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Sample records for alpaca vicugna pacos

  1. Skull osteometry of the adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

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    Castañeda C., Henry; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Chávez R., Alexander; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the skull osteometry and to calculate the craniometric indexes of adult alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The study was carried out using 30 heads of adult Huacaya alpacas (15 males and 15 females), from the district of Sicuani, Cusco, Peru. The skulls were obtained by the maceration technique. The anatomical description was applied using the recommended terminology by the Veterinary Anatomical Nomenclature 2012. A digital vernier was used in the measurement and calculatio...

  2. Normal bacterial conjunctival flora in the Huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

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    Storms, Goedele; Meersschaert, Carole; Farnir, Frédéric; Grauwels, Magda

    2016-01-01

    To describe the bacterial flora of the normal conjunctiva of Huacaya alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and to determine the effect of age and gender on this flora. Fifty Huacaya alpacas. After a complete ophthalmic examination, conjunctival swabs were obtained from both eyes and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Logistic and Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate the effect of age and gender on bacterial isolation. Four animals were excluded because of signs of external ocular disease. Of the remaining 46 alpacas, bacteria were recovered from 96.7% (89/92) of the eyes. A total of 190 bacterial isolates were cultured with a mean of 2.1 bacterial isolates per eye. The majority of isolates (70%) were Gram-positive. Staphylococcus xylosus (44/190: 23.2%) predominated, followed by viridans streptococci (32/190: 16.8%) and Pantoea agglomerans (24/190: 12.6%). Other frequently isolated bacteria included Rothia mucilaginosa (12/190: 6.3%), Staphylococcus equorum (12/190: 6.3%), Bacillus species (9/190: 4.7%), Moraxella ovis (9/190: 4.7%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (6/190: 3.2%). Statistical analysis showed that alpacas harboring viridans streptococci and Moraxella species were significantly younger. Gender did not significantly affect type of bacterial isolation. There appeared to be no significant effect of age or gender on number of bacteria isolated. Gram-positive aerobes were most commonly cultured, with S. xylosus and viridans streptococci predominating. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of Moraxella species in the healthy conjunctival sac of alpacas. Alpacas harboring viridans streptococci and Moraxella species were significantly younger. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  3. Cranial arterial patterns of the alpaca (Camelidae: Vicugna pacos)

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    2017-01-01

    Artiodactyl cranial arterial patterns deviate significantly from the standard mammalian pattern, most notably in the possession of a structure called the carotid rete (CR)—a subdural arterial meshwork that is housed within the cavernous venous sinus, replacing the internal carotid artery (ICA). This relationship between the CR and the cavernous sinus facilitates a suite of unique physiologies, including selective brain cooling. The CR has been studied in a number of artiodactyls; however, to my knowledge, only a single study to date documents a subset of the cranial arteries of New World camelids (llamas, alpacas, vicugñas and guanacoes). This study is the first complete description of the cranial arteries of a New World camelid species, the alpaca (Vicugna pacos), and the first description of near-parturition cranial arterial morphology within New World camelids. This study finds that the carotid arterial system is conserved between developmental stages in the alpaca, and differs significantly from the pattern emphasized in other long-necked ruminant artiodactyls in that a patent, homologous ICA persists through the animal's life. PMID:28405385

  4. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

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    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  5. IRRIGACIÓN ARTERIAL DEL MIEMBRO PÉLVICO DE LA ALPACA (Vicugna pacos)

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    Angulo A., José; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Cisneros S., Jannet; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar y describir los vasos arteriales del miembro pélvico de la alpaca (Vicugna pacos). Se utilizaron seis alpacas adultas (3 hembras y 3 machos). En la disección no se observaron diferencias anatómicas entre machos y hembras. La irrigación se originó a partir de la arteria ilíaca externa, principalmente, y de la arteria ilíaca interna. La arteria ilíaca externa fue el gran conducto arterial que se extendió por las diferentes regiones del miembro pélvico...

  6. Anatomical description of the sinus in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

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    Zárate L., Rosse; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Díaz C., Diego; Laboratorio de Farmacología y Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Huanca L., Wilfredo; Laboratorio de Reproducción Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to describe the macroscopic anatomy of the sinus in the alpaca. Ten skulls of adult alpacas were prepared by the maceration technique, and the description through longitudinal cuts was done using terminology recommended by the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. In addition, X-rays with contrast medium were taken to four adult alpacas to determine the relationships of sinus with other anatomical structures. Results showed that the frontal and maxillary sinus w...

  7. Enteritis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) associated with a potentially novel adenovirus.

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    Twomey, David F; Grierson, Sylvia S; Martelli, Francesca; Higgins, Robert J; Jeffrey, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Adenovirus-associated enteritis was diagnosed by histopathology of small intestine in a 2-year-old alpaca (Vicugna pacos). Electron microscopy confirmed intracytoplasmic and intranuclear adenoviral particles within enterocytes. Nucleic acid was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections, and a pan-adenovirus nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed to target a partial sequence of the polymerase gene. The PCR product (321 bp) was cloned and sequenced. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) nucleotide database demonstrated 68% identity with the isolates Canine adenovirus 1 and Bovine adenovirus 3. Comparison of the predicted amino acid sequence against the NCBI database demonstrated 75% identity with Bovine adenovirus 3. Phylogenetic analysis supported the relatively close relationship of this isolate to Bovine adenovirus 3, but the alpaca isolate was sufficiently distant to be considered a potentially novel adenovirus for this species.

  8. Anthelmintic resistance in a herd of alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

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    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Nagy, Dusty W.; Schultz, Loren G.; Schaeffer, Josh W.

    2012-01-01

    A herd of alpacas was examined because of a history of severe endoparasitism, anemia, hypoproteinemia, and weight loss. Resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to albendazole, fenbendazole, and doramectin was documented. This report suggests that anthelmintic resistance may be an emerging problem in South American camelids in North America. PMID:23729829

  9. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

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    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Innervation and immunohistochemical characteristics of epididymis in Alpaca camelid (Vicugna pacos

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    Giovanna Liguori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpacas (Vicugna pacos are domesticated camelids indigenous to south America and recently also bred in Europe and Italy for their high quality wool. There is little data available regarding the innervation of the male reproductive tract of this species. In the present study, the distribution of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5, neuropeptide Y (NPY, tyrosine hydroxilase (TH, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP and substance P (SP was analyzed in the epididymis by using immunohistochemical methods. Specimens of the caput, corpus and cauda epididymis were fixed in Bouin’s fluid and processed for immunohistochemistry analysis with primary antibodies against PGP 9.5, NPY, TH, CGRP and SP. Immunopositivity to PGP 9.5 and TH and NPY was observed in nerve fibre bundles and in single nerve fibres contained into the peritubular connective tissue. Many TH and NPY immunopositive cells were found to innervate blood vessels. Rare CGRP and SP immunopositive nerves were observed. Several PGP 9,5 and NPY immunopositive epithelial cells were observed in the caput epididymis. The results of the present study suggest a role for the innervations in modulate reproductive functions in the alpaca epididymis.

  11. Non-invasive Pregnancy Diagnosis from Urine by the Cuboni Reaction and the Barium Chloride Test in Donkeys (Equus asinus) and Alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

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    Kubátová, A; Fedorova, T; Skálová, I; Hyniová, L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate two chemical tests for non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis from urine, the Cuboni reaction and the barium chloride test, in donkeys (Equus asinus) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos). The research was carried out from April 2013 to September 2014. Urine samples were collected on five private Czech farms from 18 jennies and 12 alpaca females. Urine was collected non-invasively into plastic cups fastened on a telescopic rod, at 6-9 week intervals. In total, 60 and 54 urine samples from alpacas and jennies, respectively, were collected. The Cuboni reaction was performed by the State Veterinary Institute Prague. The barium chloride test was done with 5 ml of urine mixed together with 5 ml of 1% barium chloride solution. Results of the Cuboni reaction were strongly influenced by the reproductive status of jennies; the test was 100% successful throughout the second half of pregnancy. However, no relationship was found between the real reproductive status of alpaca females and results of the Cuboni reaction. It was concluded that the barium chloride test is not suitable for pregnancy diagnosis either in donkeys, due to significant influence of season on the results, or in alpacas, because no relationship between results of the test and the reproductive status of alpaca females was found. In conclusion, the Cuboni reaction has potential to become a standard pregnancy diagnostic method in donkeys.

  12. Hypoosmotic swelling test in alpaca (Vicugna pacos spermatozoa recovered the vas deferens

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    Quispe HA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to evaluate the endosmotic reaction in 5 hypoosmotic solutions 100, 125, 150, 175 and 200 mOsm/l (HOS test incubated 5 and 15 minutes using alpaca sperm recovered the vas deferens. We used 5 male alpacas with the vas deferens surgically diverted, recovering sperm 10 times for each animal; the microscopic characteristics were evaluated with ISAS®. Information’s hipoosmotic test was analyzed with a factorial arrangement in a random one-way model, the correlation between endosmosis and percentages of motility and vitality was analyzed with Spearman correlation. There were no significant differences (p>0,05 in incubation times; highly significant differences (p 0,05was found to endosmosis with percentages of sperm motility and vitality; in conclusion, a 125 mOsm/l solution with 5 minutes of incubation is sufficient to perform the hipoosmotic test in alpaca spermatozoa recovered the vas deferens.

  13. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

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    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  14. Molecular analysis of methanogenic archaea in the forestomach of the alpaca (Vicugna pacos

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    St-Pierre Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methanogens that populate the gastrointestinal tract of livestock ruminants contribute significantly to methane emissions from the agriculture industry. There is a great need to analyze archaeal microbiomes from a broad range of host species in order to establish causal relationships between the structure of methanogen communities and their potential for methane emission. In this report, we present an investigation of methanogenic archaeal populations in the foregut of alpacas. Results We constructed individual 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from five sampled animals and recovered a total of 947 sequences which were assigned to 51 species-level OTUs. Individuals were found to each have between 21 and 27 OTUs, of which two to six OTUs were unique. As reported in other host species, Methanobrevibacter was the dominant genus in the alpaca, representing 88.3% of clones. However, the alpaca archaeal microbiome was different from other reported host species, as clones showing species-level identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were the most abundant. Conclusion From our analysis, we propose a model to describe the population structure of Methanobrevibacter-related methanogens in the alpaca and in previously reported host species, which may contribute in unraveling the complexity of symbiotic archaeal communities in herbivores.

  15. Characterization of functional variables in epididymal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) sperm using imaging flow cytometry.

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    Santiani, Alexei; Ugarelli, Alejandra; Evangelista-Vargas, Shirley

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal alpaca sperm represent an alternative model for the study of alpaca semen. The objective of this study was to characterize the normal values of some functional variables in epididymal alpaca sperm using imaging flow cytometry. Alpaca testicles (n=150) were processed and sperm were recovered from the cauda epididymides. Only 76 samples with acceptable motility and sperm count were considered for assessment by imaging flow cytometry. Acrosome integrity and integrity/viability were assessed by FITC-PSA/PI and FITC-PNA/PI. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was assessed by MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated using BODIPY 581/591 C11. Results show that the mean values for acrosome-intact sperm were 95.03±6.39% and 93.34±7.96%, using FITC-PSA and FITC-PNA, respectively. The mean values for acrosome-intact viable sperm were 60.58±12.12% with FITC-PSA/PI and 58.81±12.94% with FITC-PNA/PI. Greater MMP was detected in 65.03±15.92% and 59.52±19.19%, using MitoTracker CMXRos and MitoTracker Deep Red FM, respectively. Lipid peroxidation was 0.84±0.95%. Evaluation of acrosome-intact and acrosome-intact viable sperm with FITC-PSA/PI compared with. FITC-PNA/PI or MMP with MitoTracker CMXRos compared with MitoTracker Deep Red FM were correlated (Psperm motility (r=0.3979). This report provides a basis for future research related to alpaca semen using the epididymal sperm model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection and genetic characterization of Pasteurella multocida from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pneumonia cases.

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    Rímac, Rocío; Luna, Luis; Hurtado, Raquel; Rosadio, Raúl; Maturrano, Lenin

    2017-08-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a common constituent of upper respiratory tract microbiota but is frequently isolated of alpaca lung tissues from pulmonary infections. Despite its importance, very little is known about this bacteria at molecular level. In order to characterize P. multocida isolates, 24 isolates recovered from 46 mortal acute cases in young alpacas with suspected pneumonia were analyzed, using biochemical and molecular tests for capsule and LPS typing, virulence factors detection, and ERIC-PCR genetic diversity analysis. All the P. multocida isolates belonged to the capsular type A, LPS genotype L6 (related to serotypes 10, 11, 12, and 15), and possessed virulence factors gene toxA and tbpA. ERIC-PCR analysis revealed two electrophoretic profiles, and the majority of isolates (23/24) shared the same fingerprint, indicating strong evidence that there was a common source of infection for all the affect animals. This study revealed the detection of P. multocida type A, LPS genotype L6, and toxA+ and tbpA+ from dead young alpacas with pneumonia in Peru.

  17. The combined effects of grain supplementation and tenderstretching on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat quality.

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    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of feeding a mixed grain supplement and tenderstretching (TS) alpaca carcasses on meat quality. A total of 56 castrated 24month old alpacas were divided into two treatments (pasture-only, and pasture plus supplementation). Supplemented groups were fed a mixed grain ration in addition to ad lib pasture for 10weeks. Animals were slaughtered across two kill days (n=28). One half of each carcass was suspended by the pelvis (TS) prior to chilling, and the other half was Achilles tendon hung (AH). After 24h, muscles were removed and aged for 10 and 25d. TS significantly increased sarcomere length and reduced shear force and cooking loss in the m. semimembranosus. This trend was not observed in other muscles including the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. psoas major. Ageing period resulted in a marginal improvement in LL tenderness. There is clear evidence that TS improves tenderness in the hindquarter of alpacas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality.

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    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

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    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

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    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Prevalence of Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae, bovine viral diarrhoea virus, and gastrointestinal parasitism in a sample of adult New Zealand alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

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    Dittmer, K E; Hinkson, J A; Dwyer, C; Adlington, B; van Andel, M

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of infection with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae (Mhl), antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV), and BVDV antigen, and the prevalence of animals with elevated faecal nematode egg counts (FEC) in a sample of adult New Zealand alpaca (Vicugna pacos). Blood samples were obtained from 175 alpaca, collected from 15 farms around New Zealand, and from 31 samples sent to a diagnostic laboratory for routine haematology. Blood smears (n=170) were examined microscopically for the presence of haemoplasma, and DNA was extracted from whole blood (n=206) for real-time PCR testing for Mhl. Packed cell volume (PCV) was determined for 193 samples. Serum samples (n=195) were tested for BVDV antibody using ELISA, and for BVDV antigen using a real-time PCR assay. Faecal samples were collected from 143 animals; FEC were measured, and samples pooled for larval culture. No haemoplasma organisms were present on blood smear examination. Of the 206 blood samples, two (from the same farm) were positive for Mhl by real-time PCR testing, giving a prevalence of infection with Mhl of 0.97%. Of the 195 serum samples tested, four (2.1%) were positive for antibodies to BVDV; animals with BVDV antibodies were from 3/15 (20%) farms, none of which farmed cattle. None of the serum samples were positive by PCR for BVDV antigen. The median FEC was 50 epg (min 0, max 4,700), with 55/143 (38.5%) samples having 0 epg, and 33/143 (23.1%) having ≥250 epg. Haemonchus spp. were the most common nematodes present in faecal larval cultures from the North Island. Log 10 FEC was negatively associated with PCV (p=0.02), and was higher in males than females (pparasitism was, however, a common finding in this sample of New Zealand alpaca.

  2. Presence, distribution and steroidogenic effect of the peptides orexin A and receptor 1 for orexins in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

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    Liguori, Giovanna; Assisi, Loredana; Squillacioti, Caterina; Paino, Salvatore; Mirabella, Nicola; Vittoria, Alfredo

    2012-10-01

    The orexins A (oxA) and B are peptides discovered in the rat hypothalamus and successively found in some peripheral organs of the mammalian body. They binds two protein G-coupled receptors defined receptor 1 (ox1r) and 2 for orexins, the first of which is highly specific for oxA while the second binds both the peptides with equal affinity. This work aimed to detect the presence of oxA and ox1r in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and investigate the role played by them on Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The species alpaca acquired, in the last years, increasing zootechnical interest for the quality of the wool produced and its breeding spread from the country of origin to USA, Australia and Europe. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to detect oxA in Leydig and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, resting spermatocytes, round and oval spermatids. Ox1r-immunoreactivity was found in Leydig cells and round, oval and elongated spermatids. The expression of the two peptides in tissue extracts was established by using Western blotting technique. Such results demonstrated that in the alpaca testis exists in a cellular complex able to produce and/or internalize oxA. Finally, the effect of oxA on steroidogenesis was investigated by means of in vitro cultured thin testis slices which were added with oxA or/and Müllerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS), a steroidolitic agent basally produced by the Sertoli cell. OxA evoked increase of testosterone production while MIS a decrease. The consecutive addition of oxA and MIS, or vice versa, highlighted an antagonistic interplay between the two substances which has been thought to be the main molecular event at the basis of the oxA-stimulated steroidogenesis mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of gender and age on the nutritional parameters of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat, colour stability and fat traits.

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    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hall, E J S; Greenwood, P L; Hopkins, D L

    2017-01-01

    Meat quality parameters for 50 huacaya alpacas, representing three age groups (18, 24 and 36months) and two genders (females and castrated males) were studied. Prior to chilling, samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) were taken to determine isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and glycogen concentration, and further meat quality samples were taken after 24h. Alpaca meat has low levels (Colour stability testing indicated alpaca meat was relatively stable during retail display with day of display having no significant effect on lightness (L*), or the 630nm/580nm ratio. These results may relate to the high proportion (76%) of glycolytic and type IIX muscle fibres in LL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Localization of orexin B and receptor 2 for orexins in testicular cytotypes of the camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, G; Squillacioti, C; Assisi, L; Mirabella, N; Langella, E; Costagliola, A; Vittoria, A

    2017-06-01

    The orexins A (OxA) and B (OxB) are two hypothalamic peptides involved in many physiological functions of the mammalian body. They act through the binding of two G-coupled receptors named receptor 1 (OX 1 ) and receptor 2 (OX 2 ) for orexins. The first receptor is specific for OxA, while the second binds both the substances with equal affinity. The orexins and the relative receptors have been traced by means of different techniques also at the periphery of the body and particularly in the adrenals, and in gastrointestinal and genital organs. Aim of this work was to investigate the presence of OxB and OX 2 by means of immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis in the testis of the South American camelid alpaca, a species primarily breed in Chile and Ecuador and recently diffused in Europe where the quality of its wool is particularly appreciated. OxB immunoreactivity (IR) was found in the tubular compartment of the testis where spermatogonia (resting), zygotene and pachytene spermatocytes, and spermatids clearly showed differently sized and shaped cytoplasmic positive structures. OX 2 -IR was found both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the testis and particularly in Leydig cells and round and elongated spermatids. Western blotting analysis of testis lysates showed the presence of a protein band whose molecular weight corresponded to that currently assigned to OX 2 . Such findings easily translate the hypothesis that OxB and its receptor 2 play a functional role both in the interstitial and tubular compartments of the alpaca testis. © 2017 The Authors. Reproduction in Domestic Animals Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Serological survey for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhoea virus and Neospora caninum in a population of South Australian alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, P D; Dornin, L E; Lambert, R C; Perry, J; Reichel, M P

    2015-12-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and Neospora caninum may cause clinical disease in alpacas. Both diseases are present in the Australian cattle population. The objective of this study was to perform a serological prevalence survey for BVDV and N. caninum exposure in a regional alpaca population of South Australia. Serum samples were taken from 182 alpacas on 10 farms, which had a combined population of 1308 alpacas. Serological analysis for BVD antibodies was performed using a competitive BVDV antibody ELISA kit. Serological analysis for N. caninum was performed using an anti-Neospora ELISA with a protein G conjugate. Of the 182 alpacas sampled, 5 animals located on three properties were positive for BVDV antibodies, constituting a prevalence of 2.7% (95% confidence interval 1-6%). All samples tested negative for N. caninum antibodies. There is a low BVDV seroprevalence and N. caninum is currently either absent or present at a very low prevalence in this population of alpacas in South Australia. There is serological evidence for the presence of both organisms in South Australian beef and dairy cattle herds. Appropriate biosecurity protocols to minimise the risk of introduction and exposure should be a high priority to maintain this favourable status. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Otitis interna, media, and externa with destruction of the left tympanic bulla and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Noe; Middleton, John R.; Cook, Cristi; Britt, Lisa G.; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    A 1.5-year-old, 37.7 kg, female alpaca was evaluated for a 2-week history of weight loss, left ear droop, and deviation of the rostral mandible to the right. Antemortem radiography and postmortem examination revealed otitis interna, media, and externa, destruction of the left tympanic bulla, and subluxation and septic arthritis of the left temporomandibular joint. PMID:23997267

  7. CINÉTICA DE EXPRESIÓN DE INMUNOGLOBULINA A EN EL EPITELIO INTESTINAL DE CRÍAS DE ALPACA (Vicugna pacos).

    OpenAIRE

    Dionisio C., Juan; Manchego S., Alberto; Chiok C., Kim Lam; Sandoval C., Nieves; More B., Juan; Pezo C., Danilo; Rivera G., Hermelinda

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar y comparar los niveles de expresión relativa de ARN mensajero (ARNm) de IgA en el epitelio intestinal de las crías de alpacas en aparente buen estado de salud (n=35) o enfermas con enteropatía (n=35). Encada grupo se incluyeron cinco animales recién nacidos antes del consumo de calostro y cinco por cada semana de edad hasta la sexta semana. Se tomaron 2 cm de yeyuno por animal y se almacenaron en congelación a -196 °C. Se realizó la extracción...

  8. Estudio de la diferenciación prenatal del útero de la alpaca (Vicugna pacos) entre el primer y segundo tercio de gestación

    OpenAIRE

    Ferradas, Cusi; Mendoza, Galy; Llerena, Cielo; Barbeito, Claudio; Castro, Alejandra; Ghezzi, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    En la alpaca adulta y en fetos de tercer tercio de gestación, el cuerno uterino izquierdo es más grande que el derecho, además de que presenta ventaja en cuanto a la irrigación. El presente trabajo buscó identificar el momento de diferenciación del tamaño de los cuernos uterinos y los factores anatómicos que influencian esta diferencia, basándose en las relaciones topográficas de éstos con los órganos vecinos y en las características vasculares. Con tal fin, se trabajaron muestras de fetos he...

  9. Analysis of genetic distance between Peruvian Alpaca (Vicugna Pacos showing two distinct fleece phenotypes, Suri and Huacaya, by means of microsatellite markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Two coat phenotypes exist in Alpaca, Huacaya and Suri. The two coats show different fleece structure, textile characteristics and prices on the market. Although present scientific knowledge suggests a simple genetic model of inheritance, there is a tendency to manage and consider the two phenotypes as two different breeds. A 13 microsatellite panel was used in this study to assess genetic distance between Suri and Huacaya alpacas in a sample of non-related animals from two phenotypically pure flocks at the Illpa-Puno experimental station in Quimsachata, Peru. The animals are part of a germplasm established approximately 20 years ago and have been bred separately according to their coat type since then. Genetic variability parameters were also calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using the software Genalex 6.3, Phylip 3.69 and Fstat 2.9.3.2. The sample was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE and after strict Bonferroni correction only one locus (LCA37 showed deviation from equilibrium (Ploci associations showed significant disequilibrium. Observed heterozygosis (Ho= 0.766; SE=0.044, expected heterozygosis (He=0.769; SE=0.033, number of alleles (Na=9.667, SE=0.772 and Fixation index (F=0.004; SE=0.036 are comparable to data from previous studies. Measures of genetic distance were 0.06 for Nei’s and 0.03 for Cavalli-Sforza’s. The analysis of molecular variance reported no existing variance between populations. Considering the origin of the animals, their post domestication evolution and the reproductive practices in place, the results do not show genetic differentiation between the two populations for the studied loci.

  10. Een geval van ernstige Sarcoptesschurft bij Alpaca's (Lama pacos).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Timmerman, A.; Harmsen, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    After the diagnosis sarcoptic mange in four alpaca's (Lama pacos) we have tried to control this infection. Despite three treatments with doramectin, three with ivermectin,four with amitraz and two with diazinon we were unable to get the animals free of Sarcoptes mites and their condition

  11. Successful treatment of atlantooccipital luxation in an alpaca (Lama pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitchman, Eric J; Aiken, Sean W; Calle, Paul P

    2006-03-01

    A 7-mo-old male alpaca (Lama pacos) presented with an abnormal lowered posture of the head and neck and reluctance to walk. Cervical radiographs demonstrated atlantooccipital luxation. Successful manual closed reduction was achieved while the animal was anesthetized, resulting in complete return to normal gait and posture.

  12. Efecto de Antígenos de Clostridium perfringens y Ácido Retinoico sobre la Expresión de IgA en la Mucosa Intestinal de Crías de Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Lázaro B., Roberto; Manchego S., Alberto; Pezo C., Danilo; More B., Juan; Castro S., Gina; Siuce M., Juan; Sandoval C., Nieves

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los niveles de expresión relativa del gen del exón 1 de la IgA en el epitelio intestinal de las crías de alpacas tratadas y no tratadas con antígenos de Clostridium perfringens más ácido holotransretinoico (ATRA) por vía oral. Se muestrearon 32 animales: 14 tratados (6 de 1 día de edad y 8 entre 7 a 14 días de edad) y 18 no tratados (10 de 1 día de edad y 8 entre 7 a 14 días de edad). Los animales fueron sacrificados a la semana del tratamiento, se recolec...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: alpaca [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gna_pacos_L.png Vicugna_pacos_NL.png Vicugna_pacos_S.png Vicugna_pacos_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Vicugna+pacos&t=NS ...

  14. Quantitative variation of melanins in alpaca (Lama pacos L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The amount of melanin pigments was investigated in 95 Peruvian alpaca, representative of six different fleece colours, by means of spectrophotometric assays: SpEM (Spectrophoto­metric Eumelanin, SpPM (Spectrophotometric Pheomelanin, SpASM (Spectrophotometric Alkali Soluble Melanin, and SpTM (Spectro­photometric Total Melanin. It was found that these melanin pigments were suitable for identifying three homogeneous groups, each consisting of two closely related colours. A low, an intermediate, and a high amount of SpASM, SpTM, and SpPM characterize pinkish grey and light reddish brown, brown and reddish brown, dark reddish brown and black fleeces, respectively. SpEM and SpTM provide a further split within this latter group; higher concentrations of these pigments distinguish black fleece from dark reddish brown.

  15. Mapping of tyrosine hydroxylase in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem and colocalization with CGRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, P; Arroyo-Jimenez, M M; Lozano, G; Aguilar, L A; Coveñas, R

    2011-03-01

    The distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the brainstem of alpaca (Lama pacos) has been analysed using immunohistochemical methods. The following catecholaminergic cell nuclei have been detected: A1, C1, A2, C2 and area postrema in the medulla oblongata; A5, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons; as have several mesencephalic groups: A8, A9l, A9m, A9v, A9pc, A10, A10c, A10d and A10dc. This nuclear parcellation differs from that found in rodents, but agrees with the results reported in other members of the Artiodactyla order, such as giraffe or pig, and with the catecholaminergic distribution detected in species of other mammalian orders. Thus, these findings support the hypothesis that the animals included in the same order show the same nuclear complement in the neuromodulatory systems. In addition, it seems that other species share the same catecholaminergic groups as the alpaca, suggesting that a specific nuclear disposition was important and worth maintaining throughout evolution. Moreover, the distribution of TH has been compared with that of CGRP by double immunohistochemistry. Double-labelled neurons were very isolated and observed only in a few catecholaminergic groups: A1 and C2 in the medulla oblongata, A6d, A7sc and A7d in the pons, and A9l in the mesencephalon. However, interaction between TH and CGRP may be possible in more brainstem regions, particularly the area postrema. This interaction may prove important in the regulation of the specific cardiovascular control of alpacas given their morphological characteristics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Existen cuatro especies de camélidos sudamericanos, dos de ellos silvestres, guanaco (Lama guanicoe y vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, y dos formas domésticas, alpaca (Lama pacos y llama (Lama glama, cuyo origen ha sido objeto de debate. En el presente estudio la variación en el patrón de bandas G de los cromosomas de llamas y alpacas y la secuencia de dos genes mitocondriales han sido usados para estudiar el origen y la clasificación de llamas y alpacas. Patrones de bandas cromosómicas similares fueron observados en las cuatro especies de Lamini, incluso similares a los descritos para camello, Camelus bactrianus. Sin embargo, se encontraron finas y consistentes diferencias en los brazos cortos del cromosoma 1, permitiendo separar a camellos, guanacos y llamas, de las de vicuñas y alpacas. Este patrón fue consistente incluso en un híbrido guanaco x alpaca. Relaciones equivalentes fueron encontradas en las secuencias completas del gen para citocromo b, así como en el árbol de expansión mínima de las secuencias parciales de la región control, agrupando a guanacos con llamas y a vicuñas con alpacas. Los análisis filogenéticos mostraron a V. vicugna y a L. guanicoe como grupos recíprocamente monofHéticos. El análisis de las secuencias de ambos genes mostró dos ciados entre las vicuñas, concordantes con las subespecies reconocidas para esta especie, pero los resultados obtenidos para guanacos no reflejaron la existencia de las cuatro subespecies previamente propuestas. El análisis combinado de variaciones cromosómicas y moleculares demostraron una alta similitud genética entre alpacas y vicuñas, así como entre llamas y guanacos. Aunque se revela hibridización direccional, nuestros resultados apoyan fuertemente la hipótesis de que la llama se deriva de L. guanicoe, y la alpaca de V. vicugna, apoyando la reclasificación de la alpaca como V. pacosFour camelid species exist in South America: two wild, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe and

  17. Tuberculosis in alpaca (lama pacos on a farm in ireland. 2. results of an epidemiological investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly DJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tuberculosis (TB, due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis was diagnosed in a flock of alpaca in Ireland in 2004. An epidemiological investigation was conducted to identify the risk of TB for farmed alpaca where TB is endemic, the origin of the infection, the potential for alpaca-to-alpaca transmission and appropriate control measures. The investigation focused on the alpaca flock (including the farm, animal movements and breeding, feeding and flock health practice, the disease episode (including animal disease events and subsequent control measures and TB infection risk in the locality. The TB risk to alpaca is high in areas where infection is endemic in cattle and badgers and where biosecurity is inadequate. It is most likely that the source of infection for the alpaca was a local strain of M. bovis, present in cattle in this area since at least 2001. Genotyping of isolates identified a single variable number tandem repeat (VNTR profile in both cattle and alpaca in this region. Although a tuberculous badger was also removed from the vicinity, bacterial isolation was not attempted. On this farm, infection in alpaca was probably derived from a common source. Alpaca-to-alpaca transmission seems unlikely. Two broad control strategies were implemented, aimed at the rapid removal of infected (and potentially infectious animals and the implementation of measures to limit transmission. Tests that proved useful in detecting potentially-infected animals included measurement of the albumin-to-globulin ratio and regular body condition scoring. Skin testing was time consuming and unproductive, and early detection of infected animals remains a challenge. The flock was managed as a series of separate groupings, based on perceived infection risk. No further TB cases have been detected.

  18. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in two alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, C; Kuseff, G; McMillan, E; McCowan, C; Lavender, C; Globan, M; Jerrett, I; Oppedisano, F; Johnson, P; Fyfe, J

    2013-07-01

    An ulcerative dermopathy caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is described in two alpacas (Vicugna pacos) domiciled in endemic areas of Victoria, Australia. The diagnosis was confirmed in both cases by PCR targeting the M. ulcerans-specific insertion sequence, IS2404. Extensive wound debridement and bandaging was effective in controlling local disease in one alpaca, although the animal was eventually euthanased because of suspected disease recurrence at other anatomical sites. Treatment was not undertaken in the second animal, but the results of a complete necropsy are described. Investigation of the environs of the second animal yielded low levels of M. ulcerans DNA associated with a variety of samples. The potential use of adjunctive antibiotic therapies directed against M. ulcerans infection in this species is discussed. Mycobacterium ulcerans infection should be suspected in alpacas domiciled in endemic areas and presented with ulcerative skin disease. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an importantrole. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpacatestis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemicalstaining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old(newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed nosignificant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis,which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis.

  20. Expresión testicular de ciclina A1 (CCNA1) en alpacas (Lama pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Tataje Lavanda, Luis Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Evalúa a la ciclina A1 (CCNA1) cuya expresión ha sido reportada casi exclusivamente en testículos de otros animales incluyendo el hombre y se le atribuye una función crítica en el control del ciclo celular durante la espermatogénesis. Se evalua la expresión del mRNA de CCNA1, mediante RTqPCR, en testículos de alpacas provenientes del Camal Municipal de Huancavelica en edad fértil (n = 35). Estos resultados son correlacionados con parámetros fisiológicos evaluados in vitro. Se encuentra que la...

  1. Expression and localization of nerve growth factor (NGF in the testis of alpaca (llama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changsheng Dong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During alpaca testis development and spermatogenesis, nerve growth factor (NGF may play an important role. The main aim of this study was to determine the expression and localization of NGF in the alpaca testis, and to discuss the important role of NGF in alpaca reproductive characteristics. Immunohistochemical staining technique and real-time PCR were used. The expression of NGF in the same cells one-month old (newborn alpacas 12-month, and 24-month old alpacas showed significant differences (p < 0.05; 12- and 24-month old alpacas showed no significant differences (p > 0.05; NGF at different cell stages showed no significant differences (p > 0.05. It suggests that NGF may be involved in the regulation of spermatogenesis, which provides direct evidence for NGF action in the alpaca testis during postnatal development and spermatogenesis. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 55–61

  2. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes circulating in alpacas (Lama pacos and pigs (Sus scrofa from an endemic region in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sánchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus present in livestock and wild animals within regions endemic for cystic echinococcosis (CE is epidemiologically important. Individual strains display different biological characteristics that contribute to outbreaks of CE and that must be taken into account in the design of intervention programs. In this study, samples of hydatid cysts due to E. granulosus were collected from alpacas (4 in Puno and pigs (8 in Ayacucho in Peru, an endemic region for CE. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of specific regions of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 genes confirmed the presence of a strain common to sheep, the G1 genotype, in alpacas. Two different strains of E. granulosus were identified in pigs: the G1 and the G7 genotypes. This is the first report of the G1 genotype of E. granulosus in alpacas in endemic regions of CE in Peru.

  3. ANATOMÍA MACROSCÓPICA DE LOS MÚSCULOS DEL CUELLO DE LA ALPACA (Lama pacos)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza T., Galy; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.; Montoya O.+, Luis; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima.

    2013-01-01

    Se hizo una descripción anatómica de los músculos del cuello de la alpaca y para lo cual se utilizaron 6 alpacas adultas de la variedad Huacaya. La disección se hizo del plano superficial al profundo, y se observó músculos cutáneos, esqueléticos del plano superficial, esqueléticos profundos dorsales y laterales, esqueléticos profundos ventrales, del aparato hioideo, de la laringe y faringe, y extrínsecos de la cabeza. Se encontró algunas características propias de la especie. Así, no hay divi...

  4. Assessment of sperm function parameters and DNA fragmentation in ejaculated alpaca sperm (Lama pacos) by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuquemán, C; Merino, O; Giojalas, L; Von Baer, A; Sánchez, R; Risopatrón, J

    2013-06-01

    Flow cytometry has been shown to be an accurate and highly reproducible tool for the analysis of sperm function. The main objective of this study was to assess sperm function parameters in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. Semen samples were collected from six alpaca males and processed for flow cytometric analysis of sperm viability and plasma membrane integrity using SYBR-14⁄PI staining; acrosomal membrane integrity using FITC-conjugated Pisum Sativum Agglutinin⁄PI labelling; mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) by staining with JC-1 and DNA Fragmentation Index (DFI) by TUNEL. The results indicate that the mean value for sperm viability was 57 ± 8 %. Spermatozoa with intact acrosome membrane was 87.9 ± 5%, and viable sperm with intact acrosomal membrane was 46.8 ± 9%, high mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) was detected in 66.32 ± 9.51% of spermatozoa and mean DFI value was 0.91 ± 0.9%. The DFI was inversely correlated with high Δψm (p = 0.04; r = -0.41) and with plasma membrane integrity (p = 0.01; r = -0.47). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the assessment on the same sample of several parameters of sperm function in ejaculated alpaca sperm by flow cytometry. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakritz J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  6. Botanical Composition of Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. Diet in a Central Mediterranean Range of Chile Composición Botánica de la Dieta de Alpaca (Lama pacos Linn. en un Pastizal del Secano Mediterráneo de la Zona Central de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Castellaro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The re-introduction of domestic South American camelids (alpacas and llamas in the central zone of Chile makes it necessary to study their behaviour and adaptability. Since it is fundamental to characterize the camelid’s diet, the present work had as an objective the determination of the plant species selected by the alpacas (Lama pacos Linn. in different phenological stages (vegetative, reproductive and dry season. The study was carried out over three years in a paddock of 2.5 ha of sparse shrubland dominated by Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. and annual species in the herbaceous stratum, which were continually grazed by five male alpacas. The botanical composition and the forage dry matter available for grazing in the pasture was evaluated. Botanical composition of diets was estimated with the microhistological technique, using dung samples collected directly from the rectum. During the vegetative season, the most consumed plant species were annual and perennial grasses. In the reproductive season, the most important components of the diet were woody plant species, annual grasses and forbs. In the dry season, the diet was composed of a high percentage of woody plant species.La reintroducción de camélidos sudamericanos domésticos (alpaca y llamas en la zona central de Chile, hace necesario estudiar su comportamiento y adaptabilidad. En este contexto, la caracterización de la dieta es fundamental. Por ello, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar las especies vegetales seleccionadas por las alpacas en diferentes etapas fenológicas del pastizal (vegetativo, reproductivo y seco. El estudio se realizó durante tres temporadas en un potrero de 2,5 ha ocupado por un matorral claro dominado por Acacia caven (Mol. Mol. y especies anuales en el estrato herbáceo, las cuales fueron pastoreadas continuamente por cinco alpacas macho. En la pradera se evaluó la composición botánica y la disponibilidad de la materia seca bajo pastoreo. La

  7. Effect on performance of weanling alpacas following treatments against gastro-intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan M; Morgan, Eric R

    2013-11-15

    Nematodes and coccidia are common parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos), and important causes of disease in this increasingly popular livestock species. Endoparasitic infestation is thought to increase at times of natural or imposed stress, and antiparasitic treatments are often administered, although to date there is little evidence regarding their effect. Thirty-one alpaca juvenilles (cria) were divided into four groups at weaning, and received either no treatment as a control (C), fenbendazole anthelmintic (FB), toltrazuril coccidiostat (T), or both treatments (FBT). Body weights and faecal egg/oocyst counts were recorded weekly for six weeks following treatment. Although the prophylactic treatments decreased faecal egg/oocyst counts of the target organisms in the short term, there was no significant difference in egg/oocyst output over the course of the trial from animals given wormer, coccidiostat or both treatments. The group receiving anthelmintic only showed a significant reduction in live weight gain (LWG), with no significant difference in LWG between the other groups. At the conclusion of the trial, 'wormed only' alpacas weighed 3.3% less than at weaning, losing an average 1.3 kg over six weeks, whereas average LWG in the control group was 2.5 kg. Antiparasitics transiently reduced egg/oocyst output but results suggest that further investigation is required on the action of anthelmintics administered to alpaca cria at weaning and their effect on animal health and welfare. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used, however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and name the...

  9. Efecto del glicerol sobre la catálisis por fosfatasa ácida de bajo peso molecular de hígado de alpaca (Lama pacos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Guija

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del glicerol sobre la hidrólisis del p-nitrofenil fosfato a pH 5,0 por fosfatasa ácida de bajo peso molecular de hígado de alpaca. Diseño: Estudio analítico experimental. Lugar: Centro de Investigación de Bioquímica y Nutrición, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Materiales: Se utilizó los reactivos químicos p-nitrofenil fosfato sal disódica, ácido acético glacial, glicerol, ácido tricloroacético, ácido sulfúrico, molibdato de amonio, ácido ascórbico, sulfato de amonio, sephadex G-75 (45-120, sulfoetil sephadex C-50 y etilendiaminotetraacético (EDTA. Métodos: Se determinó los parámetros cinéticos Km y Vmax utilizando como sustrato el p-nitrofenil fosfato, en presencia de concentraciones variables de glicerol. Así mismo, se determinó la velocidad de liberación de los productos de la reacción en función de la concentración de dicho nucleófilo. Principales medidas de resultados: Efecto del glicerol sobre la hidrólisis del p-nitrofenil fosfato. Resultados: El glicerol en concentraciones comprendidas entre 1,16 y 3,49 M incrementó linealmente la liberación del p-nitrofenol; en cambio, la formación del fosfato inorgánico -el segundo producto liberado- no se modificó. Así mismo, los valores de Km y Vmax se incrementaron linealmente dependientes de las concentraciones de glicerol, en un rango comprendido entre 0,58 y 2,32 M. Conclusiones: Un análisis de las modificaciones que ejerce el glicerol sobre los valores de Km y Vmax y la velocidad de liberación de los productos de la reacción permite sugerir un modelo en el que la fosfatasa ácida de bajo peso molecular de hígado de alpaca cataliza la hidrólisis de fosfomonoésteres a través de un mecanismo uni biordenado, con la formación de un complejo enzima-fosfato, que sería escindido por agua o un nucleófilo, como el glicerol; en este modelo a k2 le corresponde un valor mucho mayor que k3 y k4 N.

  10. 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemodidelphidis' sp. nov., 'Candidatus mycoplasma haemolamae' sp. nov. and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., haemotrophic parasites from a naturally infected opossum (Didelphis virginiana), alpaca (Lama pacos) and dog (Canis familiaris): phylogenetic and secondary structural relatedness of their 16S rRNA genes to other mycoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Joanne B; Walker, Pamela G; Raphael, William; Berent, Linda; Shi, Xun

    2002-05-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence of newly characterized haemotrophic bacteria in an opossum (Didelphis virginiana) and alpaca (Lama pacos) was determined. In addition, the 16S rRNA sequence of a haemotrophic parasite in the dog (Canis familiaris) was determined. Sequence alignment and evolutionary analysis as well as secondary structural similarity and signature nucleotide sequence motifs of their 16S rRNA genes, positioned these organisms in the genus Mycoplasma. The highest scoring sequence similarities were 16S rRNA genes from haemotrophic mycoplasma species (Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon spp.). However, the lack of several higher-order structural idiosyncrasies used to define the pneumoniae group, suggests that these organisms and related haemotrophic mycoplasmas represent a new group of mycoplasmas. It is recommended that the organisms be named 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemodidelphidis', 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' and Mycoplasma haemocanis comb. nov., to provide some indication of the target cell and host species of these parasites, and to reflect their phylogenetic affiliation.

  11. Inducción de la reacción acrosómica en espermatozoides de ratón mediante solubilizados de zona pelucida de alpaca (Lama pacos L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guzmán

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La acrosina, es uno de los componentes principales del acrosoma, presenta actividad similar a la tripsina, y es liberado luego de la reacción acrosómica (RA. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la inducción de la RA en espermatozoides de ratón con zonas pelúcidas homólogas y heterólogas. Espermatozoides de ratón capacitados por 2 horas en medio IVF suplementado con albúmina, heparina y suero sintético a 37 ºC y 5% CO2 fueron incubados en ausencia de Zona Pelucida (ZP o en presencia de solubilizados de ZP aisladas de ratón (0,78 mg/ml y alpaca (0,78 mg/ml y 2,35 mg/ml. La RA se evaluó mediante inmunocitoquímica con anticuerpo monoclonal anti-acrosina humana C5F10 a intervalos de 1 hora durante 4 horas. Los resultados obtenidos en espermatozoides de ratón evidencian un incremento signifi cativo (p< 0,05 de la reacción acrosó- mica inducida con ZP homóloga y heteróloga.

  12. Aspectos histológicos del aparato digestivo de la alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    De la Vega D., Elmo; Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Se ha realizado el estudio de la anatomía macroscópica y microscópica normal, del aparato digestivo de la Alpaca en 11 animales, clínicamente normales. El aspecto microscópico ha revelado variación estructural en los proventrículos de estos animales, con respecto a los demás rumiantes por nosotros conocidos. The present article deals with the anatomical study of the digestive system in 11 Alpacas ("Lama glama pacos"). The author has made the microscopical studies on the digestive system an...

  13. Studies on the reproductive physiology of the Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquieta, B.; Tojas, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) is a wild South American camelid found in the Andean altiplano. Apart from information on its niche in the ecology of the altiplano and its behaviour in the wild, little is known about its reproduction, health and nutrition. The aim of the present research was to acquire knowledge on the reproductive processes considered essential in order to design rational management schemes for conservation and exploitation. The general objective was to characterize the endocrinology of the vicuna reproductive cycle, both in the male and the female, relating the data to behaviour and seasonal changes. Captive experimental vicuna, in sex and age groupings similar to their natural social structure, were confined in corrals in the Lauca National Park, Region I of Chile at an altitude of 4470 m above sea level. Feeding was based on ad libitum supplies of alfalfa hay and water. Mean plasma progesterone (P 4 ) found in individually confined females was 1.26±1.11 nmol/L; in females grouped with intact males, P 4 levels were 2.61±0.99, 4.93±3.07 and 7.62±2.99 nmol/L in yearling, non-pregnant and pregnant animals respectively. In females kept with vasectomized males, mean P 4 values found 12 h after mating were 0.53±0.49 nmol/L, increasing to 10.26±3.81 nmol/L on day 8. Plasma oestradiol concentrations were generally very low and not detectable by the RIA techniques used. Plasma testosterone concentration in males ranged from 0.35 to 126.6 nmol/L. Although high values were more frequently found during the summer, there was no statistical difference between mean monthly testosterone values in the year, except for February, which was higher. Mating marks were found from mid-February until early August, being most intense in March. (author). 19 refs, 12 figs, 3 tabs

  14. The PACo channel strategy; La strategie du reseau PACo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The PACo channel was created in june 1999 to answer government demands in the domain of new energies, to stimulate the new technologies development and to participate to enterprises growth. The first year was devoted in particular to the fuel cell and the hydrogen fuel. This document presents an analysis of the first year of program management. (A.L.B.)

  15. OSTEOMETRÍA DE VICUGNA VICUGNA MOLINA, 1782 EN EL PLEISTOCENO FINAL DE PATAGONIA MERIDIONAL CHILENA: IMPLICANCIAS PALEOECOLÓGICAS Y BIOGEOGRÁFICAS / Osteometry of Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 in the late Pleistocene of southern chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Se presenta un análisis osteométrico uni y multivariado con los materiales fósiles -principalmente huesos cortos y falanges- de Vicugna sp. del yacimiento Cueva Lago Sofía 4 (13500 – 11000 AP, ubicado en la provincia de Última Esperanza (Región de Magallanes, Chile. Los resultados indican que los elementos analizados poseen un tamaño compatible con los registrados para Vicugna vicugna, no superando en ningún caso a los especímenes conocidos para Vicugna gracilis del Pleistoceno de la región Pampeana. Esto confirma la información morfológica y de ADN antiguo que indicaba la presencia de Vicugna vicugna en la Patagonia meridional chilena. Se discuten los resultados en términos taxonómicos, biogeográficos y paleoecológicos sugiriendo que la presencia de este taxón fuera de su rango actual de distribución se debió a las condiciones ambientales compartidas entre la Puna y Patagonia austral durante la transición Pleistoceno-Holoceno. La extinción de V. vicugna se habría debido al impacto de los cambios climáticos ocurridos al inicio del Holoceno producto de su dieta pastadora y etología no migratoria y territorial, a lo que se habría sumado una caza por parte de depredadores humanos y no humanos.Palabras clave: género Vicugna, osteometría, Pleistoceno, Patagonia AbstractThis contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this

  16. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  17. Serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpacas from eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J S; Vaughan, J L; Windsor, P A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there was any serological evidence of Neospora caninum in alpaca populations in south-eastern Australia. Serum samples from 100 alpacas were collected from four farms. All serum samples were screened for N. caninum antibodies using a commercially available competitive ELISA. Of the 100 alpacas sampled, 3 were suspect seropositive for N. caninum. There is natural N. caninum seroprevalence in alpacas in south-eastern Australia; however, it remains undetermined whether or not this infection is currently contributing to reproductive failure in alpacas in Australia. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. The Late Pleistocene distribution of vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) and the “extinction” of the gracile llama (“Lama gracilis”): New molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jaco; Shapiro, Beth; Prieto, Alfredo; Marín, Juan Carlos; González, Benito A.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-07-01

    We present the results of a palaeogenetic analysis of two Late Pleistocene camelids originating in southern Chile. Our analysis of two mitochondrial DNA fragments (control region and cytochrome b gene) reveals that these specimens do not belong to an extinct taxon, but rather to extant vicuña ( Vicugna vicugna), whose modern distribution is restricted to the extreme elevations of the Andes, more than 3500 km to the north of where these specimens originated. Our results also suggest fossil specimens from Patagonia that are currently assigned to the extinct taxon Lama gracilis, may actually belong to V. vicugna, implying a continuous distribution of the latter from the southern tip of South America to the Andes during the Final Pleistocene. The haplotypes of both specimens are not present in modern populations, suggesting a loss of genetic diversity concomitant with the contraction of the vicuña geographical distribution during the Final Pleistocene or early Holocene.

  19. Multiple ocular developmental defects in four closely related alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickelbein, Kelly E; Maggs, David J; Reilly, Christopher M; Good, Kathryn L; Gionfriddo, Juliet R

    2018-03-01

    To describe the clinical, gross pathologic, and histopathologic findings for a visually impaired 5.8-year-old female alpaca with multiple ocular abnormalities, as well as the clinical findings for three closely related alpacas. Four alpacas. Ophthalmic examination was performed on a 16-month-old female alpaca following observation of visual impairment while hospitalized for an unrelated illness. Following acute systemic decline and death 4.5 years later, the alpaca's brain, optic nerves, and eyes were examined grossly and histologically. Ophthalmic examination of three closely related alpacas was subsequently performed. The 16-month-old female alpaca (Alpaca 1) had ophthalmoscopic findings suggestive of a coloboma or hypoplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid, and suspected optic nerve hypoplasia OU. Histopathology performed 4.5 years later revealed moderate to severe choroidal, RPE, and retinal hypoplasia with multifocal retinal detachments OU. However, the optic nerves were normal in size and histologic appearance when compared to an age-matched control. Clinical evaluation of the 2-year-old son of Alpaca 1 revealed iris colobomata OU and choroidal dysplasia/hypoplasia OD in addition to nonpathologic variations in melanin density including heterochromia iridis and a subalbinotic fundus OU. Clinical evaluation of the 13-year-old mother of Alpaca 1 revealed heterochromia iridis, cataracts, and a subalbinotic fundus OU. A 2-year-old half-brother of Alpaca 1 had an RPE and choroidal coloboma OS. The developmental ocular abnormalities diagnosed in these closely related alpacas are likely hereditary. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  20. Osteometría de Vicugna vicugna Molina, 1782 en el Pleistoceno final de Patagonia meridional chilena: Implicancias paleoecológicas y biogeográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Labarca Encina

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the results of single and multi-variable osteometric analyses performed on a sample of short bones and phalanxes assigned to Vicugna sp. from Lago Sofía Cave 4 site (13500 – 11000 BP, Región de Magallanes, Chile. The elements analyzed show a similar size to the reference collections for Vicugna vicugna, and do not exceed the metrics for the pampean pleistocenic specimens of Vicugna gracilis. This confirms the morphological and ancient DNA data that indicated the presence of vicuña in southern Chilean Patagonia. The taxonomic, biogeographic and palaeoecologic discussion of these results, suggests that the presence of this species outside its current distribution range was due to shared environmental conditions between the Puna and Patagonia during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. The extinction of this form is, most likely, due to the impact of climatic change during the begining of the Holocene over its pasturing diet and its territorial and non migratory habits. It is added to this, a hunting pressure by human and non-human predators.

  1. Paco Rabanne: ¿Arquitecto sin arquitecura?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Muñoz Martín

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available La arquitectura y la indumentaria son disciplinas aparentemente antagónicas, pero a lo largo de la historia podemos observar como los arquitectos han escrito sobre moda, han realizado edificios al servicio de ésta o incluso han diseñado vestidos y complementos. Del mismo modo, muchos modistos y diseñadores de moda han encontrado en la arquitectura una fuente de inspiración, han heredado sus instrumentos o han colaborado con sus figuras más reconocidas para la concepción de sus diseños. La figura de Paco Rabanne constituyó un nuevo paradigma en el diseño de moda. Formado como arquitecto en l’École de Beaux Art de Paris entre 1951 y 1963, en los años 60 aplicó sus conocimientos de arquitectura en la creación de vestidos rupturistas. Influenciado por las vanguardias artísticas de la época, así como por el uso de nuevos materiales y formas en la arquitectura del momento, su obra irrumpió en el panorama de los convulsos años 60, dinamitando la tradicional concepción de la moda e introduciendo materiales y técnicas ajenas a ésta pero propios de la construcción de edificios. Su carácter innovador contribuyó para establecer un paralelismo, hasta entonces poco desarrollado, entre ambas materias.

  2. Flamenco guitarist Paco Peña tours CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Pauline Gagnon

    2013-01-01

    CERN continues to attract a wide variety of visitors. On 5 June, it was the turn of renowned flamenco guitarist Paco Peña. With a broad interest in science, Peña was here to celebrate his 60th birthday, accompanied by friends David Ashton and Chrissie Twigg, and his wife Karin.     Paco Peña during his visit to ATLAS. Paco Peña’s most famous compositions include Misa Flamenca, a Flamenco Mass, and Requiem for the Earth. In 1997, he was named Oficial de la Cruz de la Orden del Mérito Civil by King Juan Carlos of Spain. "This is truly amazing!" said Peña after seeing the ATLAS detector. His wife confessed that she had never seen him take so many pictures. The group asked numerous questions during their visit. It is not always easy to impress world travellers, but the ATLAS detector did the trick.

  3. A three-step approach to minimise the impact of a mining site on vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and to restore landscape connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Galaz, José Luis; Cadorzo, César; Lagunas, Héctor

    2016-07-01

    Resource extraction projects generate a diversity of negative effects on the environment that are difficult to predict and mitigate. Consequently, adaptive management approaches have been advocated to develop effective responses to impacts that were not predicted. Mammal populations living in or around mine sites are frequently of management concern; yet, there is a dearth of published information on how to minimise the negative effects of different phases of mining operations on them. Here, we present the case study of a copper mine in the Chilean Altiplano, which caused roadkills of the protected vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). This issue led to a three-step solution being implemented: (1) the initial identification of the problem and implementation of an emergency response, (2) the scientific analysis for decision making and (3) the planning and informed implementation of responses for different future scenarios and timescales. The measures taken under each of these steps provide examples of environmental management approaches that make use of scientific information to develop integrated management responses. In brief, our case study showed how (1) the timescale and the necessity/urgency of the case were addressed, (2) the various stakeholders involved were taken into account and (3) changes were included into the physical, human and organisational elements of the company to achieve the stated objectives.

  4. Necrotizing hepatitis associated with enteric salmonellosis in an alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from the feces of an alpaca suffering anorexia and weight loss. Multifocal necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis consistent with bacterial infection was found in the liver biopsies. Enteric salmonellosis may be associated with milder physical and clinicopathological changes in camelids than in other large animal species. PMID:15144106

  5. Repeated embryo collection and interspecies transfer in alpacas and llamas during non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual behavior evaluation was evaluated, collecting and interspecies embryo transfer inter species in llamas and alpacas during non-breeding season, 10 and 10 donor alpacas llamas, alpacas and 20 receiving 20 llamas, 5 alpacas and 5 llamas males were used. Sexual behavior by libido in males and acceptance of female to male in the presence of a dominant follicle was evaluated, the collection of embryos simple ovulation by non-surgical technique was performed and the fresh embryos are transferred directly into the horn left. It was observed that only 40% of alpaca accept the male and female in all cases had to use two males for mating, but all llama males mounted on the first attempt and accepted all females breeding. Embryos were collected at 25 and 60% of alpacas and llamas washes respectively, all were grade 1 embryos transferable; the embryo transfer fertility evaluated by ultrasound at 25 days was 100 and 41.6% respectively for donor alpaca and llama, however ultrasound evaluation at 60 days fertility was 50 and 25% respectively for donor alpaca and llama. We conclude that there is greater reproductive seasonality in alpaca regard to llamas, all were grade 1 embryos collected, fertility evaluated by ultrasound 25 days down to 60 days, demonstrating embryonic mortality, possibly due to the non-breeding season of both species.

  6. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal alpaca

    OpenAIRE

    Stull, Jason W.; Kenney, Daniel G.; Slavić, Durda; Weese, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    A 6-hour-old alpaca was presented for evaluation of respiratory difficulty. As part of routine surveillance, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was identified from a nasal swab taken upon admission to the hospital. No signs of MRSA infection were noted. The MRSA strain recovered was a human epidemic clone that has been associated with horses. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization can occur in camelids, and the potential animal and public health risks require consideration.

  7. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  8. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    Full Text Available Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  9. Local versus systemic effect of ovulation-inducing factor in the seminal plasma of alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Jaswant

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camelids are induced (reflex ovulators. We have recently documented the presence of an ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of alpacas and llamas. The objective was to test the hypothesis that OIF exerts its effect via a systemic rather than a local route and that endometrial curettage will enhance the ovulatory response to intrauterine deposition of seminal plasma in alpacas. Methods Female alpacas were assigned randomly to 6 groups (n = 15 to 17 per group in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the effect of seminal plasma versus phosphate-buffered saline (PBS given by intramuscular injection, by intrauterine infusion, or by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage. Specifically, alpacas in the respective groups were given 1 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma intramuscularly, 2 2 ml of PBS intramuscularly (negative control group, 3 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion, 4 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion (negative control group, 5 2 ml of alpaca seminal plasma by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage, or 6 2 ml of PBS by intrauterine infusion after endometrial curettage (negative control group. The alpacas were examined by transrectal ultrasonography to detect ovulation and measure follicular and luteal diameters. Results Intramuscular administration of seminal plasma resulted in a higher ovulation rate than intrauterine administration of seminal plasma (93% versus 41%; P Conclusion We conclude that 1 OIF in seminal plasma effects ovulation via a systemic rather than a local route, 2 disruption of the endometrial mucosa by curettage facilitated the absorption of OIF and increased the ovulatory effect of seminal plasma, and 3 ovulation in alpacas is not associated with a physical stimulation of the genital tract, and 4 the alpaca represents an excellent biological model to evaluate the bioactivity of OIF.

  10. Redescripción de Lamanema chavezi por Microscopía Óptica y Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo T., José; Laboratorio de Parasitología de Fauna Silvestre y Zoonosis, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Tantaleán-Vidaurre, Manuel; Laboratorio de Parasitología de Fauna Silvestre y Zoonosis, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Watanabe-Watanabe, Raquel; Laboratorio de Microbiología y Parasitología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Del Solar Velarde, Jonatan Mikhail; Programa de Pós-graduação em Zootecnia, Universidade Federal da Bahia

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo redescribir morfo-anatómicamente a Lamanema chavezi en sus tres estadios parasitarios (huevo, larva de tercer estadío, adulto) utilizando la técnica de microscopía óptica y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Se trabajó con alpacas (Vicugna pacos) sacrificadas en el Camal Municipal de la provincia de Melgar, Puno, Perú. Los estadios adultos fueron colectados del intestino delgado aplicando el método de Travassos; los huevos fueron colectados de heces de ...

  11. Occurrence and prognosis of hand eczema in the car industry: results from the PACO follow-up study (PACO II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, Christian J; Radulescu, Magda; Diepgen, Thomas L; Funke, Ulrich

    2008-06-01

    Only a few epidemiological studies on hand eczema (HE) in the metalworking industry have been conducted, and no study has attempted a long-term follow-up. In the Prospective Audi Cohort (PACO) II follow-up study, we aimed to estimate burden and prognosis of HE in a car industry setting (follow-up > 10 years). Eligible participants were individuals who had been examined in the original PACO study (1990-1998) and had been followed through until the end of their apprenticeship (n = 1909). Participants were interviewed and underwent dermatological examination. An exposure assessment was carried out according to a pre-defined algorithm. The follow-up rate was 78.3% (1494/1909). Mean follow-up time was 13.3 [standard deviation 1.3] years. The period prevalence of HE in the follow-up period was 21.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 19.0-23.1%], yielding a cumulative incidence of 29.3% (95% CI 26.9-31.6%) in the entire study period. HE persisted after the end of apprenticeship in 40.0% (95% CI 33.3-46.7%) of subjects who had had HE during apprenticeship (n = 205). 18.0% (95% CI 15.9-20.1%) developed HE in the follow-up period (n = 1289). Around 30% of subjects were affected by HE at least once during the study period. HE persisted in 40% of the participants affected during apprenticeship.

  12. Let-7b regulates alpaca hair growth by downregulating ectodysplasin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Niu, Shu; Cao, Xiao-Rui; Cheng, Jia-Qi; Gao, Shu-Yuan; Yu, Xiu-Ju; Wang, Hai-Dong; Dong, Chang-Sheng; He, Xiao-Yan

    2018-03-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED), also known as anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, is characterized by the clinical manifestations of less sweat or no sweat, sparse or no hair, tooth agenesis and/or abnormal tooth morphology. The characteristics of alpaca ear hair differ from the back hair. The ectodysplasin A (EDA) signaling pathway has a regulatory effect on skin development and hair growth. The aim of the present study was to study the effects of EDA on alpaca hair growth by examining the mRNA and protein expression levels of EDA in alpaca ear and back skin by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. Results indicated that EDA expression was higher in the ear skin compared with the back skin. The expression levels of let‑7b in the skin of healthy alpacas varies; the difference between let‑7b expression levels of the ear and back have been reported to be >2‑fold, suggesting a role for let‑7b in the development of adult alpaca skin and hair follicles. A dual‑luciferase reporter vector was constructed to verify the targeting relationship between microRNA let‑7b and EDA, and the results revealed that EDA was a target gene of let‑7b. Alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with a let‑7b eukaryotic expression vector to investigate the regulatory relationship between let‑7b and EDA. The expression of EDA was decreased in the transfected group; immunocytochemical results demonstrated that the EDA protein was abundantly expressed in the fibroblast cytoplasm. EDA protein expression was weaker in the transfected cells than in the untransfected cells. These results suggested that EDA may serve a role in alpaca hair growth and is probably a target gene of let‑7b; let‑7b downregulated EDA mRNA and protein expressions, which suggested that let‑7b may regulate alpaca hair growth. These conclusions suggested that let‑7b may be associated with HED.

  13. Serologic response in eight alpacas vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine during a public health response to a rabid alpaca in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M; Niezgoda, Michael; Waggoner, Emily A; Blanton, Jesse Dean; Radcliffe, Rachel A

    2016-09-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A female alpaca, kept at pasture with 12 other female alpacas, 2 crias, and 5 goats, was evaluated because of clinical signs of aggression. CLINICAL FINDINGS The clinical signs of aggression progressed to include biting at other animals as well as disorientation. Three days later, the alpaca was euthanized because of suspicion of rabies virus infection. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME No physical injuries were found at necropsy. Brain tissue specimens were confirmed positive for rabies on the basis of direct fluorescent antibody test results. Molecular typing identified the rabies virus variant as one that is enzootic in raccoons. The farm was placed under quarantine, restricting movement of animals on and off the property for 6 months. To prevent further rabies cases, 14 alpacas (12 adults and 2 crias) were vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine. Of the 14 vaccinated alpacas, 8 had paired serum samples obtained immediately before and 21 days after vaccination; all 8 alpacas had adequate serum antirabies antibody production in response to rabies vaccination. As a result of an adequate serologic response, the quarantine was reduced to 3 months. In the year after the index rabies case, no other animals on the farm developed rabies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Extralabel use of rabies vaccines in camelids was used in the face of a public health investigation. This report provides an example of handling of a rabies case for future public health investigations, which will undoubtedly need to develop ad-hoc rabies vaccination recommendations on the basis of the unique characteristics of the event.

  14. Ovarian function in South American camelids (alpacas, llamas, vicunas, guanacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jane

    2011-04-01

    Ultrasound technology and hormone assays have provided a better understanding of folliculogenesis and ovulation in South American camelids in the last two decades. Females exhibit waves of ovarian follicular growth and are induced ovulators and therefore do not exhibit oestrous cycles in the manner of spontaneously ovulating species such as sheep and cattle. There is much variation in inter-wave interval among camelid species (alpaca/llama 10-22 days, vicuna 4-11 days), within species and within individual animals as the range of each phase of follicular growth is wide. Ovulation occurs 24-30h after mating and luteolysis occurs approximately 10 days later if conception fails to occur. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Automatic Feature Interaction Analysis in PacoSuite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Vanderperren

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we build upon previous work that aims at recuperating aspect oriented ideas into component based software development. In that research, a composition adapter was proposed in order to capture crosscutting concerns in the PacoSuite component based methodology. A composition adapter is visually applied onto a given component composition and the changes it describes are automatically applied. Stacking multiple composition adapters onto the same component composition can however lead to unpredictable and undesired side-effects. In this paper, we propose a solution for this issue, widely known as the feature interaction problem. We present a classification of different interaction levels among composition adapters and the algorithms required to verify them. The proposed algorithms are however of exponential nature and depend on both the composition adapters and the component composition as a whole. In order to enhance the performance of our feature interaction analysis, we present a set of theorems that define the interaction levels solely in terms of the properties of the composition adapters themselves.

  16. Effects of PaCO2 derangements on clinical outcomes after cerebral injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brian W; Karagiannis, Paul; Coletta, Michael; Kilgannon, J Hope; Chansky, Michael E; Trzeciak, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is a major regulator of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Derangements in PaCO2 have been thought to worsen clinical outcomes after many forms of cerebral injury by altering CBF. Our aim was to systematically analyze the biomedical literature to determine the effects of PaCO2 derangements on clinical outcomes after cerebral injury. We performed a search of Cochrane Library, PUBMED, CINHAL, conference proceedings, and other sources using a comprehensive strategy. Study inclusion criteria were (1) human subjects; (2) cerebral injury; (3) mechanical ventilation post-injury; (4) measurement of PaCO2; and (5) comparison of a clinical outcome measure (e.g. mortality) between different PaCO2 exposures. We performed a qualitative analysis to collate and summarize effects of PaCO2 derangements according to the recommended methodology from the Cochrane Handbook. Seventeen studies involving different etiologies of cerebral injury (six traumatic brain injury, six post-cardiac arrest syndrome, two cerebral vascular accident, three neonatal ischemic encephalopathy) met all inclusion and no exclusion criteria. Three randomized control trials were identified and only one was considered a high quality study as per the Cochrane criteria for assessing risk of bias. In 13/17 (76%) studies examining hypocapnia, and 7/10 (70%) studies examining hypercapnia, the exposed group (hypercapnia or hypocapnia) was associated with poor clinical outcome. The majority of studies in this report found exposure to hypocapnia and hypercapnia after cerebral injury to be associated with poor clinical outcome. However, the optimal PaCO2 range associated with good clinical outcome remains unclear. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrient composition and technological quality of meat from alpacas reared in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvá, Bettit K; Zumalacárregui, José M; Figueira, Ana C; Osorio, María T; Mateo, Javier

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge on alpaca meat quality characteristics. Twenty Huacaya breed alpacas, reared under a traditional unspecialized production system at the Andean region of Peru, were slaughtered at ages between 18 and 24months. Analyses were carried out on Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle (LTLM), unless otherwise specified. These included composition parameters: moisture, fat, protein, ash, minerals, amino acids, fatty acid profile (of both LTLM and perirenal fat), retinol and tocopherol concentrations and myoglobin and collagen contents. Other meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, colour, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force. Alpaca LTLM was characterized by a low intramuscular fat content and mineral and amino acid compositions, polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and conjugated linoleic acid content comparable to those found for beef and sheep meat. However, specifically, alpaca meat showed a relatively high n-6 to n-3 (3.7) ratio and low vitamin E concentration. Values of alpaca meat technological quality parameters were in the ranges reported for more conventional red meats, the exception being a lower b(∗) value.

  18. Pairing Alpaca and Llama-Derived Single Domain Antibodies to Enhance Immunoassays for Ricin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick B. Turner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Previously, our group isolated and evaluated anti-ricin single domain antibodies (sdAbs derived from llamas, engineered them to further increase their thermal stability, and utilized them for the development of sensitive immunoassays. In work focused on the development of therapeutics, Vance et al. 2013 described anti-ricin sdAbs derived from alpacas. Herein, we evaluated the utility of selected alpaca-derived anti-ricin sdAbs for detection applications, and engineered an alpaca-derived sdAb to increase its melting temperature, providing a highly thermal stable reagent for use in ricin detection. Four of the alpaca-derived anti-ricin A-chain sdAbs were produced and characterized. All four bound to epitopes that overlapped with our previously described llama sdAbs. One alpaca sdAb, F6, was found to possess both a high melting temperature (73 °C and to work optimally with a thermally stable llama anti-ricin sdAb in sandwich assays for ricin detection. We employed a combination of consensus sequence mutagenesis and the addition of a non-canonical disulfide bond to further enhance the thermal stability of F6 to 85 °C. It is advantageous to have a choice of recognition reagents when developing assays. This work resulted in defining an additional pair of highly thermal stable sdAbs for the sensitive detection of ricin.

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous ovulation or male effect in alpacas and llamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumar JB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New discoveries in ovulation induced mammals, researchers considered the question of whether spontaneous and induced ovulations are distinct entities or individual parts of a single continuum of a “malefacilitated oestrus and ovulation”. This rigid classification should be taken with precaution, because is possible that the various mechanisms involved in the spontaneous ovulation can, under specific conditions coexist in some determined species. It is possible that male hormones can provoke the ovulation by masculine pheromones. The “Ram Effect” can be used to synchronize ewes naturally, for artificial insemination. Pheromones are specialized hormones released by the ram and smelled by the ewes; they are found in the wool and wax, in such a way that synchronized the heat and the advancement of the breeding season Also, using artificial vaginal-cervical stimulation (AVS with a glass rod, ovulation has been induced in the mink, shrews and felids. This form of tactile stimulation (AVS has found no ability for induction of ovulation in SAC. Additional stimuli/cues are often necessary to facilitate the ovulatory response. They include olfactory, visual, auditory or posture, more of them very common in SAC. Few research studies in alpacas and llamas showed a variable number of females ovulating by the sole proximity of the male to the female, by adopting the copulatory position (posture (sitting or prone position, female to female mounting (tactile, males mounting females covered with aprons to avoid penis intromission (tactile and auditory, interrupted matings, sitting close to a male copulating to a female (visual, olfactory?, the guttural sound (orgling made by the copulating male (auditory, and probably other non-identified cues. The rate of spontaneous ovulation in alpacas and llamas, increase up to 50% during the breeding season. These spontaneous ovulation has been diagnosed by sexual behavior (female rejection to the male, by

  1. Epidemiological Investigations of Four Cowpox Virus Outbreaks in Alpaca Herds, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almut Prkno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Four cowpox virus (CPXV outbreaks occurred in unrelated alpaca herds in Eastern Germany during 2012–2017. All incidents were initially noticed due to severe, generalized, and finally lethal CPXV infections, which were confirmed by testing of tissue and serum samples. As CPXV-infection has been described in South American camelids (SACs only three times, all four herds were investigated to gain a deeper understanding of CPXV epidemiology in alpacas. The different herds were investigated twice, and various samples (serum, swab samples, and crusts of suspicious pox lesions, feces were taken to identify additionally infected animals. Serum was used to detect CPXV-specific antibodies by performing an indirect immunofluorescence assay (iIFA; swab samples, crusts, and feces were used for detection of CPXV-specific DNA in a real-time PCR. In total, 28 out of 107 animals could be identified as affected by CPXV, by iIFA and/or PCR. Herd seroprevalence ranged from 16.1% to 81.2%. To investigate the potential source of infection, wild small mammals were trapped around all alpaca herds. In two herds, CPXV-specific antibodies were found in the local rodent population. In the third herd, CPXV could be isolated from a common vole (Microtus arvalis found drowned in a water bucket used to water the alpacas. Full genome sequencing and comparison with the genome of a CPXV from an alpaca from the same herd reveal 99.997% identity, providing further evidence that the common vole is a reservoir host and infection source of CPXV. Only in the remaining fourth herd, none of the trapped rodents were found to be CPXV-infected. Rodents, as ubiquitous reservoir hosts, in combination with increasingly popular alpacas, as susceptible species, suggest an enhanced risk of future zoonotic infections.

  2. Evaluation of glucose response to 3 types of insulin using a continuous glucose monitoring system in healthy alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, S R; Beemer, O M; Lear, A S; Callan, R J

    2014-01-01

    Persistent hyperglycemia is common in alpacas and typically requires insulin administration for resolution; however, little is known about alpacas' response to different insulin formulations. To evaluate the effects of 3 insulin formulations on blood glucose concentrations and the use of a continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system in alpacas. Six healthy alpacas. The CGM was installed in the left paralumbar fossa at the start of this crossover study and recorded data every 5 minutes. Regular insulin, NPH insulin, insulin glargine, and dextrose were administered to each alpaca over a 2-week period. Blood samples were collected for glucose testing at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours, and then every 6 hours after each administration of insulin or dextrose. Data were compared by using method comparison techniques, error grid plots, and ANOVA. Blood glucose concentrations decreased most rapidly after regular insulin administration when administered IV or SC as compared to the other formulations. The NPH insulin produced the longest suppression of blood glucose. The mean CGM interstitial compartment glucose concentrations were typically lower than the intravascular compartment glucose concentrations. The alpacas had no adverse reactions to the different insulin formulations. The NPH insulin might be more appropriate for long-term use in hyperglycemic alpacas because of its extended duration of action. A CGM is useful in monitoring glucose trends and reducing blood collection events, but it should not be the sole method for determining treatment protocols. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M

    2006-01-01

    In the normocapnic range, middle cerebral artery mean velocity (MCA Vmean) changes approximately 3.5% per mmHg carbon-dioxide tension in arterial blood (PaCO2) and a decrease in PaCO2 will reduce the cerebral blood flow by vasoconstriction (the CO2 reactivity of the brain). When standing up MCA...

  4. INSEMINACIÓN ARTIFICIAL DE ALPACAS CON SEMEN COLECTADO POR ASPIRACIÓN VAGINAL Y VAGINA ARTIFICIAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón B., Virgilio; Centro Experimental La Raya, Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad, Cusco, Perú; García V., Wilber; Centro de Investigación IVITA-Maranganí, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Bravo, P. Walter; Carrera Profesional de Medicina Veterinaria, Canchis, Universidad Nacional San Antonio Abad, Cusco. Perú

    2012-01-01

    Semen de alpaca fue colectado por dos métodos: por aspiración de la vagina de la hembra después de la monta natural y con vagina artificial. El semen colectado fue evaluado y diluido con Tris tamponado, y luego usado en inseminacion artificial. Se trabajó con 160 alpacas hembras adultas de capacidad reproductiva comprobada y 5 alpacas machos. Se colectó semen post cópula de los cinco machos en 10 hembras, y se hicieron 50 colecciones de semen con vagina artificial de estos machos, dos veces p...

  5. Brainstem auditory evoked responses and ophthalmic findings in llamas and alpacas in eastern Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Cullen, Cheryl L.; Lamont, Leigh A.

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen llamas and 23 alpacas of various coat and iris colors were evaluated for: 1) deafness by using brainstem auditory evoked response testing; and 2) for ocular abnormalities via complete ophthalmic examination. No animals were deaf. The most common ocular abnormalities noted were iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes and incipient cataracts.

  6. Oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Michela; Waqas, Muhammad Salman; Pru, James K; Tibary, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Pregnancy maintenance depends on the maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP), a physiological process by which the lifespan of the corpus luteum is prolonged. This mechanism is not well characterized in camelids. The objectives of the present research were to determine if exogenous oxytocin prolongs the corpus luteum activity in alpacas and to evaluate expression and localization of oxytocin receptors within the endometrium at 9 and 14days post-mating. In the oxytocin studies, plasma progesterone profiles were determined after ovulation in the same alpacas on 2 cycles: one cycle without oxytocin treatment and one cycle with oxytocin treatment. Oxytocin was administered daily by intramuscular injections (IM) at a dose of 20IU (experiment 1, n=6) or 60IU (experiment 2, n=7 from day 3 through day 10 after induction of ovulation with GnRH IM. There was no significant difference in the length of the luteal phase (i.e. corpus luteum lifespan) between the treated and control cycles using either 20 or 60IU of oxytocin. In the final experiment, uteri from open and pregnant alpacas (n=4 per group) at 9 and 14days post-mating were evaluated for expressions of oxytocin receptors by immunohistochemistry. No significant difference (P≤0.05) in the expression of oxytocin receptors was observed between open and pregnant animals in either staining intensity or tissue localization. We conclude that oxytocin is not involved in luteolysis and early MRP in alpacas. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shen; Yu, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Hai-Dong, Wang; Jian-Shan, Xie; Shu-Yuan, Gao; Jia-Qi, Cheng; Xiu-Ju, Yu; Ting, Wang; Chang-Sheng, Dong; Xiao-Yan, He

    2016-02-10

    The young male alpaca ear and the back skins were used to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor receptor-β I (TGFβR I) on alpaca hair follicles and hair growth. The expression level and location of TGFβR I in alpaca ear and dorsal skin were detected through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and paraffin section immunohistochemical technique (ICC-P). The results shown TGFβR I was lower expression in back skin compared to ear skin and the mean density of the positive reaction in ear skin was significantly higher than back skin. The targeted relationship with let-7b was detected using the dual-luciferase reporter vector of TGFβR I, which showed a significant target relationship between let-7b and TGFβR I. After transfection with let-7b eukaryotic expression vector, the relative mRNA expression of TGFβR I in alpaca skin fibroblasts did not differ, while the relative protein level was significantly decreased. In summary, a higher TGFβR I expression level in the ear skin suggests that TGFβR I may inhibit coat hair elongation. Further studies showed TGFβR I protein was downregulated by let-7b through transcriptional repression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Alianzas paródicas y melancolía en Paco Ignacio Taibo II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren, C.C. van

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines Paco Ignacio Taibo II’s detective novels, which narrate communitarian battles against power through parody. The essay hones in on the relationship between parody and melancholy, which are relevant to understand that, in Taibo II’s novels, imagining popular alliances is both

  9. Discontinuation of furosemide decreases PaCO(2) in patients with COPD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brijker, F.; Heijdra, Y.F.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the discontinuation of furosemide treatment resulted in a decrease in PaCO(2) and an increase in daytime and nocturnal oxygenation. BACKGROUND: Furosemide is widely prescribed in patients with COPD for the treatment of peripheral edema. It is known that

  10. Effect of age and castration on serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in male alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Michela; Tibary, Ahmed; Campbell, Alexis J; Conley, Alan J

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) by the Sertoli cells in males is crucial for sexual differentiation. There are no studies on AMH in Camelids. The objectives of this research were to 1) compare AMH serum concentrations in prepubertal and adult male alpacas and 2) determine the effect of castration on these concentrations in adult males to provide a validation of a commercial AMH test in alpacas. Serum samples were obtained from 15 prepubertal animals (5 for each age groups of 6, 7 and 8 months) and from 5 adult males (age 5-9 years), pre- and 24 h post-castration. AMH was determined with a quantitative ELISA according to the manufacture's instructions. There was not significant difference (P < 0.05) in AMH level (pg/ml) between pre-pubertal (549.9 ± 120.8, 789.4 ± 172.3, 597.5 ± 177.3 for ages 4, 7, and 8 months, respectively) and adult alpacas (938.7 ± 175.9). In adult males, AMH concentration decreased significantly following castration (P < 0.05) (938.7 ± 383.5 pg/ml) pre-castration, and 222.1 ± 116.5 pg/ml) after castration). There was a positive correlation between testosterone levels and AMH. In conclusion, the quantitative assay used is a reliable test to determine AMH in alpacas. The AMH level in prepubertal and adult alpacas appear to not differ, contrarily from other mammals, this requires further investigation. The decrease in serum AMH concentrations after castration suggests that measurement of this hormone can be used to diagnose bilateral cryptorchid or hemicastrated unilateral cryptorchid animals in this species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Y-chromosome and mtDNA variation confirms independent domestications and directional hybridization in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, J C; Romero, K; Rivera, R; Johnson, W E; González, B A

    2017-10-01

    Investigations of genetic diversity and domestication in South American camelids (SAC) have relied on autosomal microsatellite and maternally-inherited mitochondrial data. We present the first integrated analysis of domestic and wild SAC combining male and female sex-specific markers (male specific Y-chromosome and female-specific mtDNA sequence variation) to assess: (i) hypotheses about the origin of domestic camelids, (ii) directionality of introgression among domestic and/or wild taxa as evidence of hybridization and (iii) currently recognized subspecies patterns. Three male-specific Y-chromosome markers and control region sequences of mitochondrial DNA are studied here. Although no sequence variation was found in SRY and ZFY, there were seven variable sites in DBY generating five haplotypes on the Y-chromosome. The haplotype network showed clear separation between haplogroups of guanaco-llama and vicuña-alpaca, indicating two genetically distinct patrilineages with near absence of shared haplotypes between guanacos and vicuñas. Although we document some examples of directional hybridization, the patterns strongly support the hypothesis that llama (Lama glama) is derived from guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and the alpaca (Vicugna pacos) from vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). Within male guanacos we identified a haplogroup formed by three haplotypes with different geographical distributions, the northernmost of which (Peru and northern Chile) was also observed in llamas, supporting the commonly held hypothesis that llamas were domesticated from the northernmost populations of guanacos (L. g. cacilensis). Southern guanacos shared the other two haplotypes. A second haplogroup, consisting of two haplotypes, was mostly present in vicuñas and alpacas. However, Y-chromosome variation did not distinguish the two subspecies of vicuñas. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. The Alpaca Melanocortin 1 Receptor: Gene Mutations, Transcripts, and Relative Levels of Expression in Ventral Skin Biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3′UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation. PMID:25685836

  13. The postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is not explained by PaCO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Secher, N H; Roos, C M

    2006-01-01

    , while ventilation (VE) increases suggesting that PETCO2 decreases more than PaCO2. This study evaluated whether the postural reduction in PaCO2 accounts for the postural decline in MCA Vmean). From the supine to the upright position, VE, Q, PETCO2, PaCO2, MCA Vmean, and the near......-infrared spectrophotometry determined cerebral tissue oxygenation (CO2Hb) were followed in seven subjects. When standing up, MCA Vmean (from 65.3+/-3.8 to 54.6+/-3.3 cm s(-1) ; mean +/- SEM; P...

  14. The effect of PaCO2 on cerebral perfusion: an experimental swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, C C; Stammers, A H; Niimi, K S; Glogowski, K R; Tremain, K D; Muhle, M L

    2001-09-01

    Adequate cerebral perfusion is of particular concern to the clinician and is a major factor in postoperative morbidity. Cerebral circulation has the ability to autoregulate blood flow in order to maintain nutrient delivery and prevent high intravascular pressures. The focus of this study was to characterize the impact of gradually changing arterial CO2 levels on cerebral perfusion. A total of eight porcine subjects were placed into either a normothermic group (NG, N = 4, rectal temperature = 35.4+/-1.2 degrees C) or a hypothermic group (HG, N = 4, 30.6+/-0.6 degrees C). After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, the PaCO2 values sequentially varied between 24 and 56 mmHg. Arterial, venous, and internal jugular blood gas data were collected at 4 mmHg increments, and relative cerebral blood flow was calculated as CBF = 1 (CarterialO2-CjugularO2)(-1) Physiological parameters were similar in both groups across all test conditions: mean arterial pressure-NG 81.6+/-11.9 mmHg versus HG 73.4+/-7.0 mmHg, p = NS, and systemic oxygen consumption-HG 110.6+/-30.0 mL min versus NG 136.4+/-37.9 mL min(-1), p = NS. No significant differences were found in CBF in the NG (21.8+/-4.4 mL min(-1) 100 gL at PaCO2 = 56 mmHg versus 20.5+/-5.0 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) at PaCO2 = 24 mmHg) or the HG (24.3+/-9.5 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) at PaCO2 = 56 mmHg versus 25.6+/-12.0 mL min(-1) 100 g(-1) at PaCO2 = 24 mmHg). In conclusion, the alteration of PaCO2 under both hypothermic and normothermic conditions resulted in no significant differences in 1 (CarterialO2 - CjugularO2)(-1) in this model.

  15. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in white and brown alpaca skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, non-coding 21–25 nt RNA molecules that play an important role in regulating gene expression. Little is known about the expression profiles and functions of miRNAs in skin and their role in pigmentation. Alpacas have more than 22 natural coat colors, more than any other fiber producing species. To better understand the role of miRNAs in control of coat color we performed a comprehensive analysis of miRNA expression profiles in skin of white versus brown alpacas. Results Two small RNA libraries from white alpaca (WA and brown alpaca (BA skin were sequenced with the aid of Illumina sequencing technology. 272 and 267 conserved miRNAs were obtained from the WA and BA skin libraries, respectively. Of these conserved miRNAs, 35 and 13 were more abundant in WA and BA skin, respectively. The targets of these miRNAs were predicted and grouped based on Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis. Many predicted target genes for these miRNAs are involved in the melanogenesis pathway controlling pigmentation. In addition to the conserved miRNAs, we also obtained 22 potentially novel miRNAs from the WA and BA skin libraries. Conclusion This study represents the first comprehensive survey of miRNAs expressed in skin of animals of different coat colors by deep sequencing analysis. We discovered a collection of miRNAs that are differentially expressed in WA and BA skin. The results suggest important potential functions of miRNAs in coat color regulation.

  16. Hepatic lipidosis in llamas and alpacas: 31 cases (1991-1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornquist, S J; Van Saun, R J; Smith, B B; Cebra, C K; Snyder, S P

    1999-05-01

    To identify factors associated with hepatic lipidosis (HL) in llamas and alpacas. Retrospective case series. 30 llamas and 1 alpaca. Medical records were searched to identify llamas or alpacas in which a histologic diagnosis of HL was made. Information was retrieved on signalment, history, clinical and laboratory findings, and results of necropsy or examination of biopsy specimens. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi 2 analyses. Females were affected more often than males; however, the sex distribution was not different from that of the camelid population in the diagnostic laboratory's database. Fifty-four percent of the females were pregnant, and 46% were lactating. Most affected camelids were 6 to 10 years old. Anorexia and recent weight loss were common (51.6% of camelids). An infective agent was found in only one ilama, and toxins and mineral deficiencies were not identified. The most common abnormalities on serum biochemical analysis were a high concentration of bile acids, high activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hypoproteinemia. Concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-HB) were high in those camelids in which these compounds were assayed. Twenty-nine camelids did not survive. Sick camelids should be considered at risk for developing HL, especially those with anorexia or the metabolic demands of pregnancy and lactation. Other stresses also appear to contribute. High concentrations of NEFA, beta-HB, and bile acids; high activities of GGT and AST; and hypoproteinemia may indicate that HL has developed.

  17. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Caracterización de la metritis en alpacas y el uso del Bacillus subtilis en su tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, C.; Escuela Profesional de Medicina Veterinaria UNSAAC; Ccama, A; Escuela Profesional de Medicina Veterinaria UNSAAC, Cusco, Perú,; Olivera, L.; Escuela Profesional de Medicina Veterinaria UNSAAC, Cusco, Perú; Bravo, P.; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia UNA, Puno, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    La metritis, enfermedad que causa una baja fertilidad en alpacas fue caracterizada en 80 alpacas vacías. Lesiones histopatológicas del endometrio, cultivo de bacterias, niveles de opsoninas, y la efectividad del Bacillus subtilis como probiótico fue evaluado. La presencia de exudado en las glándulas endometriales, presencia de linfocitos, macrófagos, células plasmáticas, fibrocitos, fibroblastos y tejido periglandular a nivel estrato compacto indicaron una inflamación crónica. En los cultivos...

  19. Cesarean section in alpacas and llamas: 34 cases (1997-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bret A; Brounts, Sabrina H; Anderson, David E; Devine, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    To determine indications for cesarean section in alpacas and llamas, and clinical management and outcome of alpacas and llamas undergoing cesarean section. Retrospective case series. 27 alpacas and 7 llamas. Medical records were reviewed and information gathered on signalment, anamnesis including reproductive history, physical examination findings, indication for cesarean section, anesthetic protocol, surgical technique, number of crias delivered (alive or dead), additional treatment, duration of hospitalization, and postoperative complications. Follow-up information was gathered via email or telephone interview with owners. Uterine torsion (13/34 [38%]) was the most common reason for cesarean section. The most common surgical approach was the left proximal lateral abdominal approach (21/34 [62%]). Thirty-four crias were delivered via cesarean section. Twenty (59%) were born alive and discharged from the hospital. Retained placenta was the most common complication observed after surgery. A significant association was found between prolonged dystocia and fetal death. Of the 34 dams that underwent cesarean section, 21 were rebred, and 19 of the 21 (90.5%) dams that were rebred became pregnant. Fifteen of 19 dams were confirmed to have ≥ 1 normal vaginal delivery with a live cria following cesarean section. The results of the present study indicated that cesarean section was an effective method of resolving dystocia in camelids without negatively affecting future fertility or parturition by the dam. Prompt referral of patients with dystocia is advised to improve fetal viability. Retained fetal membranes seemed to be a common complication of cesarean section in camelids but was not associated with negative outcomes.

  20. Use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to quantify immunoglobulin G concentrations in alpaca serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J; Hou, S; Riley, C B; Shaw, R A; Jewett, N; McClure, J T

    2014-01-01

    Rapid, economical, and quantitative assays for measurement of camelid serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) are limited. In camelids, failure of transfer of maternal immunoglobulins has a reported prevalence of up to 20.5%. An accurate method for quantifying serum IgG concentrations is required. To develop an infrared spectroscopy-based assay for measurement of alpaca serum IgG and compare its performance to the reference standard radial immunodiffusion (RID) assay. One hundred and seventy-five privately owned, healthy alpacas. Eighty-two serum samples were collected as convenience samples during routine herd visits whereas 93 samples were recruited from a separate study. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by RID assays and midinfrared spectra were collected for each sample. Fifty samples were set aside as the test set and the remaining 125 training samples were employed to build a calibration model using partial least squares (PLS) regression with Monte Carlo cross validation to determine the optimum number of PLS factors. The predictive performance of the calibration model was evaluated by the test set. Correlation coefficients for the IR-based assay were 0.93 and 0.87, respectively, for the entire data set and test set. Sensitivity in the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI) ([IgG] <1,000 mg/dL) was 71.4% and specificity was 100% for the IR-based method (test set) as gauged relative to the RID reference method assay. This study indicated that infrared spectroscopy, in combination with chemometrics, is an effective method for measurement of IgG in alpaca serum. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Predicting what helminth parasites a fish species should have using Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Fish pathologists are often interested in which parasites would likely be present in a particular host. Parasite Co-occurrence Modeler (PaCo) is a tool for identifying a list of parasites known from fish species that are similar ecologically, phylogenetically, and geographically to the host of interest. PaCo uses data from FishBase (maximum length, growth rate, life span, age at maturity, trophic level, phylogeny, and biogeography) to estimate compatibility between a target host and parasite species-genera from the major helminth groups (Acanthocephala, Cestoda, Monogenea, Nematoda, and Trematoda). Users can include any combination of host attributes in a model. These unique features make PaCo an innovative tool for addressing both theoretical and applied questions in parasitology. In addition to predicting the occurrence of parasites, PaCo can be used to investigate how host characteristics shape parasite communities. To test the performance of the PaCo algorithm, we created 12,400 parasite lists by applying any possible combination of model parameters (248) to 50 fish hosts. We then measured the relative importance of each parameter by assessing their frequency in the best models for each host. Host phylogeny and host geography were identified as the most important factors, with both present in 88% of the best models. Habitat (64%) was identified in more than half of the best models. Among ecological parameters, trophic level (41%) was the most relevant while life span (34%), growth rate (32%), maximum length (28%), and age at maturity (20%) were less commonly linked to best models. PaCo is free to use at www.purl.oclc.org/fishpest.

  2. Absorption and disposition of florfenicol after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing in alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Werle, Nicholas; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to define disposition and systemic availability of florfenicol in alpacas. Administration of 20 mg/kg doses to 8 male alpacas by i.v., i.m. and s.c. routes was performed by randomized, 3-way crossover design. Clearance and steady state volumes (Vdss) after i.v. injection were 5 ml/min/kg and 775 ml/kg respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) and terminal phase half-life (T1/2λz) were 2.8 h and 2 h respectively. Maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) after i.m. were higher than s.c. administration (p = 0.034). After s.c. dosing, T1/2λz and MRT were greater than after i.m. injection (p florfenicol after i.m. and s.c. was not different (p > 0.05). Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 µg/ml for 20 h after i.m. dosing. Differences in rate and extent of florfenicol absorption after extravascular dosing could influence therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of methods to detect gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebra, Christopher K; Stang, Bernadette V

    2008-03-01

    To compare relative sensitivity and overall yields of various methods of fecal examination for gastrointestinal parasites in llamas and alpacas. Prospective study. Fecal samples from 42 alpacas and 62 llamas. Fecal samples were analyzed via direct smear, a modified McMaster technique with sucrose solution or saturated saline (approx 36% NaCl) solution, and a centrifugation-flotation procedure. McMaster flotation chambers were examined 15 and 60 minutes after loading. Centrifugation-flotation samples were examined after 10 and 60 minutes of flotation. The proportions of samples with positive results and concentrations of parasites were compared among methods. The centrifugation-flotation technique yielded more positive results than other methods for all parasites except small coccidia. Longer flotation time increased the proportion of positive results and parasite concentrations for all parasites except Nematodirus spp. Longer time in the McMaster chamber made little difference. By use of the modified McMaster technique, sucrose solution yielded more positive results for Trichuris spp, Eimeria macusaniensis, and strongyles, whereas saline solution yielded more positive results for Nematodirus spp and small coccidia. The saline solution McMaster test yielded more positive results for small coccidia than did most other methods, and the sucrose McMaster technique yielded more positive results for Trichuris spp. The centrifugation-flotation technique appeared to offer clear advantages in detecting infection with E macusaniensis, Trichuris spp, Nematodirus spp, and capillarids. The saline McMaster technique appeared to offer an advantage in detecting small coccidia.

  4. Use of alpaca seminal plasma on ovulation rate and embryonic survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The South American camelids are a domesticated species adapted to the high Andes, they are considered as a species of induced ovulation. In these species, so that the release of the oocyte occurs, a neuroendocrine interaction and stimulation during intercourse (which have to lasts on average 18 minutes is necessary. In recent years, several studies have demonstrated the presence of an inducing factor for the ovulation found in the seminal plasma of the male that is crucial for ovulation to occurs in camelids. From 1968 researches were initiated to confirm and determine the inductor factor. The works have shown that ovulation in alpacas occurs after intramuscular and intravaginal application of seminal plasma. Recent studies showed the luteotropic effect of this factor, which is evidenced by the increase and retention of circulating concentrations of LH, the rapid change in the vascularization of the pre-ovulatory follicle and corpus luteum development, this contributes to the increase of the embryonic survival rate, due to the stimulus that causes this hormone in the pituitary to release LH, triggering an additional luteotropic effect on the corpus luteum with increased secretion of progesterone. At the field, level the results are not as manifest in relation to the results obtained when the ultrasound monitoring is performed. However, the work done by different research groups confirm the contribution of seminal plasma in increasing fertility rates and embryonic survival in domestic camelids such as alpaca and llama.

  5. Tracking time-varying cerebral autoregulation in response to changes in respiratory PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jia; Simpson, M David; Allen, Robert; Yan, Jingyu

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation has been studied by linear filter systems, with arterial blood pressure (ABP) as the input and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV—from transcranial Doppler Ultrasound) as the output. The current work extends this by using adaptive filters to investigate the dynamics of time-varying cerebral autoregulation during step-wise changes in arterial PaCO 2 . Cerebral autoregulation was transiently impaired in 11 normal adult volunteers, by switching inspiratory air to a CO 2 /air mixture (5% CO 2 , 30% O 2 and 65% N 2 ) for approximately 2 min and then back to the ambient air, causing step-wise changes in end-tidal CO 2 (EtCO 2 ). Simultaneously, ABP and CBFV were recorded continuously. Simulated data corresponding to the same protocol were also generated using an established physiological model, in order to refine the signal analysis methods. Autoregulation was quantified by the time-varying phase lead, estimated from the adaptive filter model. The adaptive filter was able to follow rapid changes in autoregulation, as was confirmed in the simulated data. In the recorded signals, there was a slow decrease in autoregulatory function following the step-wise increase in PaCO 2 (but this did not reach a steady state within approximately 2 min of recording), with a more rapid change in autoregulation on return to normocapnia. Adaptive filter modelling was thus able to demonstrate time-varying autoregulation. It was further noted that impairment and recovery of autoregulation during transient increases in EtCO 2 occur in an asymmetric manner, which should be taken into account when designing experimental protocols for the study of autoregulation

  6. Plasma cholinesterase activity of rats, western grey kangaroos, alpacas, sheep, cattle, and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Mawson, Peter; Maloney, Shane K

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cholinesterase activity levels of various species may be of interest to toxicologists or pathologists working with chemicals that interfere with the activity of plasma cholinesterase. We used a pH titration method to measure the plasma cholinesterase activity of six mammalian species. Plasma cholinesterase activity varied up to 50-fold between species: sheep (88 ± 45 nM acetylcholine degraded per ml of test plasma per minute), cattle (94 ± 35), western grey kangaroos (126 ± 92), alpaca (364 ± 70), rats (390 ± 118) and horses (4539 ± 721). We present a simple, effective technique for the assay of plasma cholinesterase activity levels from a range of species. Although labour-intensive, it requires only basic laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical, ultrasonographic, and laboratory findings in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeanne M.; Valentine, Beth A.; Cebra, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical signs, duration of illness, clinicopathologic findings, and ultrasonographic findings were evaluated in 12 llamas and 12 alpacas with malignant round cell tumors (MRCT). All but 1 animal died or was euthanized. Common clinical findings were anorexia, recumbency or weakness, and weight loss or poor growth. Peripheral lymphadenomegaly occurred in only 7 animals and was detected more often at necropsy than during physical examination. Common clinicopathologic abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, acidosis, azotemia, anemia, hyperglycemia, and neutrophilia. Ultrasonography detected tumors in 4/6 animals. Cytologic evaluation of fluid or tissue aspirates or histopathology of biopsy tissue was diagnostic in 5/6 cases. A clinical course of 2 wk or less prior to death or euthanasia was more common in animals ≤ 2 y of age (9/11) than in older animals (6/13). Regular examination of camelids to include clinical pathology and evaluation of peripheral lymph nodes may result in early detection of MCRT. PMID:21358931

  8. Florfenicol pharmacokinetics in healthy adult alpacas after subcutaneous and intramuscular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, K; Bedenice, D; Papich, M G

    2012-08-01

    A single dose of florfenicol (Nuflor(®)) was administered to eight healthy adult alpacas at 20 mg/kg intramuscular (i.m.) and 40 mg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.) using a randomized, cross-over design, and 28-day washout period. Subsequently, 40 mg/kg florfenicol was injected s.c. every other day for 10 doses to evaluate long-term effects. Maximum plasma florfenicol concentrations (C(max), measured via high-performance liquid chromatography) were achieved rapidly, leading to a higher C(max) of 4.31±3.03 μg/mL following administration of 20 mg/kg i.m. than 40 mg/kg s.c. (C(max): 1.95±0.94 μg/mL). Multiple s.c. dosing at 48 h intervals achieved a C(max) of 4.48±1.28 μg/mL at steady state. The area under the curve and terminal elimination half-lives were 51.83±11.72 μg/mL·h and 17.59±11.69 h after single 2 mg/kg i.m. dose, as well as 99.78±23.58 μg/mL·h and 99.67±59.89 h following 40 mg/kg injection of florfenicol s.c., respectively. Florfenicol decreased the following hematological parameters after repeated administration between weeks 0 and 3: total protein (6.38 vs. 5.61 g/dL, Pflorfenicol should thus be used in alpacas and limited to treatment of highly susceptible pathogens. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K. Hietala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960’s to early 1980’s. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960’s, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans.

  10. Selection of similar single domain antibodies from two immune VHH libraries obtained from two alpacas by using different selection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tengfei; Vandesquille, Matthias; Bay, Sylvie; Dhenain, Marc; Delatour, Benoît; Lafaye, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    The two most used methods to select camelid single-domain antibody-fragments (VHHs) are: displaying their repertoires on the surface of filamentous bacteriophages (phage display) or linking them to ribosomes (ribosome display). In this study, we compared specific VHHs isolated from two different immune libraries coming from two different alpacas by using these two selection methods. Three anti-GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) VHHs were derived from an immune library obtained by ribosome display after immunization of one alpaca with purified GFAP, a protein expressed by astroglial cells. In parallel, three other anti-GFAP VHHs were derived from an immune library by phage display after immunization of another alpaca with a human brain tissue extract containing GFAP. All the VHHs were closely related and one VHH was found to be strictly identical in both studies. This highlights the selection pressure exerted by the camelid immune system to shape the paratope of an antibody against a defined antigen. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of Sample Handling Effects on Serum Vitamin E and Cholesterol Concentrations in Alpacas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Lear

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of vitamin E deficiencies have been diagnosed in camelids and may indicate that these species are more sensitive to inadequate vitamin E in hay-based diets compared to other ruminant and equine species. In bovine, cholesterol has been reported to affect vitamin E concentrations. In order to evaluate vitamin E deficiencies in camelids, the effects of collection and storage of the blood samples prior to processing were necessary. Reports vary as to factors affecting vitamin E and cholesterol in blood samples, and diagnostic laboratories vary in instructions regarding sample handling. Blood was collected from healthy alpacas and processed under conditions including exposure to fluorescent light, serum and red blood cell contact, tube stopper contact, temperature, and hemolysis. Serum vitamin E and cholesterol concentrations were then measured. Statistical analyses found that the vitamin E concentrations decreased with prolonged contact with the tube stopper and with increasing hemolysis. Vitamin E concentration variations were seen with other factors but were not significant. Time prior to serum separation and individual animal variation was found to alter cholesterol concentrations within the sample, yet this finding was clinically unremarkable. No correlation was seen between vitamin E and cholesterol concentration, possibly due to lack of variation of cholesterol.

  12. Common Arterial Trunk in a 3-Day-Old Alpaca Cria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsumugi Anne Kurosawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 3-day-old alpaca cria presented for progressive weakness and dyspnea since birth. Complete bloodwork, thoracic radiographs, and endoscopic examination of the nasal passages and distal trachea revealed no significant findings. Echocardiogram and contrast study revealed a single artery overriding a large ventricular septal defect (VSD. A small atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale was also noted. Color flow Doppler and an agitated saline contrast study revealed bidirectional but primarily right to left flow through the VSD and bidirectional shunting through the atrial defect. Differential diagnosis based on echocardiographic findings included common arterial trunk, Tetralogy of Fallot, and pulmonary atresia with a VSD. Postmortem examination revealed a large common arterial trunk with a quadricuspid valve overriding a VSD. Additionally, defect in the atrial septum was determined to be a patent foramen ovale. A single pulmonary trunk arose from the common arterial trunk and bifurcated to the left and right pulmonary artery, consistent with a Collet and Edwards’ type I common arterial trunk with aortic predominance. Although uncommon, congenital cardiac defects should be considered in animals presenting with clinical signs of hypoxemia, dyspnea, or failure to thrive.

  13. GAT 3 - fuel cells and their management (PACoGES). Progress report; GAT 3 - piles a combustible et leur gestion (PACoGES). Rapport final (juillet 2002 a juin 2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, C.

    2005-07-01

    The Topic Analysis Group PACoGES ('Piles a Combustible et leur Gestion') has conducted thoughts on fuel cells and their management with all the searchers concern with researches and developments on fuel cells and in particular on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC, ITSOFC) running at high temperature (600 to 1000 C). This has concerned about 200 searchers working in about fifty laboratories (CNRS, CEA, EDF, GDF, INRETS, CNAM, Armines, and several industrial teams). Here is given the final report 2002-2004 concerning all the researches carried out by this Group. (O.M.)

  14. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. La animalizaci??n como proceso de caracterizaci??n novelesca en la narrativa policiaca de Paco Ignacio Taibo II

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, Diego Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo analizar los mecanismos literarios al servicio de la caracterizaci??n de personajes basados en la animalizaci??n a lo largo de la narrativa polic??aca del autor mexicano Paco Ignacio Taibo II. A partir de un relevamiento l??xico, se trata de estudiar las referencias animales y el campo sem??ntico creado por estas im??genes: en particular uno muy rico ligado a la situaci??n de inestabilidad en el panorama pol??tico, social y econ??mico del M??xico contemp...

  16. “Sympathetic travelling”: horizontal ethics and aesthetics in Paco Ignacio Taibo’s Belascoarán Shayne novels

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, J

    2009-01-01

    In this article Jennifer Lewis argues that the detective novels of Paco Ignacio Taibo II adapt the conventions of the detective novel in order to examine and critique the idea of ‘Mexicanness’ in a post-colonial world.. She argues that these novels, with their unlikely (anti)hero, fantastic plots and playfully ironic style, respond in different ways to an array of different questions triggered by Mexico’s violent history: how to represent a city that is both “magical” and monstrous; how to re...

  17. Effect of the addition of two superoxide dismutase analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiani, Alexei; Acosta, Alexei Santiani; Evangelista, Shirley; Vargas, Shirley Evangelista; Valdivia, Martha; Cuya, Martha Valdivia; Risopatrón, Jennie; González, Jennie Risopatrón; Sánchez, Raúl; Gutiérrez, Raúl Sánchez

    2013-03-15

    The main objective was to study the effects, on sperm function, of the addition of two superoxide dismutase (SOD) analogues (Tempo and Tempol) to alpaca semen extender for cryopreservation. Twelve alpaca semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina and then diluted at a 1:3 ratio in an extender based on skim milk, egg yolk, and fructose. Each semen sample was divided into three equal parts to form the following groups: control, Tempo (1 mM), and Tempol (1 mM). Groups were cooled to 5 °C in 90 minutes (-1 °C in 3 minutes); when samples reached approximately 10 °C, SOD analogues were added to the respective groups. At 5 °C, ethylene glycol (final concentration, 0.1 M) was added to each group. After 30 minutes at 5 °C, samples were loaded in 0.25 mL plastic straws, placed in liquid nitrogen vapor for 15 minutes, and then plunged. Percentages of sperm motility, functional sperm membrane integrity, and viable sperm with intact acrosomes were evaluated before and after freeze-thaw using visual analysis, the hypoosmotic swelling test, and the double-stain trypan blue/giemsa technique, respectively. The Terminal deoxymucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling assay was performed for evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation of frozen-thawed sperm. Sperm motility was higher (P < 0.05) in the Tempol and Tempo groups than in the control group (mean, 22.1%, 19.7%, and 11.2%, respectively), with similar results for functional sperm membrane integrity. Additionally, DNA fragmentation was lower (P < 0.05) in the Tempol group (16.7%) than in the control group (38.8%). Viable sperm with intact acrosomes were not affected by the use of SOD analogues. There was a negative correlation (r = -0.58) between DNA fragmentation of alpaca sperm and sperm motility after freeze-thawing, but DNA damage was neither related to functional membrane integrity nor viable sperm with intact acrosomes. We concluded that DNA fragmentation and loss of motility during cryopreservation of

  18. Evaluation of two platelet-rich plasma processing methods and two platelet-activation techniques for use in llamas and alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semevolos, Stacy A; Youngblood, Cori D; Grissom, Stephanie K; Gorman, M Elena; Larson, Maureen K

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate 2 processing methods (commercial kit vs conical tube centrifugation) for preparing platelet rich plasma (PRP) for use in llamas and alpacas. SAMPLES Blood samples (30 mL each) aseptically collected from 6 healthy llamas and 6 healthy alpacas. PROCEDURES PRP was prepared from blood samples by use of a commercial kit and by double-step conical tube centrifugation. A CBC was performed for blood and PRP samples. Platelets in PRP samples were activated by means of a freeze-thaw method with or without 23mM CaCl 2 , and concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β 1 were measured. Values were compared between processing methods and camelid species. RESULTS Blood CBC values for llamas and alpacas were similar. The commercial kit yielded a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment (mean increase, 8.5 fold vs 2.8 fold) and WBC enrichment (mean increase, 3.7 fold vs 1.9 fold) than did conical tube centrifugation. Llamas had a significantly greater degree of platelet enrichment than alpacas by either processing method. No difference in WBC enrichment was identified between species. Concentrations of both growth factors were significantly greater in PRP samples obtained by use of the commercial kit versus those obtained by conical tube centrifugation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For blood samples from camelids, the commercial kit yielded a PRP product with a higher platelet and WBC concentration than achieved by conical tube centrifugation. Optimal PRP platelet and WBC concentrations for various applications need to be determined for llamas and alpacas.

  19. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China); Dong, Changsheng, E-mail: cs_dong@sxau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Shanxi Agricultural University, 030801 Taigu, Shanxi (China)

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  20. Perbedaan PaCO2 darah pada pasien kritis yang mendapat diet makanan enteral komersial dengan diet makanan enteral kombinasi di rumah sakit Dr. Sardjito Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jaelani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malnutrition often occurs in a critical patient caused by various things such as decreasing function of gastrointestinal tract, high process of catabolism and homeostatie destruction. Other problem that may occur when nutrition is given with high total calories could be dangerous because it could cause hiperglikemia, the production improvement of CO blood and worsen the homeostasis destruction. Objective: To find out the difference of PaCO blood in critical patients who obtain commercial enteral food diet or combined enteral food diet. Methods: This was an experimental study using randomized controlled trial with pretest-posttest control group design. The subjects were critical patients who were given care in the intensive installation Dr. Sardjito hospital Yogyakarta who met the criteria: adult patient, using ventilator and receiving enteral food diet. Results: There was no difference between PaCO blood in critical patient who obtained commercial enteral diet and com- bined enteral food diet. There was a change difference of PaCO with 55% compared with <55% from energy total (p=0.03. Conclusion: The improvement of PaCO was not caused by the type of enteral formula given, cause of the high intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  1. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatani, Akio; Akutsu, Tooru; Yoshida, Michihiko; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Seo, Hiroshi

    1992-01-01

    To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO 2 , arterial partial pressure of CO 2 (PaCO 2 ), HCO 3 - , pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133 Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO 3 - and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO 2 , end-tidal CO 2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 , but correlated with arterial HCO 3 - and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO 3 - and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

  2. Emociones en suspenso: maternidad y consumo de pasta base/paco en barrios marginales de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Castilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una investigación etnográfica llevada a cabo en un barrio del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, caracterizado por altos índice de pobreza, vulnerabilidad y marginalidad, en este texto se describen y analizan, desde la perspectiva de las propias usuarias, las caracterísiticas y formas en que el consumo intensivo de PB/paco moldea las dinámicas emocionales vinculadas con la maternidad. En el marco de esta relación consumo-maternidad, destacamos distintos momentos entre los que se encuentran las "emociones maternales en suspenso" vividas durante el consumo intensivo ("giras"; los malestares emocionales asociados a la "culpa" y la "vergüenza" durante el "bajón"; y las emociones maternales intensificadas asociadas a un intenso apego emocional con los hijos y las hijas, sobre todo cuando comienzan a "rescatarse".

  3. Application of laboratory and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopic approaches for rapid quantification of alpaca serum immunoglobulin G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Elsohaby

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and compare the performance of laboratory grade and portable attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR spectroscopic approaches in combination with partial least squares regression (PLSR for the rapid quantification of alpaca serum IgG concentration, and the identification of low IgG (<1000 mg/dL, which is consistent with the diagnosis of failure of transfer of passive immunity (FTPI in neonates. Serum samples (n = 175 collected from privately owned, healthy alpacas were tested by the reference method of radial immunodiffusion (RID assay, and laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers. Various pre-processing strategies were applied to the ATR-IR spectra that were linked to corresponding RID-IgG concentrations, and then randomly split into two sets: calibration (training and test sets. PLSR was applied to the calibration set and calibration models were developed, and the test set was used to assess the accuracy of the analytical method. For the test set, the Pearson correlation coefficients between the IgG measured by RID and predicted by both laboratory grade and portable ATR-IR spectrometers was 0.91. The average differences between reference serum IgG concentrations and the two IR-based methods were 120.5 mg/dL and 71 mg/dL for the laboratory and portable ATR-IR-based assays, respectively. Adopting an IgG concentration <1000 mg/dL as the cut-point for FTPI cases, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for identifying serum samples below this cut point by laboratory ATR-IR assay were 86, 100 and 98%, respectively (within the entire data set. Corresponding values for the portable ATR-IR assay were 95, 99 and 99%, respectively. These results suggest that the two different ATR-IR assays performed similarly for rapid qualitative evaluation of alpaca serum IgG and for diagnosis of IgG <1000 mg/dL, the portable ATR-IR spectrometer performed slightly better, and provides more flexibility for

  4. Cerebral autoregulation and flow/metabolism coupling during cardiopulmonary bypass: the influence of PaCO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murkin, J.M.; Farrar, J.K.; Tweed, W.A.; McKenzie, F.N.; Guiraudon, G.

    1987-01-01

    Measurement of 133 Xe clearance and effluent cerebral venous blood sampling were used in 38 patients to determine the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, and of maintaining temperature corrected or noncorrected PaCO 2 at 40 mm Hg on regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and flow/metabolism coupling. After induction of anesthesia with diazepam and fentanyl, mean CBF was 25 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 and cerebral oxygen consumption, 1.67 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1. Cerebral oxygen consumption during nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass at 26 degrees C was reduced to 0.42 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in both groups. CBF was reduced to 14-15 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1 in the non-temperature-corrected group (n = 21), was independent of cerebral perfusion pressure over the range of 20-100 mm Hg, but correlated with cerebral oxygen consumption. In the temperature-corrected group (n = 17), CBF varied from 22 to 32 ml X 100 g-1 X min-1, and flow/metabolism coupling was not maintained (i.e., CBF and cerebral oxygen consumption varied independently). However, variation in CBF correlated significantly with cerebral perfusion pressure over the pressure range of 15-95 mm Hg. This study demonstrates a profound reduction in cerebral oxygen consumption during hypothermic nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass. When a non-temperature-corrected PaCO 2 of approximately 40 mm Hg was maintained, CBF was lower, and analysis of pooled data suggested that CBF regulation was better preserved, i.e., CBF was independent of pressure changes and dependent upon cerebral oxygen consumption

  5. Heterologous radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca luteinizing hormone with a monoclonal antibody, and equine standard and a human tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aba, M.A.; Forsberg, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    A radioimmunoassay for llama and alpaca LH was developed using a human I{sup 125}LH tracer from a commercial kit, equine LH diluted in human LH free serum as standard, and amonoclonal antibody (518B7) specific for LH but with low species specificity. A 60-min delay in the addition of the tracer and overnight incubation gave a sensitivity of 0.8 {mu}3g L{sup -1}. The intra-assay coefficient of variation was 37% at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, declined to 15% at 4 {mu}g L{sup -1} and was below 6% for concentrations up to 32 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The inter-assay coefficients of variation for 3 control samples were 20% (2.8 {mu}g L{sup -1}), 16% (7.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and 9.8% (19 {mu}g L{sup -1}). In an attempt to increase sensitivity, all tubes were preincubated for 4 h at room temperature before adding the tracer, and the sample volume was increased from 50 {mu}L to 100 {mu}L (in the standard curve the increased volume was compensated for by human LH free serum). With this protocol, the assay sensitivity was 0,5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The assay was validated clinically and demonstrated increased concentrations of LH after mating in llamas and alpacas. Furthermore, the assay was used to monitor LH responses to a single dose of GnRH in llamas (adult males and females at different ages). (au) 9 refs.

  6. Héroïsme et conscience de l’échec chez Paco Ignacio Taibo II : le Mexique selon Cosa Fácil, La

    OpenAIRE

    Collado, Michael

    2016-01-01

    « Héroïsme et conscience de l'échec chez Paco Ignacio Taibo II » s'intéresse, grâce à la grille d'identification générique que constitue l'organisation fonctionnelle du roman policier, aux anomalies fondamentales présentes dans l'oeuvre de l'écrivain mexicain Paco Ignacio Taibo II. Si la structure narrative propre au genre est l'illustration de l'indéfectible victoire de la Loi, alors, la décomposition progressive de toute la grammaire fondatrice doit être vue comme l'expression de la défianc...

  7. Parásitos de alevinos de gamitana (Colossoma macropomum y paco (Piaractus brachypomus cultivados en el C.I. Quistococha, Loreto, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alcántara Bocanegra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En acuicultura, los peces son susceptibles al ataque de virus, bacterias, hongos y ectoparásitos. Estos organismos se tornan en un serio problema cuando los peces se encuentran con bajas defensas naturales, se crían en altas densidades y/o se altera drásticamente la calidad de agua. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar la fauna de parásitos presentes en alevinos de paco (Piaractus brachypomus y gamitana (Colossoma macropomum provenientes de estanques del Centro de Investigación Quistococha del IIAP. Un total de 30 ejemplares de cada especie fueron examinados a través de la preparación de frotis fresco de branquias, piel, aletas y tubo digestivo. Entre las dos especies estudiadas, gamitana demostró una mayor prevalencia de infestación, mayor intensidad de parásitos y mayor índice de infestación parasitaria. Los alevinos de paco mostraron una mayor resistencia a la propagación y al ataque de parásitos. Se identificaron monogeneos de las familias Dactylogyridae y Gyrodactylidae, solo en gamitana, mientras que el protozoo ciliado Trichodina se halló exclusivamente en paco. Los parásitos identificados no causaron ninguna mortalidad en los peces.

  8. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Packard

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1%/mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test. Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed.

  9. Microcystin-LR nanobody screening from an alpaca phage display nanobody library and its expression and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chongxin; Yang, Ying; Liu, Liwen; Li, Jianhong; Liu, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xiao; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-04-30

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a type of biotoxin that pollutes the ecological environment and food. The study aimed to obtain new nanobodies from phage nanobody library for determination of MC-LR. The toxin was conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively, then the conjugates were used as coated antigens for enrichment (coated MC-LR-KLH) and screening (coated MC-LR-BSA) of MC-LR phage nanobodies from an alpaca phage display nanobody library. The antigen-specific phage particles were enriched effectively with four rounds of biopanning. At the last round of enrichment, total 20 positive monoclonal phage nanobodies were obtained from the library, which were analyzed after monoclonal phage enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), colony PCR and DNA sequencing. The most three positive nanobody genes, ANAb12, ANAb9 and ANAb7 were cloned into pET26b vector, then the nanobodies were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 respectively. After being purified, the molecular weight (M.W.) of all nanobodies were approximate 15kDa with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The purified nanobodies, ANAb12, ANAb9 and ANAb7 were used to establish the indirect competitive ELISA (IC-ELISA) for MC-LR, and their half-maximum inhibition concentrations (IC 50 ) were 0.87, 1.17 and 1.47μg/L, their detection limits (IC 10 ) were 0.06, 0.08 and 0.12μg/L, respectively. All of them showed strong cross-reactivity (CRs) of 82.7-116.9% for MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-WR, and weak CRs of less than 4.56% for MC-LW, less than 0.1% for MC-LY and MC-LF. It was found that all the IC-ELISAs for MC-LR spiked in tap water samples detection were with good accuracy, stability and repeatability, their recoveries were 84.0-106.5%, coefficient of variations (CVs) were 3.4-10.6%. These results showed that IC-ELISA based on the nanobodies from the alpaca phage display antibody library were promising for high sensitive determination of multiple

  10. Prototipo de un sistema experto para el diagnóstico de enfermedades infecciosas en crías de alpacas de la raza hucaya y suri del cip - la raya de la U.N.A. - Puno

    OpenAIRE

    Ibañez Quispe, Vladimiro

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo de tesis titulado «PROTOTIPO DE UN SISTEMA EXPERTO PARA EL DIAGNÓSTICO DE ENFERMEDADES INFECCIOSAS EN CRÍAS DE ALPACAS DE LA RAZA HUACAYA Y SURI DEL CIP-LA RAYA DE LA U.N.A.-PUNO», se ha ejecutado en la Provincia de Puno, usando los recursos computacionales existentes, las bondades de la ingeniería del software y la inteligencia artificial, que fue orientado al campo de la ganadería, específicamente en alpacas, cuyo objetivo principal fue de analizar, diseñar e implementar...

  11. Helmintiasis y Eimeriosis Gastrointestinal en Alpacas Criadas al Pastoreo en Dos Granjas Comunales de la Región Pasco, Perú, y su Relación con el Peso y Condición Corporal

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Marine; Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Puicón, Víctor; Zárate, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la relación entre los parásitos gastrointestinales con peso vivo y condición corporal en alpacas criadas al pastoreo en la región altoandina de Pasco, Perú. Se recolectaron muestras de heces de 160 alpacas de dos granjas comunales que fueron analizadas mediante las técnicas de McMaster modificado y coprocultivo para determinar la carga parasitaria y la identificación de las especies parasitarias. Se encontró una baja prevalencia de nematodos de mo...

  12. Manuel Vázquez Montalbán, Andrea Camilleri y Paco Ignacio Taibo II : Una lectura de la filiación

    OpenAIRE

    García Saraví, Mercedes; Repetto, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    Una de las facetas de Manuel Vázquez Montalbán es la de ser reconocido como iniciador de prácticas discursivas que se manifiestan renovadas en escritores de otras latitudes. Tal es el caso de Paco Ignacio Taibo II y Andrea Camilleri quienes han declarado explícitamente sus aprovechamientos literarios de algunos rasgos de la obra del español. La cuestión de la filiación resulta clave para pensar estas relaciones. La filiación pasa por lo menos por dos meridianos identificables. El primero es l...

  13. Seed dispersal of Diospyros virginiana in the past and the present: Evidence for a generalist evolutionary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebein, Mimi; Davis, Charli N; Abad, Helena; Stone, Taylor; Del Sol, Jillian; Skinner, Natalie; Moran, Matthew D

    2017-06-01

    Several North American trees are hypothesized to have lost their co-evolved seed disperser during the late-Pleistocene extinction and are therefore considered anachronistic. We tested this hypothesis for the American persimmon ( Diospyros virginiana ) by studying the effects of gut passage of proposed seed dispersers on seedling survival and growth, natural fruiting characteristics, and modern animal consumption patterns. We tested gut passage effects on persimmon seeds using three native living species, the raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ), and coyote ( Canis latrans ), and two Pleistocene analogs; the Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) and alpaca ( Vicugna pacos ). Persimmon seeds excreted by raccoons, coyotes, and elephants survived gut transit. Gut passage did not affect sprouting success, but did tend to decrease time to sprout and increase seedling quality. Under field conditions, persimmon fruits were palatable on the parent tree and on the ground for an equal duration, but most fruits were consumed on the ground. Seven vertebrate species fed upon persimmon fruits, with the white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus )-a species not capable of dispersing persimmon seeds-comprising over 90% of detections. Conversely, potential living seed dispersers were rarely detected. Our results suggest the American persimmon evolved to attract a variety of seed dispersers and thus is not anachronistic. However, human-induced changes in mammal communities could be affecting successful seed dispersal. We argue that changes in the relative abundance of mammals during the Anthropocene may be modifying seed dispersal patterns, leading to potential changes in forest community composition.

  14. Experimental infection of South American camelids with bluetongue virus serotype 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Claudia; Eschbaumer, Michael; Rudolf, Miriam; König, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Bauer, Christian; Gauly, Matthias; Grevelding, Christoph G; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2012-01-27

    Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non-contagious disease of wild and domestic ruminants. It is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Since 1998, BT has been emerging throughout Europe, threatening not only the naïve ruminant population. Historically, South American camelids (SAC) were considered to be resistant to BT disease. However, recent fatalities related to BTV in captive SAC have raised questions about their role in BTV epidemiology. Data on the susceptibility of SAC to experimental infection with BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) were collected in an animal experiment. Three alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and three llamas (Lama glama) were experimentally infected with BTV-8. They displayed very mild clinical signs. Seroconversion was first measured 6-8 days after infection (dpi) by ELISA, and neutralising antibodies appeared 10-13 dpi. BTV-8 RNA levels in blood were very low, and quickly cleared after seroconversion. However, spleens collected post-mortem were still positive for BTV RNA, over 71 days after the last detection in blood samples. Virus isolation was only possible from blood samples of two alpacas by inoculation of highly sensitive interferon alpha/beta receptor-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice. An in vitro experiment demonstrated that significantly lower amounts of BTV-8 adsorb to SAC blood cells than to bovine blood cells. Although this experiment showed that SAC are generally susceptible to a BTV-8 infection, it indicates that these species play a negligible role in BTV epidemiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pärnu mudaravila restaureerimine ja juurdeehitus = Restoration and extension of the Pärnu mud baths / Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teedumäe, Tarmo, 1970-

    2015-01-01

    Restaureeritud ja uue juurdeehitusega Pärnu mudaravila Ranna puiestee 1, valminud 2014. Arhitektid Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman, Inga Raukas, Arhitektuuriagentuur, Allianss Arhitektid. Sisearhitektid Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla, Tuuli Trei, Margit Teikari (Vaikla Stuudio). 2014. aasta Kultuurkapitali Arhitektuuripreemia kandidaat

  16. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA in Bolivian llama, alpaca and vicuna populations: a contribution to the phylogeny of the South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreta, J; Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Iñiguez, V; Saavedra, V; Chiri, R; Latorre, E; Arranz, J J

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to assess the mtDNA diversity of Bolivian South American camelid (SAC) populations and to shed light on the evolutionary relationships between the Bolivian camelids and other populations of SACs. We have analysed two different mtDNA regions: the complete coding region of the MT-CYB gene and 513 bp of the D-loop region. The populations sampled included Bolivian llamas, alpacas and vicunas, and Chilean guanacos. High levels of genetic diversity were observed in the studied populations. In general, MT-CYB was more variable than D-loop. On a species level, the vicunas showed the lowest genetic variability, followed by the guanacos, alpacas and llamas. Phylogenetic analyses performed by including additional available mtDNA sequences from the studied species confirmed the existence of the two monophyletic clades previously described by other authors for guanacos (G) and vicunas (V). Significant levels of mtDNA hybridization were found in the domestic species. Our sequence analyses revealed significant sequence divergence within clade G, and some of the Bolivian llamas grouped with the majority of the southern guanacos. This finding supports the existence of more than the one llama domestication centre in South America previously suggested on the basis of archaeozoological evidence. Additionally, analysis of D-loop sequences revealed two new matrilineal lineages that are distinct from the previously reported G and V clades. The results presented here represent the first report on the population structure and genetic variability of Bolivian camelids and may help to elucidate the complex and dynamic domestication process of SAC populations. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN HISTOLÓGICA Y DINÁMICA LINFOIDE DE LAS PLACAS DE PEYER EN CRÍAS DE ALPACA DURANTE LOS 45 PRIMEROS DÍAS DE VIDA

    OpenAIRE

    Roca L., Víctor; Manchego S., Alberto; Sandoval C., Nieves; Lam Chiok C., Kim; Rivera G., Hermelinda

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe the histological features of Peyer’s patches in jejunum and ileum of 33 newborn alpacas from 0 to 45 days of age. Sections of jejunum and ileum were collected and fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. Standard histological slides stained with hematoxylin-eosin were obtained and poly-L-lysine coated slides were used for detection of T cells by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against CD-8 marker aided by Histostain development system. Histologically, n...

  18. Relationships between integumental characteristics and thermoregulation in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, M

    2010-09-01

    Hair fibre is regarded as a unique mammalian feature with an important role for endothermy. Artificial selection for hair characteristics resulted in marked changes with regard to follicle number, type, distribution, growth and natural shedding. This review focuses on the fine fibre-producing South American camelids (SACs) and the relationship between their hair coat and thermoregulation. SACs have developed several special integumental characteristics. While the hair coat of the wild lamoids vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and guanaco (Lama guanicoe) is formed by two types of hair (the coarse outer guard hairs and a finer undercoat), the domesticated llamas (Lama glama) and alpaca (Lama pacos) exhibit variably double coat and predominantly single coat, respectively. The distribution of the hair coat across the body is not homogenous. Thermal windows with shorter hair or thinner skin can be identified at the ventral abdomen, axillary space and inside of the thighs (about 20% of the skin), thus allowing to modulate heat dissipation. In contrast to sheep wool, lamoid fibres are mainly medullated. The thermal conductance of summer pelage was higher than that of the winter fleece and highest for the axillar and lower flanks. Lamoids have developed behavioural strategies to modify heat loss by adopting specific postures according to ambient conditions by closing or opening the thermal windows. Energy savings of 67% attributed to posture were calculated. SACs have shown to be able to adapt to a broad range of different climatic conditions. The specific integumental characteristics of SACs indicate that they have developed adaptation mechanisms particularly suited for cooler climates. Accordingly, hyperthermia might become a problem in hot, humid areas outside of their original habitat. Several studies showed the beneficial effect of shearing against heat stress. In particular, fertility in males exposed to heat stress may be improved by shearing. Infrared thermography reveals

  19. Carbon mineralization and soil fertility at high altitude grasslands in the Bolivian Andean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zornoza, R.; Muñoz, M. A.; Faz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The high grasslands of Apolobamba provide a natural habitat for a high number of wild and domestic camelids such as vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and alpaca (Lama pacos) in Bolivia. Because of the importance of the camelid raising for the Apolobambás inhabitant economy, it is fundamental to determine the natural resources condition and their availability for the camelid support. The soil organic matter plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the soil fertility at high grasslands. On the other hand, soil respiration is the primary pathway for CO2 fixed by plants returning to the atmosphere and its study is essential to evaluate the soil organic matter mineralization and the global C cycle. Based on this, the objectives of this research were to: (i) evaluate the soil fertility and (ii) determine soil organic matter mineralization on the basis of CO2 releases in Apolobamba. Regarding the lastly vicuna censuses carried out in the studied area, eight representative zones with dissimilar vicuna densities were selected. Other characteristics were also considered to select the study zones: (1) alpaca densities, (2) vegetation communities (3) plant cover and (4) landscape and geo-morphological description. Soil samples from different samplings were collected. Soil respiration was determined at two temperatures: 15 °C (based on the highest atmosphere temperature that was registered in the area) and 25 °C, in order to monitor the increase in soil respiration (Q10). The physico-chemical soil results pointed out the good soil fertility. However, erosive processes could be taken place likely caused by the alpaca grazing. High total organic carbon contents were observed corresponding to the highest soil respiration at 15 °C. This observation was supported by the relationship found between the total organic carbon and the soil respiration. A noticeable increase of the soil respiration when the temperature increased 10 °C was reported (from 1083 ± 47 g C m-2 yr-1 at 15 °C to

  20. Pastoralism in Northern Peru during Pre-Hispanic Times: Insights from the Mochica Period (100–800 AD) Based on Stable Isotopic Analysis of Domestic Camelids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Franco Jordán, Régulo; Sánchez, Segundo Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol) and bone structural carbonate (δ13Cbone and δ18Obone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ13Cenamel and δ18Oenamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ18Obone and δ18Oenamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life of the Mochicas is also

  1. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles.

  2. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life

  3. Más allá de Paco de Lucía. Una aproximación a la tradición del flamenco en el Campo de Gibraltar, Cádiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Téllez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La importancia, mediática, histórica y artística generada por Paco de Lucía, tanto por el mismo como en su acompañamiento a ya mítico Camarón de la Isla ha generado un velo que enturbia al arte flamenco de todo el Campo de Gibraltar. Sin minusvalorar el aporte de la familia algecireña Sánchez la tradición jonda se puede rastrear hasta el siglo XVII y pervive en jóvenes valores del cante, el toque y el baile hasta el día de hoy. Como ejemplo basta mencionar dos nombres que son ejemplo de la pervivencia flamenca Corruco y la zaga de Los Chaqueta.

  4. DOSSIER: Osteometría de camélidos sudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés D. Izeta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de elementos óseos y su asignación a una especie animal concreta es un tema central para la zooarqueología. Por ello desde la década de 1970 se han estudiado las diferencias morfométricas que permiten la diferenciación de especies que comparten una morfología ósea similar, especialmente cuando ésta es el resultado de un proceso de domesticación o de mejora de alguno de los caracteres de la población (e.g. Albarella y Payne 2005, von den Driesch 1976, Davis 1996, Payne y Bull 1988, Reitz 1994, Uerpmann 1979, Weinstock 2003 y bibliografía allí citada. Esta similitud morfológica puede tener sus dificultades en casos particulares como el de los camélidos sudamericanos. Esta familia (Camelidae está compuesta actualmente por cuatro especies: Lama guanicoe Muller 1776 (guanaco, Lama glama Linnaeus 1758 (llama, Lama pacos o Vicugna pacos Linnaeus 1758 (alpaca y Vicugna vicugna o Lama (Vicugna vicugna Molina 1782 (vicuña.Ante la presencia de tantas variedades diferentes de camélidos es sumamente importante el estudio de las variaciones morfológicas, que permitan diferenciar las distintas especies, tema al que la osteometría pretende aportar nuevos datos para esta familia tan conspicua en el registro arqueológico y paleontológico sudamericano. Esto es una cuestión clave si lo que se intenta es realizar una reconstrucción paleoeconómica de las poblaciones humanas del pasado o de la paleoecología del ambiente en donde desarrollaron sus actividades. En los últimos años se ha implementado la aplicación de distintas técnicas sobre los restos de camélidos con el fin de avanzar en el análisis de la composición de los conjuntos recuperados de sitios arqueológicos de varias regiones del país y de países limítrofes (Noroeste argentino, Patagonia argentina y norte de Chile. Estas variaciones han sido estudiadas a través de dos vías de análisis: uno de tipo cualitativo y otro cuantitativo. Las formas de

  5. Soil organic carbon in Apolobamba (Bolivia): Quantity and quality of the reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M. Á.; Faz, A.

    2009-04-01

    Global carbon cycle mainly depends on the soil organic matter (SOM). Some reducction of climatic impact techiques are related to the increase of the soil organic carbon (SOC) contents in order to elevate atmospherical carbon inputs. Kinetic mechanisms of the SOC are differents due to the complex interation between biological, physical and chemical processes in the soil. For a full understanding of the SOM contribution to the carbon cycle in the soil, the SOC contents should be addressed. The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) is an endangered species which belongs to camelid family. Its natural habitat is located in highland grasses in the Andes Montain Range, above 4,000 m.a.s.l. In Bolivia the vicuna is distributed around some andean regions such as Apolobamba. It is a protected area located in the Northwest of Bolivia where native inhabitants carry out a sustainable management of the vicuna. This activity is considered within a programme to improve economical conditions in the area. The vicuna lives in the same habitat than other cattle camelid like alpaca (Lama pacos). The soil is an essential natural resource in the vicuna development and the biodiversity conservation due to its role to support the native vegetation in Apolobamba. The objectives of this research were: (i) the quantification of SOC contents, (ii) the study of the SOC quality and (iii) the determination of the soil degradation degree in some zones in Apolobamba. Eight zones or census places, separated areas with geographic accidents, with different vicuna and alpaca densities were selected: Ulla-Ulla and Killu (low density), Ucha-Ucha and Wakampata (medium density), Sucondori and Caballchiñuni (high density) and Puyo-Puyo and Japu (very high density). One soil profile was taken and three sampling plots were determined in each zone. Three sampling points were selected in each plot and surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface samples (5-15 cm) were collected. Total carbon, total organic carbon (TOC) and water

  6. Microsatellite markers reveal low genetic differentiation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicated little differentiation between camels from southern Africa, the Sudan or an outgroup from the family Camelidae, the alpaca (Lama pacos). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that -0.09% of total variation reside between species, 0.26% between the two southern African camel populations and ...

  7. O caso Paco: um exemplo de neodesencadeamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabete Siqueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é produto de uma investigação empreendida sobre Oestatuto contemporâneo das identificações em sujeitos com marcas e alterações corporais, no Programa de Pós-graduação em Psicologia Clínica da Universidade Católica de Pernambuco. Foram estudados os depoimentos coletados em outra pesquisa realizada no âmbito da Antropologia pela pesquisadora Fabiana Maria Gama Pereira, intitulada Tatuagens, piercings e outras marcas corporais: aproximações interetnográficas entre Recife e Madri. A metodologia utilizada foi a meta-análise. Os relatos de quatro sujeitos que submeteram seus corpos a alterações corporais foram analisados com base nos pressupostos da psicanálise. Eles foram divididos em dois grupos: o primeiro, composto por três sujeitos que marcam seus corpos para o Outro em busca de reconhecimento; e o outro, por um sujeito que ancora seu ser em suas modificações corporais e tem uma modalidade identificatória peculiar a uma insígnia de gozo. Nosso objetivo é demonstrar que o caso do sujeito do segundo grupo representa um exemplo paradigmático de um neodesencadeamento psicótico.

  8. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Dufour

    Full Text Available Llama (Lama glama and alpaca (Vicugna pacos are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl, while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13C col and δ(15N col and bone structural carbonate (δ(13C bone and δ(18O bone and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13C enamel and δ(18O enamel. Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18O bone and δ(18O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic

  9. Development and Application of Camelid Molecular Cytogenetic Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J.; Kutzler, Michelle; Owens, Elaine; Perelman, Polina; Rubes, Jiri; Hornak, Miroslav; Johnson, Warren E.

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human–camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly. PMID:23109720

  10. PACo: A Novel Procrustes Application to Cophylogenetic Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balbuena, J. A.; Míguez-Lozano, R.; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2013), e61048 E-ISSN 1932-6203 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 252124 - PARAPOPGENE Grant - others:National Scientific Research of Spain(ES) CGL2008-02701; Generalitat Valenciana(ES) Prometeo Grant 2011-040 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : host-parasite cospeciation * phylogenetic trees * statistical test s * mitochondrial-DNA Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  11. Personality, Alzheimer's disease and behavioural and cognitive symptoms of dementia: the PACO prospective cohort study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouch, Isabelle; Dorey, Jean-Michel; Boublay, Nawèle; Henaff, Marie-Anne; Dibie-Racoupeau, Florence; Makaroff, Zaza; Harston, Sandrine; Benoit, Michel; Barrellon, Marie-Odile; Fédérico, Denis; Laurent, Bernard; Padovan, Catherine; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2014-10-10

    Alzheimer's disease is characterised by a loss of cognitive function and behavioural problems as set out in the term "Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia". These behavioural symptoms have heavy consequences for the patients and their families. A greater understanding of behavioural symptoms risk factors would allow better detection of those patients, a better understanding of crisis situations and better management of these patients. Some retrospective studies or simple observations suggested that personality could play a role in the occurrence of behavioural symptoms. Finally, performance in social cognition like facial recognition and perspective taking could be linked to certain personality traits and the subsequent risks of behavioural symptoms. We propose to clarify this through a prospective, multicentre, multidisciplinary study. Main Objective: -To assess the effect of personality and life events on the risk of developing behavioural symptoms. Secondary Objectives: -To evaluate, at the time of inclusion, the connection between personality and performance in social cognition tests; -To evaluate the correlation between performance in social cognition at inclusion and the risks of occurrence of behavioural symptoms; -To evaluate the correlation between regional cerebral atrophy, using brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging at baseline, and the risk of behavioural symptoms. Study type and Population: Prospective multicentre cohort study with 252 patients with Alzheimer's disease at prodromal or mild dementia stage. The inclusion period will be of 18 months and the patients will be followed during 18 months. The initial evaluation will include: a clinical and neuropsychological examination, collection of behavioural symptoms data (Neuropsychiatric-Inventory scale) and their risk factors, a personality study using both a dimensional (personality traits) and categorical approach, an inventory of life events, social cognition tests and an Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Patients will be followed every 6 months (clinical examination and collection of behavioural symptoms data and risk factors) during 18 months. This study aims at better identifying the patients with Alzheimer's disease at high risk of developing behavioural symptoms, to anticipate, detect and quickly treat these disorders and so, prevent serious consequences for the patient and his caregivers. ClincalTrials.gov: NCT01297140.

  12. Recruiting newly referred lung cancer patients to a patient navigator intervention (PACO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Trille Kristina; Mellemgaard, Anders; Stensøe Oksen, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    to care. We conducted a pilot study to test the feasibility of a patient navigator program (PAtient COach) for newly diagnosed lung cancer. We present the trial, the findings from the pilot study and discuss factors that might have affected recruitment rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We invited 24 lung...... of 1 or 2 or be over 65 years of age. The patient navigators targeted four phases of treatment: planning, initiation, compliance and end of treatment. RESULTS: Six months after the start of the study, we had recruited only six patients, due mainly to inherent patient resistance and because only 50...... of internal and external obstacles to patients' recruitment. The study provides insight into the barriers to recruitment of socially disadvantaged cancer patients to clinical trials and will inform future trial designs....

  13. Long-bone fractures in llamas and alpacas: 28 cases (1998–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, S. Emmanuelle; Getman, Liberty M.; Richardson, Dean W.; Fecteau, Marie-Eve

    2012-01-01

    Treatment and outcome of camelids with long-bone fractures are described. Medical records (1998–2008) of camelids (n = 28) with long-bone fractures were reviewed for signalment, time to presentation, fracture type, method of repair, duration of hospitalization, and post-operative complications. Follow-up information was obtained via telephone interviews with owners. Mean age and weight at presentation were 3.4 years and 56.3 kg, respectively. Twenty-six fractures were treated with internal fixation (n = 11), external fixation (n = 10), combination of internal and external fixation (n = 3), amputation (n = 1), and external fixation followed by amputation (n = 1). Long-term follow-up information was obtained for 19 of the 26 animals. The post-operative complication rate was 23% and owner satisfaction was high. Animals with open fractures were more likely to experience complications. Internal fixation was associated with superior alignment and outcome. Internal fixation techniques should be recommended for camelids. PMID:23277645

  14. [The occurrence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic South American Camelids in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids.

  15. The evaluation of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se concentrations in the hair of South American camelids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milada Holasová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the content of trace elements in the hair of South American camelids and to evaluate the effect of coat colour, species, age, and sex on their concentration in the hair. The samples were collected from 77 animals – 23 llamas (Llama guanicoe f. gllama and 54 alpacas (Llama guanicoe f. pacos during a spring health check. The concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and manganese (Mn were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and selenium (Se by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. We found the following concentrations (mean ± standard deviation; mg/kg dry matter in the llama hair: Cu 9.70 ± 4.69; Zn 145.20 ± 21.07; Mn 12.49 ± 10.14; Se 0.25 ± 0.14. In alpaca hair we found the following concentrations: Cu 10.22 ± 2.90; Zn 129.81 ± 19.01; Mn 12.67 ± 13.85; Se 0.48 ± 0.24. We found a significant difference between llamas and alpacas in Zn and Se concentrations in the hair. From all the evaluated factors we found that coat colour had the highest effect on Mn and Se concentration. Dark haired animals had significantly higher concentrations of these trace elements than other coloured groups. The evaluation of the concentration of trace elements in the hair of llamas has a potential to be used for the evaluation of long-term status of trace elements in the body; however, it is necessary to continue with experimental work in this area. Our findings can serve as a pilot study for further works in this field.

  16. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). April 9, 2003 update no. 11; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 9 avril 2003, no. 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the historical developments on fuel cells during the last hundred years 2)the development of an ITPCFC (Intermediate Temperature Proton Conducting Fuel Cell) 3)a fuel cell coupled with an enzymatic process to produce electricity, to transform and isolate CO{sub 2} 4)the potentialities of fuel cell vehicles 5)an energetic modelling of clean vehicles to reduce the CO{sub 2} releases in Japan 6)the selective oxidation of carbon monoxide from platinum, ruthenium and palladium catalysts to produce hydrogen 7)a coal conversion process in a gas rich in hydrogen for fuel cell 8)the hydrogen production by methane cracking for fuel cell 9)the hydrogenation characteristics of magnesium films exposed in air for hydrogen storage 10)the hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes and materials of the same family 11)the electrochemical opening of carbon nano-tubes at ambient temperature followed by hydrogen storage. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  17. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). September 23, 2003 update no. 16; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 23 septembre 2003, no. 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the behaviour of the electrode potential in direct hydrazine fuels 2)a device of desalination fed with a fuel cell 3)experiment in the field of residential fuel cell systems at ECN (Energy Research Center) 4)'design of a divided feeding' for SOFC with an internal reforming system 5)water management and thermal management in a fuel cell vehicle fed with hydrogen extracted from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) 6)a mathematical model of propulsion systems by PEMFC for mobile applications 7)assessment of the feasibility of a DMFC containing an alkaline membrane 8)semi-empirical assessment model of the performance of a DMFC, first part: development of the model and validation 9)PEMFC and the challenge of CO 10)materials for SOFC 11)natural gas and LPG desulfurization for fuel cells reformers 12)heat exchangers for reforming techniques 13)desulfurization of a fuel for fuel cell system 14)hydrogen production from solar thermal reactor 15)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: nano-structured storage materials having modified covalent bonds sp2. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  18. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 14, 2005 update no. 29; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 mars 2005, no. 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production. Their different titles are given below: 1)thermodynamic analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol and running in internal reforming mode 2)effect of the methanol and ethanol permeation on the efficiencies of a direct alcohol fuel cell with a PtRu/C anode 3)analysis of an hybrid SOFC micro-turbine micro-generation system 4)dynamic modelling and simulation of a small hybrid wind-fuel cell system 5)simulation of a system combining SOFC and PEMFC 6)assessment of the impacts and of the economical aspects of the fuel cell APU part 1: modelling of the cost and the efficiencies of the system part 2)impacts on the health and on the environment, analysis of the life cycle and optimization 7)efficiencies of vehicles equipped with direct hydrogen or reformed methanol PEMFC 8)methods for supplying fuel cell devices 9)auxiliary fuel cell system 10)analysis of life cycle of maritime applications of fuel cells 11)critical analysis of different hydrogen production and uses ways 12)comparison of the hydrogen and natural gas production processes in a thermodynamical and environmental point of view 13)research and development on the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  19. Thematic survey: the technical survey for the PACo network. Actualization of the 04 march 2003, no.10; Veille thematique: la veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation de 04 mars 2003, no.10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document provides the thematic survey concerning the hydrogen fuel cell, realized on march 2003. The papers published during this period deal with the hydrogen fuel cell (low and medium power stationary, mobile and handling applications, components), the hydrogen production (catalytic burner for carrier hydrogen production, catalysts, fuel reforming for fuel cell vehicles). For each purposes abstracts are provided. (A.L.B.)

  20. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). August 8, 2002 update, no. 7; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 8 aout 2002, no. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: characteristics of a PEM fuel cell submitted to a transient increase of CO concentration; perspectives of the different fuel cell technologies in transport applications; development of a portable fuel cell system for the soldier's equipment; direct 2-propanol low temperature fuel cell; a fuel cell system quasi-directly supplied with methanol and based on a mixture of electrolytic polymers; catalysis in low temperature fuel cells (part.1: the cathode stakes); manufacturing and performance of the new multi-layer cathodes for SOFCs; patent about intermediate plates for the limitation of the movement of the bolts used for the fastening of a fuel cell core; the Paul Sherrer institute is testing a zinc and synthetic gas production process that use solar energy, natural gas and zinc oxide; experimental evaluation of a combined plasma/catalyst system for the production of hydrogen from the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons; hydrogen production using a new chemo-organo-trophic bacteria: Citrobacter sp. Y19; hydrogen as energy vector: competition or complementarity with fossil fuels; hydrogen storage in general and in light monocrystalline metal hydrides in particular; the nuclear option for the production of hydrogen as energy of the future. (J.S.)

  1. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). March 13, 2002 update, no. 6; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 13 mars 2002, no. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells and hydrogen production: 'giant jumps' in PEMFC technology from 1960 to the present day; SOFC systems: from 100 kW atmospheric systems to 300 kW pressurized systems; fields of application of PEM fuel cells on the energy market; numerical analysis of the production characteristics of a tubular SOFC with internal reforming; comparative study of the performances obtained with sulfonated poly(butadiene-styrene) membranes; non-planar architecture for PEM fuel cells; mass and heat transfer simulation inside a fuel cell for various channel sections; less expensive and more efficient fuel cells: the abatement of manufacturing costs can lead to products commercialization; comparison between fuel cell powered vehicles and future conventional vehicles; hydrogen produced from ethanol by indirect internal reforming in a MCFC system. (J.S.)

  2. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network (PACO). January 28, 2004 update no. 20; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 15 janvier 2004, no. 20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the characteristics of PEMFC running at negative exterior temperatures 2)the effects of CO poisoning on PEMFC at temperatures until 200 C 3)the mechanical properties of tubular SOFC 4)fuel cells fed with coal 5)analysis of cogeneration system: planar SOFC/gas turbine 6)modelling of fuel cells for transport, according to the neuronal networks method 7)design of hybrid fuel cell systems 8)a comparative study of direct methanol fuel cells for vehicles 9)desulfurization by adsorption and catalytic steam reforming of gas oil for applications in fuel cells 10)feasibility study of hydrogen production for fuel cell vehicles by naphtha on-board steam reforming 11)reforming catalyst of kerosene for fuel cell, kinetics and modelling of steam reforming 12)reforming by partial oxidation of low lubricant power gas oil, of dimethyl ether and methane for SOFC 13)conversion of solar heat in fuels by solar thermochemistry 14)hydrogen purification for fuel cells: selective oxidation of CO on Pt-Fe / zeolite catalysts 15)hydrogen photo-production from cellulose derived compound, with a system: chlorophyll / platinum nano-particles 16)hydrogen storage in commercial activated carbon. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  3. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). July 21, 2003 update no. 14; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 21 juillet 2003, no. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells and hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells fed with wood in different buildings 2)use of CO{sub 2} produced in a SOFC in a reactor in which algae are produced 3)PEMFC systems: the requirement of using polymers running at higher temperatures to better manage the heat and water 4)a technical and economical assessment of a fuel cell system decoupled of the electric network to feed buildings located in Sweden 5)use of ammonia as fuel in SOFC 6)direct oxidation fuel cells running with pure propanol-2 6)fuel cells at protonic ceramics for a running at a higher yield with methane 7)future role of gold in fuel cell systems 8)a heat management system in a fuel cell 9)tests in real conditions of the running of a fuel cell hybrid bus 10)a hydrogen production unit from hydrocarbons without releases for fuel cells used for mobile and portable applications 11)development of a methanol reformer for fuel cells 12)the reforming of liquid hydrocarbons for fuel cells used in transport applications 13)the properties of hydrogen storage in metallic hydrides with vanadium having a centred cubic structure. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  4. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 22, 2003 update no. 19; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 decembre 2003, no. 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, the means of transport, the hydrogen production and with the different new other energies. Their different titles are given below : 1)gas turbine/fuel cell arrangement 2)design and fabrication of a SOFC by CERAMIC FUEL CELLS 3)a 'microbial' fuel cell able of converting glucose in electricity with high yields and velocity 4)a hybrid system: combined cycle gas turbine - multi-stage SOFC 5)a SOFC as auxiliary generator of electricity in an aircraft 6)recent development results of fuel in the Juelich research center 7)state of development of the SOFC at Haldor Topsoe/Risoe 8)a cost/advantage analysis of 'clean cars': methodology and applications to the electric cars 9)the generation of current and heat in a aerostat 10)hydrogen free from CO, produced from bio-ethanol steam reforming on cobalt catalysts supported on ZnO. Effect of the metallic precursor 11)device and method based on the cyclic auto-thermal reforming 12)the ammonia, source of hydrogen for a hybrid system: alkaline fuel/battery 13)effect of the Nafion on the activity of Pt-Ru electrocatalysts for the methanol electro-oxidation 14)'VISION 21': an integration of systems based on coal. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  5. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). September 19, 2001 update, no. 1; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 19 septembre 2001, no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: dynamical behaviour of a PEM fuel cell for stationary applications; characterization of the Ballard's MK5-E PEMFC; modeling and analysis of a PEM system for transportation system applications; increase of the performances of a PEMFC by the optimization of the membrane and of the conditions of humidification; SOFC: exo-thermal reaction and heat source; average temperature SOFCs; performance and structure of a new CoO/Ni-based cathode for MCFC; choice of materials for fuel cell technology; recent trends of fuel cell-powered vehicles; hydrogen production in supercritical liquids for fuel cell use; on-board fuel conversion for fuel cells: comparison of the different fuels by numerical simulation; hydrogen production systems for fuel cells; reactor for the preferential catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide (PROX) for PEMFC systems devoted to automotive vehicles; study of a gasoline reformer for fuel cell-powered vehicle applications; experimental research about hydrogen production from n-octane partial oxidation and vapo-reforming; simulation study of hydrogen storage in mono-sheet carbon nano-tubes; hydrogen adsorption in carbonized nano-structures; specific properties of the hydrogen engine; biomass power plants: a spectacular expansion in Germany. (J.S.)

  6. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). December 2001 update, no. 4; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation de decembre 2001, no.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells and hydrogen production: an overview of the technical and economical challenges of fuel cells; development of low temperature SOFCs; InDEC B.V. (Innovative Dutch Electro Ceramics) pilot production plant for planar SOFC components; sheet of conductive material with gaseous diffusion layer properties for fuel cells; catalytic properties of new anode materials for methane-fueled SOFCs; JRCM, Nippon Steel, NKK and Teikoku Sanso jointly develop the process of hydrogen extraction from coking plant gas; hydrogen production from vapo-reforming of vegetal oil in presence of nickel catalysts; performances of Pd and Pd/Ag membranes for a CO conversion reactor; on-board hydrogen production. (J.S.)

  7. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 29, 2005 update no. 30; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 29 avril 2005, no. 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and transport and distribution. Their different titles are given below: 1)hydrogen and energetic strategies first part: current progress achieved and requirements 2)hydrogen and energetic strategies second part: influences on the world stability 3)fuel cells: a future technology respectful with the environment 4)thermo-economical modelling and optimization of fuel cells systems 5)simulation of a SOFC fed with methane 6)processes analyses and assessment of the exergy losses in a SOFC 7)characterization and analysis of the efficiencies of a SOFC with a proton conducting ceramic electrolyte 8)economic and environmental feasibility study of a group of fuel cells cogeneration systems of 200 kW on the campus of the Stanford university 9)in situ measurements of water distribution in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell 10)comparison of electric power and hydrogen production systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration and storage 11)cold plasma use for hydrocarbons reforming 12)study of the cracks growth in AISI 304 weldings and steel plates under hydrogen or synthetic air atmosphere. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  8. Thematic outlook: the technical outlook for the fuel cell research network (PACO). December 8, 2003 update no. 18; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 8 decembre 2003, no. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Summaries of different recent articles and patents are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and with the different other energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells or internal combustion engine, will it be really a 'or'? 2)fuel cell systems with a high yield using heat generated by the fuel for producing an addition of electricity 3)the design of DFC (Direct Fuel Cell) 4)electricity production by glucose oxidation in bacterial fuels without intermediary 5)simulation of a photovoltaic/micro-hydraulic/hydrogen system for feeding a house in the Alpes area. Part 2: the integrated system 6)recent advances in the field of materials for fuel cells 7)new materials for hydrogen production in PEMFC 8)modelling of the performances of lithium-ion batteries for fuel cells vehicles 9)hydrogen production at low temperature from oxygenated hydrocarbons 10)an alternative system for stationary hydrogen production: the iron sponge reforming cycle 11)a steam reformer for abating the releases of an internal combustion engine 12)hydrogen separation and purification: hydrogen recycling for SOFC 13)hydrogen physico-chemical storage: are carbon nano-tubes good means of hydrogen storage? 14)energetic scenarios until 2050 15)the use of wind energy on the electric network. The references of these articles and patents are detailed. (O.M.)

  9. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 14, 2004 update no. 25; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 14 juin 2004, no. 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the American plan of de-regulated electric power production with fuel cells 2)application of single wall carbon nano-tubes in fuel cells 3)scenarios of SOFC introduction on the Japanese market 4)advanced SOFC technology and developments at the Siemens Westinghouse firm 5)manufacture and optimal size of a PEMFC cogeneration system for multi-residential application: application to the decomposition strategy 6)analysis of the life cycle of fuel cells using disposal gas 7)technical and economical analysis of a three-generation SOFC system 8)use of APU-FC for an average class tactical lorry, during a use in partial electric power supply or in condition of a silent stand by 9)modelling of the current supply of a lorry at stop: comparison between a idling engine and a APU 10)production of hydrogen and carbon nano-tubes by methane decomposition in a two-stage fluidized bed reactor 11)hydrogen production by auto-thermal reforming of gas-oil 12)simulations of cold starting of a gasoline reformer for mobile applications of fuel cells 13)ethanol production by steam reforming on a Pd/{gamma}Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trading catalyst 14)control of the CO{sub 2}/(CO+CO{sub 2}) ratio and of the deactivation of the catalyst for the gasoline steam reforming 15)comparison of three integrated processes of partial oxidation producing hydrogen for fuel cells applications 16)search of new methods of the mixture: natural gas/hydrogen production for use in natural gas systems in The Netherlands 17)outline of the energy/hydrogen storage: progress achieved with the different techniques and future prospect of nano-materials 18) hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by solar way 19)forecast and measurement of the limits of the flammability domain of fuel cells. The references of these articles rae detailed. (O.M.)

  10. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. September 29, 2004 update no. 27; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 29 septembre 2004, no. 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the Germany countries agreement for fuel cells 2)electrochemical modelling of an IP-SOFC 3)design and performances of PEMFC tested with negative temperatures 4)carbon-air fuel cells without reforming process 5)exergy and economical analysis of a PAFC system of 200 kW 6)experience feedback on the use of a PAFC 7)experience feedback on the use of a PEMFC of 250 kW 8)hybrid fuel cell-powered vehicle: a possible solution of motorization 9)recent advancements in direct ethanol fuel cells: development of new platinum-tin electrocatalysts 10)review of components for SOFC anode 11)development of a fuel cell bicycle 12)steam reforming and water gas conversion by vapor permeation in a PCFC 13)modelling of an auto-thermal catalytic reformer for fuel cells applications 14)CO removal: system integrated to a preferential oxidation reactor for PEMFC vehicles 15)helio-hydraulic and helio-thermal hydrogen production 16)recent advances in the field of hydrogen storage in inorganic nano-structures containing metals 17)sequestration and storage of CO{sub 2}, the essential link for an hydrogen economy. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  11. Thematic outlook. Technical outlook for the fuel-cell research network (PACo). June 15, 2001 update, no. 0; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACo. Actualisation du 15 juin 2001, no. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    This report brings together a compilation of abstracts of articles about some recent research works carried out in the domain of fuel cells, hydrogen production and hydrogen storage: effect of hydrogen on the magnetic properties of iron nano-crystalline particulates; smaller fuel cells; development of a 1 kW PEMFC; materials for low temperature SOFCs; development and operation of a 150 W DMFC; materials science and engineering: a key-technology for the commercialization of fuel cells; chemical and electrochemical behaviour of Ni-Ti in cathodic conditions as used in a MCFC; patent for stainless steel bipolar plates; development of proton conductive membranes for PEMFCs and DMFCs; development and characterization of acid-doped polymer mixtures (poly-benzimidazole/sulfonated poly-sulfone) used as fuel cell electrolyte; modification of a proton conductive membrane for the reduction of methanol diffusion in a DMFC; DMFC based on a new low cost nano-porous membrane; method for controlling the connexion between a fuel cell and a power grid; steam reforming of biomass-derived ethanol for hydrogen production devoted to fuel cells; hydrogen production by catalytic decomposition of methane; hydrogen storage. (J.S.)

  12. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. March 22, 2004 update no. 22; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 22 mars 2004, no. 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage and renewable energies. Their different titles are given below: 1)recent developments in the field of polymer electrolyte fuel cells membranes running above 100 C 2)a new study method of a two-phase flow in a direct methanol fuel cell 3)fuel cell system 4)direct polymer electrolyte fuel cells running with dimethyl ether for portable applications 5)new fuel cells developments for aerospace equipment 6)anode materials for SOFC 7)application of the fuel cell technology to the rail transport 8)hydrogen production by hydrocarbons steam reforming on Ni or Fe based catalysts which are modified by an alkaline earth metal 9)thermochemical hydrogen production from Pacinum virgatum plant 10)development of a catalyst for biomass gasification, in a double-bed gasifier 11)the role of hydrogen in the development of wind power electric systems: the case of Ireland 12)feasibility study of a hydrogen distribution basic equipment for fuel cells vehicles, based on the use of electric power produced in off-peak hours in Japan 13)'bio-hydrogen' production: future developments and limits to a practical application 14)improvement of the hydrogen production from a biomass gasification process, indirectly heated. Removal of carbon dioxide releases with a new biological reformer 15)storage of hydrogen cooled with liquid nitrogen 16)ten years of running of a renewable energy production system based on hydrogen. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  13. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. February 26, 2004 update no. 21; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 26 fevrier 2004, no. 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage, environment. Their different titles are given below: 1)a 10 kW pressurized SOFC unit 2)design of a SOFC system for unstable network 3)demonstration for the general public of high and low temperature fuel cells 4)development of an APU for mobile application based on the SOFC technology 5)fuel cells as continuous supply source 6)PEM fuel cells with carbon nano-tubes electrodes 7)a temperature control system of a reformer fed by a fuel cell 8)the hybridization, a solution for fuel cell vehicles 9)hydrogen production by ethanol auto-thermal reforming on a Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst 10)partial oxidation reforming catalyst for fuel cells vehicles 11)hydrogen production increased by a reactive mixture of alkaline aqueous solutions of an alkaline metal borohydride for fuel cells 12)development of an hydrogen generator (of about 10 kW) using chemical hydrides 13)device for pure gases production, in particular hydrogen and oxygen, from gaseous or liquid mixtures, for stationary and mobile applications 14)hydrogen storage in carbon nano-tubes synthesized by pyrolysis with a nickel-lanthanum catalyst 15)estimation of the new energetic and transport systems; the case of fuel cells, part 2: environmental performances. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  14. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. June 28, 2005 update no. 32; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 28 juin 2005, no. 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)advantages of the use of hydrogen compared with kerosene 2)comparative study of three types of microbial fuel cells 3)carbon nano-tubes for electric applications 4)separation of the CO{sub 2} during the hydrocarbons gasification 5)hydrogen production from hydrocarbons assisted by plasma 6)plasma pyrolysis of biomass for synthesis gas and carbonaceous adsorbent production 7)fast starting reformer for automobile applications 8)development of a unit of hydrogen production from LPG for PEM systems: assessment at the laboratory scale of the sub-units of auto-thermal reforming and of selective oxidation 9)hydrogen and electric power production, with CO{sub 2} sequestration, by redox species chemical cycle reforming (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as support) 10)exergy and economic analysis of a PEM electrolyser running at different temperatures and pressures 11)nano-structured materials for hydrogen storage 12)composite materials based on light elements for hydrogen storage. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  15. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. May 18, 2004 update no. 24; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 18 mai 2004, no. 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)comparison of the costs between the electric-powered vehicles and the fuel cell vehicles 2)fuel savings of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles 3)direct formic acid fuel cells producing high current density 4)use of biogas in a SOFC 5)test unit for the determination of the seasonal performance of fuel cell residential systems 6)new management technique of fuel cells for optimizing the output power and the fuel use yield 7)SOFC/micro-turbines systems: current progress achieved and future development 8)advances in the field of the PEMFC 9)advances in the field of new materials for PEMFC 10)hybridization of fuel cell vehicles: an accessible solution for efficient traction systems 11)exergy life cycle analysis of systems of production and storage of hydrogen for mobile application 12)hydrogen and electric power production from coal with CO{sub 2} sequestration 13)H{sub 2}S low temperature removal with ZnO in gas mixtures containing vapor for applications in fuel cells 1-ZnO particles and extruded compounds 14)catalytic nano-composite membranes for CO abatement in fuel cell applications 15)activity and stability of Cu-CeO catalysts in the water-gas conversion for fuel cell applications 16)hydrogen production for fuel cell by ethanol partial oxidation on a nickel based catalyst 17)micro-reactor for hydrogen production in micro-fuel cell applications 18)hydrogen storage capacity and electrochemical properties of the electrode material La{sub 0.7}Mg{sub 0.3}Ni{sub 3.825}Co{sub 0.675}Mn{sub x}(A) 19)hydrogen storage and desorption capacity of carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  16. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. August 13, 2004 update no. 26; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 13 aout 2004, no. 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)fuel cells, hydrogen and energy supply in Australia 2)fuel cell system 3)exergy analysis of a SOFC fed with ethanol or methane 4)a SOFC fed with H{sub 2}S 5)challenges to take up in the control of fuel cells systems: role of dynamic models 6)hydrogen as energetic vector for autonomous applications based on renewable energy sources 7)passive feed system for DMFC 8)heterogeneous poly-acids membrane for DMFC 8)ferritic stainless steel assessment as interconnections material for SOFC 9)an approach of super-capacitors integration in fuel cell electric-powered vehicles and emulation of the electric characteristics of the cell using an automatic converter 10)catalytic activity correlations: the difficult case of the hydrogen production from ammonia 11)desulfurization of natural gas and LPG, for reformers, in fuel cells systems 12)Cu/ZnO and Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by an homogeneous precipitation method, and used for methanol steam reforming 13)renewable energy production: role of gas and electric power networks to cope with the intermittence problem, with the hydrogen production and storage 14)comparison of the hydrogen adsorption on carbon nano-structures 15)hydrogen detector based on an optical and an electric switching. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  17. Thematic outlook: the technical survey for the fuel cell research network PACO. April 16, 2004 update no. 23; Veille thematique. La veille technique pour le reseau PACO. Actualisation du 16 avril 2004, no. 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Summaries of several recent articles are gathered here. They deal with fuel cells, means of transport, hydrogen production and storage. Their different titles are given below: 1)the importance of the fuel choice in the efficiency of the SOFC 2)assessment model of a centralized electric power system: SOFC/gas turbine 3)a direct borohydride fuel cell 4)thermodynamic optimization of the internal structure of a fuel cell 5)a SOFC/gas turbine cogeneration system 6)micro-fuel cells for portable applications 7)comparison of performances of direct alcohol fuel cells using different anode catalysts 8)materials and designs for SOFC used in stationary and mobile applications 9)development of measurement techniques for two-phase hydrogen weight flow 10)semi-conductors potentiometric probe for the hydrogen detection in air 11)integration of a fuel cell in an electric system, using a regulator based on the theory of regulation by disturbances accommodation 12)'greening London's black cabs': a study of the use potential of fuel cells cabs in London 13)gasification of leather residues - part 1 - experimental study in a pilot gasifier with a descending current 14)use of composite conducting membranes to produce hydrogen by water dissociation 15)molybdenum carbide based catalyst for the water gas reaction used in fuel cells vehicles applications 16)hydrogen production process from methane hydrates with carbon dioxide hydrates sequestration 17)comparative study between the hydrogen adsorption on super activated carbon and on carbon nano-tubes. The references of these articles are detailed. (O.M.)

  18. Characterization of polarimetric and total intensity behaviour of a complete sample of PACO radio sources in the radio bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, V.; Massardi, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Casasola, V.; Gregorini, L.; Trombetti, T.; Burigana, C.; Bonato, M.; De Zotti, G.; Ricci, R.; Stevens, J.; Ekers, R. D.; Bonavera, L.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Liuzzo, E.; López-Caniego, M.; Paladino, R.; Toffolatti, L.; Tucci, M.; Callingham, J. R.

    2018-03-01

    We present high sensitivity (σP ≃ 0.6 mJy) polarimetric observations in seven bands, from 2.1 to 38 GHz, of a complete sample of 104 compact extragalactic radio sources brighter than 200 mJy at 20 GHz. Polarization measurements in six bands, in the range 5.5-38 GHz, for 53 of these objects were reported by Galluzzi et al. We have added new measurements in the same six bands for another 51 sources and measurements at 2.1 GHz for the full sample of 104 sources. Also, the previous measurements at 18, 24, 33, and 38 GHz were re-calibrated using the updated model for the flux density absolute calibrator, PKS1934-638, not available for the earlier analysis. The observations, carried out with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, achieved a 90 per cent detection rate (at 5σ) in polarization. 89 of our sources have a counterpart in the 72-231 MHz GLEAM (GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array) survey, providing an unparalleled spectral coverage of 2.7 decades of frequency for these sources. While the total intensity data from 5.5 to 38 GHz could be interpreted in terms of single component emission, a joint analysis of more extended total intensity spectra presented here, and of the polarization spectra, reveals that over 90 per cent of our sources show clear indications of at least two emission components. We interpret this as an evidence of recurrent activity. Our high sensitivity polarimetry has allowed a 5σ detection of the weak circular polarization for ˜ 38 per cent of the data set, and a deeper estimate of 20 GHz polarization source counts than has been possible so far.

  19. [Sandflies (Diptera, psychodidae) in a secondary forest area in the Paco do Lumiar city, Maranhao, Brazil: a leishmaniasis transmission area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, V L; Rebêlo, J M; Silva, F S

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the wealth of species, relative abundance, seasonal fluctuation, and nocturnal activity of sandflies. The field survey was conducted in a "capoeira" (secondary forest) area in the county of Paço do Lumiar, Maranhão, where cutaneous and transmission of visceral leishmaniasis frequently occurs. Sandflies were captured by CDC-type light traps from 6:00 PM to 6:00 AM, once a month, from March 1997 to February 1998. A total of 489 specimens were collected (251 males and 238 females), distributed among 10 species: Lutzomyia antunesi (45.19%), Lutzomyia whitmani (29.4%), Lutzomyia longipalpis (7.56%), Lutzomyia sordelli (6.34%), Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (4.5%), Brumptomyia avellari (4.09%), Lutzomyia evandroi (1.85%), Lutzomyia umbratilis (0.61%), Lutzomyia corossoniensis (0.41%), and Lutzomyia trispinosa (0.41%). The sandflies were present year round, with higher abundance during the rainy season. They were present in all intervals studied, with the highest frequency between 12:00 PM and 1:00 AM (31%).

  20. La domestication animale en Amérique du Sud: le point des connaissances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Quatre espèces animales, d’importance économique inégale, ont été domestiquées dans les régions andines à l’époque préhistorique: le canard musqué Cairina moschata avant 3000 BP (?, le cobaye Cavia porcellus vers 2500 BP (?, l’alpaca Lama pacos vers 6000 BP et le lama Lama glama entre 5500 et 4000 BP, d’après les données archéologiques et les analyses archéozoologiques les plus récentes. A propos de chacune d’elles sont présentés synthétiquement les gisements-clés et les fouilles effectuées, les méthodes d’analyse archéozoologique mises en oeuvre, les résultats obtenus (modalités et chronologie des processus de domestication. En conclusion sont examinées, à propos des camélidés, les causes possibles de leur domestication et quelques-unes de ses conséquences socio-économiques les plus importantes. La domesticación animal en América del Sur. Balance de los conocimientos. Cuatro especies animales, de importancia económica desigual, han sido domesticadas en las regiones andinas durante la época prehistórica: el pato joque Cairana moschata antes de 3000 BP (?, el cuy Cavia porcellus hacia 2500 BP (?, la alpaca Lama pacos hacia 6000 BP y la llama Lama glama entre 5500 y 4000 BP, según los datos arqueológicos y los análisis arqueozoológicos más recientes. A propósito de cada especie, presentamos sintéticamente los yacimientos claves y las excavaciones efectuadas, los métodos de análisis arqueozoológico utilizados y los resultados obtenidos (modalidades y cronología de los procesos de domesticación. En conclusión y a proposito de los camélidos, se examina las causas posibles de su domesticación y algunas de sus consecuencias socioeconómicas más importantes. The animal domestication in South America. The state of knowledge. Four animal species, of unequal economic importance, have been domesticated in the Andean region during prehistoric times. Muscovy duck Cairina moschata before 3000 BP

  1. Methane Emission by Camelids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T.; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A.; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg−1 d−1) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg−1 d−1). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg−1 in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg−1 in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  2. Methane emission by camelids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie T Dittmann

    Full Text Available Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total, all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹ when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹. However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants. This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  3. Methane emission by camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  4. Noninvasive monitoring of PaCO2 during one-lung ventilation and minimal access surgery in adults: End-tidal versus transcutaneous techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Paul; Tobias, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that end-tidal CO2 (ET-CO2) may be inaccurate during one-lung ventilation (OLV). This study was performed to compare the accuracy of the noninvasive monitoring of PCO2 using transcutaneous CO2 (TC-CO2) with ET-CO2 in patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) during OLV. Materials and Methods: In adult patients undergoing thoracoscopic surgical procedures, PCO2 was simultaneously measured with TC-CO2 and ET-CO2 devices and compa...

  5. Diagnóstico diferencial y algunas derivaciones en usuarios consumidores de PBC (PACO Differential diagnosis and some derivations in consumer users of PBC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Donghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la Programación UBACyT 2008/10 sobre indicadores diferenciales entre el diagnóstico de trastorno psicótico inducido por sustancias -DSM IV- y el diagnóstico estructural de psicosis -psicoanálisis- en consumidores de pasta base de cocaína, se propusieron criterios diagnósticos y de derivación de dichos usuarios al sistema de atención pública en Salud mental. Peculiaridades del consumo de este tóxico en cuanto a los modos de acceso, características de la ingesta y efectos a nivel del sistema nervioso deben tenerse en cuenta, para evaluar niveles de impulsividad que comprometen severamente el lazo social. También a la hora de un diagnóstico y una derivación- sin desestimar los efectos tóxicos - debemos interrogar las diferencias entre el consumo en la adolescencia - como una etapa de puesta a prueba de la estructura subjetiva- y en adultos policonsumidores cuya estructura subjetiva, al momento del encuentro con la PBC, ha alcanzado previamente cierta consistencia.In the framework of the UBACyT 2008/10 programming on indicators differentials between the diagnosis of substance - DSM IV - induced psychotic disorder and structural diagnosis of psychosis - psychoanalysis-consumers of pasta base cocaine, proposed criteria diagnostic and referral of those users to the system of public care in Mental health. Peculiarities of the consumption of this poison as modes of access, intake and effects to the nervous system level must be taken into account, to assess levels of impulsivity that severely compromise the social link. Also at the time of a diagnosis and a derivation - without rejecting the toxic effects - must examine the differences between consumption in adolescence - as a stage of testing of the subjective structure - and policonsumidores adults whose subjective structureat the time of the encounter with the PBC, has previously reached some consistency

  6. Diagnóstico diferencial y algunas derivaciones en usuarios consumidores de PBC (PACO) Differential diagnosis and some derivations in consumer users of PBC

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Donghi; Miriam Maidana; Osvaldo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    En el marco de la Programación UBACyT 2008/10 sobre indicadores diferenciales entre el diagnóstico de trastorno psicótico inducido por sustancias -DSM IV- y el diagnóstico estructural de psicosis -psicoanálisis- en consumidores de pasta base de cocaína, se propusieron criterios diagnósticos y de derivación de dichos usuarios al sistema de atención pública en Salud mental. Peculiaridades del consumo de este tóxico en cuanto a los modos de acceso, características de la ingesta y efectos a nivel...

  7. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) family: transcripts and gene amplicons in camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Marta; Panasiewicz, Grzegorz; Klisch, Karl; Olivera, Louis V M; Mamani, Javier M; Abd-Elnaeim, Mahmoud M; Szafranska, Bozena

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the placental localization of PAG-like transcripts and genomic existence of PAG-like amplicons in new-world (Lp, Lama pacos, alpaca) and old-world camelids (Cb, Camelus bactrianus, bactrian; Cd, Camelus dromedarius; dromedary) are reported for the first time. Sections of Lp (150-347 days post coitum), Cd (43-90 cm crown-rump length) and Cb (term) placentas were used for heterologous (ht; cross-species) autoradiographic in situ hybridization (aISH) with single-stranded diagnostic (antisense) or control (sense) [alpha-(35)S]dATP-labeled 323 nt porcine PAG8 (pPAG8) cDNA probes produced by asymmetric PCRs. The aISH with antisense (35)S-pPAG8 probe identified camelid PAG-like (LpPAG, CbPAG and CdPAG) mRNA expression restricted to chorionic epithelium cells within placentas of camelids. In addition, genomic DNA (gDNA), isolated from placental sections were used as templates for camelid PAG-like gene amplicon production by PCR. Specificity of the obtained multiple camelid gDNA PAG-like amplicons was confirmed by double ht-Southern hybridizations with [alpha-(32)P]dATP-labeled 611 bp pPAG5 and pPAG10 double-stranded cDNA probes. The double ht-Southern hybridizations of camelid gDNA amplicons (with pPAG5 and -10 probes) allowed the identification of length-polymorphism of LpPAG, CbPAG and CdPAG genes, coding catalytically active and potentially inactive forms. Such an application of porcine PAG probes may be advantageous for future identification of still undiscovered PAG-like families in other eutherian species.

  8. Montagem e caracterização elétrica de pilhas a combustível de óxido sólido (PaCOS Assembly and electrical characterization of solid oxide fuel cell stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosane Aparecida Tarôco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on a review of the design features and the electrochemistry characterization of anode-supported planar SOFC. Studies and results of metallic alloy interconnectors and recovery for protection against corrosion and for contact layer are showed. Moreover a discussion of examples of measurements of impedance spectrometry, according to the literature and our experimental results are made. For the anode supported fuel cells the power density varies from 0.1 to 0.5 Wcm², according to results in the literature (showed in this paper. For electrolyte supported fuel cell the power density can be 10 Wcm-2 for high temperatures. An English-Portuguese glossary of most used terms in SOFC stack is given for greater clarity and to introduce new terms to the reader.

  9. Primer registro de infestación en un reptil por larvas de Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Natalio Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma parvitarsum es una garrapata endémica del Altiplano Andino de Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Perú. En la provincia de San Juan adultos de esta garrapata fueron encontrados en el Parque Nacional San Guillermo sobre Vicugna vicugna. En Argentina también existen citas de adultos de A. parvitarsum sobre bovinos, ovinos y el ñandú . El primer caso de parasitismo de larvas de A. parvitarsum en Liolaemus fue realizado en Chile. El presente trabajo menciona por primera vez para Argentina la presencia de larvas de A. parvitarsum parasitando al lagarto Liolaemus eleodori.

  10. [Peranesthetic monitoring of ventilation in children: value of capnometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, E; Viale, J P; Annat, G; Foussat, C; Bertrix, L; Lefebvre, A; Motin, J

    1986-01-01

    Continuous measurement of the end-expiratory partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) during anaesthesia has been proposed for non-invasive monitoring of arterial PCO2 (PaCO2). The values and the stability of the difference (PaCO2-PETCO2) during anaesthesia were studied for two ventilatory settings in eight children with healthy lungs and normal cardiac function undergoing minor surgery. PaCO2 values were all within a physiological range (30.2-43.6 mmHg). PaCO2-PETCO2 values ranged from 0.2 to 9.9 mmHg. With either mode of ventilation, there was no significant variation in PaCO2-PETCO2. It is concluded that estimation of PaCO2 was reliable during anaesthesia when haemodynamic and ventilatory states were stable, but a first determination of the PaCO2-PETCO2 gradient remained necessary for each child.

  11. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la osteometría a dos muestras óseas de camélidos de sitios de la época Mochica (siglos I y VII d.C. en la costa norte de Perú. Los huesos analizados en este estudio son primeras falanges que provienen de dos sitios arqueológicos Mochica (Cerro Chepén y Zona Urbana Moche. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes a una muestra de 44 primeras falanges, tomando en cuenta las cinco variables que son medidas en este hueso. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la identificación de dos especies de camélidos domésticos en ambos sitios, Lama glama “llama” y Lama pacos “alpaca”. La interpretación de los resultados es discutida mediante la explicación de un modelo de especiación geográfica o vicariante de los camélidos que habitaron la costa peruana en la época Mochica. Este modelo toma en cuenta que actualmente en esta ecología no hay crianza de camélidos, así como factores genéticos y evolutivos de una nueva forma doméstica, incluyendo el efecto de la Regla de Bergmann y los nuevos pastos en la morfología de esta nueva forma de camélido doméstico que vivió en la época Mochica.Palabras claves: osteometría, genética, camélidos, especiación, Mochica  AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacosalpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast

  12. Differential responses of the promoters from nearly identical paralogs of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) ACC oxidase to biotic and abiotic stresses in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shenghua; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2010-09-01

    Promoters from an ACC oxidase gene (PtACO1) and its nearly identical paralog (NIP) (PtACO2) of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) were recovered from genomic DNA using PCR amplification. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants harboring genetic constructs from which beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression was driven by the full-length (pACO1:GUS, pACO2:GUS) or truncated (pACO1-1.2:GUS, pACO2-1.2:GUS) loblolly pine ACC oxidase gene promoters displayed distinctive patterns of expression for the different promoter constructs. Both full-length promoter constructs, but not those using truncated promoters, responded to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and wounding. Both pACO1:GUS and pACO1-1.2:GUS responded to pathogen attack, while neither version of the pACO2 promoter responded to infection. In the inflorescence stalks, the full-length pACO1 promoter construct, but not the truncated pACO1-1.2:GUS or either pACO2 construct, responded to bending stress. When flowering transgenic Arabidopsis plants were placed in a horizontal position for 48 h, expression from pACO2:GUS, but not the other constructs, was induced on the underside of shoots undergoing gravitropic reorientation. The expression pattern for the pACO2:GUS construct in transgenic Arabidopsis was consistent with what might be expected for a gene promoter involved in the compression wood response in loblolly pine. Although near complete sequence identity between PtACO1 and PtACO2 transcripts prevented quantitation of specific gene products, the promoter expression analyses presented in this study provide strong evidence that the two ACC oxidase genes are likely differentially expressed and responded to different external stimuli in pine. These results are discussed with respect to the potential functional differences between these two genes in loblolly pine.

  13. Model checking process algebra of communicating resources for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new process algebra, called PACoR, for real-time systems which deals with resource- constrained timed behavior as an improved version of the ACSR algebra. We define PACoR as a Process Algebra of Communicating Resources which allows to explicitly express preemptiveness......, urgentness and resource usage over a dense-time model. The semantic interpretation of PACoR is defined in the form of a timed transition system expressing the timed behavior and dynamic creation of processes. We define a translation of PACoR systems to Parameterized Stopwatch Automata (PSA). The translation...

  14. Nutritional requirements and assessing nutritional status in camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Saun, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    It has been nearly 30 years since the first imported llamas and alpacas have been commercially raised in the United States. Nutritional requirements for these animals have not been well understood and most feeding practices were based on extrapolated and experiential information. Only recently has a National Research Council committee reviewed the available published information relative to nutrient requirements of llamas and alpacas. This article summarizes current nutrient requirement recommendations and provides some practical feeding recommendations and methods to assess nutritional status.

  15. Diagnóstico diferencial en consumidores de pasta base de cocaína (PACO: la admisión de pacientes para un tratamiento posible Differential diagnosis consumers of pasta base of cocaine: the admission of patients for a possible treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Donghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En la investigación "Alcances de la aplicación del modelo de reducción de daños al campo asistencial en las adicciones" (Alicia Donghi, ubicamos la siguiente particularidad: ciertos usuarios de sustancias "resistían" con sus cuerpos el Ideal de la ciencia del siglo XXI: la salud, el bienestar. Algunos pacientes adictos se presentaban con niveles de deterioro mental y corporal, debido a la ingesta o la abstinencia de sustancias duras. Nuestra tarea en la función pública y en la atención por obras sociales nos exige el diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. En muchas becas de derivación para internación de usuarios de PBC el rotulo de "Psicosis" abunda, a pesar de haber sido entrevistados bajo efectos"tóxicos" del consumo. Así comenzó nuestra investigación sobre diagnóstico diferencial de psicosis según el psicoanálisis y el DSM-IV, a in de garantizar al consultante la derivación a un dispositivo acorde a su patología de base, para un tratamiento posible.In the research "Scope of the application of the model of harm reduction to the health care ield in addiction" (Alicia Donghi, are located the following peculiarity: certain users of substances "resisted" with their bodies the Ideal of the science of the 21st century: health, well-being. Some addicted patients presented with levels of mental and physical, deterioration due to the intake or the withdrawal of harsh substances. Our task in the public service and care by social work requires us according to the DSM-IV diagnosis. In many scholarships for placement of PBC users bypass the tagline of "Psycho" abounds, despite having been interviewed under "toxic" effects of consumption. Thus began our research on differential diagnosis of psychosis in psychoanalysis and the DSM-IV, in order to ensure the consultant referral to a device according to their pathology of basis, for a possible treatment

  16. Diagnóstico diferencial en consumidores de pasta base de cocaína (PACO): la admisión de pacientes para un tratamiento posible Differential diagnosis consumers of pasta base of cocaine: the admission of patients for a possible treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia Donghi; Miriam Maidana; Osvaldo Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    En la investigación "Alcances de la aplicación del modelo de reducción de daños al campo asistencial en las adicciones" (Alicia Donghi), ubicamos la siguiente particularidad: ciertos usuarios de sustancias "resistían" con sus cuerpos el Ideal de la ciencia del siglo XXI: la salud, el bienestar. Algunos pacientes adictos se presentaban con niveles de deterioro mental y corporal, debido a la ingesta o la abstinencia de sustancias duras. Nuestra tarea en la función pública y en la atención por o...

  17. Technology channel fuel cells; Reseau technologique piles a combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the PACo channel, its research and development program and the calendar of the first year. The PACo channel aims at stimulate the technology innovation in the domain of the fuel cells and organize collaborations between enterprises and research laboratories. (A.L.B.)

  18. Arthroscopic approach and intraarticular anatomy of the stifle in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Santschi, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    To describe a cranial arthroscopic approach to the stifle of South American camelids and to report our clinical experience with camelid stifle arthroscopy. Experimental study and retrospective case series. (1) Cadaveric alpaca hindlimbs (n = 18; 9 alpacas); (2) 1 alpaca and 1 llama Polymethylmethacrylate joint casts (n = 2) were made to define stifle joint dimensions. Cadaveric stifle joints (n = 16) were evaluated arthroscopically to determine arthroscopic portal locations, describe the intraarticular anatomy, and report potential complications. An alpaca and a llama with stifle joint disease had diagnostic arthroscopy. Successful entry into the stifle joint was achieved in 16 cadaver limbs. Observed structures were: the suprapatellar pouch, articular surface of the patella, femoral trochlear ridges and groove, cranial aspect of the femoral condyles (n = 16); distal aspect of the cranial and proximal aspect of the caudal cruciate ligaments (14); and cranial aspects of the medial and lateral menisci (11), and cranial meniscotibial and intermeniscal ligaments (8). Stifle arthroscopy allowed for joint evaluation and removal of osteochondral fragments in 1 alpaca and 1 llama with naturally occurring stifle disease. Complications of cadaver or live procedures included minor cartilage scoring (3 stifles) and subcutaneous periarticular fluid accumulation (8 stifles). Arthroscopy provides a safe approach for diagnosis and treatment of stifle lesions in South American camelids. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Respiration of Chemodenervated Goats in Acute Metabolic Acidosis,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-02

    metabolic ) alkalosis . Furthermore, the ventilatory responses to increase in PaCO2 produced by CO2 inhalation are shifted to lower values of PaCO2 in...the presence of metabolic acidosis, and to higher PaCO2 vaiues in metabolic alkalosis (Fencl et al. [1966]). The roles played by the carotid bodies (CB...and J.A. Broch (1969). Respiration and cerebral blood flow in metabolic acidosis and alkalosis in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 27: 67-76. Gabel, R.A

  20. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...

  1. STATE-OF-THE-ART PRODUCTION OF EMBRYOS IN VITRO IN SOUTH AMERICAN CAMELIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz JB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The first research on in vitro fertilization in camelids have been made using gametes of slaughtered animals recovered. This job has been of invaluable help to try to standardize protocols in vitro maturation and fertilization. However it has not yet determined the time of in vitro maturation of oocytes alpacas and llamas, recent research suggests that will require about 40 hours to obtain high rates of metaphase II oocytes. There have been several studies of in vitro fertilization of oocytes alpacas and llamas, there is still no defined protocol that will generate high rates of cleavage and blastocyst, however, pregnancies have been reported in llamas and alpacas and the birth of first breeding llama through IVF.

  2. Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB. PMID:22012976

  3. Diagnostic value of animal-side antibody assays for rapid detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti infection in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, H Martin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB.

  4. Plaadid / Villu Päärt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päärt, Villu, 1972-

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Nelly "Da Derrty Versions The reinvention", Zero 7 "When It Falls", Ilya "They Died For Beauty", Paco De Lucia "Costas Buenas", Murphy Lee "Da Skool Boy Presents", To Rococo Rot "Hotel Morgen"

  5. Moemärke Hispaaniast / Riina Robinson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Robinson, Riina

    2008-01-01

    Kuulsad Hispaania moekunstnikud Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Cristobal Balenciaga, Agatha Ruiz de la Prada (sünd. 1960), Oscar de la Renta (1932), Paloma Picasso (1949). Rõivapoodide ketid Zara, Mango ja El Corte Ingles

  6. Linnagaleriis avatakse eramunäitus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" Viljandi Linnagaleriis. Tutvuda saab 21. sajandi esimestel aastatel Eestis valminud huvitavamate väikemajadega. Kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco Ulman

  7. Kahe näoga maja / Mark Soosaar, Leele Välja, Tarmo Teedumäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tervisekeskus ja hotell "Hedon" Pärnu ajaloolises mudaravilahoones ja selle juurdeehituses. Arhitektuur: Inga Raukas, Tarmo Teedumäe, Paco Ulman (arhitektuuriagentuur Allianss Arhitektid). Sisearhitektuur: Tüüne-Kristin Vaikla, Urmo Vaikla (Vaikla Stuudio). Valmimisaasta: 2014

  8. Täiskasvanute lõbustuspark vee peal / Tanel Veenre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veenre, Tanel, 1977-

    2011-01-01

    Arhitekt Paco Ulmani fotonäitus "Tallinn-Helsinki-Stockholm" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 7. augustini 2011. Eksponeeritud fotoseeria kujutab Tallinn-Helsinki-Stockholm liinidel sõitvate laevade tühje interjööre

  9. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    and PaCO2 were recorded for 3.5 hours. PaO2 was 464 (403, 502) mm Hg (median and interquartile range) throughout the experiment. The O2 uptake through the lungs was 185 (164, 212) ml/min. PaCO2 increased asymptotic towards 60 mm Hg. The CO2 removal through the membrane ventilator was 180 (150, 180) ml...

  10. Eksperimendid ruumis / Toomas Tammis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tammis, Toomas, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    EKA arhitektuuriteaduskonnas tehakse erialaprojekti kõrval väga erinevaid ruumilisi harjutusi. Esitletud on valik väiksemate töötubade ja kursuste töid: Kineetilise arhitektuuri töötuba "Volditav, klapitav, rullitav, pakitav", 2014 (juhendaja Renee Puusepp); Parameetrilise disaini valikaine, 2011 (juhendaja Raul Kalvo, assistent Kristjan Männigo); Maketistuudio, 2014 (juhendaja Paco Ulman); Eksperimentaalse arhitektuuri problemaatika, 2014 (juhendajad Martin Melioranski ja Paco Ulman)

  11. ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA DEL SITIO FORMATIVO SORIA 2, VALLE DE YOCAVIL (CATAMARCA, SIGLO I D.C. / Zooarchaeology of the Formative site Soria 2, Yocavil Valley (Catamarca.First century A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Raúl Belotti López de Medina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos un análisis exhaustivo de las arqueofaunas recuperadas en el sitio Soria 2 (sudeste del valle de Yocavil o Santa María, provincia de Catamarca, durante los trabajos de campo realizados entre los años 2002 y 2006. El sitio es una estructura formada por al menos dos recintos y fue identificado como un espacio doméstico. Los conjuntos estudiados provienen de un depósito arqueológico con abundante contenido cultural y datado en 1940 años ARCP, lo que ubica a este contexto en los inicios del periodo Formativo del valle. Los principales recursos animales fueron los camélidos silvestres (Lama guanicoe y Vicugna vicugna y domésticos (Lama glama, con un predominio marcado de ejemplares subadultos de acuerdo a las estimaciones de número mínimo de individuos (MNI. Los resultados presentados contribuirán a comprender la diversidad y evolución en la explotación de recursos faunísticos durante los primeros siglos de la economía agropastoril en el área. Palabras clave: Yocavil, Formativo, Zooarqueología, Soria 2 Abstract We present here an analysis of the faunal remains recovered at the Soria 2 site (Yocavil valley, Catamarca, along the fieldwork seasons from 2002 to 2006. The site is an architectural structure composed by at least two rooms and was identified as a household. The assemblages reviewed here were found at an archaeological deposit with abundant cultural remains and a radiocarbon date of 1940 RCYBP, situating this context at the very beginnings of the Formative Period of Yocavil. The most important faunal resource were domestic and wild Camelidae species (Lama glama, Lama guanicoe and Vicugna vicugna, with a marked preference for young animals according to the estimations of the Minimal Number of Individuals. These results will help to understand the diversity and evolution of the exploitation of faunal resources at the first centuries of the agropastoralist economy in the area. Key words: Yocavil

  12. ZOOARQUEOLOGÍA DE LA ALDEA FORMATIVA DE PALO BLANCO (TINOGASTA, CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / Zooarchaeology of the formative village of Palo Blanco (Tinogasta, Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Miyano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se abordan los conjuntos arqueofaunísticos de la localidad arqueológica de Palo Blanco recuperados en intervenciones realizadas en la década de 1960 y en la década de 2000. Esta localidad se encuentra emplazada en el sector norte del bolsón de Fiambalá (Tinogasta, Catamarca y se compone de varios núcleos habitacionales de distribución dispersa, predominantemente rectangulares y con muros de tapia. Su ocupación no fue sincrónica y se extiende desde el siglo III al siglo X A.D. La tendencia en el aprovechamiento de recursos faunísticos identificada fundamentalmente a partir del abordaje de los conjuntos de dos núcleos habitacionales sugiere que los camélidos fueron el principal recurso de origen animal utilizado en la aldea, en donde se encontraron especies tanto domesticadas (Lama glama como silvestres (Vicugna vicugna. Además, la presencia predominante de camélidos subadultos sugiere una estrategia de pastoreo vinculada al aprovechamiento de recursos primarios como carne, médula y grasa. Los resultados a los que se arribaron permiten profundizar en el conocimiento de las actividades económicas de los grupos humanos que habitaron la aldea de Palo Blanco a lo largo del primer milenio de la era. AbstractIn this paper we approach the archaeofaunistic remains recovered during excavations of the archeological locality of Palo Blanco in the decades of 1960 and 2000. Palo Blanco is located in the north sector of the Bolsón of Fimabalá area (Tinogasta, Catamarca and it is composed of several rectangular shaped dwellings with tapia-style walls and dispersed distribution. The period of occupation of the village was between the third and tenth century A.D. although the dwellings were not inhabited synchronously. The identified tendency in the exploitation of faunal resources indicates that the camelids were the main resources. Osteometric studies show that domestic and wild camelids (Lama glama and Vicugna vicugna

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Molecular characterization and expression of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    reported that the GDF9 gene was detected in adult alpaca testis by western blotting (Guo et al. 2013) and adult rat testis by GDF9 expression and localization (Nicholls et al. 2009). The. GDF9 gene can also be detected in oocytes and cumulus cells of rabbits (Desislava et al. 2016) and calves (Hosoe et al. 2011). Hosoe et ...

  14. Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    was more often the result of contact with goat hair or alpaca than wool. In 1850, Pierre -Francoise Olive Rayer (Rayer, 1850) and Casimir-Joseph...kinase-kinase by anthrax lethal factor. Science 280: 734-7. During, R.L., Li, W., Hao, B., Koenig , J.M., Stephens, D.S., Quinn, c.P., Southwick, F.S

  15. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  16. Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus pleuropneumonia and peritonitis in a dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoughton, William B; Gold, Jenifer

    2015-08-01

    A 12-week-old female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf was evaluated because of acute (Streptococcus equi subsp zooepidemicus septicemia as the etiology for the polyserositis (ie, alpaca fever). Treatment with IV broad-spectrum antimicrobials, an NSAID, and pleural drainage was initiated. Clinical signs of pleuropneumonia, peritonitis, and systemic infection improved rapidly 24 hours after initiation of medical treatment. The calf was discharged from the hospital after 11 days, and antimicrobial treatment continued for 2 weeks after discharge. At follow-up approximately 4 weeks after hospital discharge (6 weeks after the initial examination), there were no clinical signs suggestive of relapse or any reported complications. S equi subsp zooepidemicus may cause polyserositis in Old World camelids (eg, dromedary camels) with signs similar to those seen in New World camelids (eg, alpaca and llama). The rapid response to medical treatment for the patient described suggested that S equi subsp zooepidemicus-induced polyserositis (alpaca fever) in dromedary camels may respond favorably to appropriate treatment. Reducing stress, reducing overcrowding, and separate housing of equids and camelids are suggested. Further studies are needed to better assess the epidemiology of alpaca fever in dromedary camels in North America.

  17. 7 CFR 760.404 - Eligible livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... bulls; (6) Adult dairy cows; (7) Alpacas; (8) Chickens, broilers, pullets; (9) Chickens, chicks; (10) Chickens, layers, roasters; (11) Deer; (12) Ducks; (13) Ducks, ducklings; (14) Elk; (15) Emus; (16) Equine; (17) Geese, goose; (18) Geese, gosling; (19) Goats, bucks; (20) Goats, nannies; (21) Goats, kids; (22...

  18. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic South American camelids of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Velásquez, Amanda; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Casas-Astos, Eva; Serrano-Martínez, Enrique; Casas-Velásquez, Gina; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A; Alvarez-García, Gema

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii- and Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic South American camelids (SAC) (llamas and alpacas) from the Peruvian Andes through a cross-sectional study. A wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main SAC production areas of Peru was selected. Immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum immunoglobulins G in serum samples. The association between T. gondii and N. caninum seroprevalence and the geographical origin (Central and South Peruvian Andes) was evaluated. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 460 (24.9 %) llamas and 706 (24.6 %) alpacas, whereas anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected in 153 (8.3 %) llamas and 425 (14.8 %) alpacas. Toxoplasma gondii infection was strongly associated with the South Peruvian Andes where moderate climate conditions, larger human population, compared to the Central region, and the presence of wildlife definitive hosts could favor horizontal transmission to SAC. In contrast, N. caninum infection was not associated with the geographical region. These results indicate that T. gondii and N. caninum infections are highly and moderately widespread, respectively, in both species of domestic SAC studied in the sampled areas and appropriate control measures should be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of both parasitic infections.

  19. Evaluation of insulin secretion and action in New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firshman, Anna M; Cebra, Christopher K; Schanbacher, Barbara J; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2013-01-01

    To measure and compare insulin secretion and sensitivity in healthy alpacas and llamas via glucose clamping techniques. 8 llamas and 8 alpacas. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamping (HEC) and hyperglycemic clamping (HGC) were performed on each camelid in a crossover design with a minimum 48-hour washout period between clamping procedures. The HEC technique was performed to measure insulin sensitivity. Insulin was infused IV at 6 mU/min/kg for 4 hours, and an IV infusion of glucose was adjusted to maintain blood glucose concentration at 150 mg/dL. Concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. The HGC technique was performed to assess insulin secretion in response to exogenous glucose infusion. An IV infusion of glucose was administered to maintain blood glucose concentration at 320 mg/dL for 3 hours, and concentrations of blood glucose and plasma insulin were determined throughout. Alpacas and llamas were not significantly different with respect to whole-body insulin sensitivity during HEC or in pancreatic β-cell response during HGC. Alpacas and llamas had markedly lower insulin sensitivity during HEC and markedly lower pancreatic β-cell response during HGC, in comparison with many other species. New World camelids had lower glucose-induced insulin secretion and marked insulin resistance in comparison with other species. This likely contributes to the disorders of fat and glucose metabolism that are common to camelids.

  20. Pulmonary Arterial Lesions in New World Camelids in Association With Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, M; Robert, N; Pospischil, A; Gerspach, C

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, dicrocoeliasis is regarded as the most significant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas. Fasciola hepatica infestation is also a problem but less common. The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the lungs of New World camelids (NWCs) for evidence of arterial hypertension in association with liver changes due to liver fluke infestation. The lungs of 20 llamas and 20 alpacas with liver fluke infestation were histologically evaluated. The hematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson (VG)-elastica stains as well as immunohistology for the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were used to visualize the structures of arterial walls. Parasitology of fecal matter (11 llamas and 17 alpacas) confirmed that most of these animals were infested with both Dicrocoelium dendriticum and other gastrointestinal parasites. In most cases (10/12 llamas, 4/6 alpacas), liver enzyme activity in serum was elevated. Histologically, arteries in the lungs of 9 of 20 llamas (45%) and 3 of 20 alpacas (15%) showed severe intimal and adventitial and slight to moderate medial thickening, which was confirmed with α-SMA and VG-elastica staining. All animals exhibited typical liver changes, such as fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, in association with the presence of liver flukes. This study shows that liver flukes can induce proliferative changes in lung arteries in NWCs that resemble those seen with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to liver parasites in humans. However, the degree of liver fluke infestation was not correlated with the extent of liver damage, or with the amount of thoracic or abdominal effusion or pulmonary arterial changes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Use of 'ideal' alveolar air equations and corrected end-tidal PCO2to estimate arterial PCO2and physiological dead space during exercise in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Iterson, Erik H; Olson, Thomas P

    2018-01-01

    Arterial CO 2 tension (PaCO 2 ) and physiological dead space (V D ) are not routinely measured during clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Abnormal changes in PaCO 2 accompanied by increased V D directly contribute to impaired exercise ventilatory function in heart failure (HF). Because arterial catheterization is not standard practice during CPET, this study tested the construct validity of PaCO 2 and V D prediction models using 'ideal' alveolar air equations and basic ventilation and gas-exchangegas exchange measurements during CPET in HF. Forty-seven NYHA class II/III HF (LVEF=21±7%; age=55±9years; male=89%; BMI=28±5kg/m 2 ) performed step-wise cycle ergometry CPET to volitional fatigue. Breath-by-breath ventilation and gas exchange were measured continuously. Steady-state PaCO 2 was measured at rest and peak exercise via radial arterial catheterization. Criterion V D was calculated via 'ideal' alveolar equations, whereas PaCO 2 or V D models were based on end-tidal CO 2 tension (P ET CO 2 ), tidal volume (V T ), and/or weight. Criterion measurements of PaCO 2 (38±5 vs. 33±5mmHg, Pgas exchange and ventilatory responses demonstrate acceptable agreement with criterion measurements at peak exercise in HF patients. Routine assessment of PaCO 2 and V D can be used to improve interpretability of exercise ventilatory responses in HF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation? Andean communities and international fibre markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna fiber is produced by extremely low-income communities that inhabit the harsh environment of the Andes in Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia. At the other end of the social scale, affluent consumers are willing to pay high prices for vicuna-made accessories and clothes. Vicuna management projects follow the logic of community-based wildlife management. The rationale for seeking to conserve vicuñas through sustainable use is that commercial utilization of the fiber (obtained from live-shorn animals will generate sufficient economic benefits to outweigh the costs of conservation, and contribute to community development and poverty alleviation. However, although conservation efforts have been extremely successful with vicuñas having recovered from the brink of extinction, the socio-economic achievements have thus far proved modest. This paper explores multiple-objective projects that address vicuña conservation and poverty alleviation in Andean countries. In doing so it analyses the tensions that exist between these objectives, as well as the factors that limit a more equitable distribution of benefits among stakeholders. Examples are drawn from vicuna management under common-property in Peru and Bolivia, and vicuna captive management under private property in Argentina. These case studies enable us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the importance of community enterprises and supportive government policy in managing a common pool resource.

  3. Comunidades locales, conservación de recursos naturales y mercado global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lichtenstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the interserction between public policies on biodiversity conservation, poverty reduction and husbandry production and the different agendas and perspectives from the social actorsinvolved from the international to the national level. Vicuna (Vicugna vicugna management for fibre commercialization by Andean communities from Argentina, Chile, Peru and Bolivia is used as a case study. Vicunas are wild South American Camelids that were at the brink of extinction in the 1960’ due to their characteristics of common pool resource (CPR managed as open access, and the high commercialvalue of their fibre at international markets. The species recovered due to international, national and local conservation efforts. After a period of strict preservation, management was shifted to sustainableuse for the benefit of Andean communities. However, given the high economic value of the fibre at the international market, and the lack of sufficient legislation, in recent years the fibre has turned into acommodity. This paper enables us to illustrate the complex relationship between local communities and the global market, and the need to develop public policies that promote a more equitable distribution of benefits in projects that aim at addressing conservation and poverty reduction.

  4. Monitoring of the ventilatory status of anesthetized birds of prey by using end-tidal carbon dioxide measured with a microstream capnometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Rondenay, Yves; Fitzgerald, Guy; Lair, Stéphane

    2007-03-01

    The relationship between end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), and blood pH in isoflurane-anesthetized raptors was evaluated. PaCO2 and pH were determined in serial arterial samples from isoflurane anesthetized birds and compared with concurrent end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide measured with a Microstream sidestream capnograph. Forty-eight paired samples, taken from 11 birds of prey (weighing 416-2,062 g), were used to determine correlations coefficients between PaCO2 and PETCO2, and between PETCO2 and pH. Limits of agreement between PaCO2 and PETCO2 also were calculated. Strong correlations were observed between PaCO2 and PETCO2 (r = 0.94; P 400 g and receiving manual positive ventilation with a Bain system. In our study, the linear relationship observed between the pH and the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide suggested that the monitoring of end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide also can be useful to prevent respiratory acidosis.

  5. Measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide in spontaneously breathing children after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasera, Carmen Caroline; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel; Domingues, Adriana Maria Trevisan; Junior, Fernando Faria

    2011-09-01

    Respiratory monitoring is important after surgery to prevent pulmonary complications. End-tidal carbon dioxide (Petco(2)) measurement by capnometry is an indirect and noninvasive measurement of Pco(2) in blood and is accepted and recognized in critical care. To determine the correlation and level of agreement between Petco(2) and Paco(2) in spontaneously breathing children after cardiac surgery and to determine whether Petco(2) measured by using tidal volume (Vt-Petco(2)) or vital capacity (VC-Petco(2)) shows more or less significant correlation with Paco(2). Vt-Petco(2) and VC-Petco(2) by capnometry and Paco(2) by blood gas analysis were measured once a day after tracheal extubation. The determination coefficient and degree of bias between the methods were assessed in children with and without supplemental oxygen. A total of 172 Vt-Petco(2), VC-Petco(2), and Paco(2) values from 48 children were analyzed. The overall coefficients of determination were 0.84 (P breathing children, Vt-Petco(2) provided a more accurate estimate of Paco(2) than did VC-Petco(2), especially in children given little or no supplemental oxygen. The difference between the methods was significantly larger in the groups given 2 to 5 L of oxygen per minute.

  6. Transcutaneous PCO2 monitoring in critically ill adults: clinical evaluation of a new sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjelid, Karim; Schütz, Nicolas; Stotz, Martin; Gerard, Isabelle; Suter, Peter M; Romand, Jacques-André

    2005-10-01

    In critically ill patients, arterial blood gas analysis is the gold standard for evaluating systemic oxygenation and carbon dioxide partial pressure. A new miniaturized carbon dioxide tension Pco2-Spo2 single sensor (TOSCA, Linde Medical Sensors AG, Basel, Switzerland) continuously and noninvasively (transcutaneously) monitors both Paco2 and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo2). The present study was designed to investigate the usability and the accuracy of this device in critically ill patients. Prospective clinical investigation. A 20-bed, university-affiliated, surgical intensive care unit. Patients admitted after major surgery, multiple trauma, or septic shock equipped with an arterial catheter. The heated (42 degrees C) sensor was fixed at the earlobe using an attachment clip. Transcutaneous Pco2 (TcPco2) measurements were correlated with Paco2 values (measured using a blood gas analyzer). In addition, the differences between Paco2 and TcPco2 values were evaluated using the method of Bland-Altman. We studied 55 patients, aged 18-80 (mean 57 +/- 15) yrs. A total of 417 paired measurements were compared. Correlation between TcPco2 and Paco2 was r = .86 (p TcPco2 slightly overestimating arterial carbon dioxide tension. Nineteen percent of the measured values were outside of the acceptable clinical range of agreement of +/-7.5 mm Hg. The present study suggests that Paco2 can be acceptably assessed by measuring TcPco2 using the TOSCA Pco2-Spo2 sensor.

  7. Cerebral blood flow and systemic hemodynamics during exposure to 2 kPa CO2-300 kPa O2 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergø, G W; Tyssebotn, I

    1995-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), systemic hemodynamics, and arterial blood gases were measured during control conditions and during and after exposure to either 300 kPa O2 (group 1) or 300 kPa O2 with 2 kPa CO2 (group 2) in awake rats. The respiratory frequency fell with no change of arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) in group 1, but in group 2, respiratory frequency and PaCO2 increased linearly. The cardiac output (CO) and heart rate (HR) fell and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) rose independent of PACO2. O2 breathing caused CBF to fall by 30% in group 1, whereas CBF rose linearly with the PaCO2 increase and pH decline in group 2. Regional CBF (rCBF) fell in group 1, whereas rCBF rose gradually in all regions in group 2, but the responses varied similarly in both groups. Regional brain O2 supply was unaltered in most areas. However, the O2 supply was possibly reduced in the brain stem in group 1 but markedly increased in group 2. After decompression, HR and SAP were high, whereas CO returned to its control value. CBF and all rCBF levels remained markedly elevated in group 2. In group 1, CBF returned to control levels. By contrast, rCBF and O2 delivery to brain stem regions remained subnormal. In conclusion, the O2-induced changes in HR, CO, and SAP were not influenced by hypercapnia. CBF and rCBF fell despite unaltered PaCO2, whereas hypercapnia prevented these declines. An uneven effect of O2 was observed on rCBF, most pronounced in brain stem regions, independent of the PaCO2. There was a prolonged suppression of O2 supply to brain stem regions both during and after the exposure to O2 in the absence of CO2.

  8. Agreement between values for arterial and end-tidal partial pressures of carbon dioxide in spontaneously breathing, critically ill dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmer, Efrat; Scanson, Lindsey C; Reed, Ann; Love, Lydia C

    2009-12-01

    To determine agreement between arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) and end-tidal partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PETCO(2)) measured with a nasal catheter in spontaneously breathing, critically ill dogs. Validation study. 26 client-owned dogs admitted to an intensive care unit for various conditions. PaCO(2) was measured with a commercial blood gas analyzer, and PETCO(2) was measured with a sidestream capnograph attached to a nasal catheter. Measurements were obtained twice (ie, with and without supplemental oxygen). Paired values were compared by means of the Pearson correlation method. Level of agreement was assessed by means of the Bland-Altman method. Mean difference between PaCO(2) and PETCO(2) when dogs did not receive supplemental oxygen (mean +/- SD, 3.95 +/- 4.92 mm Hg) was significantly lower than mean difference when dogs did receive supplemental oxygen (6.87 +/- 6.42 mm Hg). Mean difference in dogs with a condition affecting the respiratory system (8.55 +/- 5.43 mm Hg) was significantly higher than mean difference in dogs without respiratory tract disease (3.28 +/- 3.23 mm Hg). There was a significant linear correlation and good agreement between measured values of PaCO(2) and PETCO(2). Catheter size, ventilatory status, and outcome were not significantly associated with mean difference between PaCO(2) and PETCO(2). Results suggested that nasal capnography is a clinically relevant method of estimating PaCO(2) in spontaneously breathing, critically ill dogs, but that values should be interpreted with caution in dogs receiving supplemental oxygen and in dogs with conditions affecting the respiratory system.

  9. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-11-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin burning. The aim was to determine the accuracy and precision of tcPCO2 at reduced electrode temperature. Forty newborns (GA 24.9-41.7) were included. Two tc-monitors were applied (TCM4, Radiometer, Copenhagen). Arterial blood gas sampling and monitoring of tcPCO2-level at different electrode temperatures was done simultaneously (39°C, 40°C, 41°C, 42°C, 44°C). Difference of PaCO2 - tcPCO2 was expressed as a percentage of the mean. Mean PaCO2 was 5.8kPa [3,2; 7.9]. Bias (PaCO2 - tcPCO2) increased from 5% at 44°C to 17% at 39°C, but did not differ significantly between 41°C and 40°C. The precision of the tcPCO2 at each temperature ranged from +7-10%. After correction for the temperature-dependent overreading, we found increasing PaCO2 - tcPCO2 difference with increasing PaCO2, approx. 2% pr. kPa increase of CO(2). Only mild transient erythema was observed. A lower electrode temperature in tcPCO2-monitoring increases systematic overreading of the tc-electrode. However, in very preterm babies, monitoring at 40°C or 41°C is possible provided a bias correction of 12-15% is applied.

  10. Monitoring carbon dioxide in mechanically ventilated patients during hyperbaric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregård, Asger; Jansen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the arterial carbon dioxide (P(a)CO(2)) is an established part of the monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Other ways to get information about carbon dioxide in the patient are measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (PTCCO2......). Carbon dioxide in the blood and cerebral tissue has great influence on vasoactivity and thereby blood volume of the brain. We have found no studies on the correlation between P(ET)CO(2) or P(TC)CO(2), and P(a)CO(2) during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT)....

  11. Macroscopic anatomy, irrigation and venous drainage of female reproductive apparatus of llama (Lama glama)

    OpenAIRE

    León M., Eric; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sato S., Alberto; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Navarrete Z., Miluska; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Cisneros S., Jannet; Laboratorio de Anatomía Animal y Fauna Silvestre, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical description of the reproductive tract of the female llama was studied in four animals. Macroscopically, the reproductive system is morphologically similar to the cow. However, the difference is the absence of intercornual ligament and cotyledons, and the presence of an intercornual septum, as in the alpaca. The distribution of the arteries and veins that irrigated and drained the blood to and from the pelvic cavity and reproductive system presented a vascular distribution almos...

  12. Biomechanical analysis of the camelid cervical intervertebral disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean K. Stolworthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low back pain (LBP is a prevalent global problem, which is often correlated with degenerative disc disease. The development and use of good, relevant animal models of the spine may improve treatment options for this condition. While no animal model is capable of reproducing the exact biology, anatomy, and biomechanics of the human spine, the quality of a particular animal model increases with the number of shared characteristics that are relevant to the human condition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the camelid (specifically, alpaca and llama cervical spine as a model of the human lumbar spine. Cervical spines were obtained from four alpacas and four llamas and individual segments were used for segmental flexibility/biomechanics and/or morphology/anatomy studies. Qualitative and quantitative data were compared for the alpaca and llama cervical spines, and human lumbar specimens in addition to other published large animal data. Results indicate that a camelid cervical intervertebral disc (IVD closely approximates the human lumbar disc with regard to size, spinal posture, and biomechanical flexibility. Specifically, compared with the human lumbar disc, the alpaca and llama cervical disc size are approximately 62%, 83%, and 75% with regard to area, depth, and width, respectively, and the disc flexibility is approximately 133%, 173%, and 254%, with regard to range of motion (ROM in axial-rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral-bending, respectively. These results, combined with the clinical report of disc degeneration in the llama lower cervical spine, suggest that the camelid cervical spine is potentially well suited for use as an animal model in biomechanical studies of the human lumbar spine.

  13. Sarcocystosis in South American camelids: The state of play revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Muhammad A; Rashid, Mohammed H; Vaughan, Jane; Jabbar, Abdul

    2018-03-06

    Members of the genus Sarcocystis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) are intracellular protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of domestic and wild animals, resulting in economic losses in production animals worldwide. Sarcocystis spp. have indirect life-cycles where canids and felids serve as main definitive hosts while a range of domestic and wild animals serve as intermediate hosts, including South American camelids (SACs) such as alpacas, llamas and guanacos. These animals primarily occur in South American countries on Andean, elevated plains but in recent years, alpacas and llamas have become emerging animal industries in other parts of the world such as Australia, Europe and the USA due to their high-quality fiber, meat and hides. For instance, alpaca meat is becoming popular in many parts of the world due to its lower cholesterol content than other red meat, thereby it has the potential of a valuable product for both local and international markets. However, SAC meat can be degraded and/or even condemned due to the presence of macroscopic sarcocysts in skeletal muscles, leading to significant economic losses to farmers. The infection is generally asymptomatic, though highly pathogenic or even fatal Sarcocystis infections have also been reported in alpacas and llamas. Despite the economic importance of sarcocystosis in SACs, little is known about the life-cycle of parasites involved, disease transmission, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health significance. This review article provides an in-depth analysis of the existing knowledge on the taxonomy, epidemiology, clinicopathology and diagnosis of Sarcocystis in SACs, highlights knowledge gaps and proposes future areas of research that could contribute to our better understanding of sarcocystosis in these animals.

  14. Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae), with notes on Rickettsia infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina.

  15. Determination of the Impact of Revised Screening for Overseas Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Screening .. ..... 3-34 iv 1. GLOSSARY d. PACO FIRST -ACRONYM MEANIN INTRODUCED BUPERS Bureau of Personnel (Integrated into NHPC, 1-2 Navy Military...Officer USS R.E. BYRD (DDG-23) FPO New York 09501 1East-West Center Culture Learning Institute Honolulu, HI 96848 Attn: Dr. Richard Brislin ii

  16. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...

  17. Fandango in the Franco Era: The Politics of Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Goldbach

    2015-01-01

    folclóricas del fandango funcionaban como puente entre el uso del imaginario andaluz por parte del gobierno, con fines turísticos, y la ortodoxia de puristas flamencos. Este trabajo considera también la importancia de especialistas como Paco Toronjo para asegurarsupervivencia del fandango como parte del canon flamenco.

  18. Performance of a digital PCO2/SPO2 ear sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Serge; Rohling, Roman; Tschupp, Andres

    2004-04-01

    For determining the adequacy of ventilation, conventional pulse oximetry should be amended by PaCO2 (= arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure). This study investigates the precision of carbon dioxide measurements of the first digital ear-clip sensor providing continuous non-invasive monitoring of PaCO2, SpO2 (= functional arterial oxygen saturation as estimated with a pulse oximeter) and pulse rate and compares it to two conventional analog oximeters. 30 hypoxemia episodes in 6 adult volunteers were investigated in a standardized protocol. Masimo analog finger sensor, Nellcor analog ear sensor, SenTec digital ear sensor. The difference between PCO2 data (= PaCO2 estimated from the measured PcCO2 based on an algorithm by Severinghaus) (PcCO2 = cutaneous carbon dioxide pressure) and the PaCO2 is clinically unimportant. Therefore, we suggest, the two methods of estimating patient's carbon dioxide status can be used interchangeably. Combined digital SpO2/ PcCO2 ear sensors are very promising to allow for a fast and reliable monitoring of patient's oxygenation, hyper-/hypocapnia and ventilation with one single non-invasive probe. Optimal primary signal processing--amplification and digitalisation within the probe--allow for fast and reliable downstream signal processing algorithms. The resulting short SpO2 response times give the medical staff more time to take appropriate actions.

  19. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring in spontaneously breathing, nonintubated patients in the early postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, G; Baciarello, M; Squicciarini, G; Malagutti, G; Zasa, M; Casati, A

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the accuracy of transcutaneous capnometry (TcPCO(2)) in estimating arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO(2)) during spontaneous breathing in patients admitted to our surgical intensive care unit (ICU). Serial TcPCO(2) and PaCO(2) measurements were taken in stable patients undergoing postoperative monitoring after major abdominal, vascular, or thoracic surgery. Patients were enrolled 12 hours after extubation. Exclusion criteria were pulmonary dysfunction, hemodynamic instability, or anemia. Linear regression, mixed models, and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare accuracy and correlation between the two variables. Data are presented as means (95% confidence intervals). PaCO(2) values ranged between 26 mmHg and 52 mmHg. Mean values for TcPCO(2) and PaCO(2) were 35.3 (33.8-36.8) mmHg and 39.2 (37.6-40.7) (Pbreathing, nonintubated patients in the early postoperative period.

  20. Renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madias, Nicolaos E

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory acid-base disorders are those abnormalities in acid-base equilibrium that are expressed as primary changes in the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). An increase in PaCO2 (hypercapnia) acidifies body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory acidosis. By contrast, a decrease in PaCO2 (hypocapnia) alkalinizes body fluids and initiates the acid-base disturbance known as respiratory alkalosis. The impact on systemic acidity of these primary changes in PaCO2 is ameliorated by secondary, directional changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that occur in 2 stages. Acutely, hypercapnia or hypocapnia yields relatively small changes in plasma [HCO3¯] that originate virtually exclusively from titration of the body's nonbicarbonate buffers. During sustained hypercapnia or hypocapnia, much larger changes in plasma [HCO3¯] occur that reflect adjustments in renal acidification mechanisms. Consequently, the deviation of systemic acidity from normal is smaller in the chronic forms of these disorders. Here we provide an overview of the renal acidification responses to respiratory acid-base disorders. We also identify gaps in knowledge that require further research.

  1. Monitoring of end tidal carbon dioxide and transcutaneous carbon dioxide during neonatal transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, D G; Stewart, M J; Morley, C J

    2005-11-01

    To assess the accuracy of measurements of end tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) during neonatal transport compared with arterial and transcutaneous measurements. Paired end tidal and transcutaneous CO2 recordings were taken frequently during road transport of 21 ventilated neonates. The first paired CO2 values were compared with an arterial blood gas. The differences between arterial CO2 (Paco2), transcutaneous CO2 (TcPco2), and end tidal CO2 (Petco2) were analysed. The Bland-Altman method was used to assess bias and repeatability. Petco2 correlated strongly with Paco2 and TcPco2. However, Petco2 underestimated Paco2 at a clinically unacceptable level (mean (SD) 1.1 (0.70) kPa) and did not trend reliably over time within individual subjects. The Petco2 bias was independent of Paco2 and severity of lung disease. Petco2 had an unacceptable under-recording bias. TcPco2 should currently be considered the preferred method of non-invasive CO2 monitoring for neonatal transport.

  2. Transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide monitoring in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, D; Chiu, M C; Paky, F; Helms, P

    1985-01-01

    Transcutaneous oxygen (TcPo2) and carbon dioxide (TcPco2) tensions were compared with arterial values in 23 children aged 4 months to 14 years, all requiring some form of respiratory support, but not in shock. Electrodes were placed on the upper chest and were heated to 45 degrees C. For TcPo2 and arterial oxygen (Pao2) a tight linear correlation over the range 6 to 14 kPa was found. Arterial carbon dioxide (Paco2) ranged between 2.63 and 6.8 kPa, and over this range a linear regression adequately described the relation of TcPco2 to Paco2. No effects of age were found for the relation between TcPo2 and Pao2. Over a four hour period, the mean ratio TcPo2/Pao2 rose significantly from 0.96 to 1.04, while the mean ratio of TcPco2/Paco2 fell from 1.65 to 1.62. Five children developed superficial burns which were still present at 48 hours. In children who require respiratory support but are not in shock, TcPo2 and TcPco2 bear a constant and predictable relation to Pao2 and Paco2, and can predict arterial values within clinically acceptable tolerances. PMID:3937497

  3. 10. X avati Sakala keskuses...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Avati Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" ning premeeriti 2004/2005. aasta parimaid eramuid ning Eesti arhitektuurielu positiivselt mõjutanud tellijat, ehitajat ja kriitikut. Näituse kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco-Ernest Ulman

  4. Tehniline ilu ja Norra maastik / Margit Mutso

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mutso, Margit, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Eesti arhitektid Toomas Tammis ja Paco Ernest Ulman (Allianss Arhitektid) saavutasid Norra elektrifirma Statnett uue kõrgepingemasti kavandi rahvusvahelisel võistlusel kolmanda koha. Tööd kommenteerib Toomas Tammis. 1. koha pälvinud peegelmastist (Bystrup Arkitekter, Taani) ja 2. koha pälvinud tööst (Lalaland Studio, Norra)

  5. Anneteparaad / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2008-01-01

    Eesti Kunstiakadeemia arhitektuuri eriala magistri- ja bakalaureuseõppe lõputööd: 1. Koit Ojaliivi kompleks vaimupuuetega inimestele; 2.Katrin Tääkeri "Eakate Kodu" Seewaldis; 3. Hermas Lilleoru sümbioos kirikust ja kontserdimajast; 4. Paco Ulmani nägemus Lasnamäe seni väljaehitamata osa hoonestamiseks

  6. Bastion kak kemping

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Skoone bastioni ja sellega külgneva staadioni arendamise ideekonkursist, premeeritud töödest. I preemia - Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (AB Salto), II - Timo Subbi, Mihkel Urmet, Taavi Kaldaru (AB Suburb), III - Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür, Paco-Ernest Ulman (AB Kosmos)

  7. Fotograafi inspireerisid reisilaevade interjöörid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Paco Ulmani fotonäitus "Tallinn-Helsingi-Stockholm" Tallinna Linnagaleriis 20. juulist 2011. Pildistatud on Tallinn-Helsingi-Stockholmi liinidel sõitvate laevade interjööre ajal, mil need on rahvast tühjenenud ja paljastanud oma kommertslikkuse

  8. Alates 24. IX on Rotermanni soolalao galeriil...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Narva kolledzhi uue hoone arhitektuurikonkursi võidutööde näitus. I preemia - Katrin Koov, Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, II - Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, III - Peeter Varrak, ostupreemiad - Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Paco Ulman ning Koit Ojaliiv, Juhan Rohtla

  9. Skoone linnakämping

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Skoone bastioni ja sellega külgneva staadioni arendamise ideekonkursist, premeeritud töödest. I preemia - Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik (AB Salto), II - Timo Subbi, Mihkel Urmet, Taavi Kaldaru (AB Suburb), III - Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür, Paco-Ernest Ulman (AB Kosmos)

  10. Noored filmimeistrid võistlesid Tartu festivalil / Kai Väärtnõu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Väärtnõu, Kai

    2005-01-01

    6.-8. jaanuarini 2005 toimus teist korda Tartus noorte amatöörfilmifestival (NAFF). Peapreemia andis žürii (esimees Ilmar Raag) filmile "Kahekümnes" (autorid Andris Feldmanis, Rein Jakobson, Björn Piibur, Paco Ulman). Lisatud osalenud huvitavamate filmide ja võitjate nimekiri

  11. Disainikaart : Baskimaa / Silvia Pärmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärmann, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Baskimaa skulptoritest, moekunstnikest, disaineritest, arhitektidest, kunstnikest. Edouardo Chillida (1924-2002), Cristóbal Balenciaga (1895-1972), Koldo Barroso, Paco Rabanne (sünd. 1934), Iñaki Aspiazu (sünd. 1955), Nisa Goiburu (sünd. 1946), Jose Maria González Castillo (1927-2003), Itziar Okariz (sünd. 1965)

  12. Protein-engineering of chitosanase from Bacillus sp. MN to alter its substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Eva K; Weikert, Tobias; Niehues, Anna; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Singh, Ratna

    2018-04-01

    Partially acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (paCOS) have various potential applications in agriculture, biomedicine, and pharmaceutics due to their suitable bioactivities. One method to produce paCOS is partial chemical hydrolysis of chitosan polymers, but that leads to poorly defined mixtures of oligosaccharides. However, the effective production of defined paCOS is crucial for fundamental research and for developing applications. A more promising approach is enzymatic depolymerization of chitosan using chitinases or chitosanases, as the substrate specificity of the enzyme determines the composition of the oligomeric products. Protein-engineering of these enzymes to alter their substrate specificity can overcome the limitations associated with naturally occurring enzymes and expand the spectrum of specific paCOS that can be produced. Here, engineering the substrate specificity of Bacillus sp. MN chitosanase is described for the first time. Two muteins with active site substitutions can accept N-acetyl-D-glucosamine units at their subsite (-2), which is impossible for the wildtype enzyme. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The idea of adequacy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reach a target MAP during neuroprotection; to tolerate an elevated PaCO2 level with normal pH; to take into account the shift in a patient's autoregulation curve during anaesthesia; and, to buck the trend of a sedation hold in a 'precious airway' knowing the benefits of a sedation hold do not outweigh the risk of losing an ...

  14. New Measures of Heart-Rate Complexity: Effect of Chest Trauma and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    rate was adjusted to provide normocapnia (PaCO2 35–45 mm Hg). Experimental Protocol After 1 to 2 hours of stabilization in the ICU , in the injured...cardiovascular regulation after burns by nonlinear analysis of the electrocardiogram . J Burn Care Res. 2008;29:56–63. 14. Skinner JE, Nester BA, Dalsey

  15. The relationship between cerebral blood flow and volume in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Knudsen, Gitte M; Law, Ian

    2005-01-01

    and no significant decrease during hypocapnia. A regionally uniform exponential relationship was confirmed between P(a)CO(2) and rCBF as well as rCBV. It is shown that the theoretical implication of this is that the rCBV vs. rCBF relationship should be modelled by a power function; however, due to pronounced...

  16. Pildid räägivad lugusid, vorstid samuti / Andry Ervald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ervald, Andry

    2006-01-01

    Koomiksinäitus Rakvere galeriis. Osa võtavad Peeter Krosmann (1971), Kristel Maamägi (1986), Lilli-Krõõt Repnau (1982), Elina Sildre (1980), Joonas Sildre (1980), Veiko Tammjärv (1967), Paco Ulman (1980), Edvin Aedma ja rühmitus Endorfin Fractured Communications. Kristel Maamägi oma töödest

  17. Associations of arterial carbon dioxide and arterial oxygen concentrations with hospital mortality after resuscitation from cardiac arrest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J. F.; Roos-Blom, Marie-José; van Westerloo, David J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; de Keizer, Nicolette F.; de Jonge, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Arterial concentrations of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) during admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) may substantially affect organ perfusion and outcome after cardiac arrest. Our aim was to investigate the independent and synergistic effects of both parameters on hospital

  18. Functional MRI of CO2 induced increase in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H B; Toft, P B

    1994-01-01

    . Additional experiments were carried out using a higher spatial resolution. The largest signal increases were noted in areas corresponding to larger vessels, but significant changes were also conspicuous in deeper cortical and central grey matter. The changes appeared linearly related to the arterial CO2...... tension, within the range of PaCO2 studied. In white matter, the changes were not statistically significant....

  19. Small towns: theoretical perspectives and socio-spatial transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco John Lennon Alves Paixão Lima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2014v11n2p272 SPOSITO, Eliseu Savério; SILVA, Paulo Fernando Jurado da. Cidades Pequenas: perspectivas teóricas e transformações socioespaciais. Jundiaí: Paco Editorial, 2013, 148 p.

  20. Haematological and serum electrolyte responses in goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The haematocrit, haemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, blood glucose, sodium, potassium, chlorine, total carbon diaoxide (TCO2), anion gap, base excess, pH, partial carbon diaoxide (PaCO2) concentration and bicarbonate concentrations in the samples were obtained using the i-STAT EC8+ handheld biosensor analyzer.

  1. Low Residual CBF Variability in Alzheimer's Disease after Correction for CO(2) Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodell, Anders Bertil; Aanerud, Joel; Braendgaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    We tested the claim that inter-individual CBF variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is substantially reduced after correction for arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)). Specifically, we tested whether the variability of CBF in brain of patients with AD differed significantly from brain of age...

  2. Direct colloid osmometry in healthy New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Rolando J; Gorman, Maria Elena; Cebra, Christopher K; Verdugo, Claudio; Mosley, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Direct colloid osmometry provides an objective assessment of the oncotic effects of crystalloid or colloidal fluid therapy, which is especially useful in monitoring fluid therapy of critically ill camelids due to their tendency toward nonspecific hypoproteinemia with increased risk of developing edema and ascites. The aims of this study were to measure colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of alpacas and llamas, determine its correlation with concentrations of total protein (TP) and total solids (TS), as well as both albumin (A) and globulin (G) concentrations in the same model (A+G), and evaluate the effects of sample type and storage conditions on COP. Blood was collected from clinically healthy alpacas (n=23) and llamas (n=22) into heparin tubes. COP of fresh whole blood (COP(FB) ) and plasma (COP(FP) ) was determined using a membrane osmometer. For 20 alpacas, COP of refrigerated whole blood (COP(RB) ) and frozen plasma (COP(FrP) ) was also measured. Correlations between COP(FB) and TS, TP, and A+G concentrations were assessed by simple and multiple regression analysis to model potential predictors. Median COP(FB) from alpacas (24.6 mmHg, range 19.3-28.1) was not significantly different from that of llamas (25.3 mmHg, range 22.5-33.7). Sample type or storage conditions did not affect COP. Measured COP had a strong positive linear correlation with TS, TP, and A+G concentrations in alpacas (r(2) =.7, .74, and .88, respectively). In llamas, COP correlated best with TS concentration (r(2) =.59), whereas correlation with TP and A+G concentrations was poor (r(2) =.19 and .25, respectively). COP can be measured using heparinized whole blood or plasma, either fresh or stored. Direct measurement is recommended whenever quantitative knowledge of COP is required in clinical or research setting. Further studies are needed to verify if the poor association of COP with TP found in this study can be generalized to llamas. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  3. Distributional patterns of living ungulates (Mammalia: Cetartiodactyla and Perissodactyla) of the Neotropical region, the South American transition zone and Andean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absolon, Bruno Araujo; Gallo, Valéria; Avilla, Leonardo S.

    2016-11-01

    To recognize the distributional patterns of living ungulates in the Neotropical region, the South American transition zone, and Andean region using the panbiogeographical method of track analysis, and to attempt to correlate these patterns with geological history. The distribution of 24 species of living ungulates (in the families Camelidae, Cervidae, Tapiridae and Tayassuidae) was studied by the panbiogeographical method of track analysis. It was performed using distributional data acquired from literature and databases of scientific institutions. Individual tracks were obtained for each species by plotting locality records on maps and connecting them by minimum-spanning trees. Generalized tracks were determined from the spatial overlap between individual tracks, indicating a common history. The intersection between generalized tracks defined a biogeographic node, implying that these locations are biogeographic composites resulting from different ancestral biotas coming into spatial contact, possibly at different geologic times. The superposition of the 24 individual tracks resulted in five generalized tracks (GTs): GT1, Mesoamerican/Choco (composed of Mazama pandora, Mazama temama, Odoicoileus virginianus and Tapirus bairdii); GT2, Northern Andes (Mazama rufina, Pudu mephistophiles and Tapirus pinchaque); GT3, Central Andes (Hippocamelus antisensis, Lama guanicoe, Mazama chunyi and Vicugna vicugna); GT4, Chilean Patagonia (Hippocamelus bisulcus and Pudu puda); and GT5, Chaco/Central west Brazil (Blastocerus dichotomus, Catagonus wagneri and Ozotocerus bezoarticus). The biogeographic node was found in the Northwestern Colombia. The geological events such as tectonism and volcanism that occurred through the Neogene and mainly in the Pleistocene caused fragmentation, diversification and endemism of biota. The biogeographic node in Colombia occurred within a zone of convergence. This node emphasized the complexity of the area and it contains biotic elements with

  4. Low habitat overlap at landscape scale between wild camelids and feral donkeys in the Chilean desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Juan E.; González, Benito A.; Mata, Cristina; Vielma, André; Donoso, Denise S.; Fuentes, Nicolás; Estades, Cristián F.

    2016-01-01

    Feral domestic ungulates may compete with the populations of wild herbivores with which they coexist, particularly so in arid regions. The potential competition between wild camelids and feral donkeys at the eastern sector of the Atacama Desert is evaluated in terms of their coincidence or segregation in habitat use and complemented with a comparison of reproductive output (yearling/adult ratio) of vicuña family groups in the proximity vs. distant from donkey observations. Habitat use of wild camelids and donkeys was sampled driving some 1250 km of roads and tracks at the dry and wet seasons. There were 221 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) sightings, 77 for donkeys (Equus asinus), 25 for guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and 8 for hybrids between guanacos and domestic llamas (Lama glama), as well as 174 randomly selected control locations. By means of Generalised Discriminant Analysis and Analysis of Variance we show that all ungulates actively select their habitat, with significant differences between use and availability in the area. Donkeys are relatively abundant in comparison with camelids and coincide broadly with both of them across the altitudinal gradient, but they fall between them in local scale habitat selection and do not seem to force their displacement from their preferred habitats. Thus donkeys occur preferentially on slopes with a high cover of tall shrubs, whereas vicuñas use valley bottoms with grass and guanacos the upper slope zones with grass. The potential for competition between donkeys and wild camelids is thus limited and it does not affect the reproductive output of vicuña in this region. Therefore, with the present knowledge we suggest that population control is not currently merited for feral donkeys.

  5. Is continuous transcutaneous monitoring of PCO2 (TcPCO2) over 8 h reliable in adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, J P; Perrin, E; Bennani, I; de Muralt, B; Titelion, V; Picaud, C

    2001-05-01

    Monitoring of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in a non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) setting requires a method of evaluating nocturnal PaCO2, such as transcutaneous CO2 monitoring (TcPCO2). However, changing the probe site after 4 h and recalibrating (as recommended) is time-consuming and impractical. Continuous (8-h) TcPCO2 monitoring at a lower electrode temperature (43 degrees C) in this setting has never been formally studied. Patients under intermittent NIV were studied (n = 28, aged 69 +/- 9 years, PaO2: 71 +/- 13 mmHg, PaCO2: 49 +/- 9 mmHg). After calibration and stabilization of TcPCO2 (Radiometer Tina TCM3 capnograph), arterial blood gases (ABG) were measured and compared with transcutaneous readings. In 10 patients who underwent continuous 8-h TcPCO2 recording, ABGs were also measured after 4 and 8 h. The correlation between TcPCO2 and PaCO2 was highly significant (r2 = 0.92, PTcPCO2 PaCO2) gradient (bias) was: -2.8 +/- 3.8 mmHg; limits of agreement were: (-10.4; +4.8 mmHg). TcPCO2-PaCO2 gradient was lowest (i.e. within-bias +/- 2 mmHg) between 40 and 54 mmHg, increasing below and above these values. Over 8 h, no significant drift of the TcPCO2 signal occurred (ANOVA). No discomfort or skin lesion was noted. In conclusion, with an electrode temperature of 43 degrees C, 8-h continuous monitoring of TcPCO2 was well tolerated, without any local side-effects or significant drift of TcPCO2 signal; when compared to previous reports, lowering the electrode temperature did not decrease performance for CO2 monitoring.

  6. Influência da insuflação de gás traqueal sobre a capnografia de pacientes anestesiados Influencia de la insuflación de gas traqueal sobre la capnografía de pacientes anestesiados Influence of tracheal gas insufflation during capnography in anesthetized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ortiz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A insuflação de gás traqueal (TGI - Tracheal Gas Insufflation é uma técnica que consiste em injetar gás na traquéia (geralmente oxigênio. É usada em pacientes portadores de síndrome da angústia respiratória do adulto para reduzir a capnometria. Em Anestesiologia, a redução da capnometria pode ser útil, mas não existem estudos sobre a redução da capnometria com o uso da TGI. O presente estudo avaliou as alterações proporcionadas pela TGI sobre a capnografia em pacientes anestesiados. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados prospectivamente 11 pacientes, 18 a 60 anos, ASA I ou II, não-pneumopatas. Após a intubação traqueal foi inserido cateter para TGI a 2 ou 3 cm da carina. Os pacientes foram submetidos à ventilação controlada a volume. Registrou-se a curva de capnografia volumétrica durante 20 minutos e colheu-se amostra sangüínea para medir PaCO2. Após 20 minutos de TGI registrou-se a curva de capnografia e foi colhida nova amostra sangüínea para medir PaCO2. Avaliou-se pressão parcial de CO2 no fim da expiração (P ET CO2 e PaCO2, antes e após TGI. Observou-se curva de capnografia, antes e durante TGI. RESULTADOS: A PaCO2 e P ET CO2 sem TGI foram, respectivamente (média ± desvio-padrão: 33,48 ± 6,81 e 36,91 ± 6,54 mmHg e, após TGI, 33,85 ± 8,31 e 36,55 ± 7,93 mmHg, não havendo diferença estatística entre os valores antes e após TGI, tanto para a PaCO2 quanto para a P ET CO2 (p = 0,65 e 0,82. A curva de capnografia apresentou alterações na fase de expiração do ar alveolar. CONCLUSÕES: A aplicação da TGI não resultou em diminuição da PaCO2 e nem na P ET CO2, porém alterou a morfologia da curva de capnografia.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La insuflación de gas traqueal (TGI - Tracheal Gas Insufflation es una técnica que consiste en inyectar gas en la tráquea (generalmente oxígeno. Se usa en pacientes portadores del síndrome de la angustia respiratoria del adulto para reducir

  7. Translaryngeal jet ventilation and end-tidal PCO2 monitoring during varying degrees of upper airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, K R; Menegazzi, J J; Yealy, D M; Klain, M M; Molner, R L; Goode, J S

    1991-11-01

    To explore the ventilatory adequacy of translaryngeal jet ventilation (TLJV) during partial upper airway obstruction and the usefulness of monitoring end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) during this condition. Prospective, nonrandomized, sequential crossover design. Apneic dog model (five dogs; mean weight, 23 kg). Animals were intubated with a 9.0-mm endotracheal tube with the tip positioned above the cricothyroid membrane. Upper airway obstructions of 40%, 69%, and 80% were created. TLJV was performed through the cricothyroid membrane using a 13-gauge catheter with 100% oxygen, 45 psi, 15 breaths per minute, and 30% inspiratory time for 15 minutes at each upper airway obstruction. Data collected at baseline (no upper airway obstruction) and one-minute intervals included arterial blood pressures, continuous PaCO2 measurements, and PETCO2 at the TLJV catheter tip and above the level of obstruction. Arterial blood gases were obtained at 0 and 15 minutes. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation, analysis of variance, and Turkey's multiple comparisons (significance, P less than .05). Baseline values for all variables did not significantly differ at the onset of each testing phase. Mean pH increased significantly from baseline during 69% upper airway obstruction (7.36 to 7.54, P less than .05) and 80% upper airway obstruction (7.39 to 7.61, P less than .01). Mean PaCO2 decreased significantly from baseline during all upper airway obstructions: 40% upper airway obstruction (39.9 to 33.6 mm Hg, P less than .01), 69% upper airway obstruction (38.3 to 25.6 mm Hg, P less than .001), and 80% upper airway obstruction (36.2 to 18.2 mm Hg, P less than .001). PaCO2, PETCO2, and pH differed significantly between each level of upper airway obstruction (P less than .01). PETCO2 was significantly correlated with PaCO2 (r = .84, P less than .001) and did not significantly differ from PaCO2. No signs of barotrauma were observed in any animal at any degree of upper airway obstruction. TLJV

  8. Can transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure be a surrogate of blood gas samples for spontaneously breathing emergency patients? The ERNESTO experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschanski, Nicolas; Garcia, Léa; Delasalle, Emilie; Mzabi, Lynda; Rouff, Edwin; Dautheville, Sandrine; Renai, Fayrouz; Kieffer, Yann; Lefevre, Guillaume; Freund, Yonathan; Ray, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    It is known that the arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) is useful for emergency physicians to assess the severity of dyspnoeic spontaneously breathing patients. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (PtcCO2) measurements could be a non-invasive alternative to PaCO2 measurements obtained by blood gas samples, as suggested in previous studies. This study evaluates the reliability of a new device in the emergency department (ED). We prospectively included patients presenting to the ED with respiratory distress who were breathing spontaneously or under non-invasive ventilation. We simultaneously performed arterial blood gas measurements and measurement of PtcCO2 using a sensor placed either on the forearm or the side of the chest and connected to the TCM4 CombiM device. The agreement between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was assessed using the Bland-Altman method. Sixty-seven spontaneously breathing patients were prospectively included (mean age 70 years, 52% men) and 64 first measurements of PtcCO2 (out of 67) were analysed out of the 97 performed. Nineteen patients (28%) had pneumonia, 19 (28%) had acute heart failure and 19 (28%) had an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mean PaCO2 was 49 mm Hg (range 22-103). The mean difference between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 was 9 mm Hg (range -47 to +54) with 95% limits of agreement of -21.8 mm Hg and 39.7 mm Hg. Only 36.3% of the measurement differences were within 5 mm Hg. Our results show that PtcCO2 measured by the TCM4 device could not replace PaCO2 obtained by arterial blood gas analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Genetic characterization of the oxytocin-neurophysin I gene (OXT) and its regulatory regions analysis in domestic Old and New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauciullo, Alfredo; Ogah, Danlami Moses; Iannaccone, Marco; Erhardt, Georg; Di Stasio, Liliana; Cosenza, Gianfranco

    2018-01-01

    Oxytocin is a neurohypophysial peptide linked to a wide range of biological functions, including milk ejection, temperament and reproduction. Aims of the present study were a) the characterization of the OXT (Oxytocin-neurophysin I) gene and its regulatory regions in Old and New world camelids; b) the investigation of the genetic diversity and the discovery of markers potentially affecting the gene regulation. On average, the gene extends over 814 bp, ranging between 825 bp in dromedary, 811 bp in Bactrian and 810 bp in llama and alpaca. Such difference in size is due to a duplication event of 21 bp in dromedary. The main regulatory elements, including the composite hormone response elements (CHREs), were identified in the promoter, whereas the presence of mature microRNAs binding sequences in the 3'UTR improves the knowledge on the factors putatively involved in the OXT gene regulation, although their specific biological effect needs to be still elucidated. The sequencing of genomic DNA allowed the identification of 17 intraspecific polymorphisms and 69 nucleotide differences among the four species. One of these (MF464535:g.622C>G) is responsible, in alpaca, for the loss of a consensus sequence for the transcription factor SP1. Furthermore, the same SNP falls within a CpG island and it creates a new methylation site, thus opening future possibilities of investigation to verify the influence of the novel allelic variant in the OXT gene regulation. A PCR-RFLP method was setup for the genotyping and the frequency of the allele C was 0.93 in a population of 71 alpacas. The obtained data clarify the structure of OXT gene in domestic camelids and add knowledge to the genetic variability of a genomic region, which has received little investigation so far. These findings open the opportunity for new investigations, including association studies with productive and reproductive traits.

  10. Rattlesnake Envenomation in Three Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Smith

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cases of rattlesnake envenomation in dairy goats are lacking. These cases present three dairy goats presented to a veterinary referral hospital for envenomation of Northern Pacific Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus. Treatments and clinical characteristics reported are similar to those for llamas, alpacas, and horses. These cases suggest that quick treatment in the event of a bite may have a more favorable clinical response. Existing rattlesnake bite scoring systems applicable to other species may be applicable to goats, and existing respiratory pathology may predispose goats to a less favorable outcome.

  11. An introduction to South American camelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquieta, B.; Rojas, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The South American camelids - the domesticated alpaca and llama, and the wild vicuna and guanaco - which belong to the Camelidae family of the Artiodactyla order are of considerable sociological, economic and ecological importance to the native populations living in the high plateau (altiplano) of the central Andes. Owing to their biological characteristics they are able to provide meat, wool, hides and transportation without disrupting the fragile ecosystem. Increasing interest is being taken in these animals, both in their native lands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru and in other parts of the world. (author). 55 refs, 5 figs

  12. Effect of graded hyperventilation on cerebral metabolism in a cisterna magna blood injection model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Xiaodong; Bay-Hansen, Rikke; Hauerberg, John

    2006-01-01

    In subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with cerebrovascular instability, hyperventilation may induce a risk of inducing or aggravating cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen (CMRO2), glucose (CMRglc), and lactate (CMRlac) at different PaCO2 levels...... after experimental SAH in rats (injection of 0.07 mL of autologous blood into the cisterna magna). Four groups of Sprague-Dawley male rats were studied at predetermined PaCO2 levels: group A: normocapnia (5.01-5.66 kPa [38.0-42.0 mm Hg]); group B: slight hyperventilation (4.34-5.00 kPa [32.5-37.5 mm Hg...... in oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The results show that even profound hyperventilation in this model of SAH is associated with an adequate increase in OEF so that CMRs of oxygen, glucose, and lactate remain similar to levels observed in normocapnic conditions....

  13. [Combination of chest physiotherapy and intermittent non-invasive mechanical ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with respiratory failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yunzhong; Peng, Hong; Chen, Ping; Xiang, Xudong

    2009-07-01

    To determine the effect of combination of chest physiotherapy (CPT) and intermittent non-invasive ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with respiratory failure. Ninety COPD patients with intermittent bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation were randomly divided into 2 groups: control group (n=45) received BiPAP treatment after conventional anti-infection, phlegm treatment and support treatment; CPT group (n=45) received CPT before BiPAP treatment. Clinical symptoms, chest signs,chest X-ray,time of BiPAP therapy, PaO2, and PaCO ) after the treatment were evaluated. Compared with with the control group, patients in the CPT group significantly improved in clinical symptoms, chest signs, chest X-ray absorption as well as shorter BiPAP therapy time, PaO2 increase and PaCO2 decrease(Prespiratory failure.

  14. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P...... breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P ... 180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P breath hold diverts blood toward the brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...

  15. A nasal catheter for the measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide in spontaneously breathing patients: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheem, Mohamed Samy Abdel; Wahba, Olaa M

    2010-04-01

    Several devices have been proposed to monitor end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (Petco(2)) in spontaneously breathing patients; however, many have been reported to be inaccurate. We designed this study to investigate the accuracy of a balloon-tipped nasal catheter in measuring Petco(2) in nontracheally intubated, spontaneously breathing patients. The catheter was assembled using a 14-F rubber Foley catheter, a tracheal tube pilot balloon, and the plastic sheath from an 18-gauge needle. The catheter was connected to the sampling tube of a gas analyzer. Petco(2) and Paco(2) were determined simultaneously in 20 otherwise healthy postsurgical patients while receiving oxygen. The mean Petco(2) - Paco(2) difference was -4.4 +/- 1.6 (SD) mm Hg with a correlation coefficient r = +0.87 (P breathing patients.

  16. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    In the upright position, cerebral blood flow is reduced, maybe because arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreases. We evaluated the time-dependent influence of a reduction in Pa(CO(2)), as indicated by the end-tidal Pco(2) tension (Pet(CO(2))), on cerebral perfusion during head......-up tilt. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)), and dynamic cerebral autoregulation at supine rest and 70 degrees head-up tilt were determined during free breathing and with Pet(CO(2)) clamped to the supine level. The postural changes in central......; P breathing than during isocapnic tilt. However, after 2 min in the head-up position, the reduction in MCA V(mean) was similar (7 +/- 5 vs. 6 +/- 3 cm/s), although the spontaneous decline in Pet(CO(2)) was maintained (P

  17. Facial immersion in cold water enhances cerebral blood velocity during breath-hold exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeld, Thomas; Pott, Frank C; Secher, Niels H

    2009-01-01

    180-W exercise (from 47 to 53 cm/s), and this increment became larger with facial immersion (76 cm/s, approximately 62%; P brain with a >100% increase in MCA V(mean), largely...... perfusion evaluated as the middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)) during exercise in nine male subjects. At rest, a breath hold of maximum duration increased the arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa(CO(2))) from 4.2 to 6.7 kPa and MCA V(mean) from 37 to 103 cm/s (mean; approximately 178%; P...... exercise, a breath hold increased Pa(CO(2)) from 5.9 to 8.2 kPa (P

  18. A Descriptive Study of a Perioperative Pain Service Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    confidence to reach for the stars and achieve all of my dreams . I LOVE YOU! viii TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE/FORWARD... apnea greater than 20 seconds, oxygen saturation less than 90%, or PaCO2 greater than 50mmHg. (Appendix B). Assumptions 1. Documentation of pain...lo/minute, apnea greater than 20 seconds, or oxygen saturation [SpO2] < 90%). Respiratory depression related to long-acting Morphine peaks within

  19. Evaluation of the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during anesthesia with isoflurane in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Malka, Shachar; Pascoe, Peter J; Solano, Adrian M; Kass, Philip H; Ohmura, Hajime; Jones, James H

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis). 6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks. A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco(2) measured every 5 minutes plus Paco(2) and Pao(2) and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period. Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco(2) differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco(2) position × time interaction was significant and Petco(2) was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco(2). The Paco(2) in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis. Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao(2), suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O(2) transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.

  20. Auditory Weighting Functions and TTS/PTS Exposure Functions for Marine Mammals Exposed to Underwater Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    mathematical modeling to predict the sound transmission patterns from Navy sources. These data are then coupled with marine species distribution and... coupled with marine species distribution and abundance data to determine sound levels likely to be received by various marine species. Finally...Lagenorhynchus obliquidens Beethoven Yaka, Vigga N/a Meyen Itsi Bitsy CAS 12-y male Salty Paco 2-y female Edwina, Kojak Kojak, female

  1. Uus plaat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest Helloween "Rabbit Don't Come Easy", David Byrne "grown Backwards", Joss Stone "The Soul Session", Bass boom 3 "Faster Harder Louder", Lisa Miskovsky "Fallingwater", Paco de Lucia "Cositas Buenos", Soundtrack "Once Upon A Time In Mexico", Vanilla Ninja "Don't Go Too Fast", Novaspace "Cubes", "Elmari tantsuõhtu 4.", The Von Bondies "Pawn Snappe Heart", Godsmack "The Other Side", George Michael "Patience", Eric Clapton "Me and Mr Johnson"

  2. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with severe stable COPD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, O; Ramos, J; Gallardo, J; Torrealba, B; Lisboa, C

    1999-06-01

    The benefits of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) in hypercapnic patients with severe stable COPD remain controversial mainly due to their unknown mechanisms. To assess the clinical and physiological benefits of a 3 weeks period of intermittent NIMV and their underlying mechanisms in COPD patients. Twelve patients (10 male) prospectively recruited (age 65 +/- 3 years, FEV1 27 +/- 2% predicted, PaO2 46 +/- 2 mmHg, PaCO2 55 +/- 2 mmHg) were submitted to NIMV using a commercially available system (BiPAP) 3 h a day, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Arterial blood gases, 6 min walking distance, dyspnea (Mahler's scale), breathing pattern, PIMax, ventilatory drive (P0.1) and the impedance of the respiratory system (P0.1/V1/T1) were measured before and after NIMV. A significant improvement in PaO2, PaCO2, PIMax, dyspnea and exercise capacity was observed in addition to a trend for VT to increase and for respiratory rate (RR) to decrease. The impedance of the respiratory system showed a significant reduction. Ventilatory drive, normalized for PaCO2 levels, did not change. Improvement in PaCO2 was related to an increase in Vp whereas a significant association between the reduction in RR and the fall in respiratory system impedance was also found. Our study supports previous data demonstrating that NIMV improves clinical and physiologic parameters in advanced stable COPD and suggest that the underlying mechanism is a reduction in the inspiratory load. A randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm that this mechanism is operative.

  3. Sleep-disordered breathing with nighttime hypocapnia relates to daytime enhanced ventilatory response to exercise in patients with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Nagaharu; Hayashi, Hiroko; Sugaya, Juri; Aida, Tomohiro; Kato, Masatoshi; Kato, Kazuyo; Kato, Yuko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Kyoichi

    2012-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) induces nighttime disturbance of arterial gases, such as carbon dioxide. However, it is still unclear whether nighttime SDB-related gas abnormality is related to respiratory dysregulation in daytime. Therefore, we examined the relationship between the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) at nighttime and the respiratory response to exercise in daytime. Eighteen men (age, mean ± SD; 55 ± 11 years) with heart disease underwent multichannel respiratory monitoring through the night with transdermal measurement of PaCO(2) (PtcCO(2)) reflecting PaCO(2) and a cardiopulmonary exercise test in daytime. The ventilatory equivalent (VE)/carbon dioxide production (VCO(2)) slope as an index of ventilatory response to exercise and peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) were obtained with a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Of the 18 patients, 10 patients had obstructive SDB, 5 had central SDB, and 3 patients did not have SDB. The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 21 ± 17. Minimum nighttime saturation of O(2) was positively correlated with peak VO(2), but not with VE/VCO(2). Nighttime PtcCO(2) was not correlated with peak VO(2) but was negatively correlated with the VE/VCO(2) slope of the daytime cardiopulmonary exercise test (r=-0.53). Nighttime lowering of PaCO(2) in SDB is related to an abnormal ventilatory response to exercise testing in the daytime. This finding suggests that nighttime hyperventilation in SDB alters both nighttime and daytime pathophysiological conditions in patients with heart disease.

  4. Effects of symbicort turbuhaler combined with tiotropium bromide on serum PCT, TIMP-1, MMP-9, IFN- γ , arterial blood gases and pulmonary function in patients with AECOPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of symbicort turbuhaler combined with tiotropium bromide on serum PCT, TIMP-1, MMP-9, IFN-γ, arterial blood gases and pulmonary function in patients with AECOPD. Methods A total of 90 patients in our hospital with AECOPD during January 2014 to January 2017 were divided into the control group (n=45 and the treatment group (n=45 randomly. The control group was treated with tiotropium bromide; the treatment group was treated with symbicort turbuhaler combined with tiotropium bromide. The two groups were treated for 14 d. That was compared of the serum PCT, TIMP-1, MMP-9, IFN-γ, PaO 2 , SaO 2 , PaCO 2 , MPAP, PASP and PADP of the two groups before and after treatment. Results The serum PCT, TIMP-1, MMP-9, IFN-γ, PaO 2 , SaO 2 , PaCO 2 , MPAP, PASP and PADP of the two groups before treatment have no significantly differences. The serum PCT, TIMP-1, MMP-9 and IFN-γ levels of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment. The serum PCT, TIMP-1, MMP-9 and IFN-γ levels of the treatment group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group. The PaO 2 , SaO 2 of the two groups after treatment were significantly higher than before treatment, the PaCO 2 , MPAP, PASP and PADP of the two groups after treatment were significantly lower than before treatment. The PaO 2 , SaO 2 , PaCO 2 , MPAP, PASP and PADP of the treatment group after treatment were significantly better than the control group. Conclusion Symbicort turbuhaler combined with tiotropium bromide can reduce the serum PCT, TIMP-1, MMP-9, IFN-γ levels and the pulmonary arterial hypertension, improve the lung tissue oxygen supply and the cardiopulmonary function, and it was worthy clinical application.

  5. Micromusic / Gino Esposto ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Esposto, Gino

    2006-01-01

    Šveitsis Gino Esposto poolt 1999. a. rajatud Micromusic loob ja kogub muusikat, mis on loodud ajalooliste arvutitega või kõlab selliselt, kuid on mõeldud praeguste tantsusõprade jaoks. 1999. aastast on koos tegutsenud Paco Manzanares (alias Wanga, sünd. 1962), Michael Burkhardt (alias SuperB, sünd. 1966) ja G. Esposto (alias Carl, sünd. 1973). 17. XI 2000. a. peetud telefonivestlus G. Espostoga

  6. Nõela all : Igakuine vinüülitutvustus / DJ Drummie

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DJ Drummie

    1999-01-01

    Plaatidest Sandy Rivera feat. LT Brown "Come Into My Room", Deep Sensation "Somehow, Shomewhere (Soul Heaven)", Brothers of Soul "Eyes of Love", Dr.Gary Henry "'Faith", Royal Palm "Hecho En Inglaterra", La Cellule "Sweet Entourage EP", Antonio "Hyperfunk", DJ Paco & Terry Laird feat. MC Adrian "M.U.G. EP vol 1", DJ Brockie & Ed Solo "Represents/Shodown", Fresh and Vegas "Otto's Way/ Heatwave"

  7. Comparison of the transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide tension in different electrode locations during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, T; Nakamura, S; Yamashita, K

    2006-12-01

    The best place for the electrode of transcutaneous measurement of oxygen tension (tcPO2) and carbon dioxide tension (tcPCO2) during general anaesthesia was investigated in three different locations. Fifteen patients for major abdominal surgery in the supine position were studied. The electrode of the TCM4 (Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark) was put on the chest, upper arm or forearm. TcPO2, tcPCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (etCO2), percutaneous oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 ) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) were simultaneously measured at four different etCO2 concentrations and inhaled oxygen percentages and the location of the electrode was changed to other places to repeat the same measurement. In total, 12 measurements for each patient and 60 measurements for each place were performed. TcPO2 correlated better than SaO2 (R2 = 0.58) with PaO2 (R2 = 0.76), and tcPCO2 correlated well with PaCO2 (R2 = 0.76) and etCO2 (R2 = 0.74) when the electrode was put on the chest, while not on the upper arm or forearm (R2 tcPCO2 (bias, -0.47; limits of agreement, 8.7, -9.64) as surrogate measures of PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively even when the electrode was put on the chest. When the electrode was put on the chest, tcPO2 and tcPCO2 might be available as non-invasive monitors of oxygenation and CO2 status during general anaesthesia, while the absolute values were not interchangeable with PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively.

  8. Eesti eramud rändavad Euroopas / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2006-01-01

    Urmas Oja kureeritud ja Paco Ulmani kujundatud Eesti Arhitektide Liidu aastanäitus "Eramu 2002-2006" oli 2006. a. aprilli lõpust juuni keskpaigani üleval Praha Rahvusgaleriis. Avamisel olid Eestist Ülar Mark, Margit Mutso ja Hindrek Kesler. 3+1 arhitektide projekteeritud eramu Tallinnas Kuldtiiva t. on Briti kirjastuse Laurence King poolt välja antud raamatus "21st Century House" 50 maailma parima maja hulgas

  9. Eesti parim väikeehitis asub Võrumaal Lasval / Tiina Kolk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolk, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Eesti Arhitektide Liidu konkursi "Väike 2007-2009" parimaks arhitektuuriliseks väikeobjektiks nimetati Lasva veetorn-galerii (Veronika Valk) Võrumaal, II preemia said Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli esisele väljakule paigaldatud pinkide eest Martin Pärn ja Edina Dufala-Pärn, III preemia läks aiamajale (Toomas Tammis, Paco Ulman) Meriväljal. Parimate väikevormide väljapanek Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis 19. juunini 2010

  10. Kaks linna : Narva kolledzhi arhitektuurivõistlus / Andres Ojari

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ojari, Andres

    2005-01-01

    Žürii koosseis, võistlusest, pikemalt võidutööst. Auhinnatud tööd: I preemia - Katrin Koov, Indrek Peil, Siiri Vallner, II - Maarja Kask, Karli Luik, Ralf Lõoke, III - Peeter Varrak, ostupreemiad - Ülar Mark, Kaja Pae, Indrek Tiigi, Paco Ulman ning Koit Ojaliiv, Juhan Rohtla. Ill.: võidutöö asendiplaan, korruste plaanid, lõiked, vaated

  11. The Perfonnance of Public Sector Enterprises:1981-1986

    OpenAIRE

    MIR ANNICE MAHMOOD; SHAMIM A SAHIBZADA

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the operational perfonnan~e of seven public sector enterprises in the large-scale manufacturing sector which include the Federal Chemical and Ceramics Corporation (FCCCL), National Fertilizer Corporation (NFC), Pakistan Automobile Corporation (PACO), Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC), State Cement Corporation of Pakistan (SCCP), State Engineering Corporation (SEC), and State Petroleum Refming and Petro-chemical Corporation (PERAC). Together, these seven co...

  12. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 24. Equipment Repair Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    1AUDIOMETER, MANUAL 6 lEVACUATOR, ORAL CAVITY 7 lEJECTOR FOR DENTURE FLASK 8 (AMALGAMATOR9 ELECTRIC, DENTAL 9 IAMALGAM DISPENSING UNIT 10 1PROCESSOR... ACRYLIC PACO 11 1ELECTROPLATER (SILVER, GOLD AND COPPER) 12 IPANOREX X-RAY UNIT I{ 13 ICASTING MACHINE, CHROME COBALT 14 ICASTING MACHINE, DENTAL METALS...RESIN, DENTURE 37 IKNIFE, COMPOUND 38 IPLIERS, DENTAL, ALL TYPES 39 IBRUSH, SCRATCH, DENTAL I 1 40 IBRUSH, FIBER, ROTARY WHEEL 41 IHEAT GUN I I 42

  13. Reference values of arterial oxygen tension in the middle-aged and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveri, I; Zoia, M C; Fanfulla, F; Spagnolatti, L; Berrayah, L; Grassi, M; Tinelli, C

    1995-09-01

    The lack of available reference values of arterial PO2, particularly for elderly persons, led us to study a sample of 194 normal nonsmoking subjects, equally distributed over all age ranges from 40 to 90 yr. The radial artery was punctured and blood samples were taken and analyzed on an automated, computerized gas-analyzer. The trend of the mean values of PaO2 in the 5-yr class intervals of age showed a clear decline up to the 70- to 74-yr class, and then an inversion. The two regression lines intersecting at this point provided a better fit to the data than did a single regression line (R22 - R12 = 0.918 - 0.678 = 0.24; F = 20.49, p = 0.0027). The relationship of PaO2 with age was thus subsequently considered for the two subgroups (40 to 74 yr; > or = 75 yr) identified on the basis of this cutoff. Because of the significant influence on Pao2 of age, body-mass index (BMI), and PaCO2 in the group 40 to 74 yr of age, the following reference equation was constructed: Pao2 (mm Hg) = 143.6 - (0.39 . age) - (0.56 . BMI) - (0.57 . PaCO2); R2 = 0.28; SEE = 7.48; p or = 75 yr old, for whom there was no correlation with age, BMI, or PaCO2, only the mean +/- SD and 5th percentile of PaO2 were reported (83.4 +/- 9.15 mm Hg and 68.4 mm Hg, respectively). PaCO2 values were not correlated with either age or BMI; the mean +/- SD was 35.79 +/- 3.87 mm Hg.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. OFP: Observatorio de la Figuración Postconceptual. Investigación y estrategias de posicionamiento en el contexto artístico del siglo XXI.

    OpenAIRE

    Torre Oliver, Francisco José de la; Mestre Froissard, Joël Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    [EN] OFP is an observatory dedicated to the so-called Figuration Postconceptual, artistic phenomenon emerged in Spain in the early 1970s with the aim of regenerating figurative painting from personal poetry. The observatory, from its website (http://figuracionpostconceptual.com), offers the researcher a database of reference from the results of the Doctoral Thesis Post-conceptual Figuration. Spanish Painting: New Madrileña Figuration to Neo-metaphysics (1970-2010) (Paco de la Torre, 2012). Li...

  15. Review Report for Flood Control and Recreational Development, Little Colorado River at Holbrook, Arizona. Volume 2. Technical Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    of quicksand, an unstable semi - liquid mixture of sand, mud, and water, were noted in the river channel. Previous rechannelisation of the Little - t...CULVEftT SCALE; " - W 4b 10’ AW- CUT-OFF WAL 9q JELI VATION- 3 OUTLET CULVERT LZI~Si7 LSLL.L ;’;. SMJA ?UL 00~~~~~ ytldWWEb5I)PACo FIt R.R. ARIDOE

  16. Effectiveness of transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange versus traditional preoxygenation followed by apnoeic oxygenation in delaying desaturation during apnoea: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Rajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE during apnoea has shown to delay desaturation. The primary objective was to compare time to desaturate to 200 mmHg even at 12 min of apnoea with a significant rise in PaCO2along with fall in pH after 6 min. Conclusion: During apnoeic periods time to desaturate to <90% was significantly prolonged with use of THRIVE.

  17. The United States Army Medical Department Journal, April - June 2011. Prehospital combat casualty care; The starting point of battlefield survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    2001. 33. Hinkelbein J, Floss F, Denz C, et al. Accuracy and precision of three different methods to determine PCO2 (PaCO2 vs PETCO2 vs PTCCO2... dental care. Conventional medics are only partially trained for these mission requirements. Civilian helicopter EMS has advanced tremendously since...integrating medical research, advocating for resources, directing process improvements, and developing training standards: veterinary care, dental care

  18. Effects of the transcutaneous electrode temperature on the accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line C; Brage-Andersen, Lene; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The harmful effect of hypocapnia on the neonatal brain emphasizes the importance of monitoring arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2). Transcutaneous monitoring of carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) reduces the need for arterial blood sampling. Drawbacks are high electrode temperature causing risks of skin...... burning. The aim was to determine the accuracy and precision of tcPCO2 at reduced electrode temperature....

  19. A comparison of the effects of carbon dioxide and medical air for abdominal insufflation on respiratory parameters in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haan, J D; Hay Kraus, B L; Sathe, S R

    2018-03-28

    To determine if abdominal insufflation with medical air will improve oxygenation and ventilation parameters when compared to insufflation with CO 2 in xylazine-sedated sheep undergoing laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Forty-seven sheep underwent oestrus synchronisation and were fasted for 24 hours prior to laparoscopic AI. Each animal was randomised to receive either CO 2 or medical air for abdominal insufflation. An auricular arterial catheter was placed and utilised for serial blood sampling. Respiratory rates (RR) and arterial blood samples were collected at baseline, after xylazine (0.1 mg/kg I/V) sedation, 2 minutes after Trendelenburg positioning, 5 minutes after abdominal insufflation, and 10 minutes after being returned to a standing position. Blood samples were collected in heparinised syringes, stored on ice, and analysed for arterial pH, partial pressure of arterial O 2 (PaO 2 ), and CO 2 (PaCO 2 ). The number of ewes conceiving to AI was also determined. Repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated temporal effects on RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 and arterial pH during the laparoscopic AI procedure (p0.01). No sheep experienced hypercapnia (PaCO 2 >50 mmHg) or acidaemia (pHAI compared with 16/22 (72.7%) in the medical air group (p=0.867). There were no statistical or clinical differences in RR, PaO 2 , PaCO 2 , pH, or conception to AI when comparing the effects of CO 2 and medical air as abdominal insufflation gases. None of the sheep experienced hypercapnia or acidaemic, yet 42% (19/45) of sheep developed clinical hypoxaemia, with a higher percentage of ewes in the CO 2 group developing hypoxaemia than in the medical air group. Based on the overall analysis, medical air could be utilised as a comparable alternative for abdominal insufflation during laparoscopic AI procedures.

  20. The effect of acid-base balance on neostigmine antagonism of d-tubocurarine-induced neuromuscular blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R D; Van Nyhuis, L S; Eger, E I; Way, W L

    1975-04-01

    d-Tubocurarine (dTc) was infused intravenously into 35 cats anesthetized with chloralose and urethane at a constant continuous rate to produce and maintain 90 per cent depression of twitch height of the anterior tibial muscle following supramaximal stimulation of the peroneal nerve. The mean infusion rates that produced 90 per cent depression were not significantly altered by respiratory acid-base changes. Metabolic alkalosis decreased (32.5 per cent) and metabolic acidosis increased (27.7 per cent) the required infusion rate of dTc. When pH and Paco2 were maintained at 7.37 and 38 torr, respectively, the addition of a bolus of neostigmine, 10.5 mug/kg, intravenously, to the continuing infusion of dTc produced 50 per cent antagonism of the dTc-depressed twitch. Respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis did not alter the dose of neostigmine needed to produce 50 per cent antagonism. However, during respiratory acidosis (pH 7.13, Paco2 66 torr) and metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.59, Paco2 36 torr) 20.0 and 18.0 mug/kg neostigmine, respectively, were needed to produce 50 per cent antagonism. Still larger doses of neostigmine (75 mug/kg) could not completely antagonize the block unless pH and Paco2 were returned to 7.30-7.50 and 35-45 torr, respectively. It is concluded that respiratory acidosis and metabolic alkalosis limit and oppose antagonism of dTc by neostigmine.

  1. Severe hypernatremia and hyperchloremia in an elderly patient with IgG-kappa type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend K

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenrick BerendSt Elisabeth Hospital, Willemstad, CuraçaoImashuku et al1 describe a 77-year-old male patient with multiple myeloma who was admitted to the hospital after suffering a pelvic bone fracture due to a road traffic accident. Several days after admission the arterial blood gas showed a pH of 7.481; arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 of 28.2 mmHg; arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 of 84.0 mmHg; HCO3- of 20.8 mmol/L (normal; 23–31 mmol/L; and an anion gap of 8.9 mmol/L (normal;12 mmol/L. These data, as the authors concluded, were suggestive of metabolic acidosis. First, this is not true because a high pH and low PaCO2 confirm a respiratory alkalosis. Since the test was conducted days later we may expect a chronic respiratory alkalosis to be present, perhaps because of pain or a secondary pulmonary problem, as may be expected with a relatively low PaO2. In chronic respiratory alkalosis one would expect the HCO3- to decrease about 4 mmol/L with every 10 mmHg decrease of PaCO2.2 If the initial HCO3- had been about 25 mmol/L, the expected PaCO2 would be about 20.28 mmol/L, almost identical with the patient’s HCO3-.View original paper by Imashuku and colleagues.

  2. Population pharmacodynamic modeling and simulation of the respiratory effect of acetazolamide in decompensated COPD patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Heming

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients may develop metabolic alkalosis during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Acetazolamide is one of the treatments used to reverse metabolic alkalosis.619 time-respiratory (minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate and 207 time-PaCO2 observations were obtained from 68 invasively ventilated COPD patients. We modeled respiratory responses to acetazolamide in mechanically ventilated COPD patients and then simulated the effect of increased amounts of the drug.The effect of acetazolamide on minute ventilation and PaCO2 levels was analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect model. The effect of different ventilatory modes was assessed on the model. Only slightly increased minute ventilation without decreased PaCO2 levels were observed in response to 250 to 500 mg of acetazolamide administered twice daily. Simulations indicated that higher acetazolamide dosage (>1000 mg daily was required to significantly increase minute ventilation (P0.75 L min(-1 in 60% of the population. The model also predicts that 45% of patients would have a decrease of PaCO2>5 mmHg with doses of 1000 mg per day.Simulations suggest that COPD patients might benefit from the respiratory stimulant effect after the administration of higher doses of acetazolamide.

  3. Severe metabolic alkalosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaheri, S; Nardell, E A

    1981-01-01

    A 45-year-old man who was admitted with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain was found to have severe metabolic alkalosis, with a PaCO2 of 11.4kPa (85.5 mm Hg), PaO2 of 5.8 kPa (43.5 mm Hg), pH of 7.61, and plasma bicarbonate concentration of 82.0 mmol/l. He was treated with oxygen, intravenous physiological saline, and phenytoin and improved within 48 hours. Radiographs showed gastric outlet obstruction secondary to peptic ulcer, which was treated by surgery. Though sever, the rise in carbon dioxide concentration in this patient was probably lifesaving. The PaCO2 was therefore allowed to fall gradually as the alkalosis was treated. The return of both PaCO2 and plasma bicarbonate values to normal in parallel suggests that hypoventilation compensated for the metabolic alkalosis and emphasises the importance of conservative treatment in cases of metabolic alkalosis. PMID:6794744

  4. Do over 200 million healthy altitude residents really suffer from chronic Acid-base disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubieta-Calleja, Gustavo; Zubieta-Castillo, Gustavo; Zubieta-Calleja, Luis; Ardaya-Zubieta, Gustavo; Paulev, Poul-Erik

    2011-01-01

    As the oxygen tension of inspired air falls with increasing altitude in normal subjects, hyperventilation ensues. This acute respiratory alkalosis, induces increased renal excretion of bicarbonate, returning the pH back to normal, giving rise to compensated respiratory alkalosis or chronic hypocapnia. It seems a contradiction that so many normal people at high altitude should permanently live as chronic acid-base patients. Blood gas analyses of 1,865 subjects at 3,510 m, reported a P(a)CO(2) (arterial carbon dioxide tension ± SEM) = 29.4 ± 0.16 mmHg and pH = 7.40 ± 0.005. Base excess, calculated with the Van Slyke sea level equation, is -5 mM (milliMolar or mmol/l) as an average, suggesting chronic hypocapnia. THID, a new term replacing "Base Excess" is determined by titration to a pH of 7.40 at a P(a)CO(2) of 5.33 kPa (40 mmHg) at sea level, oxygen saturated and at 37°C blood temperature. Since our new modified Van Slyke equations operate with normal values for P(a)CO(2) at the actual altitude, a calculation of THID will always result in normal values-that is, zero.

  5. Distribution of cardiac output in dogs during intravenous infusion of betahistine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K A; Meyer, M W

    1976-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO), arterial blood pressure (ABP), heart rate (HR), blood gases and blood flow (BF) to the brain, heart, kidney and skeletal muscles and other cephalic tissues in five dogs were studied before and at 30 minutes of betahistine infusion (0.12 to 0.2 mg per minute per kilogram). The particle distribution method using radioactive labeled 141Ce (15 mu) and 85Sr (15 mu) microspheres was utilized to quantitate and assess BF and CO. In the five dogs, the increase in CO averaged 20.8%, ABP remained constant, and HR increased in all but one exception where it decreased slightly concomitant with a decrease in Paco2. Brain BF increased (+ 29.6%) in the dogs whose Paco2 reamined constant. The BF increased to the heart (25.4%) and skeletal muslce (80%), while BF to the kidney and other tissues did not change. The change in HR appears to account for the change in CO. The dilating effect of betahistine on blood vessels, in the skeletal muscle, brain and heart could reduce peripheral resistance and decreace ABP. Thus, the increase in HR may be mediated through baroreceptor mechanisms rather than by a direct effect of betahistine. In addition, a decrease in Paco2, is more effective for decreasing cerebral BF than betahistine is for increasing blood flow.

  6. The effect of temperature on cutaneous CO2, loss and conductance in the bullfrog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, J A; Jackson, D C

    1978-03-01

    Cutaneous and pulmonary CO2 loss were measured simultaneously in bullfrogs, Rana catesbeiana, at either 10, 20 or 30 degrees C. Arterial blood samples were taken in each experiment and analysed for [H+] and total plasma [CO2]. These values were used to calculate Pa(CO2) by means of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Both [H+] and Pa(CO2) increased with temperature as previously observed. Skin CO2 loss was measured using a titration method. (At 30 degrees C it was necessary to add calcium hypochlorite (5-9 ppm) to block bacterial growth and respiration). Skin CO2 loss rose with temperature but the mean fraction of the total CO2 lost by this route decreased from about 50% at 10 degrees C to less than a third at 30 degrees C. At each temperature, over 90% of an incremental increase in total CO2 loss was excreted via the lungs while skin loss was relatively constant over a wide range of total loss values. The increase in skin CO2 loss with temperature corresponded to a proportional increase in the estimated transcutaneous P(CO2) difference. (This difference was assumed to equal Pa(CO2) minus ambient P(CO2.) Consequently, the skin CO2 conductance (skin CO2 loss/transcutaneous P(CO2) was not significantly influenced by temperature. This apparent temperature independence of skin CO2 conductance may be important for acid-base regulation of skin breathers in response to temperature change.

  7. Eyrefield Manor Nursing Home, Church Lane, Greystones, Wicklow.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  8. No relation between sympathetic outflow to muscles and respiratory function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Kazumasa; Tsuchiya, Mai; Ichinose, Yuta; Onohara, Akiko; Fukumoto, Megumi; Koh, Kishin; Takaki, Ryusuke; Yamashiro, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Fumikazu; Nagasaka, Takamura; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2015-11-15

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), not only impairment of motor neurons but also impairment of the autonomic nervous system has been demonstrated by previous physiological studies. Several investigators have reported a correlation between autonomic dysfunction and respiratory dysfunction in ALS. This study analyzed the relation between parameters of respiratory function and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in a large number of ALS patients. In 50 patients with ALS (mean age (SD): 62.1 (11.7) years), MSNA, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were recorded simultaneously. The arterial oxygen content (PaO2), arterial carbon dioxide content (PaCO2), and forced vital capacity expressed as a percentage of the predicted value for healthy controls (%VC) were determined as parameters of respiratory function. There were no significant correlations between MSNA and PaO2, PaCO2, %VC, or the disability score. Analysis of chronological changes in 14 patients examined twice showed that the disability score and PaCO2 were significantly increased, and %VC was significantly more decreased at the second examination compared with the first examination (prespiratory function in ALS patients is not associated with changes of quantitative MSNA parameters, which may suggest that abnormality of the autonomic nervous system is a primary feature of ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  10. [Efficacy and safety of the use of levodropropizine in patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunella, G; Zanasi, A; Massimo Vanasia, C B

    1991-02-28

    Efficacy and tolerability of an antitussive drug, levodropropizine, in 21 adult patients with interstitial lung disorders was evaluated in this study. Levodropropizine dosage was 60 mg t.i.d. for four days of therapy. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the antitussive therapy and, on the other hand, the tolerability of levodropropizine in these patients, monitoring PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values. The changes in cough frequency (34.1 +/- 5.6 20.4 +/- 5.4 mean +/- d.s. before and after treatment) and the overall efficacy judgment as reported by the doctor indicate a decrease in cough as confirmed by the significance of Kruskal-Wallis test (p less than 0.05). Furthermore the tolerability has been excellent, because the PaO2, PaCo2 ad pH values before and after treatment were unchanged (PaO2 mmHg: basal 71 +/- 16.6, after treatment 73.8 +/- 14.2; PaCO2 mmHg: basal 36.6 +/- 5, after treatment 36.6 +/- 4.6; pH basal 7.4 +/- 0.03, after treatment 7.4 +/- 0.02).

  11. Long term high flow humidified oxygen treatment in COPD – effect on blood gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Line; Weinreich, Ulla; Hockey, Hans

    2017-01-01

    .Aim: To investigate the treatment effect on arterial blood gases (PaO2, PaCO2 and SaO2) in patients with resting hypoxemia over 12 months.Method: In this prospective, randomized controlled, one-year study, 200 COPD patients treated with LTOT, all GOLD class 4, were randomized to NHF (n=100) or usual care (n=100......Introduction: Long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves survival in patients with COPD with resting hypoxemia. The AIRVO device delivering nasal high flow (NHF) warmed and humidified oxygen-enriched air to COPD patients in need of LTOT. Short term studies suggest that this may reduce PaCO2 in COPD.......05 kPa for AIRVO-NHF and 0.40 kPa for control patients.Conclusion: These results show a significant difference in change of PaCO2 of 0.35 kPA more for control than for the AIRVO-NHF group of COPD patients needing LTOT....

  12. Comparison of the effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine and indomethacin on the hypercapnic cerebral blood flow increase in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Pelligrino, D A; Paulson, O B

    1994-01-01

    The effects of NG-nitro-L-arginine (NOLAG), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, on the rise in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanying increasing levels of hypercapnia (paCO2 = 40-135 mmHg) were studied in anesthetized rats. CBF....../kg NOLAG. 50 mg/kg NOLAG, given intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice daily for 4 days, also caused an attenuated CBF response to CO2, but the inhibitory effect was significantly less than with acute NOLAG administration in the paCO2 range of 61-90 mmHg. Infusion of L-arginine, 1 g/kg/h, prevented the effect of 7......, but raising paCO2 above this level did not result in further increases in CBF. This effect could not be prevented by L-arginine. When combining 7.5 mg/kg NOLAG with 10 mg/kg indomethacin, the response to hypercapnia was totally blocked. The results suggest that NOLAG and indomethacin act through different...

  13. SMART phones and the acute respiratory patient.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gleeson, L

    2012-05-01

    Definition of Respiratory Failure using PaO2 alone is confounded when patients are commenced on oxygen therapy prior to arterial blood gas (ABG) measurement. Furthermore, classification of Respiratory Failure as Type 1 or Type 2 using PaCO2 alone can give an inaccurate account of events as both types can co-exist. 100 consecutive presentations of acute respiratory distress were assessed initially using PaO2, and subsequently PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio, to diagnose Respiratory Failure. Respiratory Failure cases were classified as Type 1 or Type 2 initially using PaCO2, and subsequently alveolar-arterial (A-a) gradient. Any resultant change in management was documented. Of 100 presentations, an additional 16 cases were diagnosed as Respiratory Failure using PaO2\\/FiO2 ratio in place of PaO2 alone (p = 0.0338). Of 57 cases of Respiratory Failure, 22 cases classified as Type 2 using PaCO2 alone were reclassified as Type 1 using A-a gradient (p < 0.001). Of these 22 cases, management changed in 18.

  14. Partial extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal using a standard continuous renal replacement therapy device: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintard, Jean-Marie; Barbot, Olivier; Thevenot, Florence; de Matteis, Olivier; Benayoun, Laurent; Leibinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To test the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of partial extracorporeal CO2 removal (PECCO2R) using a standard continuous renal replacement (CRRT) device with a pediatric oxygenation membrane introduced into the circuit in a serial manner. In this retrospective single-center study, we have studied mechanically ventilated patients with persistent significant respiratory acidosis and acute renal failure requiring ongoing CRRT. Sixteen patients were treated with our PECCO2R device. PaCO2 and arterial pH were measured before as well as at 6 and 12 hours after PECCO2R implementation. Hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored. Our PECCO2R system was efficient to significantly reduce PaCO2 and increase arterial pH. The median PaCO2 before treatment was 77 mm Hg (59-112) with a median reduction of 24 mm Hg after 6 hours and 30 mm Hg after 12 hours (31% and 39%, respectively). The median pH increase was 0.16 at 6 hours and 0.23 at 12 hours. Partial extracorporeal CO2 removal treatment had no effect on oxygenation. No complication was observed. Our PECCO2R approach based on the simple introduction of a pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation membrane into the circuit of a standard CRRT device is easy to implement, safe, and efficient to improve respiratory acidosis.

  15. A Novel VHH Antibody Targeting the B Cell-Activating Factor for B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To construct an immune alpaca phage display library, in order to obtain a single domain anti-BAFF (B cell-activating factor antibody. Methods: Using phage display technology, we constructed an immune alpaca phage display library, selected anti-BAFF single domain antibodies (sdAbs, cloned three anti-BAFF single-domain antibody genes into expression vector pSJF2, and expressed them efficiently in Escherichia coli. The affinity of different anti-BAFF sdAbs were measured by Bio layer interferometry. The in vitro biological function of three sdAbs was investigated by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: We obtained three anti-BAFF single domain antibodies (anti-BAFF64, anti-BAFF52 and anti-BAFFG3, which were produced in high yield in Escherichia coli and inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Conclusion: The selected anti-BAFF antibodies could be candidates for B-cell lymphoma therapies.

  16. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi circulating antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith S Málaga-Machaca

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antigens in clinical samples is considered an important diagnostic tool for Chagas disease. The production and use of polyclonal antibodies may contribute to an increase in the sensitivity of immunodiagnosis of Chagas disease.Polyclonal antibodies were raised in alpacas, rabbits, and hens immunized with trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen, membrane proteins, trypomastigote lysate antigen and recombinant 1F8 to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis was performed to determine specificity of the developed antibodies. An antigen capture ELISA of circulating antigens in serum, plasma and urine samples was developed using IgY polyclonal antibodies against T. cruzi membrane antigens (capture antibody and IgG from alpaca raised against TESA. A total of 33 serum, 23 plasma and 9 urine samples were analyzed using the developed test. Among serum samples, compared to serology, the antigen capture ELISA tested positive in 55% of samples. All plasma samples from serology positive subjects were positive in the antigen capture ELISA. All urine positive samples had corresponding plasma samples that were also positive when tested by the antigen capture ELISA.Polyclonal antibodies are useful for detection of circulating antigens in both the plasma and urine of infected individuals. Detection of antigens is direct evidence of the presence of the parasite, and could be a better surrogate of current infection status.

  18. Chesapeake Resources Ltd. application for a well licence, Whitemud area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-04

    An application was made for a license to drill an oil or gas well in a populated area near Edmonton, Alberta. A public hearing was held to examine issues related to the well application. Issues considered at the hearing were the need for the well, the effects of drilling the well on the neighboring residences, and the impact of drilling on a nearby alpaca ranch. The need for the well was confirmed, as there is no other existing well in the section capable of draining any reserves that may be in the targeted formation. The effects of drilling on the residences, such as noise and spills, were considered to be capable of being reduced to acceptable levels. Discussion of the impact of drilling on the alpacas focused on noise pollution. It was concluded that the relatively short duration of drilling, and the commitments made by the applicant to minimize noise levels, mean that these impacts would not be significant. The application was accordingly approved, with certain conditions imposed on the applicant to control noise and other impacts. 1 fig.

  19. Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and hepatitis E in New World camelids in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitznig, A; Khol, J L; Lambacher, B; Franz, S; Wittek, T; Kralik, P; Slana, I; Vasickova, P

    2017-07-07

    Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis in domestic ruminants and New World Camelids (NWC). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important public health concern worldwide. The virus has been identified in several species, some of them serving as a reservoir for zoonotic HEV strains. Husbandry and breeding of llamas and alpacas have increased in Austria in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of MAP and HEV in NWC in Austria. Altogether 445 animals, originating from 78 farms were enrolled in the study. Of the animals sampled, 184 (41.35%) were llamas and 261 (58.65%) were alpacas. 443 blood samples for MAP-ELISA and 399 faecal samples for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and culture for MAP as well as for HEV detection by RT-qPCR have been collected. All of the 399 animals tested for shedding of MAP were negative by faecal solid culture. Using qPCR, 15 (3.8%) of the animals were MAP positive and 384 (96.2%) negative. Out of the 443 serum samples examined for specific antibodies against MAP by ELISA, 6 (1.4%) were positive, 1 (0.2%) was questionable and 436 (98.4%) samples were negative. All faecal samples were tested negative for HEV.

  20. Oleander intoxication in New World camelids: 12 cases (1995-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozikowski, Tania A; Magdesian, K Gary; Puschner, Birgit

    2009-08-01

    To characterize the clinical and clinicopathologic effects and evaluate outcome associated with oleander toxicosis in New World camelids. Retrospective case series. 11 llamas and 1 alpaca. Medical records from a veterinary medical teaching hospital from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2006, were reviewed. Records of all New World camelids that had detectable amounts of oleandrin in samples of serum, urine, or gastrointestinal fluid were included in the study. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic data, and outcome of affected camelids. 11 llamas and 1 alpaca met the inclusion criteria of the study. Either oleander plants were present where the camelids resided (n = 7) or oleander plant material was identified in the hay fed to the camelids (5). One llama was dead on arrival at the hospital, and another was euthanized upon admission because of financial concerns. Of the 10 treated camelids, 9 had evidence of acute renal failure, 7 had gastrointestinal signs, and 4 had cardiac dysrhythmias on initial evaluation. The overall mortality rate was 25%, but the mortality rate for the 10 camelids that were medically treated was 10%. In New World camelids, oleander intoxication was associated with a triad of clinical effects (ie, renal, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular dysfunction). Oleander intoxication often represented a herd problem but carried a fair to good prognosis if treated promptly. Oleander toxicosis should be considered a differential diagnosis in sick camelids.

  1. Brightness of venous blood in South American camelids: implications for jugular catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grint, Nicola; Dugdale, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    To compare the brightness of South American camelid venous blood to that of Equidae. Prospective clinical evaluation. Twelve South American camelids (eight llamas, four alpacas), eight horses and ponies (control group). Appropriately sized catheters were placed in the jugular vein of each animal under local anaesthesia. The blood spilt before the catheter was capped was caught on a white tile. A sample of blood was drawn for blood-gas analysis. The brightness of the blood (both on the tile and in the syringe) was matched to a colour chart (1 = darkest red, 8 = brightest red) by a single observer under bright light conditions. Packed cell volume (PCV) and partial pressure of oxygen (PvO(2)) in the blood were also measured on the syringe blood. Normally distributed data were compared using a two tailed t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. Significance was set at p Camelid venous blood was significantly brighter red than that of horses and ponies both on the white tile (p = 0.0003) and in the syringe (p = 0.0001). PCV was significantly lower in camelids (32 +/- 4%) compared with horses (37 +/- 5%). Partial pressure of oxygen values were similar between groups. Jugular venous blood in alpacas and llamas is significantly brighter red than that of horses. Colour should not be used as a sole determinant of venous or arterial catheterization in this species.

  2. Validation of the FAMACHA© system in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Bobby E; Williamson, Lisa H; Howell, Sue B; Terrill, Thomas H; Berghaus, Roy; Vidyashankar, Anand N; Kaplan, Ray M

    2017-08-30

    Haemonchus contortus resistant to multiple anthelmintics threaten the viability of the small ruminant industry in areas where this parasite is prevalent. In response to this situation, the FAMACHA© system was developed and validated for use with small ruminants as a way to detect clinical anemia associated with haemonchosis. Given that H. contortus and multiple anthelmintic resistance is a similar problem in camelids, the FAMACHA© system might also provide the same benefits. To address this need, a validation study of the FAMACHA© system was conducted on 21 alpaca and llama farms over a 2-year period. H. contortus was the predominant nematode parasite on 17 of the 21 farms (10 alpaca and 7 llama farms) enrolled in the study, based on fecal culture results. The FAMACHA© card was used to score the color of the lower palpebral (lower eye lid) conjunctiva on a 1-5 scale. Packed cell volume (PCV) values were measured and compared to FAMACHA© scores using FAMACHA© score cutoffs of ≥3 or ≥4 and with anemia defined as a PCV ≤15%, ≤17%, or≤20%. PCV was significantly associated with FAMACHA© score, fecal egg count (FEC), and body condition score (BCS), regardless of the FAMACHA© cutoff score or the PCV% chosen to define clinical anemia (pcamelids suffering from haemonchosis. Parameters for making treatment decisions based on FAMACHA© score in camelids should mirror those established for small ruminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. © 2015 The Author(s).

  4. Development and application of a real-time TaqMan(®) qPCR assay for detection and quantification of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Marina L; Kaufmann, Christine; Zanolari, Patrik; Robert, Nadia; Willi, Barbara; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2010-12-15

    Two alpacas from a herd in southwest Switzerland died for unknown reasons. Necropsy revealed chronic weight loss and pale mucous membranes. Infection with hemotropic mycoplasmas was suspected and subsequently confirmed by molecular methods. In order to investigate the epidemiological situation in this herd, a real-time TaqMan(®) qPCR assay for the specific detection and quantification of hemoplasma infection in South American camelids was developed. This assay was based on the 16S rRNA gene and amplified 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae' DNA, but not DNA from other hemoplasmas or non-hemotropic mycoplasma species. The lower detection limit was one copy/PCR, and the amplification efficiency was 97.4%. In 11 out of 24 clinically healthy herd mates of the two infected alpacas, 'Candidatus M. haemolamae' infection was confirmed. No correlation was found between bacterial load and clinical signs or anemia. The assay described herein enables to detect and quantify 'Candidatus M. haemolamae' and may be used in future studies to investigate the prevalence, pathogenesis and treatment follow-up of hemoplasma infections in South American camelids. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Seroprevalence and characterization of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danuser, R; Vogt, H-R; Kaufmann, Th; Peterhans, E; Zanoni, R

    2009-03-01

    The seroprevalence of pestivirus infections in small ruminants and new world camelids in Switzerland was determined. In 5'059 sera of sheep from 382 herds, 503 sera of goats from 54 herds and 109 sera of alpacas and lamas from 53 herds, population prevalences of 16.1% (sheep), 25.4% (goats) and 4.6% (new world camelids), respectively, were found. In order to determine the source of infection, the serological reactions were further characterized by cross-neutralization against two pestiviruses representing the genotypes BVDV (Bovine Virus Diarrhea Virus)-1 and BDV (Border Disease Virus)-1. Based on the ratio of respective antibody titres, 56.1% of the infections in sheep were induced by a BDV-1, 12.9% by a BVDV-1 and 31.0% by an unresolved pestivirus. In goats, the corresponding proportions were 23.4%, 10.2% and 66.4%, respectively. In Alpacas and Lamas, the source of infection of 1 animal was BDV-1 and that of 4 seropositive animals remained unresolved. In view of the phylogenetic relationship between pestiviruses, the unresolved source of infection is most probably attributable to other pestivirus genotypes circulating in small ruminants and new world camelids. Due to the predominance of pestiviral genotypes other than BVDV-1, the risk of transmission of BVDV from persistently infected small ruminants and new world camelids to cattle appears to be moderate, apart from close direct contact in mixed animal husbandry, communal pasturing and grazing in the Alps.

  6. Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation in acute hemorrhagic shock and evaluation of gastric luminal and transcutaneous Pco2 in Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Morena B; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Martin-Jurado, Olga; Howard, Judith; Vogler, Barbara; Vogt, Rainer; Codron, Daryl; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly

  7. A randomised controlled trial of CPAP versus non-invasive ventilation for initial treatment of obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark E; Piper, Amanda J; Stevens, Bronwyn; Holland, Anne E; Yee, Brendon J; Dabscheck, Eli; Mortimer, Duncan; Burge, Angela T; Flunt, Daniel; Buchan, Catherine; Rautela, Linda; Sheers, Nicole; Hillman, David; Berlowitz, David J

    2017-05-01

    Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is the most common indication for home ventilation, although the optimal therapy remains unclear, particularly for severe disease. We compared Bi-level and continuous positive airways pressure (Bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP); CPAP) for treatment of severe OHS. We conducted a multicentre, parallel, double-blind trial for initial treatment of OHS, with participants randomised to nocturnal Bi-level PAP or CPAP for 3 months. The primary outcome was frequency of treatment failure (hospital admission, persistent ventilatory failure or non-adherence); secondary outcomes included health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and sleepiness. Sixty participants were randomised; 57 completed follow-up and were included in analysis (mean age 53 years, body mass index 55 kg/m 2 , PaCO 2 60 mm Hg). There was no difference in treatment failure between groups (Bi-level PAP, 14.8% vs CPAP, 13.3%, p=0.87). Treatment adherence and wake PaCO 2 were similar after 3 months (5.3 hours/night Bi-level PAP, 5.0 hours/night CPAP, p=0.62; PaCO 2 44.2 and 45.9 mm Hg, respectively, p=0.60). Between-group differences in improvement in sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale 0.3 (95% CI -2.8, 3.4), p=0.86) and HRQoL (Short Form (SF)36-SF6d 0.025 (95% CI -0.039, 0.088), p=0.45) were not significant. Baseline severity of ventilatory failure (PaCO 2 ) was the only significant predictor of persistent ventilatory failure at 3 months (OR 2.3, p=0.03). In newly diagnosed severe OHS, Bi-level PAP and CPAP resulted in similar improvements in ventilatory failure, HRQoL and adherence. Baseline PaCO 2 predicted persistent ventilatory failure on treatment. Long-term studies are required to determine whether these treatments have different cost-effectiveness or impact on mortality. ACTRN12611000874910, results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Victor Max; Baldwin, Heather J; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim; Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Maganga, Gael Darren; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira; Leroy, Eric M; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia; Poon, Leo L M; Tschapka, Marco; Drosten, Christian; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2015-12-01

    We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3' end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E. The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive genetic evidence for an evolutionary origin of the common cold virus HCoV-229E in hipposiderid bats by analyzing a

  9. Migraciones en la puna: su relación con el uso de los recursos naturales del departamento Los Andes Migraciones en la puna: su relación con el uso de los recursos naturales del departamento Los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Barbarán

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From an historic and demographic perspective, as well as the use of natural resources, we analyzed the relationship between human migrations and the economic activities of Los Andes Department, West of the Salta Province, in NW Argentina. Using the residual method, we calculated migratory balances between Argentinean population censuses carried out in 1947,1960, 1970, 1980 and 2001. The migratory balances were negative for all the periods studied. When the train started to run through Ramal C-14, the workers who built it have to find jobs somewhere else. At the same time, the railway made easier for the natives, to find better economicopportunities out of the Puna. The close of mine La Casualidad by the end of the 70’s, the low creation of jobs by the remaining mining operations, focused in to hire qualified technicians no available in Los Andes and the privatization of the railway in early 90’s, were important factors of emigration. Despite of cattle rising as the main economic activity in rural areas, it is practiced without any technology of management. The overgrazing caused for that reason, has reduced almost to the half the quantity of sheep by inhabitant between 1947 and 2001. That is why the local people have to press more on the wildlife, trading illegally with vicuña (Vicugna vicugna fiber. Despite of a touristic development plan, a law promoting sheep rising and a census of vicuña population carried out by the provincial government, these recent actions should be part of a development project of regional scale, oriented to the sustainable use of the natural resources of Los Andes Department. That project would create jobs and discourage emigration.Desde una perspectiva histórica, demográfica y del uso de los recursos naturales, analizamos la relación existente entre las migraciones humanas y las actividades económicas en el departamento Los Andes, ubicado al W de la provincia de Salta, en el Noroeste Argentino. Usando el m

  10. Análise dos efeitos da manobra de recrutamento alveolar na oxigenação sanguínea durante procedimento bariátrico Análisis de los efectos de la maniobra de reclutamiento alveolar en la oxigenación sanguínea durante el procedimiento bariátrico Analysis of the effects of the alveolar recruitment maneuver on blood oxygenation during bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Paiva de Souza

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVAS E OBJETIVOS: A manobra de recrutamento alveolar (MRA é indicada no tratamento de atelectasias intraoperatórias. O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar duas técnicas de MRA por meio da resposta da relação PaO2/FiO2 e da soma [PaO2+PaCO2], em pacientes obesos grau III. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo aberto em pacientes adultos, obesos grau III, submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico bariátrico em ventilação controlada a volume, pressão positiva no final da expiração (PEEP de 5 cmH2O e divididos em três grupos: G CONT: PEEP de 5 cmH2O; G MRA10/15/20 após sutura da aponeurose: aumento progressivo da PEEP para 10,15 e 20 cmH2O, pausa de 40 segundos e manutenção de cada valor da PEEP por 2 minutos; G MRA30: após sutura da aponeurose: aumento súbito da PEEP para 30 cmH2O, 40 segundos de pausa e manutenção da PEEP em 30 cmH2O por dois minutos. Foram analisadas as variáveis frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial média, sistólica, diastólica, pressão média das vias aéreas (P MVA e de platô (P PLAT, pressão arterial de oxigênio (PaO2, pressão arterial de CO2 (PaCO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 (fração inspiratória de oxigênio e soma [PaO2+PaCO2]. RESULTADOS: As variáveis que apresentaram diferença estatística significativa entre os três grupos foram: P PLAT, P MVA, PaO2, relação PaO2/FiO2 e soma [PaO2+PaCO2] (p JUSTIFICATIVAS Y OBJETIVOS: La maniobra de reclutamiento alveolar (MRA se indica en el tratamiento de atelectasias intraoperatorias. El objetivo del presente estudio fue comparar dos técnicas de MRA por medio de la respuesta de la relación PaO2/FiO2 y de la suma [PaO2+PaCO2], en pacientes obesos con grado III. MÉTODO: Estudio prospectivo abierto en pacientes adultos, obesos grado III, sometidos a procedimiento quirúrgico bariátrico en ventilación controlada a volumen, presión positiva al final de la expiración (PEEP de 5 cmH2O y divididos en tres grupos: G CONTROL: PEEP de 5 cmH2O; G MRA10

  11. A Recombinant Fungal Chitin Deacetylase Produces Fully Defined Chitosan Oligomers with Novel Patterns of Acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Shoa; Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Singh, Ratna; Bernard, Frank; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; El Gueddari, Nour Eddine; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2016-11-15

    Partially acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (paCOS) are potent biologics with many potential applications, and their bioactivities are believed to be dependent on their structure, i.e., their degrees of polymerization and acetylation, as well as their pattern of acetylation. However, paCOS generated via chemical N-acetylation or de-N-acetylation of GlcN or GlcNAc oligomers, respectively, typically display random patterns of acetylation, making it difficult to control and predict their bioactivities. In contrast, paCOS produced from chitin deacetylases (CDAs) acting on chitin oligomer substrates may have specific patterns of acetylation, as shown for some bacterial CDAs. However, compared to what we know about bacterial CDAs, we know little about the ability of fungal CDAs to produce defined paCOS with known patterns of acetylation. Therefore, we optimized the expression of a chitin deacetylase from the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in Escherichia coli The best yield of functional enzyme was obtained as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein (MBP) secreted into the periplasmic space of the bacterial host. We characterized the MBP fusion protein from P. graminis (PgtCDA) and tested its activity on different chitinous substrates. Mass spectrometric sequencing of the products obtained by enzymatic deacetylation of chitin oligomers, i.e., tetramers to hexamers, revealed that PgtCDA generated paCOS with specific acetylation patterns of A-A-D-D, A-A-D-D-D, and A-A-D-D-D-D, respectively (A, GlcNAc; D, GlcN), indicating that PgtCDA cannot deacetylate the two GlcNAc units closest to the oligomer's nonreducing end. This unique property of PgtCDA significantly expands the so far very limited library of well-defined paCOS available to test their bioactivities for a wide variety of potential applications. We successfully achieved heterologous expression of a fungal chitin deacetylase gene from the basidiomycete Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in the

  12. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with blood gas parameters in crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane Pressão intra-ocular e sua correlação com parâmetros hemogasométricos em caracarás (Caracara plancus anestesiados com isofluorano e sevofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular pressure (IOP and its correlations with arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and arterial pH were studied in five crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane (ISO and sevoflurane (SEV. Baseline IOP values were measured in both eyes (M0. Brachial artery was previously catheterized to obtain blood gas and cardiorespiratory analysis. Anesthesia was induced with 5% ISO and maintained with 2.5% for 40 minutes. IOP measurements and blood samples were evaluated in different moments until the end of the procedure. After recovering, a second anesthesia was induced with 6% SEV and maintained with 3.5%. Parameters were evaluated at the same time points of the previous procedure. IOP reduced significantly (P= 0.012 from M0 at all time points and no significative changes were observed between ISO and SEV anesthesias. Correlation between IOP and PaCO2 and between PIO and blood pH were found only for SEV. IOP and blood pH decreased in parallel with IOP, whereas values of PaCO2 increased in caracaras anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane.Avaliou-se a pressão intra-ocular (PIO e estimaram-se as correlações entre PIO e pressão de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pH arterial de cinco caracarás (Caracara plancus, anestesiados com isofluorano (ISO ou sevofluorano (SEV. Valores basais da PIO foram aferidos em ambos os olhos (M0. Cateterizou-se previamente a artéria braquial para obtenção de parâmetros hemogasométricos e cardiorrespiratórios. Anestesia foi induzida com ISO a 5V% e mantida por 40 minutos com 2,5V%. PIO e amostras de sangue foram avaliadas em diferentes momentos até o final do procedimento. Após recuperação, uma segunda anestesia foi realizada com SEV a 6% e mantida com 3,5%. Os parâmetros foram aferidos nos mesmos momentos estabelecidos previamente. A PIO decresceu significativamente (P=0,012 de M0 em todos os momentos e não houve diferença estatística entre ISO e SEV. Correla

  13. Efficacy of Different Treatment Alternatives for Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome. Pickwick Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Alonso, Maria L; Ordax, Estrella; Troncoso, Maria F; Gonzalez, Monica; Lopez-Martínez, Soledad; Marin, Jose M; Marti, Sergi; Díaz-Cambriles, Trinidad; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Egea, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) may be increasing in parallel with the present obesity epidemic. Despite extensive noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use in patients with OHS, information regarding efficacy is limited. We performed a large, multicenter randomized controlled study to determine the comparative efficacy of NIV, CPAP, and lifestyle modification (control group) using daytime PaCO2 as the main outcome measure. Sequentially screened patients with OHS with severe sleep apnea were randomized into the above-mentioned groups for a 2-month follow up. Arterial blood gas parameters, clinical symptoms, health-related quality-of-life assessments, polysomnography, spirometry, 6-minute-walk distance, dropouts, compliance, and side effects were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using intention-to-treat analysis, although adjustments for CPAP and NIV compliance were also analyzed. In total, 351 patients were selected, and 221 were randomized. NIV yielded the greatest improvement in PaCO2 and bicarbonate, with significant differences relative to the control group but not relative to the CPAP group. In the CPAP group, PaCO2 improvement was significantly different than in the control group only after CPAP compliance adjustment. Additionally, clinical symptoms and polysomnographic parameters improved similarly with NIV and CPAP relative to the control. However, some health-related quality-of-life assessments, the spirometry, and 6-minute-walk distance results improved more with NIV than with CPAP. Dropouts were similar between groups, and compliance and secondary effects were similar between NIV and CPAP. NIV and CPAP were more effective than lifestyle modification in improving clinical symptoms and polysomnographic parameters, although NIV yielded better respiratory functional improvements than did CPAP. Long-term studies must demonstrate whether this functional improvement has relevant

  14. Multimodal investigation of fMRI and fNIRS derived breath hold BOLD signals with an expanded balloon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emir, U E; Ozturk, C; Akin, A

    2008-01-01

    Multimodal investigation of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals, using both functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), may give further insight to the underlying physiological principles and the detailed transient dynamics of the vascular response. Utilizing a breath hold task (BHT), we measured deoxy-hemoglobin (HbR) and oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) changes via fNIRS and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes by fMRI. Measurements were taken in four volunteers asynchronously and carefully aligned for comparative analysis. In order to describe the main stimulus in BHT, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ) parameter was integrated into the balloon model as the driving function of cerebral blood flow (CBF) which led to the development of an expanded balloon model (EBM). During BHT, the increase in HbR was observed later than the BOLD peak and coincided temporally with its post-stimulus undershoot. Further investigation of these transients with a PaCO 2 integrated balloon model suggests that post-stimulus undershoot measured by fMRI is dominated by slow return of cerebral blood volume (CBV). This was confirmed by fNIRS measurements. In addition, the BOLD signal decreased with the increase of the initial level of PaCO 2 derived from EBM, indicating an effect of basal CBF level on the BOLD signal. In conclusion, a multimodal approach with an appropriate biophysical model gave a comprehensive description of the hemodynamic response during BHT

  15. Renal Fractional Excretion of Sodium in Relation to Arterial Blood Gas and Spirometric Parameters in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Rezaeetalab

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arterial gas derangement could change urinary sodium excretion in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD patients.There are very few and conflicting data in regards to the measurement of fractional excretion of sodium in COPD patients. The main aim of this study was to assess the relationship between renal fractional excretion of sodium(FeNa with arterial blood gas and spirometric parameters in COPD. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study performed on 40 consecutive stable COPD outpatients in 2 main general hospitals (Emam Reza, Ghaem in Mashhad/Iran between 2011 and 2012. We investigated the relationship of renal FeNa with arterial blood gas parameters including HCO3, PH, PaCO2 and PaO2, and spirometric parameters. Analysis was done by SPSS v16 with a statistically meaningful p value of less than 0.05. Results: Mean age was 65.97±10.77 SD years and female to male ratio was 0.26. A renal FeNa of less than 1% was presented in 27% patients. There was a significant, positive relationship between renal FeNa and PaO2 (P=0.005, r=0.456. The correlations between PaCO2, HCO3, PH and spirometric parameters were not seen (P>0.05, but there was a significant relationship between Urine Na and PaO2. Outstanding, it seems likely that kidneys of COPD patients are responsible for sodium retaining state particularly in the presence of hypoxemia. Conclusion: This study indicates that in COPD patients, PaO2 but not PaCO2 is related to renal FeNa which shows the probable role of hypoxemia on sodium output in COPD patients. However, some caution is needed for interpretation of the probable role of hypercapnia on sodium retention in COPD.

  16. Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hoon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2 insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Methods A total of 32 patients underwent thyroid surgery at 6 (n = 15, 9 (n = 15, and 12 (n = 2 mmHg. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, pH, cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were measured at baseline, 30 min and 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after CO2 insufflation, and 30 min after desufflation. Results CO2 insufflation of 12 mmHg caused severe facial subcutaneous emphysema, hypercarbia, and acidosis during robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA. The study was stopped before completion for the patients’ safety in accordance with the study protocol. Applying 6- or 9- mmHg of CO2 insufflation pressure caused increases in PaCO2 and decreases in arterial pH. However, vital signs were stable and pH and PaCO2 were within the physiologic range during the surgery in the 6- and 9-mmHg groups. Conclusions We propose that a CO2 insufflation pressure under 10 mmHg in robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA is the optimal insufflation pressure for patient safety.

  17. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of Ground Cherry (Physalis angulataL.) standardized CO2phytopharmaceutical preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Junior, Luiz Domingues; Quaglio, Ana Elisa Valencise; de Almeida Costa, Celso Acácio Rodrigues; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2017-06-28

    To investigate the effects of Ground Cherry ( Physalis angulata L.) standardized supercritical CO 2 extract in trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat intestinal inflammation. The animals were divided into groups that received vehicle or P. angulata extract (PACO 2 ) orally at the doses 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg daily by 5 d before TNBS damage. Protective effects of PACO 2 were assessed by macroscopic analysis, biochemical determinations of the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione and cytokines (such as INF-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α), gene expression evaluation (including Hsp70, heparanase, NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinases (Mapk) 1, 3, 6 and 9, and the mucins genes Muc 1, 2, 3 and 4) and histopathological studies using optical, and electronic (transmission and scanning) microscopy. PACO 2 extract promoted a significant reduction in MPO and ALP activities, reducing oxidative stress and neutrophil infiltration. These effects were accompanied by significant reduction of colonic levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 and down-regulation of heparanase, Hsp70, Mapk3, Mapk9, Muc1 and Muc2 genes expression when compared with TNBS-control animals. In addition, protective effects were also evidenced by reduced neutrophil infiltration, recovery of cell architecture and replacement of mucin by histopathological and ultrastructural analysis. Physalis angulata supercritical CO 2 extract is an intestinal anti-inflammatory product that modulates oxidative stress, immune response and expression of inflammatory mediators, with potentially utility for treating inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Non-invasive ventilation in obesity hypoventilation syndrome without severe obstructive sleep apnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa, Juan F; Corral, Jaime; Caballero, Candela; Barrot, Emilia; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Alonso-Álvarez, Maria L; Gomez-Garcia, Teresa; González, Mónica; López-Martín, Soledad; De Lucas, Pilar; Marin, José M; Marti, Sergi; Díaz-Cambriles, Trinidad; Chiner, Eusebi; Egea, Carlos; Miranda, Erika; Mokhlesi, Babak; García-Ledesma, Estefanía; Sánchez-Quiroga, M-Ángeles; Ordax, Estrella; González-Mangado, Nicolás; Troncoso, Maria F; Martinez-Martinez, Maria-Ángeles; Cantalejo, Olga; Ojeda, Elena; Carrizo, Santiago J; Gallego, Begoña; Pallero, Mercedes; Ramón, M Antonia; Díaz-de-Atauri, Josefa; Muñoz-Méndez, Jesús; Senent, Cristina; Sancho-Chust, Jose N; Ribas-Solís, Francisco J; Romero, Auxiliadora; Benítez, José M; Sanchez-Gómez, Jesús; Golpe, Rafael; Santiago-Recuerda, Ana; Gomez, Silvia; Bengoa, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an effective form of treatment in patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) who have concomitant severe obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). However, there is a paucity of evidence on the efficacy of NIV in patients with OHS without severe OSA. We performed a multicentre randomised clinical trial to determine the comparative efficacy of NIV versus lifestyle modification (control group) using daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) as the main outcome measure. Methods Between May 2009 and December 2014 we sequentially screened patients with OHS without severe OSA. Participants were randomised to NIV versus lifestyle modification and were followed for 2 months. Arterial blood gas parameters, clinical symptoms, health-related quality of life assessments, polysomnography, spirometry, 6-min walk distance test, blood pressure measurements and healthcare resource utilisation were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using intention-to-treat analysis. Results A total of 365 patients were screened of whom 58 were excluded. Severe OSA was present in 221 and the remaining 86 patients without severe OSA were randomised. NIV led to a significantly larger improvement in PaCO2 of −6 (95% CI −7.7 to −4.2) mm Hg versus −2.8 (95% CI −4.3 to −1.3) mm Hg, (p<0.001) and serum bicarbonate of −3.4 (95% CI −4.5 to −2.3) versus −1 (95% CI −1.7 to −0.2 95% CI)  mmol/L (p<0.001). PaCO2 change adjusted for NIV compliance did not further improve the inter-group statistical significance. Sleepiness, some health-related quality of life assessments and polysomnographic parameters improved significantly more with NIV than with lifestyle modification. Additionally, there was a tendency towards lower healthcare resource utilisation in the NIV group. Conclusions NIV is more effective than lifestyle modification in improving daytime PaCO2, sleepiness and polysomnographic parameters. Long

  19. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: prospective study on respiratory parameters Esclerose lateral amiotrófica: estudo prospectivo de parâmetros respiratórios

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    Sara Regina Meira Almeida

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify how efficient respiratory parameters are in the follow-up of subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and to observe possible correlations between respiratory and nutritional functions. METHOD: Sixteen patients with probable or defined ALS were selected and evaluated over eight months using the following respiratory parameters: spirometry, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP, maximum expiratory pressure (MEP, arterial gasometry and pulse oximetry; and nutritional parameters such as body mass index (BMI and percentage weight loss. RESULTS: PaCO2 was a significant parameter to follow up disease evolution (p=0.051. There was significant correlation between MIP and MEP (r: 0.83; BMI and MIP (r: 0.70; BMI and MEP (r: 0.72; pulse oximetry and forced vital capacity (r: 0.57. CONCLUSION: PaCO2 was shown to be an efficient and significant parameter in the measurement of respiratory impairment; the correlations among MIP, MEP and BMI indicated that these are significant parameters for periodic clinical evaluation.OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia dos parâmetros respiratórios na evolução de indivíduos com esclerose lateral amiotrófica (ELA e identificar possíveis correlações entre função respiratória e nutricional. MÉTODO: 16 pacientes com diagnóstico provável ou definido de ELA foram selecionados por critérios definidos e avaliados, durante 8 meses, através de parâmetros respiratórios: espirometria, pressão inspiratória máxima (PIM, pressão expiratória máxima (PEM, gasometria arterial e oximetria de pulso; e parâmetros nutricionais: índice de massa corporal (IMC e porcentagem de perda de peso. RESULTADOS: PaCO2 foi um parâmetro significativo para acompanhar a evolução da doença (p=0.051. Houve correlação significante entre PIM e PEM (r: 0.83; IMC e PIM (r: 0.70; IMC e PEM (r: 0.72; oximetria de pulso e capacidade vital forçada (r: 0.57. CONCLUSÃO: PaCO2 foi marcador eficaz e significante para

  20. A Quick Reference on Respiratory Alkalosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2017-03-01

    Respiratory alkalosis, or primary hypocapnia, occurs when alveolar ventilation exceeds that required to eliminate the carbon dioxide produced by tissues. Concurrent decreases in Paco 2 , increases in pH, and compensatory decreases in blood HCO 3 - levels are associated with respiratory alkalosis. Respiratory alkalosis can be acute or chronic, with metabolic compensation initially consisting of cellular uptake of HCO 3 - and buffering by intracellular phosphates and proteins. Chronic respiratory alkalosis results in longer-lasting decreases in renal reabsorption of HCO 3 - ; the arterial pH can approach near-normal values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-management of nocturnal respiratory insufficiency with a portable ventilator "Pneu-PAC" by an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, K; Kuroda, A; Mizushima, Y; Morikage, T; Yano, S

    1991-01-01

    A 76-year-old man with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was admitted to our hospital because of progressive exertional dyspnea (PaCO2 = 68.5 torr, PaO2 = 62.5 torr). He was put on mechanical ventilation, and thereafter sleep apnea of a central type was recognized. After improvement of general conditions, a portable ventilator "Pneu-PAC" was used for the self-management of nocturnal respiratory insufficiency. A portable ventilator might be of clinical benefit for the management of a patient with neuromuscular disorder whose activities of daily living are still functional.

  2. Effect of body position on the arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in spontaneously breathing, conscious dogs in an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Matthew W; Whitaker, Katie E; Hughes, Dez; Brodbelt, David C; Boag, Amanda K

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of body position on the arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide (PaO(2), PaCO(2)), and the efficiency of pulmonary oxygen uptake as estimated by alveolar-arterial oxygen difference (A-a difference). Prospective, randomized, crossover study. University teaching hospital, intensive care unit. Twenty-one spontaneously breathing, conscious, canine patients with arterial catheters placed as part of their management strategy. Patients were placed randomly into lateral or sternal recumbency. PaO(2) and PaCO(2) were measured after 15 minutes in this position. Patients were then repositioned into the opposite position and after 15 minutes the parameters were remeasured. Results presented as median (interquartile range). PaO(2) was significantly higher (P=0.001) when patients were positioned in sternal, 91.2 mm Hg (86.0-96.1 mm Hg), compared with lateral recumbency, 86.4 mm Hg (73.9-90.9 mm Hg). The median change was 5.4 mm Hg (1.1-17.9 mm Hg). All 7 dogs with a PaO(2)<80 mm Hg in lateral recumbency had improved arterial oxygenation in sternal recumbency, median increase 17.4 mm Hg with a range of 3.8-29.7 mm Hg. PaCO(2) levels when patients were in sternal recumbency, 30.5 mm Hg (27.3-32.7 mm Hg) were not significantly different from those in lateral recumbency, 32.2 mm Hg (28.3-36.0 mm Hg) (P=0.07). The median change was -1.9 mm Hg (-3.6-0.77 mm Hg). A-a differences were significantly lower (P=0.005) when patients were positioned in sternal recumbency, 21.7 mm Hg (17.3-27.7 mm Hg), compared with lateral recumbency, 24.6 mm Hg (20.4-36.3 mm Hg). The median change was -3.1 mm Hg (-14.6-0.9 mm Hg). PaO(2) was significantly higher when animals were positioned in sternal recumbency compared with lateral recumbency, predominantly due to improved pulmonary oxygen uptake (decreased A-a difference) rather than increased alveolar ventilation (decreased PaCO(2)). Patients with hypoxemia (defined as PaO(2)<80 mm Hg) in lateral recumbency may

  3. Assessment of thyroid functions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Abo El-Yazed

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Thyroid function tests among COPD patients showed a significant increase of the mean free T3 values and a non significant decrease of the mean free T4 and TSH values compared to the control group. With increasing severity of COPD, the mean free T3 values showed a significant increase. Significant negative correlations were noticed between free T3 levels and both PaO2 and SO2 of the cases. A significant positive correlation was observed between free T3 levels and PaCO2 of the cases. Significant negative correlations were observed between free T3 levels and pulmonary function tests of the cases.

  4. [Transcutaneous measurement of partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen saturation: validation of the SenTec monitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Ch; Canturri, E; Luján, M; Moreno, A; Espuelas, H; Marín, A

    2006-05-01

    To validate a monitor for transcutaneous measurement of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (TcPCO2). This observational study included 140 Caucasian nonsmokers without jaundice. Patients underwent forced spirometry, measurement of SpO2 and TcPCO2 with the SenTec monitor, and arterial blood gas analysis (readings with 2 devices) during the stabilization phase of the monitor. In the statistical analysis, values from the 2 devices for measuring arterial blood gases were compared by mean differences for PaCO2 and oxygen saturation (SaO2). The arithmetic mean of the 2 blood gas measurements was calculated and relations between them and the SpO2 and TcPCO2 were assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient (r) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a measure of agreement. Bland-Altman analysis was used to test data dispersion. Ten patients were excluded due to a systematic error in the gas calibrator. The mean (SD) time to stabilization of the monitor before reading was 13.9 (2.4) minutes. The forced expiratory volume in the first second was greater than 80% in 40 patients, between 60% and 79% in 23, between 40% and 59% in 30, and less than 40% in 37. The mean (SD) differences between arterial blood gas measurements were 0.28 (1.0) mm Hg for PaCO2, -0.06% (0.86%) for SaO2, and -0.9 (2.7) mm Hg for PaO2. In the tests for correlation and agreement, r was 0.74 and ICC was 0.73 for SaO2 and SpO2; r was 0.92 and ICC was 0.92 for PaCO2 and TcPCO2. The subgroup analyses did not show any noteworthy differences. The Bland Altman analysis showed no significant dispersion. It was observed that the SenTec monitor underestimated oxygen saturation values by around 1% with respect to SaO2 and overestimated carbon dioxide pressure by 1 mm Hg with respect to PaCO2 values. The stabilization time recommended for the SenTec monitor before taking a reading is 20 minutes. The overestimates and underestimates by the monitor are not clinically

  5. El perfil del detective en la literatura criminal de Taibo II: Héctor Belascorán Shayne o la humanización del héroe detectivesco

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Sánchez, Diego Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: En este artículo se va a ahondar en la narrativa criminal del autor mexicano Paco Ignacio Taibo II a través de la figura de su investigador principal: Héctor Belascoarán Shayne. Utilizando la conexión del hard boiled de los maestros norteamericanos con la realidad urbana y su inherente capacidad para la reflexión crítica sobre la problemática política y social, Taibo II adapta este discurso literario al caso de México para denunciar el entramado sistemático de prácticas ilegales que ...

  6. Eesti arhitektuuri päevad Tallinnas : 7.-17. oktoober 2005

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Korraldaja: Eesti Arhitektide Liit. EAL-i aastanäitusest "Eramu" (kuraator Urmas Oja, kujundaja Paco-Ernest Ulman) Sakala keskuses. EAL-i preemia "Parim eramu 2004/2005" pälvis AB Muru & Pere Tabasalu eramu eest. EAL-i teenetemedalid: parim kriitik - Triin Ojari, parim tellija - Eesti Kontsert, parim ehitaja - Estconde-E. Arhitektuuriekskursiooni "Väike" 14. X juhtis Andres Kurg. Workshop'ist ja näitusest "Kodu kodutule" Disaini- ja Arhitektuurigaleriis, seminarist "Eesti arhitektuur" 12. X Von Krahli teatri baaris, autorikaitseseminarist 17. X, algklassidele korraldatud joonistusvõistlusest "Koht, kus mulle meeldib linnas olla"

  7. Arhitektuurifoto konkurss "Majapilt" / Urmas Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oja, Urmas, 1981-2012

    2009-01-01

    2008. a. oktoobris ja novembris Eesti Arhitektide Liidu, Delfi Pildi ja mitmete Eesti linnade koostöös peetud arhitektuurifotode konkursist "Majapilt". Vanema kategooria peapreemia pälvis Tõnis Kalve foto "Ööpäike" eest, nooremate seas sai esikoha Kristiine Raag foto "Jäetud" eest. Paco Ulmani kujundatud ja Urmas Oja kureeritud konkursitööde näitus rändab 2009. a. mööda sündmust toetanud Eesti linnu

  8. Rumbling Orchids: How To Assess Divergent Evolution Between Chloroplast Endosymbionts and the Nuclear Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Gottschling, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships inferred from multilocus organellar and nuclear DNA data are often difficult to resolve because of evolutionary conflicts among gene trees. However, conflicting or "outlier" associations (i.e., linked pairs of "operational terminal units" in two phylogenies) among these data sets often provide valuable information on evolutionary processes such as chloroplast capture following hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and horizontal gene transfer. Statistical tools that to date have been used in cophylogenetic studies only also have the potential to test for the degree of topological congruence between organellar and nuclear data sets and reliably detect outlier associations. Two distance-based methods, namely ParaFit and Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny (PACo), were used in conjunction to detect those outliers contributing to conflicting phylogenies independently derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. We explored their efficiency of retrieving outlier associations, and the impact of input data (unit branch length and additive trees) between data sets, by using several simulation approaches. To test their performance using real data sets, we additionally inferred the phylogenetic relationships within Neotropical Catasetinae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae), which is a suitable group to investigate phylogenetic incongruence because of hybridization processes between some of its constituent species. A comparison between trees derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data reflected strong, well-supported incongruence within Catasetum, Cycnoches, and Mormodes. As a result, outliers among chloroplast and nuclear data sets, and in experimental simulations, were successfully detected by PACo when using patristic distance matrices obtained from phylograms, but not from unit branch length trees. The performance of ParaFit was overall inferior compared to PACo, using either phylograms or unit branch lengths as input data. Because

  9. HISTÓRIA INTELECTUAL E HISTORIOGRAFIA BRASILEIRA: PRÁTICAS E TRAJETÓRIAS

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Barbosa Dias

    2016-01-01

    Este texto tem por objetivo apresentar a resenha da obra “A história intelectual: entre instituições e letrados na historiografia brasileira”. Publicada pela Editora Paco, em 2015, apresenta uma coletânea de artigos reunidos por Diogo da Silva Roiz, e traz, em seu título, alguns elementos que compõem o cerne da temática da obra. Enveredando pelos caminhos sinuosos da história intelectual, dos intelectuais e das práticas institucionais, o livro convida o leitor a entrecruzar percursos que se c...

  10. Monitoring variables affecting positron emission tomography measurements of cerebral blood flow in anaesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Simonsen, Mette

    2018-01-01

    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating...... and the monitoring parameters. Results No significant statistical correlations were found between CBF and the nine monitoring variables. However, we found that arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) and body temperature were important predictors of CBF that should be observed and kept constant. In addition, we...

  11. Carlos Fuentes, Cristina Rivera Garza and Recent Rewritings of the Mexican Revolution: Memory and Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Mares, Filiberto Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation I argue that the recent fiction and film produced after the uprising of the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN) in 1994 in Chiapas displays a concern for re-examining the importance of the Mexican Revolution's multiple discourses. The novels and films included in this study are Muertos Incómodos: falta lo que falta (2005) by Subcomandante Marcos and Paco Ignacio Taibo II, Zapata (2006) by Pedro Ángel Palou, Nadie me verá llorar (1999) by Cristina Rivera Garza...

  12. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard; Rasmussen, Martin Bo; Hahn, Gitte Holst

    2017-01-01

    phase, and the infusion rate of dopamine (10, 25, or 40 μg/kg/min). In/deflation of a balloon catheter, placed in vena cava, induced different levels of hypotension. At each level of hypotension, fluctuations in MAP were induced by in/deflations of a balloon catheter in descending aorta. Results: During...... measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA) capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA...

  13. Kas sina julgeksid ennustada tulevikku? / Karolin Kuusik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusik, Karolin

    2007-01-01

    Filmid ja nende kostüümikunstnikud, kes on mõjutanud rõivamoodi : "Barbarella" (1968), kostüümikunstnikud Jacques Fonteray ja Paco Rabanne; "Blade Runner" (1982), kunstnikud Charles Knode ja Michael Kaplan; "Matrix" ja selle järjed (1999, 2003), kostüümidisainer Kym Barrett; "Star Wars" ja selle järjed (1977, 1980, 1983, 1999, 2002, 2005), kunstnik John Mollo, hiljem Trisha Biggar; "Aeon Flux" (2005), kostüümikunstnik Beatrix Aruna Pasztor

  14. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    -up tilt. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)), and dynamic cerebral autoregulation at supine rest and 70 degrees head-up tilt were determined during free breathing and with Pet(CO(2)) clamped to the supine level. The postural changes in central...... suggest that the potential contribution of Pa(CO(2)) to the postural reduction in MCA V(mean) is transient, leaving the mechanisms for the sustained restrain in MCA V(mean) to be identified Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9...

  15. Cerebral blood flow, oxidative metabolism and cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with acute bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Strauss, Gitte Irene; Thomsen, Gerda

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)CO(2)) in patients with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is unknown and controversial. The objective of this study was to measure global cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity (CO(2)R), and cerebral metabolic rates...... to baseline ventilation, whereas CMR(glu) increased. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute bacterial meningitis, we found variable levels of CBF and cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity, a low a-v DO(2), low cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose, and a cerebral lactate efflux. In these patients...

  16. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  17. Mapping the Extent and Stability of Montane Wetlands ("Bofedales") in the Andes of Bolivia and Peru using Landsat Imagery, 1980s to Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Hubbard, A. B.; Yager, K.

    2017-12-01

    Montane wetlands (locally termed "bofedales") in the Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide an important forage resource for camelids (llama and alpaca) in extensive pastoral agriculture systems. For many communities, these systems may provide the only available green forage during the long winter dry season. As a part of a larger project, we are examining the impacts of both current climate change and of socioeconomic drivers on the health and status of these systems. A key part of this analysis requires mapping the current bofedal extent, and observed changes over the recent past, to link to hypothesized drivers. We are therefore mapping bofedal extent using Landsat imagery, from the mid 1980s to present, using a variety of methods (supervised and unsupervised classification, and machine learning). We will present preliminary results from this analysis, showing total regional extent, and observed stability of the bofedales (or lack thereof) over time.

  18. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin P. Lyashchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis.

  19. EXPLORANDO LA VARIABILIDAD MORFOMÉTRICA DEL CONJUNTO DE CAMÉLIDOS PEQUEÑOS DURANTE EL ARCAICO TARDÍO Y EL FORMATIVO TEMPRANO EN QUEBRADA TULÁN, NORTE DE CHILE / Exploring the morphometric variability of lesser camelids from Quebrada Tulán (northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cartajena Fasting

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Frecuentemente en el registro arqueofaunístico de sitios arqueológicos ubicados en la vertiente occidental de la puna de Atacama, es posible diferenciar un conjunto de camélidos grandes y otro de menor tamaño. En general, el grupo de camélidos grandes ha recibido mayor atención, existiendo un escaso conocimiento del grupo de tamaño más pequeño. En este trabajo se explora el conjunto de camélidos pequeños a través de la utilización de métodos osteométricos. Por una parte, se consideran colecciones actuales de alpacas y vicuñas en las que se analizan las distintas variables que pudiesen estar incidiendo en la variabilidad de los conjuntos. Se otorga especial énfasis a la diferenciación entre falanges anteriores y posteriores, variación interespecífica y dimorfismo sexual. Por otra parte, se analizan las primeras falanges de los sitios Tulán-52 (Arcaico Tardío ca. 4500-3800 A.P. y Tulán-54 (Formativo Temprano ca. 3200-2300 A.P. con el fin de caracterizar la variabilidad que presentan los conjuntos a través del tiempo, mediante la comparación de los resultados del análisis de muestras actuales y arqueológicas. Ambos conjuntos arqueofaunísticos son muy similares a pesar de las diferencias temporales. Los especimenes analizados corresponderían a vicuñas, lo que denotaría la importancia de la caza de la vicuña a través del tiempo.Palabras clave:arqueofaunas,osteometria, alpacas, vicuñasAbstractFrequently, it is possible to differentiate among large and small size camelids when analysing registers from archaeological sites located at the occidental slope of Puna de Atacama. However, larger animals have received most of the attention having less knowledge about the group of small size camelids. In this paper and by using osteometric methods we study this small size later group. On one hand, we analyse different variables that may affect variability among modern alpacas and vicuñas collections. We focus our work on

  20. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  1. Income Analysis in South American Domestic Camelid Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ansaloni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining economic budget income. Statistics and data from 2003 were analysed to determine farm resources and farm production costs, per animal head and net farm income per labour unit and livestock head. This paper is relevant as regards economic data for production systems which are more often analysed for sociological and cultural aspects and less often for economic data and identification of real productive economic data which are not generally market driven.

  2. Embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumar, Julio B

    2013-01-10

    Intraspecific and interspecific embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids is developing into a well-established technique. Reports reveal many benefits of using reproductive biotechnologies to allow rapid propagation of alpacas and llamas of high genetic merit (e.g., high fiber quality, preserve color variation). The objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information about embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids. Specific information is provided on criteria for male selection, donor and recipient synchronization, the practice of single- vs. super-ovulation protocols, embryo recovery and transfer techniques, advances in cryopreservation of embryos, results of intra- and inter-specific transfer, and the future of the embryo transfer in domestic South American camelids. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

  4. Trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Eileen K; Callan, Robert J; Holt, Timothy N; Van Metre, David C

    2005-01-01

    To describe clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcome associated with trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids. Retrospective study. Alpacas (7) and 1 llama. Historical and clinical data were obtained from the medical records of New World camelids with a diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction confirmed by surgical exploration or necropsy. Seven camelids were camelids with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Right paracostal celiotomy can be used for access to the descending duodenum and third gastric compartment for surgical relief of obstruction. Duodenal obstruction from bezoars should be considered in New World camelids <1year of age with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Surgical relief of the obstruction by right paracostal celiotomy has a good prognosis.

  5. Generation of a nanobody targeting the paraflagellar rod protein of trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Obishakin

    Full Text Available Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause diseases in humans and livestock for which no vaccines are available. Disease eradication requires sensitive diagnostic tools and efficient treatment strategies. Immunodiagnostics based on antigen detection are preferable to antibody detection because the latter cannot differentiate between active infection and cure. Classical monoclonal antibodies are inaccessible to cryptic epitopes (based on their size-150 kDa, costly to produce and require cold chain maintenance, a condition that is difficult to achieve in trypanosomiasis endemic regions, which are mostly rural. Nanobodies are recombinant, heat-stable, small-sized (15 kDa, antigen-specific, single-domain, variable fragments derived from heavy chain-only antibodies in camelids. Because of numerous advantages over classical antibodies, we investigated the use of nanobodies for the targeting of trypanosome-specific antigens and diagnostic potential. An alpaca was immunized using lysates of Trypanosoma evansi. Using phage display and bio-panning techniques, a cross-reactive nanobody (Nb392 targeting all trypanosome species and isolates tested was selected. Imunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry assays were combined to identify the target recognized. Nb392 targets paraflagellar rod protein (PFR1 of T. evansi, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. Two different RNAi mutants with defective PFR assembly (PFR2RNAi and KIF9BRNAi were used to confirm its specificity. In conclusion, using a complex protein mixture for alpaca immunization, we generated a highly specific nanobody (Nb392 that targets a conserved trypanosome protein, i.e., PFR1 in the flagella of trypanosomes. Nb392 is an excellent marker for the PFR and can be useful in the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. In addition, as demonstrated, Nb392 can be a useful research or PFR protein isolation tool.

  6. Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in Functional and Comparative Investigations of Heavy-Chain Immunoglobulins in New World Camelids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, L. P.; Gagliardo, L. F.; Duffy, M. S.; Smith, M. C.; Appleton, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    Of the three immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes described to occur in camelids, IgG2 and IgG3 are distinct in that they do not incorporate light chains. These heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) constitute approximately 50% of the IgG in llama serum and as much as 75% of the IgG in camel serum. We have produced isotype-specific mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) in order to investigate the roles of HCAbs in camelid immunity. Seventeen stable hybridomas were cloned, and three MAbs that were specific for epitopes on the γ chains of llama IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3 were characterized in detail. Affinity chromatography revealed that each MAb bound its isotype in solution in llama serum. The antibodies bound to the corresponding alpaca IgGs, to guanaco IgG1 and IgG2, and to camel IgG1. Interestingly, anti-IgG2 MAbs bound three heavy-chain species in llama serum, confirming the presence of three IgG2 subisotypes. Two IgG2 subisotypes were detected in alpaca and guanaco sera. The MAbs detected llama serum IgGs when they were bound to antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and were used to discern among isotypes induced during infection with a parasitic nematode. Diseased animals, infected with Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, did not produce antigen-specific HCAbs; rather, they produced the conventional isotype, IgG1, exclusively. Our data document the utility of these MAbs in functional and physiologic investigations of the immune systems of New World camelids. PMID:15753251

  7. [Pathology of South American Camelids: a retrospective study of necropsies at the Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Leipzig, Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuß, T; Goerigk, D; Rasenberger, S; Starke, A; Schoon, H-A

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American Camelids (New World Camelids) housed in Germany has increased in the recent years. While these species were formerly kept solely in zoological gardens, ever more private and commercial livestock is being established. Compared to indigenous livestock animals, they bear some distinctive differences, particularly in terms of digestive tract anatomy and physiology. Therefore, it is of considerable interest for veterinarians working with South American Camelids to obtain knowledge about the distinguishing features of these animals and the typical diseases affecting them in Germany. For this purpose, the necropsy reports, including the anamnestic data, and their diagnostic usefulness, from 1995 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Du- ring this period, a total of 233 New World Camelids were examined (195 alpacas and 38 llamas). Anamnestic data of diagnostic usefulness regarding the cause of disease were only submitted in a limited number of cases, because most of the animals died without specific symptoms. The following were the most frequent pathological findings: enteritis (n = 91), gastritis (n = 76), cachexia (n = 73), pneumonia (n = 30), stomatitis (n = 27), azotaemia (n = 22) and anaemia (n = 9). An endoparasitosis occurred in 107 cases and was considered the predominant cause of enteritis. As with indigenous ruminants, llamas and alpacas primarily suffered from diseases of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Other organ systems were affected to a lesser extent. Even in cases with severe alterations in the affected organs, South American Camelids do not show or show too late diagnostically indicative clinical symptoms. Therefore, a detailed clinical examination of these animals is important.

  8. Induction of superovulation in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Marcelo H; Silva, Mauricio E; Huanca, Wilfredo; Huanca, Teodosio; Adams, Gregg P

    2013-01-10

    The development of assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer (ET), artificial insemination (AI) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) in South American camelids is considerably behind that of other livestock species. Poor success of the embryo transfer technique has been related to a lack of an effective superstimulatory treatment, low embryo recovery rate, and the recovery of hatched blastocysts that are not conducive to the cryopreservation process. Superstimulation has been attempted using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) during the luteal, or the sexually receptive phase, sometimes given at follicular wave emergence. The rationale for inducing a luteal phase prior to or during superstimulation in camelids is not clearly understood, but it may simply reflect an empirical bias to conventional methods used in other ruminants. The number of ovulations or CL varies widely among studies, ranging from 2 to more than 15 per animal, with the number of transferable embryos ranging from 0 to 4 per animal. The control of follicular growth combined with superstimulatory protocols has resulted in a more consistent ovarian response and a greater number of follicles available for aspiration and oocyte collection. Recent studies in llamas have demonstrated that the use of ovulation inducing treatments or follicle ablation can synchronize follicular wave emergence allowing the initiation of gonadotropin treatment in the absence of a dominant follicle resulting in a more consistent ovulatory response. Few studies in alpacas have been reported, but it appears from recent field studies that the ovarian response is more variable and that there is a greater number of poor responders than in llamas. A review of superstimulation protocols that have been used in llamas and alpacas in the last 15 years is provided, including a discussion of the potential of protocols designed to initiate treatment at specific stages of follicular

  9. The effects of pregnancy on the cardiovascular response to acute systemic isocapnic hypoxia in conscious sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellyman, J K; Gardner, D S; Edwards, C M B; Fowden, A L; Giussani, D A

    2005-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pregnancy affects the cardiovascular responses to hypoxia by altering the outputs of the peripheral components of the stress system and independent of changes in P(a)CO(2). Comparison of cardiovascular and endocrine responses to acute isocapnic hypoxia between pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. Experimental laboratory. Fifteen pregnant (118 days of gestation; term is ca. 145 days) and 8 non-pregnant sheep. Chronically instrumented pregnant and non-pregnant ewes were subjected to 1 hour normoxia, 1 hour of acute systemic isocapnic hypoxia and 1 hour recovery. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate, femoral blood flow and femoral vascular conductance were recorded continuously throughout and arterial blood samples were taken during normoxia, hypoxia and recovery for the measurement of blood gas, metabolic and endocrine status. Basal blood pressure and blood glucose and lactate concentrations were lower in pregnant animals (P pressure and sustained tachycardia without significant changes in femoral haemodynamics. Pregnancy attenuated the cardiovascular response, significantly diminishing the magnitude of the increment in heart rate throughout the hypoxic challenge (P blood metabolites or in plasma concentrations of any stress hormone measured in either pregnant or non-pregnant animals. Pregnancy not only affects basal but also stimulated cardiovascular function in the mother. The diminished chronotropic response to hypoxia in pregnancy is mediated via mechanisms independent of changes in P(a)CO(2) or in plasma concentrations of hormones or metabolites associated with activation of the stress system.

  10. Short-term effects of humidification devices on respiratory pattern and arterial blood gases during noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellouche, François; Pignataro, Claudia; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Girou, Emmanuelle; Deye, Nicolas; Taillé, Solenne; Fischler, Marc; Brochard, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    The impact of humidification devices on ventilatory and arterial blood gases parameters during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the short-term impact of heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) and heated humidifiers (HHs) during NIV for either hypercapnic or hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. Consecutive subjects receiving NIV were successively treated with HME and HH in randomized order for 30 min each. At the end of each period, arterial blood gases were measured and ventilatory parameters were recorded. Eighty-one subjects were enrolled, of whom 52 were hypercapnic (with or without acidosis) and 29 hypoxemic. Minute ventilation was greater with the HME, in comparison with the HH (15 [12-18] vs 12 [10-16] median [interquartile range], P < .001), while P(aCO(2)) was increased when using HME, indicating a dead space effect. This effect was observed in all subjects, but was more pronounced in hypercapnic subjects (P(aCO(2)) 62 ± 17 mm Hg with HME vs 57 ± 14 with HH, P < .001). In a subgroup of 19 subjects with respiratory acidosis, alveolar hypoventilation improved only with the HH. The amplitude of the dead space impact was a function of the degree of hypercapnia. Use of an HME decreased CO(2) elimination during NIV, despite increased minute ventilation, especially in hypercapnic subjects.

  11. Dynamic CO₂ inhalation: a novel treatment for CSR-CSA associated with CHF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhi Hui; Wen, Fang Jing; Hu, Ke

    2013-05-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) is very common in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). A current concept of the key pathophysiological mechanism leading to CSR-CSA is a fluctuation of PaCO2 below and above the apneic threshold. A number of therapeutic approaches for CSR-CSA have been proposed-all with varying success, some of which include various modes of positive airway pressure among other strategies. However, CO2 oscillations seen in CSR-CSA have yet to be looked at as a specific therapeutic target by current treatments. Previous studies have shown that delivery of constant CO2 is efficacious in eliminating CSR-CSA by raising PaCO2, but there are serious concerns about the potential side effects, such as unwanted elevations in ventilation, work of breathing, and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), and consequently CO2 inhalation therapy has not been recommended as a routine option for therapy. However, recent new studies into CO2 inhalation therapy have been made that may reshape its role as therapeutic. In this review, we will focus on the recent developments of administration of dynamic CO2 in the management of CSR-CSA in CHF patients.

  12. Sevoflurane Therapy for Severe Refractory Bronchospasm in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Alba; Mencía, Santiago; Llorente, Ana M; Cruz, Jaime; Toledo, Blanca; Ordóñez, Olga; Olmedilla, Marta; Lopez-Herce, Jesus

    2016-08-01

    To describe the effect of inhaled sevoflurane in the treatment of severe refractory bronchospasm in children. Retrospective case series. Two PICUs of tertiary general university hospitals in Spain. Ten patients ranging from 5 months to 14 years old with severe bronchospasm and acute respiratory failure requiring tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation and treated with sevoflurane from 2008 to 2015. Inhaled sevoflurane therapy was initiated after failure of conventional medical management and mechanical ventilation. In two patients, sevoflurane was administered through a Servo 900C ventilator (Maquet, Bridgewater, NJ) equipped with a vaporizer and in the other eight patients via the Anesthetic Conserving Device (AnaConDa; Sedana medical, Uppsala, Sweden) with a critical care ventilator. Inhaled sevoflurane resulted in statistically significant decreases of PaCO2 of 34.2 torr (95% CI, 8.3-60), peak inspiratory pressure of 14.3 cm H2O (95% CI, 8.6-19.9), and improvement in pH of 0.17 (0.346-0.002) within 6 hours of administration. Only one patient presented hypotension responsive to volume administration at the beginning of the treatment. All patients could be extubated within a median time of 120 hours (interquartile range, 46-216). Inhaled sevoflurane therapy decreases the levels of PaCO2 and peak inspiratory pressure values, and it may be considered as a rescue therapy in patients with life-threatening bronchospasm refractory to conventional therapy.

  13. Effect of breathing fluctuations on cerebral blood flow in demented patients and its correction method using end-tidal CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatani, Akio; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Kera, Masahiro; Takanashi, Toshiyasu; Shinohara, Masao; Kawakatsu, Shinobu; Yazaki, Mitsuyasu

    1989-01-01

    During mouthpiece respiration of Xe-133 for a measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), the breathing pattern of patients fluctuated and it caused a change of end-tidal CO 2 concentration that had an excellent correlation with PaCO 2 in patients without respiratory disease. The end-tidal CO 2 concentration of demented patients varied within lower ranges than senile control group. The range of fluctuation on the end-tidal CO 2 concentration was dependent on the type and the degree of dementia, and it fluctuated most widely at the middle stage of Alzheimer disease. Mean cerebral blood flow increased by 13.9% for each l% increase in end-tidal CO 2 concentration (3.6%/mmHg PaCO 2 ) in the case of demented patients without cerebrovascular disease. To improve the reliability of rCBF in demented patients, especially in Alzheimer disease, the correction of rCBF data for end-tidal CO 2 concentration should be performed. (author)

  14. [Obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: is there an association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douik El Gharbi, Leila; Ismail, Imene; Dhahri, Besma; Ben Ammar, Jihene; Baccar, Mohamed Ali; Azzabi, Saloua; Aouina, Hichem; Zouari, Bechir; Bouacha, Hend

    2011-01-01

    Severe obesity sometimes leads to a chronic alveolar hypoventilation: obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), (Pao245mmHG and body mass index (BMI)>30Kg/m2). The association with an OSAS is frequent. To assess predicting factors that lead to hypoventilation in a population of obese patients with SAS and to deduct the type of association between OHS and SAS. We have study during 4 years, at pneumology service of Charles Nicolle hospital, 62 obese patients (BMI>30Kg /m2), 41men and 21 women and presenting an OSAS. We excluded those carriers of a bronchial obstruction (VEMS/CV 40) in 77.8% of patients of the G1 with significant difference with the G2 (P=0.004). We noted that there is a positive interrelationship between BMI and Paco2. We identified severe gazométrique perturbation in G1 (Pao2 medium = 61± 9 mmHg,Paco2 medium=50 ± 7 mmHg), in the G2 we noted a moderate hypoxemia. Patients of the group1 make of the minimal desaturation of 63 ± 17% and a Sao2 average of 81 ± 20% what is meaningfully more important than in the G2. The alveolar hypoventilation in SAS seems to be in correlation with the degree of obesity. The hypercapnie in the OHS is in relation neither with the SAOS nor with its severity. The OHSSAS association is usual but not synonym; the OHS is an autonomous disease.

  15. Endovascular vein harvest: systemic carbon dioxide absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andrew M; Schwartz, Carl S; Bert, Arthur; Hurlburt, Peter; Gough, Jeffrey; Stearns, Gary; Singh, Arun K

    2006-06-01

    Endovascular vein harvest (EDVH) requires CO(2) insufflation to expand the subcutaneous space, allowing visualization and dissection of the saphenous vein. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of CO(2) absorption during EDVH. Prospective observational study. Single tertiary care hospital. Sixty patients (30 EDVH and 30 open-vein harvest) undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Hemodynamic, procedural, and laboratory data were collected prior to (baseline), during, and at it the conclusion (final) of vein harvesting. Data were also collected during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Data were compared by using t tests, analysis of variance, and correlation statistics when needed. There were significant increases in arterial CO(2) (PaCO(2), 35%) and decreases in pH (1.35%) during EDVH. These were associated with increases in heart rate, mean blood pressure, and cardiac output. Within the EDVH group, greater elevations (>10 mmHg) in PaCO2 were more likely during difficult harvest procedures, and these patients exhibited greater increase in heart rate. Elevated CO(2) persisted during CPB, requiring higher systemic gas flows and greater use of phenylephrine to maintain desired hemodynamics. EDVH was associated with systemic absorption of CO(2). Greater absorption was more likely in difficult procedures and was associated with greater hemodynamic changes requiring medical therapy.

  16. Urea sanguinea:Causes de error en La tecnica Montoya. Tecnica de Leibaf! y Kahn con la modificación de Kolmer

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    Alejandro Meléndez

    1939-10-01

    Full Text Available Causas de error en la técnica Montoya. Técnica de Leiboff y Kahn con la modificación de Kolmer. Sabido es por  todos, que la técnica de don Paco Montoya se basa en el desprendimiento gasométrico, el cual debe estar de acuerdo con la ley de los gases perfectos. Los valores presión y temperatura, son básicos en esta ley y son factores considerados siempre como variables, aun en un mismo lugar. El aparato de don Paco, no cs de una precision satisfactoria, aunque para su manejo se cuente con la pericia del operador. Los escapes son frecuentes y en muchas ocnsiones herncs visto ascender la columna de liquido, cuando normalmente debía descender. Y si a esto sumamos el insospechable error que trae consigo la temperatura de la mano que ha de egitar el frasco, tendremos a nuestra vista una nueva causa de error.

  17. [Clinical effects of different ways of mechanical ventilation combined with pulmonary surfactant in treatment of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome in neonates: a comparative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming; Lu, Hong-Yan; Xiang, Hong; Lan, Hou-Ping

    2016-11-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation+pulmonary surfactant (HFOV+PS), conventional mechanical ventilation+pulmonary surfactant (CMV+PS), and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) alone for acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in neonates. A total of 136 neonates with ALI/ARDS were enrolled, among whom 73 had ALI and 63 had ARDS. They were divided into HFOV+PS group (n=45), CMV+PS group (n=53), and CMV group (n=38). The neonates in the first two groups were given PS at a dose of 70-100 mg/kg. The partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 ), PaO 2 /fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO 2 ), oxygenation index (OI), and respiratory index (RI) were measured at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours of mechanical ventilation. At 12, 24, and 48 hours of mechanical ventilation, the HFOV+PS group had higher PaO 2 and lower PaCO 2 than the CMV+PS and CMV groups (Pmechanical ventilation, the HFOV+PS group had higher PaO 2 /FiO 2 and lower OI and RI than the CMV+PS and CMV groups (Pmechanical ventilation and oxygen use than the CMV+PS and CMV groups (Pmechanical ventilation and oxygen use compared with CMV+PS and CMV alone. It does not increase the incidence of complications.

  18. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

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    Evans Alina L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 2 5.5-8 kPa. All moose were acidemic (ph2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa. Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen.

  19. Clinical Predictors of Intensive Care Unit Admission for Asthmatic Children

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    Mohammad Hasan Kargar Maher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionChildren with severe asthma attack are a challenging group of patients who could be difficult to treat and leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Asthma attack severity is qualitatively estimated as mild, moderate and severe attacks and respiratory failure based on conditions such as respiration status, feeling of dyspnea, and the degree of unconsciousness. part of which are subjective rather than objective. We investigated clinical findings as predictors of severe attack and probable requirement for Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU admission.Materials and MethodsIn a cross sectional and analytical study 120 patients with asthma attack were enrolled from April 2010 to April 2014 (80 admitted in the ward and 40 in pediatric intensive care unit. Predictors of PICU admission were investigated regarding to initial heart rate(HR, respiratory rate (RR, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(SaO2 and PaCo2 and clinically evident cyanosis.ResultsInitial heart rate(p-value=0.02, respiratory rate (p-value=0.03, Arterial Oxygen Saturation(p-value=0.02 and PaCo2(p-value=0.03 and clinically evident cyanosis were significantly different in two groups(Ward admitted and PICU admittedConclusion There was a significant correlation between initial vital sign and blood gas analysis suggesting usefulness of these factors as predictors of severe asthma attack and subsequent clinical course.

  20. Regulation of acid-base status in ectothermic vertebrates: the consequences for oxygen pressures in lung gas and arterial blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, M L; Soncini, R

    1995-01-01

    Extensive literature reports a negative delta pHa/delta t in ectothermic vertebrates, but data are scarce as to its consequences for O2 transport. In reptiles, the negative delta pHa/delta t results from an elevated lung gas PCO2 (PACO2) at higher temperatures, implying a corresponding fall of PAO2. In parallel, arterial PO2 rises with temperature, due to a combination of central vascular shunt and decreasing Hb.O2 affinity. As a result, the PO2 gradient between lung gas and blood (PA-aO2) becomes reduced at higher temperatures. In amphibians, the negative delta pHa/delta t results from combined cutaneous and pulmonary CO2 elimination. We propose that this leads to a rather temperature-independent lung gas PO2. Moreover, our calculations suggest that resting reptiles and amphibians maintain a relatively large PA-aO2 also at high temperatures. The negative delta pHa/delta t in teleost fish is generally considered to be a result of modulated plasma [HCO3-]. Recent data from our laboratory suggest that acute pH adjustments at high temperatures may involve alterations of PaCO2 through gill ventilation, leading to a decrease of PaO2 with rising temperature.

  1. Comparison of helmet and facial mask during noninvasive ventilation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özlem, Çakir Gürbüz; Ali, Alagöz; Fatma, Ulus; Mehtap, Tunç; Şaziye, Şahin

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) is an approach to prevent complications in acute respiratory failure. In this study we aimed to compare the efficacy of a full face mask and a helmet in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fifty patients were divided randomly into 2 groups as full face mask (Group F) and helmet (Group H). Demographic data, forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), additional disease, hemodynamic parameters, respiratory rate, APACHE II score, peripheral O2 saturation (SpO2), arterial blood gases (ABG), patient tolerance scale (PTS) score, and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiG2) were recorded. Parameters were recorded as follows: 20 min before the NIMV; every 30 min of NIMV until 120 min; 30 min, 24 h, and 48 h after NIMV; and prior to intensive care unit discharge. The SpO2, PTS, ABG, complication rate, and APACHE II scores were not different between the groups (P > 0.05). The decrease in PaCO2 was statistically significant at 60 min in Group F (P masks are efficient in improving the patients' outcome in COPD, but the decrease in PaCO2in the helmet group was slower than in the full face mask group.

  2. Tidal Volume Requirement in Mechanically Ventilated Infants with Meconium Aspiration Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saumya; Clark, Shane; Abubakar, Kabir; Keszler, Martin

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that increased physiologic dead space and functional residual capacity seen in meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) results in higher tidal volume (VT) requirement to achieve adequate ventilation. Retrospective review of infants with MAS admitted to our hospital from 2000 to 2010 managed with conventional ventilation. Demographics, ventilator settings, VT, respiratory rate (RR), and blood gas values were recorded. Minute ventilation (MV) was calculated as RR × VT. Only VT values with corresponding partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Paco 2) between 35 and 60 mm Hg were included. Mean VT/kg and MV/kg were calculated for each patient. Forty infants ventilated for lung disease other than MAS or pulmonary hypoplasia served as controls. Birth weights of the 28 MAS patients and 40 control infants were similar (3,330 ± 500 g and 3,300 ± 640 g). Two patients in each group required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Infants with MAS required 26% higher VT and 42% higher MV compared with controls to maintain equal Paco 2. Infants with MAS require larger VT and higher total MV to achieve similar alveolar ventilation, consistent with pathophysiology of MAS. Our findings provide the first reference data to guide selection of VT in infants with MAS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. EVALUATION OF BLOOD GAS VALUES IN ANESTHETIZED SOUTHERN WHITE RHINOCEROS ( CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) VENTILATED WITH A NOVEL DEMAND VENTILATOR IN A ZOOLOGICAL PARK SETTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mark; Mama, Khursheed R; Zuba, Jeffrey R; Lamberski, Nadine; Oosterhuis, James E; Clancy, Meredith M; Delk, Katie W; Kinney, Matthew E; Morris, Patrick J; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2017-12-01

    Rhinoceros conservation efforts are essential to the survival of the species. One such effort is focused on using advanced reproductive technologies to produce viable northern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum cottoni) embryos for implantation into southern white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum simum) surrogates. Anesthesia may be required to facilitate necessary procedures in these surrogate rhinoceros, but commonly reported side effects including hypercapnia and hypoxemia limit anesthetic recumbency time due to animal safety concerns. Although many interventions have been attempted, success in improving these physiologic parameters to date is mixed. The objective of this report is to describe arterial pH (pHa), blood gas (PaO 2 and PaCO 2 ), bicarbonate, base excess, lactate, and cardiovascular (heart rate, direct arterial blood pressure) values recorded in seven intubated and ventilated female southern white rhinoceros anesthetized for reproductive examinations in a zoological park setting. Anesthetic induction was accomplished using etorphine, medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam. The primary hypotheses were that PaO 2 and PaCO 2 would improve after intubation and mechanical ventilation. Induction and recovery observations were also summarized. Physiologic and laboratory data were analyzed using a mixed linear regression model using ranks. Statistical significance was set at P white rhinoceros.

  4. Apneic oxygenation combined with extracorporeal arteriovenous carbon dioxide removal provides sufficient gas exchange in experimental lung injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Dalsgaard; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Nielsen, Jakob Koefoed

    Background and aim of study We hypothesized that continuous high airway pressure without ventilatory movements (apneic oxygenation), using an open lung approach, combined with extracorporeal, pumpless, arterio-venous, carbon dioxide (CO2) removal would provide adequate gas exchange in acute lung...... in an arteriovenous shunt for CO2 removal. Cardiac output (CO), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and the arteriovenous shunt flow were continuously monitored. PaO2, PaCO2 and pH were obtained every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours.   Results and discussion PaO2 was 61 (53-66) kPa (median and IQR) throughout the experiment....... The O2 uptake via the lungs was 185 (164-212) mL/min, whereas the O2 uptake via the Novalung was 4 (0-11) mL/min. PaCO2 increased exponentially towards a maximum value just below 8 kPa. The CO2 removal via the Novalung was 178 (148-178) mL/min and pH was 7.35 (7.33-7.37) during the experiment. CO was 8...

  5. Avoiding invasive mechanical ventilation by extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal in patients failing noninvasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Stefan; Braune, Stephan A; Engel, Markus; Nierhaus, Axel; Frings, Daniel; Ebelt, Henning; Uhrig, Alexander; Metschke, Maria; Wegscheider, Karl; Suttorp, Norbert; Rousseau, Simone

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate whether extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal by means of a pumpless extracorporeal lung-assist (PECLA) device could be an effective and safe alternative to invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and acute hypercapnic ventilatory failure not responding to noninvasive ventilation (NIV). In this multicentre, retrospective study, 21 PECLA patients were compared with respect to survival and procedural outcomes to 21 matched controls with conventional invasive mechanical ventilation. Matching criteria were underlying diagnosis, age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II and pH at ICU admission. Of the 21 patients treated with PECLA, 19 (90 %) did not require intubation. Median PaCO(2) levels and pH in arterial blood prior to PECLA were 84.0 mmHg (54.2-131.0) and 7.28 (7.10-7.41), respectively. Within 24 h, median PaCO(2) levels and pH had significantly improved to 52.1 (33.0-70.1; p carbon dioxide removal allowed avoiding intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation in the majority of patients with acute on chronic respiratory failure not responding to NIV. Compared to conventional invasive ventilation, short- and long-term survivals were similar.

  6. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

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    Lorgio Verdi Olivares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  7. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgio Verdi-Olivares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con  tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  8. Noninvasive Assisted Ventilation in Pulmonary Gas Exchange Dysfunctions in Cardiac Surgical Patients

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    V. N. Poptsov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Postextubation pulmonary gas exchange dysfunctions are a potential complication in the activation of cardio-surgical patients in the early periods after surgical intervention. Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of noninvasive assisted ventilation (NIAV as a method for correcting the pulmonary gas exchange disturbances developing after early activation of cardiosurgical patients. Subjects and methods. The study included 64 patients (36 males and 28 females aged 21 to 72 (54±2 years who had been operated on under extracorporeal circulation (EC. The duration of EC and myocardial ischemia was 104±6 and 73±4 min, respectively. The indications for NIAV were the clinical manifestations of acute respiratory failure (ARF and/or PaCO2>50 mm Hg and/or PaO2/FiO2Results. During NIAV, there was improvement (p<0.05 of lung oxygenizing function (the increase in PaO2/FiO2 was 23%, a reduction in Qs/Qt from 21.1±1.9 to 13.9±1.0% (p<0.05. NIAV was accompanied by a decrease in PaCO2 (p<0.05. Hypercapnia regressed in 7 patients with isolated lung ventilatory dysfunction (PaCO2>50 mm Hg an hour after initiation of NIAV. During and after NIAV, there were reductions in right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary pressure, indexed total pulmonary vascular resistance (ITPVR (p<0.05. Prior to, during, and following NIAV, mean blood pressure, cardiac index, and indexed total pulmonary vascular resstance did not change greatly. In hypercapnia, the duration of NIAV was significantly less than that in lung oxygenizing function (2.8±0.2 hours versus 4.7±0.5 hours. That of ICU treatment was 23±4 hours. Fifty-two (81% patients were transferred from ICUs to cardiosurgical units on the following day after surgery. Conclusion. In most cases, NIAV promotes a rapid and effective correction of postextubation lung ventilatory and oxygenizing dysfunctions occurring after early activation of cardiosurgical patients. Key words: non-invasive assisted ventilation, early

  9. [Value of transcutaneous monitoring of CO2 pressure in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep and breathing disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanan; Dong, Xiaosong; Zhou, Wei; Li, Jing; An, Pei; Zhao, Long; Gao, Zhancheng; Han, Fang

    2014-02-18

    To evaluate the clinical value of transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO2) measurement during sleep respiratory monitoring. A total of 29 patients were prospectively recruited. Their age range was (49.5 ± 12.9) years and body mass index (BMI) (28.2 ± 3.6) kg/m(2). All of them underwent polysomnography (PSG) at Sleep Center, Peking University People's Hospital during the period of January-August 2013. TcPCO2 signal was entered into PSG systems and TcPCO2 (TCM4, Radiometer,Demark) measured simultaneously. Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis for arterial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) was undertaken to validate TcPCO2 measurement. The data were statistically analyzed by Pearson's product-moment correlation. Dynamic change of TcPCO2 was monitored during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages. The effect of noninvasive positive airway pressure ventilation (NPPV) treatment on TcPCO2 during sleep was also observed. TcPCO2 (44.2 ± 4.0) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) was highly correlated with PaCO2 (43.2 ± 4.7) mmHg (Pearson's correlation, r = 0.896, P = 0.000), TcPCO2 (45.8 ± 5.4) mmHg level during wakefulness correlated significantly with that during N1, N2, N3 and REM sleep stages (r = 0.658, 0.871, 0.898,0.775; P = 0.009, 0.000, 0.003, 0.000). TcPCO2 levels during different sleep stages were all higher than that of wakefulness.However, TcPCO2 levels did not differ between two sleep stages. During both NREM and REM, elevated TcPCO2 returned to the level during wakefulness on NPPV treatment. Continuous monitoring of PCO2 is well-tolerated during PSG testing. And the signal is stable. During whole night sleep, TcPCO2 monitoring provides more accurate and clinically acceptable estimation of PaCO2 so that it helps to titrate the NPPV pressure levels.

  10. Hemometabolismo cerebral: variações na fase aguda do coma traumático

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALCÃO ANTONIO L. E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as interrelações entre as alterações hemometabólicas cerebrais e sistêmicas em pacientes com traumatismo craniencefálico (TCE grave submetidos a um protocolo terapêutico padronizado. DESENHO: estudo prospectivo, intervencionista em pacientes com coma traumático. LOCAL: uma UTI geral em hospital universitário. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: vinte e sete pacientes (21M e 6F, idade 14-58 anos, com TCE grave, com três a oito pontos na escala de coma de Glasgow, foram avaliados prospectivamente segundo um protocolo cumulativo padronizado para tratamento da hipertensão intracraniana aguda, o qual incluía medidas rotineiras da pressão intracraniana (PIC e da extração cerebral de oxigênio (ECO2. Foram analisadas as interrelações hemometabólicas envolvendo: pressão arterial média (PAM, PIC, pressão parcial de gás carbônico arterial (PaCO2, ECO2, pressão de perfusão cerebral (PPC e extração sistêmica de oxigênio (ESO2. INTERVENÇÕES: apenas as padronizadas no protocolo terapêutico. RESULTADOS: não houve correlação entre a ECO2 e a PPC (r = -0,07; p = 0,41. Houve correlação inversa entre a PaCO2 e a ECO2 (r = -0,24; p = 0,005 e direta entre a ESO2 e a ECO2 (r = 0,24; p = 0,01. A mortalidade geral dos pacientes foi de 25,9% (7/27. CONCLUSÃO: 1 a PPC não se correlaciona com a ECO2 em quaisquer níveis de PIC; 2 a ECO2 está estreitamente relacionada aos diferentes níveis de PaCO2 ; e 3 durante a hiperventilação otimizada existe um acoplamento entre a ECO2 e a ESO2.

  11. Association of hypercapnia on admission with increased length of hospital stay and severity in patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective observational study from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Nousheen; Irfan, Muhammad; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar; Awan, Safia; Khan, Javaid A

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether the presence of hypercapnia on admission in adult patients admitted to a university-based hospital in Karachi, Pakistan with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) correlates with an increased length of hospital stay and severity compared with no hypercapnia on admission. A prospective observational study. Tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. The severity of pneumonia was assessed by CURB-65 and PSI scores. An arterial blood gas analysis was obtained within 24 hours of admission. Based on arterial PaCO 2 levels, patients were divided into three groups: hypocapnic (PaCO 2 45 mm Hg) and normocapnic (PaCO 2 <35-45 mm Hg). The primary outcome was the association of hypercapnia on admission with mean length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were the need for mechanical ventilation, ICU admission and in-hospital mortality. A total of 295 patients of mean age 60.20±17.0 years (157 (53.22%) men) were enrolled over a 1-year period. Hypocapnia was found in 181 (61.35%) and hypercapnia in 57 (19.32%) patients. Hypercapnic patients had a longer hospital stay (mean 9.27±7.57 days), increased requirement for non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV) on admission (n=45 (78.94%)) and longer mean time to clinical stability (4.39±2.0 days) compared with the other groups. Overall mortality was 41 (13.89%), but there was no statistically significant difference in mortality (p=0.35) and ICU admission (p=0.37) between the three groups. On multivariable analysis, increased length of hospital stay was associated with NIMV use, ICU admission, hypercapnia and normocapnia. Hypercapnia on admission is associated with severity of CAP, longer time to clinical stability, increased length of hospital stay and need for NIMV. It should be considered as an important criterion to label the severity of the illness and also a determinant of patients who will require a higher level of hospital

  12. Optimal Clinical Time for Reliable Measurement of Transcutaneous CO2 with Ear Probes: Counterbalancing Overshoot and the Vasodilatation Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Christian; Canturri, Elisa; Moreno, Amalia; Espuelas, Humildad; Vigil, Laura; Luján, Manel

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal clinical reading time for the transcutaneous measurement of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and transcutaneous CO2 (TcPCO2) in awake spontaneously breathing individuals, considering the overshoot phenomenon (transient overestimation of arterial PaCO2). EXPERIMENTAL SECTION: Observational study of 91 (75 men) individuals undergoing forced spirometry, measurement of SpO2 and TcPCO2 with the SenTec monitor every two minutes until minute 20 and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Overshoot severity: (a) mild (0.1–1.9 mm Hg); (b) moderate (2–4.9 mm Hg); (c) severe: (>5 mm Hg). The mean difference was calculated for SpO2 and TcPCO2 and arterial values of PaCO2 and SpO2. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between monitor readings and blood values was calculated as a measure of agreement. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.1 ± 11.8 years. Spirometric values: FVC: 75.4 ± 6.2%; FEV1: 72.9 ± 23.9%; FEV1/FVC: 70 ± 15.5%. ABG: PaO2: 82.6 ± 13.2; PaCO2: 39.9.1 ± 4.8 mmHg; SaO2: 95.3 ± 4.4%. Overshoot analysis: overshoot was mild in 33 (36.3%) patients, moderate in 20 (22%) and severe in nine (10%); no overshoot was observed in 29 (31%) patients. The lowest mean differences between arterial blood gas and TcPCO2 was −0.57 mmHg at minute 10, although the highest ICC was obtained at minutes 12 and 14 (>0.8). The overshoot lost its influence after minute 12. For SpO2, measurements were reliable at minute 2. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal clinical reading measurement recommended for the ear lobe TcPCO2 measurement ranges between minute 12 and 14. The SpO2 measurement can be performed at minute 2. PMID:22315552

  13. Optimal Clinical Time for Reliable Measurement of Transcutaneous CO2 with Ear Probes: Counterbalancing Overshoot and the Vasodilatation Effect

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    Manel Luján

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the optimal clinical reading time for the transcutaneous measurement of oxygen saturation (SpO and transcutaneous CO2 (TcPCO2 in awake spontaneously breathing individuals, considering the overshoot phenomenon (transient overestimation of arterial PaCO2. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION: Observational study of 91 (75 men individuals undergoing forced spirometry, measurement of SpO2 and TcPCO2 with the SenTec monitor every two minutes until minute 20 and arterial blood gas (ABG analysis. Overshoot severity: (a mild (0.1–1.9 mm Hg; (b moderate (2–4.9 mm Hg; (c severe: (>5 mm Hg. The mean difference was calculated for SpO2 and TcPCO2 and arterial values of PaCO2 and SpO2. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC between monitor readings and blood values was calculated as a measure of agreement. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.1 ± 11.8 years. Spirometric values: FVC: 75.4 ± 6.2%; FEV1: 72.9 ± 23.9%; FEV1/FVC: 70 ± 15.5%. ABG: PaO2: 82.6 ± 13.2; PaCO2: 39.9.1 ± 4.8 mmHg; SaO2: 95.3 ± 4.4%. Overshoot analysis: overshoot was mild in 33 (36.3% patients, moderate in 20 (22% and severe in nine (10%; no overshoot was observed in 29 (31% patients. The lowest mean differences between arterial blood gas and TcPCO2 was –0.57 mmHg at minute 10, although the highest ICC was obtained at minutes 12 and 14 (>0.8. The overshoot lost its influence after minute 12. For SpO2, measurements were reliable at minute 2. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal clinical reading measurement recommended for the ear lobe TcPCO2 measurement ranges between minute 12 and 14. The SpO2 measurement can be performed at minute 2.

  14. Neuroleptic-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Francisco Garcia Soriano

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and acute respiratory distress syndrome is presented and discussed with emphasis on the role of muscle relaxation, creatine kinase, and respiratory function tests. CASE REPORT: A 41-year-old man presented right otalgia and peripheral facial paralysis. A computed tomography scan of the skull showed a hyperdense area, 2 cm in diameter, in the pathway of the anterior intercommunicating cerebral artery. Preoperative examination revealed: pH 7.4, PaCO2 40 torr, PaO2 80 torr (room air, Hb 13.8 g/dl, blood urea nitrogen 3.2 mmol/l, and creatinine 90 mmol/l. The chest x-ray was normal. The patient had not eaten during the 12-hour period prior to anesthesia induction. Intravenous halothane, fentanyl 0.5 mg and droperidol 25 mg were used for anesthesia. After the first six hours, the PaO2 was 65 torr (normal PaCO2 with FiO2 50% (PaO2/FiO2 130, and remained at this level until the end of the operation 4 hours later, maintaining PaCO2 at 35 torr. A thrombosed aneurysm was detected and resected, and the ends of the artery were closed with clips. No vasospasm was present. This case illustrates that neuroleptic drugs can cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a disease that is difficult to diagnose. Acute respiratory distress syndrome is another manifestation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome that has not been recognized in previous reports: it may be produced by neuroleptic drugs independent of the manifestation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Some considerations regarding the cause and effect relationship between acute respiratory distress syndrome and neuroleptic drugs are discussed. Intensive care unit physicians should consider the possibility that patients receiving neuroleptic drugs could develop respiratory failure in the absence of other factors that might explain the syndrome.

  15. Variability of Acid-Base Status in Acetate-Free Biofiltration 84% versus Bicarbonate Dialysis

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    Harzallah Kais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of hemodialysis (HD treatment is to achieve the highest level of efficacy in the presence of maximal clinical tolerance. With an aim to offer good hemodynamic stability, as observed during the acetate-free biofiltration 14% (AFB 14% to patients who are intolerant to bicarbonate dialysis (BD and with less cost, we have developed since June 1994, a new HD technique, namely AFB 84%. This study was carried out to analyze acid-base variations during the AFB 84% in comparison to BD in hemodynamically stable patients on regular HD. This was a prospective randomized crossover study carried out on 12 patients (6 males and 6 females for a total of 144 HD sessions (72 BD and 72 AFB 84%. Patients with decompensated cardiomyopathy, respiratory diseases or uncontrolled hypertension were not included in the trial. All the patients were treated with BD or AFB 84%; the latter is characterized by the absence of acetate in the dialysate and a complete correction of buffer balance by post-dilutional infusion of bicarbonate-based replacement solution. The comparison of pre-dialysis arterial acid-base and blood-gas parameters revealed no significant differences of pH, HCO 3 - and paCO 2 levels between the two techniques. Analysis of post-dialysis parameters showed that, among patients dialyzed with BD, there was over correction of metabolic acidosis with a tendency towards metabolic alkalosis. In contrast, in patients dialyzed with AFB 84%, we observed a significant improvement in pH and HCO 3 - levels but the increase in paCO2 level was not significant. A comparison of these parameters between the two techniques showed statistically significant difference in pH, HCO3 - and paCO2 levels, but not for paO2 level. AFB 84% can offer some important advantages with the complete absence of acetate from the substitution fluids, and permits a better correction of metabolic acidosis than BD, without causing alkalosis.

  16. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

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    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  17. Effect of Ginkgo biloba extract in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

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    Zhen-Chun Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb in combined with prednisone on the arterial blood gas and pulmonary function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Methods: A total of 76 patients with IPF who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, bronchodilator agents, phlegm dissipating and asthma relieving, anti-infection, and other supporting treatments. The patients in the control group were orally given prednisone (0.5 mg/ kg.d, continuously for 4 weeks, then in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg.d, continuously for 8 weeks, and finally the dosage was reduced to 0.125 mg/kg.d. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional EGb, i.e. Ginkgo leaf capsule, 1 g/time, 3 times/d, continuously for 12 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated after 12-week treatment. PaO2, PaCO2, P(A-aO2, and SaO2 before and after treatment were detected. FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO before and after treatment were determined. Results: PaO2, PaCO2, and SaO2 after treatment were significantly elevated, while P(A-aO2 was significantly reduced when compared with before treatment. The comparison of PaO2 and P(A-aO2 between the two groups was statistically significant, while the comparison of PaCO2 and SaO2 between the two groups was not statistically significant. After treatment, FVC, FEV1/FVC, MVV, TLC, and DLCO in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. Conclusions: EGb in combined with prednisone in the treatment of IPF can effectively improve the arterial blood gas indicators and pulmonary function, and enhance the patients’ living qualities; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  18. Regulation of phenylacetic acid uptake is sigma54 dependent in Pseudomonas putida CA-3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O' Leary, Niall D

    2011-10-13

    primer extension analysis. Comparative analyses of genomes encoding phenylacetyl CoA, (PACoA), catabolic operons identified a common association among styrene degradation linked PACoA catabolons in Pseudomonas species studied to date. Conclusions In summary, this is the first study to report RpoN dependent transcriptional activation of the PACoA catabolon paaL gene, encoding a transport protein essential for phenylacetic acid utilisation in P. putida CA-3. Bioinformatic analysis is provided to suggest this regulatory link may be common among styrene degrading Pseudomonads.

  19. Long-term effects of oxygen-enriched high-flow nasal cannula treatment in COPD patients with chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure

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    Storgaard LH

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Line Hust Storgaard,1 Hans-Ulrich Hockey,2 Birgitte Schantz Laursen,3,4 Ulla Møller Weinreich1,3 1Department of Respiratory Diseases, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 2Biometrics Matters Limited, Hamilton, New Zealand; 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 4Clinical Nursing Research Unit, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Background: This study investigated the long-term effects of humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC in COPD patients with chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure treated with long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT.Patients and methods: A total of 200 patients were randomized into usual care ± HFNC. At inclusion, acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD and hospital admissions 1 year before inclusion, modified Medical Research Council (mMRC score, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, 6-minute walk test (6MWT and arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 were recorded. Patients completed phone interviews at 1, 3 and 9 months assessing mMRC score and AECOPD since the last contact. At on-site visits (6 and 12 months, mMRC, number of AECOPD since last contact and SGRQ were registered and FEV1, FEV1%, PaCO2 and, at 12 months, 6MWT were reassessed. Hospital admissions during the study period were obtained from hospital records. Hours of the use of HFNC were retrieved from the high-flow device.Results: The average daily use of HFNC was 6 hours/day. The HFNC group had a lower AECOPD rate (3.12 versus 4.95/patient/year, p<0.001. Modeled hospital admission rates were 0.79 versus 1.39/patient/year for 12- versus 1-month use of HFNC, respectively (p<0.001. The HFNC group had improved mMRC scores from 3 months onward (p<0.001 and improved SGRQ at 6 and 12 months (p=0.002, p=0.033 and PaCO2 (p=0.005 and 6MWT (p=0.005 at 12 months. There was no difference in all-cause mortality.Conclusion: HFNC treatment reduced AECOPD, hospital admissions and

  20. Prognostic utility of admission cell-free DNA levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avriel, Avital; Rozenberg, Dmitry; Raviv, Yael; Heimer, Dov; Bar-Shai, Amir; Gavish, Rachel; Sheynin, Jony; Douvdevani, Amos

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations (COPDEs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a novel biomarker associated with clinical outcomes in several disease states but has not been studied in COPD. The objectives of this study were to assess cfDNA levels during a COPDE, to evaluate the association of cfDNA with clinical parameters and to explore the prognostic implications of cfDNA levels on long-term survival. This was an observational study that assessed cfDNA levels in patients admitted to hospital for a COPDE. Plasma cfDNA levels of COPDE patients were compared to those of matched stable COPD patients and healthy controls. Multivariable and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the association of cfDNA levels with blood gas parameters and long-term survival. A total of 62 patients (46 males, forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ] 38%±13%) were included. The median cfDNA levels on admission for COPDE patients was 1,634 ng/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 1,016-2,319) compared to 781 ng/mL (IQR 523-855) for stable COPD patients, matched for age and disease severity, and 352 ng/mL (IQR 209-636) for healthy controls ( P <0.0001, for both comparisons). cfDNA was correlated with partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO 2 , r =0.35) and pH ( r =-0.35), P =0.01 for both comparisons. In a multivariable analysis, PaCO 2 was the only independent predictor of cfDNA. Using a cfDNA level of 1,924 ng/mL (threshold for abnormal PaCO 2 ), those with high levels had a trend for increased 5-year mortality risk adjusted for age, sex and FEV 1 % (hazard ratio 1.92, 95% confidence interval 0.93-3.95, P =0.08). Plasma cfDNA might offer a novel technique to identify COPD patients at increased risk of poor outcomes, but the prognostic utility of this measurement requires further study.

  1. Expression levels of induced sputum IL-8 and IL-10 and drug intervention effects in patients with acute exacerbated COPD complicated with chronic cor pulmonale at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Enzhi; Wan, Ronghua; Yang, Shengyue; Yan, Ziqiang; Wang, Shaolin; He, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Yin, He; Chen, Zongru; Liu, Ruinian

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the expression levels of induced sputum interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-10 levels in patients with acute exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) complicated with chronic cor pulmonale (CCP) at high altitude, and to evaluate the intervention effects of an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and a β 2 -adrenoceptor agonist in this disease. A total of 186 patients with AECOPD complicated with CCP were randomly divided into three groups, with 62 cases in each. With regard to the two treatment groups, group A was treated with salmeterol/fluticasone (50 μg/250 μg, respectively) by airway inhalation twice daily, while group B received budesonide (1 mg) as a spray inhalation, twice daily. The routine treatment group (group C) received only routine treatment. The levels of IL-8 and IL-10 in the induced sputum and the predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1%pred ), partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO 2 ) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO 2 ) were examined on admission and at a stable stage two weeks following treatment. Forty healthy volunteers served as a control group (group D). Compared with group D values, the IL-8 induced sputum level and the PaCO 2 were significantly increased, while the level of IL-10, FEV 1%pred and the PaO 2 were markedly decreased in the three COPD groups prior to treatment. Following treatment, the induced sputum IL-8 level and the PaCO 2 were significantly decreased, while the induced sputum IL-10 level, FEV 1%pred and the PaO 2 were markedly increased in the three treatment groups compared with the values pre-therapy (all P<0.01). The post-treatment parameters were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.01). The results indicate that IL-8 and IL-10 are involved in the airway inflammation of AECOPD complicated by CCP. Treatment with an ICS was demonstrated to be a successful method of reducing the local expression of

  2. The Antiviral Mechanism of an Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein-Specific Single-Domain Antibody Fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanke, Leo; Knockenhauer, Kevin E.; Brewer, R. Camille; van Diest, Eline; Schmidt, Florian I.; Schwartz, Thomas U.; Ploegh, Hidde L. (Whitehead); (MIT)

    2016-12-13

    Alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that target the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) can protect cells from infection when expressed in the cytosol. We found that one such VHH, αNP-VHH1, exhibits antiviral activity similar to that of Mx proteins by blocking nuclear import of incoming viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and viral transcription and replication in the nucleus. We determined a 3.2-Å crystal structure of αNP-VHH1 in complex with influenza A virus NP. The VHH binds to a nonconserved region on the body domain of NP, which has been associated with binding to host factors and serves as a determinant of host range. Several of the NP/VHH interface residues determine sensitivity of NP to antiviral Mx GTPases. The structure of the NP/αNP-VHH1 complex affords a plausible explanation for the inhibitory properties of the VHH and suggests a rationale for the antiviral properties of Mx proteins. Such knowledge can be leveraged for much-needed novel antiviral strategies.

    IMPORTANCEInfluenza virus strains can rapidly escape from protection afforded by seasonal vaccines or acquire resistance to available drugs. Additional ways to interfere with the virus life cycle are therefore urgently needed. The influenza virus nucleoprotein is one promising target for antiviral interventions. We have previously isolated alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that protect cells from influenza virus infection if expressed intracellularly. We show here that one such VHH exhibits antiviral activities similar to those of proteins of the cellular antiviral defense (Mx proteins). We determined the three-dimensional structure of this VHH in complex with the influenza virus nucleoprotein and identified the interaction site, which overlaps regions that determine sensitivity of the virus to Mx proteins. Our data define a new vulnerability of influenza virus, help us to better understand the cellular antiviral mechanisms, and

  3. The Antiviral Mechanism of an Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein-Specific Single-Domain Antibody Fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Leo; Knockenhauer, Kevin E; Brewer, R Camille; van Diest, Eline; Schmidt, Florian I; Schwartz, Thomas U; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2016-12-13

    Alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that target the influenza A virus nucleoprotein (NP) can protect cells from infection when expressed in the cytosol. We found that one such VHH, αNP-VHH1, exhibits antiviral activity similar to that of Mx proteins by blocking nuclear import of incoming viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) and viral transcription and replication in the nucleus. We determined a 3.2-Å crystal structure of αNP-VHH1 in complex with influenza A virus NP. The VHH binds to a nonconserved region on the body domain of NP, which has been associated with binding to host factors and serves as a determinant of host range. Several of the NP/VHH interface residues determine sensitivity of NP to antiviral Mx GTPases. The structure of the NP/αNP-VHH1 complex affords a plausible explanation for the inhibitory properties of the VHH and suggests a rationale for the antiviral properties of Mx proteins. Such knowledge can be leveraged for much-needed novel antiviral strategies. Influenza virus strains can rapidly escape from protection afforded by seasonal vaccines or acquire resistance to available drugs. Additional ways to interfere with the virus life cycle are therefore urgently needed. The influenza virus nucleoprotein is one promising target for antiviral interventions. We have previously isolated alpaca-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that protect cells from influenza virus infection if expressed intracellularly. We show here that one such VHH exhibits antiviral activities similar to those of proteins of the cellular antiviral defense (Mx proteins). We determined the three-dimensional structure of this VHH in complex with the influenza virus nucleoprotein and identified the interaction site, which overlaps regions that determine sensitivity of the virus to Mx proteins. Our data define a new vulnerability of influenza virus, help us to better understand the cellular antiviral mechanisms, and provide a well-characterized tool to

  4. The effectiveness of non-invasive ventilation in management of respiratory failure in Palestine a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baraa Jihad Ibrahim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, physicians have recently attempted to avoid mechanical ventilation (MV as much as possible and have started to use non-invasive ventilation (NIV in patients with respiratory failure. A prospective observational study was conducted to assess the applicability, effectiveness, and safety of NIV in managing patients with respiratory failure in Palestine. Fifty-two patients (39 patients from West Bank and 13 patients from Gaza Strip who fulfilled criteria for inclusion were admitted to the two medical care units of the An-Najah National Teaching Hospital during a 10-month period. These patients formed the study population to receive NIV. The results came with baseline (mean ± SD pH, PaO2, and PaCO2 measurements of 7.36 ± 0.1, 75.62 ± 32.7, and 46.5 ± 20.86 mmHg, respectively. The primary indication for NIV was hypoxemic respiratory failure (n = 38, 73%. The success rate with NIV was 78%, with 40 out of 52 patients weaned successfully. Significant improvements were observed in the first hour following institution of NIV in pH (7.38 ± 0.07, P < 0.001, PaO2 (90.4 ± 52.4, P < 0.001, and PaCO2 (40.4 ± 12.6, P < 0.001. These physiological parameters continued to improve up to the time of weaning: pH (7.39 ± 0.07, P < 0.001, PaO2 (99.9 ± 44.3, P < 0.001, and PaCO2 (38.6 ± 13.9, P < 0.001. The parameters were maintained within 12 h post-weaning: pH (7.39 ± 0.08, P < 0.001, PaO2 (97 ± 30.3, P < 0.001, and PaCO2 (36.9 ± 10.3, P < 0.001. This study has shown benefits of NIV in avoiding the call for invasive MV in patients exhibiting respiratory failure of varied etiology, with similar results comparable to previous studies in developed countries. Thus, increased usage of NIV in respiratory failure is likely to affect favorably in countries with limited resources such as Palestine.

  5. DIÁLOGO SOBRE OS FUNDAMENTOS DA EDUCAÇÃO: RECORTES E DISCUSSÕES, VOL. V

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    Eliane Pimentel Camillo Barra Nova de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A coleção Fundamentos da Educação: Recortes e Discussões chega ao seu quinto volume todos publicados pela Paco Editorial. O presente volume foi lançado em 2015 e contem 406 páginas, escritas por 21 autores, dentre eles graduados, especialistas, mestrandos, mestres, doutorandos, doutores, pós-doutores, todos estudiosos do campo educacional e comprometidos em compreender melhor tal fenômeno. Para isso buscaram, nesta obra, desvendar o pensamento pedagógico dos seguintes estudiosos: Charles Darwin, Herbert Spencer, Édouard Claparède, Adolphe Ferrière, Henri Wallon, Roger Cousinet, Alexander Luria, Alexei Leontiev, Ana Teberosky, Emília Ferreiro, Howard Gardner, Hannah Arendt, Augusto Comte, Émile Durkheim, B.F. Skinner, Lawrence Stenhouse, Anton Makarenko, Florestan Fernandes, Louis Althusser e Michel Foucault.

  6. Effects of the high-flow modified to-and-fro anesthestic system on blood gas and respiratory rate in halothane anesthetized horses Efeitos do sistema anestésico de alto fluxo "to-and-fro" modificado sobre os gases sanguíneos e frequência respiratória em cavalos anestesiados com halotano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten healthy adult horses male or female, mean body weight of 424±44.1kg, were anesthetized with romifidine, tiletamine/zolazepam and halothane for 60 minutes using a modified to-and-fro rebreathing anesthetic system, added of 1 liter mechanical dead space. The gas flow rate was 10 liters oxygen/minute during all inhalation anesthetic time. Variables analysed were arterial blood pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and oxygen partial pressure (PaO2, and respiratory rate (RR. The horses were allowed to breath spontaneously, and were positioned in right lateral recumbency the arterial O2 values were significantly higher during halothane anesthesia when compared to the baseline values, and significantly lower after induction with tiletamine/zolazepam although arterial hypoxemia were not present. The arterial PaCO2 values were significantly higher from baseline values during halothane anesthesia occurring arterial hypercapnia and mild respiratory acidosis. The arterial pH changes paralleled the changes in PaCO2. Respiratory rate values were significantly lower during halothane anesthesia when compared to baseline values. All values remained within accepted range for lateral recumbent spontaneously breathing anesthetized horses.Dez cavalos adultos e sadios machos ou fêmeas, com peso médio de 424±44,1kg, foram anestesiados com romifidina, tiletamina/zolazepam e halotano por 60 minutos, sendo utilizado um sisterna anestésico reinalatório "to-and-fro" modificado pela adição de um litro de espaço morto mecânico. O fluxo de gás diluente foi de 10 litros de O2/minuto durante o período de anestesia com halotano. As variáveis estudadas no sangue arterial foram o pH, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pressão parcial de oxigênio (PO2 e freqüência respiratória (RR. Os cavalos foram mantidos sob respiração espontânea e posicionados em decúbito lateral direito. Os valores arteriais de oxigênio estiveram

  7. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

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    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  8. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve. There also may...

  9. Siivsalt lahendatud Skoone bastion / Karin Paulus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paulus, Karin, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna vanalinnas asuva Skoone bastioni ja sellega külgneva staadioni arendamiseks väljakuulutatud ideekonkursi võidutöödest. Peapreemia sai töö "Glassii" (autorid Maarja Kask, Ralf Lõoke, Karli Luik arhitektuuribüroost Salto). Teise preemia pälvis töö "SK-one" (autorid Timo Subbi, Mihkel Urmet, Taavi Kaldaru arhitektuuribüroost Suburb OÜ). Kolmanda preemia sai töö "Karl XI" (autorid Ott Kadarik, Villem Tomiste, Mihkel Tüür, Paco-Ernest Ulman arhitektuuribüroost Kosmos). Võistlustöödega saab tutvuda Arhitektuuri- ja Disainigaleriis. Harry Liivranna lühike ülevaade Skone bastioni ajaloost

  10. Panorama du roman policier au Mexique

    OpenAIRE

    Lara-Alengrin, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Malgré sa diffusion depuis les années quarante par des collections de poche autochtones, le roman policier fut longtemps, au Mexique, un genre méprisé par la critique et les écrivains. Paco Ignacio Taibo II est le premier écrivain mexicain a légitimer et valoriser le genre policier, en particulier le roman noir, qui connaît simultanément un regain d’intérêt critique et commercial. Ce changement de perception vis-à-vis du roman noir s’accompagne de la création d’un nouveau terme pour le qualif...

  11. Early predictors of success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, D; Prasad, Bnbm; Tampi, P S; Ramprasad, R

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has emerged as a significant advancement in the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring ventilation therapy (respiratory rate [RR] of > 30 breaths per minutes, PaCO2 > 55 mmHg and arterial pH success group and these parameters continued to improve even after four and 24 hours of NIPPV treatment. Out of 24 (24%) patients who failed to respond, 13 (54%) needed endotracheal intubation within one hour. The failure group had higher baseline HR than the success group. Improvement in HR, RR, pH, and PCO2 one hour after putting the patient on NIPPV predicts success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  12. Avaliação da função pulmonar de recém-nascidos com síndrome do desconforto respiratório em diferentes pressões finais expiratórias positivas Assessment of pulmonary function of preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome at different positive end expiratory pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz C.T. Consolo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO\tABSTRACT \t Objetivo: verificar as alterações da função pulmonar: complacência dinâmica (Cdyn, volume corrente inspiratório (V Tinsp, pressão arterial de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2, em recém-nascidos pré-termo com síndrome do desconforto respiratório. Pacientes e Métodos: estudo de caso controle, incluindo 11 pré-termos com idade gestacional Objective: to verify the alterations of pulmonary function in preterm newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. The parameters analyzed were Dynamic Compliance (Cdyn, Inspiratory Tidal Volume (TVinsp, partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2. Methods: eleven preterm newborn infants, with gestational age < 35 weeks, and birth weight < 2.500 g, were include in a control case study. All infants presented RDS and were treated with 120 mg/Kg of porcine surfactant. The initial positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP was 3 cm H2O. A pneumotachograph with a graphical monitor was used to assess the pulmonary function. After each increase in the PEEP (4 and 6 cm H2O, there was an interval of 20 minutes before measuring the arterial data of pulmonary function and arterial gases. Results: there were three males and eight females (1:2,7 among the infants with RDS. The mean gestational age was 30.78. 2.05 weeks, ranging from 26 to 34 weeks. The increase in the PEEP from 3 to 6 cm H2O caused significant decrease in the TVinsp (6.46 ±3.43 to 4.20 ±2.35, P=0.0262. With the increase in the PEEP from 4 to 6 cm H2O, there was also a decrease in the TVinsp (5.98.± 3.33 to 4.20.± 2.35, (P=0.0044. Regarding the Cdyn, when there was an increase in the PEEP from 3 to 6 cm H2O, the reduction was statistically significant (0.58.± 0.27 to 0.46± 0.25, P=0.0408 and from 4 to 6 cm H2O, the reduction in the Cdyn was also important (0.77± 0.27 to 0.46± 0.25, (P=0.0164. Increases in the PEEP from 4 to 6 cm H2O caused increases in the PaCO2 (52.81± 15.49 to 64.90± 12.69, (P= 0,0141. A

  13. Limits of deuterium pressure range with neutron production in plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouzo, J.; Milanese, M.; Piriz, R.; Cortazar, D.; Moroso, R.

    1988-01-01

    In this work we present the experimental curves of neutron yield (Y) respect to the deuterium filling pressure (p) obtained in our plasma focuses device PACO. Y increases with the focus current (I f ) according with the scaling law Y ∼I 4-5 f , but it presents a limited range of p beyond which Y drastically decreases. The higher pressure limit is coincident with recently reported limit due to the energy available to maintain the ionization rate of the neutral gas during the roll-off stage. The lower pressure limit is here explained, through experimental evidences, in terms of a phenomenon connected with the dynamics of the current sheath (cs) during the roll-off stage. (author). 8 refs, 11 figs

  14. Phenylephrine decreases frontal lobe oxygenation at rest but not during moderately intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Seifert, Thomas; Wissenberg, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Whether sympathetic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation remains controversial. The influence of sympathetic activity on CBF and oxygenation was evaluated by the effect of phenylephrine on middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean flow velocity (Vmean) and the near-infrared spect......Whether sympathetic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygenation remains controversial. The influence of sympathetic activity on CBF and oxygenation was evaluated by the effect of phenylephrine on middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean flow velocity (Vmean) and the near...... high-intensity exercise (-3%, P=not significant), where PaCO2 decreased 7% (Preduced ScO2 but that the increased cerebral metabolism needed for moderately intense exercise eliminated that effect....

  15. Myasthenia gravis with acute respiratory failure in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Hasan Huseyin; Uca, Ali Ulvi; Teke, Turgut; Altas, Mustafa; Karatas, Emine

    2016-06-01

    Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is defined as a sudden malfunction in the ability of respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange. Acute hypercapnic respiratory failure develops as a result of ventilation deficiency and it is defined as an increase of PaCO 2 above 45 mmHg. Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a sporadically developing auto-immune deficiency where the neuro-muscular transmission is affected and it is one of the important reasons for neurologically-induced respiratory distress. Here, we report a case of a 75-year-old male patient previously undiagnosed MG, who presented with ARF. MG is not a common entity that we encounter daily. Patients on occasions may present to the emergency department because of acute exacerbation. Though most of them were known cases, we should be aware of some unrecognized cases and should consider MG as a differential diagnosis for patients with acute respiratory failure.

  16. Comparison of extravascular lung water volume with radiographic findings in dogs with experimentally increased permeability pulmonary edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, A.; Okumura, S.; Miyamoto, T.; Hagio, M.; Fujinaga, T.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between extravascular lung water volume (ELWV) and chest radiographical findings was studied in general-anesthetized beagles. The dogs were experimentally injected with oleic acid to increase pulmonary vascular permeability. When the ELWV value in the dogs increased more than approximately 37% from the control value, their chest radiographs began to show signs of pulmonary edema. At this time, the chest X-ray density increased to 10% above the control level. PaO2 decreased, and PaCO2 increased after the administration of oleic acid. This clearly showed that the pulmonary gas exchange function was reduced following increasing ELWV. This comparison showed that probably the thermal-sodium double indicator dilution measurement of ELWV can detect slight hyperpermeability pulmonary edema that does not show on chest radiographs. The chest radiograph was therefore not suitable for the detection of slight pulmonary edema, because it did not show any changes in the early stages in hyperpermeability pulmonary edema

  17. Kinetics of carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, L; Söderberg, D; Henneberg, S

    1986-01-01

    CO2 kinetics during CPR was investigated in 15 anesthetized piglets. BP, blood gases, and acid-base balance were monitored through catheters in the carotid artery and a central vein, as well as in cerebrospinal fluid. Cardiac arrest was induced by a transthoracic direct current shock. CPR was begun......; improved cardiac output during CPR resulted in more efficient tissue CO2 elimination and was associated with increased survival rates. PaCO2 was also somewhat reduced by efficient alveolar hyperventilation. The arterial PCO2 and pH did not reflect the acid-base balance in peripheral tissues. During CPR...... immediately by artificial ventilation and simultaneous external chest compressions. Epinephrine was administered after 8 min of CPR. One group (n = 5) of animals received no buffer treatment while another (n = 5) received an infusion of 75 mmol sodium bicarbonate and a third group (n = 5) received...

  18. Vocal Cord Paralysis and Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure in a Patient with Familial Amyloidotic Polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pıhtılı, Aylin; Bingol, Züleyha; Durmuş, Hacer; Parman, Yeşim; Kıyan, Esen

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a patient case with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) who presented with vocal cord paralysis (VCP). A 60-year-old man with FAP (Gly89Gln) presented with hoarseness and snoring for the previous two years. A chest X-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly and bilateral diaphragmatic elevation. The findings of a restrictive pattern on spirometry and daytime hypercapnia were consistent with respiratory muscle weakness related to neuropathy [forced expiratory volume (FEV1): 38%, forced vital capacity (FVC): 39%, FEV1/FVC: 77, partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2): 80 mmHg, partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2): 52 mmHg]. An ear-nose-throat examination showed VCP. Polysomnography revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). FAP may cause OSA by VCP and hypercapnic respiratory failure by respiratory muscle weakness. Therefore, an ear-nose-throat examination, spirometry, arterial blood gases analysis and polysomnography are important for these patients.

  19. Tidal volume lower than 6 ml/kg enhances lung protection: role of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terragni, Pier Paolo; Del Sorbo, Lorenzo; Mascia, Luciana; Urbino, Rosario; Martin, Erica L; Birocco, Alberto; Faggiano, Chiara; Quintel, Michael; Gattinoni, Luciano; Ranieri, V Marco

    2009-10-01

    Tidal hyperinflation may occur in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome who are ventilated with a tidal volume (VT) of 6 ml/kg of predicted body weight develop a plateau pressure (PPLAT) of 28 carbon dioxide removal. PPLAT, lung morphology computed tomography, and pulmonary inflammatory cytokines (bronchoalveolar lavage) were assessed in 32 patients ventilated with a VT of 6 ml/kg. Data are provided as mean +/- SD or median and interquartile (25th and 75th percentile) range. In patients with 28 carbon dioxide removal. Lung function, morphology, and pulmonary inflammatory cytokines were also assessed after 72 h. Extracorporeal assist normalized Paco2 (50.4 +/- 8.2 mmHg) and pH (7.32 +/- 0.03) and allowed use of VT lower than 6 ml/kg for 144 (84-168) h. The improvement of morphological markers of lung protection and the reduction of pulmonary cytokines concentration (P carbon dioxide removal.

  20. Global INET 2012: Meeting at the Crossroads: Imagining the future Internet

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The Internet Society, the world's trusted independent source of leadership for Internet policy and technology standards, celebrates its 20th anniversary this year in Geneva.   Global INET 2012 will take place at the CICG on 22-24 April to discuss the topics and challenges that will shape the future of the Internet.  This is an excellent opportunity to meet, network with and learn from top Internet technologists, policymakers, business executives and other individuals from around the globe. The conference boasts a programme of over 50 speakers and panelists, all offering their insights into topics such as Internet governance, law, ecosystems, intellectual property, social networking and the link between the Internet and economic transformation. Panelists include Slim Amamou, Lynn St Amour, Vint Cerf, Lesley Cowley, Steve Crocker, Dr. Leonard Kleinrock, and co-founder of the Campus Party Paco Ragageles, as well as CERN Director-G...

  1. Desensitization to dyspnea in COPD with specificity for exercise training mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Cooper

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Christopher B CooperDavid Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exhibit improved exercise capacity after physical training due to reconditioning and improved ventilatory efficiency. Other possible effects are improved ventilatory muscle function and desensitization to dyspnea. We compared general physical training (GPT, consisting of walking and stair climbing exercises, with inspiratory muscle training (IMT, consisting of targeted breathing through inspiratory resistances, in two groups with severe COPD. Seven subjects; age 60 (8 years, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 0.84 (0.35 L, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 11.1 (0.8 kPa, arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 4.9 (0.3 kPa, had GPT and nine subjects; age 60 (9 years, FEV1 0.83 (0.31 L, PaO2 10.4 (0.8 kPa, PaCO2 4.4 (0.5 kPa had IMT. Each group trained daily for 30 minutes for eight weeks and 70% of the sessions were supervised. Six minute walking distance increased in both groups: 32 m (6.9% P < 0.05 with GPT and 23 m (4.8%; P < 0.05 with IMT but significant improvements in symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise performance were not detected. Breathlessness by visual analog scale was reduced following 6-minute walks after GPT (P < 0.05 but not after IMT. Following maximal incremental tests, breathlessness scores were unchanged for both groups. COPD patients performing regular physical exercise report reductions in breathlessness which are specific to the exercise training mode.Keywords: COPD, exercise, ventilatory muscles, dyspnea

  2. Peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine: New insight into mechanisms of extreme apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Hoiland, Ryan L.; Barak, Otto F.; Madden, Dennis; Drvis, Ivan; Stembridge, Mike; MacLeod, David B.; MacLeod, Douglas M.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine on maximal apnea time, and the related hemodynamic and cerebrovascular responses in elite apnea divers. In a randomized order, participants performed a maximal apnea while receiving either intravenous 2 μg·kg−1·min−1 dopamine or volume-matched saline (placebo). The chemoreflex and hemodynamic response to dopamine was also assessed during hypoxia [arterial O2 tension, (PaO2) ∼35 mmHg] and mild hypercapnia [arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) ∼46 mmHg] that mimicked the latter parts of apnea. Outcome measures included apnea duration, arterial blood gases (radial), heart rate (HR, ECG), mean arterial pressure (MAP, intra-arterial), middle (MCAv) and posterior (PCAv) cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial ultrasound), internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral (VA) artery blood flow (ultrasound), and the chemoreflex responses. Although dopamine depressed the ventilatory response by 27 ± 41% (vs. placebo; P = 0.01), the maximal apnea duration was increased by only 5 ± 8% (P = 0.02). The PaCO2 and PaO2 at apnea breakpoint were similar (P > 0.05). When compared with placebo, dopamine increased HR and decreased MAP during both apnea and chemoreflex test (P all apnea and chemoreflex test, conductance of the cerebral vessels (ICA, VA, MCAv, PCAv) was increased with dopamine; however, flow (ICA and VA) was similar. At least in elite apnea divers, the small increase in apnea time and similar PaO2 at breakpoint (∼31 mmHg) suggest the apnea breakpoint is more related to PaO2, rather than peripheral chemoreflex drive to breathe. PMID:26290106

  3. Prevention of hypothermia in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation using the humigard® open surgery humidification system: a prospective randomized pilot and feasibility clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Laurence; Huang, Andrew; Alban, Daniel; Jones, Robert; Story, David; McNicol, Larry; Pearce, Brett

    2017-01-23

    Perioperative thermal disturbances during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) are common. We hypothesized that in patients undergoing OLT the use of a humidified high flow CO 2 warming system maintains higher intraoperative temperatures when compared to standardized multimodal strategies to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis. We performed a randomized pilot study in adult patients undergoing primary OLT. Participants were randomized to receive either open wound humidification with a high flow CO 2 warming system in addition to standard care (Humidification group) or to standard care alone (Control group). The primary end point was nasopharyngeal core temperature measured 5 min immediately prior to reperfusion of the donor liver (Stage 3 - 5 min). Secondary endpoints included intraoperative PaCO 2 , minute ventilation and the use of vasoconstrictors. Eleven patients were randomized to each group. Both groups were similar for age, body mass index, MELD, SOFA and APACHE II scores, baseline temperature, and duration of surgery. Immediately prior to reperfusion (Stage 3 - 5 min) the mean (SD) core temperature was higher in the Humidification Group compared to the Control Group: 36.0 °C (0.13) vs. 35.4 °C (0.22), p = 0.028. Repeated measured ANOVA showed that core temperatures over time during the stages of the transplant were higher in the Humidification Group compared to the Control Group (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in the ETCO 2 , PaCO 2 , minute ventilation, or inotropic support. The humidified high flow CO 2 warming system was superior to standardized multimodal strategies in maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing OLT. Use of the device was feasible and did not interfere with any aspects of surgery. A larger study is needed to investigate if the improved thermoregulation observed is associated with improved patient outcomes. ACTRN12616001631493 . Retrospectively registered 25 November 2016.

  4. Observation on the efficacy of noninvasive ventilator of ICU in the treatment of COPD merged with type II respiratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Min Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the efficacy of noninvasive ventilator of ICU in the treatment of COPD merged with type II respiratory failure. Methods: A total of 70 patients with COPD merged with type II respiratory failure were randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the two groups were given anti-infection, cough relieving, phlegm dispersing, asthma relieving, cardiac function improving, electrolyte disturbance and acidbase balance correcting, and appropriate nursing interventions. The patients in the control group were given low-flow oxygen inhalation, while the patients in the observation group were given additional noninvasive ventilator for mask assisted ventilation through the mouth and nose. The changes of PaO2, PaCO2, SaO2, RR, and HR before treatment, and 3d after treatment were detected. The efficacy was evaluated, and the adverse reactions were observed. Results: After treatment, PaO2 and SaO2 in the two groups were elevated, while PaCO2 was reduced when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. After treatment, RR and HR were reduced, and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group. The total effective rate in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group (57.1%. And the comparison of the adverse reactions between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions: ICU noninvasive ventilator in the treatment of COPD merged with type II respiratory failure can effectively improve hypoxia and CO2 retention, and rapidly relieve dyspnea, in combined with appropriate nursing intervention can guarantee the successful treatment.

  5. An evaluation of the role of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in the management of acute respiratory failure in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ige Abraham; John, George; John, Preeta; Peter, John Victor; Christopher, Solomon

    2007-09-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has been shown to decrease the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients presenting with acute respiratory failure (ARF). We conducted a prospective study to assess if NIPPV use, in a developing country, was associated with clinical and physiological improvements. Prospective observational study. Forty patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit during a 2-year period who fulfilled criteria for inclusion formed the study cohort to receive NIPPV. Baseline (mean +/- SD) pH, PaCO 2 and PaO 2 were 7.25 +/- 0.08, 76.6 +/- 20.9 and 79.18 +/- 40.56 mmHg respectively. The primary indication for NIPPV was hypercapnic respiratory failure (n = 36, 90%). The success rate with NIPPV was 85%, with 34 of 40 patients weaned successfully. Significant improvements were observed at 1 hour following institution of NIPPV in pH (7.31 +/- 0.09, P 2 (65 +/- 17.9, P 2 54.7 +/- 20) and maintained (within 12 h) postweaning from the ventilator (pH 7.39 +/- 0.08, PaCO 2 51.9 +/- 12.4). No significant change in the PaO 2 was observed during NIPPV; PaO 2 after 1 h, prior to weaning and after weaning was 90.53 +/- 42.85, 84.80 +/- 33.76, 78.71 +/- 43.81 respectively. This study has demonstrated benefits of NIPPV in avoiding the need for invasive MV in patients presenting with ARF of diverse etiology, with results comparable to developed nations. Increased use of NIPPV in ARF is likely to impact favorably in nations with limited resources.

  6. [Non-invasive home mechanical ventilation in the COPD patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rodríguez, C I; Jiménez Bermejo, F; Rubio, T; Godia, S; Salinas, U

    2005-01-01

    The potential benefits of non-invasive mechanical breathing in clinically stable COPD patients are still not well known, nor have they been sufficiently studied. We evaluate whether non-invasive mechanical ventilation is beneficial to these patients. A cross sectional study was carried out evaluating the application of non-invasive home mechanical ventilation (BIPAP), during the nocturnal rest in 23 COPD patients, who presented hypercapnia in basal arterial gasometry during clinical stability. Clinical, gasometric and spirometric evaluations were carried out 3, 6 and 12 months after initiating this therapy. Similarly, an evaluation was made of the number of admissions due to worsening of the underlying respiratory pathology during one year. Results. The patients included in the study had an average age of 68.83 years. Sixty point nine percent (60.9%) presented a severe degree of COPD. Sixty-nine point six percent (69.6%) of the total sample had previously received continuous oxygenotherapy at home; 75% of them presented severe or very severe COPD. During the period of time of the study a fall was recorded in the number of hospital admissions due to worsening (0.61+/-0.15 annual admissions on average) with respect to the period of time prior to the non-invasive mechanical ventilation (1.07+/-0.16 admissions on average), with greater benefits obtained by those who had previously shown a higher number of admissions and those with associated comorbidity. A reduction was also appreciated in the arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in the majority of cases, principally those who at the start of the study presented a PaCO2>63.32 mm of Hg; this improvement was appreciated from the first three months of treatment.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrovascular Reactivity to Carbon Dioxide in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Renata F.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Henning, Erica C.; Nascimento, George C.; Tannús, Alberto; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension afflicts 25% of the general population and over 50% of the elderly. In the present work, arterial spin labeling MRI was used to non-invasively quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance and CO2 reactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), at two different ages (3 months and 10 months) and under the effects of two anesthetics, α-chloralose and 2% isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Repeated CBF measurements were highly consistent, differing by less than 10% and 18% within and across animals, respectively. Under α-chloralose, whole brain CBF at normocapnia did not differ between groups (young WKY: 61±3ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 62±4ml/100g/min; young SHR: 70±9ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 69±8ml/100g/min), indicating normal cerebral autoregulation in SHR. At hypercapnia, CBF values increased significantly, and a linear relationship between CBF and PaCO2 levels was observed. In contrast, 2% isoflurane impaired cerebral autoregulation. Whole brain CBF in SHR was significantly higher than in WKY rats at normocapnia (young SHR: 139±25ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 104±23ml/100g/min; young WKY: 55±9ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 71±19ml/100g/min). CBF values increased significantly with increasing CO2; however, there was a clear saturation of CBF at PaCO2 levels greater than 70 mmHg in both young and adult rats, regardless of absolute CBF values, suggesting that isoflurane interferes with the vasodilatory mechanisms of CO2. This behavior was observed for both cortical and subcortical structures. Under either anesthetic, CO2 reactivity values in adult SHR were decreased, confirming that hypertension, when combined with age, increases cerebrovascular resistance and reduces cerebrovascular compliance. PMID:21708273

  8. Sleep pattern in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and correlation among gasometric, spirometric, and polysomnographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos Eduardo Ventura Gaio dos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are few studies on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD establishing differences between the functional parameters of the disease and sleep variables. The aim of the study was to describe the sleep pattern of these patients and to correlate spirometric, gasometric and polysomnographic variables. METHODS: Transversal study using COPD patients submitted to spirometry, arterial gasometry, and polysomnography. RESULTS: 21 male patients were studied with average age = 67 ± 9; 7 ± 4 average points in the Epworth sleepiness scale, average Tiffenau's index (FEV1/FVC = 54 ± 13.0%, average PaO2 = 68 ± 11 mmHg, average PaCO2 = 37 ± 6 mmHg. Sleep efficiency decreased (65 ± 16% with the reduction of slow wave sleep (8 ± 9% and rapid eye movement (REM sleep (15 ± 8%. Average T90 was 43 ± 41%. Average apnea-hypopnea index (AHI = 3 ± 5/h, where two patients (9.5% presented obstructive sleep apnea. A significant correlation was observed between PaO2 and T90 (p < 0.01, PaCO2 and T90 (p < 0.05, and AHI and the cardiac rate during REM (p < 0.01. A higher number of arousals and stage change was observed. There was no linear correlation between spirometric and polysomnographic variables. CONCLUSION: Poor sleep quality of these patients was characterized by low sleep efficiency, high number of awakenings and shift of stages. There were no correlations between the spirometric and polysomnographic variables.

  9. Investigating the non-linearity of the BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity response to targeted hypo/hypercapnia at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, Alex A; Siero, Jeroen C W; Fisher, Joseph A; Froeling, Martijn; Luijten, Peter; Philippens, Marielle; Hoogduin, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is a mechanism responsible for maintaining stable perfusion pressure within the brain via smooth muscle mediated modulations of vascular tone. The amplitude of cerebral blood flow (CBF) change in response to a stimulus has been evaluated using Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI, however the relationship between the stimulus and the measured signal remains unclear. CVR measured invasively in animal models and using blood-velocity based measurements in humans has demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between cerebral blood flow and CO2 partial pressure. Using an ultra-high magnetic field strength (7T) MRI scanner and a computer controlled gas delivery system, we examined the regional and voxel-wise CVR response in relation to a targeted progressively increasing hypo- to hypercapnic stimulus. The aim of this study was to assess the non-linearity/sigmoidal behavior of the CVR response at varying arterial CO2 (PaCO2) levels. We find that a sigmoidal model provides a better description of the BOLD signal response to increasing PaCO2 than a linear model. A distinct whole-brain and gray matter BOLD-CVR signal plateau was observed in both voxel-wise and regional analysis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a progressively increasing stimulus in combination with a sigmoidal response model can be used to obtain CVR values and provides additional physiologically relevant information (such as linear and non-linear response domains, and maximum response amplitudes) that may be more difficult to obtain from blocked CVR experiments. Considering these results, we propose an alternative way in which to define CVR based on the derivative of the BOLD-CVR response curve, which can potentially be used to differentiate between healthy and diseased vascular states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of acetazolamide on post-NIV metabolic alkalosis in acute exacerbated COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, V; Santinelli, S; Internullo, M; Marinelli, P; Sardo, L; Alessandrini, G; Borgognoni, L; Ferrazza, A M; Bonini, M; Palange, P

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an effective treatment in patients with acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). However, it may induce post-hypercapnic metabolic alkalosis (MA). This study aims to evaluate the effect of acetazolamide (ACET) in AECOPD patients treated with NIV. Eleven AECOPD patients, with hypercapnic respiratory failure and MA following NIV, were treated with ACET 500 mg for two consecutive days and compared to a matched control group. Patients and controls were non invasively ventilated in a bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) mode to a standard maximal pressure target of 15-20 cmH2O. ACET intra-group analysis showed a significant improvement for PaCO2 (63.9 ± 9.8 vs. 54.9 ± 8.3 mmHg), HCO3- (43.5 ± 5.9 vs. 36.1 ± 5.4 mmol/L) and both arterial pH (7.46 ± 0.06 vs. 7.41 ± 0.06) and urinary pH (6.94 ± 0.77 vs 5.80 ± 0.82), already at day 1. No significant changes in endpoints considered were observed in the control group at any time-point. Inter-group analysis showed significant differences between changes in PaCO2 and HCO3- (delta), both at day 1 and 2. Furthermore, the length of NIV treatment was significantly reduced in the ACET group compared to controls (6 ± 8 vs. 19 ± 19 days). No adverse events were recorded in the ACET and control groups. ACET appears to be effective and safe in AECOPD patients with post-NIV MA.

  11. Noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory distress in children with central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Elli, Marco; Pavone, Piero; Isotta, Gentile; Lubrano, Riccardo

    2013-09-01

    Acute respiratory distress (ARD) is a relatively frequent occurrence in patients suffering from central nervous system disorders (CNSD) and moderate to severe mental retardation. Whenever conventional therapy is little effective, noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) is the additional treatment in patients with diseases of the peripheral nervous system. However, NIV is traditionally little employed in the acute phase in patients suffering from CNSD. In the latter, either conventional therapy is maintained or invasive mechanical ventilation is instituted if the patient's condition worsens severely. To challenge the traditional view, we conducted the study to prove that NIV is both applicable and effective in the treatment of ARD also in children with moderate to severe mental retardation. We studied 44 children with ARD secondary to pneumonia and CNSD causing moderate to severe mental retardation. The children were divided in two groups. One group received conventional therapy and NIV, the other conventional therapy only, before being advanced to invasive ventilator support when nonresponding. On admission to hospital and one hour following admission we registered pH, PaCO(2), PaO2, A - a DO2 and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio. The mean hospital stay was also recorded. After one hour on NIV PaO2 and pH increased, PaCO(2) decreased, A - a DO2 and PaO2/FiO2 ratio improved. No changes in the above parameters were observed in children on conventional therapy only. Hospital stay was shorter when NIV was instituted. NIV is both applicable and beneficial in stabilizing blood gases, respiratory and cardiovascular parameters also in children with CNSD. Moreover its use shortens the hospital stay. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of intermittent apnea on myocardial tissue oxygenation--a study using oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

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    Dominik P Guensch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide (CO(2 is a recognized vasodilator of myocardial blood vessels that leads to changes in myocardial oxygenation through the recruitment of the coronary flow reserve. Yet, it is unknown whether changes of carbon dioxide induced by breathing maneuvers can be used to modify coronary blood flow and thus myocardial oxygenation. Oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR using the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD effect allows for non-invasive monitoring of changes of myocardial tissue oxygenation. We hypothesized that mild hypercapnia induced by long breath-holds leads to changes in myocardial oxygenation that can be detected by oxygenation-sensitive CMR. METHODS AND RESULTS: In nine anaesthetized and ventilated pigs, 60s breath-holds were induced. Left ventricular myocardial and blood pool oxygenation changes, as monitored by oxygenation-sensitive CMR using a T2*-weighted steady-state-free-precession (SSFP sequence at 1.5T, were compared to changes of blood gas levels obtained immediately prior to and after the breath-hold. Long breath-holds resulted in an increase of paCO(2, accompanied by a decrease of paO(2 and pH. There was a significant decrease of blood pressure, while heart rate did not change. A decrease in the left ventricular blood pool oxygenation was observed, which was similar to drop in SaO(2. Oxygenation in the myocardial tissue however, was maintained throughout the period. Changes in myocardial oxygenation were strongly correlated with the change in paCO(2 during the breath-hold (r = 0.90, p = 0.010. CONCLUSION: Despite a drop in blood oxygen levels, myocardial oxygenation is maintained throughout long breath-holds and is linearly correlated with the parallel increase of arterial CO(2, a known coronary vasodilator. Breathing maneuvers in combination with oxygenation-sensitive CMR may be useful as a diagnostic test for coronary artery function.

  13. Effect of heparin in combined with magnesium sulfate on the blood gas and blood viscosity in patients with pulmonary heart failure

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    Rui Deng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of heparin in combined with magnesium sulfate on the blood gas indicators and blood viscosity in patients with pulmonary heart disease merged with respiratory failure. Methods: A total of 80 patients with pulmonary heart disease merged with respiratory failure who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and randomized into the observation group (n=40 and the control group (n=40. The patients in the control group were given routine symptomatic treatments of pulmonary heart disease. On the above basis, the patients in the observation group were given intravenous drip of heparin and magnesium sulfate. The patients in the two groups were treated for 2 weeks. The blood gas indicators, blood viscosity indicators, PAPs, SBP, and DBP in the two groups were compared. The clinical efficacy in the two groups was evaluated. Results: After 2-week treatment, PaO2 and PaCO2 in the two groups were improved, pH value was not significantly changed, PaO2 in the observation group was significantly higher than that in the control group, while PaCO2 was significantly lower than that in the control group. The hemorheology indicators after treatment in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, among which the comparison of WBV, PV, Hct, and EAI between the two groups was statistically significant, and PAPs after treatment in the observation group was significantly reduced when compared with the control group. SBP and DBP after treatment in the two groups were not significantly changed. Conclusions: Heparin in combined with magnesium sulfate in the treatment of pulmonary heart disease merged with respiratory failure can improve the blood gas indicators and blood viscosity indicators, and reduce SBP of pulmonary artery, with a higher efficacy; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  14. Selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor reflex in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

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    Hernandez, Sonia M; Schumacher, Juergen; Lewis, Stephen J; Odoi, Agricola; Divers, Stephen J

    2011-11-01

    To determine selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor response in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to evaluate the use of blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry in this species. 15 healthy juvenile green iguanas. Baseline cardiopulmonary values were determined in 15 conscious iguanas breathing room air. Effects of 100% O(2) inspiration were also measured (n = 6), and the baroreceptor reflex was characterized by exponential sigmoidal curve fitting analysis. Conscious iguanas had a mean ± SD resting heart rate of 52 ± 8 beats/min, respiratory rate of 28 ± 6 breaths/min, and systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures of 69 ± 10 mm Hg, 62 ± 12 mm Hg, and 56 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively. Mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.29 ± 0.11, PaO(2) was 81 ± 10 mm Hg, and PaCO(2) was 42 ± 9 mm Hg; corrected for a body temperature of 30°C, mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.382 ±0.12, PaO(2) was 54 ± 15 mm Hg, and PaCO(2) was 32 ± 7 mm Hg. Inspiration of 100% O(2) did not change heart and respiratory rates but increased PaO(2) to 486 ± 105 mm Hg (corrected value, 437 ± 96 mm Hg). A baroreceptor reflex was evident, with mean heart rates ranging from 30 ± 3 beats/min to 63 ± 5 beats/min and mean arterial blood pressures ranging from 42 ± 3 mm Hg to 58 ± 3 mm Hg. This study provided needed information on cardiopulmonary values in healthy green iguanas, the application and limitation of arterial and venous blood gas analysis, and the accuracy of pulse oximetry.

  15. High frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Effect of cerebral blood flow in patients after open heart surgery

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    Pittet, J.F.; Forster, A.; Suter, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Attenuation of ventilator-synchronous pressure fluctuations of intracranial pressure has been demonstrated during high frequency ventilation in animal and human studies, but the consequences of this effect on cerebral blood flow have not been investigated in man. We compared the effects of high frequency jet ventilation and intermittent positive pressure ventilation on CBF in 24 patients investigated three hours after completion of open-heart surgery. The patients were investigated during three consecutive periods with standard sedation (morphine, pancuronium): a. IPPV; b. HFJV; c. IPPV. Partial pressure of arterial CO 2 (PaCO 2 : 4.5-5.5 kPa) and rectal temperature (35.5 to 37.5 degree C) were maintained constant during the study. The CBF was measured by intravenous 133 Xe washout technique. The following variables were derived from the cerebral clearance of 133 Xe: the rapid compartment flow, the initial slope index, ie, a combination of the rapid and the slow compartment flows, and the ratio of fast compartment flow over total CBF (FF). Compared to IPPV, HFJV applied to result in the same mean airway pressure did not produce any change in pulmonary gas exchange, mean systemic arterial pressure, and cardiac index. Similarly, CBF was not significantly altered by HFJV. However, important variations of CBF values were observed in three patients, although the classic main determinants of CBF (PaCO 2 , cerebral perfusion pressure, Paw, temperature) remained unchanged. Our results suggest that in patients with normal systemic hemodynamics, the effects of HFJV and IPPV on CBF are comparable at identical levels of mean airway pressure

  16. Non-invasive (transcutaneous) monitoring of PCO2 (TcPCO2) in older adults.

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    Janssens, Jean-Paul; Laszlo, André; Uldry, Christophe; Titelion, Véronique; Picaud, Claudette; Michel, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Transcutaneous measurements of arterial blood gases (ABG) may decrease the need for repeated arterial puncture in older patients treated for acute cardiac or pulmonary disorders. However, age-related changes in skin perfusion, metabolism, or thickness may alter the validity of the technique. To analyse the agreement between transcutaneous and arterial measurement of PaO2 and PaCO2 in older adults. Prospective descriptive study performed in the intermediate-care unit of a geriatric university hospital and a pulmonary rehabilitation centre. 40 patients, aged 82.5+/-8 years (66-97), hemodynamically stable, without vasopressor treatment, underwent simultaneous measurement of arterial blood gases (ABG) and transcutaneous CO2 (TcPCO2) and O2 (TcPO2) with a Radiometer TINA TCM3 capnograph, and a probe T degrees set at 43 degrees C. Correlation between PaCO2 and TcPCO2 was high (r2=0.86) with a low bias (-0.1 mm Hg) and limits of agreement quite compatible with clinical use: (8.3; -8.5 mm Hg). The probe was well tolerated without any cutaneous lesion even after prolonged recordings (up to 8 h). Conversely, although TcPO2 and PaO2 were significantly correlated, the variability around the regression line precludes the use of transcutaneous measurements for monitoring PaO2)in a clinical setting. In older subjects, TcPCO2 (but not TcPO2) measurements are reliable when repeated assessment of ABG is warranted. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Application of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension monitoring with low electrode temperatures in premature infants in the early postnatal period.

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    Hirata, Katsuya; Nishihara, Masahiro; Oshima, Yukari; Hirano, Shinya; Kitajima, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate the accuracy, precision, and safety of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (TcPCO2) monitoring at different electrode temperatures in preterm infants in the early postnatal period. A total of 26 neonates with a median birth weight of 974 g (432-1,694 g) and gestational age of 28.0 weeks (26.1-31.3 weeks) were studied in the first 5 days of life. A total of 252 simultaneous pairs (TcPCO2 and arterial carbon dioxide tension [PaCO2]) were analyzed at 38, 39, and 40°C at 26 and 27 weeks, and at 38, 39, 40, and 42°C at 28 to 31 weeks. The mean difference of TcPCO2 and PaCO2 (bias) increased from 3.93 mm Hg at 42°C to 5.64 mm Hg at 40°C, 6.58 mm Hg at 39°C, and 6.07 mm Hg at 38°C. Standard deviation (SD) of the bias increased from 4.17 mm Hg at 42°C to 4.76 mm Hg at 40°C, 5.29 mm Hg at 39°C, and 5.07 mm Hg at 38°C. Adverse skin lesions were not observed. TcPCO2 measurements are the most accurate and precise at an electrode temperature of 42°C. However, in premature babies, monitoring at 38, 39, and 40°C is possible provided a bias correction of 6 mm Hg and SD of 5 mm Hg are applied. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Predictive Value of Capnography for Suspected Diabetic Ketoacidosis in the Emergency Department

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    Soleimanpour, Hassan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic acidosis confirmed by arterial blood gas (ABG analysis is one of the diagnostic criteria for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. Given the direct relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETco2, arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 and metabolic acidosis, measuring ETco2 may serve as a surrogate for ABG in the assessment of possible DKA. The current study focuses on the predictive value of capnography in diagnosing DKA in patients referring to the emergency department (ED with increased blood sugar levels and probable diagnosis of DKA.Methods: In a cross-sectional prospective descriptive-analytic study carried out in an ED, we studied 181 patients older than 18 years old with blood sugar levels of higher than 250 mg/dl and probable DKA. ABG and capnography were obtained from all patients. To determine predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and cut-off points, we developed receiver operating characteristic curves.Results: Sixty-two of 181 patients suffered from DKA. We observed significant differences between both groups (DKA and non-DKA regarding age, pH, blood bicarbonate, PaCO2 and ETco2 values (P≤0.001. Finally, capnography values more than 24.5 mmHg could rule out the DKA diagnosis with a sensitivity and specificity of 0.90.Conclusion: Capnography values greater than 24.5 mmHg accurately allow the exclusion of DKA in ED patients suspected of that diagnosis. Capnography levels lower that 24.5 mmHg were unable to differentiate between DKA and other disease entities. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(6:590–594.

  19. Marked hypercapnia during cardiopulmonary bypass for myocardial revascularization. Case report.

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    Nascimento, Maurício Serrano; Bernardes, Cassiano Franco; de Medeiros, Roberta Louro

    2002-04-01

    Bypassing heart blood and returning it oxygenated to systemic circulation is achieved at the expenses of major cardiopulmonary physiologic changes. The aim of this report was to present an anesthetic complication during CPB and to warn for the need of interaction of the whole anesthetic-surgical team to prevent adverse perioperative events. A brown female patient, 56 years old, 95 kg, height 1.65 m, physical status ASA IV, with chronic renal failure under hemodialysis was admitted for myocardial revascularization. Monitoring consisted of ECG, invasive blood pressure, pulse oximetry, capnography, esophageal temperature, central venous pressure and anesthetic gases analysis. Patient was premedicated with intravenous midazolam (0.05 mg kg(-1)). Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl (16 microg kg(-1)), etomidate (0.3 mg kg(-1)) and pancuronium (0.1 mg kg(-1)), and was maintained with O2, isoflurane (0.5 - 1 MAC) and fentanyl continuous infusion. Blood gas analysis after induction has shown: pH: 7.41; PaO2: 288 mmHg; PaCO2: 38 mmHg; HCO3: 24 mmol L(-1); BE: 0 mmol L(-1); SatO2 100%. A second blood gases analysis, sampled soon after CPB, returned in 30 minutes, showing: pH 7.15; PaO2: 86 mmHg; PaCO2 224 mmHg; HCO3: 29 mmol L(-1); BE: -3 mmol L(-1); SatO2 99%. Thorough and urgent checking of anesthetic and perfusion equipment was performed and revealed that the gas blender was connected to the O2 line and to a CO2 cylinder, when it should be connected to the compressed air cylinder. Bypass circuit mechanical problems may occur in the intraoperative period, and demand prompt repairs. Technological advances in anesthesia equipment, monitoring and safety standards will lessen the possibility of cases such as this to be repeated, but will never replace anesthesiologists surveillance.

  20. Effect of Change of Mechanical Ventilation Position on the Treatment of Neonatal Respiratory Failure.

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    Wu, Jiebin; Zhai, Jingfang; Jiang, Hongxia; Sun, Yingjun; Jin, Bao; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhou, Bin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of different ventilation positions in newborn infants with respiratory failure. A total of 67 newborn infant cases with respiratory failure were treated in neonatal intensive care unit of Xuzhou Central Hospital from February 2012 to August 2013. These infants were randomly divided into supine group (n = 33) and different position group (n = 34). Supine position for 4 h and prone position for 4 h were alternated in different position group. The results for 8 and 16 h ventilator parameters: oxygenation index OI (OI = PaO2/FiO2), the lung mechanics parameters, ventilator weaning time, arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) after 1 h of ventilator weaning were recorded and compared. PaO2 in the different position ventilation groups for 8 h (65.29 ± 7.62 mm Hg) and 16 h (67.52 ± 9.31 mm Hg) were correspondingly higher than PaO2 at 8 h (60.13 ± 8.95 mm Hg) and 16 h (62.22 ± 10.83 mm Hg) in the supine position ventilation group, and the difference was statistically significant (P ventilator weaning time of the two groups and the change in the PaCO2 and PaO2, an hour after ventilator weaning was very similar and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The symptoms of respiratory failure and oxygenation can be effectively improved in the newborn infants with different ventilation positions compared to traditional supine position.

  1. The effect of pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation on lung protection in obese patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery.

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    Xu, Lili; Shen, Jianjun; Yan, Min

    2017-10-01

    To examine the effects of pressure-controlled inverse ratio ventilation (PCIRV) and volume-control ventilation (VCV) on arterial oxygenation, pulmonary function, hemodynamics, levels of surfactant protein A (SP-A), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in obese patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery. Sixty patients, body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 , scheduled for elective gynecological laparoscopic surgery were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either PCIRV with an inspiratory-expiratory (I:E) ratio of 1.5:1 (PCIRV group n = 30) or VCV with an I:E ratio of 1:2 (VCV group n = 30). Ventilation variables, viz. tidal volume (V T ), dynamic respiratory-system compliance (C RS ), driving pressure (ΔP = V T /C RS ), arterial blood oxygen partial pressure/fraction of inspiration oxygen (PaO 2 /FiO 2 ) and arterial blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO 2 ), were measured. Hemodynamic variables, viz. mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and serum levels of SP-A and TNF-α, were also measured. When compared to patients in the VCV group, patients in the PCIRV group had higher V T , dynamic C RS , and PaO 2 /FiO 2 , and lower ΔP and PaCO 2 at 20 and 60 min after the start of pneumoperitoneum (p ventilation, promote gas exchange and oxygenation, and is associated with decreased levels of SP-A and TNF-α. These effects demonstrate improved lung protection provided by PCIRV in this patient population.

  2. Effect of Lung Manual Hyperinflation (MHI on Oxygenation of Patients Following Abdominal Surgery and T-Tube Support

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    Javad Malekzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC are of the major reasons for death. Prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV and delayed extubation are leading to the incidence of more seriously complications. The effect of hyperinflation has not been investigated in control of these complications in patients who have been weaned from mechanical ventilation and are undergoing T-tube support. Aim: Investigation of MHI effect on oxygenation of patients following abdominal surgery and T-tube support. Method: This clinical trial was performed on 40 patients undergoing abdominal surgery and T-tube support hospitalized in intensive care units of hospitals in Mashhad, Iran, in 2015-2016. The participants were divided randomly into two experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, MHI technique was performed using Mapleson circuit for three twenty-minute periods. The control group received routine hospital care. The two groups were compared for PaO2, PaCO2 and SpO2 before intervention, 5 and 20 minutes after intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The mean age was 66.7±8.3 and 67.5±9.0 years in experimental and control groups, respectively. In intergroup comparison using independent t-test, the mean PaCO2, PaO2 and SpO2 had no significant differences in the experimental group before the intervention. However, the means SpO2 and PaO2 at 5 and 20 minutes after intervention were significantly higher in the experimental group (p

  3. Influence of changes in the pulmonary artery pressure on ventilation requirements in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement.

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    Muralidhar K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the influence of changes in pulmonary artery pressure on the ventilation requirements in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Thirty patients with mitral valve disease with significant pulmonary arterial hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass were included in this prospective study. All patients had a pulmonary artery catheter placed after the anaesthetic induction. The minute ventilation was adjusted to achieve an arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 of 35-40 mm Hg. After a stabilisation period of 15 minutes, the pulmonary artery pressure and the minute volume needed for maintaining a PaCO2 of 35-40 mm Hg in the precardiopulmonary bypass, post-cardiopulmonary bypass and six hours postoperatively were measured after ensuring stable haemodynamics and normothermia. There was a significant decrease in the mean pulmonary artery pressure from pre-cardiopulmonary bypass value of 41.3+/-15 mm Hg to 29.3+/-8 mm Hg in the postcardiopulmonary bypass period and subsequently to 25.5+/-7 mm Hg in the intensive care unit. There was a corresponding increase in the minute volume requirements from a pre-cardiopulmonary bypass value of 6.8+/-1 L/min to 8.0+/-1 L/min in the post cardiopulmonary bypass period and then to 9.4+/-1.2 L/min in the postoperative period. We conclude that there is a significant decrease in the pulmonary blood volume and a subsequent decrease in the pulmonary artery pressure after a successful mitral valve replacement in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This is associated with a significant increase in the requirement of minute ventilation to maintain normocarbia.

  4. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure.

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    Chang, Suchi; Shi, Jindong; Fu, Cuiping; Wu, Xu; Li, Shanqun

    2016-01-01

    COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation - volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2-4 hours and 48 hours. Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2-4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P0.05). Vital signs during 2-4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05). The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2-4 hours and 48 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (Pvariables were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05). Among elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure, application of PRVC resulted in rapid improvement in arterial blood gas analyses while maintaining a low peak inspiratory pressure. PRVC can reduce pulmonary barotrauma risk, making it a safer protective ventilation mode than synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation - volume control.

  5. Hemodynamics and gas exchange during chest compressions in neonatal resuscitation.

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    Payam Vali

    Full Text Available Current knowledge about pulmonary/systemic hemodynamics and gas exchange during neonatal resuscitation in a model of transitioning fetal circulation with fetal shunts and fluid-filled alveoli is limited. Using a fetal lamb asphyxia model, we sought to determine whether hemodynamic or gas-exchange parameters predicted successful return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC.The umbilical cord was occluded in 22 lambs to induce asphyxial cardiac arrest. Following five minutes of asystole, resuscitation as per AHA-Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines was initiated. Hemodynamic parameters and serial arterial blood gases were assessed during resuscitation.ROSC occurred in 18 lambs (82% at a median (IQR time of 120 (105-180 seconds. There were no differences in hemodynamic parameters at baseline and at any given time point during resuscitation between the lambs that achieved ROSC and those that did not. Blood gases at arrest prior to resuscitation were comparable between groups. However, lambs that achieved ROSC had lower PaO2, higher PaCO2, and lower lactate during resuscitation. Increase in diastolic blood pressures induced by epinephrine in lambs that achieved ROSC (11 ±4 mmHg did not differ from those that were not resuscitated (10 ±6 mmHg. Low diastolic blood pressures were adequate to achieve ROSC.Hemodynamic parameters in a neonatal lamb asphyxia model with transitioning circulation did not predict success of ROSC. Lactic acidosis, higher PaO2 and lower PaCO2 observed in the lambs that did not achieve ROSC may represent a state of inadequate tissue perfusion and/or mitochondrial dysfunction.

  6. Effect of mechanical pressure-controlled ventilation in patients with disturbed respiratory function during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Šurbatović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard for laparoscopic surgical procedures. In ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases, however, creation of pneumoperitoneum and the position of patients during surgery exert additional negative effect on intraoperative respiratory function, thus making a higher challenge for the anesthesiologist than for the surgeon. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV and pressure controlled ventilation (PCV during general anesthesia on respiratory function in ASA III patients submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. The study included 60 patients randomized into two groups depending on the mode of ventilation: IPPV or PCV. Respiratory volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, compliance (C, end-tidal CO2 pressure (PETCO2, oxygen saturation (SpO2, partial pressures of O2, CO2 (PaO2 and PaCO2 and pH of arterial blood were recorded within four time intervals. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in VT, SpO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values neither within nor between the two groups. In time interval t1 there were no statistically significant differences in PIP, C, PETCO2 values between the IPPV and the PCV group. But, in the next three time intervals there was a difference in PIP, C, and PETCO2 values between the two groups which ranged from statistically significant to highly significant; PIP was lower, C and PETCO2 were higher in the PCV group. Conclusion. Pressure controlled ventilation better maintains stability regarding intraoperative ventilatory parameters in ASA III patients with concomitant respiratory diseases during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  7. Mask intermittent positive pressure ventilation in chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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    Sivasothy, P; Smith, I E; Shneerson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Noninvasive ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been shown to improve arterial blood gases but its long-term role has not been established. We retrospectively studied 26 consecutive patients with hypercapnic ventilatory failure due to COPD in whom oxygen therapy caused worsening hypercapnia (defined as a rise in the daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) to >8.0 kPa or nocturnal transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (Ptc,CO2) to >9 kPa). All were treated with mask ventilation (15 with nasal and 11 face masks) at night and during daytime naps. Additional oxygen therapy was required in 15 patients. The mean annualized death rate was 10.8% with a 1 and 3 yr survival of 92 and 68%, respectively. After 1 yr the median daytime Pa,CO2 had fallen by 1.35 kPa and the arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) had risen by 2.4 kPa. In subjects not using additional oxygen the median overnight Sa,O2 rose by 12% and the Ptc,CO2 fell by 2.8 kPa after 1 yr. The haematocrit was significantly less than pretreatment at 6 months and 1 yr. Quality of life in the domain of role limitation by physical health (measured using the SF-36 questionnaire) improved significantly at 6 months. Survival in this selected group with clinically stable airflow obstruction unable to tolerate oxygen therapy and treated with noninvasive mask ventilation is better than historical controls and is comparable to those able to tolerate oxygen therapy. Poor survival was associated with a low forced expiratory volume in one second, a low body mass index and a high nocturnal transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension. No difference in survival was found between those treated with mask intermittent positive pressure ventilation alone or with mask intermittent positive pressure and supplementary oxygen therapy.

  8. Assessing Acid-Base Status: Physiologic Versus Physicochemical Approach.

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    Adrogué, Horacio J; Madias, Nicolaos E

    2016-11-01

    The physiologic approach has long been used in assessing acid-base status. This approach considers acids as hydrogen ion donors and bases as hydrogen ion acceptors and the acid-base status of the organism as reflecting the interaction of net hydrogen ion balance with body buffers. In the physiologic approach, the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer pair is used for assessing acid-base status and blood pH is determined by carbonic acid (ie, Paco 2 ) and serum bicarbonate levels. More recently, the physicochemical approach was introduced, which has gained popularity, particularly among intensivists and anesthesiologists. This approach posits that the acid-base status of body fluids is determined by changes in the dissociation of water that are driven by the interplay of 3 independent variables: the sum of strong (fully dissociated) cation concentrations minus the sum of strong anion concentrations (strong ion difference); the total concentration of weak acids; and Paco 2 . These 3 independent variables mechanistically determine both hydrogen ion concentration and bicarbonate concentration of body fluids, which are considered as dependent variables. Our experience indicates that the average practitioner is familiar with only one of these approaches and knows very little, if any, about the other approach. In the present Acid-Base and Electrolyte Teaching Case, we attempt to bridge this knowledge gap by contrasting the physiologic and physicochemical approaches to assessing acid-base status. We first outline the essential features, advantages, and limitations of each of the 2 approaches and then apply each approach to the same patient presentation. We conclude with our view about the optimal approach. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of eugenol in Jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus: effects on sedation and evaluation hemogasometry

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    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the use of eugenol as an anesthetic for jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus, measuring the time to anesthesia induction in different concentrações and their effects in gas exchange. The results were analyzed according to a completely randomized design (DIC with eight treatments (control, 10, 20, 40, 80, 120, 150, 200 mg L-1 of eugenol and ten repetitions. Time values of anesthetic induction and recovery, according to the level of eugenol underwent polynomial regression (p<0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and averages were compared by Tukey test. Were determined the time of anesthesia and recovery. The parameters were analyzed blood glucose, pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2, concentration of bicarbonate (HCO-3, sodium (Na, potassium (K, calcium (Ca and chloride (Cl. The concentrations of 40 and 80 mg.L-1 of eugenol were the ones who presented time deep anesthesia induction of 59.5 ± 17.5 sec. and 58.4 ± 18.6 sec. respectively. The concentrations above 120 mg. L-¹ presented mortality. These fish subjected to different level of eugenol did not show changes in blood oxygen pressure (PaO2 and carbon dioxide (PaCO2. The fish when subjected to concentrations above 80 mg L-1 showed an increase of bicarbonate. The plasma glucose values showed significant elevation in response to the bath with anesthetic eugenol. The concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium and plasma protein remained constants indicating that the process of anesthesia was not long lasting enough to induce changes in the electrolyte balance. Within the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that eugenol is a suitable anesthetic for the silver. This product may be used at a concentration of 40 mg. L-1 without causing changes hemogasométrica.

  10. Long-term oxygen therapy: Are we prescribing appropriately?

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    Mª Rosa Güell Rous

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Mª Rosa Güell RousDepartament de Pneumologia, Hospital de la Santa Creu I de Sant Pau, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT is the treatment proven to improve survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients with chronic respiratory failure. It also appears to reduce the number of hospitalizations, increase effort capacity, and improve health-related quality of life. Standard LTOT criteria are related to COPD patients who have PaO2 <60 mmHg, are in a clinical stable situation, and are receiving optimal pharmacological treatment. According to LTOT guidelines, oxygen should be prescribed for at least 18 hours per day although some authors consider 24 hours would be more beneficial. The benefits of LTOT depend on correction of hypoxemia. Arterial blood gases should be measured at rest. During exercise, an effort test should be done to assure adequate SaO2. During sleep, continuous monitoring of SaO2 and PaCO2 should be performed to confirm correction of SaO2 overnight. An arterial blood gas sample should be taken at awakening to assess PaCO2 in order to prevent hypoventilation from the oxygen therapy. Several issues that need to be addressed are the use of LTOT in COPD patients with moderate hypoxemia, the efficacy of LTOT in patients who desaturate during exercise or during sleep, the optimal dosage of oxygen supplementation, LTOT compliance, and the LTOT prescription in diseases other than COPD.Keywords: long-term oxygen therapy, COPD, oxygen supplementation, chronic respiratory failure, hypoxemia

  11. Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Karin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET, during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol. Methods Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg. Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q was estimated with MIGET. Results During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-aO2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.

  12. Use of butorphanol during immobilization of free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Mathebula, Nomkhosi; Kruger, Marius; Martin, Laura; Hofmeyr, Markus; Olea-Popelka, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    Forty free-ranging white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) were anesthetized with etorphine, azaperone, and hyaluronidase in Kruger National Park, South Africa, between February and August 2009. Eighteen rhinoceros received butorphanol in the dart combination, and 22 rhinoceros had butorphanol administered intravenously within 15 min of darting. Body position, blood gas values, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature were measured at two time points after darting, approximately 10 min apart (sample 1 mean collection time after darting, 9.4 +/- 2.7 min; sample 2 mean collection time, 18.6 +/- 2.8 min). A significant number of field-captured rhinoceros remained standing at the first sample period when butorphanol was administered in the dart. Higher median values for arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) in combination with lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) in standing versus recumbent rhinoceros suggested improved ventilation in this posture (P rhinoceros that received butorphanol in the dart (P rhinoceros receiving butorphanol in the dart. Intravenous administration of butorphanol resulted in significantly decreased median PaCO2 and heart rate in recumbent rhinoceros (P rhinoceros remained hypoxemic during the short anesthetic procedure despite butorphanol administration. Preliminary results suggest that administration of butorphanol (either in the dart or intravenously) improves some metabolic parameters in free-ranging recumbent white rhinoceros without significantly affecting ventilation. It is hypothesized that this may be due to a lighter state of immobilization. Addition of butorphanol to the dart provides handling and physiologic advantages because the majority of rhinoceros remain standing.

  13. [Experimental branch vein occlusion: the effect of carbogen breathing on preretinal PO2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournaras, J-A C; Poitry, S; Munoz, J-L; Pournaras, C J

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the variations in preretinal PO2 in normal and in ischemic postexperimental branch vein occlusion (BRVO) retinal areas during normoxia, hyperoxia (100% O2) and carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2) breathing. Preretinal PO2 measurements were obtained in intervascular retinal areas far from the retinal vessels of 13 anesthetized miniature pigs with oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes (10 microm tip diameter) introduced through the vitreous cavity by a micromanipulator. The microelectrode tip was placed at 50 microm from the vitreoretinal interface in the preretinal vitreous. PO2 was measured continuously for 10 minutes in systemic normoxia, hyperoxia (100% O2 breathing) and carbogen (95% O2, 5% CO2) breathing. A BRVO was induced with an argon green laser, and oxygen measurements were repeated in normoxia, hyperoxia and carbogen breathing. In hyperoxia, preretinal PO2 remained almost constant in both normal retinas (DeltaPO2=1.33 mmHg +/- 3.39; n=13) and ischemic retinas (DeltaPO2=3.73 mmHg +/- 2.84; n=8), although systemic PaO2 significantly increased. Carbogen breathing induced a significant increase in systemic PaO2 and PaCO2. Furthermore, it significantly increased preretinal PO2: DeltaPO2=23.05 mmHg +/- 17.06 (n=12) in normal retinas, and DeltaPO2=22.54 mmHg +/- 5.96 (n=6) in ischemic retinal areas. Systemic hyperoxia does not increase preretinal PO2 significantly in normal and ischemic post-BRVO retinal areas of miniature pigs, as hyperoxia induces a decrease in the retinal blood flow. Carbogen breathing significantly increases preretinal PO2 in normal and in ischemic post-BRVO retinal areas. This effect is probably due to the vasodilatation of the retinal arterioles induced by the intravascular PaCO2 increase.

  14. Prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, Jan-Peter A H

    2007-12-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure exerted by cranial contents on the dural envelope. It comprises the partial pressures of brain, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Normal intracranial pressure is somewhere below 10 mmHg; it may increase as a result of traumatic brain injury, stroke, neoplasm, Reye's syndrome, hepatic coma, or other pathologies. When ICP increases above 20 mmHg it may damage neurons and jeopardize cerebral perfusion. If such a condition persists, treatment is indicated. Control of ICP requires measurement, which can only be performed invasively. Standard techniques include direct ventricular manometry or measurement in the parenchyma with electronic or fiberoptic devices. Displaying the time course of pressure (high-resolution ICP tonoscopy) allows assessment of the validity of the signal and identification of specific pathological findings, such as A-, B- and C-waves. When ICP is pathologically elevated--at or above 20-25 mmHg--it needs to be lowered. A range of treatment modalities is available and should be applied with consideration of the underlying cause. When intracranial hypertension is caused by hematoma, contusion, tumor, hygroma, hydrocephalus or pneumatocephalus, surgical treatment is indicated. In the absence of a surgically treatable condition, ICP may be controlled by correcting the patient's position, temperature, ventilation or hemodynamics. If intracranial hypertension persists, drainage of CSF via external drainage is most effective. Other first-tier options include induced hypocapnea (hyperventilation; paCO2 < 35 mmHg), hyperosmolar therapy (mannitol, hypertonic saline) and induced arterial hypertension (CPP concept). When autoregulation of cerebral blood flow is compromised, hyperoncotic treatment aimed at reducing vasogenic edema and intracranial blood volume may be applied. When intracranial hypertension persists, second-tier treatments may be indicated. These include 'forced hyperventilation' (paCO2 < 25 mm

  15. Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, Alex; Mazouari, Khalil El; Desmyter, Aline; Blanchetot, Christophe; Hultberg, Anna; de Jonge, Natalie; Roovers, Rob C; Cambillau, Christian; Spinelli, Sylvia; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Verrips, Theo; de Haard, Hans J; Achour, Ikbel

    2015-01-01

    Camelid immunoglobulin variable (IGV) regions were found homologous to their human counterparts; however, the germline V repertoires of camelid heavy and light chains are still incomplete and their therapeutic potential is only beginning to be appreciated. We therefore leveraged the publicly available HTG and WGS databases of Lama pacos and Camelus ferus to retrieve the germline repertoire of V genes using human IGV genes as reference. In addition, we amplified IGKV and IGLV genes to uncover the V germline repertoire of Lama glama and sequenced BAC clones covering part of the Lama pacos IGK and IGL loci. Our in silico analysis showed that camelid counterparts of all human IGKV and IGLV families and most IGHV families could be identified, based on canonical structure and sequence homology. Interestingly, this sequence homology seemed largely restricted to the Ig V genes and was far less apparent in other genes: 6 therapeutically relevant target genes differed significantly from their human orthologs. This contributed to efficient immunization of llamas with the human proteins CD70, MET, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, resulting in large panels of functional antibodies. The in silico predicted human-homologous canonical folds of camelid-derived antibodies were confirmed by X-ray crystallography solving the structure of 2 selected camelid anti-CD70 and anti-MET antibodies. These antibodies showed identical fold combinations as found in the corresponding human germline V families, yielding binding site structures closely similar to those occurring in human antibodies. In conclusion, our results indicate that active immunization of camelids can be a powerful therapeutic antibody platform. PMID:26018625

  16. Comparison and Evaluation of the Effects of Administration of Postoperative Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Methods (CPAP and BIPAP) on Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağlıoğlu, Hatice; Köksal, Güniz Meyancı; Erbabacan, Emre; Ekici, Birsel

    2015-08-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of two different methods of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) and oxygen support under spontaneous ventilation on respiration mechanics, gas exchange, dry mouth and face mask lesion during an early postoperative period in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Eighty patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with laparotomy, between the age of 25 and 75 years and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score (ASA) II-III with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis were included to the study. Subjects were randomly allocated in to four groups. During the first postoperative hour, the first group received BIPAP, second group received high-flow CPAP, third group received low-flow CPAP and fourth group received deep breathing exercises, respiratory physiotherapy and O2 therapy. Preoperative, postoperative before and after treatment PaO2, PaCO2, SpO2, tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR) levels were recorded. Subjects with dry mouth or face mask lesion were recorded. In all groups, PaO2 and TV measurements were higher at the postoperative first hour than the postoperative zero hour. We found that low-flow CPAP increased PaO2 and SpO2 values more, and TV levels were higher in the postoperative period than the preoperative period. PaCO2 levels were elevated at the zero hour postoperatively and at the end of the first hour; they decreased approximately to preoperative values, except in the fourth group. Administration of prophylactic respiratory support can prevent the deterioration of pulmonary functions and hypoxia in patients with COPD undergoing upper abdominal surgery. In addition, we found that low-flow CPAP had better effects on PaO2, SpO2, TV compared to other techniques.

  17. Effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral blood flow in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Takao

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the pharmacological effects of cigarette smoking on cerebral function and blood flow in normal adults, cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in 10 right-handed male healthy volunteers with a smoking habit after 12-hour abstinence. By the oxygen-15 intravenous injection method, quantitative CBF was measured repeatedly 6 times; during normal breathing (baseline), 5% CO 2 inhalation and cigarette smoking. Sham smoking was performed during baseline and CO 2 inhalation. To eliminate the effects from PaCO 2 , CBF was adjusted based on the vascular reactivity to CO 2 and PaCO 2 during smoking. Pulse rate, systemic blood pressure and arterial nicotine level were increased during smoking. In the overall comparison, there was no significant change in the mean CBF during smoking as compared with baseline. Out of 19 sessions, CBF increased significantly in 7 sessions, while CBF decreased in 7 sessions and was unchanged in 5 sessions. The arterial concentration of nicotine correlated inversely with CBF. When the baseline CBF was relatively low, CBF increased during smoking, while it decreased when the baseline value was high. In the 3-dimensional statistical analysis of normalized CBF, a significant increase was seen in the nucleus accumbens, which is assumed to be related to the drug habits or addiction in previous studies. In the first smoking after abstinence, CBF increased in the orbitofrontal gyri, and this can be linked to reward or relaxation. By contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the occipital lobes and paracentral areas. (author)

  18. Liquid extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal: use of THAM (tris-hydroxymethyl aminomethane) coupled to hemofiltration to control hypercapnic acidosis in a porcine model of protective mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Pablo; Lillo, Felipe; Soto, Dagoberto; Escobar, Leslie; Simon, Felipe; Hernández, Karina; Alegría, Leyla; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg(-1)·h(-1) coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg(-1)·h(-1). After 18-hours of treatment the THAM infusion was stopped but hemofiltration was kept on until 24-hours. The 2 other animals were treated with THAM but without hemofiltration. After 1-hour of treatment in THAM+HF, PaCO2 rapidly decreased from a median of 89.0 (IQR) (80.0, 98.0) to 71.3 (65.8, 82.0) mmHg (P<0.05), while pH increased from 7.12 (7.01, 7.15) to 7.29 (7.27, 7.30) (P<0.05). Thereafter PaCO2 remained stable between 60-70 mmHg, while pH increased above 7.4. After stopping THAM at 18 hours of treatment a profound rebound effect was observed with severe hypercapnic acidosis. The most important side effect we observed was hyperosmolality, which reached a maximum of 330 (328, 332) mOsm·kg H2O(-1) at T18. The animals treated only with THAM developed severe hypercapnia, despite the fact that pH returned to normal values, and died after 12 hours. Control-group had an uneven evolution until the end of the experiment. A combined treatment with THAM coupled to hemofiltration may be an effective treatment to control severe hypercapnic acidosis.

  19. On-demand endoscopic CO2 insufflation with feedback pressure regulation during natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) peritoneoscopy induces minimal hemodynamic and respiratory changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ripoll, Ricard; Martínez-Pallí, Graciela; Guarner-Argente, Carlos; Córdova, Henry; Martínez-Zamora, Maria Angels; Comas, Jaume; Rodríguez de Miguel, Cristina; Beltrán, Mireia; Rodríguez-D'Jesús, Antonio; Hernández-Cera, Clara; Llach, Josep; Balust, Jaume; Fernández-Esparrach, Glòria

    2012-08-01

    Endoscopic insufflation has been associated with marked increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and hemodynamic and respiratory changes during transgastric surgery. To investigate the hemodynamic and respiratory effects during intraperitoneal cavity exploration through 3 different natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) access locations compared with laparoscopy. Survival experiments using 40 female pigs randomized to transgastric, transcolonic, transvaginal, and laparoscopic peritoneoscopy. On-demand endoscopic insufflation of CO(2) with feedback pressure regulation was used in NOTES with a maximum pressure of 14 mm Hg. In the laparoscopy group, the IAP was maintained at 14 mm Hg. NOTES procedures were performed by an endoscopist (with the assistance of a gynecologist in the transvaginal group and a second endoscopist in the transgastric and transrectal groups) and laparoscopy by 2 surgeons. Invasive hemodynamic and respiratory data. Blood samples were drawn for gas analyses. All experiments except one in the transrectal group were completed. The IAP was significantly lower in all NOTES groups compared with the laparoscopy group. A significant increase in mean systemic arterial blood pressure was observed in the laparoscopy group at 15 and 30 minutes of intraperitoneal cavity exploration, but it remained unchanged during all NOTES procedures. An increase in airway pressures was observed at 15 and 30 minutes of peritoneoscopy in the animals undergoing laparoscopy, whereas those parameters remained unchanged in the NOTES groups. The laparoscopy group showed a significant impairment in pulmonary gas exchange (decrease in Pao(2), increase in Paco(2), and decrease in arterial pH) after 30 minutes of peritoneoscopy, whereas only a slight increase in Paco(2) was observed in the transrectal and transvaginal groups. Healthy animal model. On-demand endoscopic insufflation of CO(2) with feedback pressure regulation can minimize the risk of hemodynamic and

  20. Medicinal use of wild fauna by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo Biosphere Reserve (San Juan, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jorge; Campos, Claudia M; Borghi, Carlos E

    2015-01-21

    Wild and domestic animals and their by-products are important ingredients in the preparation of curative, protective and preventive medicines. Despite the medicinal use of animals worldwide, this topic has received less attention than the use of medicinal plants. This study assessed the medicinal use of animals by mestizo communities living near San Guillermo MaB Reserve by addressing the following questions: What animal species and body parts are used? What ailments or diseases are treated with remedies from these species? To what extent do mestizo people use animals as a source of medicine? Is the use related to people's age? We conducted semi-structured interviews with 171 inhabitants (15-93 years old) of four villages close to the Reserve: Tudcúm, Angualasto, Malimán and Colangüil. We calculated the informant consensus factor and fidelity level to test homogeneity of knowledge and to know the importance of different medicinal uses for a given species. The medicinal use of animals was reported by 57% of the surveyed people. Seven species were mentioned: Rhea pennata, Lama guanicoe, Puma concolor, Pseudalopex sp., Lama vicugna, Lepus europaeus and Conepatus chinga. Several body parts were used: fat, leg, bezoar-stone, stomach, feather, meat, blood, feces, wool, and liver. The fat of R. pennata was the most frequently used animal part, followed by the bezoar stone and the leg of L. guanicoe. Animals were used to treat 22 ailments, with respiratory and nervous system disorders being the most frequently treated diseases with a high degree of consensus. Old people used animals as remedies more frequently than young residents, showing some differences among villages. A low number of animal species was mentioned as used for medicinal purposes, which could be explained by the perception of strong control related the legislation that bans hunting and the erosion of traditional knowledge produced by mestizaje. However, the presence of a traditional medicine is deeply

  1. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Struelens

    Full Text Available Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  2. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  3. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, Quentin; Gonzales Pomar, Karina; Loza Herrera, Susi; Nina Huanca, Gaby; Dangles, Olivier; Rebaudo, François

    2017-01-01

    Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  4. Carbon storage and long-term rate of accumulation in high-altitude Andean peatlands of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Hribljan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 The high-altitude (4,500+ m Andean mountain range of north-western Bolivia contains many peatlands. Despite heavy grazing pressure and potential damage from climate change, little is known about these peatlands. Our objective was to quantify carbon pools, basal ages and long-term peat accumulation rates in peatlands in two areas of the arid puna ecoregion of Bolivia: near the village of Manasaya in the Sajama National Park (Cordillera Occidentale, and in the Tuni Condoriri National Park (Cordillera Real. (2 We cored to 5 m depth in the Manasaya peatland, whose age at 5 m was ca. 3,675 yr. BP with a LARCA of 47 g m-2 yr-1. However, probing indicated that the maximum depth was 7–10 m with a total estimated (by extrapolation carbon stock of 1,040 Mg ha-1. The Tuni peat body was 5.5 m thick and initiated ca. 2,560 cal. yr. BP. The peatland carbon stock was 572 Mg ha-1 with a long-term rate of carbon accumulation (LARCA of 37 g m-2 yr-1. (3 Despite the dry environment of the Bolivian puna, the region contains numerous peatlands with high carbon stocks and rapid carbon accumulation rates. These peatlands are heavily used for llama and alpaca grazing.

  5. Current status and future direction of cryopreservation of camelid embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrid, M; Vajta, G; Skidmore, J A

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 3 decades, and similar to the horse industry, fresh embryo transfer has been widely practiced on large commercial scales in different camelid species, especially the dromedary camel and alpaca. However, the inability to cryopreserve embryos significantly reduces its broader application, and as such limits the capacity to utilize elite genetic resources internationally. In addition, cryopreservation of the semen of camelids is also difficult, suggesting an extreme sensitivity of the germplasm to cooling and freezing. As a result, genetic resources of camelids must continue to be maintained as living collections of animals. Due to concerns over disease outbreaks such as that of the highly pathogenic Middle East Respiratory Syndrome in the Middle East and Asia, there is an urgent need to establish an effective gene banking system for camelid species, especially the camel. The current review compares and summarizes recent progress in the field of camelid embryo cryopreservation, identifying four possible reasons for the slow development of an effective protocol and describing eight future directions to improve the current protocols. At the same time, the results of a recent dromedary camel embryo transfer study which produced a high morphologic integrity and survival rate of Open Pulled Straw-vitrified embryos are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Australian methodology for the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: Agriculture: Workbook for livestock: Workbook 6.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bureau of Resource Sciences, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    This workbook details a methodology for estimating methane emissions from Australian livestock. The workbook is designed to be consistent with international guidelines and takes into account special Australian conditions. While regarded as a significant source of anthropogenic methane emissions, it is also acknowledged in this document that livestock do not provide sinks for methane or any other greenhouse gas. Methane can originate from both fermentation processes in the digestive tracts of all livestock and from manure under certain management conditions. Methane emissions were estimated from beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry, goats, horses, deer, buffalo, camels, emus and ostriches, alpacas and donkeys and mules. Two methodologies were used to estimate emissions. One is the standard Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 methodology that is needed to provide inter-country comparisons of emissions. The other has been developed by the Inventory Methodology Working Group. It represents the best current Australian method for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from Australian livestock. (author). 6 tabs., 22 refs.

  7. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanca Wilfredo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, we documented the presence of ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in the seminal plasma of llamas and alpacas. The purpose of the study was to define the biochemical characteristics of the molecule(s in seminal plasma responsible for inducing ovulation. Methods In Experiment 1, llama seminal plasma was centrifuged using filtration devices with nominal molecular mass cut-offs of 30, 10 and 5 kDa. Female llamas (n = 9 per group were treated i.m. with whole seminal plasma (positive control, phosphate-buffered saline (negative control, or the fraction of seminal plasma equal or higher than 30 kDa, 10 to 30 kDa, 5 to 10 kDa, or Results In Experiment 1, all llamas in the equal or higher than 30 kDa and positive control groups ovulated (9/9 in each, but none ovulated in the other groups (P Conclusions We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa.

  8. Episodic molecular evolution of pituitary growth hormone in Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniou, Zoitsa; Wallis, O Caryl; Wallis, Michael

    2004-06-01

    The sequence of growth hormone (GH) is generally strongly conserved in mammals, but episodes of rapid change occurred during the evolution of primates and artiodactyls, when the rate of GH evolution apparently increased substantially. As a result the sequences of higher primate and ruminant GHs differ markedly from sequences of other mammalian GHs. In order to increase knowledge of GH evolution in Cetartiodactyla (Artiodactyla plus Cetacea) we have cloned and characterized GH genes from camel (Camelus dromedarius), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), and giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), using genomic DNA and a polymerase chain reaction technique. As in other mammals, these GH genes comprise five exons and four introns. Two very similar GH gene sequences (encoding identical proteins) were found in each of hippopotamus and giraffe. The deduced sequence for the mature hippopotamus GH is identical to that of dolphin, in accord with current ideas of a close relationship between Cetacea and Hippopotamidae. The sequence of camel GH is identical to that reported previously for alpaca GH. The sequence of giraffe GH is very similar to that of other ruminants but differs from that of nonruminant cetartiodactyls at about 18 residues. The results demonstrate that the apparent burst of rapid evolution of GH occurred largely after the separation of the line leading to ruminants from other cetartiodactyls.

  9. X Chromosome Evolution in Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Perelman, Polina L; Makunin, Alexey I; Larkin, Denis M; Farré, Marta; Kukekova, Anna V; Lynn Johnson, Jennifer; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Roelke-Parker, Melody E; Bellizzi, June; Ryder, Oliver A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2017-08-31

    The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were obtained by fluorescent in situ hybridization. To trace the X chromosome evolution during fast radiation in specious families, we performed mapping in several cervids (moose, Siberian roe deer, fallow deer, and Pere David's deer) and bovid (muskox, goat, sheep, sable antelope, and cattle) species. We have identified three major conserved synteny blocks and rearrangements in different cetartiodactyl lineages and found that the recently described phenomenon of the evolutionary new centromere emergence has taken place in the X chromosome evolution of Cetartiodactyla at least five times. We propose the structure of the putative ancestral cetartiodactyl X chromosome by reconstructing the order of syntenic segments and centromere position for key groups.

  10. Endoparasites of exotic ungulates from the Giraffidae and Camelidae families kept ex situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Paweł; Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wyrobisz, Anna; Skotnicki, Józef; Basiaga, Marta; Plucińska, Natalia E

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes and camels are popular attractions at zoological gardens. In order to present the diversity of parasites infecting exotic ungulates from zoos, faecal samples from three giraffes and six camels from both the Silesian Zoological Garden in Chorzów, and Kraków Zoological Garden, were examined. The research was carried out over a ten-month period in 2013 and 2014. In total, 100 faecal samples from 18 animals were analysed with the use of the McMaster method. Moreover, coccidian oocysts were incubated to investigate their development and larvoscopic examination was conducted to detect the presence of nematode species. Giraffes were infected with coccidia from the genus Eimeria, and gastrointestinal nematodes from the Strongylida order, and Trichuris and Aonhotheca genera. One male giraffe was uninfected. The level of infection in giraffes was low when compared to camels kept in both of the zoos. Limited contact with other animal species contributed greatly to the lower level of infection in camels from Kraków Zoo than those from Chorzów, which were kept in the same enclosure as alpacas and Shetland ponies.

  11. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS – UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  12. A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for a 16 kDa heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Anke K Trilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH binding to M. tuberculosis antigens were isolated. Two phage display selection strategies were followed: one direct selection using semi-purified protein antigen, and a depletion strategy with lysates, aiming to avoid cross-reaction to other mycobacteria. Both panning methods selected a set of binders with widely differing complementarity determining regions. Selected recombinant VHHs were produced in E. coli and shown to bind immobilized lysate in direct Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA tests and soluble antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR analysis. All tested VHHs were specific for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis and exclusively recognized an immunodominant 16 kDa heat shock protein (hsp. The highest affinity VHH had a dissociation constant (KD of 4 × 10(-10 M. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for 16 kDa heat shock protein of M. tuberculosis is available. This protein is highly stable and abundant in M. tuberculosis. The VHH that detect this protein are applied in a robust SPR sensor for identification of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria.

  13. Structural basis of nanobody-mediated blocking of BtuF, the cognate substrate-binding protein of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 transporter BtuCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireku, S A; Sauer, M M; Glockshuber, R; Locher, K P

    2017-10-30

    Bacterial ABC importers catalyze the uptake of essential nutrients including transition metals and metal-containing co-factors. Recently, an IgG antibody targeting the external binding protein of the Staphylococcus aureus Mn(II) ABC importer was reported to inhibit transport activity and reduce bacterial cell growth. We here explored the possibility of using alpaca-derived nanobodies to inhibit the vitamin B12 transporter of Escherichia coli, BtuCD-F, as a model system by generating nanobodies against the periplasmic binding protein BtuF. We isolated six nanobodies that competed with B12 for binding to BtuF, with inhibition constants between 10 -6 and 10 -9  M. Kinetic characterization of the nanobody-BtuF interactions revealed dissociation half-lives between 1.6 and 6 minutes and fast association rates between 10 4 and 10 6  M -1 s -1 . For the tightest-binding nanobody, we observed a reduction of in vitro transport activity of BtuCD-F when an excess of nanobody over B12 was used. The structure of BtuF in complex with the most effective nanobody Nb9 revealed the molecular basis of its inhibitory function. The CDR3 loop of Nb9 reached into the substrate-binding pocket of BtuF, preventing both B12 binding and BtuCD-F complex formation. Our results suggest that nanobodies can mediate ABC importer inhibition, providing an opportunity for novel antibiotic strategies.

  14. Determination of Aspergillus pathogens in agricultural products by a specific nanobody-polyclonal antibody sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Zhaowei; Wang, Tong; He, Ting

    2017-06-28

    Aspergillus and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide throughout the environment and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. In order to develop a specific method for rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus to forecast diseases and control aflatoxins, a nanobody, PO8-VHH, highly reactive to A. flavus was isolated from an immunized alpaca nanobody library by phage display. The nanobody was verified to bind to the components of extracellular and intracellular antigen from both A. flavus and A. parasiticus. To construct a sandwich format immunoassay, polyclonal antibodies against Aspergillus were raised with rabbits. Finally, a highly selective nanobody-polyclonal antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was optimized and developed. The results revealed that the detection limits of the two fungi were as low as 1 μg mL -1 , and that it is able to detect fungal concentrations below to 2 μg mg -1 of peanut and maize grains in both artificially and naturally contaminated samples. Therefore, we here provided a rapid and simple method for monitoring Aspergillus spp. contamination in agricultural products.

  15. Osteometría y genética de los camélidos mochica, costa norte del Perú

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    Víctor F. Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacos“alpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast of Peru during Moche times. This model takes into account that in this environment currently camelids are not breed, as well as genetics and evolutionary factors in the new domestic form, the effect of Bergmann’s Rule, and new grasses in the morphology of this new form of domestic camelid, ,which lived in the region at the time of Moche.

  16. Explorando la variabilidad morfométrica del conjunto de camélidos pequeños durante el Arcaico Tardío y el Formativo Temprano en Quebrada Tulán, norte de Chile

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    Isabel Cartajena Fasting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Frequently, it is possible to differentiate among large and small size camelids when analysing registers from archaeological sites located at the occidental slope of Puna de Atacama. However, larger animals have received most of the attention having less knowledge about the group of small size camelids. In this paper and by using osteometric methods we study this small size later group. On one hand, we analyse different variables that may affect variability among modern alpacas and vicuñas collections. We focus our work on differences among anterior and posterior phalanxes, inter specific variation and sexual dimorphism. On the other hand, we analyse first phalanxes from Tulán-52 (Late Archaic ca. 4500-3800 BP and Tulán-54 (Early Formative ca. 3200-2300 BP characterising their variability through time by comparing current and archaeological samples. Both archaeofaunal assemblages are similar despite their temporal distance. The analyzed specimens correspond to vicuñas denoting the importance of vicuña hunting through time

  17. Prevalence of Eimeria macusaniensis and Eimeria ivitaensis in South American camelids of Northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafrune, M M; Marín, R E; Rigalt, F A; Romero, S R; Aguirre, D H

    2009-06-10

    Faecal samples from mostly adult llamas (n=626), vicuñas (n=161) and guanacos (n=4) were obtained between December 2004 and July 2008 in three Provinces of Northwest Argentina in order to study the prevalence of Eimeria macusaniensis and Eimeria ivitaensis. Faeces were examined by a flotation technique using a Cl(2)Zn+ClNa solution (specific gravity=1.59). Oocysts of E. macusaniensis occurred in 88.3% of 77 llama herds and in 50.3% of 626 llamas sampled whereas oocysts of E. ivitaensis occurred in only four llamas (herd and llama prevalence of 5.2% and 0.6%, respectively). The individual prevalence of E. macusaniensis in vicuñas and guanacos were of 14.3% and 25.0%, respectively. E. ivitaensis was not detected in these latter species. The results showed a prevalence of E. macusaniensis higher than previously reported in adult domestic camelids (llamas and alpacas). In contrast, the very low prevalence of E. ivitaensis in llamas and its absence in wild camelids (vicuñas and guanacos) was remarkable. Differences between prevalence of both coccidian species are discussed.

  18. Prairie rattlesnake envenomation in 27 New World camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonis, J M; Hackett, E S; Callan, R J; Holt, T N; Hackett, T B

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and case fatality from rattlesnake envenomation is regionally specific because of variability in relative toxicity of the species of snake encountered. A previous report of rattlesnake envenomation in New World camelids (NWC) from the western coastal United States documented high case fatality rates and guarded prognosis for survival. To describe clinical findings, treatments, and outcome of NWC with prairie rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis viridis) envenomation in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Twenty-seven NWC admitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute rattlesnake envenomation between 1992 and 2012. Medical records of NWC evaluated for rattlesnake envenomation as coded by the attending clinician and identified by a database search were reviewed retrospectively. Month of admission, signalment, area of bite, clinical and clinicopathologic data, treatments, and outcome were recorded. Twenty-five llamas and 2 alpacas were admitted for envenomation. Llamas were overrepresented compared to hospital caseload. The face was the most common site of envenomation, observed in 96% of recorded cases. Presenting clinical signs included fever, tachypnea, tachycardia, and respiratory distress. Nine animals required a tracheotomy. Median hospitalization time was 3 days and overall survival rate was 69%. Case fatality rate for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in NWC was lower than that reported in the Western coastal region of the United States and similar to that reported for prairie rattlesnake envenomation in horses. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. [First detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" in South American Camelids of Switzerland and evaluation of prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Christine; Meli, Marina L; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Zanolari, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Haemotrophic mycoplasmas (also known as haemoplasmas), small bacterias which parasite the surface of erythrocytes, have been described in several species. Recently, molecular methods were developed for the diagnosis of haemoplasma infection. The presented study describes the first detection and the investigation of prevalence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" in South American Camelids in Switzerland. A random sample of the latter population was tested for haemoplasma infections using real-time PCR. The infection was detected in 18.6% of the animals and was found both in indigenous and in imported camelids. Of the tested herds 39,1% harboured at least one animal positive for haemoplasmas in PCR. There was no difference in prevalence between male and female animals and llamas and alpacas, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of infection was not significantly different in diseased animals compared to healthy camelids. From the latter observation and the fact that the high prevalence was accompanied by an undetectable incidence, we concluded that the pathogenicity of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" may be low.

  20. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in exotic ruminants and camelids in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Kobédová, Kateřina; Lamka, Jiří; Kotrba, Radim; Vodička, Roman; Sedlák, Kamil

    2017-07-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are the protozoan parasites with definitive hosts from order Carnivora. Due to vertical transmission, both parasites can cause abortions and neonatal mortality that lead to significant productive and economic losses in the domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to describe N. caninum and T. gondii seroprevalence in the group of frequently farmed captive exotic ruminants (n = 184) including Bovidae (barbary sheep, bezoar goat, common eland, American bison, water buffalo, and yak) and Camelidae (bactrian camel, guanaco, llama, and alpaca). Antibodies were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Higher prevalence of T. gondii antibodies (31% in IFAT and 52% in ELISA) was detected compared to N. caninum (24% in IFAT and 17% in cELISA). Mixed infection was found in 18 (10%) and 22 (12%) animals by IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of both N. caninum and T. gondii was found in Camelidae compared to Bovidae. To author knowledge, this is the first detection of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies in common elands and bezoar goats.

  1. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in camelids: old problems, current solutions and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J; Bezos, J; Juan, L de; Vordermeier, M; Rodriguez, S; Fernandez-de-Mera, I G; Mateos, A; Domínguez, L

    2012-02-01

    In spite of great efforts for its control and eradication, tuberculosis remains one of the most important zoonosis worldwide. Its causative agents, the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, have a wide host range that complicates the epidemiology of this disease. Among susceptible species to these pathogens, camelids from the New World (llama, alpaca and vicuña) and Old World (Bactrian camel and dromedary) are acquiring an increasing importance in several European countries because of its growing number and could act as reservoirs of the disease for livestock and humans in their natural habitat. In addition, tuberculosis caused by a number of M. tuberculosis complex members is a life-threatening disease in these animal species. Although tuberculosis has been known to affect camelids for a long time, ante-mortem diagnosis is still challenging because of the lack of standardized diagnostic techniques and the limited sensitivity and specificity of the most widely applied tests. However, in recent years, several techniques that can at least partially overcome these limitations have been developed. This paper reviews the results and advances achieved in tuberculosis diagnosis in camelids in the last decade as well as the progresses on ongoing investigations, with special attention to the remaining challenges that still have to be faced to assure the availability of reliable tools for the detection of tuberculosis-infected animals and herds. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Humoral response to 2 inactivated bluetongue virus serotype-8 vaccines in South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolari, P; Bruckner, L; Fricker, R; Kaufmann, C; Mudry, M; Griot, C; Meylan, M

    2010-01-01

    Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) has caused disease in domestic ruminants in several countries of northern Europe since 2006. In 2008 a mass-vaccination program was launched in most affected countries using whole virus inactivated vaccines. To evaluate 2 inactivated vaccines (Bovilis BTV 8; BTVPUR AlSap8) for immunogenicity and safety against BTV-8 in South American camelids (SAC) in a field trial. Forty-two SAC (25 Alpacas, 17 Llamas) aged between 1 and 16 years. The animals were vaccinated twice at intervals of 21 days. They were observed clinically for adverse local, systemic, or both reactions throughout the trial. Blood samples collected on days 0, 14, 21, 43, and 156 after vaccination were tested for the presence of BTV-8 virus by real time-polymerase chain reaction and of specific antibodies by competitive ELISA and a serum neutralization test. All vaccinated animals developed antibodies to BTV-8 after the 2nd administration of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed except for moderate local swellings at the injection site, which disappeared within 21 days. Slightly increased body temperatures were only observed in the first 2 days after vaccination. The BTV was not detected in any of the samples analyzed. The administration of the 2 inactivated commercial vaccines was safe and induced seroconversion against BTV-8 in all vaccinated animals. The results of this study suggest that 2 doses injected 3 weeks apart is a suitable vaccination regimen for SAC.

  4. Evaluation of a panel of antibodies for the immunohistochemical identification of immune cells in paraffin-embedded lymphoid tissues of new- and old-world camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, Ann-Kathrin; Lehmbecker, Annika; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Spitzbarth, Ingo

    2017-02-01

    Different species of camelids play an important role in the epidemiology of various emerging infectious diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome. For precise investigations of the immunopathogenesis in these host species, appropriate immunohistochemical markers are highly needed in order to phenotype distinct immune cells populations in camelids. So far, specific immunohistochemical markers for camelid immune cells are rarely commercially available, and cross-reactivity studies are restricted to the use of frozen dromedary tissues. To bridge this gap, 14 commercially available primary antibodies were tested for their suitability to demonstrate immune cell populations on formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections of dromedaries, Bactrian camels, llamas, and alpacas in the present study. Out of these, 9 antibodies directed against CD3, CD20, CD79α, HLA-DR, Iba-1, myeloid/histiocyte antigen, CD204, CD208, and CD68 antigen exhibited distinct immunoreaction patterns to certain camelid immune cell subsets. The distribution of these antigens was comparatively evaluated in different anatomical compartments of thymus, spleen, mesenteric, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes. The presented results will provide a basis for further investigations in camelids, especially with respect to the role of the immune response in certain infectious diseases, which harbor a considerable risk to spill over to other species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Serological survey of bluetongue virus serotype-8 infection in South American camelids in Switzerland (2007-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanolari, P; Chaignat, V; Kaufmann, C; Mudry, M; Griot, C; Thuer, B; Meylan, M

    2010-01-01

    Outbreak of bluetongue virus serotype-8 (BTV-8) infection in domestic ruminants in Northern Europe. To investigate the South American camelids' (SAC) susceptibility to BTV-8 infection, their role in the epidemiology of the disease, and the use of currently available serological screening tests in SAC in an endemic region. Three hundred and fifty-four unvaccinated and 27 vaccinated SAC (170 llamas, 201 alpacas), ranging in age from 1 month to 17 years between June and August 2008. The SAC originated from 44 herds throughout the country, representing 10% of the Swiss SAC population. Prospective, observational study of a convenience sample of SAC. Serum samples were analyzed with 2 serological screening tests. When results diverged, a 3rd ELISA was carried out for confirmation (ID Screen Bluetongue Competition ELISA kit). All sera from the 354 unvaccinated animals were negative in the endemic region. Reliable seroconversion was observed after administration of 2 doses of vaccine. This study suggests a low susceptibility of SAC to BTV-8 despite the presence of the virus in the cattle and small ruminant population, indicating that SAC do not play a major role in the epidemiology of BTV-8. Furthermore, these results indicate that commercially available serological tests for BTV-8 can be used in SAC.

  6. Morphology of the muscles of the shoulder, arms and forearms of the coati (Nasua nasua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Cesar dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The coati is an animal that belongs to the Phylum Chordata, the Class Mammalia, the Order Carnivora and the Procyonidae family. The striking feature of the family Procyonidae is the presence of five digits on the paws. These animals are classified as plantigrades and can do hand movements in different directions. It has habits of climbing trees to procreate, fleeing from danger, and sleeping at night. It feeds on fruits, small vertebrates, insects, nectar, eggs and vegetables. For this work were used three euthanized animals, from the Scientific Breeding Center (CECRIMPAS - UNIFEOB authorized by IBAMA (Process nº 02027.003731/04-76, fixed in formaldehyde solution 10%. This work describes the morphology of the muscles of the forelimb of the coati, through dissection and photographic documentation. In the studied species, we found anatomical adaptations of thoracic limb muscles which had a mass volume much greater than in other species (puma, alpaca, dog, cat, lhama and Cebus apella monkeys, and this fact was found to be directly related to their abilities in climbing and handicraft.

  7. Efeitos cardiorrespiratórios da buprenorfina em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano Cardiorespiratory effects of buprenorphine in dogs anesthetized with desflurane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Pereira de Souza

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar os efeitos da buprenorfina sobre variáveis cardiovasculares e respiratórias em cães durante anestesia com desfluorano. Para tanto, foram utilizados 20 cães adultos, distribuídos em dois grupos (GB e GC. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol (8mg kg-1 IV e em seguida os animais foram intubados com sonda de Magill, a qual foi conectada ao aparelho de anestesia para administração de desfluorano (1,5 CAM. Após 30 minutos, foi aplicado no GB buprenorfina (0,02mg kg-1 e no GC solução de NaCl à 0,9% (0,05ml kg-1. Avaliaram-se: freqüências cardíaca e respiratória (FC e ¦; pressões arteriais sistólica, diastólica e média (PAS, PAD e PAM; débito cardíaco (DC; pressão venosa central (PVC; e as variáveis hemogasométricas pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3, SatO2 e DB. As colheitas dos dados foram feitas aos 30 minutos após o início da administração do desfluorano (MO, 15 minutos após a administração do opióide ou placebo (M15, e a cada 15 minutos após Ml5 (M30, M45, M60 e M75. A avaliação estatística dos dados foi efetuada por meio de Análise de Perfil (P¦ e o pH tiveram reduções no GB, enquanto a PaCO2 esteve aumentada. Concluiu-se que a inclusão da buprenorfina durante anestesia inalatória pelo desfluorano determina discretas alterações cardiovasculares, bem-como potencializa a hipoventilação promovida pelo desfluorano, com a manifestação de hipercapnia, o que não contra-indica o seu uso em pacientes estáveis.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of buprenorphine on cardiovascular and respiratory variables in dogs anesthetized with desflurane. Twenty adult healthy male and female mongrel dogs were randomly distributed in two groups of ten animals each (GB and GC. The anesthetic induction was done using propofol (8mg kg-1, IV, and immediately, the dogs were intubated and submited to desflurane anesthesia administrated at 1.5 MAC. After 30 minutes of induction, animals

  8. Effects of blood storage on ice in biochemical and arterial blood gas analysis of rats Efeitos da estocagem sanguínea em gelo na bioquímica e gasometria arterial de ratos

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    Marcus Vinicius Henriques Brito

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of blood storage in biochemical and arterial blood gas analysis of Wistar rats. METHODS: Ten adult male rats with weights between 300-350 g were used. The catheterization of the internal carotid artery were performed, followed by withdrawal of 3 ml of blood using 3 separate syringes each containing 1 ml. The syringes were fulfilled one after another and numerated according to the order of collection. Then, the following groups were devised: GT1 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 20 minutes and the second exam 65 minutes after the collection; GT2 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 35 minutes and the second exam 80 minutes after the collection; GT3 - samples that were firstly analyzed in 50 minutes and the second exam 95 minutes after the collection. The samples were stored in a container with a temperature between 0 Cº and 4 Cº. Upon analysis the values of pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3-, SatO2, SBE, Na+ and K+ concentrations and glucose were compared. RESULTS: No statistically relevant difference (pOBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito da estocagem sanguínea na bioquímica e na gasometria do sangue arterial de ratos Wistar. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 10 ratos adultos, machos, com peso compreendido entre 300 a 350 gramas. Cada animal foi submetido à cateterização da artéria carótida seguida de heparinização prévia do animal. Foram colhidos 3 ml de sangue total do rato, separados em três seringas contendo 1 ml cada. As seringas foram preenchidas uma após a outra e enumeradas respectivamente à ordem de coleta. De acordo com esta numeração as amostras foram distribuídas nos seguintes grupos: GT1 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 20 minutos e a segunda análise 65 minutos após a coleta; GT2 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 35 minutos e segunda análise 80 minutos após a coleta; GT3 - amostras que tiveram primeira análise em 50 minutos e 95 minutos após a coleta. As amostras foram

  9. The effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation in hypercapnic COPD patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Backer L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available L De Backer¹, W Vos², B Dieriks¹, D Daems¹, S Verhulst¹, S Vinchurkar², K Ides¹, J De Backer², P Germonpre¹, W De Backer¹1Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine, 2FluidDa, Antwerp, BelgiumIntroduction: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV is a well-established treatment for acute-on-chronic respiratory failure in hypercapnic COPD patients. Less is known about the effects of a long-term treatment with NIV in hypercapnic COPD patients and about the factors that may predict response in terms of improved oxygenation and lowered CO2 retention.Methods: In this study, we randomized 15 patients to a routine pharmacological treatment (n = 5, age 66 [standard deviation ± 6] years, FEV1 30.5 [±5.1] %pred, PaO2 65 [±6] mmHg, PaCO2 52.4 [±6.0] mmHg or to a routine treatment and NIV (using the Synchrony BiPAP device [Respironics, Inc, Murrsville, PA] (n = 10, age 65 [±7] years, FEV1 29.5 [±9.0] %pred, PaO2 59 [±13] mmHg, PaCO2 55.4 [±7.7] mmHg for 6 months. We looked at arterial blood gasses, lung function parameters and performed a low-dose computed tomography of the thorax, which was later used for segmentation (providing lobe and airway volumes, iVlobe and iVaw and post-processing with computer methods (providing airway resistance, iRaw giving overall a functional image of the separate airways and lobes.Results: In both groups there was a nonsignificant change in FEV1 (NIV group 29.5 [9.0] to 38.5 [14.6] %pred, control group 30.5 [5.1] to 36.8 [8.7] mmHg. PaCO2 dropped significantly only in the NIV group (NIV: 55.4 [7.7] → 44.5 [4.70], P = 0.0076; control: 52.4 [6.0] → 47.6 [8.2], NS. Patients actively treated with NIV developed a more inhomogeneous redistribution of mass flow than control patients. Subsequent analysis indicated that in NIV-treated patients that improve their blood gases, mass flow was also redistributed towards areas with higher vessel density and less emphysema, indicating that flow was

  10. Auto-trilevel versus bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation for hypercapnic overlap syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei; Huai, De; Cao, Juan; Ning, Ding; Xue, Rong; Xu, Meijie; Huang, Mao; Zhang, Xilong

    2018-03-01

    , morning PaCO 2 , and daytime Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Compared with the parameters before PAP therapies, during each mode of PAP treatment, significant reduction was detected in nocturnal AHI, arousal index, morning PaCO 2 , and daytime ESS while significant elevation was revealed in nocturnal minSpO 2 and sleep efficiency (all P auto-trilevel PAP mode could result in the lowest arousal index, daytime ESS, and the highest sleep efficiency. Compared with Bilevel-1, it was detected that (a) AHI was lower but minSpO 2 was higher in both Bilevel-2 and auto-trilevel (all P auto-trilevel but displayed higher in Bilevel-2 (P auto-trilevel, both AHI and minSpO 2 showed no obvious changes (all P > 0.05) except with a lower morning PaCO 2 (P Auto-trilevel PAP therapy was superior over conventional Bilevel PAP therapy for hypercapnic OS patients with their OSAS moderate to severe, since auto-trilevel PAP was more efficacious in synchronous elimination of residual obstructive apnea events and CO 2 retention as well as in obtaining a better sleep quality and milder daytime drowsiness.

  11. Toracotomia em eqüinos sob anestesia com ventilação mecânica controlada Equine thoracotomy under anesthesia with controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV

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    Raquel Yvonne Arantes Baccarin

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos procedimentos cirúrgicos e diagnósticos podem ser realizados através da cirurgia torácica em eqüinos. Para tanto faz-se necessária a utilização da ventilação controlada mecânica (VCM e a compreensão dos efeitos respiratórios deste tipo de ventilação durante a toracotomia. Foram utilizados seis eqüinos hígidos, sob anestesia com ventilação controlada, para a realização de acesso cirúrgico ao hemitórax direito com o objetivo de se avaliar, através da mensuração dos parâmetros fisiológicos, ventigrafia, pH e gases sangüíneos, a eficácia da ventilação controlada em otimizar a ventilação e a oxigenação e em prevenir a atelectasia pulmonar durante manipulações intratorácicas. Verificou-se diminuição dos valores da PaCO2 e aumento dos valores de pH durante a ventilação controlada, mesmo com o pneumotórax instalado. A pressão interpleural também apresentou aumento de seus valores durante a VCM. Concluiu-se que o uso da VCM, durante a prática da toracotomia, permite a padronização da freqüência respiratória com melhora da ventilação, e subseqüente normalização das alterações da pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono e pH, bem como mantém visualmente adequada a expansão pulmonar. A VCM promove aumento da pressão interpleural, enquanto o tórax permanece fechado.Several surgical and diagnostic procedures can be performed on thoracic surgery in the equine. To carry out these procedures controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV is necessary, as well as full understanding of the possible side effects of this type of ventilation. Six healthy equine were used under anesthesia wiith CMV to do right hemithorax approach. The goals were to evaluate efficiency of CMV in the improvement of ventilation and oxigenation as well as in the prevention of pulmonar atelectasis during intrathoracic manipulation. For such evaluation of physiologic parameters measurement, ventigraphy and blood gas analysis

  12. Proteção cerebral no tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas do arco aórtico: estudo experimental em cães Cerebral protection during surgical approach to the aortic arch aneurysms resection: experimental study in dogs

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    Gaudêncio Lopes Espinosa

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available É realizado estudo experimental comparativo entre dois métodos de proteção cerebral na abordagem cirúrgica dos aneurismas do arco aórtico, avaliando a sua eficácia: hipotermia sistêmica profunda isolada (menor que 20ºC com pinçamento arterial braquiocefálico e hipotermia sistêmica profunda associada à perfusão carotídea seletiva. Dois grupos de 15 cães cada foram submetidos, respectivamente, à hipotermia sistêmica profunda com pinçamento arterial braquiocefálico (Grupo I e à hipotermia sistêmica profunda associada à perfusão seletiva da carótida direita (Grupo II. Foram analisadas amostras seriadas das alterações metabólicas de pH e PaCO2 que ocorreram no retorno venoso cerebral aferidas na veia julgular interna, bem como as alterações histopatológicas encontradas com 45 min., 90 min. e 135 min. de cada procedimento. Os resultados demonstram que, apesar de ambos os métodos de proteção cerebral serem eficazes por um período de 45 minutos, o método utilizado no Grupo II mostrou ser superior em períodos de até 90 minutos de isquemia cerebral. Em períodos de 135 minutos os métodos tiveram resultados semelhantes, não oferecendo proteção cerebral adequada.The authors proposition is to make an experimental study of two methods of cerebral protection to be used during aortic arch aneurysm resection. The methods to be evaluated were profound systemic hypothermia (under 20ºC whith great vessels occlusion and profound systemic hypothermia with selective right carotid artery perfusion. Two groups of 15 dogs each were submitted either to profound systemic hypothermia with great vessels occlusion (Group I, or to profound systemic hypothermia with selective right carotid artery perfusion (Group II. Serial jugular vein samples for pH and PaCO2 were analyzed to evaluate ischemic cerebral metabolic derangements. Hystopathological studies were also performed 45, 90 and 135 minutes, through animal sacrifice in each

  13. Interfaces and ventilator settings for long-term noninvasive ventilation in COPD patients

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    Callegari J

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jens Callegari,1 Friederike Sophie Magnet,1 Steven Taubner,1 Melanie Berger,2 Sarah Bettina Schwarz,1 Wolfram Windisch,1 Jan Hendrik Storre3,4 1Department of Pneumology, Cologne-Merheim Hospital, Kliniken der Stadt Koeln, Witten/Herdecke University Hospital, 2Department of Pneumology, Malteser Hospital St Hildegardis, Cologne, 3Department of Pneumology, University Medical Hospital, Freiburg, 4Department of Intensive Care, Sleep Medicine and Mechanical Ventilation, Asklepios Fachkliniken Munich-Gauting, Gauting, Germany Introduction: The establishment of high-intensity (HI noninvasive ventilation (NIV that targets elevated PaCO2 has led to an increase in the use of long-term NIV to treat patients with chronic hypercapnic COPD. However, the role of the ventilation interface, especially in more aggressive ventilation strategies, has not been systematically assessed.Methods: Ventilator settings and NIV compliance were assessed in this prospective cross-sectional monocentric cohort study of COPD patients with pre-existing NIV. Daytime ­arterialized blood gas analyses and lung function testing were also performed. The primary end point was the distribution among study patients of interfaces (full-face masks [FFMs] vs nasal masks [NMs] in a real-life setting.Results: The majority of the 123 patients studied used an FFM (77%, while 23% used an NM. Ventilation settings were as follows: mean ± standard deviation (SD inspiratory positive airway pressure (IPAP was 23.2±4.6 mbar and mean ± SD breathing rate was 16.7±2.4/minute. Pressure support ventilation (PSV mode was used in 52.8% of patients, while assisted pressure-controlled ventilation (aPCV was used in 47.2% of patients. Higher IPAP levels were associated with an increased use of FFMs (IPAP <21 mbar: 73% vs IPAP >25 mbar: 84%. Mean compliance was 6.5 hours/day, with no differences between FFM (6.4 hours/day and NM (6.7 hours/day users. PaCO2 assessment of ventilation quality revealed

  14. High-flow oxygen via nasal cannulae in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeies, Murdoch; Flynn, Eric; Turgeon, Alexis F; Paunovic, Bojan; Loewen, Hal; Rabbani, Rasheda; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Ferguson, Niall D; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2017-10-16

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of high-flow oxygen via nasal cannulae (HFNC) compared to non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or standard oxygen in patients with acute, hypoxemic respiratory failure. We reviewed randomized controlled trials from CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to February 2016), conference proceedings, and relevant article reference lists. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted trial-level data from trials investigating HFNC in patients with acute, hypoxemic respiratory failure. Internal validity was assessed in duplicate using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. The strength of evidence was assessed in duplicate using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation framework. Our primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included dyspnea, PaO 2 :FiO 2 ratio, PaCO 2 , and pH. Safety outcomes included respiratory arrest, intubation, delirium, and skin breakdown. From 2023 screened citations, we identified seven trials (1771 patients) meeting inclusion criteria. All trials were at high risk of bias due to lack of blinding. There was no evidence for a mortality difference in patients receiving HFNC vs. NIV and/or standard oxygen (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.48, I 2  = 63%, five trials, 1629 patients). In subgroup analyses of HFNC compared to NIV or standard oxygen individually, mortality differences were not observed. Measures of patient tolerability were heterogeneous. The PaO 2 :FiO 2 ratio at 6-12 h was significantly lower in patients receiving oxygen via HFNC compared to NIV or standard oxygen for hypoxemic respiratory failure (MD - 53.34, 95% CI - 71.95 to - 34.72, I 2  = 61%, 1143 patients). There were no differences in pH, PaCO 2 , or rates of intubation or cardio-respiratory arrest. Delirium and skin breakdown were infrequently reported in included trials. In patients with

  15. Efeitos do modo ventilatório sobre variáveis hemogasométricas em equinos submetidos à mudança de decúbito durante a anestesia geral inalatória com halotano Effects of the ventilatory regimen on arterial blood gas variables in horses that underwent a change in body position during halothane anesthesia

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    P.A. Sá

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os efeitos da ventilação espontânea (V E e controlada (V C em equinos submetidos à mudança de decúbito durante anestesia. Dezesseis animais foram equitativamente divididos em dois grupos: V E e V C. Os procedimentos cirúrgicos foram iniciados com os animais em decúbito lateral esquerdo (DLE e, após 75 minutos, os animais foram reposicionados em decúbito lateral direito (DLD. Análises hemogasométricas do sangue arterial foram realizadas após 30 e 75 minutos com os animais posicionados em cada decúbito (M1 e M2 no DLE e M3 e M4 no DLD, respectivamente. Durante a V E, observaram-se hipercapnia (PaCO2 >45mmHg, acidose respiratória (pH The effects of spontaneous (SV and controlled ventilation (CV were compared in horses undergoing changes in body position during anesthesia. Sixteen animals were equally distributed in two groups: SV and CV. All surgical procedures were commenced on left lateral recumbency (LLR and 75 minutes later the animals were repositioned on right lateral recumbency (RLR. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at 30 and 75 minutes after each recumbency (M1 and M2 for LLR and M3 and M4 for RLR. Hypercapnia (PaCO2 >45mmHg, respiratory acidosis (pH <7.35, and significant decrease in PaO2 after 75min of change in body position (M4: 205.8±124.7mmHg in comparison to PaO2 values before the change of position (M1: 271.8±84.8mmHg were observed during SV. When compared to the SV group, CV resulted in significantly higher PaO2 levels (52 to 96% increase. It was concluded that the change in the body position in spontaneously ventilating halothane-anesthetized horses causes impairment in arterial oxygenation. The use of CV since the beginning of anesthesia prevents the respiratory acidosis and maintains arterial oxygen levels that are closer to values expected during the use of 100% O2.

  16. Expressions and significance of plasma ET-1 and IL-8 in patients with AECOPD merged with CHD

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    Dong-Bo Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the expressions and clinical significance of plasma ET-1 and IL-8 in patients with AECOPD merged with CHD. Methods: A total of 120 patients with AECOPD who were admitted in our hospital from February, 2015 to December, 2015 were included in the study and divided into observation 1 group (AECOPD merged with CHD and observation 2 group (pure AECOPD with 60 cases in each group. Moreover, 30 healthy individuals who came for physical examinations in the same period were served as the control group. ELISA was used to detect the plasma ET-1 and IL-8 levels, and their correlation was analyzed. The arterial blood gas and coagulation fibrinolysis indicators among the three groups were compared. Results: The plasma ET-1 and IL-8 levels in observation 1 and 2 groups were significantly higher than those in the control group. The plasma ET-1 and IL-8 levels in observation 1 group were significantly higher than those in observation 2 group. PaO2 in observation 1 and 2 groups was significantly lower than that in the control group, while PaCO2 was significantly higher than that in the control group. The comparison of PaO2 and PaCO2 between the two groups was not statistically significant. PT and APTT in observation 1 and 2 groups were significantly shortened when compared with the control group, while TT was significantly delayed. PT in observation 1 group was significantly shortened when compared with observation 2 group. Fbg and t-PA contents in observation 1 and 2 groups were significantly higher than those in the control group. Fbg, t-PA, and D-D contents in observation 1 group were significantly higher than those in observation 2 group. Conclusions: The hypercoagulation state is presenting in patients with AECOPD merged with CHD, with increased ET-1 and IL-8, both of which can play a synergistic effect, and are involved in the pathogenesis.

  17. The preoptic area in the hypothalamus is the source of the additional respiratory drive at raised body temperature in anaesthetised rats.