, and were lower than the control group after treatment, the differences were statistically significant (allP<0.05).Conclusions:AECOPD patients treated with low molecular heparin can help to improve the arterial blood gas, lung function and blood coagulation function.

  4. “Large Animal Model of Pumpless Arteriovenous Extracorporeal CO2 Removal Using Room Air Via Subclavian Vessels”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witer, Lucas; Howard, Ryan; Trahanas, John; Bryner, Benjamin S.; Alghanem, Fares; Hoffman, Hayley R.; Cornell, Marie S.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    End-stage lung disease (ESLD) causes progressive hypercapnia, dyspnea, and impacts quality of life. Many extracorporeal support (ECS) configurations for CO2 removal resolve symptoms but limit ambulation. An ovine model of pumpless ECS using subclavian vessels was developed to allow for ambulatory support. Vascular grafts were anastomosed to the left subclavian vessels in four healthy sheep. A low-resistance membrane oxygenator was attached in an arteriovenous (AV) configuration. Device function was evaluated in each animal while awake and spontaneously breathing, and while mechanically ventilated with hypercapnia induced. Sweep gas (FiO2=0.21) to the device was increased from 0-15 L/min and arterial and post-device blood gases, as well as post-device air, were sampled. Hemodynamics remained stable with average AV shunt flows of 1.34±0.14 L/min.. In awake animals, CO2 removal was 3.4±1.0 mL/kg/min at maximum sweep gas flow. Respiratory rate decreased from 60±25 at baseline to 30±11 breaths per minute. In animals with induced hypercapnia, PaCO2 increased to 73.9±15.1. At maximum sweep gas flow, CO2 removal was 3.4±0.4 mL/kg/min and PaCO2 decreased to 49.1±6.7 mmHg. Subclavian AV access is effective in lowering PaCO2 and respiratory rate, and is potentially an effective ambulatory destination therapy for ESLD patients. PMID:26461241

  5. The Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique: Current Methodology at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    observed by one of us in the lab of Dr. Wagner. The study involved a human vigorously exercising on a bicycle. The subject salivated excessively and...hematocrit, oxygen consumption, CO2 production, 99000 for tolerance, FIO2, FICO2, P50, PaO2, PaCO2 and pH from the blood gas machine data. IMPORTANT: the...program requires entry of the VO2 and VCO2 once again 62 62 here after the pH value. Each data value should be followed by pressing the Enter key. We

  6. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration.

  7. Non-invasive ventilation in obesity hypoventilation syndrome without severe obstructive sleep apnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Caballero, Candela; Barrot, Emilia; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Alonso-Álvarez, Maria L; Gomez-Garcia, Teresa; González, Mónica; López-Martín, Soledad; De Lucas, Pilar; Marin, José M; Marti, Sergi; Díaz-Cambriles, Trinidad; Chiner, Eusebi; Egea, Carlos; Miranda, Erika; Mokhlesi, Babak; García-Ledesma, Estefanía; Sánchez-Quiroga, M-Ángeles; Ordax, Estrella; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Troncoso, Maria F; Martinez-Martinez, Maria-Ángeles; Cantalejo, Olga; Ojeda, Elena; Carrizo, Santiago J; Gallego, Begoña; Pallero, Mercedes; Ramón, M Antonia; Díaz-de-Atauri, Josefa; Muñoz-Méndez, Jesús; Senent, Cristina; Sancho-Chust, Jose N; Ribas-Solís, Francisco J; Romero, Auxiliadora; Benítez, José M; Sanchez-Gómez, Jesús; Golpe, Rafael; Santiago-Recuerda, Ana; Gomez, Silvia; Bengoa, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an effective form of treatment in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) who have concomitant severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, there is a paucity of evidence on the efficacy of NIV in patients with OHS without severe OSA. We performed a multicentre randomised clinical trial to determine the comparative efficacy of NIV versus lifestyle modification (control group) using daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) as the main outcome measure. Methods Between May 2009 and December 2014 we sequentially screened patients with OHS without severe OSA. Participants were randomised to NIV versus lifestyle modification and were followed for 2 months. Arterial blood gas parameters, clinical symptoms, health-related quality of life assessments, polysomnography, spirometry, 6-min walk distance test, blood pressure measurements and healthcare resource utilisation were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using intention-to-treat analysis. Results A total of 365 patients were screened of whom 58 were excluded. Severe OSA was present in 221 and the remaining 86 patients without severe OSA were randomised. NIV led to a significantly larger improvement in PaCO2 of −6 (95% CI −7.7 to −4.2) mm Hg versus −2.8 (95% CI −4.3 to −1.3) mm Hg, (p<0.001) and serum bicarbonate of −3.4 (95% CI −4.5 to −2.3) versus −1 (95% CI −1.7 to −0.2 95% CI)  mmol/L (p<0.001). PaCO2 change adjusted for NIV compliance did not further improve the inter-group statistical significance. Sleepiness, some health-related quality of life assessments and polysomnographic parameters improved significantly more with NIV than with lifestyle modification. Additionally, there was a tendency towards lower healthcare resource utilisation in the NIV group. Conclusions NIV is more effective than lifestyle modification in improving daytime PaCO2, sleepiness and polysomnographic parameters. Long

  8. [Anesthetic management of coronary artery bypass grafting for unstable angina pectoris in a patient undergoing home oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takero; Enomoto, Yoshiro; Kuno, Yuichiro; Inoue, Hisashi; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2008-04-01

    A 70-year-old man with pneumoconiosis receiving home oxygen therapy presented with chest pain. Coronary angiogram showed severe stenosis of his left main trunks and required emergency off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol, fentanyl and vecuronium. The trachea was intubated and the lungs were ventilated with oxygen and air maintaining the PaO2 between 80-100 mmHg and the PaCO2 between 55-65 mmHg. The operation was performed uneventfully. In the intensive care unit, the trachea was extubated after ensuring adequate respiratory function. The postoperative course was satisfactory.

  9. Eesti arhitektuuri päevad Tallinnas : 7.-17. oktoober 2005

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Korraldaja: Eesti Arhitektide Liit. EAL-i aastanäitusest "Eramu" (kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco-Ernest Ulman) Sakala keskuses. EAL-i preemia "Parim eramu 2004/2005" pälvis AB Muru & Pere Tabasalu eramu eest. EAL-i teenetemedalid: parim kriitik - Triin Ojari, parim tellija - Eesti Kontsert, parim ehitaja - Estconde-E. Arhitektuuriekskursiooni "Väike" 14. X juhtis Andres Kurg. Workshop'ist ja näitusest "Kodu kodutule" Disaini- ja Arhitektuurigaleriis, seminarist "Eesti arhitektuur" 12. X Von Krahli teatri baaris, autorikaitseseminarist 17. X, algklassidele korraldatud joonistusvõistlusest "Koht, kus mulle meeldib linnas olla"

  10. Índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus “paco” en relación a los factores ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Narda Dinis-Vásquez; Manuel Soplín-Bosmediano; Emer Pizango-Paima; Fred Chu-Koo; Lorgio Verdi-Olivares

    2014-01-01

    La presente investigación tuvo como finalidad determinar la relación que existe entre los índices parasitarios en larvas, post larvas y alevinos de Piaractus brachypomus "paco" y las variaciones de los factores ambientales en el Centro de Investigaciones Fernando Alcántara del Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (Iquitos, Perú). Fueron analizados un total de 180 individuos, repartidos en 60 larvas y 60 post larvas colectados de tanques de concreto de 1,05 m2 con una profundida...

  11. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: prospective study on respiratory parameters Esclerose lateral amiotrófica: estudo prospectivo de parâmetros respiratórios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Regina Meira Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify how efficient respiratory parameters are in the follow-up of subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and to observe possible correlations between respiratory and nutritional functions. METHOD: Sixteen patients with probable or defined ALS were selected and evaluated over eight months using the following respiratory parameters: spirometry, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP, maximum expiratory pressure (MEP, arterial gasometry and pulse oximetry; and nutritional parameters such as body mass index (BMI and percentage weight loss. RESULTS: PaCO2 was a significant parameter to follow up disease evolution (p=0.051. There was significant correlation between MIP and MEP (r: 0.83; BMI and MIP (r: 0.70; BMI and MEP (r: 0.72; pulse oximetry and forced vital capacity (r: 0.57. CONCLUSION: PaCO2 was shown to be an efficient and significant parameter in the measurement of respiratory impairment; the correlations among MIP, MEP and BMI indicated that these are significant parameters for periodic clinical evaluation.OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia dos parâmetros respiratórios na evolução de indivíduos com esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA e identificar possíveis correlações entre função respiratória e nutricional. MÉTODO: 16 pacientes com diagnóstico provável ou definido de ELA foram selecionados por critérios definidos e avaliados, durante 8 meses, através de parâmetros respiratórios: espirometria, pressão inspiratória máxima (PIM, pressão expiratória máxima (PEM, gasometria arterial e oximetria de pulso; e parâmetros nutricionais: índice de massa corporal (IMC e porcentagem de perda de peso. RESULTADOS: PaCO2 foi um parâmetro significativo para acompanhar a evolução da doença (p=0.051. Houve correlação significante entre PIM e PEM (r: 0.83; IMC e PIM (r: 0.70; IMC e PEM (r: 0.72; oximetria de pulso e capacidade vital forçada (r: 0.57. CONCLUSÃO: PaCO2 foi marcador eficaz e significante para

  12. Miles Davis, La Niña de los Peines y Alan Lomax: una nueva perspectiva de la “Saeta” de Sketches of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Zagalaz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    El jazz y el flamenco han mostrado su magnetismo en multitud de ocasiones a lo largo de la historia. Así, el acercamiento producido entre el maestro Paco de Lucía y el gran pianista Chick Corea desembocó en la aparición de figuras como Jorge Pardo y Carles Benavent, estandartes de lo que en la actualidad se conoce como jazz – flamenco. Sin embargo, uno de los acercamientos que más ha llamado la atención de músicos e investigadores fue el que realizaron Miles Davis y Gil Evans a la cultura...

  13. Cerebral blood flow, oxidative metabolism and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Thomsen, Gerda;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)CO(2)) in patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is unknown and controversial. The objective of this study was to measure global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity (CO(2)R), and cerebral metabolic rates...... to baseline ventilation, whereas CMR(glu) increased. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, we found variable levels of CBF and cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity, a low a-v DO(2), low cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose, and a cerebral lactate efflux. In these patients...

  14. Kas sina julgeksid ennustada tulevikku? / Karolin Kuusik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Karolin

    2007-01-01

    Filmid ja nende kostüümikunstnikud, kes on mõjutanud rõivamoodi : "Barbarella" (1968), kostüümikunstnikud Jacques Fonteray ja Paco Rabanne; "Blade Runner" (1982), kunstnikud Charles Knode ja Michael Kaplan; "Matrix" ja selle järjed (1999, 2003), kostüümidisainer Kym Barrett; "Star Wars" ja selle järjed (1977, 1980, 1983, 1999, 2002, 2005), kunstnik John Mollo, hiljem Trisha Biggar; "Aeon Flux" (2005), kostüümikunstnik Beatrix Aruna Pasztor

  15. MOLINO DEL HENCHIDERO [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    Antiguedad: SIGLO XX Clasificación del suelo: URBANO Declaración BIC:No EDIFICACION DE DOS PLANTA CON TECHO A DOS AGUAS. TIENE UNA SALIDA POR DEBAJO, DONDE ESTABA LA PIEDRADE MOLER. EL QUE ESTA AL LADO DE LA SOCIEDAD DE CAZADORES SE LLAMA FIDEL Y VIVE EN ROSIANA, EL TIENE LA LLAVE. VINCULADO A UN ESTANQUE QUE ESTA MAS ARRIBA. EN PERERA, CERCA DE TUNTE VIVE UN SEÑOR QUE SE LLAMA PACO, EL TIENE LA MAQUINARIA DEL MOLINO. EN E...

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15827-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AA from... 64 2e-08 2 ( DJ395561 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 74 2e-08 1 ( DD06669...1 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 74 2e-08 1 ( AC232720 ) Lama pacos clone CH246-257F...entially Expressed i... 72 5e-08 2 ( DD066150 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differential...e-08 3 ( DJ395676 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 72 6e-08 2 ( DD066806 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differential... gateway clone IM... 72 8e-08 1 ( DJ395004 ) Nucleic Acid Sequences Differentially Expressed i... 72 8e-08 1

  17. Cerebral perfusion, oxygenation and metabolism during exercise in young and elderly individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, James P; Hartwich, Doreen; Seifert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    artery blood velocity (MCA V(mean)), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO) and the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) were measured. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular vein and brachial artery to determine concentration differences for oxygen (O(2......)), glucose and lactate across the brain. The molar ratio between the cerebral uptake of O(2) versus carbohydrate (O(2)-carbohydrate index; O(2) / [glucose + 0.5 lactate]; OCI), the cerebral metabolic rate of O(2) (CMRO(2)) and changes in mitochondrial O(2) tension (P(mito)O(2)) were calculated. W...

  18. Low Residual CBF Variability in Alzheimer's Disease after Correction for CO(2) Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodell, Anders Bertil; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested the claim that inter-individual CBF variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is substantially reduced after correction for arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)). Specifically, we tested whether the variability of CBF in brain of patients with AD differed significantly from brain of age...... for the differences of CO(2) tension, the patients with AD lost the inter-individual CBF variability that continued to characterize the HC subjects. The difference (¿K(1)) between the blood-brain clearances (K(1)) of water (the current measure of CBF) and oxygen (the current measure of oxygen clearance) was reduced...

  19. An evaluation of the role of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in the management of acute respiratory failure in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ige

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV has been shown to decrease the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (MV in patients presenting with acute respiratory failure (ARF. We conducted a prospective study to assess if NIPPV use, in a developing country, was associated with clinical and physiological improvements. Design: Prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Forty patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit during a 2-year period who fulfilled criteria for inclusion formed the study cohort to receive NIPPV. Findings: Baseline (mean ± SD pH, PaCO 2 and PaO 2 were 7.25 ± 0.08, 76.6 ± 20.9 and 79.18 ± 40.56 mmHg respectively. The primary indication for NIPPV was hypercapnic respiratory failure (n = 36, 90%. The success rate with NIPPV was 85%, with 34 of 40 patients weaned successfully. Significant improvements were observed at 1 hour following institution of NIPPV in pH (7.31 ± 0.09, P < 0.001 and PaCO 2 (65 ± 17.9, P < 0.001. These improvements continued up to the time of weaning (pH 7.38 ± 0.08, PaCO 2 54.7 ± 20 and maintained (within 12 h postweaning from the ventilator (pH 7.39 ± 0.08, PaCO 2 51.9 ± 12.4. No significant change in the PaO 2 was observed during NIPPV; PaO 2 after 1 h, prior to weaning and after weaning was 90.53 ± 42.85, 84.80 ± 33.76, 78.71 ± 43.81 respectively. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated benefits of NIPPV in avoiding the need for invasive MV in patients presenting with ARF of diverse etiology, with results comparable to developed nations. Increased use of NIPPV in ARF is likely to impact favorably in nations with limited resources.

  20. DIÁLOGO SOBRE OS FUNDAMENTOS DA EDUCAÇÃO: RECORTES E DISCUSSÕES, VOL. V

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Pimentel Camillo Barra Nova de Melo

    2016-01-01

    A coleção Fundamentos da Educação: Recortes e Discussões chega ao seu quinto volume todos publicados pela Paco Editorial. O presente volume foi lançado em 2015 e contem 406 páginas, escritas por 21 autores, dentre eles graduados, especialistas, mestrandos, mestres, doutorandos, doutores, pós-doutores, todos estudiosos do campo educacional e comprometidos em compreender melhor tal fenômeno. Para isso buscaram, nesta obra, desvendar o pensamento pedagógico dos seguintes estudiosos: Charles Darw...

  1. La Ley de Dependencia promueve la institucionalización en lugar de la autonomía personal

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El reconocimiento de la atención a la dependecia como derecho subjetivo ha supuesto un importante avance en el sistema de bienestar español. Sin embargo, no parece estar claro hasta qué punto la Ley de Dependencia favorece la autonomía de las personas con discapacidad, tal como se pretendía. El investigador del CSIC Paco Guzmán evalúa en esta entrevista el alcance real de la ley y plantea algunas mejoras en su contenido y aplicación

  2. 中国香碰上法国甜

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    迄今为止,巴黎和平咖啡馆发布以设计师命名时尚甜点的传统,已拥有很长历史。Paco Rabanne,Agnes b,ChantalThomass,ElieSaab,Franck Sorbier…都曾是参与到这项时尚活动中的国际知名设计师,他们为这项杰出的编制增添无数熠熠发光的顶级标签。

  3. Arhitektuurifoto konkurss "Majapilt" / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2009-01-01

    2008. a. oktoobris ja novembris Eesti Arhitektide Liidu, Delfi Pildi ja mitmete Eesti linnade koostöös peetud arhitektuurifotode konkursist "Majapilt". Vanema kategooria peapreemia pälvis Tõnis Kalve foto "Ööpäike" eest, nooremate seas sai esikoha Kristiine Raag foto "Jäetud" eest. Paco Ulmani kujundatud ja Urmas Oja kureeritud konkursitööde näitus rändab 2009. a. mööda sündmust toetanud Eesti linnu

  4. Evaluation of PO2 and PCO2 changes during surgical removal of third molars utilizing enflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, R A; Rubal, B; Bush, B

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in partial pressure of oxygen during surgical removal of wisdom teeth utilizing a spontaneous ventilation general anesthesia technique with enflurane. Simultaneous transcutaneous and arterial blood gas determination confirmed the presence of two oxygen patterns. Normal preoperative pulmonary function tests, coupled with the stability of the Paco(2) between surgery and extubation, indicates that the 23±10 mmHg increase in transcutaneous oxygen (Ptco(2)) reported in 14 of 27 patients evaluated, was due to ventilation perfusion defects, since 13 of the 27 patients showed a 149±22 mmHg increase in Ptco(2) during the same time period.

  5. Correlation Between Capnography and Arterial Carbon Dioxide Before, During, and After Severe Chest Injury in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    During phase 2, animals developed decreased oxygenation ( PaO2 :FiO2 [fraction of inspired oxygen] ratio G200) and hy- potension (mean arterial...mercury), ABG, and ratio of arterial oxygen content ( PaO2 ) to FIO2 (PFR). All data col lection was during three phases (1, 2, and 3) of the experiment...did not show an increase in correlation and was therefore left out of the final model. Ratio of PaO2 to FIO2 was not associated with PaCO2. Using

  6. Wood Bark Smoke Induces Lung and Pleural Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 and Stabilizes Its mRNA in Porcine Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Positive end-expiratory pressure; PaCO2 Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood; PaO2 Partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood; PIP Peak...inspiratory pressure; PFs Pleural fluids; PFR PaO2 -to-FIO2 ratio; scuPA Single-chain urokinase; SIALI Smoke-induced acute lung injury; TV tidal volume...hemoglobin level after smoke injury, peak inspiratory pressure, partial pressure of O2 in arterial blood ( PaO2 ), partial pressure of CO2 in arterial blood

  7. Clinical Effect of High - frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in the Adjuvant Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Failure%高频振荡通气辅助治疗新生儿呼吸衰竭的临床效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉; 郑肖瑾; 张耀

    2015-01-01

    目的:探究高频振荡通气辅助治疗新生儿呼吸衰竭的临床效果。方法选取海口市妇幼保健院2011年6月—2014年12月收治的新生儿呼吸衰竭患儿96例,按入院顺序分为观察组和对照组,每组48例。观察组患儿给予高频振荡呼吸机进行辅助治疗,对照组患儿给予常规婴儿型呼吸机进行辅助治疗。比较两组患儿临床效果及并发症发生情况,治疗前后动脉血氧分压(PaO2)、动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、氧合指数(PaO2/ FiO2)、PaO2/ PaCO2。结果观察组患儿临床效果优于对照组( u =2.758,P =0.006)。两组患儿治疗前 PaO2、PaCO2、PaO2/ FiO2、PaO2/PaCO2比较,差异无统计学意义(P ﹥0.05);观察组患儿治疗48 h 后 PaO2、PaO2/ PaCO2高于对照组,PaCO2、PaO2/FiO2低于对照组(P ﹤0.05)。观察组患儿气胸、慢性肺疾病、颅内出血发生率低于对照组(P ﹤0.05)。结论高频振荡通气辅助治疗新生儿呼吸衰竭患儿的临床效果确切,能有效改善患儿氧合情况,且并发症较少。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of high - frequency oscillatory ventilation in the adjuvant treatment of neonatal respiratory failure. Methods A total of 96 children with neonatal respiratory failure were selected in the Maternal and Child Care Service Center of Haikou from June 2011 to December 2014,and they were divided into control group and observation group according to visiting sequence,each of 48 cases. Children of control group were given routine baby - type breathing machine for adjuvant treatment,while children of observation group were given high - frequency oscillatory ventilation. Clinical effect and incidence of complications,PaO2 ,PaCO2 ,PaO2 / FiO2 and PaO2 / PaCO2 before and after treatment were compared between the two groups. Results The clinical effect of observation group was statistically significantly better than that of control group

  8. El perfil del detective en la literatura criminal de Taibo II: Héctor Belascorán Shayne o la humanización del héroe detectivesco

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Sánchez, Diego Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se va a ahondar en la narrativa criminal del autor mexicano Paco Ignacio Taibo II a través de la figura de su investigador principal: Héctor Belascoarán Shayne. Utilizando la conexión del hard boiled de los maestros norteamericanos con la realidad urbana y su inherente capacidad para la reflexión crítica sobre la problemática política y social, Taibo II adapta este discurso literario al caso de México para denunciar el entramado sistemático de prácticas ileg...

  9. Assessment of thyroid functions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Abo El-Yazed

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Thyroid function tests among COPD patients showed a significant increase of the mean free T3 values and a non significant decrease of the mean free T4 and TSH values compared to the control group. With increasing severity of COPD, the mean free T3 values showed a significant increase. Significant negative correlations were noticed between free T3 levels and both PaO2 and SO2 of the cases. A significant positive correlation was observed between free T3 levels and PaCO2 of the cases. Significant negative correlations were observed between free T3 levels and pulmonary function tests of the cases.

  10. Comparison of Endobronchial and Tracheal Insufflation for Acute Respiratory Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-14

    for normocapnia. In humans, Babinski " found that, on ave-.age, 54L/min flows did not produce normocapnia, with one exception. Watson’ 2 felt their data...lung injury, but El was able to satisfy gas exchange requirements’ 7. Babinski et al. showed that El was effective at producing gas exchange for 5...arterial blood gases reached a plateau after about 2 hours of mean PaU.2 = 363 mmHg, mean PaCO, = 164 mmHg and mean pH = 6.87. No dogs showed signs

  11. Kongresa Rezolucio: Al nova monda lingva ordo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    La 81-a Universala Kongreso de Esperanto, OkaZinta de la 20-a gis la 27-a de julio 1996 enPrago, eeha RespubIiko, kie kunvenis 2972kongresanoj el 66 landoj,audinte la debatojn kaj rekomendojn de eksper-toj el Unuigintaj Nacioj, Unesko, Europa Par-lamento kaj aliaj internaciaj organizajoj,kadrede la Nitobe-Simpozio de InternaciajOrganizajoj pri"Lingvo por internaciaj paco kajdemokratio". konstatinte la gravecon de la principoj esprimi-’taj en la Manifesto de Prago,

  12. Propriedades reológicas e microestruturais de eletrólito de ZrO2/Y2O3

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Taroco; Basaglia,R. M. F.; R. Z. Domingues; Brant, M; Matencio, T.

    2008-01-01

    Para reduzir a temperatura de operação das pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (PaCOS), estruturas com filmes finos de eletrólito depositados, por aerografia, sobre suportes de anodo porosos foram desenvolvidas. As barbotinas, empregadas para fabricação dos filmes, foram preparadas a partir de suspensões com pós de zircônia estabilizada com ítria (ZEI), solventes, dispersantes, ligantes e plastificantes apropriados. Neste trabalho, foi feito o estudo da influência dos ligantes sobre a estabi...

  13. Effects of heliox as carrier gas on ventilation and oxygenation in an animal model of piston-type HFOV: a crossover experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroma Takehiko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective This study aimed to compare gas exchange with heliox and oxygen-enriched air during piston-type high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV. We hypothesized that helium gas would improve both carbon dioxide elimination and arterial oxygenation during piston-type HFOV. Method Five rabbits were prepared and ventilated by piston-type HFOV with carrier 50% helium/oxygen (heliox50 or 50% oxygen/nitrogen (nitrogen50 gas mixture in a crossover study. Changing the gas mixture from nitrogen50 to heliox50 and back was performed five times per animal with constant ventilation parameters. Arterial blood gas, vital function and respiratory test indices were recorded. Results Compared with nitrogen50, heliox50 did not change PaCO2 when stroke volume remained constant, but significantly reduced PaCO2 after alignment of amplitude pressure. No significant changes in PaO2 were seen despite significant decreases in mean airway pressure with heliox50 compared with nitrogen50. Conclusion This study demonstrated that heliox enhances CO2 elimination and maintains oxygenation at the same amplitude but with lower airway pressure compared to air/O2 mix gas during piston-type HFOV.

  14. Carbon dioxide induced changes in cerebral blood flow and flow velocity: role of cerebrovascular resistance and effective cerebral perfusion pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüne, Frank; Kazmaier, Stephan; Stolker, Robert J; Visser, Gerhard H; Weyland, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    In addition to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR) zero flow pressure (ZFP), effective cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPe) and the resistance area product (RAP) are supplemental determinants of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Until now, the interrelationship of PaCO2-induced changes in CBF, CVR, CPPe, ZFP, and RAP is not fully understood. In a controlled crossover trial, we investigated 10 anesthetized patients aiming at PaCO2 levels of 30, 37, 43, and 50 mm Hg. Cerebral blood flow was measured with a modified Kety-Schmidt-technique. Zero flow pressure and RAP was estimated by linear regression analysis of pressure-flow velocity relationships of the middle cerebral artery. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure was calculated as the difference between mean arterial pressure and ZFP, CVR as the ratio CPPe/CBF. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way RM-ANOVA. When comparing hypocapnia with hypercapnia, CBF showed a significant exponential reduction by 55% and mean VMCA by 41%. Effective cerebral perfusion pressure linearly decreased by 17% while ZFP increased from 14 to 29 mm Hg. Cerebrovascular resistance increased by 96% and RAP by 39%; despite these concordant changes in mean CVR and Doppler-derived RAP correlation between these variables was weak (r=0.43). In conclusion, under general anesthesia hypocapnia-induced reduction in CBF is caused by both an increase in CVR and a decrease in CPPe, as a consequence of an increase in ZFP.

  15. [Intraoperative monitoring in artificial respiration of premature and newborn infants. I. Monitoring of respiratory parameters and alveolar ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, G; Heipertz, W; Leidig, E; Madee, S

    1986-06-01

    Monitoring of ventilation serves to ensure adequate alveolar ventilation and arterial oxygenation, and to avoid pulmonary damage due to mechanical ventilation. Basic clinical monitoring, i.e., inspection, auscultation (including precordial or oesophageal stethoscope) and monitoring of heart rate and blood pressure, is mandatory. Mechanical ventilation is monitored by ventilation pressures (peak pressure, plateau pressure and endexpiratory pressure), ventilation volumes (measured at the in/expiratory valve of the respirator and by hot-wire anemometry at the tube connector), ventilation rate, and inspiratory oxygen concentration (FiO2). Alveolar ventilation should be continuously and indirectly recorded by capnometry (pECO2) and by measurement of transcutaneous pCO2 (tcpCO2), whereas oxygenation is determined via measurement of transcutaneous pO2 (tcpO2). Invasive monitoring of gas exchange is essential in prolonged or intrathoracic interventions as well as in neonates with cardiopulmonary problems. paCO2 may be estimated by capillary or venous blood gas analysis; arterial blood gas analysis is required for exact determination of paCO2 as well as arteriocutaneous pCO2 (atcDCO2) and arterio-end-expiratory (aEDCO2) gradients.

  16. 西地那非治疗新生儿持续胎儿循环%Sildenafil treatment of neonatal continuous fetal circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭冬霞

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨分析西地那非治疗新生儿持续胎儿循环的临床疗效。方法回顾性分析2013年1月至2013年11月间在我院进行治疗的16例新生儿持续胎儿循环患儿的临床记录资料。结果应用3剂量治疗后,患者的总有效率高于应用1剂后的总有效率,具有显著性差异(P 0.05)。和治疗前相比,患者治疗后6h、12h、24h、48h、72h 的 sao2、Pao2均高于对照组,PaMP、Paco2均低于对照组,具有显著性差异(P 0.05).compared before treatment , after treatment for 6h, 12h, 24h, 48h, 72h ,the sao2, Pao2 of treatment group were higher , PaMP, Paco2 of treatment group were lower than that of the control group(P <0.05). Conclusion Clinical efficacy of sildenafil in the treatment of neonatal persistent fetal circulation is significant, worthy of clinical application.

  17. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Alina L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 2 5.5-8 kPa. All moose were acidemic (ph2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa. Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen.

  18. Oxygenation and ventilation characteristics in obese sedated dogs before and after weight loss: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, M; German, A J; Holden, S L; MacFarlane, P; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; Iff, I

    2013-11-01

    This prospective clinical study examined the effect of obesity and subsequent weight loss on oxygenation and ventilation during deep sedation in pet dogs. Data from nine dogs completing a formalised weight loss programme were evaluated. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to quantify body fat mass prior to and after weight loss. Dogs were deeply sedated and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Sedation was scored using a semi-objective scheme. As part of the monitoring of sedation, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) were measured after 10 min in dorsal recumbency. Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2) was monitored continuously using pulse oximetry, starting oxygen supplementation where indicated (SpO2PaO2/FiO2 (inspired oxygen fraction) and Pa/AO2 (ratio of PaO2 to alveolar PO2) also improved significantly, but there was no change in f-shunt and PaCO2 after weight loss. On multiple linear regression analysis, all oxygen indices were negatively associated with thoracic fat percentage. In conclusion, obesity decreases oxygenation in dogs during deep sedation. Oxygenation status improves with successful weight loss, but ventilation is not influenced by obesity.

  19. Clinical application and research progress of transcutaneous monitoring of noninvasive blood gas%经皮无创血气监测的临床应用及研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤蕊; 平芬; 韩书芝; 李萍

    2014-01-01

    经皮无创血气监测具有无创、持续、动态监测等特点,弥补了传统血气分析的许多不足.经皮氧分压、经皮二氧化碳分压与PaO2、PaCO2有很好的相关性,故能够反映患者PaO2、PaCO2的即刻变化,广泛应用于临床的许多领域中,为许多疾病的早期发现,早期诊治及预后评估提供有价值的信息.%Transcutaneous monitoring of noninvasive blood gas is a noninvasive,continuous,and dynamic monitoring technique,makes up for many of the shortcomings of the traditional blood gas analysis.It had good correlation between transcutaneous oxygen tension,transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2),arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2),so it could reflect the immediate change of PaO2 and PaCO2 in patients.Transcutaneous monitoring of noninvasive blood gas has been already widely used in clinical sets and provided valuable informations for the early screening and diagnosis and prognosis assessment of many diseases.

  20. Medetomidine-midazolam sedation in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raekallio, M; Tulamo, R M; Valtamo, T

    1998-01-01

    Seven sheep were sedated 3 times: with medetomidine (15 micrograms kg-1), with midazolam (0.1 mg kg-1) and with a combination of the drugs. All drugs were administered intravenously. Heart and respiratory rates were measured. Arterial blood samples were collected, and PaO2, PaCO2, pH, haemoglobin concentration and saturation, and base excess were determined. Systolic and mean arterial pressures were recorded before and after the treatment with medetomidine-midazolam. Midazolam increased the time of recumbency induced by medetomidine. After administration of midazolam alone, 4 of the 7 sheep were sedated and the other 3 were excited. Heart rate decreased after both medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam. One sheep suffered a cardiac arrest after medetomidine-midazolam injection, and it required resuscitation. PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased after medetomidine, and medetomidine-midazolam caused a marked hypoxaemia. PaCO2 increased after medetomidine, both alone and combined with midazolam, but arterial pH was within the reference values after all drug administrations. Systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased after medetomidine-midazolam. This study indicates that though in sheep midazolam potentiates the sedative effect of medetomidine, the combination of medetomidine and midazolam also reduces the in PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation more than medetomidine alone. The results indicate that a medetomidine-midazolam combination is unsafe for sheep at the doses studied.

  1. Clinical Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Admission for Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Kargar Maher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChildren with severe asthma attack are a challenging group of patients who could be difficult to treat and leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Asthma attack severity is qualitatively estimated as mild, moderate and severe attacks and respiratory failure based on conditions such as respiration status, feeling of dyspnea, and the degree of unconsciousness. part of which are subjective rather than objective. We investigated clinical findings as predictors of severe attack and probable requirement for Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU admission.Materials and MethodsIn a cross sectional and analytical study 120 patients with asthma attack were enrolled from April 2010 to April 2014 (80 admitted in the ward and 40 in pediatric intensive care unit. Predictors of PICU admission were investigated regarding to initial heart rate(HR, respiratory rate (RR, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(SaO2 and PaCo2 and clinically evident cyanosis.ResultsInitial heart rate(p-value=0.02, respiratory rate (p-value=0.03, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(p-value=0.02 and PaCo2(p-value=0.03 and clinically evident cyanosis were significantly different in two groups(Ward admitted and PICU admittedConclusion There was a significant correlation between initial vital sign and blood gas analysis suggesting usefulness of these factors as predictors of severe asthma attack and subsequent clinical course.

  2. [Ventilatory failure in COPD: follow-up under intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebel, M; Rossbach, L; Herth, F; Schulz, M; Schulz, V

    1999-10-01

    Effectiveness of IPPV in COPD is controversial. We examine the course of 29 patients with longterm IPPV (19 male, 10 female, age 60.3 years, BMI 23.7, FEV1 mean 22% predicted, PaCO2 mean 67 mmHg). PaCO2 is significantly by IPPV reduced. Patients are followed for 2 to 48 months (mean 16.5). Five stop IPPV (1 bilateral lung transplantation, 1 lung volume reduction surgery, 3 non-compliance), 8 die of respiratory failure, 5 of non-respiratory causes (non-RI) (3 tumor, 2 cardiovascular), and 10 survive (SV, 20.5 months). No difference in survival is observed between non-RI and SV. Weight increase by +5% is seen in SV more frequently, lung function is worse in RI, especially in weaning pts., hospital days are less frequent in SV and non-RI. Probability of survival is 70% at 1 year, 57% at 2 years, and 23% at 3 years, and is seriously influenced by non-RI. Our results are influenced by the high number of non-RI, the quitting of IPPV, and the primary inclusion of tumour pts. Still a high number of deaths by RI leads us to the conclusion that IPPV may be helpful for palliation, bridging before surgery and in subgroups who still have to be defined.

  3. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgio Verdi-Olivares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con  tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  4. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgio Verdi Olivares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  5. Acidosis and Correction of Acidosis Does Not Affect rFVIIa Function in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-15

    normaliza- tion of respiration returned arterial pH to 7.4 and restored PaCO2, PaO2 and BE to baseline (Table 3). Ionized calcium was maintained near...model Control Acidosis Acidosis corrected n=10 pH 7.38±0.01 7.14±0.01 7.43±0.01 PaCO2 (mmHg) 47.3±1.8 43.0±1.8 55.0±3.1 PaO2 (mmHg) 433.6±26.4 400.9±33.1...mmHg) 49.5±1.3 48.2±1.8 94.0±5.2 *# PaO2 (mmHg) 142.8±3.3 133.5±8.6 99.6±9.6 *# HCO3 - (mM) 31.2±0.7 24.3±1.1* 29.5±1.2# BE (mM) 5.8±0.6 -1.5±1.0* -2.1

  6. Breathing in thin air: acclimatization to altitude in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Frank L; Shams, Hashim; Hempleman, Steven C; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2004-12-15

    We measured ventilation (VI) and arterial blood gases in Pekin ducks during acclimatization to 3800 m altitude for 1-90 days. Four experimental series were conducted over 4 years using both natural altitude and a hypobaric chamber. PaCO2 decreased to 3.5 Torr, relative to the value measured during acute hypoxia after 1 day and remained at this level for up to 90 days. However, PaO2 did not increase. Arterial pH showed an unexpected metabolic alkalosis during the first hours at altitude but after 3 days, a metabolic acidosis partially compensated the respiratory alkalosis and pHa was constant thereafter. When normoxia was restored after hypoxia, PaCO2 was 5.5 Torr less than the original normoxic control value, but PaO2 was not increased. VI showed variable changes during acclimatization but if metabolic rate was constant in our study, as reported by others, then effective parabronchial V(VP) increased during acclimatization. Increased VP tends to restore PaO2 toward normoxic levels and decreases adverse effects of gas exchange limitation, which apparently increased during acclimatization in ducks.

  7. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Richard Bain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g. posture and degree of hyperthermia. The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g. hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges, an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e. 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided.

  8. COMPARISON OF HIGH-FREQUENCY OSCILLATION VENTILATION WITH CONVENTIONAL MANDATORY VENTILATION IN ANIMAL ARDS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Guo-chao; HUANG Shao-guang; LI Min; DENG Wei-wu; WAN Huan-ying

    2005-01-01

    Objective To compare effect of high-frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV) and conventional mandatory ventilation (CMV) on lung injury development in rabbit with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Methods Animals that underwent saline lung lavage to produce lung injury were randomized to one of the two treatment groups (HFOV or CMV, n=6). PaCO2 was maintained between 35-45mmHg and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was maintain >88% by adjusting corresponding ventilator parameters. Ventilation period was 6h. Lung fluids were aspirated before and at the end of ventilation for cell analysis. Then the animals were euthanized, lung tissue was removed for wet/dry weight measurement, light and electron microscopic examination.Results The difference of artery blood gas analyses(pH, PaO2, PaCO2) between HFOV and CMV was insignificant. The difference between HFOV and CMV in cytological examination of lung fluids, wet/dry weight measurement was also insignificant. But compared with CMV,HFOV not only reduced the area of lung injury, but also reduced lung injury score in light and electron microscopic examination. Conclusion When same artery blood gas analysis was obtained, HFOV significantly reduced lung injury development in ARDS animal than CMV. As a lung protection strategy, HFOV can be used in the treatment of ARDS.

  9. CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEASYNDROME WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) induced acute respiratory failure. Methods The clinical and laboratory characteristics of 9 patients were reviewed. Results 9 patients (8 females, 1 male) presented with obesity and mental disturbance, with a BMI being 44.97 kg /m2, (45.25 kg/m2 in the fe male). The mean age of the group was 67.89 years (61~74 years). All had respiratory acidosis (mean pH 7.17), hypercapni a (mean PaCO2 94.10mmHg) (63.97~143.18mmHg), and hypoxemia (mean PaO2 39mmHg) (29.03~44.03mmHg). During periods of clinical stability all but 2 had awaken hypercapnia (mean PaCO2 46.73mmHg) (38.25~54.68mmHg). Four of the 9 patients had pulmonary function test showing FEV1>70%. Conclusion OSAS induced acute respiratory fail ure has a sudden onset and various presentations and can be reversed with early and proper treatment. The severity of abnormal pulmonary function was less than what would be expected to cause respiratory failure.

  10. Oxygen therapy, continuous positive airway pressure, or noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of 3 types of noninvasive respiratory support systems in the treatment of acute pulmonary edema: oxygen therapy (O2, continuous positive airway pressure, and bilevel positive pressure ventilation. METHODS: We studied prospectively 26 patients with acute pulmonary edema, who were randomized into 1 of 3 types of respiratory support groups. Age was 69±7 years. Ten patients were treated with oxygen, 9 with continuous positive airway pressure, and 7 with noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation. All patients received medicamentous therapy according to the Advanced Cardiac Life Support protocol. Our primary aim was to assess the need for orotracheal intubation. We also assessed the following: heart and respiration rates, blood pressure, PaO2, PaCO2, and pH at begining, and at 10 and 60 minutes after starting the protocol. RESULTS: At 10 minutes, the patients in the bilevel positive pressure ventilation group had the highest PaO2 and the lowest respiration rates; the patients in the O2 group had the highest PaCO2 and the lowest pH (p<0.05. Four patients in the O2 group, 3 patients in the continuous positive pressure group, and none in the bilevel positive pressure ventilation group were intubated (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Noninvasive bilevel positive pressure ventilation was effective in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, accelerated the recovery of vital signs and blood gas data, and avoided intubation.

  11. Spectral signatures of intramolecular charge transfer process in beta-enaminones: a combined experimental and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ramprasad; Mandal, Abhijit; Mukhopadhyay, Madhuri; Maity, D K; Bhattacharyya, S P

    2009-08-06

    In this paper, we present spectroscopic signatures of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and effects of solvent on the ICT process in 3-(phenylamino)-2-cyclohexen-1-one (PACO), a member of the well-known molecular family, the beta-enaminones. The dual fluorescence in the steady state emission spectra of the molecule in polar solvents indicates the occurrence of ICT, which is further supported by time-resolved studies, using time correlated single photon counting technique with picosecond resolution. To understand the nature of the charge transfer, pH dependent studies of the probe in water were performed, where a quenching of fluorescence was observed even in the presence of very low concentrations of acids. Solvent induced fluorescence quenching was observed in ethanol and methanol. The ICT process was also investigated by quantum chemical calculations. To understand the role of solvents in the ICT process, we have theoretically studied the macroscopic and microscopic solvation of the probe in water. The absorption spectra of the molecule in the gas phase as well as in water were simulated using time dependent density functional theory with cc-pVTZ basis set and self-consistent reaction field theory that models macroscopic solvation. The possibility of microscopic solvation in water was probed theoretically and the formation of 1:3 molecular clusters by PACO with water molecules has been confirmed. Our findings could have a bearing on pH sensing applications of the probe.

  12. Observation of blood-activating and stasis-dissolving drugs in adjuvant treatment of spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome of chronic pulmonary heart diseases%活血化瘀辅助治疗慢性肺源性心脏病脾肾阳虚症的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐润生; 邹才华

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀辅助治疗慢性肺源性心脏病脾肾阳虚症的疗效。方法选择肺心病脾肾阳虚症患者25例,在常规治疗的基础上加参麦注射液,川芎嗪注射液12d,观察治疗前后两组患者二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、血氧分压(PaO2)和脑钠肽(BNP)变化情况,并与25例常规治疗组比较。结果治疗组治疗前PaCO2、PaO2、BNP水平分别为(75.3±6.1)mm Hg、(52.8±4.5)mm Hg和(3726.8±651.5)pg/mL,治疗后为(52.4±5.2)mm Hg、(67.3±3.4)mm Hg和(245.6±83.7)pg/mL;对照组治疗前为(74.9±5.1)mm Hg、(53.2±4.1)mm Hg和(3635.4±688.5)pg/mL,治疗后为(66.7±5.5)mm Hg、(58.5±3.7)mm Hg和(533.1±156.5)pg/mL。两组PaCO2、BNP治疗前水平高,治疗后水平下降(P<0.01),PaO2治疗前水平低,治疗后提高(P<0.01),提示两组治疗均有效,治疗组和对照组治疗前PaCO2、PaO2和BNP水平比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗组治疗后PaCO2、BNP水平,PaO2水平较对照组好(P<0.01),提示参麦注射液,川芎嗪注射液辅助治疗肺心病治疗优于常规治疗组。结论活血化瘀辅助治疗肺心病可有效改善慢性肺源性心脏病患者血清PaCO2,PaO2和BNP水平,对改善患者心肺功能,提高对临床疗效有益。%ObjectiveTo explore curative effect of blood-activating and stasis-dissolving drugs in adjuvant treatment of spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome of chronic pulmonary heart diseases. Methods 25 patients with spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome of chronic pulmonary heart diseases were selected. They received shenmai injection and tetramethylpyrazine injection for 12 days at the basis of routine treatment. Changes of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2), alveolar oxygen partial pressure(PaO2) and brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) before and after treatment of patients in two groups were observed

  13. Base excess, a marker of chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure and predictor of survival in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Budweiser

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the role of base excess (BE as marker of chronic hypercapnia and survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF. Moreover, it was investigated whether the effects of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV on CHRF were reflected in BE and survival. In 240 (160 without exacerbation patients with COPD (mean±SD FEV1 30.7±9.7 %pred; PaCO2 56.9±9.9 mmHg body-mass index (BMI, lung function, respiratory muscle function, blood gases and 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD were assessed prior to initiation of NPPV. In addition, the changes of risk factors 6.3±2.9 months after initiation of NPPV were evaluated. Overall mortality during the follow-up time (26.0±24.5 months was 34.6%. Deaths resulted predominantly from respiratory causes (65.1%; among those, respiratory failure was most frequent (85.2%. Univariate analysis revealed BMI, FEV1, maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax, inspiratory load (P0.1, haemoglobin, 6-MWD, hyperinflation (IC/TLC, RV/TLC, blood gases and BE to be associated (p<0.05 each with prognosis. In multivariate analyses, however, only BMI, RV/TLC and BE turned out to be independent cross-sectional predictors (p<0.05. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that BE had predictive value particularly in patients with BMI25 kg·m–2, RV/TLC70 % and PaCO257 mmHg. Furthermore, changes of BMI, RV/TLC and BE (p<0.01 were associated with improved prognosis in severe hypercapnic COPD. In patients with COPD and CHRF, BE was a prognostic marker for mortality, that was independent from other factors, particularly PaCO2. In addition, reversal of CHRF was reflected in BE and appeared to have an impact on prognosis.

  14. Neuroleptic-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Garcia Soriano

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome is presented and discussed with emphasis on the role of muscle relaxation, creatine kinase, and respiratory function tests. CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old man presented right otalgia and peripheral facial paralysis. A computed tomography scan of the skull showed a hyperdense area, 2 cm in diameter, in the pathway of the anterior intercommunicating cerebral artery. Preoperative examination revealed: pH 7.4, PaCO2 40 torr, PaO2 80 torr (room air, Hb 13.8 g/dl, blood urea nitrogen 3.2 mmol/l, and creatinine 90 mmol/l. The chest x-ray was normal. The patient had not eaten during the 12-hour period prior to anesthesia induction. Intravenous halothane, fentanyl 0.5 mg and droperidol 25 mg were used for anesthesia. After the first six hours, the PaO2 was 65 torr (normal PaCO2 with FiO2 50% (PaO2/FiO2 130, and remained at this level until the end of the operation 4 hours later, maintaining PaCO2 at 35 torr. A thrombosed aneurysm was detected and resected, and the ends of the artery were closed with clips. No vasospasm was present. This case illustrates that neuroleptic drugs can cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a disease that is difficult to diagnose. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is another manifestation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome that has not been recognized in previous reports: it may be produced by neuroleptic drugs independent of the manifestation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Some considerations regarding the cause and effect relationship between acute respiratory distress syndrome and neuroleptic drugs are discussed. Intensive care unit physicians should consider the possibility that patients receiving neuroleptic drugs could develop respiratory failure in the absence of other factors that might explain the syndrome.

  15. Regulation of phenylacetic acid uptake is sigma54 dependent in Pseudomonas putida CA-3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Leary, Niall D

    2011-10-13

    primer extension analysis. Comparative analyses of genomes encoding phenylacetyl CoA, (PACoA), catabolic operons identified a common association among styrene degradation linked PACoA catabolons in Pseudomonas species studied to date. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to report RpoN dependent transcriptional activation of the PACoA catabolon paaL gene, encoding a transport protein essential for phenylacetic acid utilisation in P. putida CA-3. Bioinformatic analysis is provided to suggest this regulatory link may be common among styrene degrading Pseudomonads.

  16. End-tidal arterial CO2 partial pressure gradient in patients with severe hypercapnia undergoing noninvasive ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defilippis V

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vito Defilippis,1 Davide D’Antini,2 Gilda Cinnella,2 Michele Dambrosio,2 Fernando Schiraldi,3 Vito Procacci1 1Emergency Department, Riuniti Hospital, 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, University of Foggia, Foggia, 3Emergency Department, San Paolo Hospital, Naples, Italy Background: Patients with severe hypercapnia represent a particularly serious condition in an emergency department (ED, requiring immediate attention. Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is an integral part of the treatment for acute respiratory failure. The present study aimed to validate the measurement of end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2 as a noninvasive technique to evaluate the effectiveness of NIV in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients admitted to the ED with severe dyspnea were enrolled in the study. NIV by means of bilevel positive airway pressure, was applied to the patients simultaneously with standard medical therapy and continued for 12 hours; the arterial blood gases and side-stream nasal/oral EtCO2 were measured at subsequent times: T0 (admission to the ED, T1h (after 1 hour, T6h (after 6 hours, and T12h (after 12 hours during NIV treatment. Results: The arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2–EtCO2 gradient decreased progressively, reaching at T6h and T12h values lower than baseline (P < 0.001, while arterial pH increased during the observation period (P < 0.001. A positive correlation was found between EtCO2 and PaCO2 values (r = 0.89, P < 0.001 at the end of the observation period. Conclusion: In our hypercapnic patients, the effectiveness of the NIV was evidenced by the progressive reduction of the PaCO2–EtCO2 gradient. The measurement of the CO2 gradient could be a reliable method in monitoring the effectiveness of NIV in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in the ED. Keywords: arterial end-tidal CO2 gradient, noninvasive ventilation, bilevel positive airway pressure, acute respiratory failure

  17. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Methods: A total of 76 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/kg.d), continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg.d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg.d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb, i.e. Ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12-week treatment. PaO2, PaCO2, P(A-a)O2, and SaO2 before and after treatment were detected. FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO before and after treatment were determined.Results: PaO2, PaCO2, and SaO2 after treatment were significantly elevated, while P(A-a)O2 was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment. The comparison of PaO2 and P(A-a)O2 between the two groups was statistically significant, while the comparison of PaCO2 and SaO2 between the two groups was not statistically significant. After treatment, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group.Conclusions:EGb in combined with prednisone in the treatment of IPF can effectively improve the arterial blood gas indicators and pulmonary function, and enhance the patients’ living qualities; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  18. Effect of captopril on serum TNF-α level in acute lung injury rats induced by HCL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Liu; Yu-Na Guo

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of captopril on the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level and arterial blood gases in acute lung injury (ALI) induced by HCL in rats, and to analyze its protective mechanism. Methods:Fifty Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into three groups, with 20 rats in GroupⅠandⅡ, respectively and 10 animals in GroupⅢ. ALI model was constructed by intratracheal injection of diluted hydrochloric acid (pH=1.25, 1.2 mL/kg). Group I rats received not any treatment after construction of ALI model. GroupⅡrats were treated with captopril (5 mg/kg, i.p.) 5 min after induction of ALI. GroupⅢserved as normal control without any treatment. Ninety minutes after construction of ALI model, all the rats were sacrificed. Blood was withdrawn for detection of TNF-αlevel and arterial blood gases index. And lung tissue slices of the three groups were prepared for observation of pathologic histology changes. Results:TNF-αlevel in serum of GroupⅠand Ⅱrats was significantly higher than that in GroupⅢ(P<0.05), while TNF-αlevel in serum of GroupⅡwas significantly lower in Group I (P<0.05). PaCO2 level was significantly higher (P<0.05), while PaO2 was significantly lower (P<0.05) in Group I andⅡrats than those in GroupⅢ. PaCO2 was significantly lower (P<0.05) and PaO2 was significantly higher (P<0.05) in GroupⅡthan those in Group I. Histological observation showed diffuse congestion and severe edema of lung tissue, obvious thickening and structure damage of alveolar walls and a large amount of neutrophil infiltration in Group I rats. GroupⅡrats showed mild edema of lung tissue;only a small portion of alveolar walls showed thickening and only a few of neutrophil infiltration could be observed. The degree of injury was remarkably slighter than that of Group I rats. GroupⅢrats showed clear lung tissue structure and normal morphology;alveolar walls were uniform and the margin was smooth and few neutrophil could be observed

  19. Changes of Arterial Blood Gases After Different Ranges of Surgical Lung Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years there has been increase in the number of patients who need thoracic surgery – first of all different types of pulmonary resection because of primary bronchial cancer, and very often among patients whose lung function is impaired due to different degree of bronchial obstruction so it is necessary to assess functional status before and after lung surgery to avoid the development of respiratory insufficiency. Objective: To show the changes in the level of arterial blood gases after various ranges of lung resection. Material and methods: The study was done on 71 patients surgically treated at the Clinic for Thoracic Surgery KCU Sarajevo, who were previously treated at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01. 06. 2009. to 01. 09. 2011. Different types of lung resection were made. Patients whose percentage of ppoFEV1 was (prognosed postoperative FEV1) was less than 30% of normal values of FEV1 for that patients were not given a permission for lung resection. We monitored the changes in levels-partial pressures of blood gases (PaO2, PaCO2 and SaO2) one and two months after resection and compared them to preoperative values. As there were no significant differences between the values obtained one and two months after surgery, in the results we showed arterial blood gas analysis obtained two months after surgical resection. Results were statistically analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft Office Excel. Statistical significance was determined at an interval of 95%. Results: In 59 patients (83%) there was an increase, and in 12 patients (17%) there was a decrease of PaO2, compared to preoperative values. In 58 patients (82%) there was a decrease, and in 13 patients (18%) there was an increase in PaCO2, compared to preoperative values. For all subjects (group as whole): The value of the PaO2 was significantly increased after lung surgery compared to preoperative values (p <0.05) so is the value of the SaO2%. The value

  20. The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those

  1. The Effects of Lung Protective Ventilation or Hypercapnic Acidosis on Gas Exchange and Lung Injury in Surfactant Deficient Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut D Hummler

    Full Text Available Permissive hypercapnia has been shown to reduce lung injury in subjects with surfactant deficiency. Experimental studies suggest that hypercapnic acidosis by itself rather than decreased tidal volume may be a key protective factor.To study the differential effects of a lung protective ventilatory strategy or hypercapnic acidosis on gas exchange, hemodynamics and lung injury in an animal model of surfactant deficiency.30 anesthetized, surfactant-depleted rabbits were mechanically ventilated (FiO2 = 0.8, PEEP = 7cmH2O and randomized into three groups: Normoventilation-Normocapnia (NN-group: tidal volume (Vt = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 40 mmHg; Normoventilation-Hypercapnia (NH-group: Vt = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg by increasing FiCO2; and a Hypoventilation-Hypercapnia (HH-group: Vt = 4.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg. Plasma lactate and interleukin (IL-8 were measured every 2 h. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h to perform bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, to measure lung wet-to-dry weight, lung tissue IL-8, and to obtain lung histology.PaO2 was significantly higher in the HH-group compared to the NN-group (p<0.05, with values of the NH-group between the HH- and NN-groups. Other markers of lung injury (wet-dry-weight, BAL-Protein, histology-score, plasma-IL-8 and lung tissue IL-8 resulted in significantly lower values for the HH-group compared to the NN-group and trends for the NH-group towards lower values compared to the NN-group. Lactate was significantly lower in both hypercapnia groups compared to the NN-group.Whereas hypercapnic acidosis may have some beneficial effects, a significant effect on lung injury and systemic inflammatory response is dependent upon a lower tidal volume rather than resultant arterial CO2 tensions and pH alone.

  2. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  3. Silvergrove Nursing Home Limited, Main Street, Clonee, Meath.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Leary, Niall D

    2011-10-13

    primer extension analysis. Comparative analyses of genomes encoding phenylacetyl CoA, (PACoA), catabolic operons identified a common association among styrene degradation linked PACoA catabolons in Pseudomonas species studied to date. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to report RpoN dependent transcriptional activation of the PACoA catabolon paaL gene, encoding a transport protein essential for phenylacetic acid utilisation in P. putida CA-3. Bioinformatic analysis is provided to suggest this regulatory link may be common among styrene degrading Pseudomonads.

  4. Variability of Acid-Base Status in Acetate-Free Biofiltration 84% versus Bicarbonate Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harzallah Kais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of hemodialysis (HD treatment is to achieve the highest level of efficacy in the presence of maximal clinical tolerance. With an aim to offer good hemodynamic stability, as observed during the acetate-free biofiltration 14% (AFB 14% to patients who are intolerant to bicarbonate dialysis (BD and with less cost, we have developed since June 1994, a new HD technique, namely AFB 84%. This study was carried out to analyze acid-base variations during the AFB 84% in comparison to BD in hemodynamically stable patients on regular HD. This was a prospective randomized crossover study carried out on 12 patients (6 males and 6 females for a total of 144 HD sessions (72 BD and 72 AFB 84%. Patients with decompensated cardiomyopathy, respiratory diseases or uncontrolled hypertension were not included in the trial. All the patients were treated with BD or AFB 84%; the latter is characterized by the absence of acetate in the dialysate and a complete correction of buffer balance by post-dilutional infusion of bicarbonate-based replacement solution. The comparison of pre-dialysis arterial acid-base and blood-gas parameters revealed no significant differences of pH, HCO 3 - and paCO 2 levels between the two techniques. Analysis of post-dialysis parameters showed that, among patients dialyzed with BD, there was over correction of metabolic acidosis with a tendency towards metabolic alkalosis. In contrast, in patients dialyzed with AFB 84%, we observed a significant improvement in pH and HCO 3 - levels but the increase in paCO2 level was not significant. A comparison of these parameters between the two techniques showed statistically significant difference in pH, HCO3 - and paCO2 levels, but not for paO2 level. AFB 84% can offer some important advantages with the complete absence of acetate from the substitution fluids, and permits a better correction of metabolic acidosis than BD, without causing alkalosis.

  5. RESPIRATORY REHABILITATION IN ACUTE CARE OF PATIENTS WITH NEUROPARALYTIC SNAKE ENVENOMATION: CASE SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitanjali Sikka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurotoxic envenomations have the potency to cause a broad spectrum of presentations starting from ptosis and ophthalmoplegia to respiratory arrest. These patients require ventilatory assistance in addition to administration of anti-snake venom (ASV and other supportive measures. Mechanically ventilated patients are at risk for retained secretions due to endotracheal intubation disrupting mucociliary escalator, relative immobility of mechanically patient confined to bed can lead to postoperative atelectasis, impaired cough, and retained secretions and thereby physical therapy may be indicated for patients in the intensive care setting. Materials and Methods: A total of twenty four consecutive patients ranging in age from 25-45 years, who required, mechanical ventilation for respiratory muscle paralysis, secondary to snake envenomation, seen during three months period, recruited from various ICU’s were included in the study. All the patients included were mechanically ventilated on Hamilton Evita ventilator, on volume control (CMV mode with PEEP<10 cmH2O and had stable hemodynamics with heart rate = 60-100 beats/min; MABP = 70-110mm Hg. Patients received chest physiotherapy intervention twice in a day. Effects of physiotherapy treatment were studied on static lung compliance (CST, oxygenation ratio (PaO2:FiO2 ratio, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2 , cologarithm of activity of dissolved hydrogen ions in arterial blood (pH and chest X-rays. Measurements of dependent variables were recorded (PRE before commencement of treatment, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after treatment. Physiotherapy intervention included bronchial hygiene therapy and manual hyperinflation using Mapleson-C circuit. Results: Analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant improvement in CST mean values (p<0.01 and significant improvement

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by The Irish Society for Autism, Meath

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Leary, Niall D

    2011-10-13

    primer extension analysis. Comparative analyses of genomes encoding phenylacetyl CoA, (PACoA), catabolic operons identified a common association among styrene degradation linked PACoA catabolons in Pseudomonas species studied to date. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to report RpoN dependent transcriptional activation of the PACoA catabolon paaL gene, encoding a transport protein essential for phenylacetic acid utilisation in P. putida CA-3. Bioinformatic analysis is provided to suggest this regulatory link may be common among styrene degrading Pseudomonads.

  7. 过度通气4小时对控制式脑皮质撞击损伤大鼠的神经认知行为和病损大小的远期影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Ebersp(a)cher; Manfred Blobner; Christian Werner; Stefanie Ruf; Barbara Eckel; Kristin Engelhard; Wolfgang Schmahl; Adrian W. Gelb; 郑希锦

    2012-01-01

    背景 局部创伤性脑损伤大鼠过度通气4小时对其神经认知行为、运动功能、协调能力和病损大小的远期影响.方法 对大鼠进行为期14天的神经认知行为学训练,包括孔板实验、木梁行走实验、木梁平衡实验.21只SD大鼠(369±15g),氟烷麻醉后气管插管,机械通气,行控制性皮质撞击损伤(深1.75mm,直径5mm,速度4m/s).将大鼠随机分入正常通气组(n =10; Paco2 =38 ~42mmHg)和过度通气组(n=11; Paco2 =28 ~32mmHg),机械通气4小时.创伤后持续检测大鼠的行为学和运动能力20天.随后,将大鼠在深麻醉下断头取脑,冰冻脑组织,切片,评估病损大小.结果 过度通气组与正常通气组相比外显记忆受损严重.两组大鼠在损伤初期的运动功能和协调能力的测试(木梁行走和木梁平衡实验)中表现均有欠缺,过度通气组更为严重.但是,在实验结束时,两组并无明显差异.创伤后第20天,过度通气组大鼠测得的病损大小(69.7±13.0mm3)明显大于正常通气组(48.3±15.6mm3).结论 创伤性脑损伤后过度通气4小时(Paco2 =28 ~32 mm Hg)虽然增加了组织学损伤,但并没有对大鼠远期的神经认知功能造成不良影响.

  8. Efficacy of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in patients with COPD at the acute exacerbation stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Peng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in the treatment of respiratory failure in patients with COPD at the acute exacerbation stage. Methods:A total of 38 COPD patients at the acute exacerbation stage with respiratory failure who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2013 with complete medical materials were included in the study and divided into the observation group and the control group according to different treatment methods. On admission, the patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, positive infection control, and drugs that could improve the respiratory function. On the basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional NIPPV. The improvement of blood gas indicators 4, 24, 72 d after admission, and 5, 30 d after discharge in the two groups was compared. The hospitalization time and the number of second hospitalization within 3 months in the two groups were compared.Results: In the observation group, pH value after 4 h ventilation was significantly elevated, and maintained at a stable state after 24 h ventilation, while in the control group, the change of pH value was not statistically significant, and after 5 d treatment, pH value was yet low. In the observation group, PaCO2 was significantly reduced in a short ventilation time, while in the control group, the descending range was small. The comparison of pH and PaCO2 4 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 5 d after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant, but PaCO2 in the two groups could not reduce to the normal level. PaO2 after treatment in the two groups was improved, but the improved degree in the observation degree was significantly superior to that in the control group. The comparison of blood gas indicators 30 d after discharge between the two groups was not statistically significant. The hospitalization time in the observation group was shortened, and the number of second hospitalization

  9. Expression levels of induced sputum IL-8 and IL-10 and drug intervention effects in patients with acute exacerbated COPD complicated with chronic cor pulmonale at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Enzhi; Wan, Ronghua; Yang, Shengyue; Yan, Ziqiang; Wang, Shaolin; He, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Yin, He; Chen, Zongru; Liu, Ruinian

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the expression levels of induced sputum interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 levels in patients with acute exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) complicated with chronic cor pulmonale (CCP) at high altitude, and to evaluate the intervention effects of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist in this disease. A total of 186 patients with AECOPD complicated with CCP were randomly divided into three groups, with 62 cases in each. With regard to the two treatment groups, group A was treated with salmeterol/fluticasone (50 μg/250 μg, respectively) by airway inhalation twice daily, while group B received budesonide (1 mg) as a spray inhalation, twice daily. The routine treatment group (group C) received only routine treatment. The levels of IL-8 and IL-10 in the induced sputum and the predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%pred), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) were examined on admission and at a stable stage two weeks following treatment. Forty healthy volunteers served as a control group (group D). Compared with group D values, the IL-8 induced sputum level and the PaCO2 were significantly increased, while the level of IL-10, FEV1%pred and the PaO2 were markedly decreased in the three COPD groups prior to treatment. Following treatment, the induced sputum IL-8 level and the PaCO2 were significantly decreased, while the induced sputum IL-10 level, FEV1%pred and the PaO2 were markedly increased in the three treatment groups compared with the values pre-therapy (all P<0.01). The post-treatment parameters were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.01). The results indicate that IL-8 and IL-10 are involved in the airway inflammation of AECOPD complicated by CCP. Treatment with an ICS was demonstrated to be a successful method of reducing the local expression of IL-8 and

  10. Riada House Community Nursing Unit, Arden Road, Tullamore, Offaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Leary, Niall D

    2011-10-13

    primer extension analysis. Comparative analyses of genomes encoding phenylacetyl CoA, (PACoA), catabolic operons identified a common association among styrene degradation linked PACoA catabolons in Pseudomonas species studied to date. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to report RpoN dependent transcriptional activation of the PACoA catabolon paaL gene, encoding a transport protein essential for phenylacetic acid utilisation in P. putida CA-3. Bioinformatic analysis is provided to suggest this regulatory link may be common among styrene degrading Pseudomonads.

  11. Proceedings First International Workshop on Process Algebra and Coordination

    CERN Document Server

    Aceto, Luca; 10.4204/EPTCS.60

    2011-01-01

    Process algebra provides abstract and rigorous means for studying communicating concurrent systems. Coordination languages also provide abstract means for the specifying and programming communication of components. Hence, the two fields seem to have very much in common and the link between these two research areas have been established formally by means of several translations, mainly from coordination languages to process algebras. There have also been proposals of process algebras whose communication policy is inspired by the one underlying coordination languages. The aim of this workshop was to push the state of the art in the study of the connections between process algebra and coordination languages by bringing together experts as well as young researchers from the two fields to communicate their ideas and findings. It includes both contributed and invited papers that have been presented during the one day meeting on Process Algebra and Coordination (PACO 2011) which took place on June 9, 2011 in Reykjav...

  12. [A control trial of home I.P.P.B. therapy in patients with chronic obstructive respiratory insufficiency. Protocol and state of the study (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompalitch, M; Brille, D; Diaz, M; Kauffmann, F; Hatzfeld, C; Decroix, G

    1979-01-01

    Because a previous retrospective study did not allow any conclusion as to the efficacy of home IPPB therapy in patients with chronic airflow obstruction, a control trial has been started. The protocol includes definition of patients, modalities of treatment, criteria for evaluation. Among criteria for a patient to enter the trial is a chronic hypercapnia (with PaCO2 greater than or equal to 48 mmHg) observed over a preliminary period of 4 months. At the end of this period patients are allocated at random into two groups with and without IPPB at home (at least 1 to 2 hours daily through a mouthpiece); medical prescriptions are same in the 2 groups so as surveillance which is planned for 2 years. Evaluation should be based upon 5 predetermined criteria. This trial is in progress.

  13. Apuntes sobre el realismo en las narraciones visuales actuales. El ejemplo de la adaptación cinematográfica del cómic "María y yo" de Miguel Gallardo por Félix de Castro

    OpenAIRE

    Touton, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Se analiza primero la manera como se plantea la cuestión del "realismo" (sus dimensiones estéticas, sociológicas, pragmáticas, editoriales…) según los lenguajes narrativos y soportes artísticos involucrados (novela, cine, cómic). Luego, se parte de dos novelas gráficas de 2007 ("Arrugas", de Paco Roca, y "María y yo", de Miguel Gallardo) y sus adaptaciones cinematográficas ("Arrugas", película de animación de Ignacio Ferrero, y "María y yo", documental de Félix Fernández de Castro), para inte...

  14. Arrugas. Un viaje al extranjero, desde el comienzo hasta el final

    OpenAIRE

    Yébenes, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    [ES] Arrugas, dirigida por Ignacio Ferreras, es uno de los últimos largometrajes de animación 2D de factura "made in Spain" que nos deja disfrutar al público adulto de una historia dura y real, pero mágica. Arrugas no es de esas películas que dejan a uno indiferente. Hace pensar, hace entender, hace sentir, hace vivir, aunque el tema principal de la película sea justo lo contrario. Arrugas nació como cómic de las manos de Paco Roca, Premio Nacional de Cómic en España. Con las imágenes de la p...

  15. The Study of Prognosis and Blood Gas Analysis in Elderly Patients with COPD and TypeⅡ Respiratory Failure%老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病并Ⅱ型呼衰血气分析与预后探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖钧婷

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate prognosis and parameter changes of blood gas analysis in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and typeⅡ respiratory failure.Methods Form 2013 to 2015 in our hospital, the clinical data of 85 cases of COPD in elderly patients over the age of 60 and type II respiratory failure were retrospective analysis, which were divided into improved group (66 cases) and the death group (19 cases). All of the patients were underwent arterial blood gas analysis (oxygen not before) and venous blood electrolyte determination after admission, and PH, PaCO2, and the mortality rate were compared respectively.Results (1)When blood gas analysis PH≥7.25, mortality was significantly increased. PaCO2≥80mmHg, (mortality was significantly increased, P<0.01). (2)Respiratory acidosis associated with other types of acid-base balance disorders of mortality was signiifcantly increased (P<0.05), in particular increased when combined with other two types is more obvious (P<0.05). Conclusion (1)PH value and PaCO2 of blood gas analysis have a signiifcant impact on the prognosis in elderly patients with COPD and typeⅡ respiratory failure, which prognosis can be predicted to some extent. (2)The mortality rate of two or more acid-base balance disorders were higher than single one.%目的:探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)并Ⅱ型呼衰血气分析指标变化对预后的影响。方法回顾性分析我院2013年至2015年收治的85例60岁以上的老年COPD并Ⅱ型呼衰患者临床资料,将其分成好转组(66例)和死亡组(19例)两组。病人入院后作动脉血气分析(未吸氧前),并同步测定静脉血电解质。比较两组病人PH、PaCO2的情况,并对其死亡率进行比较。结果①血气分析结果PH≥7.25时,死亡率明显升高;PaCO2≥80mmHg,(死亡率也明显升高,P<0.01);②呼吸性酸中毒合并其他类型酸碱平衡紊乱时死亡率明显升高(P<0.05),尤其当合并

  16. DIÁLOGO SOBRE OS FUNDAMENTOS DA EDUCAÇÃO: RECORTES E DISCUSSÕES, VOL. V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Pimentel Camillo Barra Nova de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A coleção Fundamentos da Educação: Recortes e Discussões chega ao seu quinto volume todos publicados pela Paco Editorial. O presente volume foi lançado em 2015 e contem 406 páginas, escritas por 21 autores, dentre eles graduados, especialistas, mestrandos, mestres, doutorandos, doutores, pós-doutores, todos estudiosos do campo educacional e comprometidos em compreender melhor tal fenômeno. Para isso buscaram, nesta obra, desvendar o pensamento pedagógico dos seguintes estudiosos: Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, Édouard Claparède, Adolphe Ferrière, Henri Wallon, Roger Cousinet, Alexander Luria, Alexei Leontiev, Ana Teberosky, Emília Ferreiro, Howard Gardner, Hannah Arendt, Augusto Comte, Émile Durkheim, B.F. Skinner, Lawrence Stenhouse, Anton Makarenko, Florestan Fernandes, Louis Althusser e Michel Foucault.

  17. Avaliação da função pulmonar de recém-nascidos com síndrome do desconforto respiratório em diferentes pressões finais expiratórias positivas Assessment of pulmonary function of preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome at different positive end expiratory pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C.T. Consolo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO\tABSTRACT \t Objetivo: verificar as alterações da função pulmonar: complacência dinâmica (Cdyn, volume corrente inspiratório (V Tinsp, pressão arterial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2, em recém-nascidos pré-termo com síndrome do desconforto respiratório. Pacientes e Métodos: estudo de caso controle, incluindo 11 pré-termos com idade gestacional Objective: to verify the alterations of pulmonary function in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The parameters analyzed were Dynamic Compliance (Cdyn, Inspiratory Tidal Volume (TVinsp, partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2. Methods: eleven preterm newborn infants, with gestational age < 35 weeks, and birth weight < 2.500 g, were include in a control case study. All infants presented RDS and were treated with 120 mg/Kg of porcine surfactant. The initial positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP was 3 cm H2O. A pneumotachograph with a graphical monitor was used to assess the pulmonary function. After each increase in the PEEP (4 and 6 cm H2O, there was an interval of 20 minutes before measuring the arterial data of pulmonary function and arterial gases. Results: there were three males and eight females (1:2,7 among the infants with RDS. The mean gestational age was 30.78. 2.05 weeks, ranging from 26 to 34 weeks. The increase in the PEEP from 3 to 6 cm H2O caused significant decrease in the TVinsp (6.46 ±3.43 to 4.20 ±2.35, P=0.0262. With the increase in the PEEP from 4 to 6 cm H2O, there was also a decrease in the TVinsp (5.98.± 3.33 to 4.20.± 2.35, (P=0.0044. Regarding the Cdyn, when there was an increase in the PEEP from 3 to 6 cm H2O, the reduction was statistically significant (0.58.± 0.27 to 0.46± 0.25, P=0.0408 and from 4 to 6 cm H2O, the reduction in the Cdyn was also important (0.77± 0.27 to 0.46± 0.25, (P=0.0164. Increases in the PEEP from 4 to 6 cm H2O caused increases in the PaCO2 (52.81± 15.49 to 64.90± 12.69, (P= 0,0141. A

  18. Relevance and influence factors of arterial blood carbon dioxide tension and end tidal carbon dioxide tension%动脉血二氧化碳分压与呼气末二氧化碳分压的相关性及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赟; 黄施伟; 陈莲华; 李士通

    2015-01-01

    Background End tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2) monitoring has a lot of advantages like noninvasive,convenient,fast and intuitive,and it is widely used for monitoring the ventilation function.At the same time,PETCO2 is also associated with pulmonary perfusion well,so it can be used as a monitoring and evaluation index of heart function and circulation dynamics indirectly.That has been a good correlation between PETCO2 and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2).Objective To summarize the factors may influence the correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2,and to explore the pathophysiological mechanism may exist.Content We performed a review of the factors that affect the relativity between PETCO2 and PaCO2 from the operation's type,the basic condition of the patients and the aspect of anesthesia.Trend In general,there is a good correlation between PETCO2 and PaCO2 in normal condition,which has also been proved in corresponding physiological mechanism.However,the correlation between them still needs further research and exploration in a mixed more complex condition.%背景 呼气末二氧化碳分压(end tidal carbon dioxide tension,PETCO2)监测具有无创、简便、快捷、直观等优点,被广泛用于监测通气功能.同时PETCO2与肺血流灌注状况有密切关联,间接地同心排血量相关,故其还可作为心功能和循环动力的监测及评估指标.一直以来认为PETCO2与动脉血二氧化碳分压(arterial carbon dioxide tension,PaCO2)之间有很好的相关性.目的 总结可能影响PETCO2与PaCO2相关性的有关因素,探讨可能存在的病理生理机制.内容 结合近年来的相关文献,通过手术、患者基本情况及麻醉等三方面,就对PETCO2与PaCO2相关性产生影响的有关因素作一总结和回顾.趋向 PETCO2与PaCO2在一般情况下相关性良好,也有相应的生理机制证明.但存在混杂较为复杂的因素时,两者的相关性还需要深入研究和不断探索.

  19. Effect of nitric oxide blockade by NG-nitro-L-arginine on cerebral blood flow response to changes in carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Paulson, O B; Lassen, N A

    1992-01-01

    The importance of nitric oxide (NO) for CBF variations associated with arterial carbon dioxide changes was investigated in halothane-anesthetized rats by using an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG). CBF was measured by intracarotid injection of 133Xe. In normocapnia......, intracarotid infusion of 1.5, or 7.5, or 30 mg/kg NOLAG induced a dose-dependent increase of arterial blood pressure and a decrease of normocapnic CBF from 85 +/- 10 to 78 +/- 6, 64 +/- 5, and 52 +/- 5 ml 100 g-1 min-1, respectively. This effect lasted for at least 2 h. Raising PaCO2 from a control level of 40...

  20. Enhanced cerebral CO2 reactivity during strenuous exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Stie, Henrik; Nielsen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    be accounted for by the reduction in the arterial CO(2) tension (P(a)CO(2)). This study evaluated whether the apparently large reduction in MCA V(mean) at the end of exhaustive exercise relates to an enhanced cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity. The CO(2) reactivity was evaluated in six young healthy male...... exercise changes in cerebral blood flow are dominated by the arterial carbon dioxide tension.......Light and moderate exercise elevates the regional cerebral blood flow by approximately 20% as determined by ultrasound Doppler sonography (middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity; MCA V(mean)). However, strenuous exercise, especially in the heat, appears to reduce MCA V(mean) more than can...

  1. Clinical assessment of intraarterial blood gas monitor accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Salim; Spiess, R.; Roby, Paul; Kenny, Margaret

    1993-08-01

    The accuracy of intraarterial blood gas monitoring (IABGM) devices is challenging to assess under routine clinical conditions. When comparing discrete measurements by blood gas analyzer (BGA) to IABGM values, it is important that the BGA determinations (reference method) be as accurate as possible. In vitro decay of gas tensions caused by delay in BGA analysis is particularly problematic for specimens with high arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) values. Clinical instability of blood gases in the acutely ill patient may cause disagreement between BGA and IABGM values because of IABGM response time lag, particularly in the measurement of arterial blood carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). We recommend that clinical assessments of IABGM accuracy by comparison with BGA use multiple bedside BGA instruments, and that blood sampling only occur during periods when IABGM values appear stable.

  2. A Real-Time Early Cognitive Vision System based on a Hybrid coarse and fine grained Parallel Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With

    such as recognition, reasoning and planning.The ECV stage is a hierarchical architecture that makes use of an early-local-symbolic representation to sparsify and increase the semantic richness of the information from EV. Before this project, the EV and ECV stages of our software were processed on a single core CPU....... The current top model GPUs from NVIDIA possess up to 240 homogeneous cores. In the past, GPUs have beenhard to program, forcing the programmer to map the algorithm to the graphics processing pipeline and think in terms of vertex and fragment shaders, imposing a limiting factor in the implementation of non...... applications using this platform are presented. These applications include the EU-project DRIVSCO, where we have used parts of the vision machine to establish a prototype of a driver assistance system. In another EU-project, called PACO-PLUS, the vision machine is used to process the sensorial input...

  3. Siivsalt lahendatud Skoone bastion / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna vanalinnas asuva Skoone bastioni ja sellega külgneva staadioni arendamiseks väljakuulutatud ideekonkursi võidutöödest. Peapreemia sai töö "Glassii" (autorid Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik arhitektuuribüroost Salto). Teise preemia pälvis töö "SK-one" (autorid Timo Subbi, Mihkel Urmet, Taavi Kaldaru arhitektuuribüroost Suburb OÜ). Kolmanda preemia sai töö "Karl XI" (autorid Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür, Paco-Ernest Ulman arhitektuuribüroost Kosmos). Võistlustöödega saab tutvuda Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis. Harry Liivranna lühike ülevaade Skone bastioni ajaloost

  4. Lung and Diaphragm Damage at Varying Oxygen Levels and Ventilator Modes Pst Hemorrhagic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    PaCO2, HCO3, base excess, PaO2 , SaO2, and hemoglobin) were continuously monitored throughout the experiments. Hydrogen peroxide production was... PaO2 , SaO2, and hemoglobin) across the four FIO2 groups at baseline and shock (p > 0.05). After 60 minutes of various FIO2, PaO2 significantly...1.5 Treatment -19.8 ± 1.5 -9.3 ± 3.1* -8.8 ± 2.5* -11.7 ± 4.0 PaO2 (mmHg) Control 80 ± 2 81 ± 4 78 ± 5 77 ± 3

  5. Arterial Blood Gases, Electrolytes and Metabolic Indices Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: Inter-and Intrainbred Rat Strain Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    cellular changes and compensatory responses. Such ABM include arterial blood gases ( PaO2 , PaCO2, oxygen content); electrolytes (potassium, sodium, cal...1.34 SaO2) (0.003 PaO2 ) where PaO2 arterial oxygen pressure, and SaO2 arterial oxygen saturation. Oxygen content reflects the total volume...TCO2, 2.4%, 2.3%; pH, 0.02%, 0.08%; BE, 10.8%, 21.6%; Na, 0.0%, 0.4%; K, 2.0%, 0.9%; glucose, 1.4%, 2.3%; Ca, 0.8%, 1.2%; PaO2 , 3.4%, 1.3%; oxygen

  6. Methemoglobinemia secondary to automobile exhaust fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.F.; Hoffman, R.S. (Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon cause of cyanosis. A 28-year-old male presented to the emergency department cyanotic and short of breath after exposure to noxious automobile fumes. He did not improve with the administration of 100% oxygen therapy. The initial arterial blood gas with cooximetry was: pH of 7.38, PaCO2 of 43 mm Hg, PaO2 of 118 mm Hg, measured oxygen saturation of 70%, and a methemoglobin level of 24.8%. Methylene blue was given (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient's symptoms resolved. On the following day he was discharged home without complication. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed no reported cases of methemoglobinemia secondary to accidental exposure to exhaust fumes.17 references.

  7. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  8. A rapid decrease in pulmonary arterial pressure by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursunoglu Nese

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by progressive decrements in expiratory airflow, increments in end-expired pulmonary volume, hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV treatment is increasingly used for the treatment of acute and chronic respiratory failure in patients with COPD. NPPV can increase PaO2 and decrease PaCO2 by correcting the gas exchange in such patients. The acute effect of NPPV on decreasing PAP is seen in patients with respiratory failure, probably due to the effect on cardiac output. Here, a case with COPD whose respiratory acidosis and PAH rapidly improved by NPPV was presented and therefore we suggested to perform an echocardiographic assessment to reveal an improvement of PAH as well as respiratory acidosis, hypercapnia and hypoxemia with that treatment.

  9. Analysis of Multivariate Factors for Noninvasive Ventilation In the Patients with Acute Cardiogenic Pulmona-ry Edema%无创通气治疗急性心源性肺水肿失败的多因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱风华; 钱义明; 朱亮; 顼志兵; 祁丽丽; 赵雷

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyze the multivariate factors associated with failure of applying noninvasive ven-tilation(NIV)in the patients with acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema(ACPE).Methods 65 patients with ACPE re-ceived NIV treatment,and were divided into NIV syccess group and NIV failure group according to the result with NIV therapy.Compared with the exchanges of the relevant parameters before the treatment and in the treatment between these two groups,analysis the alert factors and observational factors of the failure in NIV treatment.Resylts 27 cases in failure on NIV were elders,with acute myocardial infarction,decline on PaCO_2,raise on PH,low on MPA,compared with the success group.In NIV treatment and observing the changes of RR,PaO2,PaCO_2,there is a obviously differ-ence(P<0.05)on the HR improvement in the patients of the success group compared with the patients of the failure group.Conclusion The factors of elder,acute myocardial infarction,decline on PaCO_2,raise on PH,low on MPA could be seemed as the alert factors before the NIV treatment,the efficiency of therapy of NIV could be judged through observing HR,RR,PaO_2,PaCO_2 in NIV treatment.%目的 分析应用无创通气(NIV)治疗急性心源性肺水肿(ACPE)失败的多种因素.方法 65例ACPE患者在应用NIV治疗后根据结果分为NIV成功组和NIV失败组,将两组治疗前的相关因素和治疗时相关指标的变化进行比较,分析NIV治疗失败的预警因素和观察指标.结果 27例NIV治疗失败,与成功组比较,NIV失败组年龄偏大、患急性心肌梗死、PaCO_2下降、PH增高、MPA低.NIV治疗期间治疗成功组患者HR的改善优于失败组(P<0.05).结论 NIV治疗前,高龄、急性心肌梗死患者、PaCO_2下降、PH增高、MPA低可以作为预警因素;NIV期间观察HR、RR、PaO_2、PaCO_2可以及时判断NIV治疗的有效性.

  10. Global INET 2012: Meeting at the Crossroads: Imagining the future Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The Internet Society, the world's trusted independent source of leadership for Internet policy and technology standards, celebrates its 20th anniversary this year in Geneva.   Global INET 2012 will take place at the CICG on 22-24 April to discuss the topics and challenges that will shape the future of the Internet.  This is an excellent opportunity to meet, network with and learn from top Internet technologists, policymakers, business executives and other individuals from around the globe. The conference boasts a programme of over 50 speakers and panelists, all offering their insights into topics such as Internet governance, law, ecosystems, intellectual property, social networking and the link between the Internet and economic transformation. Panelists include Slim Amamou, Lynn St Amour, Vint Cerf, Lesley Cowley, Steve Crocker, Dr. Leonard Kleinrock, and co-founder of the Campus Party Paco Ragageles, as well as CERN Director-G...

  11. Adenoviral targeting using genetically incorporated camelid single variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliberov, Sergey A; Kaliberova, Lyudmila N; Buggio, Maurizio; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Shoemaker, Charles B; Curiel, David T

    2014-08-01

    The unique ability of human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) to accomplish efficient transduction has allowed the use of Ad5-based vectors for a range of gene therapy applications. Several strategies have been developed to alter tropism of Ad vectors to achieve a cell-specific gene delivery by using fiber modifications via genetic incorporation of targeting motifs. In this study, we have explored the utility of novel anti-human carcinoembryonic antigen (hCEA) single variable domains derived from heavy chain (VHH) camelid family of antibodies to achieve targeted gene transfer. To obtain anti-CEA VHHs, we produced a VHH-display library from peripheral blood lymphocytes RNA of alpacas at the peak of immune response to the hCEA antigen (Ag). We genetically incorporated an anti-hCEA VHH into a de-knobbed Ad5 fiber-fibritin chimera and demonstrated selective targeting to the cognate epitope expressed on the membrane surface of target cells. We report that the anti-hCEA VHH used in this study retains Ag recognition functionality and provides specificity for gene transfer of capsid-modified Ad5 vectors. These studies clearly demonstrated the feasibility of retargeting of Ad5-based gene transfer using VHHs.

  12. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-06-24

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3' UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5.

  13. A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for a 16 kDa heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke K Trilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH binding to M. tuberculosis antigens were isolated. Two phage display selection strategies were followed: one direct selection using semi-purified protein antigen, and a depletion strategy with lysates, aiming to avoid cross-reaction to other mycobacteria. Both panning methods selected a set of binders with widely differing complementarity determining regions. Selected recombinant VHHs were produced in E. coli and shown to bind immobilized lysate in direct Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA tests and soluble antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. All tested VHHs were specific for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and exclusively recognized an immunodominant 16 kDa heat shock protein (hsp. The highest affinity VHH had a dissociation constant (KD of 4 × 10(-10 M. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for 16 kDa heat shock protein of M. tuberculosis is available. This protein is highly stable and abundant in M. tuberculosis. The VHH that detect this protein are applied in a robust SPR sensor for identification of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria.

  14. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in camelids: old problems, current solutions and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J; Bezos, J; Juan, L de; Vordermeier, M; Rodriguez, S; Fernandez-de-Mera, I G; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L

    2012-02-01

    In spite of great efforts for its control and eradication, tuberculosis remains one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. Its causative agents, the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, have a wide host range that complicates the epidemiology of this disease. Among susceptible species to these pathogens, camelids from the New World (llama, alpaca and vicuña) and Old World (Bactrian camel and dromedary) are acquiring an increasing importance in several European countries because of its growing number and could act as reservoirs of the disease for livestock and humans in their natural habitat. In addition, tuberculosis caused by a number of M. tuberculosis complex members is a life-threatening disease in these animal species. Although tuberculosis has been known to affect camelids for a long time, ante-mortem diagnosis is still challenging because of the lack of standardized diagnostic techniques and the limited sensitivity and specificity of the most widely applied tests. However, in recent years, several techniques that can at least partially overcome these limitations have been developed. This paper reviews the results and advances achieved in tuberculosis diagnosis in camelids in the last decade as well as the progresses on ongoing investigations, with special attention to the remaining challenges that still have to be faced to assure the availability of reliable tools for the detection of tuberculosis-infected animals and herds.

  15. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  16. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  17. Fascioliasis of livestock and snail host for Fasciola in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, H; Arandia, R; Morales, G; Medina, G

    1975-01-01

    Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica was a serious problem for sheep and alpacas in the Altiplano Region of Bolivia. In some provinces close to Lake Titicaca, the raising of sheep was forced to discontinue, because infection with the fluke made it unprofitable and almost impossible. It was proved that in the Altiplano Region, two species of freshwater snails, Lymnaea viatrix and L. cubensis var., served as intermediate hosts for F. hepatica. In some subtropical areas of Bolivia, these snails could not be found, although other Lymnaea sp. was widely distributed there. As it is possible for Lymnaea sp. to be intermediate host for the fluke, further studies are required on the identification. Acute fascioliasis of sheep occurred in the Altiplano Region principally during a period from May to July, or the dry season. In some areas, the mortality rate of infected sheep was roughly estimated as 15 to 25% annually. Contamination with Fasciola metacercariae of herbage and semi-aquatic plants grown in a swamp in one of these areas was biologically assessed, using guinea pigs. Plants of Compositae and Eleocharis sp. were contaminated most intensely and those of Senicio sp. and Vallisneria sp. carried a fairly large number of cysts, while plants of Scirpus sp. and Ranunclaceae carried only a few cysts. No signs of Fasciola infection were observed in any animal given the plants of Liliaceae.

  18. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

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    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  19. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

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    J.A. Hribljan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 The high-altitude (4,500+ m Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia: near the village of Manasaya in the Sajama National Park (Cordillera Occidentale, and in the Tuni Condoriri National Park (Cordillera Real. (2 We cored to 5 m depth in the Manasaya peatland, whose age at 5 m was ca. 3,675 yr. BP with a LARCA of 47 g m-2 yr-1. However, probing indicated that the maximum depth was 7–10 m with a total estimated (by extrapolation carbon stock of 1,040 Mg ha-1. The Tuni peat body was 5.5 m thick and initiated ca. 2,560 cal. yr. BP. The peatland carbon stock was 572 Mg ha-1 with a long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA of 37 g m-2 yr-1. (3 Despite the dry environment of the Bolivian puna, the region contains numerous peatlands with high carbon stocks and rapid carbon accumulation rates. These peatlands are heavily used for llama and alpaca grazing.

  20. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes

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    Pengchao Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3′ UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF and Tyrosinase (TYR were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5.

  1. Use of eugenol in Jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus: effects on sedation and evaluation hemogasometry

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    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the use of eugenol as an anesthetic for jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus, measuring the time to anesthesia induction in different concentrações and their effects in gas exchange. The results were analyzed according to a completely randomized design (DIC with eight treatments (control, 10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 150, 200 mg L-1 of eugenol and ten repetitions. Time values of anesthetic induction and recovery, according to the level of eugenol underwent polynomial regression (p<0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and averages were compared by Tukey test. Were determined the time of anesthesia and recovery. The parameters were analyzed blood glucose, pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, concentration of bicarbonate (HCO-3, sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and chloride (Cl. The concentrations of 40 and 80 mg.L-1 of eugenol were the ones who presented time deep anesthesia induction of 59.5 ± 17.5 sec. and 58.4 ± 18.6 sec. respectively. The concentrations above 120 mg. L-¹ presented mortality. These fish subjected to different level of eugenol did not show changes in blood oxygen pressure (PaO2 and carbon dioxide (PaCO2. The fish when subjected to concentrations above 80 mg L-1 showed an increase of bicarbonate. The plasma glucose values showed significant elevation in response to the bath with anesthetic eugenol. The concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and plasma protein remained constants indicating that the process of anesthesia was not long lasting enough to induce changes in the electrolyte balance. Within the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that eugenol is a suitable anesthetic for the silver. This product may be used at a concentration of 40 mg. L-1 without causing changes hemogasométrica.

  2. Long-term oxygen therapy: Are we prescribing appropriately?

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    Mª Rosa Güell Rous

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mª Rosa Güell RousDepartament de Pneumologia, Hospital de la Santa Creu I de Sant Pau, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT is the treatment proven to improve survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. It also appears to reduce the number of hospitalizations, increase effort capacity, and improve health-related quality of life. Standard LTOT criteria are related to COPD patients who have PaO2 <60 mmHg, are in a clinical stable situation, and are receiving optimal pharmacological treatment. According to LTOT guidelines, oxygen should be prescribed for at least 18 hours per day although some authors consider 24 hours would be more beneficial. The benefits of LTOT depend on correction of hypoxemia. Arterial blood gases should be measured at rest. During exercise, an effort test should be done to assure adequate SaO2. During sleep, continuous monitoring of SaO2 and PaCO2 should be performed to confirm correction of SaO2 overnight. An arterial blood gas sample should be taken at awakening to assess PaCO2 in order to prevent hypoventilation from the oxygen therapy. Several issues that need to be addressed are the use of LTOT in COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia, the efficacy of LTOT in patients who desaturate during exercise or during sleep, the optimal dosage of oxygen supplementation, LTOT compliance, and the LTOT prescription in diseases other than COPD.Keywords: long-term oxygen therapy, COPD, oxygen supplementation, chronic respiratory failure, hypoxemia

  3. Relationship between Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Level and Efficacy of Inhaled Corticosteroid in Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome Patients with Different Disease Severity

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    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level and the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap syndrome (ACOS) patients with different disease severity. A total of 127 ACOS patients with ACOS (case group) and 131 healthy people (control group) were enrolled in this study. Based on the severity of COPD, the ACOS patients were divided into: mild ACOS; moderate ACOS; severe ACOS; and extremely severe ACOS groups. We compared FeNO levels, pulmonary function parameters including percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to predicted value (FEV1%pred), ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), inspiratory capacity to total lung capacity (IC/TLC) and residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), arterial blood gas parameters, including PH, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), induced sputum eosinophil (EOS), plasma surfactant protein A (SP-A), plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), sputum myeloperoxidase (MPO), sputum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Asthma Control Test (ACT) scores, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores. Compared with pre-treatment parameters, the FeNO levels, RV/TLC, PaCO2, total serum IgE, induced sputum EOS, plasma SP-A, sputum MPO, sputum NGAL, and CAT scores were significantly decreased after 6 months of ICS treatment, while FEV1%pred, FEV1/FVC, IC/TLC, PH, PaO2, plasma sRAGE, and ACT scores were significantly increased in ACOS patients with different disease severity after 6 months of ICS treatment. This finding suggests that the FeNO level may accurately predict the efficacy of ICS in the treatment of ACOS patients. PMID:28145647

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrovascular Reactivity to Carbon Dioxide in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats

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    Leoni, Renata F.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Henning, Erica C.; Nascimento, George C.; Tannús, Alberto; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension afflicts 25% of the general population and over 50% of the elderly. In the present work, arterial spin labeling MRI was used to non-invasively quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance and CO2 reactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), at two different ages (3 months and 10 months) and under the effects of two anesthetics, α-chloralose and 2% isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Repeated CBF measurements were highly consistent, differing by less than 10% and 18% within and across animals, respectively. Under α-chloralose, whole brain CBF at normocapnia did not differ between groups (young WKY: 61±3ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 62±4ml/100g/min; young SHR: 70±9ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 69±8ml/100g/min), indicating normal cerebral autoregulation in SHR. At hypercapnia, CBF values increased significantly, and a linear relationship between CBF and PaCO2 levels was observed. In contrast, 2% isoflurane impaired cerebral autoregulation. Whole brain CBF in SHR was significantly higher than in WKY rats at normocapnia (young SHR: 139±25ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 104±23ml/100g/min; young WKY: 55±9ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 71±19ml/100g/min). CBF values increased significantly with increasing CO2; however, there was a clear saturation of CBF at PaCO2 levels greater than 70 mmHg in both young and adult rats, regardless of absolute CBF values, suggesting that isoflurane interferes with the vasodilatory mechanisms of CO2. This behavior was observed for both cortical and subcortical structures. Under either anesthetic, CO2 reactivity values in adult SHR were decreased, confirming that hypertension, when combined with age, increases cerebrovascular resistance and reduces cerebrovascular compliance. PMID:21708273

  5. 中度低温减轻内毒素性急性肺损伤大鼠肺炎症反应%Moderate Hypothermia Attenuates Lung Inflammation in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴长毅; 曾因明; 顾卫东; 丁浩中; 陈肖; 张焰

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of moderate hypothermia in the lung inflammation of rat acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide( LPS). Methods A rat model of acute lung injury (ALI) was established by intra-tracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (1.5 mg/kg, 0.5 ml) at 16 h after LPS (1.0 mg/kg) intraperitoneal administration. Thirty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, receiving saline only;LPS group, receiving LPS; hypothermia group, treated with hypothermia without LPS; LPS + hypothermia group, treated with LPS and cooled to 32.5℃~ 33.0℃ as PaO2/FiO2 was below 300 mmHg. Hemodynamics and blood gases were recorded every hour throughout the study. Rats were killed 4 h after ALI, and lung lavage was performed to measure the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results PaO2/FiO2 was significantly decreased and PaCO2 was increased in the LPS group as compared to their baseline values( P 《 0.01 ). Treatment with hypothermia inhibited the increase in PaCO2 ( P 《 0.05) but had no effect on PaO2/FiO2 in the presence of LPS. The administration of LPS significantly increased the concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 in BALE as compared to the control experiment( P 《0.05, P 《 0.01 ). Moderate hypothermia reduced the expressions of TNF-α and IL-6( P 《 0.01 ) but had no effect on the production of IL-10( P 》 0.05). Conclusion Moderate hypothermia significantly inhibits proinflammatory cytokine expressions in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

  6. Incidence of Postoperative Acid-Base Disturbances in Abdominal Surgery

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    Taghavi Gilani M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Respiratory and blood pressure changes as well as fluid administration alter the acid-base balance during the perioperative period which may cause consciousness disturbance and additional hemodynamic disorders. The aim of this study was to identify frequent postoperative acid-base disturbances in order to control postoperative complications. Materials and Methods:This prospective, observational study design was used on patients who underwent abdominal surgery during a six-month period. Gasometry was performed immediately after the patients’ admittion to ICU and six and 12 hours postoperatively. SPSS v13 software was used, and PResults: 213 patients (123 male and 90 female aged 14-85 years (51.7± 22.4 were evaluated. During admission, PH and PaCO2 were (7.29±0.13 and (38.3±11.9, respectively; however, although PH increased gradually (P=0.001, PaCO2 was reduced (P=0.03. Bicarbonate and base excess had opposite effects; bicarbonate initially decreased but increased after 12 hours (P=0.001, whereas base excess initially increased (-6.3±11.6 and then decreased gradually (P=0.003. The arterial oxygen pressure was reduced for 22.5% of the patients throughout the admission period, and this did not significantly change (P=0.57. Conclusion: According to the results, in admission, 65.7% had metabolic acidosis, but metabolic alkalosis was the least. Gradually, metabolic acidosis was modified, but metabolic alkalosis increased. Intraoperative hypotension and fluid infusion may be the main factors of early metabolic acidosis and control of hypotension, or correction of acidosis may increase metabolic alkalosis.

  7. Effect of pulmonary surfactant combined with mucosolvan on immune function, liver and kidney function in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

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    Juan Ma; Xiao-Lei Wang; Zheng-Ying Li; Tao-Ying Chen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pulmonary surfactant combined with mucosolvan on immune function, liver and kidney function in neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, provide help for the treatment.Methods:A total of 160 cases of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome in our hospital were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group according to the random number table method, 80 cases in each group, the control group was given conventional therapy, the observation group was given pulmonary surfactant combined with mucosolvan treatment on the basis of conventional therapy, before treatment and 3 days after treatment, the arterial blood gas correlation indexes, respiratory distress syndrome related factors, immune related factors, liver and kidney function indexes were detected in the 2 groups.Results:Compared with before treatment, in the observation group and the control group after treatment, arterial blood gas indexes PaO2, TCO2, SaO2 significantly increased, while PaCO2 significantly decreased, related cytokines KL-6, MIF-1 and HMGB-1 significantly decreased, immunologic factors IFN-γ and IL-4 significantly increased, while IL-10 and TNF-α significantly decreased, liver function indexes AST, ALT and renal function indexes BUN, CRE decreased significantly, the differences had statistically significant; compared with the control group after treatment, in the observation group after combined treatment, arterial blood gas indexes PaO2, TCO2, SaO2 significantly increased, PaCO2 significantly decreased, related cytokines KL-6, MIF-1 and HMGB-1 significantly decreased, immunologic factors IL-10 and IL-4 significantly increased, IFN-γ and TNF-α significantly decreased, liver function indexes AST, ALT and renal function indexes BUN, CRE decreased significantly; the differences had statistically significant.Conclusion:Pulmonary surfactant combined with mucosolvan can improve the respiratory distress syndrome related factors, immune function, liver

  8. Arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in neonates with asphyxia

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    Zi-Mei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the value of arterial blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination in the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia.Methods: A total of 100 neonates with asphyxia who were admitted in our department from March, 2013 to March, 2014 were included in the study and divided into the mild asphyxia group and the severe asphyxia group according to Apgar scoring. Moreover, 50 normal neonates were served as the control group and used for comparative analysis. AVL blood-gas analyzer was used to detect the levels of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, BE, PaCO2, K+, Na+, Cl-, and Ca2+.Results:The concentrations of pH, PaO2, HCO3-, and BE in the severe asphyxia group were significantly lower than those in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while PaCO2 level was significantly higher than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group. The comparison of the various indicators between the control group and the mild asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The comparison of serum K+, Na+,and Cl- levels among the control group, the mild asphyxia group, and the severe asphyxia group was not statistically significant. The serum Ca2+ level in the severe asphyxia group was significantly lower than that in the mild asphyxia group and the control group, while the comparison between the mild asphyxia group and the control group was also statistically significant.Conclusions:Blood gas analysis and electrolyte determination to the arterial blood in neonates can compensate for the insufficiency of Apgar scoring and provide an objective evidence for the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the estimation of severity degree. Clinical combination with Apgar scoring is of great significance in enhancing the diagnosis of neonatal asphyxia and the accuracy of severity evaluation.

  9. Effect of heparin in combined with magnesium sulfate on the blood gas and blood viscosity in patients with pulmonary heart failure

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    Rui Deng; Hong-Wei Liang; Jun-Hong Liao; Jun-Hua Chen; Hai-Yan Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of heparin in combined with magnesium sulfate on the blood gas indicators and blood viscosity in patients with pulmonary heart disease merged with respiratory failure.Methods: A total of 80 patients with pulmonary heart disease merged with respiratory failure who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and randomized into the observation group (n=40) and the control group (n=40). The patients in the control group were given routine symptomatic treatments of pulmonary heart disease. On the above basis, the patients in the observation group were given intravenous drip of heparin and magnesium sulfate. The patients in the two groups were treated for 2 weeks. The blood gas indicators, blood viscosity indicators, PAPs, SBP, and DBP in the two groups were compared. The clinical efficacy in the two groups was evaluated.Results:After 2-week treatment, PaO2 and PaCO2 in the two groups were improved, pH value was not significantly changed, PaO2 in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while PaCO2 was significantly lower than that in the control group. The hemorheology indicators after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, among which the comparison of WBV, PV, Hct, and EAI between the two groups was statistically significant, and PAPs after treatment in the observation group was significantly reduced when compared with the control group. SBP and DBP after treatment in the two groups were not significantly changed.Conclusions: Heparin in combined with magnesium sulfate in the treatment of pulmonary heart disease merged with respiratory failure can improve the blood gas indicators and blood viscosity indicators, and reduce SBP of pulmonary artery, with a higher efficacy; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  10. Effect of deep anesthesia on blood gas and immune function in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer

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    Zhen Wang; Xiao-Fan Li; Hui Wang; Zhi-Jun Mao; Tong Xue; Rui Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of deep anesthesia on blood gas and immune function in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods:A total of 84 gastric cancer patients in our hospital were randomly divided into observation group (42 cases) and control group (42 cases). Patients in observation group were treated by deep anesthesia, while the control group was treated with shallow anesthesia. The blood gas was observed and compared before and after CO2 pneumoperitoneum, and the immune function was observed and compared before anesthesia, after operation and 72 h post-operation. Results:The PaCO2 and pH level of patients in the two groups had no significant difference before pneumoperitoneum;Compared with before pneumoperitoneum, no obvious blood gas change was observed in the observation group, the difference had no statistically significant;Blood gas level of control group was significantly higher than that of before pneumoperitoneum , the difference was statistically significant, pH (7.26±0.07) was statistically decreased;After pneumoperitoneum, the level of PaCO2 and pH was significantly different in both groups , the difference was statistically significant. Indexes of the patients in the observation and control group of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, NK level had no significant difference before anesthesia, the difference was not statistically significant;The immunology index of CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+and NK cell levels of the postoperative patients in both groups were significantly lower than before anesthesia, and the differences were statistically significant, but each index in the observation group decreased significantly less than that of the control group, the difference was statistically significant;The immunological indexes can be restored to before anesthesia postoperative 72 h with two groups, and had no significant difference. Conclusion:The blood gas analysis index was stable and the immune function was suppressed in

  11. 小儿先心患者呼气末与动脉血二氧化碳分压的相关性及其影响因素%Correlation and influencing factors between end-tidal carbon dioxide and arterial carbon dioxide tension in children with congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪萍; 王英伟

    2009-01-01

    小儿先天性心脏病通常可分为发绀型与非发绀型.由于不同程度的左向右或右向左分流造成的血流动力学的改变.使呼气末与动脉血二氧化碳分压差[P(a-et)CO2]增大,给临床上通过呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)推测动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)带来困难.因此,如何正确地评估和预测PaCO2,避免过多地进行动脉血气分析是十分必要的.此文参考近年来的研究,对可能影响P(a-et)CO2值的各种因素作一综述.%The pediatric congenital heart diseases are usually divided into cyanotic and non-cyanotic heart diseases. Due to the hemodynamic change caused by either left-right or right-left shunt, the value of arterial-to-end-tidal carbon dioxiede tension dif-ference (P(a- et)CO2) increases, which makes it difficult using pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) to predict pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). Therefore, in order to avoid excessive artery blood gas analysis, it is important to estimate and pre-dict PaCO2 exactly, especially in pediatric patients. The present review gathers various factors that probably influence P(a-et)CO2 and try to make a simple conclusion, based on published data recently.

  12. Influence of changes in the pulmonary artery pressure on ventilation requirements in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement.

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    Muralidhar K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the influence of changes in pulmonary artery pressure on the ventilation requirements in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Thirty patients with mitral valve disease with significant pulmonary arterial hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass were included in this prospective study. All patients had a pulmonary artery catheter placed after the anaesthetic induction. The minute ventilation was adjusted to achieve an arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 of 35-40 mm Hg. After a stabilisation period of 15 minutes, the pulmonary artery pressure and the minute volume needed for maintaining a PaCO2 of 35-40 mm Hg in the precardiopulmonary bypass, post-cardiopulmonary bypass and six hours postoperatively were measured after ensuring stable haemodynamics and normothermia. There was a significant decrease in the mean pulmonary artery pressure from pre-cardiopulmonary bypass value of 41.3+/-15 mm Hg to 29.3+/-8 mm Hg in the postcardiopulmonary bypass period and subsequently to 25.5+/-7 mm Hg in the intensive care unit. There was a corresponding increase in the minute volume requirements from a pre-cardiopulmonary bypass value of 6.8+/-1 L/min to 8.0+/-1 L/min in the post cardiopulmonary bypass period and then to 9.4+/-1.2 L/min in the postoperative period. We conclude that there is a significant decrease in the pulmonary blood volume and a subsequent decrease in the pulmonary artery pressure after a successful mitral valve replacement in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This is associated with a significant increase in the requirement of minute ventilation to maintain normocarbia.

  13. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

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    Morgan Karin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET, during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg. Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q was estimated with MIGET. Results During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-aO2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  14. Desensitization to dyspnea in COPD with specificity for exercise training mode

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    Christopher B Cooper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Christopher B CooperDavid Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exhibit improved exercise capacity after physical training due to reconditioning and improved ventilatory efficiency. Other possible effects are improved ventilatory muscle function and desensitization to dyspnea. We compared general physical training (GPT, consisting of walking and stair climbing exercises, with inspiratory muscle training (IMT, consisting of targeted breathing through inspiratory resistances, in two groups with severe COPD. Seven subjects; age 60 (8 years, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 0.84 (0.35 L, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 11.1 (0.8 kPa, arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 4.9 (0.3 kPa, had GPT and nine subjects; age 60 (9 years, FEV1 0.83 (0.31 L, PaO2 10.4 (0.8 kPa, PaCO2 4.4 (0.5 kPa had IMT. Each group trained daily for 30 minutes for eight weeks and 70% of the sessions were supervised. Six minute walking distance increased in both groups: 32 m (6.9% P < 0.05 with GPT and 23 m (4.8%; P < 0.05 with IMT but significant improvements in symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise performance were not detected. Breathlessness by visual analog scale was reduced following 6-minute walks after GPT (P < 0.05 but not after IMT. Following maximal incremental tests, breathlessness scores were unchanged for both groups. COPD patients performing regular physical exercise report reductions in breathlessness which are specific to the exercise training mode.Keywords: COPD, exercise, ventilatory muscles, dyspnea

  15. Observation on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilator of ICU in the treatment of COPD merged with type II respiratory failure

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    Xiu-Min Zhang; Hai-Yan Wu; Xiao-Juan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy of noninvasive ventilator of ICU in the treatment of COPD merged with type II respiratory failure. Methods:A total of 70 patients with COPD merged with type II respiratory failure were randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given anti-infection, cough relieving, phlegm dispersing, asthma relieving, cardiac function improving, electrolyte disturbance and acid-base balance correcting, and appropriate nursing interventions. The patients in the control group were given low-flow oxygen inhalation, while the patients in the observation group were given additional noninvasive ventilator for mask assisted ventilation through the mouth and nose. The changes of PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2, RR, and HR before treatment, and 3d after treatment were detected. The efficacy was evaluated, and the adverse reactions were observed. Results:After treatment, PaO2 and SaO2 in the two groups were elevated, while PaCO2 was reduced when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. After treatment, RR and HR were reduced, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. The total effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (57.1%). And the comparison of the adverse reactions between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions:ICU noninvasive ventilator in the treatment of COPD merged with type II respiratory failure can effectively improve hypoxia and CO2 retention, and rapidly relieve dyspnea, in combined with appropriate nursing intervention can guarantee the successful treatment.

  16. Clinical Efficacy of Reduning Injection Combined with Xuanbaichengqi Decoction in Treating Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease%热毒宁注射液联合宣白承气汤治疗老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期疗效评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超红; 郭文新; 张凤宇; 周海云

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨热毒宁注射液联合宣白承气汤治疗老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)的疗效及其对炎症指标的影响。方法选取老年AECOPD患者60例,随机分为观察组和对照组,各30例。对照组患者给予西医常规治疗,观察组患者在对照组基础上加用热毒宁注射液联合宣白承气汤,均治疗7 d。结果治疗后,观察组总有效率为90.00%,高于对照组的70.00%( P0.05),二氧化碳分压( PaCO2)则显著下降、动脉血氧分压( PaO2)显著上升( P 0. 05),but PaCO2 decreased significantly,PaO2 increased significantly( P < 0. 05),moreover tbe varied range in tbe observation group was more remarkable( P < 0. 05);tbe CRP and PCT levels in tbe two groups were significantly decreased,moreover tbe decrease in tbe observation group was more significant( P < 0. 05);no serious adverse reaction occurred during tbe treatment course in tbe two groups. Conclusion Reduning injection combined witb Xu-anbaicbengqi decoction in treating elderly patients witb AECOPD bas good clinical efficacy,can significantly improve symptoms,signs and blood gas analysis,reduce inflammatory response witb bigb safety,and is wortb of clinical promotion.

  17. Breathing machine experience in the treatment of 21 patients with bilateral flail chest complicated with severe pulmonary contusion using%双侧连枷胸合并严重肺挫伤21例的呼吸机治疗体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希涛; 孙筱笛; 韩立波; 丛巍; 杜江; 张林

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of mechanical ventilation in the treatment of traumatic flail chest complicated with pulmonary contusion and respiratory failure. Methods 21 patients with bilateral flail chest combined with severe pulmonary contusion and respiratory failure were treated with invasive mechanical ventilation, and then the blood gas and value of pH, PaO2 , PaCO2 , and HCO3 were compared before and after the treatment. Results The values of PH, PaO2 , PaCO2 , and HCO3 were all better improved after the treatment. Conclusion The mechanical ventilation is an effective method in the treatment of patients with flail chest complicated with severe pulmonary contusion and respiratory failure.%目的 探讨机械通气治疗创伤性连枷胸合并肺挫伤、呼吸衰竭的疗效.方法 对21例双侧创伤性连枷胸合并严重肺挫伤、呼吸衰竭未行手术内固定之患者行机械通气治疗后分析血气分析等各种参数的变化.结果 机械通气治疗后动脉血PH值、氧分压(PaO2) 、二氧化碳分压(PaCO2) 、碳酸根离子(HCO-3)、氧合指数(PaO2/FiO2)等均较前明显改善.结论 对于双侧创伤性连枷胸合并严重肺挫伤、呼吸衰竭的患者,机械通气内固定治疗行之有效.

  18. Effect of pentoxifylline on lung inflammation and gas exchange in a sepsis-induced acute lung injury model

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    I.S. Oliveira-Junior

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental models of sepsis-induced pulmonary alterations are important for the study of pathogenesis and for potential intervention therapies. The objective of the present study was to characterize lung dysfunction (low PaO2 and high PaCO2, and increased cellular infiltration, protein extravasation, and malondialdehyde (MDA production assessed in bronchoalveolar lavage in a sepsis model consisting of intraperitoneal (ip injection of Escherichia coli and the protective effects of pentoxifylline (PTX. Male Wistar rats (weighing between 270 and 350 g were injected ip with 10(7 or 10(9 CFU/100 g body weight or saline and samples were collected 2, 6, 12, and 24 h later (N = 5 each group. PaO2, PaCO2 and pH were measured in blood, and cellular influx, protein extravasation and MDA concentration were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage. In a second set of experiments either PTX or saline was administered 1 h prior to E. coli ip injection (N = 5 each group and the animals were observed for 6 h. Injection of 10(7 or 10(9 CFU/100 g body weight of E. coli induced acidosis, hypoxemia, and hypercapnia. An increased (P < 0.05 cell influx was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage, with a predominance of neutrophils. Total protein and MDA concentrations were also higher (P < 0.05 in the septic groups compared to control. A higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P < 0.05 concentration was also found in these animals. Changes in all parameters were more pronounced with the higher bacterial inoculum. PTX administered prior to sepsis reduced (P < 0.05 most functional alterations. These data show that an E. coli ip inoculum is a good model for the induction of lung dysfunction in sepsis, and suitable for studies of therapeutic interventions.

  19. Evaluation of the Analgesic and Clinical Effects Associated with the Subarachnoid Administration of Propofol in Sheep

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    Mousa Daradka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxic, analgesic and clinical effects associated with intrathecal administration of propofol in sheep. Five, healthy adult non-pregnant Awassi sheep were used in the study. Propofol (2.85 mg/kg; n = 4 or normal saline (control, n = 1 was administered into the subarachnoid space at the lumbosacral intervertebral junction. Animals were assessed clinically for toxic signs, analgesia, sedation and ataxia. The heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, arterial blood pH, HCO3-, PaO2 and PaCO2 were recorded before (time = 0 and then at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after injection of propofol. Tissues from the spinal cord and meninges were evaluated histologically for evidence of local toxic effects due to intrathecal injection of propofol. Following the administration of propofol, sheep showed signs of sedation and were ataxic within 15 min. The sheep developed sufficient surgical analgesia of the caudal abdominal wall, vagina, perinea, pelvic limbs and udder 15 to 30 min following injection of the drug and lasted for over 90 min. Sheep in the treatment group had significantly higher heart rates, PaCO2 and HCO3- values and decreased blood pH. Values of PaO2 increased significantly initially and then decreased while the respiratory rate and rectal temperatures decreased but not significantly. Histological examination of the meninges and spinal cord showed no significant changes. Results of this study showed that a single injection of propofol into the subarachnoid space can result in sufficient surgical analgesia of the caudal abdominal wall, vagina, perinea, pelvic limbs and udder with moderate sedative effect and acceptable clinical and acid-base alterations in sheep.

  20. Inhibition of breathing after surfactant depletion is achieved at a higher arterial PCO2 during ventilation with liquid than with gas

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    Sindelar Richard

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibition of phrenic nerve activity (PNA can be achieved when alveolar ventilation is adequate and when stretching of lung tissue stimulates mechanoreceptors to inhibit inspiratory activity. During mechanical ventilation under different lung conditions, inhibition of PNA can provide a physiological setting at which ventilatory parameters can be compared and related to arterial blood gases and pH. Objective To study lung mechanics and gas exchange at inhibition of PNA during controlled gas ventilation (GV and during partial liquid ventilation (PLV before and after lung lavage. Methods Nine anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated young cats (age 3.8 ± 0.5 months, weight 2.3 ± 0.1 kg (mean ± SD were studied with stepwise increases in peak inspiratory pressure (PIP until total inhibition of PNA was attained before lavage (with GV and after lavage (GV and PLV. Tidal volume (Vt, PIP, oesophageal pressure and arterial blood gases were measured at inhibition of PNA. One way repeated measures analysis of variance and Student Newman Keuls-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results During GV, inhibition of PNA occurred at lower PIP, transpulmonary pressure (Ptp and Vt before than after lung lavage. After lavage, inhibition of inspiratory activity was achieved at the same PIP, Ptp and Vt during GV and PLV, but occurred at a higher PaCO2 during PLV. After lavage compliance at inhibition was almost the same during GV and PLV and resistance was lower during GV than during PLV. Conclusion Inhibition of inspiratory activity occurs at a higher PaCO2 during PLV than during GV in cats with surfactant-depleted lungs. This could indicate that PLV induces better recruitment of mechanoreceptors than GV.

  1. Predictive Value of Capnography for Suspected Diabetic Ketoacidosis in the Emergency Department

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    Soleimanpour, Hassan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic acidosis confirmed by arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is one of the diagnostic criteria for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. Given the direct relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETco2, arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and metabolic acidosis, measuring ETco2 may serve as a surrogate for ABG in the assessment of possible DKA. The current study focuses on the predictive value of capnography in diagnosing DKA in patients referring to the emergency department (ED with increased blood sugar levels and probable diagnosis of DKA.Methods: In a cross-sectional prospective descriptive-analytic study carried out in an ED, we studied 181 patients older than 18 years old with blood sugar levels of higher than 250 mg/dl and probable DKA. ABG and capnography were obtained from all patients. To determine predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and cut-off points, we developed receiver operating characteristic curves.Results: Sixty-two of 181 patients suffered from DKA. We observed significant differences between both groups (DKA and non-DKA regarding age, pH, blood bicarbonate, PaCO2 and ETco2 values (P≤0.001. Finally, capnography values more than 24.5 mmHg could rule out the DKA diagnosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.90.Conclusion: Capnography values greater than 24.5 mmHg accurately allow the exclusion of DKA in ED patients suspected of that diagnosis. Capnography levels lower that 24.5 mmHg were unable to differentiate between DKA and other disease entities. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(6:590–594.

  2. Acute but not chronic metabolic acidosis potentiates the acetylcholine-induced reduction in blood pressure: an endothelium-dependent effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celotto, A C; Ferreira, L G; Capellini, V K; Albuquerque, A A S; Rodrigues, A J; Evora, P R B

    2016-02-01

    Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control.

  3. Influence of prone and supine positions on the index of blood gas analysis in premature children%仰俯卧位对早产儿血气指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贤巧; 陈青广; 兰允昌; 杨嘉; 杨仲央; 上官晓兰

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨仰俯卧位对吸氧与不吸氧早产儿动脉血氧分压(PaO2)、氧合指数(PaO2/FiO2)、动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)等血气指标的影响.方法 50例患儿,其中吸氧组29例,不吸氧组21例,分别测量仰、俯卧位时的PaO2、PaO2/FiO2、PaCO2等血气指标值,分析仰、俯卧位两组对血气指标的影响.结果 吸氧组俯卧位与仰卧位时PaO2,PaO2/FiO2,PaCO2的指标值均差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),不吸氧组俯卧位与仰卧位时PaO2,PaO2/FiO2,PaCO2的指标值均差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 俯卧位能改善需吸氧早产儿肺的通换气功能,而对无需吸氧组早产儿肺的通换气功能无明显影响.

  4. Sleep pattern in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and correlation among gasometric, spirometric, and polysomnographic variables

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    Santos Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are few studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD establishing differences between the functional parameters of the disease and sleep variables. The aim of the study was to describe the sleep pattern of these patients and to correlate spirometric, gasometric and polysomnographic variables. METHODS: Transversal study using COPD patients submitted to spirometry, arterial gasometry, and polysomnography. RESULTS: 21 male patients were studied with average age = 67 ± 9; 7 ± 4 average points in the Epworth sleepiness scale, average Tiffenau's index (FEV1/FVC = 54 ± 13.0%, average PaO2 = 68 ± 11 mmHg, average PaCO2 = 37 ± 6 mmHg. Sleep efficiency decreased (65 ± 16% with the reduction of slow wave sleep (8 ± 9% and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (15 ± 8%. Average T90 was 43 ± 41%. Average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI = 3 ± 5/h, where two patients (9.5% presented obstructive sleep apnea. A significant correlation was observed between PaO2 and T90 (p < 0.01, PaCO2 and T90 (p < 0.05, and AHI and the cardiac rate during REM (p < 0.01. A higher number of arousals and stage change was observed. There was no linear correlation between spirometric and polysomnographic variables. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality of these patients was characterized by low sleep efficiency, high number of awakenings and shift of stages. There were no correlations between the spirometric and polysomnographic variables.

  5. Effect of mechanical pressure-controlled ventilation in patients with disturbed respiratory function during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Šurbatović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard for laparoscopic surgical procedures. In ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases, however, creation of pneumoperitoneum and the position of patients during surgery exert additional negative effect on intraoperative respiratory function, thus making a higher challenge for the anesthesiologist than for the surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV and pressure controlled ventilation (PCV during general anesthesia on respiratory function in ASA III patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. The study included 60 patients randomized into two groups depending on the mode of ventilation: IPPV or PCV. Respiratory volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, compliance (C, end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2, oxygen saturation (SpO2, partial pressures of O2, CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2 and pH of arterial blood were recorded within four time intervals. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in VT, SpO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values neither within nor between the two groups. In time interval t1 there were no statistically significant differences in PIP, C, PETCO2 values between the IPPV and the PCV group. But, in the next three time intervals there was a difference in PIP, C, and PETCO2 values between the two groups which ranged from statistically significant to highly significant; PIP was lower, C and PETCO2 were higher in the PCV group. Conclusion. Pressure controlled ventilation better maintains stability regarding intraoperative ventilatory parameters in ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  6. Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Martin, Laura; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009. Eighteen rhinoceros received butorphanol in the dart combination, and 22 rhinoceros had butorphanol administered intravenously within 15 min of darting. Body position, blood gas values, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were measured at two time points after darting, approximately 10 min apart (sample 1 mean collection time after darting, 9.4 +/- 2.7 min; sample 2 mean collection time, 18.6 +/- 2.8 min). A significant number of field-captured rhinoceros remained standing at the first sample period when butorphanol was administered in the dart. Higher median values for arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in combination with lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in standing versus recumbent rhinoceros suggested improved ventilation in this posture (P < 0.05). When the effect of time, body position, and age was controlled, median values for respiratory rate, lactate, and pH were better in rhinoceros that received butorphanol in the dart (P < 0.05). There was also a trend toward higher median values for SO2 and bicarbonate in rhinoceros receiving butorphanol in the dart. Intravenous administration of butorphanol resulted in significantly decreased median PaCO2 and heart rate in recumbent rhinoceros (P < 0.05) without changes in PaO2 between sample periods 1 and 2. However, rhinoceros remained hypoxemic during the short anesthetic procedure despite butorphanol administration. Preliminary results suggest that administration of butorphanol (either in the dart or intravenously) improves some metabolic parameters in free-ranging recumbent white rhinoceros without significantly affecting ventilation. It is hypothesized that this may be due to a lighter state of immobilization. Addition of butorphanol to the dart provides handling and physiologic

  7. Effective gas exchange in paralyzed juvenile rabbits using simple, inexpensive respiratory support devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diblasi, Robert M; Zignego, Jay C; Smith, Charles V; Hansen, Thomas N; Richardson, C Peter

    2010-12-01

    We have developed two devices: a high-amplitude bubble continuous positive airway pressure (HAB-CPAP) and an inexpensive bubble intermittent mandatory ventilator (B-IMV) to test the hypotheses that simple, inexpensive devices can provide gas exchange similar to that of bubble CPAP (B-CPAP) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). Twelve paralyzed juvenile rabbits were intubated, stabilized on CMV, and then switched to CPAP. On identical mean airway pressures (MAPs), animals were unable to maintain pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2) >80% on conventional B-CPAP, but all animals oxygenated well (97.3 ± 2.1%) on HAB-CPAP. In fact, arterial partial pressures of O2 (Pao2) were higher during HAB-CPAP than during CMV (p = 0.01). After repeated lung lavages, arterial partial pressures of CO2 (Paco2) were lower with B-IMV than with CMV (p < 0.0001), despite identical ventilator settings. In lavaged animals, when HAB-CPAP was compared with CMV at the same MAP and 100% O2, no differences were observed in Pao2, but Paco2 levels were higher with HAB-CPAP (70 ± 7 versus 50 ± 5 mm Hg; p < 0.05). Arterial blood pressures were not impaired by HAB-CPAP or B-IMV. The results confirm that simple inexpensive devices can provide respiratory support in the face of severe lung disease and could extend the use of respiratory support for preterm infants into severely resource-limited settings.

  8. Positive End-expiratory Pressure Titration after Alveolar Recruitment Directed by Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Long; Da-Wei Liu; Huai-Wu He; Zhan-Qi Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background:Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a real-time bedside monitoring tool,which can reflect dynamic regional lung ventilation.The aim of the present study was to monitor regional gas distribution in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration using EIT.Methods:Eighteen ARDS patients under mechanical ventilation in Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January to April in 2014 were included in this prospective observational study.After recruitment maneuvers (RMs),decremental PEEP titration was performed from 20 cmH2O to 5 cmH2O in steps of 3 cmH2O every 5-10 min.Regional over-distension and recruitment were monitored with EIT.Results:After RMs,patient with arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) + carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) >400 mmHg with 100% of fractional inspired oxygen concentration were defined as RM responders.Thirteen ARDS patients was diagnosed as responders whose PaO2 + PaCO2 were higher than nonresponders (419 ± 44 mmHg vs.170 ± 73 mmHg,P < 0.0001).In responders,PEEP mainly increased recruited pixels in dependent regions and over-distended pixels in nondependent regions.PEEP alleviated global inhomogeneity of tidal volume and end-expiratory lung volume.PEEP levels without significant alveolar derecruitment and over-distension were identified individually.Conclusions:After RMs,PEEP titration significantly affected regional gas distribution in lung,which could be monitored with EIT.EIT has the potential to optimize PEEP titration.

  9. Poor compensatory hyperventilation in morbidly obese women at peak exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Murias, Juan M; Kim, Do Jun; Gow, Jennifer; Christou, Nicolas V

    2007-11-15

    This study was designed to compare differences in pulmonary gas exchange at rest and at peak exercise in two groups of women: (1) physically active, non-obese women and (2) women with morbid obesity. Fourteen morbidly obese women (body mass index or BMI=49+/-7 kg/m2; peak oxygen consumption or VO2 peak=14+/-2 ml/(kg min)) and 14 physically active non-obese women (BMI=22+/-2 kg/m2; VO2 peak=50+/-6 ml/(kg min)) performed an incremental, ramped exercise test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Arterial blood was sampled at rest and at peak exercise. At rest, the alveolar to arterial oxygen partial pressure difference was 3x higher in the obese women (14+/-10 mmHg) compared to non-obese women (5+/-4 mmHg). Arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) was identical in both groups at rest (37+/-4 mmHg). Only the non-obese women showed a decrease in PaCO2 rest to peak exercise (-5+/-3 mmHg). The slope between heart rate and VO2 during exercise was higher in the morbidly obese compared to non-obese women indicating that for the same absolute increase in VO2 a larger increase in heart rate is needed, demonstrating poorer cardiac efficiency in obese women. In conclusion, morbidly obese women have poorer exercise capacity, cardiac efficiency, and compensatory hyperventilation at peak exercise, and poorer gas exchange at rest compared to physically active, non-obese women.

  10. Predictors of requirement of mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with acute respiratory failure

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    S Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD leads to increased morbidity, mortality and requirement of invasive mechanical ventilation (MV. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of need of MV in these patients. Materials and Methods: Clinical symptomatology, demographic profile, biochemical parameters including renal functions, liver functions and acid base parameters, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II score at the time of admission were recorded in 100 patients of COPD exacerbation. Various parameters were compared between patients in whom MV was required with those managed with medical therapy. Results: MV was required in 73% of the patients. Parameters found to be independent predictors of need of MV were: Admission APACHE-II score ≥ 11.5 {adjusted odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI]: 1.42 [1.08-1.86]; P = 0.012}, first day pH ≤ 7.28 (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 1.09 [1.02-1.15]; P = 0.008, first day PaCO 2 ≥ 68.6 mmHg (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 1.09 [1.02-1.15]; P = 0.004 and worse premorbid functional status (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 17.01 [1.95-148.68]; P = 0.01. Conclusions: Underlying disease severity as assessed by premorbid functional status and APACHE-II score, and the acuity of respiratory system decompensation as assessed by the admitting arterial pH and PaCO 2 , are independent predictors of need of MV in patients with exacerbation of COPD.

  11. Feasibility of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with coma and forecasting study of curative effect%无创正压通气治疗慢阻肺昏迷患者的可行性及疗效预测研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation(NPPV)in pa-tients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease complicated with coma, and to investigate the forecasting study of clinical pulmonary infection score(CPIS)on curative effect. Methods The patients were divided into two groups randomly:the ventilation group(24 cases)and the control group(14 cases). Arterial gas analysis, heart rate(HR), and respiratory rate(RR)were observed before and after the treatment. The CPIS was calculated, and the changes of arterial blood gas analysis in the patients with different CPIS were observed. Results There was no signif-icant statistical difference in the above mentioned indexes before treatment. The value of pH, PaCO2 , HR and RR improved obviously after treatment in the ventilation group(P0. 05). Compared with the control group, PaCO2, HR and RR of the ventilation group were lower(P0.05).治疗1天及结束时通气组PaCO2、HR、RR低于对照组(P<0.05),PH高于对照组(P<0.01).CPIS<6通气组患者PaCO2及PH改善有非常显著性意义(P<0.01).结论 无创通气治疗慢阻肺昏迷患者具有一定的可行性,且CPIS评分对疗效有一定预测性.

  12. Noninvasive end-tidal carbon dioxide measurements in children with acute asthma%无创性呼气末二氧化碳监测在急性哮喘儿童中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶斯清; 吕回; 邓爱芬; 蔺增榕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of noninvasive detection of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2) in the management of children with acute asthma, and to evaluate the association between PetCO2 and artery blood gas carbon dioxide partial pressure ( PaCO2 ). Methods This was a prospective,double blinded study of children aged 5 ~ 14 years old treated for acute asthma in a pediatric emergency department. PetCO2 and PaCO2 measurements were taken before therapy and after each nebulization treatment ( maximum of three). Various clinical parametesr were recorded. Patients with PaCO2 and PetCO2 measurements within 8 minutes of each other were eligible for inclusion. Patients with cardiac disease,chronic pulmonary disease, poor tissue perfusion, or metabolic abnormalities were excluded. Results Sixty five children were enrolled. The initial PetCO2 value was (34. 8 ±8. 6) mm Hg (95% confidence interval =34. 0 to 36. 1). The PetCO2 value of post-treatment was (33.2 ±8.2) mm Hg (95% confidence interval =32. 5 to 34. 4) ,which was decreased significantly than that before treatment(P < 0. 01 ). Fifty seven PetCO2-PaCO2 paired values were available from 57 patients. The values of PetCO2 and PaCO2 were ( 34. 8 ±7. 6) mm Hg and (40. 6 ± 8. 3 ) mm Hg, respectively. PetCO2 and PaCO2 values were highly positively correlated ( r = 0. 92,P < 0. 000 1 ). Conclusion Noninvasive bedside measurement of PetCO2 in children with acute asthma in emergency department is feasible. Continuous PetCO2 monitoring can provide a reliable assessment of pulmonary status. PetCO2 can serve as an important adjunct index in the clinical management of pediatric patients with acute asthma.%目的 评价在急性哮喘患儿中监测呼气末二氧化碳分压(PetCO2)的临床意义,探讨PetCO2与动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)的相关性.方法 采用前瞻性、双盲的方法.我院儿科急诊收治的急性哮喘患儿65例,年龄5~14岁.在开始治疗前

  13. Effect of artificial hyperventilation on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism under controlled hypotention during intracranial aneurysm surgery%过度通气对控制性降压下颅内动脉瘤夹闭术中脑氧代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永哲; 高明龙; 潘宁玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect ot various degree of artificial byperventilation on cerebral oxygenation and metabolism under controlled hypotention during intracranial aneurysm surgery. Methods thirtysix patients (ASA Ⅰ - Ⅱ ) scheduled for intracranial aneurysm surgery were divided into there groups according to PaCO2: hypotention and PaCO2 (40 ± 2) mmHg (group A), hypotention and PaCO2 (35 ± 2) mmHg (group B)and hypotention and PaCO2 (30 ± 2) mmHg (group C). Arterial and jugular venous blood samples were taken before hypotention (T0), after hypotention for 15 min (T1), artificial ventilation for 15 min (T2), and at the end of hypotention and artificail ventilation (T3). The arterial oxygen content (CaO2), jugular venous oxgen conent (CjvO2), arterial and jugular bulb venous O2 content difference (Da-jvO2) and cerebral oxygen extraction rate (CERO2) were calculated. Results Compared with T0, MAP has significantly decreased at T1 and T2 (P <0.05) and there was no difference at T3 between groups (P>0.05). Compared with T0, CaO2 bas no difference at all points in group C (P > 0.05), CjvO2 decreased significantly at T2 in group C (P < 0.05), Da-jvO2 and CERO2 have increased significantly at T2 in group C (P < 0.05). Conclusion Keeping PaCO2 (30 ± 2)mmHg leads to disorder of cerebral oxygen metabolism and it is safe to keep PaCO2 (35 ± 2) mmHg during intracranial aneurysm surgery.%目的:研究过度通气对控制性降压下颅内动脉瘤夹闭术中脑氧代谢的影响.方法:择取颅内动脉瘤患者36例,ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级,随机分为正常通气组(A组,PaCO2 35 ~ 40 mmHg)、轻度通气组(B组,PaCO2 30 ~ 35 mmHg)和中度通气组(C组,PaCO2 25 ~ 30 mmHg).各组应用硝酸甘油控制性降压,降压幅度在基础值的20% ~ 25%,在降压达到目标值15 min后进行过度通气.各组于降压前(T0)、降压达到目标血压15 min后(T1)、过度通气使PaCO2达到各组预定值15 min后(T2)、MAP恢复且PaCO2

  14. Clincal observation of lung recruitment strategy in prevention of alveolar collapse after bronchoscopy%肺复张策略对防止纤支镜治疗后肺泡塌陷的作用观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢志斌; 叶燕青

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the efficacy of lung recruitment strategy in prevention of alveolar collapse in patients after fibrobronchoscopic treatment.Methods:Sixty patients with mechanical ventilation required bronchoscopic treatment were randomly divided into treatment group (lung recruitment group) and control group (conventional mechanical ventilation group).The arterial blood gas,parameters of anaerobic metabolism and hemodynamic index were compared between the two groups.Results:PaO2 was (114.25 ± 24.75) mmHg and PaCO2 was (32.56 ± 7.73) mmHg before treatment in treatment group,while PaO2 was (112.12 ± 20.41) mmHg and PaCO2 was (31.56 ± 6.63) mmHg 30 minutes after lung recruitment.There was no significant differences at the level of PaO2 and PaCO2 before and after lung recruitment (P>0.05).PaO2 was (116.11 ±26.53) mmHg and PaCO2 was (30.12 ±5.53) mmHg in control group before fibrobronchoscopy.After 30 minutes' general mechanical ventilation,PaO2 was (86.21 ± 16.23) mmHg and PaCO2 was (31.56 ±6.63) mmHg in control group.The level of PaO2 after conventional mechanical ventilation was lower than that before conventional mechanical ventilation(P < 0.01),but there was no significant differences at level of PaCO2 (P > 0.05).Conclusions:Through lung recruitment strategy we can reexpanse the collapsed alveolars,attenuate the harm of hypoxemia,and almost not influence hemodynamic.%目的:探讨肺复张策略对防止纤支镜治疗后肺泡塌陷的效果.方法:将机械通气需纤维支气管镜检查的60例患者随机分为治疗组及对照组,治疗组采用肺复张策略,对照组行常规机械通气.比较2组动脉血气和氧代谢、血流动力学指标.结果:治疗组纤维支气管镜检查前PaO2(114.25±24.75) mmHg,PaCO2 (32.56±7.73) mmHg,肺复张30 min后PaO2(112.12±20.41) mmHg,PaCO2(31.56±6.63) mmHg,PaO2及PaCO2肺复张前后无明显差异(均P >0.05);对照组纤维支气管镜检查前PaO2(116.11±26.53) mmHg,PaCO2

  15. 通气程度对颅脑损伤患者脑氧供需平衡的影响%Effect of hyperventilation on cerebral oxygen supply-demand balance in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程明华; 许映娜

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inadequate hyperventilation may trigger cerebrovascular contraction and lead to lowered cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply-demand imbalance.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of hyperventilation on oxygen saturation in the internal jugular vein, difference in oxygen and lactic acid contents between the cerebral arteries and veins in patients with serious traumatic brain injury.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Anesthesiology, First Hospital Affiliated to Shantou University.PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen patients who received emergency operations in the First Hospital Affiliated to Shantou University between January and July 2002.METHODS: Patients with traumatic brain injury underwent operation under general anesthesia, and the PaCO2 was maintained at 30 mm Hg for 15 minutes by regulating the respiration rate, followed by decrease to 25 mm Hg, maintained for 15 minutes before restoration to 30 mm Hg for 15 minutes. The fractional concentration of inspired oxygen was adjusted to maintain blood PaO2 at around 100-150 mm Hg, and the blood sample was collected from the artery and internal jugular vein 15 minutes after adjustment of PaCO2 for blood gas analysis. The PaO2 was then increased to 200-250 mm Hg by increasing the fractional concentration of inspired oxygen, and the PaCO2 was adjusted from 30 to 25 and then back to 30 mm Hg in the described manner, and the oxygen saturation in the internal jugular vein, difference in oxygen and lactic acid contents between the arteries and the veins were measured.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Influence of blood PaO2 and PaCO2 on oxygen saturation in the internal jugular vein, difference in oxygen and lactic acid contents between the arteries and the veins.RESULTS: Sixteen patients met the diagnostic criteria and completed data collection. The arterial PaCO2 decreased from 30 to 25 mm Hg when arterial blood oxygen pressure increased from 100-150 to 200-250 mm Hg, which leads to obvious decrease of oxygen saturation

  16. 阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征患者血气分析变化相关因素的探讨%Corrected Factors of BIood Gas AnaIysis in Patients with Obstructive SIeep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王碧瑛; 赵建铭; 黄杰凤; 林其昌

    2015-01-01

    correlation between blood gas analysis [pH ,partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 ) ,carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 )] and clinical ,polysomnographic ,and metabolic parameters were evaluated by the Pearson’s correlation test . The multivariate linear regression model was performed to examine determinants of blood gas analysis (pH ,PaO2 ,PaCO2 ) . ResuIts There were significant correlations between pH and AHI ,LaSO2 , MSaO2 ,Ts90% ,ODI ,DLCO/VA% . Pearson’s correlation also revealed a significant association be-tween PaO2 and BMI ,AHI ,LaSO2 ,MSaO2 ,Ts90% and ODI . Additionally ,PaCO2 also revealed a sig-nificant association between AHI ,AHTI ,LaSO2 ,MSaO2 ,Ts90% ,ODI and DLCO/VA% . When using blood gas analysis (pH ,PaO2 ,PaCO2 ) as a dependent variable ,age and LaSO2 significantly predicted pH after adjustment for confounders (β=0 .428 , P=0 .000 ;β=0 .289 , P=0 .002 ,respectively ) ,LaSO2 and BMI significantly predicted PaO2 (β= 0 .269 , P= 0 .007 ;β= -0 .261 , P= 0 .009) ,LaSO2 and DLCO/VA% significantly predicted PaCO2 (β= -0 .392 , P=0 .000 ;β=0 .213 , P=0 .025) . ConcIusion Acid-base balance and daytime hypoxemia are related to age and obesity ,respectively ,and pulmonary diffusion has certain influenceon hypercapnia . In addition ,nocturnal hypoxemia is an importantdisorder leading to the change in daytime blood gas analysis in patients with OSAHS .

  17. Lama glama con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis causadas por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium Lama glama with signology and lesion compatible with paratuberculosis and injuries caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Jorge

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Los camélidos sudamericanos (CS incluyen cuatro especies, guanaco, vicuña, alpaca y llama (Lama glama. En Argentina las llamas eran consideradas fauna y actualmente ganado, revalorizando su carne, fibra, cueros y pieles, también son un medio de subsistencia. Los CS son susceptibles a las enfermedades ocasionadas por micobacterias. El diagnóstico presuntivo se realiza por los signos clínicos y los hallazgos de necropsia y se confirma por técnicas bacteriológicas, moleculares e histopatología. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir un caso clínico con signos compatibles de paratuberculosis y el diagnóstico de laboratorio en una llama en cautiverio perteneciente a un zoológico de Olavarría, Provincia de Buenos Aires. En la necropsia se observaron lesiones granulomatosas en yeyuno, íleon y linfonodos mesentéricos compatibles con paratuberculosis, en los frotis directos y en la histopatología se observaron bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en cluster. Se confirmó la presencia de Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium por bacteriología y por PCR fue detectada la IS1245 característica de este agente, no detectando la IS900 correspondiente a Mycobacterium avium subespecie paratuberculosis. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico, combinando técnicas, de un caso de enteritis granulomatosa en llamas causado por Mycobacterium avium subespecie avium con signología y lesiones compatibles con paratuberculosis.Guanaco, vicuña, alpaca and llama (Lama glama are also known as Sudamerican camelids (SC. In Argentina llama was considered non profitable wildlife specie but now it is considered a mean for surviving because their meat, wool, leather and skin is valuable. SC are susceptible hosts of mycobacterial infections. A presumptive diagnosis is based on clinical and necropsy findings and is confirmed with bacterial isolation, molecular identification and histopathology. The objective of this publication is to describe a clinical

  18. MicroRNA-27a-3p Inhibits Melanogenesis in Mouse Skin Melanocytes by Targeting Wnt3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Pengchao; Meng, Jinzhu; Ji, Yuankai; Xu, Dongmei; Chen, Tianzhi; Fan, Ruiwen; Yu, Xiuju; Yao, Jianbo; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-05-14

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of almost all the biological processes, including melanogenesis. MiR-27a-3p is nearly six times higher in white alpaca skin compared to brown skin, which indicates that miR-27a-3p may be a candidate regulator for melanogenesis. Wnt3a plays an important role in promoting melanoblasts to differentiate into melanocytes and melanogenesis. To confirm the function of miR-27a-3p to melanogenesis in mammals, miR-27a-3p mimic, inhibitor and their negative control were transfected into mouse melanocytes. As a result, miR-27a-3p inhibits melanogenesis by repressing Wnt3a at post-transcriptional level. A significant decrease in Wnt3a luciferase activity was observed in 293T cells co-transfected with the matched luciferase reporter vector and pre-miR-27a. Furthermore, the presence of exogenous miR-27a-3p significantly decreased Wnt3a protein expression rather than mRNA and reduced β-catenin mRNA levels in melanocytes. The over-expression of miR-27a-3p significantly increased the melanin content of melanocytes. However, miR-27a-3p inhibitor performs an opposite effect on melanogenesis. Wnt3a is one target of miR-27a-3p. MiR-27a-3p could inhibit Wnt3a protein amount by post-transcriptional regulation and melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. Previous studies reported that Wnt3a promoted melanogenensis in mouse melanocytes. Thus, miR-27-3p inhibits melanogenesis by repressing Wnt3a protein expression.

  19. Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg outbreak in a veterinary medical teaching hospital with evidence of nosocomial and on-farm transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kevin J; Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Mitchell, Katharyn J; Hoelzer, Karin; Wiedmann, Martin; McDonough, Patrick L; Altier, Craig; Warnick, Lorin D; Perkins, Gillian A

    2014-07-01

    Nosocomial salmonellosis continues to pose an important threat to veterinary medical teaching hospitals. The objectives of this study were to describe an outbreak of salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Oranienburg within our hospital and to highlight its unique features, which can be used to help mitigate or prevent nosocomial outbreaks in the future. We retrospectively analyzed data from patients that were fecal culture-positive for Salmonella Oranienburg between January 1, 2006, and June 1, 2011, including historical, clinical, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) data. Salmonella Oranienburg was identified in 20 horses, five alpacas, and three cows during this time frame, with dates of admission spanning the period from August, 2006, through January, 2008. We consider most of these patients to have become infected through either nosocomial or on-farm transmission, as evidenced by molecular subtyping results and supportive epidemiologic data. Interpretation of PFGE results in this outbreak was challenging because of the identification of several closely related Salmonella Oranienburg subtypes. Furthermore, a high percentage of cases were fecal culture-positive for Salmonella Oranienburg within 24 h of admission. These patients initially appeared to represent new introductions of Salmonella into the hospital, but closer inspection of their medical records revealed epidemiologic links to the hospital following the index case. Cessation of this outbreak was observed following efforts to further heighten biosecurity efforts, with no known cases or positive environmental samples after January, 2008. This study demonstrates that a Salmonella-positive culture result within 24 h of admission does not exclude the hospital as the source of infection, and it underscores the important role played by veterinary medical teaching hospitals as nodes of Salmonella infection that can promote transmission outside of the hospital setting.

  20. The adaptive evolution of the mammalian mitochondrial genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Stephen J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures. Results Wide variation in the properties of amino acids were observed at functionally important regions of cytochrome b in species with more-specialized metabolic requirements (such as adaptation to low energy diet or large body size, such as in elephant, dugong, sloth, and pangolin, and adaptation to unusual oxygen requirements, for example diving in cetaceans, flying in bats, and living at high altitudes in alpacas. Signatures of adaptive variation in the NADH dehydrogenase complex were restricted to the loop regions of the transmembrane units which likely function as protons pumps. Evidence of adaptive variation in the cytochrome c oxidase complex was observed mostly at the interface between the mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits, perhaps evidence of co-evolution. The ATP8 subunit, which has an important role in the assembly of F0, exhibited the highest signal of adaptive variation. ATP6, which has an essential role in rotor performance, showed a high adaptive variation in predicted loop areas. Conclusion Our study provides insight into the adaptive evolution of the mtDNA genome in mammals and its implications for the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. We present a framework for future experimental characterization of the impact of specific mutations in the function, physiology, and interactions of the mtDNA encoded proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation.

  1. A heterodimer of a VHH (variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only) antibody that inhibits anthrax toxin cell binding linked to a VHH antibody that blocks oligomer formation is highly protective in an anthrax spore challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Leysath, Clinton E; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Vrentas, Catherine; Crown, Devorah; Leppla, Stephen H; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2015-03-06

    Anthrax disease is caused by a toxin consisting of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Antibodies against PA have been shown to be protective against the disease. Variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs) with affinity for PA were obtained from immunized alpacas and screened for anthrax neutralizing activity in macrophage toxicity assays. Two classes of neutralizing VHHs were identified recognizing distinct, non-overlapping epitopes. One class recognizes domain 4 of PA at a well characterized neutralizing site through which PA binds to its cellular receptor. A second neutralizing VHH (JKH-C7) recognizes a novel epitope. This antibody inhibits conversion of the PA oligomer from "pre-pore" to its SDS and heat-resistant "pore" conformation while not preventing cleavage of full-length 83-kDa PA (PA83) by cell surface proteases to its oligomer-competent 63-kDa form (PA63). The antibody prevents endocytosis of the cell surface-generated PA63 subunit but not preformed PA63 oligomers formed in solution. JKH-C7 and the receptor-blocking VHH class (JIK-B8) were expressed as a heterodimeric VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA). This VNA displayed improved neutralizing potency in cell assays and protected mice from anthrax toxin challenge with much better efficacy than the separate component VHHs. The VNA protected virtually all mice when separately administered at a 1:1 ratio to toxin and protected mice against Bacillus anthracis spore infection. Thus, our studies show the potential of VNAs as anthrax therapeutics. Due to their simple and stable nature, VNAs should be amenable to genetic delivery or administration via respiratory routes.

  2. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  3. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Lau, Candy C Y; Wong, Emily Y M; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K L; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C Y; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-05-07

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5'-UCUAAAC-3' as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Y. Woo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23 from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3% and 59 (100% of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001. Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV, respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1.

  5. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

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    Katheryne Guerrero-Olmos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods: Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%, followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion: Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors.

  6. Identification of Lama glama as Reservoirs for Acinetobacter lwoffii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Martín M.; Díaz, Ailén M.; Barberis, Claudia; Vay, Carlos; Manghi, Marcela A.; Leoni, Juliana; Castro, Marisa S.; Ferrari, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    South American Camelids have an increasing relevance in local economies, worldwide. These animals are bred for their meat, fur and as companion and therapy animals. Thus, their sanitary status should be well-established. According to the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health), respiratory infections mainly produced by Pasteurella spp. have been reported for camelids. It has been stated that this microorganism causes a mild disease, although many authors report it is an important cause of mortality among alpacas. Nevertheless, the incidence of infection by Pasteurella spp. in camelids still needs to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to analyze the occurrence of nasopharyngeal colonization of Lama glama by respiratory bacteria, and to assess the usefulness of serological tests for clinical diagnosis. The colonization was studied by culture techniques carried out with material taken by nasopharyngeal swabs. Bacterial isolates were first phenotypically characterized and then identified by MALDI/TOF-MS. The presence of specific serum antibodies was studied by ELISA and Western blot. In the present work Pasteurella spp. was not found. Nevertheless, we report for the first time, the colonization of L. glama by bacteria of the Acinetobacter lwoffii, at a reliable level in 19.4% of the animals. Acinetobacter species are found in different environmental sources, as well as vegetables, animals, and humans, and their role in infections has recently gained relevance. The results presented herein contribute to a better understanding of the respiratory microbiota in camelids, and increase the knowledge about environmental distribution of Acinetobacter non-baumanii species. Given that these respiratory bacteria might be the cause of infection among cattle, and even humans, this report highlights the need for further research. PMID:28303121

  7. Alterations in amino acid status in cats with feline dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, Herb W.; Knottenbelt, Clare; Cave, Tom A.; MacDonald, Susan J.; Stratton, Joanna; Leon, Irene; Turner, Judith A.; Pirie, R. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Feline dysautonomia (FD) is a multiple system neuropathy of unknown aetiology. An apparently identical disease occurs in horses (equine grass sickness, EGS), dogs, rabbits, hares, sheep, alpacas and llamas. Horses with acute EGS have a marked reduction in plasma concentrations of the sulphur amino acids (SAA) cyst(e)ine and methionine, which may reflect exposure to a neurotoxic xenobiotic. The aim of this study was to determine whether FD cats have alterations in amino acid profiles similar to those of EGS horses. Amino acids were quantified in plasma/serum from 14 FD cats, 5 healthy in-contact cats which shared housing and diet with the FD cats, and 6 healthy control cats which were housed separately from FD cats and which received a different diet. The adequacy of amino acids in the cats’ diet was assessed by determining the amino acid content of tinned and dry pelleted foods collected immediately after occurrences of FD. Compared with controls, FD cats had increased concentrations of many essential amino acids, with the exception of methionine which was significantly reduced, and reductions in most non-essential amino acids. In-contact cats also had inadequate methionine status. Artefactual loss of cysteine during analysis precluded assessment of the cyst(e)ine status. Food analysis indicated that the low methionine status was unlikely to be attributable to dietary inadequacy of methionine or cystine. Multi-mycotoxin screening identified low concentrations of several mycotoxins in dry food from all 3 premises. While this indicates fungal contamination of the food, none of these mycotoxins appears to induce the specific clinico-pathologic features which characterise FD and equivalent multiple system neuropathies in other species. Instead, we hypothesise that ingestion of another, as yet unidentified, dietary neurotoxic mycotoxin or xenobiotic, may cause both the characteristic disease pathology and the plasma SAA depletion. PMID:28333983

  8. Surra Sero K-SeT, a new immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Hadush; Rogé, Stijn; Simon, Thomas; Baelmans, Rudy; Gebrehiwot, Tadesse; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, infects different domestic and wild animals and has a wide geographical distribution. It is mechanically transmitted mainly by haematophagous flies. Parasitological techniques are commonly used for the diagnosis of surra but have limited sensitivity. Therefore, serodiagnosis based on the detection of T. evansi specific antibodies is recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Recently, we developed a new antibody detection test for the serodiagnosis of T. evansi infection, the Surra Sero K-SeT. Surra Sero K-SeT is an immunochromatographic test (ICT) that makes use of recombinant variant surface glycoprotein rVSG RoTat 1.2, produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In this study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Surra Sero K-SeT and the Card Agglutination Test for T. evansi Trypanosomososis (CATT/T. evansi) with immune trypanolysis (TL) as reference test on a total of 806 sera from camels, water buffaloes, horses, bovines, sheep, dogs and alpacas. Test agreement was highest between Surra Sero K-SeT and TL (κ=0.91, 95% CI 0.841-0.979) and somewhat lower between CATT/T. evansi and TL (κ=0.85, 95% CI 0.785-0.922) and Surra Sero K-SeT and CATT/T. evansi (κ=0.81, 95% CI 0.742-0.878). The Surra Sero K-SeT displayed a somewhat lower overall specificity than CATT/T. evansi (94.8% versus 98.3%, χ(2)=13.37, p<0.001) but a considerably higher sensitivity (98.1% versus 84.4%, χ(2)=33.39, p<0.001). We conclude that the Surra Sero K-SeT may become an alternative for the CATT/T. evansi for sensitive detection of antibodies against T. evansi in domestic animals.

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  10. Effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for treatment of respiratory failure in neonates%高频振荡通气治疗新生儿呼吸衰竭疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱其周; 肖毅; 刘仁红; 杨梦雅; 史学凯; 吴时光

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨高频振荡通气(HFOV)治疗新生儿呼吸衰竭的疗效及安全性.方法 分析HFOV和常频机械通气(CMV)对45例呼吸衰竭新生儿的治疗效果,对比分析两种通气方式对患儿的肺通气氧合功能及并发症的差异.结果 两组患儿二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、吸入氧浓度(FiO2)、氧合指数(OI)、动脉/肺泡氧分压比值(PaO2/PAO2)在机械通气0h比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);HFOV组治疗后1、6、12、24、48 h PaCO2、FiO2、OI低于CMV组,PaO2/PAO2高于CMV组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01);HFOV组气胸、慢性肺部疾病的发生率低于CMV组(P<0.05),两组颅内出血的发生率差异无统计学意义(P >0.05).结论 HFOV治疗新生儿呼吸衰竭安全、有效,并能更好、更快地改善呼吸衰竭患儿的肺通气氧合功能.%Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for treatment of respiratory failure in neonates.Methods The clinical effect for the treatment of respiratory failure was retrospectively evaluated in 22 neonates with HFOV and 23 neonates with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV)by comparing the oxygenate function and complications.Results There were no statistical differences before treatment in the PaCO2,FiO2,OI,and PaO2/PAO2between two groups (P >0.05).PaCO2,FiO2,and OI were lower and PaO2/PAO2 was higher at 1,6,12,24,and 48 h after treatment in HFOV group compared to those in CMV group (P <0.05).The incidence of pneumothorax and chronic lung disease was lower in HFOV group compared to that in CMV group (P < 0.05).There were no statistical differences in the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage between two groups (P > 0.05).Conclusions HFOV may be relatively safe and effective for the treatment of respiratory failure in neonates.

  11. Effects of blood storage on ice in biochemical and arterial blood gas analysis of rats Efeitos da estocagem sanguínea em gelo na bioquímica e gasometria arterial de ratos

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    Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of blood storage in biochemical and arterial blood gas analysis of Wistar rats. METHODS: Ten adult male rats with weights between 300-350 g were used. The catheterization of the internal carotid artery were performed, followed by withdrawal of 3 ml of blood using 3 separate syringes each containing 1 ml. The syringes were fulfilled one after another and numerated according to the order of collection. Then, the following groups were devised: GT1 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 20 minutes and the second exam 65 minutes after the collection; GT2 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 35 minutes and the second exam 80 minutes after the collection; GT3 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 50 minutes and the second exam 95 minutes after the collection. The samples were stored in a container with a temperature between 0 Cº and 4 Cº. Upon analysis the values of pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3-, SatO2, SBE, Na+ and K+ concentrations and glucose were compared. RESULTS: No statistically relevant difference (pOBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito da estocagem sanguínea na bioquímica e na gasometria do sangue arterial de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 10 ratos adultos, machos, com peso compreendido entre 300 a 350 gramas. Cada animal foi submetido à cateterização da artéria carótida seguida de heparinização prévia do animal. Foram colhidos 3 ml de sangue total do rato, separados em três seringas contendo 1 ml cada. As seringas foram preenchidas uma após a outra e enumeradas respectivamente à ordem de coleta. De acordo com esta numeração as amostras foram distribuídas nos seguintes grupos: GT1 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 20 minutos e a segunda análise 65 minutos após a coleta; GT2 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 35 minutos e segunda análise 80 minutos após a coleta; GT3 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 50 minutos e 95 minutos após a coleta. As amostras foram

  12. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病伴意识障碍病情程度与患者动脉血气参数关系的临床研究%Clinical study of relationship between severity and arterial blood gas parameters in patients with COPD mer-ging conscious disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪原城; 黄种杰; 黄鑫成; 范洪涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between severity and arterial blood gas parameters in patients with COPD merging conscious disturbance. Methods According to various degree of conscious disturbance, 90 patients with COPD were divided into the awake group, the somnolent group and the stuporous group. Another 30 healthy people were taken as the control group. The indexes of arterial blood gas and electrolyte in COPD patients and the control group were determined. Results Compared with the control group, the value of pH, PaO2 , SaO2 and ox-ygenation index decreased significantly in COPD patients ( P<0. 05 ) , while the levels of PaCO2 and HCO3 - in-creased significantly (P<0. 05). At the same time, there was a low level of Na+, CL- and K+ in COPD patients (P<0. 05). As anemia worsened, the levels of PaCO2 and HCO3 - were incremental, but the value of pH, PaO2, SaO2 and oxygenation index were diminishing in the awake group, the somnolent group and the stuporous group ( P<0. 05). And the levels of Na+, CL- and K+ decreased gradually (P<0. 05). Conclusion The change of arterial blood gas parameter can reflect the degree of conscious disturbance in COPD patients. With the development of arteri-al blood gas acid-base balance disorders increases, the degree of disturbance of consciousness deepens.%目的:探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病(简称慢阻肺)伴意识障碍患者的病情程度与动脉血气参数之间的关系。方法90例慢阻肺患者根据意识障碍程度分为清醒组、嗜睡组和昏迷组,对照组为30例健康体检者。分别测定各组患者及对照组的动脉血气指标及电解质。结果与对照组相比,慢阻肺患者pH值、动脉氧分压( PaO2)、血氧饱和度( SaO2)及氧合指数显著下降( P <0.05),二氧化碳分压( PaCO2)、碳酸氢盐(HCO3-)则显著升高(P<0.05),且出现Na+、CL-、K+降低(P<0.05);随着意识障碍程度加重,清醒组、嗜睡组和昏迷组PaCO2、HCO-递增,pH值、PaO2

  13. Clinical observation of mechanical ventilation combined with aerosol inhalation in the treatment of pediatric severe pneumonia%机械通气联合雾化治疗小儿重症肺炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张欢; 王凯萍; 曾雪飞; 邹伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of combivent and pulmicort respules for severe pneumonia children under invasive mechanical ventilation.Methods A total of 77 children with severe pneumonia were randomly divided into control group (38 cases) and experimental group (39 cases). The control group received treatment as anti-infection, mechanical ventilation, and sedation. The experimental group received additional combivent and pulmicort respules aerosol inhalation. Ventilator use time, laryngeal edema duration, partial pressure of blood oxygen (PaO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) after treatment were compared between the two groups.Results The experimental group had shorter ventilator use time [(102.7±43.0) h VS (124.1±49.7) h], shorter laryngeal edema duration [(31.5±11.7) h VS (37.5±13.0) h], higher PaO2 level after treatment [(86.2±11.1) mm Hg VS (78.6±10.4) mm Hg] (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa), and lower PaCO2 level [(38.5±12.5) mm Hg VS (46.8±13.1) mm Hg] than the control group, and their differences all had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion Mechanical ventilation combined with combivent and pulmicort respules can effectively improve pediatric severe pneumonia symptoms and reduce adverse reactions of mechanical ventilation. This method is worthy of clinical promotion and application.%目的:评价可必特、普米克令舒在使用有创机械通气的重症肺炎患儿中的作用。方法77例重症肺炎患儿随机分成对照组(38例)和实验组(39例)。对照组给予抗感染、机械通气、镇静等治疗,实验组在对照组治疗的基础上给予可必特、普米克令舒雾化治疗。比较两组呼吸机使用时间、喉头水肿持续时间、治疗后血氧分压(PaO2)、二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)。结果实验组呼吸机使用时间短于对照组[(102.7±43.0)h VS (124.1±49.7)h],喉头水肿持续时间少于对照组[(31.5±11.7)h VS(37.5±13.0)h],治疗后PaO2较对照组升高[(86.2±11.1)mm Hg VS

  14. 高压力无创通气治疗稳定期慢性阻塞性肺疾病的疗效观察%Observation of the efficacy of High-intensity non-invasive ventilation in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with type H respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琴; 杨力; 郭光云

    2012-01-01

    Objective TO explore efficacy of the high-intensity noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patinets with type II respiratory failure. Methods The patients between January 2007 and December 2003 ever hospitalized in our department, 29 stable COPD patients with type II respiratory failure were divided into two groups. FEV[ ,FVC, PaO2 , PaCO2 changes were assessed between high-intensity non-invasive ventilation group( 16 cases) and low-intensity non-invasive ventilation group (13 cases) before and after the treatment of home non-invasive ventilation. Results Before the treatment of non - invasive ventilation in the two groups, FEVj , FVC, PaO2 , PaCO2 difference was not statistically significant (P > 0. 05 ). Affter treatment, the difference of these four indicators of high-intensity ventilation group and PaCO2 of low-intensity ventilation group was statistically significant compared with before treatment (P < 0. 05 ) , other wise, there were significant differences between two groups ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion To stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patinets with type II respiratory failure, high-intensity non-invasive ventilation can better improve the lung function and carbon dioxide retention, increase blood oxygen pressure more efficiently.%目的 探讨高压力无创正压通气治疗稳定期慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并Ⅱ型呼衰的疗效.方法 2007年1月~2010年12月在我科住院的29例稳定期COPD合并Ⅱ型呼衰的患者,高压力无创通气组(16例)及低压力无创通气组(13例)进行家庭无创通气,比较两组患者治疗前后FEV1、FVC、PaO2、PaCO2的变化.结果 治疗前,FEV1、FVC、PaO2、PaCO2差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后,高压力通气组上述4指标及低压力通气组PaCO2与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 高压力无创通气能更好地改善稳定期COPD合并Ⅱ型呼衰患者的肺功能,提高PaO2,改善二氧化碳潴留.

  15. Effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者运动高峰时肺内气体交换对运动能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩彦; 徐秋芬; 肖瑶

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of gas exchange at maximal intensity on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).Methods Forty-two male patients with COPD and 26 normal subjects performed incremental exercise test on cycle ergometer.Oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were measured continuously on the breath-by-breath mode.Arterial blood samples were drawn at maximal exercise.PaO2,PaCO2,the actual dead space/tidal volume ratios(VD/VT)and the alveolar-artefiM PaO2 difference [P(A-a)O2] were measured and calculated.Comparisons between the two groups were performed using independent samples t test.Linear regression analyses were made between P(A-a)O2,VD/VT and PaCO2 were greater in patients [(43±3)mm Hg,1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa,0.35±0.11,(33±11) mm Hg]than in normal subjects at peak exercise [(40±5) mm Hg,0.27±0.08,0.01).Conclusion The increase in VD/VT inducing ventilatory inefficiency during exercise is one of the important causes for decreased exercise capacity in patients with COPD.%目的 探讨COPD患者在运动高峰时肺内气体交换对最大运动能力的影响.方法 对42例男性稳定期COPD患者及26例健康男性进行功率递增至症状自限的踏车运动,同步实时测定摄氧量和二氧化碳产生量,在运动高峰时抽取桡动脉血,测定并计算PaO2、PaCO2、死腔容积与潮气容积比值(VD/VT)和P(A-a)O2.分别对两组资料进行正态性检验,符合正态分布的资料以x-±s表示,两组间比较采用独立样本t检验,最大摄氧量与运动高峰时的血气参数进行相关因素分析.结果 COPD组的最大摄氧量[(16±4)ml·kg-1·min-1]明显低于对照组[(19±6)ml·kg-1·min-1];PaCO2[(43±3)mm Hg,1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa]、VD/VT(0.35±0.11)和P(A-a)O2[(33±11)mm Hg]均明显高于对照组[(40±5)mm Hg、0.27±0.08和(15±7)mm Hg];最大摄氧量与VD/VT呈显著负相关(r=-0.734,P<0.01).结论 VD/VT增加导致通气效率降低,这是引起COPD患者运动

  16. Toracotomia em eqüinos sob anestesia com ventilação mecânica controlada Equine thoracotomy under anesthesia with controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV

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    Raquel Yvonne Arantes Baccarin

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos procedimentos cirúrgicos e diagnósticos podem ser realizados através da cirurgia torácica em eqüinos. Para tanto faz-se necessária a utilização da ventilação controlada mecânica (VCM e a compreensão dos efeitos respiratórios deste tipo de ventilação durante a toracotomia. Foram utilizados seis eqüinos hígidos, sob anestesia com ventilação controlada, para a realização de acesso cirúrgico ao hemitórax direito com o objetivo de se avaliar, através da mensuração dos parâmetros fisiológicos, ventigrafia, pH e gases sangüíneos, a eficácia da ventilação controlada em otimizar a ventilação e a oxigenação e em prevenir a atelectasia pulmonar durante manipulações intratorácicas. Verificou-se diminuição dos valores da PaCO2 e aumento dos valores de pH durante a ventilação controlada, mesmo com o pneumotórax instalado. A pressão interpleural também apresentou aumento de seus valores durante a VCM. Concluiu-se que o uso da VCM, durante a prática da toracotomia, permite a padronização da freqüência respiratória com melhora da ventilação, e subseqüente normalização das alterações da pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono e pH, bem como mantém visualmente adequada a expansão pulmonar. A VCM promove aumento da pressão interpleural, enquanto o tórax permanece fechado.Several surgical and diagnostic procedures can be performed on thoracic surgery in the equine. To carry out these procedures controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV is necessary, as well as full understanding of the possible side effects of this type of ventilation. Six healthy equine were used under anesthesia wiith CMV to do right hemithorax approach. The goals were to evaluate efficiency of CMV in the improvement of ventilation and oxigenation as well as in the prevention of pulmonar atelectasis during intrathoracic manipulation. For such evaluation of physiologic parameters measurement, ventigraphy and blood gas analysis

  17. The effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation in hypercapnic COPD patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

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    De Backer L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available L De Backer¹, W Vos², B Dieriks¹, D Daems¹, S Verhulst¹, S Vinchurkar², K Ides¹, J De Backer², P Germonpre¹, W De Backer¹1Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2FluidDa, Antwerp, BelgiumIntroduction: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is a well-established treatment for acute-on-chronic respiratory failure in hypercapnic COPD patients. Less is known about the effects of a long-term treatment with NIV in hypercapnic COPD patients and about the factors that may predict response in terms of improved oxygenation and lowered CO2 retention.Methods: In this study, we randomized 15 patients to a routine pharmacological treatment (n = 5, age 66 [standard deviation ± 6] years, FEV1 30.5 [±5.1] %pred, PaO2 65 [±6] mmHg, PaCO2 52.4 [±6.0] mmHg or to a routine treatment and NIV (using the Synchrony BiPAP device [Respironics, Inc, Murrsville, PA] (n = 10, age 65 [±7] years, FEV1 29.5 [±9.0] %pred, PaO2 59 [±13] mmHg, PaCO2 55.4 [±7.7] mmHg for 6 months. We looked at arterial blood gasses, lung function parameters and performed a low-dose computed tomography of the thorax, which was later used for segmentation (providing lobe and airway volumes, iVlobe and iVaw and post-processing with computer methods (providing airway resistance, iRaw giving overall a functional image of the separate airways and lobes.Results: In both groups there was a nonsignificant change in FEV1 (NIV group 29.5 [9.0] to 38.5 [14.6] %pred, control group 30.5 [5.1] to 36.8 [8.7] mmHg. PaCO2 dropped significantly only in the NIV group (NIV: 55.4 [7.7] → 44.5 [4.70], P = 0.0076; control: 52.4 [6.0] → 47.6 [8.2], NS. Patients actively treated with NIV developed a more inhomogeneous redistribution of mass flow than control patients. Subsequent analysis indicated that in NIV-treated patients that improve their blood gases, mass flow was also redistributed towards areas with higher vessel density and less emphysema, indicating that flow was

  18. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios da buprenorfina em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano Cardiorespiratory effects of buprenorphine in dogs anesthetized with desflurane

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    Almir Pereira de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar os efeitos da buprenorfina sobre variáveis cardiovasculares e respiratórias em cães durante anestesia com desfluorano. Para tanto, foram utilizados 20 cães adultos, distribuídos em dois grupos (GB e GC. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol (8mg kg-1 IV e em seguida os animais foram intubados com sonda de Magill, a qual foi conectada ao aparelho de anestesia para administração de desfluorano (1,5 CAM. Após 30 minutos, foi aplicado no GB buprenorfina (0,02mg kg-1 e no GC solução de NaCl à 0,9% (0,05ml kg-1. Avaliaram-se: freqüências cardíaca e respiratória (FC e ¦; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM; débito cardíaco (DC; pressão venosa central (PVC; e as variáveis hemogasométricas pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3, SatO2 e DB. As colheitas dos dados foram feitas aos 30 minutos após o início da administração do desfluorano (MO, 15 minutos após a administração do opióide ou placebo (M15, e a cada 15 minutos após Ml5 (M30, M45, M60 e M75. A avaliação estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de Análise de Perfil (P¦ e o pH tiveram reduções no GB, enquanto a PaCO2 esteve aumentada. Concluiu-se que a inclusão da buprenorfina durante anestesia inalatória pelo desfluorano determina discretas alterações cardiovasculares, bem-como potencializa a hipoventilação promovida pelo desfluorano, com a manifestação de hipercapnia, o que não contra-indica o seu uso em pacientes estáveis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of buprenorphine on cardiovascular and respiratory variables in dogs anesthetized with desflurane. Twenty adult healthy male and female mongrel dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of ten animals each (GB and GC. The anesthetic induction was done using propofol (8mg kg-1, IV, and immediately, the dogs were intubated and submited to desflurane anesthesia administrated at 1.5 MAC. After 30 minutes of induction, animals

  19. High frequency oscillation ventilation for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome%早期应用高频振荡通气治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁诗光; 邱燕玲; 王冬妹; 刘晓燕; 胡贵珍

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨早期高频振荡通气(HFOV)在新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征治疗中的应用价值及安全性.方法 采用完全随机设计方法,将50例呼吸窘迫综合征早产儿分为观察组与对照组.观察组27例采用HFOV治疗,对照组23例采用常频机械通气并经气管导管单体位(仰卧位)一次性快速滴注猪肺磷脂注射液200 ms/kg.观察2组治疗前后动脉血氧分压、二氧化碳分压、肺泡-动脉氧分压差(A-aDO2)、氧合指数的改变并比较2组间的差异.结果 观察组患儿经HFOV治疗1 h后氧分压明显上升为(71.2±13.6)mm Hg(P<0.05),二氧化碳分压显著下降为(50.9±8.9)mm Hg(P<0.01),氧合指数迅速下降为5.9±2.6(P< 0.05),A-aDO2上升为(0.44±0.12)mm Hg(P<0.05).治疗3、6、12、24 h的氧分压、二氧化碳分压、氧合指数、A-aDO2与对照组比较差异无统计学意义.结论 HFOV早期用于治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征,是一种安全性好、疗效肯定的机械通气方法.%Objective To study the effect of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation for newborn infants with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Methods Infants with neonatal hyaline membrane disease were divided into 2 groups: 27 cases(group A) were treated with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and 23 cases (group B) were treated with conventional mechanical ventilation. Meanwhile PS (200 mg/kg) was dropped into the intracheal tube at the beginning group B. Results PaCO2, OI obviously decreased (PaCO2: (50.9±8.9)mm Hg, OI:5.9±2.6) and PaO2, A-aDO2, increased [PaO2±(71.2±13.6)mm Hg, A-aDO2: (0.44±0.12)mm Hg] in group B after therapy (P <0.01, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the PaO2, PaCO2, OI, A-aDO2 between the two groups on 3,6, 12, 24 hours after therapy. Conclusion HFOV can significantly improve pulmonary gas exchange in NRDS patients and reduce the mechanical ventilation and hospitalization time.

  20. 经鼻间歇正压通气治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床研究%Clinical study of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宋青; 闻建军; 施益农

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨经鼻间歇正压通气( NIPPV)治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征( NRDS)的临床疗效价值及安全性,以期更好的为临床决策与发展提供相关依据。方法通过运用前瞻性研究方法,对我院自2014年1月-2016年1月期间收治患有呼吸窘迫综合征的120例新生儿随机分组,分别采用经鼻间歇正压通气或经鼻持续气道正压通气( NCPAP)联合肺表面活性物质进行治疗,对两组患儿治疗后的临床疗效加以评价。比较指标包括:氧合指数( OI)、pH值、PaO2、PaCO2、治疗成功率、病死率、辅助通气时间及肺漏气率等。结果两组治疗后PaO2、pH 值、OI值均显著升高,PaCO2显著降低( P0.05)。治疗12 h:两组 PaO2、PaCO2、pH 值、OI值差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。另外,NIPPV 组的治疗成功率明显高于NCPAP组(P0.05)。结论 NIPPV作为一种新型的无创呼吸机械通气技术,治疗效果更优,起效时间更快,治疗成功率更高,在NRDS 的治疗中将有着广阔的前景,值得进行推广。%Objective To explore the clinical effect of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation ( NIP-PV) in treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome ( NRDS) to better provide evidence for clinical decisions and development. Methods By forward-looking research methods, 120 newborns with respiratory distress syndrome from January 2014 to January 2016 were randomly divided into two groups, given nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation ( NIPPV) or nasal continuous positive airway pressure ( NCPAP) combined pulmonary surfactant. Their clinical efficacy was compared, including oxygenation index ( OI) , pH, PaO2 , PaCO2 , treatment success rate, mor-tality, assisted ventilation and pulmonary air leak rate and so on. Results After treatment, their PaO2 and OI in-creased, and pH value and PaCO2 decreased significantly (P0. 05). 12 hours after treatment, there was no significant difference in PaO2, PaCO2 and p

  1. 肺表面活性物质联合机械通气治疗足月新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床观察%Pulmonary surfactant combined with mechanical ventilation for term neonates with respiratory distress syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯远征; 丘小其; 梁启慧; 汤世君; 黄婉仪

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨肺表面活性物质联合机械通气治疗足月新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征临床效果.方法 选取2013年3月至2014年8月我院儿科收治60例呼吸窘迫综合征足月新生儿随机分为观察组和对照组,对照组采用肺表面活性物质治疗,观察组在对照组基础上联合机械通气治疗,比较两组新生儿治疗效果及治疗前、治疗后1h、24 h PaO2、PaCO2及pH值.结果 观察组患儿治疗总有效率为96.66%明显高于对照组总有效率83.33%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组患儿治疗1h及24 h后PaO2、pH值明显高于对照组,PaCO2值明显低于对照组,两组间各值比较有差异统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 肺表面活性物质联合机械通气治疗足月新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征可改善患儿PaO2、PaCO2及pH值,具有显著临床治疗效果,值得在临床中推广应用.%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of pulmonary surfactant combined mechanical ventilation for term neonates with respiratory distress syndrome.Methods 60 term newborns with respiratory distress syndrome admitted into our department from March,2013 to August,2014 were selected and were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group.The control group were treated with pulmonary surfactant;in addition,the observation group with mechanical ventilation.The treatment effect and the PaO2,PaCO2,and pH value before and 1 and 24 hours after the treatment were compared between these two groups.Results The total efficacy was 96.66% in the observation group and was 83.33% in the control group,with a statistical difference(P<0.05).1 and 24 hours after the treatment,the PaO2 level and pH value were significantly higher and the PaCO2 level was significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group,with statistical differences(P<0.05).Conclusions Pulmonary surfactant combined with mechanical ventilation for term newborns with respiratory

  2. Clinical Significance of Changes in the Level of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Pulmonary Heart Disease%肺源性心脏病病程中脑钠肽水平变化的临床意义分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大江

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical significance of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in the course of pulmonary heart disease.Method: 67 patients with chronic pulmonary heart disease in our hospital were selected, according to the progress of the disease course they were divided into episodes stage and remission stage.The BNP level was detected by double anti sandwich immunoassay, PaO2 and PaCO2 levels were determined by blood gas analysis. The different periods levels of BNP, PaCO2 and PaO2 were compared.Result:The episodes stage levels of BNP and PaCO2 were respectively (215.83±83.17)ng/L and (52.13±5.38)mm Hg,they were significantly higher than the remission stage levels,the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05). The episodes stage levels of PaO2 was (51.29±4.70) mm Hg,which was significantly lower than that in remission stage, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion:In the course of pulmonary heart disease, BNP is involved in the pathophysiological process of pulmonary heart disease, which can be used as a reference index to evaluate the curative effect and prognosis.%目的:探讨脑钠肽(BNP)水平变化在肺源性心脏病病程中的临床意义。方法:选取本院收治的慢性肺心病患者67例,根据病程的进展分为发作期和缓解期。采用双抗夹心免疫酶法测定BNP水平,血气分析测定PaO2和PaCO2水平,比较患者不同时期的血浆BNP、PaCO2及PaO2水平。结果:患者发作期BNP及PaCO2水平分别为(215.83±83.17)ng/L和(52.13±5.38)mm Hg,明显高于缓解期,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);患者发作期PaO2水平为(51.29±4.70)mm Hg,明显低于缓解期,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:在肺源性心脏病患者的病程进展中,血浆BNP参与肺心病的病理生理过程,可作为评估患者疗效和判定预后的参考指标。

  3. Acid-Base Balance Changes after Liver Transplantation%肝移植术后酸碱平衡的变化▲

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃一流; 汤展宏; 张驰; 胡军涛; 尹祥; 董旻

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the change rules of acid-base balance after liver transplantation .Methods To record the transfusion volumes of red blood cells ,plasma,sodium bicarbonate and Ringer's lactate,and operation time ,intraoperative urine volume in 40 patients undergoing liver transplantation .The blood gas analysis and lactic acid value were respectively recorded at several time points such as pre-operation,entering intensive care unit(ICU),and the 1st,2nd,3rd,4th and 5th day after operation .An analysis on the indices above was conducted .Results pH,bi-carbonate (HCO3 -),beryllium (BE) were the lowest when patients’ entering ICU.pH,partial pressure carbon diox-ide (PaCO2 ),BE and HCO3 -were the highest on the 2nd day after operation,and they gradually decreased over time;pH returned to preoperative level on the 5 th day after operation while the levels of PaCO 2 ,BE and HCO 3 -were higher than those of the preoperative .Lactic acid value was the highest on the day of entering ICU , which showed a trend of gradual decline , and the decrease was the most significant on the first day after operation .Conclusion Strengthening the monitoring of acid-base balance in patients undergoing liver transplantation has an important clinical significance for management of patients after liver transplantation .%目的探讨肝移植手术后的酸碱平衡变化规律。方法记录肝移植病人40例术中输注红细胞、血浆、碳酸氢钠及乳酸林格的使用量、手术持续时间、术中尿量等;记录肝移植手术前、术后进入重症监护病房当时(入室)、术后第1天、术后第2天、术后第3天、术后第4天、术后第5天的血气分析及乳酸值,并对上述指标进行比较分析。结果 pH、碳酸氢根(HCO3-)、碱剩余(BE)在入室时为最低值,术后第2天pH、二氧化碳分压( PaCO2)、BE、HCO3-均达到最高值,并随着时间的推移逐渐下降;pH在术后第5天时基本

  4. Expression and function of secretory type Ⅱ phospholipase A2 in lung of severe acute pancreatitis of rats%重症急性胰腺炎肺组织Ⅱ型分泌型磷脂酶A2的表达及功能改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅; 陈海龙; 王朝晖

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)时肺组织Ⅱ型分泌型磷脂酶A2(sPLA2 -Ⅱ)的表达及功能改变.[方法]将SD大鼠随机分为假手术组(SO组,n=10)、模型组(SAP组,n=10).SO组仅行剖腹术,翻动胰腺;SAP组用去氧胆酸钠胰管逆行注射建立SAP合并肺损伤模型.2组动物在术后24 h测pH、PaQ、PaCO2、血淀粉酶、sPLA2 -Ⅱ,肺湿/干比值.应用RT-PCR、western-blot观察肺组织sPLA2-Ⅱ表达,并观察胰、肺组织病理变化.[结果]SAP组血淀粉酶、sPLA2、肺湿/干比值显著高于SO组(P<0.05).SAP组PaO2、pH显著低于SO组(P<0.05),PaCO2、sPLA -Ⅱ显著高于SO组(P<0.05).[结论]AAP时肺组织sPLA2 -Ⅱ表达增高,可能是急性肺损伤的发病机制之一.%[Objective] To investigate the expression of secretory type Ⅱ phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-Ⅱ )in lung in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. [Methods]SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups of sham operation group(SO,n=10)and SAP model group(SAP,n=10). Severe acute pancreatitis was induced in SAP. Sham operation was only made in SO group. Serum amylase( AMY) levels, Ph, PaO2, PaCO2, sPLA2 and lung wet/dry ratio( W/D) were determined. sPLA2-Ⅱ mRNA expression in lung was detected by RT-PCR. The sPLA2- Ⅱ protein expression in lung was detected by western-blot. The pathologic changes of pancreas and lung were observed 24 hours after establishment of the model. [Results]Serum levels of AMY([7144.19 ±727. 91]U/ L),sPLA2([45.13±6.05]nmol·min-1·ml-1),W/D(8. 57±2.45)and PaCO2([47. 57±2. 55] mmHg)in SAP were remarkably higher than those in SO([1193. 41±192. 54]U/L, [29. 94± 6. 39]nmol·min-1·ml-1 ,[3. 70±0. 90],[27.69±1.02]mmHg,P<0.05). The levels of PaO2 ([79. 24± 5. 84] mmHg)and pH(7. 269±0. 054)in SAP were lower than that in SO([96. 78± 3. 81] mmHg,7. 391±0. 054,P<0. 05). The expression of sPLA2-Ⅱ in lung in SAP was significantly increased than in SO( P<3. 05). The pathologic changes of pancreas and lung in SO

  5. Clinical Effect of High - frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in the Adjuvant Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome%高频振荡通气辅助治疗新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征的临床疗效研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游勇; 王惠珍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of high - frequency oscillatory ventilation in the adjuvant treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Methods A total of 80 newborns with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome were selected in the Central Hospital of Huangshi from June 2010 to December 2012,and they were randomly divided into control group and observation group,each of 40 cases. Newborns of both groups received lung alveolar surfactant and so on before mechanical ventilation, and newborns of control group received conventional mechanical ventilation, while newborns of observation group received high - frequency oscillatory ventilation. Clinical effect,ventilation time,hospital stays,pH,PaO2 , PaCO2 ,MAP,OI and FiO2 before treatment and after 12,24,48 hours of treatment were compared between the two groups. Results No statistically significant differences of clinical effect was found between the two groups( u = 0. 455,P = 0. 324). Ventilation time and hospital stays of observation group were statistically significantly shorter than those of control group( P ﹤0. 05). No statistically significant differences of pH,PaO2 or PaCO2 was found between the two groups before treatment,nor was PaCO2 between the two groups after 12 hours of treatment( P ﹥ 0. 05);pH and PaO2 of observation group were statistically significantly higher than those of control group after 12,24 and 48 hours oftreatment,while PaCO2 of observation group was statistically significantly lower than that of control group after 24 and 48 hours of treatment,respectively( P ﹤ 0. 05). No statistically significant differences of MAP,OI or FiO2 was found between the two groups before treatment,nor was OI between the two groups after 12 or 24 hours of treatment,or was MAP between the two groups after 12 hours of treatment(P ﹥ 0. 05);FiO2 of observation group was statistically significantly lower than that of control group after 12,24,48 hours of treatment, respectively,OI of

  6. Aminoguanidina reduz o estresse oxidativo e as alterações estruturais pulmonares em diabetes mellitus experimental Aminoguanidine reduces oxidative stress and structural lung changes in experimental diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Cangeri Di Naso

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliamos o efeito da aminoguanidina sobre o estresse oxidativo pulmonar e a estrutura pulmonar em um modelo experimental de diabetes mellitus. Foram determinados thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico, histologia e gasometria arterial em animais com diabetes mellitus (DM, animais com diabetes mellitus tratados com aminoguanidina (DM+AG e controles. O nível de TBARS foi significativamente maior no grupo DM que nos grupos controle e DM+AG (2,90 ± 1,12 vs. 1,62 ± 0,28 e 1,68 ± 0,04 nmol/mg proteína, respectivamente, o mesmo ocorrendo com PaCO2 em relação ao grupo controle (49,2 ± 1,65 vs. 38,12 ± 4,85 mmHg, e PaO2 foi significativamente maior no grupo controle (104,5 ± 6,3 vs. 69,48 ±16,30 e 97,05 ± 14,02 mmHg, respectivamente. Neste modelo experimental de diabetes mellitus, a aminoguanidina reduziu o estresse oxidativo, alterações estruturais teciduais pulmonares e a troca gasosa no modelo experimental.We evaluated the effect of aminoguanidine on pulmonary oxidative stress and lung structure in an experimental model of diabetes mellitus. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, histology and arterial blood gases were evaluated in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM group, animals with diabetes mellitus treated with aminoguanidine (DM+AG group, and controls. The TBARS levels were significantly higher in the DM group than in the control and DM+AG groups (2.90 ± 1.12 vs. 1.62 ± 0.28 and 1.68 ± 0.04 nmol/mg protein, respectively, as was PaCO2 when compared with that of the control group (49.2 ± 1.65 vs. 38.12 ± 4.85 mmHg, and PaO2 was significantly higher in the control group (104.5 ± 6.3 vs. 16.30 ± 69.48 and 97.05±14.02 mmHg, respectively. In this experimental model of diabetes mellitus, aminoguanidine reduced oxidative stress, structural tissue alterations, and gas exchange.

  7. Association of CRP and D-Dimer with secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with AECOPD%CRP及D-Dimer在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期继发肺动脉高压中的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金丛; 黄相增

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical significance of C-reaction protein ( CRP ) and D-Dimer levels in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( AECOPD ) complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) and their association with HP. Methods Arterial blood gas and levels of CRP and D-Dimer were detected in 150 patients with AECOPD. Results Levels of CRP, D-Dimer, and PaCO2 were higher but PO2 level was lower in patients with moderate to severe PH than those with mild PH and the control subjects. Levels of CRP and D-Dimer were higher in patients with mild PH than the control subjects. Levels of CRP, D-Dimer, and PCO2 levels had a linear relationship with PASP, while PO2 was negatively correlated with PASP. Levels of CRP and D-Dimer were positively related with PCO2, while were negatively correlated with PO2. Conclusions Levels of CRP and D-Dimer can be used as an indicator for estimating the severity of pulmonary hypertension in patients with AECOPD.%目的:探讨C反应蛋白(CRP)及D-二聚体(D-Dimer)在慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)合并肺动脉高压( PH )患者中的临床意义及相关性。方法:150例AECOPD患者进行CRP、D-Dimer及动脉血气检测。结果:AECOPD合并中重度PH组患者CRP、D-Dimer、PaCO2水平高于轻度PH组及对照组,(P<0.05),而PaO2水平低于轻度PH组及对照组(P<0.05)。AECOPD合并轻度PH组患者CRP、D-Dimer水平高于对照组(P<0.05)。 CRP、D-Dimer、PaCO2与肺动脉收缩压(PASP)呈正相关;PaO2与PASP呈负相关;CRP、D-Dimer 与 PaCO2呈正相关;CRP、D-Dimer 与 PaO2呈负相关。结论:CRP 及 D-Dimer 水平可作为AECOPD患者判断PH严重程度的指标。

  8. 探究双管鼻塞式CPAP对新生儿呼吸衰竭的治疗效果观察%To explore two pipe blocked nose type CPAP therapeutic effect observation of neonatal respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore the double tube block type CPAP therapeutic effect observation of neonatal respiratory failure.MethodsFrom April 2013 to January 2014, the selection of our new pediatric in 46 patients with respiratory failure of nasal congestion using double tube CPAP treatment, observation of treatment before and after 24 h of blood gas index.Results The patients with neonatal respiratory failure after two pipe blocked nose type CPAP treatment before and after the blood gas index, pH, PaO2, SaO2 were signiifcantly increased (P < 0.05), and PaCO2 dropped signiifcantly (P < 0.05), the more close to normal.ConclusionDouble tube nasal CPAP type has a good effect in the treatment of neonatal respiratory failure, is worth further promotion in the clinical practice.%目的:探究双管闭塞式CPAP对新生儿呼吸衰竭的治疗效果观察。方法从2013年4月到2014年1月,选取我院新生儿科的46例呼吸衰竭患者使用双管鼻塞式CPAP进行治疗,观察治疗前和治疗24h后的血气指标状况。结果新生儿呼吸衰竭患者在经过双管鼻塞式CPAP治疗前后的血气指标比较,pH、PaO2以及SaO2均有明显升高(P<0.05), PaCO2显著下降(P<0.05),更接近正常水平。结论双管鼻塞式CPAP在新生儿呼吸衰竭的治疗中疗效显著,结构简单方便,治疗价格低廉,值得临床进一步推广。

  9. Mercury Levels in Human Hair and Farmed Fish near Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining Communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeland, Aubrey L.; Hardin, Rebecca D.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has been an important source of income for communities in the Madre de Dios River Basin in Peru for hundreds of years. However, in recent decades, the scale of ASGM activities in the region has increased dramatically, and exposures to a variety of occupational and environmental hazards related to ASGM, including mercury, are becoming more widespread. The aims of our study were to: (1) examine patterns in the total hair mercury level of human participants in several communities in the region and compare these results to the 2.2 µg/g total hair mercury level equivalent to the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee of Food Additives (JECFA)’s Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI); and (2), to measure the mercury levels of paco (Piaractus brachypomus) fish raised in local aquaculture ponds, in order to compare these levels to the EPA Fish Tissue Residue Criterion of 0.3 µg Hg/g fish (wet weight). We collected hair samples from 80 participants in four communities (one control and three where ASGM activities occurred) in the region, and collected 111 samples from fish raised in 24 local aquaculture farms. We then analyzed the samples for total mercury. Total mercury levels in hair were statistically significantly higher in the mining communities than in the control community, and increased with increasing geodesic distance from the Madre de Dios headwaters, did not differ by sex, and frequently exceeded the reference level. Regression analyses indicated that higher hair mercury levels were associated with residence in ASGM communities. The analysis of paco fish samples found no samples that exceeded the EPA tissue residue criterion. Collectively, these results align with other recent studies showing that ASGM activities are associated with elevated human mercury exposure. The fish farmed through the relatively new process of aquaculture in ASGM areas appeared to have little potential to contribute to human

  10. Comparison of neonatal tolerance to thoracoscopic and open repair of esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Li; LIU Yong-zhe; MA Ya-qun; ZHANG Sheng-suo; PAN Ning-ling

    2012-01-01

    Background Advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques and neonatal intensive care for neonates have allowed for repair of the neonatal esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula (EA/TEF) to be approached endoscopically.However,thoracoscopic surgery in children is still performed in only a few centers throughout the world.The aim of this study was to compare the neonatal tolerance to the thoracoscopic repair (TR) and the open repair (OR)and also to discuss anesthetic management in thoracoscopic procedure.Methods We performed a prospective study enrolling newborns diagnosed with EA with distal TEF (type C) receiving the repair surgery between June 2009 and January 2012 in our institution.Data collected included the newborns' gestational age and weight at the time of the operation,operative time,parameters of intraoperative mechanical ventilation,oxygenation,end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2),and analysis of blood gases.Time to extubation and length of stay were also recorded.Results Intravenous induction with muscle paralysis followed by pressure-control ventilation and tracheal intubation regardless of the position of the fistula can be performed uneventfully in EA/TEF newborns with no additional airway anomalies and large,pericarinal fistulas in our experiences.The thoracoscopic approach appeared to take longer than the open approach.During the procedure of repair,hypercarbia and acidosis developed immediately 1 hour after pneumothorax in both groups.CO2 insufflation did have additional influence on the respiratory function of the newborns in the TR group; values of PaCO2 and ETCO2 were higher in the TR group but the difference did not reach statistical significance.By the end of the procedure,values of PaCO2 and ETCO2 returned to the baseline levels while pH did not,but all parameters made no difference in the two groups.Besides,time to extubation was shorter in the TR group.Conclusions Thoracoscopic repair of EA/TEF is comparable to the open repair

  11. 前列地尔脂微球载体制剂对AECOPD合并慢性肺源性心脏病肺动脉高压疗效的临床研究%Clinical study of lipo-prostaglandin E1 on pulmonary hypertension in patients with AECOPD and chronic pulmonary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄刚; 叶荣苹

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价前列地尔脂微球载体制剂(Lipo PGE1)治疗AECOPD合并慢性肺源性心脏病肺动脉高压患者的疗效.方法 60例AECOPD合并慢性肺源性心脏病肺动脉高压患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组在常规治疗的基础上加用Lipo PGE1 10 μg,对照组仅常规治疗.治疗前后检测肺动脉收缩压(SPAP)、肺动脉平均压(MPAP)、肺动脉舒张压(DPAP)、动脉血氧分压(PaO2)、动脉二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、肺功能FEV1和FEV1/FVC.结果 治疗后SPAP、MPAP、DPAP、PaCO2较治疗前明显降低,PaO2、FEV1和FEV1/FVC较治疗前显著增加,与对照组相比有显著差异(P<0.05).结论 PGE1治疗AECOPD合并慢性肺源性心脏病肺动脉高压能降低肺动脉压力,改善动脉血气和肺功能.%Objective To evaluate the effects oflipo-prostaglandin El ( PGE1) on the AECOPD and chronic pulmonary heart disease with pulmonary hypertension.Methods 60 patients of AECOPD and chronic pulmonary heart disease with pulmonary hypertension were randomly divided into therapy group and control group.The patients in therapy group received therapy plus intravenous 10 μg PGE.And the patients in control group received routine therapy.Before and after therapy, systolic pulmonary artery pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure ( MPAP), pulmonary artery diastolic pressure ( DPAP), arterial partial pressure of oxygen ( PaO2 ), arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), lung function FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were measured.Result Aftor treatment, SPAP, MPAP, DPAP, PaCO2 significantly lower than before treatment, PaO2, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were significantly increased than that before treatment, compared with the control group were significantly different ( P <O.05 ).Conclusion PGE1 treatment of AECOPD and chronic pulmonary heart disesse with pulmonary hypertension reduces pulmonary artery pressure, improve arterial blood gas and pulmonary function.

  12. 机械通气治疗113例ICU重症肺心病呼吸衰竭的分析%Analysis of Mechanical Ventilation Therapy of 113 Cases of ICU Severe Pulmonary Heart Disease Patients with Respiratory Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光梅

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨机械通气法治疗重症肺心病呼吸衰竭的临床效果。方法选取收治的113例重症肺心病呼吸衰竭患者使用机械通气法对患者进行治疗,比较患者治疗前后呼吸频率和血气分析指标:动脉血氧分压(PaO2)和动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)变化。结果患者治疗前后的呼吸频率和PaO2、PaCO2均有明显变化,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论使用机械通气法治疗重症肺心病呼吸衰竭可以有效改善患者呼吸衰竭的症状,提高患者的成活率,值得在临床应用中进行推广。%Objective To explore the effect of mechanical ventilation therapy of severe pulmonary heart disease with respiratory failure.Methods 113 cases of severe pulmonary heart disease with respiratory failure were selected retrospectively for the study, who were treated with mechanical ventilation method. Respiratory rate and blood gas analysis indicators including changes of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) of patients before and after treatment were compared.Results The respiratory rate, PaO2, and PaCO2 of patients before and after treatment changed signiifcantly, the differences were statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion The use of mechanical ventilation method of severe pulmonary heart disease with respiratory failure can improve respiratory failure symptoms and survival rate of patients, which is worth promoting in clinical applications.

  13. 支气管阻塞器用于胸腔镜下肺癌术患者单肺通气的效果%Effect of endobronchial blocker tube in the pulmonary carcinoma with video-assisted thoracic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lairong Sun; Lianbing Gu; Bihui Ren; Ninglei Qiu; Lijun Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of endobronchial blocker tube in the pulmonary carcinoma with video-assisted thoracic surgery. Methods: Forty patients of pulmonary carcinoma with video-assisted thoracic surgery were randomly assigned into two groups with twenty cases each: endobronchial blocker tube group (group 1) and double-lumen endobronchial tube group (group 2). After anesthesia was induced, in group 1, single lumen tube was intubated at first, and then endobronchial blocker tube intubated to left or right primary bronchus under the guidance of fiber-optic bronchoscope according to operational necessary, injected 2-4 mL air to blocker balloon and blocker one lateral primary bronchus for one-lung ventilation necessarily; while in group 2, the position of double-lumen endobronchial tube was confirmed with fiber-optic bronchoscope after intubation. Blood samples were collected before anesthesia induction, double lumen ventilation, at the one-lung ventilation of 5 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min and 180 min, SBP, DBP, HR, SpO2, partial pressure of end tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2), pH, PaO2, PaCO2,PaO2/FiO2 were recorded. Results: Forty cases' intubations were all successful. There were no differences in SBP, DBP, HR, SpO2, PetCO2, pH, PaCO2 between two groups in different points (P > 0.05). Paw in group 1 was lower than group 2, PaO2 and PaO2/FiO2 in group 1 was higher than group 2 in the one lung ventilation of 5 min, 30 min, 60 min, 120 min and 180 min. Conclusion: The endobronchial blocker tube can meet the request of video-assisted thoracic surgery, with the special advantages of simple insertion, lower airway and better oxygenation. Endobronchial blocker tube offer a new way for one-lung ventilation in the pulmonary carcinoma with video-assisted thoracic surgery.

  14. Elective decompression of the left ventricle in pediatric patients may reduce the duration of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Douglas F; Best, Derek; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E; Millar, Johnny; Butt, Warwick

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of elective left heart decompression at the time of initiation of central venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) on VA ECMO duration and clinical outcomes in children in a single tertiary ECMO referral center with a large pediatric population from a national referral center for pediatric cardiac surgery. We studied 51 episodes of VA ECMO in a historical cohort of 49 pediatric patients treated between the years 1990 and 2013 in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. The cases had a variety of diagnoses including congenital cardiac abnormalities, sepsis, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathy. Left heart decompression as an elective treatment or an emergency intervention for left heart distension was effectively achieved by a number of methods, including left atrial venting, blade atrial septostomy, and left ventricular cannulation. Elective left heart decompression was associated with a reduction in time on ECMO (128 h) when compared with emergency decompression (236 h) (P = 0.013). Subgroup analysis showed that ECMO duration was greatest in noncardiac patients (elective 138 h, emergency 295 h; P = 0.02) and in patients who died despite both emergency decompression and ECMO (elective 133 h, emergency 354 h; P = 0.002). As the emergency cases had a lower pH, a higher PaCO2 , and a lower oxygenation index and were treated with a higher mean airway pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and respiratory rate prior to receiving VA ECMO, we undertook multivariate linear regression modeling to show that only PaCO2 and the timing of left heart decompression were associated with ECMO duration. However, elective left heart decompression was not associated with a reduction in length of PICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or duration of oxygen therapy. Elective left heart decompression was not associated with improved ECMO survival or survival to PICU discharge

  15. Executive Function, Survival, and Hospitalization in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Longitudinal Analysis of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, James W.; Novotny, Paul; Sciurba, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Cognitive dysfunction has been demonstrated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but studies are limited to cross-sectional analyses or incompletely characterized populations. Objectives: We examined longitudinal changes in sensitive measures of executive function in a well-characterized population of patients with severe COPD. Methods: This study was performed on patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial. To assess executive function, we analyzed trail making (TM) A and B times at enrollment in the trial (2,128 patients), and at 12 (731 patients) and 24 months (593 patients) after enrollment, adjusted for surgery, marriage status, age, education, income, depression, PaO2, PaCO2, and smoking. Associations with survival and hospitalizations were examined using Cox regression and linear regression models. Measurements and Main Results: The average age of the patients was 66.4 years, and the average FEV1 was 23.9% predicted. At the time of enrolment, 38% had executive dysfunction. Compared with those who did not, these patients were older, less educated, had higher oxygen use, higher PaCO2, worse quality of life as measured by the St. George’s Respiratory Quotient, reduced well-being, and lower social function. There was no significant change over 2 years in TM A or B times after adjustment for covariables. Changes in TM B times were modestly associated with survival, but changes in TM B − A times were not. Changes in TM scores were not associated with frequency of hospitalization. Lung function, PaO2, smoking, survival, and hospitalizations were not significantly different in those with executive dysfunction. Conclusions: In this large population of patients with severe emphysema and heavy cigarette smoking exposure, there was no significant decline over 2 years in cognitive executive function as measured by TM tests. There was no association between executive function impairment and frequency of hospitalization, and

  16. Severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygen

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    M. Bush

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are more marked in field-anaesthetised rhinoceros. This study was designed to develop a technique to improve safety for field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros by tracheal intubation and oxygen insufflation. Twenty-five free-ranging white rhinoceros were anaesthetised with an etorphine and azaperone combination for translocation or placing microchips in their horns. Once anaesthetised the rhinoceros were monitored prior to crating for transportation or during microchip placement. Physiological measurements included heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gas samples. Eighteen rhinoceros were intubated using an equine nasogastric tube passed nasally into the trachea and monitored before and after tracheal insufflation with oxygen. Seven rhinoceros were not intubated or insufflated with oxygen and served as controls. All anaesthetised rhinoceros were initially hypoxaemic (percentage arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (% O2Sa = 49 % + 16 (mean + SD and PaO2 = 4.666 + 1.200 kPa (35 + 9 mm Hg, hypercapnic (PaCO2 = 8.265 + 1.600 kPa (62 + 12 mm Hg and acidaemic (pHa = 7.171 + 0.073 . Base excess was -6.7 + 3.9 mmol/ℓ, indicating a mild to moderate metabolic acidosis. The rhinoceros were also hypertensive (systolic blood pressure = 21.861 + 5.465 kPa (164 + 41 mm Hg and tachycardic (HR = 107 + 31/min. Following nasal tracheal intubation and insufflation, the % O2Sa and PaO2 increased while blood pHa and PaCO2 remained unchanged.Tracheal intubation via the nose is not difficult, and when oxygen is insufflated, the PaO2 and the % O2Sa increases, markedly improving the safety of anaesthesia, but this technique does not correct the hypercapnoea or acidosis. After regaining their feet following reversal of the anaesthesia, the animals

  17. Prediction of arterial blood gas values from arterialized earlobe blood gas values in patients treated with mechanical ventilation

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    Honarmand Azim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is useful in evaluation of the clinical condition of critically ill patients; however, arterial puncture or insertion of an arterial catheter may sometimes be difficult and cause many complications. Arterialized ear lobe blood samples have been described as adequate to gauge gas exchange in acute and chronically ill pediatric patients. Purpose: This study evaluates whether pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 , base excess (BE, and bicarbonate (HCO 3 values of arterialized earlobe blood samples could accurately predict their arterial blood gas analogs for adult patients treated by mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU. Setting: A prospective descriptive study Methods: Sixty-seven patients who were admitted to ICU and treated with mechanical ventilation were included in this study. Blood samples were drawn simultaneously from the radial artery and arterialized earlobe of each patient. Results: Regression equations and mean percentage-difference equations were derived to predict arterial pH, PCO 2 , PO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 -values from their earlobe analogs. pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO 3 all significantly correlated in ABG and earlobe values. In spite of a highly significant correlation, the limits of agreement between the two methods were wide for PO 2 . Regression equations for prediction of pH, PCO 2 , BE, and HCO3- values were: arterial pH (pHa = 1.81+ 0.76 x earlobe pH (pHe [r = 0.791, P < 0.001]; PaCO 2 = 1.224+ 1.058 x earlobePCO 2 (PeCO 2 [r = 0.956, P < 0.001]; arterial BE (BEa = 1.14+ 0.95 x earlobe BE (BEe [r= 0.894, P < 0.001], and arterial HCO 3 - (HCO 3 -a = 1.41+ earlobe HCO 3 (HCO 3 -e [r = 0.874, P < 0.001]. The predicted ABG values from the mean percentage-difference equations were derived as follows: pHa = pHe x 1.001; PaCO 2 = PeCO 2 x 0.33; BEa = BEe x 0.57; and HCO 3 -a = HCO 3 -e x 1.06. Conclusions: Arterialized

  18. Severe virus associated community acquired pneumonia: predictors of lethality

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    T. O. Pertseva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the influenza virus pathogenicity factors have been well studied in vitro, in vivo lack is presented in understanding of the those risk factors, objective and laboratory parameters, which related most of all to the fatal virus-associated community-aquired pneumonia (CAP. That is why the purpose of the study was to study the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with severe virus-associated CAP during the 2015–2016 influenza epidemic and their role as predictors of patients’ mortality. To do this, patients with severe virus-associated CAP were examined. They were divided into 2 groups depending on the outcome of treatment: 1st- deaths from the virus-associated severe CAP and 2nd - patients with successful treatment of the severe virus-associated CAP. Special statistical method was used – one-dimensional analysis of variance to compare individual parameters between the two groups of patients (surviving and deceased. Pearson χ2 test (contingency table was used for categorical variables. Factors that were significant predictors of mortality as a result of univariate analysis were tested using multifactorial analysis using logistic regression. In the final model, each parameter must have had a significant impact on mortality. It was found that risk factors for death in patients with severe virus-associated CAP according to univariate analysis were: presence of obesity, disorders of consciousness, BH≥35 min, SaO2<80%, PaO2<50 mm Hg, mmHg PaCO2 ≥50 mmHg during hospitalization. Independent predictors of mortality according to the logistic regression are the presence of obesity, disorders of consciousness, PaO2<50 mm Hg, mmHg PaCO2 ≥50 mmHg. Given that among clinical and laboratory parameters key parameters that significantly influence the outcome, are indicators of the severity of hypoxia and hypoxemia, a major step in determining the severity of the patients with virus-associated severe emergency is

  19. Study on Blood Gas Analysis Criteria of Re-intubation After Surgical Operations on Children With Cardiopulmonary Bypass%小儿体外循环术后再次气管插管血气指征探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东成; 扬镒宇

    2004-01-01

    目的 探讨小儿先天性心脏病体外循环下心内直视手术后再次气管插管的血气指标.方法 非选择性调查PICU撤机、拔管病例的血气分析与转归,按撤机拔管转归和PaCO2、PaO2/FiO2分组,比较各组PaO2、PaCO2、PaO2/FiO2及成败比率.结果 连续调查了62例撤机、拔管前后及拔管后1h血气分析结果,19例失败需再次气管插管.再插管组:撤机、拔管前后比,PaCO2指标,P<0.05,而PaO2、PaO2/FiO2指标均P<0.01;拔管后1h PaCO2>45mmHg与<45mmHg组再次气管插管率比,P<0.01.PaO2/FiO2不同水平再插管率比:撤机前>200mmHg与<200mmHg,P<0.01,<200mmHg者再插管率100%;拔管后1h各组再插管率比,P<0.01,<250mmHg者再插管率为100%.结论 拔管后1h PaCO2>45mmHg、PaO2/FiO2<250mmHg、吸氧下PaO2和PaO2/FiO2显著性下降者,需再次气管插管呼吸机治疗.PaO2、PaCO2、PH正常,PaO2/FiO2>200mmHg时撤机、拔管成功可能性大,可避免再次插管.

  20. Liquid extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal: use of THAM (tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane) coupled to hemofiltration to control hypercapnic acidosis in a porcine model of protective mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Pablo; Lillo, Felipe; Soto, Dagoberto; Escobar, Leslie; Simon, Felipe; Hernández, Karina; Alegría, Leyla; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg-1·h-1 coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg-1·h-1. After 18-hours of treatment the THAM infusion was stopped but hemofiltration was kept on until 24-hours. The 2 other animals were treated with THAM but without hemofiltration. After 1-hour of treatment in THAM+HF, PaCO2 rapidly decreased from a median of 89.0 (IQR) (80.0, 98.0) to 71.3 (65.8, 82.0) mmHg (P<0.05), while pH increased from 7.12 (7.01, 7.15) to 7.29 (7.27, 7.30) (P<0.05). Thereafter PaCO2 remained stable between 60-70 mmHg, while pH increased above 7.4. After stopping THAM at 18 hours of treatment a profound rebound effect was observed with severe hypercapnic acidosis. The most important side effect we observed was hyperosmolality, which reached a maximum of 330 (328, 332) mOsm·kg H2O-1 at T18. The animals treated only with THAM developed severe hypercapnia, despite the fact that pH returned to normal values, and died after 12 hours. Control-group had an uneven evolution until the end of the experiment. A combined treatment with THAM coupled to hemofiltration may be an effective treatment to control severe hypercapnic acidosis. PMID:27648139

  1. Análisis de factores relacionados con hipercapnia crónica en la distrofia miotónica

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    Patricia K. Aruj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La distrofia miotónica (DM es la distrofia muscular más común en adultos. Diversos factores pueden explicar la retención crónica de CO2. La selección de pacientes, diferentes estadios evolutivos y formas de evaluación, pueden explicar los resultados disímiles al respecto. Nuestros objetivos fueron caracterizar la función respiratoria y analizar los factores relacionados con la retención crónica de CO2 en la DM. Se incluyeron 27 pacientes ambulatorios consecutivos, estables clínicamente y se los agrupó como normocápnicos e hipercápnicos (PaCO2 ≥ 43 mm Hg. Se determinaron capacidad vital forzada (FVC, presiones estáticas máximas, tiempo de apnea voluntaria, escala de Epworth y gases arteriales. La quimiosensibilidad al CO2 se evaluó mediante la reinhalación de CO2 (método de Read. La pendiente ∆P0.1/∆PCO2 expresa la quimiosensibilidad al CO2. El 59.3% tenían hipercapnia. La FVC y la fuerza muscular respiratoria fueron normales o mostraron disminución leve a moderada, sin diferencias significativas en ambos grupos. La inadecuada respuesta al CO2 (pendientes ∆P0.1/∆PCO2 bajas (< 0.1 cmH2O/mm Hg o planas se asoció con hipercapnia (p < 0.005 y ésta significó un riesgo 11.6 veces mayor de inadecuada respuesta al CO2. El grupo con pendiente ∆P0.1/∆PCO2 baja-plana mostró mayor PaCO2 (p = 0.0017 y tiempo de apnea voluntaria más prolongado (p = 0.002. Concluimos que, en nuestros pacientes con DM, la hipercapnia crónica se asoció a la presencia de anomalías del control central de la respiración. Estos resultados permiten explicar los informes previos que describen la llamativa ocurrencia de insuficiencia respiratoria postoperatoria y las dificultades en el proceso de desvinculación de asistencia ventilatoria mecánica en estos pacientes.

  2. Response activity of alveolar macrophages in pulmonary dysfunction caused by Leptospira infection

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    M. Marinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptopspirosis is a syndrome with different clinical manifestations including the most severe and often fatal forms of pulmonary disease of unknown etiology. Pulmonary injury during the inflammatory process has been associated with the excessive number of alveolar macrophages (AMs and polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated in the lungs and with the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates and other inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the cellular immune response of AMs or inflammatory cells of hamsters during leptospirosis. The activity of AMs was determined by measuring nitric oxide (NO and protein production as well as inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Pulmonary activity during infection was monitored by measuring pH, pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 in blood samples. Cellular immune response and its role in the genesis of leptospirosis have been incriminated as the main causes of tissue and pulmonary injuries, which consequently lead to the pulmonary dysfunction in severe cases of leptospirosis. The present results show a low production of NO in both supernatant of alveolar macrophage culture and BAL. In the latter, protein production was high and constant, especially during acute infection. Total and differential cell count values were 2.5X10(6 on day 4; 7.3X10(6 on day 21; and 2.3X10(6 on day 28 after infection, with lymphocytes (84.04% predominating over neutrophils (11.88% and monocytes (4.07%. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pulmonary compromising along with the infectious process, as observed in parameter values (mean±SD evidenced in the infected versus control group: PaO2 (60.47mmHg±8.7 vs. 90.09mmHg±9.18, PaCO2 (57.01mmHg±7.87 vs. 47.39mmHg±4.5 and pH (7.39±0.03 vs. 6.8±1.3. Results indicated that Leptospira infection in hamsters is a good experimental model to study leptospirosis. However, some of the immune

  3. Inhaled nitric oxide combining high frequency oscillatory ventilation and oral sildenafil for refractory persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn%iNO联合高频震荡通气并西地那非口服对难治性 PPHN 的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菊花; 康鹏讲; 张茹; 安媛; 张小敏; 于瑛; 张阿维; 刘俐

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) combining high frequency oscillatory ventilation ( HFOV) and oral sildenafil for refractory persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns ( PPHN) .Methods Thirteen cases of refractory PPHN, receiving normal frequency ventilation and nitric oxide inhalation without effect in neonatal intensive care unit ( NICU) of Xianyang Pediatrics Hospital from January 2012 to January 2014, accepted HFOV and iNO therapy.The changes of PaO2 , PaCO2 , SaO2 , FiO2 , pulmonary artery pressure, mean pressure and oxygenation index before and after treatment were analyzed.Results Two hours after the treatment, PaCO2 did not change remarkably (t=0.86,P>0.05), while PaO2 was significantly different (t=4.54,P0.05), but pulmonary artery pressure declined by 28%compared with that before treatment (t=7.51, P0.05),而PaO2 干预前后存在显著统计学差异(t=4.54,P0.05),而肺动脉压较治疗前显著下降28%(t=7.51,P<0.01). 治疗后24h与治疗后2h比较,FiO2 较前持续下降约31%(t=6.76,P<0.01),氧合指数提高约83%(t=5.92,P<0.01),存在显著统计学差异. 经治疗有效12例,无效1例,有效率为92.3%. 结论 iNO联合高频震荡通气并西地那非口服治疗能够有效改善患儿血氧指标,对难治性新生儿持续肺动脉高压疗效显著,增加了持续性肺动脉高压抢救成活率.

  4. Effect of Yiqi Huoxue(益气活血) Herbs on Vascular Endothelial Cells and Platelets in Patients with Chronic Cor Pulmonale

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    王伟; 徐少华; 张颖; 王辉; 邵红艳; 王殿辉

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Yiqi Huoxue (益气活血, YQHX) herbs in treating the patients with chronic cor pulmonale and to explore its mechanism by determining the relationship of oxidation/antioxidation system and how such herbs change on the function of endothelial cells and platelets. Methods: Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups: conventional therapy group (control group, 28 paventional management. The treated group were treated with YQHX 150 ml, twice a day, plus the conventional treatment, and the clinical efficacy was recorded. The lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), α-granule membrane protein (GMP140), partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured respectively before and after treatment, and the relationship between various parameters were analyzed. The results were compared with those of 10 healthy subjects got at the same period. Results: (1) The effective rate and PaO2 of the treated group was higher than that of the control group and there were no difference in PaCO2 between the two groups. (2) The levels of LPO, GMP140, CEC in all the patients before therapy were significantly higher than those of the healthy group, and there were marked decrease in the levels of those after treatment (all P<0. 01). On the contrary, the levels of SOD in all the patients before therapy were markedly lower than those in the healthy subjects and increased after treatment, P<0.01. (3) The increase of SOD in the treated group was significantly more obvious than that of the control group. In the treated group, the decrease of LPO, GMP140, CEC were markedly more obvious than those in the control group (all P<0.01).(4) The number of CEC, as well as GMP140, was negatively correlated to PaO2 (P<0.01) and SOD (P<0.01), which was positively correlated to LPO (P<0.01). There was a positive correlation between CEC

  5. Effect of Yiqi Huoxue (益气活血) Herbs on Vascular Endothelial Cells and Platelets in Patients with Chronic Cor Pulmonale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 徐少华; 张颖; 王辉; 邵红艳; 王殿辉

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of Yiqi Huoxue (益气活血, YQHX) herbs in treating the patients with chronic cor pulmonale and to explore its mechanism by determining the relationship of oxidation/antioxidation system and how such herbs change on the function of endothelial cells and platelets. Methotis: Fifty-eight patients were divided into two groups: conventional therapy group (control group, 28 patients) and convention plus YQHX herbs group (treated group, 30 patients). The control group received conventional management. The treated group were treated with YQHX 150 ml, twice a day, plus the conventional treatment, and the clinical efficacy was recorded. The lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), α-granule membrane protein (GMP140), partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured respectively before and after treatment, and the relationship between various parameters were analyzed. The results were compared with those of 10 healthy subjects got at the same period. Results: (1) The effective rate and PaO2 of the treated group was higher than that of the control group and there were no difference in PaCO2 between the two groups. (2) The levels of LPO, GMP140, CEC in all the patients before therapy were significantly higher than those of the healthy group, and there were marked decrease in the levels of those after treatment (all P<0.01). On the contrary, the levels of SOD in all the patients before therapy were markedly lower than those in the healthy subjects and increased after treatment, P<0.01. (3) The increase of SOD in the treated group was significantly more obvious than that of the control group. In the treated group, the decrease of LPO, GMP140, CEC were markedly more obvious than those in the control group (all P<0.01). (4) The number of CEC, as well as GMP140, was negatively correlated to PaO2 (P<0.01) and SOD (P<0

  6. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并肺源性心脏病危险相关因素分析%Analysis of the Risk Factors in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Combined with Cor Pulmonale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单湘湘; 周建平; 范仁根; 任向东

    2015-01-01

    目的::探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病( COPD)合并肺源性心脏病危险相关因素。方法:选取50例慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并肺源性心脏病住院患者作为研究组,同时选取同期COPD未合并肺源性心脏病住院患者作为对照组,分析COPD患者发生肺心病的危险因素。结果:研究组患者在PaO2、 PaCO2、 CD4+/CD8+、 FEV1及FEV1/FVC方面均差于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。疾病加重次数、吸烟指数及SGRQ评分是慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并肺源性心脏病的危险因素。结论:稳定患者病情,减少COPD急性发作次数,戒烟,及时疏导患者负性心理有利于降低慢性阻塞性肺疾病合并肺源性心脏病的危险性,提高患者生活质量,改善预后。%OBJECTIVE: To analyse the risk factors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) combined with cor pul-monale. METHODS: 50 hospitalized patients with COPD combined with cor pulmonale were as the study group and oither hospitalized patients only with COPD during the same period were as the control group. The risk factors of cor pulmonale in the patients with COPD were analysed. RESULTS: The levels of PaO2 , PaCO2 , CD4 + /CD8 +, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC were lower in the studly group than those in the control group. There was statistically significant difference (P<0. 05). Degree of diseases, smoking index and SGRQ scores were the risk factors of COPD combined with cor pulmonale. CONCLUSION: To stabilize the disease, decrease the times of the onset of COPD and give up smoking can decrease the risk of COPD combined with cor pulmonale. And the methods above may also im-prove the quality of life and the prognosis of the patients.

  7. 无创机械通气治疗慢性阻塞性肺病合并呼吸衰竭疗效观察%Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with respiratory failure Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore the bi-level positive airway pressure non-invasive ventilation (BI-PAP) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)with respiratory failure,the value of the cure.Methods COPD patients with type Ⅱ respiratory failure 47 regular bi-level positive airway pressure non-invasive ventilation(BIPAP) ,recorded the change before treatment,on the plane two hours after one day,three days PH,PaO2 ,PaCO2,SPO2 change.Results All patients through the bi-level positive airway pressure non-invasive ventilation,the clinical symptoms significantly improved after treatment,blood gas analysis The PH,PaO2,PaCO2 ,SPO2 a significant improvement compared with before treatment (P < 0.05).Conclusion The bi-level positive airway pressure non-invasive ventilation (BIPAP) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with respiratory failure has a significant effect.%目的 探讨双水平气道正压无创通气(BIPAP)对慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)合并呼吸衰竭的冶疗价值.方法 对COPD合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者47例行双水平气道正压无创通气(BIPAP),记录治疗前,上机后2 h、1 d、3 d的pH、PaO2、PaCO2、SPO2变化.结果 所有患者经过双水平气道正压无创通气后,临床症状有明显好转,治疗后血气分析中的pH、PaO2、PaCO2、SPO2较治疗前有明显改善(P<0.05).结论 双水平气道正压无创通气(BIPAP)对慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD)合并呼吸衰竭患者疗效显著.

  8. 不同氧疗方式对急性一氧化碳中毒大鼠血气的影响%Effect of different oxygen therapy on blood gas in rats following acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马琳琳; 葛环; 高春锦; 宋鸿雁; 刘福佳; 侯晓敏

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察不同氧疗方式对急性一氧化碳中毒(acute carbon monoxide poisoning,ACOP)大鼠血气的影响.方法 将70只雄性Wistar大鼠随机分成健康对照组10只;染毒即刻组12只;余48只CO染毒后再分为4组,分别为空气组、鼻导管组、面罩组、HBO组各12只.制备ACOP动物模型,给予3种不同方式的氧疗,自腹主动脉取血行血气分析.结果 pH值:染毒即刻即出现明显下降(P0.05).PaO2及PaCO2:染毒后各组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).乳酸及COHb%:染毒即刻即出现明显升高(P0.05).HCO3-:染毒后各组均明显低于正常(P0.05); PaO2 and PaCO2: no statistical significance in PaO2 or PaCO2 could be seen between the groups after ACOP(P >0.05); Lactic acid and COHb%: levels of lactic acid and COHb% in the COST group increased significantly, when compared with those of the control group (P 0.05); Bicarbonate (HCO3 -):statistical differences in HCO3 - between the groups could be noted after ACOP (P < 0. 05). Conclusions Various types of oxygen therapy could rectify hypoxia and metabolic acidosis in rats following ACOP. Compared with other two types of therapy, HBO could remove carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) from the body most significantly.

  9. 气道支架置入后致气道严重阻塞1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈正贤; 高兴林; 郭纪全; 李静; 涂海燕

    2002-01-01

    @@ 患者女性,55岁,半年前确诊右肺鳞癌伴食管及双侧肺门淋巴结转移,经放、化疗6个月后,因突发呼吸极度困难于2000-11-11转入我科.入院体查:重病容,贫血貌,呼吸32/min,心率110/min,双肺吸、呼气期均可闻哮鸣音,血气分析:pH 7.442,Pa(CO2)51 mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa),Pa(O2)58 mmHg.入院后即作纤支镜检查,发现隆突明显增宽,双侧主支气管狭窄,右主支气管呈缝隙状,开口约2 mm,左主支气管呈小洞样腔隙,开口约4 mm,所见粘膜均受肿瘤组织浸润,呼吸时有白色分泌物排出.考虑右肺癌伴隆突下淋巴结转移压迫和浸润双侧主支气管,于双侧主支气管处分别置入Palmaz球囊扩张型不锈钢网状支架各一个(Johnson公司,型号p308,置入前直径3.4mm,长度30 mm,置入后可扩张致直径12mm,长度28.9mm),置入方法参考常用方法[1],置入时注入球囊内压力为左侧4.4 cmH2O,右侧4.6 cmH2O,术后双侧主支气管直径均超过6mm,排出大量黄白色分泌物,呼吸困难完全改善,双肺哮鸣音消失,HR90/min,血气分析pH 7.392,Pa(CO2)32-mmHg,Pa(O2)70 mmHg.20h后,患者出现呼吸困难明显加重,呼吸38/min,HR 120/min,双肺哮鸣音明显.

  10. 慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期二氧化碳分压与D-二聚体的相关性研究%Study on the relationship between partial pressure of carbon dioxide and D-dimer in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志安

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between partial pressure of carbon dioxide(PaCO2) and D-dimer in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),to provide a scientific basis and guidance for clinical treatment.Methods Forty-six COPD with acute exacerbation patients from January 2011 to January 2013 in our hospital were selected as observation objects,set as observation group,measured D-dimer and PaCO2 levels before and after treatment; forty-six healthy volunteers were selected as control group,measured D-dimer and PaCO2 level,and compared the levels between two groups.Results The observation group before treatment,two D-dimer,PaCO2 levels were (353±220.8) μg/L,(64.7±16.2) mmHg,control group D-two mer,PaCO2 levels were (73.6±21.1) μg/L,(40.3±4.5) mmHg,the observation group were significantly higher than those in control group,the difference between the two groups was significant (P <0.05) ;observation after treatment,D-two dimer,PaCO2 levels were (96.4 ± 24.8) μg/L,(46.3 ± 7.4) mmHg,the no significant difference with the control group (P >0.05).Conclusions Partial pressure of carbon dioxide and D-dimer levels in acute exacerbation of COPD was significantly higher inhealthy people,so the treatment of COPD patients,need to closely monitor patients with D-dimer and PaCO2 levels,to understand the progress of disease.%目的 探讨COPD患者在急性加重期PaCO2和D-二聚体的相关性,为临床治疗提供科学依据和指导.方法 选择2011年1月至2013年1月在鄂州市中心医院住院治疗的46例COPD急性加重期患者作为观察对象,设为观察组,测定治疗前后血浆D-二聚体、PaCO2水平;选择46例健康志愿者作为对照组,检测其血浆D-二聚体、PaCO2水平,比较两组血浆D-二聚体、PaCO2水平.结果 观察组治疗前D-二聚体、PaCO2水平分别为(353±220.8) μg/L、(64.7±16.2) mmHg,对照组D-二聚体、PaCO2水平分别为(73.6±21.1) μg/L、(40.3±4.5) mmHg,观察组均

  11. A unique pattern of intracranial pressure in a patient with traumatic paroxysmal sympathetic storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyun Jin; Park, Seong Hyun; Hwang, Sung Kyoo

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic storm (PSS), or diencephalic seizure, usually appears in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and is characterized by various sympathetic symptoms. The physiological effects of this syndrome are not well studied. The authors monitored intracranial pressure (ICP) in a patient with PSS and reviewed its impact on the physiology and management of the syndrome. A 12-year-old male patient was involved in a traffic accident. Upon arrival at the emergency room, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 5 and he showed decerebration. A brain CT showed an intracerebral hematoma in the right basal ganglia, at which point craniotomy and removal of the hematoma were performed. Continuous intracranial monitoring was performed using the fiber-optic intraparenchymal method. Beginning the day after the trauma, the patient began exhibiting sympathetic symptoms including intermittent episodes of fever, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, tachypnea, diaphoresis and decerebrate rigidity. These episodes were accompanied by ICP elevation of greater than 20 mm Hg. ICP was decreased during hyperventilation, and the episodic symptoms subsided as ICP normalized. PaCO(2) was periodically altered in association with hyperventilation. Electroencephalogram did not show epileptiform discharges, and the sympathetic spells were aborted by continuous intravenous midazolam infusion. The authors report on a pattern of ICP monitoring in association with PSS. Traumatic PSS should be recognized in the appropriate setting to prevent secondary brain damage.

  12. Cardiopulmonary effects and eyeball centralization with low-dose atracurium in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized dogs Avaliação cardiopulmonar e da centralização do globo ocular em cães com baixas doses de atracúrio mantidos em anestesia inalatória sob ventilação espontânea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the cardiopulmonary effects and eyeball centralization time obtained with 15 or 30µg kg-1 of atracurium in anesthetized dogs under spontaneous breathing. Eighteen healthy adult mixed-breed dogs were used, which received 0.1mg kg-1 acepromazine and 0.5mg kg-1 morphine IM, followed by 4mg kg-1 propofol IV and maintained on isoflurane anesthesia with spontaneous breathing. Animals received 1mL 0.9% NaCl IV (CG, 15µg kg-1 (G15 or 30µg kg-1 (G30 of atracurium IV. Eyeball centralization time was measured; heart rate (HR, systolic (SAP, mean (MAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressures, respiratory rate (RR, tidal volume (Vt and minute volume (Vm were determined every 5min, and pH, arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 , arterial O2 pressure (PaO2 , hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2 , bicarbonate (HCO3- and base excess (BE every 15min until 60min. Both doses of atracurium produced a similar period of eyeball centralization. Vt in groups treated with atracurium was lower than in CG up to 15min. Vm in G15 differed from CG up to 10min and in G30 up to 25min. No differences were observed for cardiovascular parameters, RR, SaO2, PaO2, HCO3- and BE. pH decreased in CG between 30 and 60min and in G15 and G30 at 15min. G30 differed from CG between 15 and 30min. PaCO2 in GC differed from baseline between 30 and 60min and in G15 differed at 15min. Atracurium at the dose of 15µg kg-1 is adequate for short corneal procedures in inhalant-anesthetized dogs under spontaneous breathing.Objetivou-se determinar os efeitos cardiopulmonares e o tempo de centralização do globo ocular obtidos com 15 ou 30µg kg-1 de atracúrio em cães anestesiados sob ventilação espontânea. Dezoito cães adultos foram pré-medicados com 0,1mg kg-1 de acepromazina e 0,5mg kg-1 de morfina IM, anestesiados com 4mg kg-1 de propofol IV e mantidos sob anestesia inalatória com isofluorano em ventilação espontânea. Os animais receberam 1mL de NaCl 0,9% IV (GC, 15

  13. Effect of dystocia and treatment with oxytocin on neonatal calf vitality and acid-base, electrolyte and haematological status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L

    2015-02-01

    Under adverse obstetrical conditions, appropriate supervision and assistance during the immediate neonatal period are of the utmost importance, especially for weak calves. The aim of this study was to establish the effects of dystocia and oxytocin infusion on neonatal vitality, acid-base balance, and electrolyte and haematological homeostasis of dairy calves. Data were collected for 30 Holstein calves which were allocated to three groups: normal calving (n = 10); dystocia with mild to severe obstetric assistance (n = 10); and uterine inertia treated with oxytocin (n = 10). All 30 calves exhibited normothermia at birth, but had a significant decrease in body temperature after 60 min. Dystocic calves had lower Apgar scores than calves in the other two groups, and had respiratory and metabolic acidosis. Calves from normal calvings had normal blood pH, but base excess below the reference range. The mean partial pressure (Pa) of oxygen of calves whose dam had been treated with oxytocin was lower than that of calves from normal calvings. In all experimental groups, there was improvement in metabolic status in the first 60 min postpartum as PaCO2 values significantly decreased. All calves had normonatraemia, normokalaemia and normochloridaemia during the study period, but calves born to dams treated with oxytocin had a higher sodium concentration than those in the two other groups.

  14. Clinical observation on effects of high frequency oscillating ventilation on patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-gang ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the effect of high frequency oscillating ventilation (HFOV on patients with early acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and its mechanism. Methods  Through self controlled study, in 25 patients who met criteria of ARDS, their PaO2/FiO2, Paw, arterial blood pH, PaCO2, Cst, cadiac index (CI, heart rate (HR, central venous pressure (CVP, percentage pulmonary shunt (QS/QT, oxygen index (OI and incidence rate of ventilator associated lung injury (VALI, ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP were recorded 1, 3, 5 days before and after HFOV. Results  Five days later, X ray examination showed that all of the patients got better. Seven days later, 3 patients died because of original diseases, but their symptoms of ARDS improved. Three days after HFOV treatment, the value of PaO2/FiO2 (172.5±69.8 and Cst (63.4±10.5 increased compared with baseline (95.5±29.5, 31.5±4.5, P0.05. Conclusion  HFOV can improve oxygenation index and pulmonary complications of patients with early ARDS.

  15. Limitations of split-night polysomnography for the diagnosis of nocturnal hypoventilation and titration of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Andrea H S; Korngut, Lawrence; Rimmer, Karen; Damji, Omar; Turin, Tanvir C; Hanly, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Split-night polysomnography is performed at our centre in all patients with ALS who require assessment for nocturnal hypoventilation and their response to non-invasive ventilation. The purpose of this study was to determine how successful this practice has been, reflected by whether a complete assessment was achieved by a single split-night polysomnogram. We undertook a systematic, retrospective review of all consecutive split-night polysomnograms in ALS patients between 2005 and 2012. A total of 47 cases were reviewed. Forty-three percent of patients had an incomplete test, resulting in a recommendation to repeat the polysomnogram. Poor sleep efficiency and absence of REM sleep in the diagnostic portion of the study were strongly associated with incomplete studies. Clinical variables that reflect severity of ALS (FVC, PaCO2, ALSFRS-R) and use of REM-suppressing antidepressants or sedative-hypnotics were not associated with incomplete split-night polysomnogram. In conclusion, a single, split-night polysomnogram is frequently inconclusive for the assessment of nocturnal hypoventilation and complete titration of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with ALS. Poor sleep efficiency and absence of REM sleep are the main limitations of split-night polysomnography in this patient population.

  16. Effects of tramadol on ventilation function%曲马多对通气功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玉琳

    2003-01-01

    目的:了解曲马多作为麻醉辅助用药,对通气功能的影响.方法:将 30例患者随机分成曲马多组( T组)和哌替啶组( P组),采用曲马多 2 mg/kg(≤ 100 mg/次)及哌替啶 1 mg/kg(≤ 50 mg/次), 5分钟滴完后,观察其 5、 10、 20、 30分钟 HR、 SPO2、 VT、 VE及动脉血气分析各项指标.结果: P组与 T组均有 PaCO2轻度上升( P>0.05), P组 VT、 VE及 SPO2短期下降明显并低于 T组( P0.05).结论:提示哌替啶有明显呼吸抑制作用,而曲马多麻醉期间辅助用药无进一步降低每分通气量之虑,但应注意用量及滴注速度.

  17. Assessment of blood gas analysis results and degree of infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure after NCPAP therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Luo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the blood gas analysis results and degree of infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure after NCPAP therapy.Methods:A total of 60 cases of children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure who were treated in our hospital from August 2013 to August 2015 were included in the study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=30). Control group received routine anti-infection and oxygen inhalation by nasal tube, observation group received additional NCPAP therapy, and then differences in values of blood gas and oxygen metabolism indexes, resting pulmonary function, respiratory mechanics indexes and serum infection-related parameters were compared between two groups.Results: After observation group received NCPAP therapy, PaO2, PH, CaO2, DO2 and SaO2 values were higher than those of control group while PaCO2 and VO2 values were lower than those of control group; VC%, FVC%, FEV1%, PEF%, MMEF% and MVV% values were higher than those of control group; respiratory mechanics parameters PIP, PP, Pm, VE and R values were lower than those of control group; serum CHE and PA values were higher than those of control group while sTREM-1 and HMGB-1 values were lower than those of control group.Conclusion:NCPAP therapy can significantly optimize the respiratory function and promote the recovery from infection in children with severe pneumonia and respiratory failure, and it has positive clinical significance.

  18. Regional neurohypophysial and hypothalamic blood flow in rats during hypercapnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, R.M. Jr.; Myers, C.L.; Page, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in the neurohypophysis and hypothalamus in normocapnic and hypercapnic rats using (/sup 14/C)isopropyliodoamphetamine. Rats were surgically prepared using nitrous oxide and halothane and placed in plaster restraining casts. Hypercapnia was produced by increasing the fractional concentration of inspired CO/sub 2/ (FICO/sub 2/). rCBF in normocapnic rats was higher in the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, median eminence, and neural lobe than rates previously measured by use of diffusible tracers. During hypercapnia blood flow increased linearly with arterial PCO/sub 2/ (PACO/sub 2/) in all regions except the median eminence and neural lobe, which were not affected by hypercapnia. When rats were pretreated with phentolamine (1 mg/kg) to block the alpha-adrenergic receptors, blood flow in the median eminence and neural lobe increased significantly during hypercapnia. We conclude that blood flow in the cell bodies of the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus is regulated differently during hypercapnia than blood flow in the nerve terminals in the median eminence and neural lobe. Furthermore, vasodilation produced by increased CO/sub 2/ is offset by alpha-receptor stimulation in the median eminence and neural lobe.

  19. Laser Doppler flowmetry is valid for measurement of cerebral blood flow autoregulation lower limit in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonnesen, Jan; Pryds, Anders; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2005-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a recent technique that is increasingly being used to monitor relative changes in cerebral blood flow whereas the intra-arterial 133xenon injection technique is a well-established method for repeated absolute measurements of cerebral blood flow. The aim of this st...... CO2 challenge. Haemodilution influences the two methods differently causing relative overestimation of blood flow by the laser Doppler technique compared to the 133xenon method....... of this study was to validate LDF for assessment of cerebral autoregulation and CO2 reactivity with the 133xenon injection technique as the gold standard. Simultaneous measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) were collected by LDF (CBFLDF) and the 133xenon method (CBFXe) while (1) cerebral autoregulation...... was challenged by controlled systemic haemorrhage, or (2) cerebral blood flow was varied by manipulating the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2). LDF slightly overestimated CBF under conditions of haemorrhagic shock and haemodilution caused by controlled haemorrhage (paired t test, P

  20. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Talha Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs.

  1. An 88-Year-Old Man with Sudden Onset Abdominal Pain

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    Mohammad Manouchehrifar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An 88-year-old man presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of abdominal pain since 6 hours before. He was a known case of chronic renal failure that underwent hemodialysis three times a week. He also suffered from hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The patients’ on-arrival vital signs were as follows: systolic blood pressure: 100/60 mmHg, pulse rate: 88/minute, respiratory rate: 25/minute, oral temperature: 36◦C, oxygen saturation 93% in room air.  He had severely ill appearance on admission. Distended abdomen was considerable but had normal bowel sound and clearly, pain was disproportionate to physical examination. His electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm and venous blood gas analysis revealed the following: pH=6.96, PaCO2=49 mmHg, HCO3=11 mEq/L, Base excess= -20.  The bedside ultrasonography showed echogenic particles in hepatic parenchyma and same findings that were passing through the portal vein. Chest and abdominal X-rays were reported as normal. The patient underwent abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT scan with oral contrast.What is your diagnosis?

  2. High Frequency Jet Ventilation during Initial Management, Stabilization, and Transport of Newborn Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Case Series

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    Qianshen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review experience of the transport and stabilization of infants with CDH who were treated with high frequency jet ventilation (HFJV. Study Design. Retrospective chart review was performed of infants with antenatal diagnosis of CDH born between 2004 and 2009, at Mount Sinai Hospital Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Detailed information was abstracted from the charts of all infants who received HFJV. Results. Of the 55 infants, 25 were managed with HFJV at some point during resuscitation and stabilization prior to transport. HFJV was the initial ventilation mode in six cases and nineteen infants were placed on HFJV as rescue therapy. Blood gases procured from the umbilical artery before and/or after the initiation of HFJV. There was a significant difference detected for both PaCO2 (P=0.0002 and pH (P<0.0001. The pre- and posttransport vital signs remained stable and no transport related deaths or significant complications occurred. Conclusion. HFJV appears to be safe and effective providing high frequency rescue therapy for infants with CDH failing conventional mechanical ventilation. This paper supports the decision to utilize HFJV as it likely contributed to safe transport of many infants that would not otherwise have tolerated transport to a surgical centre.

  3. The effect of home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive pressure ventilation on blood gas changes and the life quality in patients with overlap syndrome%家庭氧疗及双水平无创通气对重叠综合征患者血气分析结果和生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚桂飞; 冯加喜; 龚柳阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive ventilation ( BiPAP) on blood gas changes and life quality of patients with overlap syndrome. Methods 38 patients with home oxygen therapy treatment and 42 patients with BiPAP treatment were selected, and blood gas analysis ( pH, PaO2 ,and PaCO2 values) and questionnaire of life quality were used to analyze the home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive ventilation (BiPAP) on blood gas changes and life quality. Results Blood pH and PaO2 of BiPAP group after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment (P <0. 05). Blood PaCO2 of BiPAP group after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (P <0. 05) . There was no significant differ-ence between blood PH,PO2 and blood PaCO2 of home oxygen therapy group before and after treatment. Blood pH and PaO2 BiPAP group increased with time during the treatment period ( P < 0. 05 ) , and blood PaC02 of BiPAP group decreased gradually the normal level(P <0.05) ,there was no significant difference between blood pH,PaO2 and blood PaC02 of home oxygen therapy group during the treatment period. Life quality of the patients of BiPAP group significantly was improved,but not in the home oxygen therapy group. Conclusion The non-invasive bi-level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) can improve effect blood gas changes and life quality of patients with overlap syndrome more significant than the home oxygen therapy.%目的 探讨家庭氧疗及双水平无创通气对重叠综合征患者血气分析结果和生活质量的影响.方法 38例经家庭氧疗和42例经双水平无创通气治疗的重叠综合征患者,分析治疗前后患者血液中pH、PaO2,PaCO2值变化情况,并通过调查问卷方式分析治疗前后生活质量.结果 双水平无创通气组治疗后血pH和血PaO2均显著高于治疗前(均P<0.05),血PaCO2显著低于治疗前(P<0.05);家庭氧疗

  4. A case of methemoglobinemia after ingestion of an aphrodisiac, later proven as dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W; Lee, J Y; Lee, K J; Kim, M; Kim, M J

    1999-08-01

    Methemoglobin (MetHb) is an oxidation product of hemoglobin in which the sixth coordination position of ferric iron is bound to a water molecule or to a hydroxyl group. The most common cause of acquired MetHb-emia is accidental poisoning which usually is the result of ingestion of water containing nitrates or food containing nitrite, and sometimes the inhalation or ingestion of butyl or amyl nitrite used as an aphrodisiac. We herein report a case of MetHb-emia after ingestion of an aphrodisiac, later identified as dapsone by gas chromatograph/mass selective detector (GC/MSD). A 24-year old male was admitted due to cyanosis after ingestion of a drug purchased as an aphrodisiac. On arterial blood gas analysis, pH was 7.32, PaCO2 26.8 mmHg, PaO2 75.6 mmHg, and bicarbonate 13.9 mmol/L. Initial pulse oxymetry was 89%. With 3 liter of nasal oxygen supplement, oxygen saturation was increased to 90-92%, but cyanosis did not disappear. Despite continuous supplement of oxygen, cyanosis was not improved. On the fifth hospital day, MetHb was 24.9%. Methylene blue was administered (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient rapidly improved. We proved the composition of aphrodisiac as dapsone by the method of GC/MSD.

  5. Using omeprazole to link the components of the post-prandial alkaline tide in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

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    Wood, Chris M; Schultz, Aaron G; Munger, R Stephen; Walsh, Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    After a meal, dogfish exhibit a metabolic alkalosis in the bloodstream and a marked excretion of basic equivalents across the gills to the external seawater. We used the H(+), K(+)-ATPase pump inhibitor omeprazole to determine whether these post-prandial alkaline tide events were linked to secretion of H(+) (accompanied by Cl(-)) in the stomach. Sharks were fitted with indwelling stomach tubes for pretreatment with omeprazole (five doses of 5 mg omeprazole per kilogram over 48 h) or comparable volumes of vehicle (saline containing 2% DMSO) and for sampling of gastric chyme. Fish were then fed an involuntary meal by means of the stomach tube consisting of minced flatfish muscle (2% of body mass) suspended in saline (4% of body mass total volume). Omeprazole pre-treatment delayed the post-prandial acidification of the gastric chyme, slowed the rise in Cl(-) concentration of the chyme and altered the patterns of other ions, indicating inhibition of H(+) and accompanying Cl(-) secretion. Omeprazole also greatly attenuated the rise in arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations and reduced the net excretion of basic equivalents to the water by 56% over 48 h. Arterial blood CO(2) pressure (Pa(CO(2))) and plasma ions were not substantially altered. These results indicate that elevated gastric H(+) secretion (as HCl) in the digestive process is the major cause of the systemic metabolic alkalosis and the accompanying rise in base excretion across the gills that constitute the alkaline tide in the dogfish.

  6. Influence of Nasal Continues Positive Airway Pressure on Retention of Carbon Dioxide in Newborn%新生儿经鼻持续气管正压通气对二氧化碳潴留的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玫; 陈大鹏; 熊英; 陈超

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of nasal continues positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on retention of carbon dioxide(CO2) in newborns.Methods From June to December 2009,a total of 46 newborns who had nCPAP treatment for 72 hours in West China Second University Hospital,Sichuan University were included in nCPAP group.Meanwhile,another 20 cases of neonates with jaundice were selected as control group.The artery blood gas was detected by STEPHAN CPCP-B just before nCPAP treatment and at 30 min,6 h,12 h,24 h,36 h after nCPAP treatment in nCPAP group.The same method determined the artery blood gas in control group.The blood gas analysis results between nCPAP group before nCPAP treatment and control group,and between nCPAP group at different time slots and control group were analyzed by statistical methods.The procedure of this study was consistent with ethical standard which was established by the committee of investigation in human beings of West China Second University Hospital,Sichuan University.And it was approved by this committee.Guardians were informed of grouping and their written informed consent was obtained before clinical studies.There had no significance differences between two groups among gestational age at delivery,day age,and gender (P>0.05).Results There had significant difference between nCPAP group before nCPAP treatment and control group in pH value and partial pressure of oxygen in artery (Pao2) (P<0.01),but partial pressure of CO2 in artery (PaCO2 ),levels of ( HCO3ˉ ),standard bicarbonate (SB) and base excess (BE) had no significant difference (P>0.05).The blood gas results of nCPAP group at different treatment time slots and control group showed that even using nCPAP in newborns with normal Paco2 for 72 h,there were no signs of retention of CO2 (P>0.05).Conclusions Using nCPAP in newborn with normal PaCO2 for 72 h may not cause serous retention of CO2.%目的 探讨新生儿使用经鼻持续气管正压通气(nCPAP)前

  7. Load-distributing band improves ventilation and hemodynamics during resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest

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    Wang Shuo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR has great potential for the clinical setting. The purpose of present study is to compare the hemodynamics and ventilation during and after the load-distributing band CPR, versus the manual CPR in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest, and to investigate the influence of rescue breathing in different CPR protocols. Methods Sixty-four male pigs (n = 16/group, weighing 30 ± 2 kg, were induced ventricular fibrillation and randomized into four resuscitation groups: continuous load-distributing band CPR without rescue ventilation (C-CPR, load-distributing band 30:2 CPR (A-CPR, load-distributing band CPR with continuous rescue breathing (10/min (V-CPR or manual 30:2 CPR (M-CPR. Respiratory variables and hemodynamics were recorded continuously; blood gas was analyzed. Results Tidal volume produced by compressions in the A-, C- and V-CPR groups were significantly higher compared with the M-CPR group (all p 2 of the A-, C- and V-CPR groups were significantly higher and PaCO2 were significantly lower compared with the M-CPR (both p  Conclusions The load-distributing band CPR significantly improved respiratory parameters during resuscitation by augmenting passive ventilation, and significantly improved coronary perfusion pressure. The volume of ventilation produced by the load-distributing band CPR was adequate to maintain sufficient gas exchange independent of rescue breathing.

  8. Changes in body fluid compartments on re-induction to high altitude and effect of diuretics

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    Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Tyagi, A. K.; Bhagat, Maj J. K.; Parshad, R.; Divekar, H. M.

    1988-03-01

    Studies were carried out in 29 healthy young adults in the Indian Army stationed in the plains and posted at an elevation of 3500 m for more than 6 months. After exposure to a low elevation in Delhi (260 m) for 3 weeks they were reinduced to a height of 3500 m. The subjects were divided into three groups, each of which was treated with either placebo or acetazolamide or spironolactone. The drug treatment was started immediately after their landing at high altitude and continued for 2 days only. Total body water, extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, plasma volume, blood pH, PaO2, PaCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on exposure at Delhi and on re-induction to high altitude. Plasma volume was increased after the descent from high altitude and remained high for up to 21 day's study. This increased plasma volume may have some significance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema. Total body water and intracellular fluid content were increased at 260 m elevation, while extracellular fluid decreased. On re-induction there was a decrease in total body water with no change in the extracellular fluid content.

  9. Hemodynamic management of cardiovascular failure by using PCO(2) venous-arterial difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dres, Martin; Monnet, Xavier; Teboul, Jean-Louis

    2012-10-01

    The difference between mixed venous blood carbon dioxide tension (PvCO(2)) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)), called ∆PCO(2) has been proposed to better characterize the hemodynamic status. It depends on the global carbon dioxide (CO(2)) production, on cardiac output and on the complex relation between CO(2) tension and CO(2) content. The aim of this review is to detail the physiological background allowing adequate interpretation of ∆PCO(2) at the bedside. Clinical and experimental data support the use of ∆PCO(2) as a valuable help in the decision-making process in patients with hemodynamic instability. The difference between central venous CO(2) tension and arterial CO(2) tension, which is easy to obtain can substitute for ∆PCO(2) to assess the adequacy of cardiac output. Differences between local tissue CO(2) tension and arterial CO(2) tension can also be obtained and provide data on the adequacy of local blood flow to the local metabolic conditions.

  10. Comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy with CT cerebral blood flow measurements in newborn piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Derek W.; Picot, Paul A.; Springett, Roger; Delpy, David T.; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-05-01

    Severely premature infants are often at high risk of cerebral hemorrhage or ischemic injury due to their inability to properly regulate blood flow to the brain. If blood flow is too high, the infant is at risk of cerebral hemorrhage, while too little blood flow can result in ischemic injury. The purpose of this research is to design and develop a means of non-invasively measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Such a device would greatly aid the diagnosis and monitoring of afflicted infants. Previous attempts to measure CBF with NIRS have achieved limited success. In this study we acquired high signal-to-noise NIR spectrum from 600 to 980 nm with a cooled CCD spectrometer. This spectrometer enables the differential path length factor (DPF) to be estimated with accuracy using a second derivative technique described by Matcher et al. The validity of our new approach is determined via direct comparison with a previously validated computed tomography (CT) method. Three newborn piglets were studied. CBF measurements were performed at various partial arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) using both the NIRS and CT methods. The results of the two methods correlate well with a relationship of CBFCT equals -4.30 + 1.05 CBFNIRS (r2 equals 0.96).

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine (Weijing Decoction Combined with Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Shaonan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weijing decoction combined with routine pharmacotherapy (RP for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCT evaluating Weijing decoction for AECOPD were included. English, Chinese, and Japanese databases were searched from their respective inceptions to June 2013. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool. All data were analyzed and synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. Results. Fifteen (15 studies involving 986 participants were included. Participants were diagnosed with COPD in the acute exacerbation stage. In addition, most of studies reported that they included participants with the Chinese medicine syndrome, phlegm-heat obstructing the Lung. Weijing decoction combined with RP improved lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1, arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2, clinical effective rate, and reduced inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-8 when compared with RP alone. No severe adverse events were reported in these studies. Conclusions. Weijing decoction appeared to be beneficial for AECOPD and well-tolerated when taken concurrently with RP, such as antibiotics, bronchodilators (oral and inhaled, and mucolytics.

  12. Pulmonary hypertension due to acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    S.A. Ñamendys-Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to describe the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, to characterize their hemodynamic cardiopulmonary profiles, and to correlate these parameters with outcome. All consecutive patients over 16 years of age who were in the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of ARDS and an in situ pulmonary artery catheter for hemodynamic monitoring were studied. Pulmonary hypertension was diagnosed when the mean pulmonary artery pressure was >25 mmHg at rest with a pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or left atrial pressure <15 mmHg. During the study period, 30 of 402 critically ill patients (7.46% who were admitted to the ICU fulfilled the criteria for ARDS. Of the 30 patients with ARDS, 14 met the criteria for pulmonary hypertension, a prevalence of 46.6% (95% CI; 28-66%. The most common cause of ARDS was pneumonia (56.3%. The overall mortality was 36.6% and was similar in patients with and without pulmonary hypertension. Differences in patients' hemodynamic profiles were influenced by the presence of pulmonary hypertension. The levels of positive end-expiratory pressure and peak pressure were higher in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and the PaCO2 was higher in those who died. The level of airway pressure seemed to influence the onset of pulmonary hypertension. Survival was determined by the severity of organ failure at admission to the intensive care unit.

  13. Associação entre índice de ventilação e tempo de ventilação mecânica em lactentes com bronquiolite viral aguda Association between ventilation index and time on mechanical ventilation in infants with acute viral bronchiolitis

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    Armando A. Almeida-Júnior

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação entre tempo de ventilação mecânica e variáveis antropométricas, clínicas e de função pulmonar, precocemente, em lactentes com insuficiência respiratória por bronquiolite viral aguda em ventilação mecânica invasiva, e a evolução temporal das variáveis significativamente correlacionadas. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 29 lactentes admitidos na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica do Hospital de Clínicas da UNICAMP, com diagnóstico de bronquiolite viral aguda, definido por critérios clínicos e radiológicos. Lactentes com doenças crônicas ou instabilidade hemodinâmica foram excluídos. Todas as medidas foram feitas entre 24 e 72 horas em ventilação mecânica, usando capnografia volumétrica e análise dos gases sangüíneos. O tempo de ventilação mecânica foi dividido em: menor ou igual que 7 dias e maior que 7 dias. A associação entre o tempo de ventilação e as variáveis analisadas foi determinada pelo coeficiente de correlação de Spearman (r s RESULTADOS: O tempo de ventilação mecânica apresentou correlação positiva significativa com a PaCO2 (r s = 0,45, p = 0,01 e com o índice de ventilação (r s = 0,51, p = 0,005, e negativa com o pH (r s = -0,40, p = 0,03. Índice de ventilação com valor de 37, avaliado do primeiro ao quinto dia, foi associado a risco progressivamente aumentado de tempo de ventilação mecânica maior que 7 dias (OR = 4,2 no primeiro dia a 15,71 no quarto dia CONCLUSÕES: Índice ventilatório, PaCO2 e pH, precocemente medidos, foram associados com tempo prolongado em ventilação mecânica, refletindo a gravidade do distúrbio ventilatório e necessidade de suporte.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between time on mechanical ventilation and anthropometric, clinical and pulmonary function variables, measured early, in infants on invasive mechanical ventilation with acute respiratory failure due to viral bronchiolitis, and the temporal progression

  14. Effect of partial liquid ventilation on oleic acid-induced inflammatory responses in piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; WANG Qiang; LIU Ying-long; LI Xiao-feng; LI Jian-an; L(U) Xiao-dong; LING Feng; LIU Ai-jun; FAN Xiang-ming

    2010-01-01

    Background Pediatric patients are susceptible to lung injury.Acute lung injury (ALI) in children often results in a high mortality.Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) has been shown to markedly improve oxygenation and reduce histologic evidence of injury in a number of lung injury models.This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that PLV would attenuate the production of local and systemic cytokines in an immature piglet model of ALI induced by oleic acid (OA).Methods Twelve Chinese immature piglets were induced to develop ALI by oleic acid.The animals were randomly assigned to two groups (n=6): (1) conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) group and (2) PLV with FC-77 (10 ml/kg) group.Results Compared with MV group, PLV group got better cardiopulmonary variables (P <0.05).These variables included heart rate, mean blood pressure, blood pH, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2), PaO2/FiO2 and partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2).Partial liquid ventilation reduced IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TN F-α both in plasma and tissue concentrations compared with MV group (P <0.05).Conclusions Partial liquid ventilation provides protective effects against inflammatory responses in the lungs of oleic acid-induced immature piglets.

  15. 呼吸衰竭患者血气酸碱平衡变化与预后的相关性%Respiratory Failure in Patients with Blood Acid-base Balance Change and Prognosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丹

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨呼吸衰竭患者血气酸碱平衡变化与预后的相关性。方法选择我院2011年5月至2013年6月收治的呼吸衰竭患者116例,都给予机械通气治疗,在治疗前后均进行血气酸碱平衡变化分析。结果经过治疗后,总有效率为94.8%。有效组在治疗前后的PaCO2和PaO2值对比差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。治疗前PaCO2和PaO2值与预后之间有直线相关关系(P0.05). PaCO2 and PaO2 values before treatment and prognosis linear correlation between (P<0.05). Conclusion Arterial blood gas changes in acid-base balance is to determine the prognosis of patients with respiratory failure, an important indicator of clinically can guide treatment.

  16. Generation of a phage-display library of single-domain camelid VH H antibodies directed against Chlamydomonas reinhardtii antigens, and characterization of VH Hs binding cell-surface antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenzhi; Rosenberg, Julian N; Wauchope, Akelia D; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Shoemaker, Charles B; Weeks, Donald P; Oyler, George A

    2013-11-01

    Single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) are powerful tools for the detection, quantification, purification and subcellular localization of proteins of interest in biological research. We have generated camelid (Lama pacos) heavy chain-only variable VH domain (VH H) libraries against antigens in total cell lysates from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The sdAbs in the sera from immunized animals and VH H antibody domains isolated from the library show specificity to C. reinhardtii and lack of reactivity to antigens from four other algae: Chlorella variabilis, Coccomyxa subellipsoidea, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Antibodies were produced against a diverse representation of antigens as evidenced by sera ELISA and protein-blot analyses. A phage-display library consisting of the VH H region contained at least 10(6) individual transformants, and thus should represent a wide range of C. reinhardtii antigens. The utility of the phage library was demonstrated by using live C. reinhardtii cells to pan for VH H clones with specific recognition of cell-surface epitopes. The lead candidate VH H clones (designated B11 and H10) bound to C. reinhardtii with EC50 values ≤ 0.5 nm. Treatment of cells with VH H B11 fused to the mCherry or green fluorescent proteins allowed brilliant and specific staining of the C. reinhardtii cell wall and analysis of cell-wall genesis during cell division. Such high-complexity VH H antibody libraries for algae will be valuable tools for algal researchers and biotechnologists.

  17. Exogenous surfactant therapy in a patient with adult respiratory distress syndrome after near drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudinger, T; Bankier, A; Strohmaier, W; Weiss, K; Locker, G J; Knapp, S; Röggla, M; Laczika, K; Frass, M

    1997-10-01

    A 24-year-old woman developed adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after near-drowning due to attempted suicide. Conventional mechanical ventilation together with prone positioning and inhaled nitric oxide could not provide sufficient oxygenation. Surface tension data (gamma min = 27 dyn/cm, stability index = 0.341) from a lavage sample supported the hypothesis that the surfactant function of this patient was drastically reduced due to a washout effect by aspiration of fresh water. Porcine surfactant (Curosurf, 50 mg/kg for each lung) was instilled via fibreoptic bronchoscope. The partial arterial carbon dioxide pressure (paCO2) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio as well as shunt fraction (Qs/Qt) improved impressively. When respiratory situation deteriorated again, surfactant application was repeated. Altogether, six bolus instillations of surfactant (total dose 300 mg/kg = 18,000 mg) were administered until the respiratory situation had stabilized and oxygenation could be maintained by conventional mechanical ventilation. The radiological findings did not show substantial amelioration. The patient developed septic shock and died 12 days after admission. Surfactant application apparently led to a significant improvement of the respiratory function. However, the outcome could not be influenced positively. The high cost of surfactant therapy prevents the more widespread early administration in patients at risk.

  18. Efficacy of high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula with active humidification in a patient with acute respiratory failure of neuromuscular origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Lobato, Salvador; Folgado, Miguel Angel; Chapa, Angel; Mayoralas Alises, Sagrario

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of choice for patients with respiratory failure of neuromuscular origin, especially in patients with hypercapnic respiratory acidosis, is noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Endotracheal intubation and invasive ventilation are indicated for patients with severe respiratory compromise or failure of NIV. In recent years, high-flow oxygen therapy and active humidification devices have been introduced, and emerging evidence suggests that high-flow oxygen may be effective in various clinical settings, such as acute respiratory failure, after cardiac surgery, during sedation and analgesia, in acute heart failure, in hypoxemic respiratory distress, in do-not-intubate patients, in patients with chronic cough and copious secretions, pulmonary fibrosis, or cancer, in critical areas and the emergency department. We report on a patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis who arrived at the emergency department with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. She did not tolerate NIV and refused intubation, but was treated successfully with heated, humidified oxygen via high-flow nasal cannula. Arterial blood analysis after an hour on high-flow nasal cannula showed improved pH, P(aCO2), and awareness. The respiratory acidosis was corrected, and she was discharged after 5 days of hospitalization. Her response to high-flow nasal cannula was similar to that expected with NIV. We discuss the mechanisms of action of heated, humidified high-flow oxygen therapy.

  19. The department of Intensive Care Unit, the Chinese medical hospital of Huaian City, Jiangsu province, China%重度肺挫伤临床治疗32例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金晓玲; 周洁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重度肺挫伤的治疗.方法 对32例重度肺挫伤患者采用呼吸机正压通气和使用利尿剂,其中部分重危患者使用血管活性药物稳定循环,观察治疗前后血气分析变化.结果 治疗后PaO2及SaO2均明显升高,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 呼吸机正压通气和利尿剂及血管活性药物治疗肺挫伤疗效满意.%Objective To investigate the clinic treatments of serious contusion. Method In 32 patients with contusions, observed the blood gas parameters including PH,PaO2 ,SaO2 ,PaCO2 ,before and after the using positive airway pressure ventilation with diuretic and vascular active drug. Results The values of both PaO2 and SaO2 greatly increased after the ventilation, and the difference was statistically significant P <0. 01 ). Conclusion Utilization of positive airway pressure ventilation with diuretic and vascular active drug contusion has a satisfactory therapeutic effect.

  20. Effect of acupuncture on bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, D Y; Lee, S P

    1976-11-01

    1. Needle acupuncture was performed at three sites in twenty patients in a clinical attack of bronchial asthma. 2. In all patients the symptoms of bronchoconstriction improved during the attacks when the correct site was stimulated, and in five patients wheezing was abolished. 3. Stimulation at the correct site produced a significant increase in the mean FEV1-0 (58%) and FVC (29%) but not in maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (MMFR; 76%), when compared with the findings before acupuncture, along with a significant fall in the Pa,CO2 and an insignificant fall in Pa,O2. A mild tachycardia was also observed. 4. After acupuncture a greater improvement in FEV1-0, FVC and MMFR was produced by inhalation of isoprenaline. 5. No significant changes in FEV1-0, FVC, MMFR, pulse rate or arterial blood gas tensions occurred after acupuncture at control sites. 6. In four of the patients during clinical remission acupuncture was performed before and after histamine aerosol challenge, but there was no effect on either the severity or the duration of the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. 7. It is concluded that acupunture probably reduced the reflex component of the bronchoconstriction, but failed to influence direct smooth muscle constriction caused by histamine.