WorldWideScience

Sample records for aloud affect behaviour

  1. Scrutinising usability evaluation: does thinking aloud affect behaviour and mental workload?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Hansen, Kristin Due; Andersen, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Thinking aloud is widely used for usability evaluation. The validity of the method is, however, debatable because it is generally used in a relaxed way that conflicts with the prescriptions of the classic model for obtaining valid verbalisations of thought processes. This study investigates whether...... participants that think aloud in the classic or relaxed way behave differently compared to performing in silence. Results indicate that whereas classic thinking aloud has little or no effect on behaviour apart from prolonging tasks, relaxed thinking aloud affects behaviour in multiple ways. During relaxed...... thinking aloud participants took longer to solve tasks, spent a larger part of tasks on general distributed visual behaviour, issued more commands to navigate both within and between the pages of the websites used in the experiment, and experienced higher mental workload. Implications for usability...

  2. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results. PMID:27445910

  3. Stress in Context: Morpho-Syntactic Properties Affect Lexical Stress Assignment in Reading Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Giacomo; Sulpizio, Simone; Primativo, Silvia; Burani, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings from English and Russian have shown that grammatical category plays a key role in stress assignment. In these languages, some grammatical categories have a typical stress pattern and this information is used by readers. However, whether readers are sensitive to smaller distributional differences and other morpho-syntactic properties (e.g., gender, number, person) remains unclear. We addressed this issue in word and non-word reading in Italian, a language in which: (1) nouns and verbs differ in the proportion of words with a dominant stress pattern; (2) information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties may contrast with other sources of information, such as stress neighborhood. Both aspects were addressed in two experiments in which context words were used to induce the desired morpho-syntactic properties. Experiment 1 showed that the relatively different proportions of stress patterns between grammatical categories do not affect stress processing in word reading. In contrast, Experiment 2 showed that information specified by words sharing morpho-syntactic properties outweighs stress neighborhood in non-word reading. Thus, while general information specified by grammatical categories may not be used by Italian readers, stress neighbors with morpho-syntactic properties congruent with those of the target stimulus have a primary role in stress assignment. These results underscore the importance of expanding investigations of stress assignment beyond single words, as current models of single-word reading seem unable to account for our results. PMID:27445910

  4. Affective factors and strategy use in a distance language context: a pilot study using think-aloud verbal protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Hurd, Stella

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale ethnographic pilot study using think-aloud verbal protocols (TAPs), which was carried out with novice distance learners of French. The study aimed to extend knowledge of the distance language learner experience through allowing learners to talk freely about the positive and negative emotions they were experiencing as they tackled two designated language tasks, and the strategies they used to manage these emotions. The study was prompted by the lack of resea...

  5. A Read-Aloud for Science (Read It Aloud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Judy S.; Breen, Margaret

    1996-01-01

    Recommends a young adult read-aloud selection for science classes on endangered species. Describes listening, writing, discussing, investigating, and debating activities capitalizing on this read-aloud. (SR)

  6. Thinking Aloud Influences Perceived Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-01-01

    a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. Method: In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two......Objective: We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Background: Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which...... levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). Results: The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control...

  7. Mobbing Behaviour: Victims and the Affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the level of mobbing behaviour faced by teachers and managers working in primary schools, their responses to such behaviour and the difference in these responses according to the gender variable. The sample of the research consists of a total of 1,316 teachers and managers including 691 men and 625…

  8. Cultural cognition in the thinking-aloud method for usability evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper;

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins......) and Easterners (people from China and the countries heavily influenced by its culture). We illustrate the impact of cultural cognition on four central elements of TA: (1) instructions and tasks, (2) the user's verbalizations, (3) the evaluator's reading of the user, and (4) the overall relationship between user...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...

  9. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  10. Inhaled corticosteroids do not affect behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T. W.; van Roon, E. N.; Duiverman, E. J.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether children with asthma and on inhaled corticosteroids have more behavioural problems, such as aggressiveness and hyperactivity, as compared with healthy controls and with children under medical care because of other disorders. Methods: Questionnaires were given to three group

  11. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  12. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  13. Spatial behaviour in Dutch dwelling areas: how housing layouts affects the behaviour of its users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.; Rueb, L.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to show how the spatial layout of neighbourhoods affect the behaviour of its dwellers. An area's social and spatial composition influences anti-social behaviour in built environments. However, social conditions can overrule spatial ones. A more adequate understanding o

  14. How do Expenditure Rules affect Fiscal Behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Wierts

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of self-enforced national expenditure rules in limiting the expenditure bias and procyclical expenditure increases/decreases due to revenue windfalls/shortfalls. A simple model predicts that expenditure rules can have the intended effects, but only if the political and institutional costs of non compliance are sufficiently large. Empirical estimations provide some support that expenditure rules affect expenditure outcomes in the hypothesised manner, especially...

  15. CB1 receptors modulate affective behaviour induced by neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Ildikó; Nent, Elisa; Erxlebe, Edda; Zimmer, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Patients suffering from chronic pain are often diagnosed with a psychiatric condition, in particular generalized anxiety and major depression. The underlying pathomechanisms contributing to this comorbidity, however, are not entirely clear. In this manuscript we have focussed on the potential role of the cannabinoid receptor CB1, because it is known to modulate neuronal circuits contributing to chronic pain states and affective behaviours. For this purpose we analysed the consequences of a partial sciatic nerve ligation on anxiety- and depression-related behaviours in mice lacking CB1 receptors. Our results show that the development of mechanical hypersensitivity was similar in CB1 deficient mice and wild type controls. However, CB1 knockouts showed much more pronounced behavioural manifestations of anxiety-related behaviours in the light-dark and zero-maze tests, sucrose anhedonia, and disturbed home-cage activity. These results indicate that the endocannabinoid system affects chronic pain-induced mood changes through CB1 receptors.

  16. Dynamic probabilistic CCA for analysis of affective behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Fusing multiple continuous expert annotations is a crucial problem in machine learning and computer vision, particularly when dealing with uncertain and subjective tasks related to affective behaviour. Inspired by the concept of inferring shared and individual latent spaces in probabilistic CCA (PCC

  17. Taking the Time to Read Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Reading aloud is a widely accepted and successful practice in elementary school classrooms, but is rarely found in middle school classrooms (Allen 2000). However, results from initial research on reading aloud in secondary classrooms support the practice (Ivey and Fisher 2006). The benefits of reading aloud are many, but two benefits are…

  18. Improving the Quality of Think-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly; Kenny, MaryBeth

    2016-01-01

    An essential element in teaching children to effectively comprehend text is the use of teacher-led think alouds. This article presents a three-step model to improve the quality and quantity of think alouds in K-6 classrooms. The article follows elementary teachers who planned, implemented, transcribed, and reflected upon think aloud lessons to…

  19. Predicting automaticity in exercise behaviour: the role of perceived behavioural control, affect, intention, action planning, and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Bruijn; B. Gardner; L. van Osch; F.F. Sniehotta

    2014-01-01

    Background Habit formation has been proposed as a way to maintain behaviour over time. Purpose Recent evidence suggests that constructs additional to repeated performance may predict physical automaticity, but no research has yet explored possible direct impacts of intention, planning, affect, and p

  20. Factors Affecting Shopping Behaviour of People in Large Russian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Грунт, Елена Викторовна

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the concept of 'shopping': its meaning and factors affecting shopping practices of the Russian city population.  The author concludes that shopping is one of the actively developing forms of consumer behaviour in large cities, a way of spending leisure time, and a specific lifestyle for residents of large cities. The article points out social consequences of shopping in large Russian cities.Key  words: shopping, population, large city, leisure time, lifestyle, consumers'...

  1. The Effect of Reading Aloud on English Speaking Ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱子奇

    2014-01-01

    English speaking ability is one of the most direct ways and standards to judge whether one ’s English is good or not. How to improve English speaking ability is always a heated topic among English learners. Many educators have examined that reading English aloud has been attested to be an effective method of learning English, especially improving English speaking abili-ty. This paper, through a questionnaire survey, is to analyze the relationship between students ’oral English outcome and their reading aloud, followed by the reasons why reading aloud affects English speaking ability, attempting to find out effective strate-gies to help English learners to improve their English speaking ability.

  2. Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): physical activity associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, 23 May). Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): physical activity associated with study success. Poster presentation at the annual meeting of the International Society for Behaviour on Nutrition and Physical Acti

  3. USING THE THINK-ALOUD METHOD TODIAGNOSE READING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou; Qiming

    2001-01-01

    The think-aloud method has been widely used in cognitivestudies, and in particular, in the studies of the on-goingprocesses in reading comprehension. It is an effective tool, ifused properly, in revealing how the reader processes the textinformation and solves his/her comprehension problems usingdifferent kinds of strategies during text processing. As a result,it allows us to have a glimpse of the reader’s cognitive processesduring text processing that we cannot see under other situations,and allows us to find out the processing strengths of the reader aswell as the limitations and problems of his/her processingstrategies. Therefore, it can be useful in diagnosing students’reading problems. Although the think-aloud method is popular in cognitivestudies, it is difficult to manage. This paper offers somesuggestions on designing a program for diagnosing readingproblems to control the factors that affect the think-aloudperformance.

  4. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting territorial and reproductive behaviour of dragonflies (Odonata)

    OpenAIRE

    KYBICOVÁ, Tereza

    2015-01-01

    Habitat selection, territorial behaviour and reproductive behaviour of dragonflies (Odonata) are discussed and biotic and abiotic factors affecting their territorial and reproductive behaviour are reviewed. The most important biotic factors are predation risk affecting larval survival and the presence of aquatic vegetation, which provides spatial structure. The review is complemented by a field study of territorial and reproductive behavior of dragonflies at an experimental site, at which the...

  5. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions. PMID:27633192

  6. Immersion factors affecting perception and behaviour in a virtual reality power wheelchair simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaer, Abdulaziz; Regenbrecht, Holger; O'Hare, David

    2017-01-01

    Virtual Reality based driving simulators are increasingly used to train and assess users' abilities to operate vehicles in a controlled and safe way. For the development of those simulators it is important to identify and evaluate design factors affecting perception, behaviour, and driving performance. In an exemplary power wheelchair simulator setting we identified the three immersion factors display type (head-mounted display v monitor), ability to freely change the field of view (FOV), and the visualisation of the user's avatar as potentially affecting perception and behaviour. In a study with 72 participants we found all three factors affected the participants' sense of presence in the virtual environment. In particular the display type significantly affected both perceptual and behavioural measures whereas FOV only affected behavioural measures. Our findings could guide future Virtual Reality simulator designers to evoke targeted user behaviours and perceptions.

  7. READING ALOUD STRATEGIES IN READING ENGLISH TEXTS

    OpenAIRE

    Iyen Nurlaelawati; Shofa Dzulqodah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Reading aloud by a young language learner shows unique patterns as the evidence of his/her language data processing. This study, thus, explored the strategies applied by an Indonesian young language learner to read English written texts aloud to identify errors that actually bring certain benefits in her language learning process such as making intelligent guesses when she encountered unfamiliar words. It adopted qualitative case study design involving a seven-year old girl as the s...

  8. Can diet composition affect behaviour in dogs? : food for thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, G.

    2009-01-01

    The consumption of food goes beyond the basic provision of energy and essential nutrients for the maintenance of physical health. Studies in rats, pigs, and human subjects have shown that behaviour and mood can be influenced by specific nutrients consumed. The research described in this thesis aimed

  9. A Read-Aloud for Foreign Languages: Becoming a Language Master (Read It Aloud).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Judy S.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of some read-alouds from Alexandre Dumas'"The Count of Monte Cristo" which helped to demonstrate some principles of learning foreign languages. Describes briefly the read aloud selection, discusses some specific activities that relate to foreign language learning, and discusses specific language arts activities. (SR)

  10. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived reward when returning from a sucrose feeder after cocaine treatment. Here we examined more broadly whether cocaine altered reward-related behaviour, and biogenic amine modulated behavioural responses in bees. Bees developed a preference for locations at which they received cocaine, and when foraging at low quality sucrose feeders increase their foraging rate in response to cocaine treatment. Cocaine also increased reflexive proboscis extension to sucrose, and sting extension to electric shock. Both of these simple reflexes are modulated by biogenic amines. This shows that systemic cocaine treatment alters behavioural responses that are modulated by biogenic amines in insects. Since insect reward responses involve both octopamine and dopamine signalling, we conclude that cocaine treatment altered diverse reward-related aspects of behaviour in bees. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding the ecology of cocaine as a plant defence compound. Our findings further validate the honey bee as a model system for understanding the behavioural impacts of cocaine, and potentially other drugs of abuse.

  11. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR USING BIG DATA TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabin Sahoo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Big data technology is getting momentum recently. There are several articles, books, blogs and discussion points to various facets of big data technology. The study in this paper focuses on big data as concept, and insights into 3 Vs such as Volume, Velocity and Variety and demonstrates their significance with respect to factors that can be processed using big data for studying customer behaviour for online users.

  12. Does pro-environmental behaviour affect carbon emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary focus of this research is to explore the effect of pro-environmental behaviour on CO2 emissions in relation to heating, electricity and transport activities in the residential sector. Changing such behaviour has considerable potential for conserving energy and is an important target of environmental policies which are designed to decrease energy consumption. It is hypothesized that people who consciously act in a pro-environmental way do not necessarily have lower CO2 emissions more than those who do not undertake environmental activities. Data about residential energy use is based on a survey carried out in Hungary in 2010 with a sample of 1012 people. Latent cluster analysis (LCA) was conducted based on data about the reported pro-environmental behavior in the survey and four clusters were identified. Relevant sociostructural and structural factors were also inverstigated. Results of the data analysis show that no significant difference is found between the impacts of environmentally aware and environmentally unaware consumers, i.e. both ‘Brown’ and ‘Supergreen’ consumers consume approximately the same amount of energy and produce approximately the same amount of carbon emissions because the motivation-driven activities of ‘Supergreens’ are offset by structural factors

  13. Affect and cognition as predictors of behavioural intentions towards services

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Anne; Reynolds, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine alternative approaches to measuring service evaluation across cultures. This paper aims to assess: differences between cognitive and affective measures and their ability to predict behavioral intentions and the impact of service features on these measures. Design/methodology/approach – A self-completion survey of African (East/West), Chinese, and English higher education students includes service quality, satisfaction, affect (emotions/feeling...

  14. Cocaine affects foraging behaviour and biogenic amine modulated behavioural reflexes in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Eirik Søvik; Naïla Even; Radford, Catherine W.; Barron, Andrew B.

    2014-01-01

    In humans and other mammals, drugs of abuse alter the function of biogenic amine pathways in the brain leading to the subjective experience of reward and euphoria. Biogenic amine pathways are involved in reward processing across diverse animal phyla, however whether cocaine acts on these neurochemical pathways to cause similar rewarding behavioural effects in animal phyla other than mammals is unclear. Previously, it has been shown that bees are more likely to dance (a signal of perceived rew...

  15. Visual communication as a means of affecting consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Karkonen, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological developments, the widespread use of the internet and the shift to constant connectivity have affected the way people communicate. To some extent, visual messages have started to dominate the world, as people have become more accustomed to receiving visual messages instead of written or verbal ones. Nowadays visual communication is also an integral part of the fast-changing business environment. The purpose of this study is to provide insights into the field of visua...

  16. Stories to Be Read Aloud (Booksearch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents junior and senior high school teachers' suggestions for short stories to read aloud in a single class period, including "The Laughing Man" (J. D. Salinger), "A & P" (John Updike), "Epicac" (Kurt Vonnegut), "The Story of an Hour" (Kate Chopin), and "The Yellow Wallpaper" (Charlotte Perkins Gilman). (MM)

  17. The disruptive effect of Think Aloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yssing, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud (TA), we ask the question: what happens when users are required to verbalise their visual perceptions and interactions? We argue that TA may have a disruptive effect, suggesting that other techniques be considered. With a theoretical distinction between focal and subsidiary awareness...

  18. Mother-Child Affect and Emotion Socialization Processes across the Late Preschool Period: Predictions of Emerging Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, Rebecca P.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined concurrent and longitudinal relations between maternal negative affective behaviour and child negative emotional expression in preschool age children with (n=96) or without (n=126) an early developmental risk, as well as the predictions of later behaviour problems. Maternal negative affective behaviour, child…

  19. Routine handling methods affect behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks in a novel test of anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Ralph R J; Paul, E. S; Radford, Andrew N.; Purser, Julia; Mendl, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Fish are increasingly popular subjects in behavioural and neurobiological research. It is therefore important that they are housed and handled appropriately to ensure good welfare and reliable scientific findings, and that species-appropriate behavioural tests (e.g. of cognitive / affective states) are developed. Routine handling of captive animals may cause physiological stress responses that lead to anxiety-like states (e.g. increased perception of danger). In fish, these may be particularl...

  20. Heritability and repeatability of behavioural attributes affecting foraging success and fitness in water striders

    OpenAIRE

    Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Perner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Heritabilities and repeatabilities are presented for various behavioural attributes affecting foraging performance and fitness in Aquarius (Gerris) remigis (Heteroptera: Gerridae) females. These behavioural attributes were patch choice, foraging success, capture accuracy, and measures of mobility, activity, skittishness and aggressiveness. Most heritabilities were not significantly different from zero, which may be related to the low sampIe size. Conclusions as to the potential of direct sele...

  1. Study identifies socio-cultural factors affecting demographic behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is undertaking a project that will produce a state-of-the-art paper on sociocultural factors affecting demographic behavior. Particular emphasis will be placed on reproductive behavior in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Arab states region. The extent to which this information is incorporated in current population policies and programs will also be examined, and recommendations will be made. The factors to be studied include family and kinship structure; gender status and role; patterns of sexual relations and procreation in general and adolescent sexual behavior and fertility; religion, beliefs, customs, and traditions concerned with sexual relations and procreation; child rearing, socialization, and education; status and role of women; and sociocultural change, change agents, and influentials. The literature search will provide an inventory of methodologies. Guidelines on the use of the methodologies will be drafted for use by project personnel. These will later be tested in pilot studies in rural and urban communities in selected developing countries. The goal is to design programs that will accelerate contraceptive acceptance and sustain contraceptive practice by being sensitive to the sociocultural influences on the reproductive behavior of different subpopulations.

  2. Detection of genetic variants affecting cattle behaviour and their impact on milk production: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Juliane; Brand, Bodo; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Graunke, Katharina L; Langbein, Jan; Knaust, Jacqueline; Kühn, Christa; Schwerin, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Behaviour traits of cattle have been reported to affect important production traits, such as meat quality and milk performance as well as reproduction and health. Genetic predisposition is, together with environmental stimuli, undoubtedly involved in the development of behaviour phenotypes. Underlying molecular mechanisms affecting behaviour in general and behaviour and productions traits in particular still have to be studied in detail. Therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study in an F2 Charolais × German Holstein cross-breed population to identify genetic variants that affect behaviour-related traits assessed in an open-field and novel-object test and analysed their putative impact on milk performance. Of 37,201 tested single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), four showed a genome-wide and 37 a chromosome-wide significant association with behaviour traits assessed in both tests. Nine of the SNPs that were associated with behaviour traits likewise showed a nominal significant association with milk performance traits. On chromosomes 14 and 29, six SNPs were identified to be associated with exploratory behaviour and inactivity during the novel-object test as well as with milk yield traits. Least squares means for behaviour and milk performance traits for these SNPs revealed that genotypes associated with higher inactivity and less exploratory behaviour promote higher milk yields. Whether these results are due to molecular mechanisms simultaneously affecting behaviour and milk performance or due to a behaviour predisposition, which causes indirect effects on milk performance by influencing individual reactivity, needs further investigation. PMID:26515756

  3. Thinking aloud in the presence of interruptions and time constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    and time constraints, two frequent elements of real-world activities. We find that the presence of auditory, visual, audiovisual, or no interruptions interacts with thinking aloud for task solution rate, task completion time, and participants’ fixation rate. Thinking-aloud participants also spend longer...... responding to interruptions than control participants. Conversely, the absence or presence of time constraints does not interact with thinking aloud, suggesting that time pressure is less likely to make thinking aloud reactive than previously assumed. Our results inform practitioners faced with the decision...

  4. Perceived Thermal Discomfort and Stress Behaviours Affecting Students’ Learning in Lecture Theatres in the Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaraukuro Tammy Amasuomo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between students’ perceived thermal discomfort and stress behaviours affecting their learning in lecture theatres in the humid tropics. Two lecture theatres, LTH-2 and 3, at the Niger Delta University, Nigeria, were used for the study. Two groups of students from the Faculties of Agriculture and Engineering and the Department of Technology Education constituted the population. The sample size selected through random sampling for Groups A and B was 210 and 370 students, respectively. Objective and self-report instruments were used for data collection. The objective instrument involved physical measurement of the two lecture theatres and of the indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement. The self-report instrument was a questionnaire that asked for the students perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and the effect of indoor thermal comfort level on perceived stress behaviours affecting their learning. The objective indoor environmental data indicated thermal discomfort with an average temperature of 29–32 °C and relative humidity of 78% exceeding the ASHARE [1] and Olgyay [2].The students’ experienced a considerable level of thermal discomfort and also perceived that stress behaviours due to thermal discomfort affected their learning. Further, there were no significant differences in the perceived thermal discomfort levels of the two groups of students in LTH-2 and 3. Furthermore, stress behaviours affecting learning as perceived by the two groups of students did not differ significantly. In addition, no correlation existed between the perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and stress behaviour levels affecting learning for students in LTH-2, because the arousal level of the students in the thermal environment was likely higher than the arousal level for optimal performance [3,4]. However, a correlation existed in the case of students in LTH-3, which was expected because it only

  5. Elevated carbon dioxide affects behavioural lateralization in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, Paolo; Allan, Bridie; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L

    2012-02-23

    Elevated carbon dioxide (CO(2)) has recently been shown to affect chemosensory and auditory behaviour, and activity levels of larval reef fishes, increasing their risk of predation. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes are unknown. Behavioural lateralization is an expression of brain functional asymmetries, and thus provides a unique test of the hypothesis that elevated CO(2) affects brain function in larval fishes. We tested the effect of near-future CO(2) concentrations (880 µatm) on behavioural lateralization in the reef fish, Neopomacentrus azysron. Individuals exposed to current-day or elevated CO(2) were observed in a detour test where they made repeated decisions about turning left or right. No preference for right or left turns was observed at the population level. However, individual control fish turned either left or right with greater frequency than expected by chance. Exposure to elevated-CO(2) disrupted individual lateralization, with values that were not different from a random expectation. These results provide compelling evidence that elevated CO(2) directly affects brain function in larval fishes. Given that lateralization enhances performance in a number of cognitive tasks and anti-predator behaviours, it is possible that a loss of lateralization could increase the vulnerability of larval fishes to predation in a future high-CO(2) ocean.

  6. Autonomous motivation is associated with the maintenance stage of behaviour change in people with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Moens, Herman; Madou, Tomas; De Backer, Tanja; Vallons, Veerle; Bruyninx, Peter; Vanheuverzwijn, Sarah; Mota, Cindy Teixeira; Soundy, Andy; Probst, Michel

    2016-06-30

    The present study examined whether in people with affective disorders motives for adopting and maintaining physical activity recommendations (as formulated by the self-determination theory) differed across the stages of behaviour change (identified by the transtheoretical model). A total of 165 (105♀) persons (45.6±14.2years) with affective disorders [major depressive disorder (n=96) or bipolar disorder (n=69)] completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and the Patient-centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise questionnaire. Discriminant and multivariate analyses demonstrated that persons with affective disorders at the early stages of change have less autonomous and more controlled physical activity motives than those at the later stages. Our results suggest that autonomous motivation may have an important role to play in the maintenance of health recommendations in persons with affective disorders. Longitudinal and intervention studies should be designed in people with affective disorders to identify the causal pathways between motives for maintaining health recommendations, effective changes in health behaviour and physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27131627

  7. Comparison of elicitation methods for moral and affective beliefs in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, M; Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Raats, M M; Saba, A; Shepherd, R

    2006-09-01

    Although the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) has been applied successfully in the area of food choice, it has been criticized for its pure utilitarian approach to the factors determining behaviour. Despite the increase in predictive power of the model with added components such as affective attitude and moral and ethical concerns, in most studies the elicitation process still only addresses people's utilitarian beliefs about the behaviour with little attention paid to other aspects. This study compares the traditional method of elicitation of advantages and disadvantages with two other methods (word association and open-ended) in the elicitations of beliefs, attitudes and moral concerns in relation to the consumption of organic foods. Results show the traditional method to be best for eliciting cognitive beliefs, open-ended emotion task for eliciting emotional beliefs and open-ended beliefs task best for moral concerns. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. PMID:16782230

  8. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  9. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurane Winandy

    Full Text Available The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  10. Learning from K-5 Teachers Who Think Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly

    2016-01-01

    An essential element in teaching children to effectively comprehend text is the use of teacher-led think-alouds. The overarching objective of this study was to explore how to better prepare early career teachers to conduct think-alouds in their classrooms. Data from 31 teachers consisted of (1) questionnaires, (2) lesson plans, (3) lesson…

  11. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity,…

  12. The Power of Planning Developing Effective Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Meagan K.; Duke, Nell K.

    2008-01-01

    In the midst of many circle times, one can overhear small voices adding to the words from the book being read aloud by the teacher. Sometimes the children's words relate to the text, sometimes not. Early childhood educators recognize the importance of reading aloud every day to develop children's language and early literacy skills. Recommendations…

  13. The influence of social psychological factors on behaviour, stress and dose in Chernobyl affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 12 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, people in the affected areas have lived day to day with the risks of radiation. During these 12 years many countermeasures have been applied to minimise dose and thus reduce the threat to the health of the affected populations. Some of these countermeasures are aimed at changing daily life; for example, advice and restrictions on behaviours relating to the forest, consumption of forest produce and the consumption of private milk. In order to be effective, these countermeasures require action, or compliance, on the part of the affected populations. How have people in these areas responded to this risk and to the countermeasures employed to minimise the risk? A number of social psychological factors may be involved in peoples responses to this situation, including their perceptions of threat, the perceived costs and benefits of the behaviours involved, and the influence of other people. We examine the influence of these various social psychological factors on compliance behaviour, dose, and stress related health through a survey of people in the affected areas using quantitative questionnaire measures. SPARPA or Social psychological aspects of radiation protection after accidents, is a European Commission-sponsored project (F14C-CT96-0010) involving U. Surrey, Symlog and NRPB as well as partners in the CIS. Specific objectives include: to characterise, using quantitative methods, the nature and psychological impact of countermeasures and the influence of behaviour on dose, and to develop, guidance on the implementation of countermeasures, taking account of the social and psychological context. (authors)

  14. Comparative studies of offices pre and post — how changing spatial configurations affect organisational behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Sailer, K.; Budgen, A.; Lonsdale, N; Turner, A; Penn, A

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the way in which design interventions in an office affect everyday users, and thus shape organisational behaviour, should be high on the agenda for architects, designers and consultants alike. Surprisingly, this seems rarely to be the case. Here we aim to help close this gap by studying a variety of organisations in depth both before and after an office move from the point of view of design practice. This paper thus aims at understanding how a newly designed office is seen, used...

  15. Association of Affective Commitment with Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Task Performance of Employees in Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    DANISH, Rizwan Qaiser; SHAHID, Ahmad Usman; HUMAYON, Asad Afzal; Nawaz, Muhammad Musarrat

    2015-01-01

    The basic objective of this study was to determine the impact of organizational commitment especially affective commitment on extra role and in role performance of employees working in banks in the capital of Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. In addition, the secondary purpose of this study was to explore what level of commitment these employees demonstrate towards their organizations and what are their behaviours in performing jobs accordingly. So the present study had contributed to enhance the con...

  16. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  17. Factors that affect self-care behaviour of female high school students with dysmenorrhoea: a cluster sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Fang; Chuang, Mei-hua

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the self-care behaviour of female high school students with dysmenorrhoea. This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire-based survey to understand the self-care behaviour of female high school students dysmenorrhoeal, along with the factors that affect this behaviour. A cluster random sampling method was adopted and questionnaires were used for data collection. Study participants experienced a moderate level of discomfort from dysmenorrhoea, and perceived dysmenorrhoea as serious. This investigation finds that cues to action raised perceived susceptibility to dysmenorrhoea and the perceived effectiveness of self-care behaviour and, therefore, increased the adoption of self-care behaviour. Hence, school nurses should offer female high school students numerous resources to apply correct self-care behaviour.

  18. Thermoregulatory behaviour affects prevalence of chytrid fungal infection in a wild population of Panamanian golden frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L

    2010-02-22

    Predicting how climate change will affect disease dynamics requires an understanding of how the environment affects host-pathogen interactions. For amphibians, global declines and extinctions have been linked to a pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Using a combination of body temperature measurements and disease assays conducted before and after the arrival of B. dendrobatidis, this study tested the hypothesis that body temperature affects the prevalence of infection in a wild population of Panamanian golden frogs (Atelopus zeteki). The timing of first detection of the fungus was consistent with that of a wave of epidemic infections spreading south and eastward through Central America. During the epidemic, many golden frogs modified their thermoregulatory behaviour, raising body temperatures above their normal set point. Odds of infection decreased with increasing body temperature, demonstrating that even slight environmental or behavioural changes have the potential to affect an individual's vulnerability to infection. The thermal dependency of the relationship between B. dendrobatidis and its amphibian hosts demonstrates how the progression of an epidemic can be influenced by complex interactions between host and pathogen phenotypes and the environments in which they are found. PMID:19864287

  19. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  20. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Ward

    Full Text Available Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI. The aims of this study were to (1 investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2 determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3 explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis, eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii, and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93. A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated

  1. The roles of the amygdala in the affective regulation of body, brain, and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirolli, Marco; Mannella, Francesco; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2010-09-01

    Despite the great amount of knowledge produced by the neuroscientific literature on affective phenomena, current models tackling non-cognitive aspects of behaviour are often bio-inspired but rarely bio-constrained. This paper presents a theoretical account of affective systems centred on the amygdala (Amg). This account aims to furnish a general framework and specific pathways to implement models that are more closely related to biological evidence. The Amg, which receives input from brain areas encoding internal states, innately relevant stimuli, and innately neutral stimuli, plays a fundamental role in the motivational and emotional processes of organisms. This role is based on the fact that Amg implements the two associative processes at the core of Pavlovian learning (conditioned stimulus (CS)-unconditioned stimulus (US) and CS-unconditioned response (UR) associations), and that it has the capacity of modulating these associations on the basis of internal states. These functionalities allow the Amg to play an important role in the regulation of the three fundamental classes of affective responses (namely, the regulation of body states, the regulation of brain states via neuromodulators, and the triggering of a number of basic behaviours fundamental for adaptation) and in the regulation of three high-level cognitive processes (namely, the affective labelling of memories, the production of goal-directed behaviours, and the performance of planning and complex decision-making). Our analysis is conducted within a methodological approach that stresses the importance of understanding the brain within an evolutionary/adaptive framework and with the aim of isolating general principles that can potentially account for the wider possible empirical evidence in a coherent fashion.

  2. COMBINING COOPERATIVE LEARNING WITH READING ALOUD BY TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jacobs

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with a section that describes cooperative learning and explains eight cooperative learning principles. The second section discusses the interface between cooperative learning and language pedagogy. Next is a section about the why and how of reading aloud by teachers. The heart of the article resides in the last and longest section which describes techniques for integrating cooperative learning with reading aloud by teachers. These techniques include ones that can be used before, while and after the teacher has read aloud to the class.

  3. Modeling 226Ra behaviour in a Spanish estuary affected by the phosphate industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of 226Ra in a system like this estuary is complex since radionuclides are affected by tidal actions and interactions with sediments through adsorption/desorption reactions and erosion/deposition processes. A numerical 2D depth-averaged model of the estuary has been developed, including processes mentioned above. It has been applied to reproduce experimental data measured after a release from the industrial complex in the Odiel River and after an accidental release in the Tinto River from the gypsum piles. The model has also been applied to simulate the self-cleaning process observed in the estuary after the direct releases from the fertilizer complex were stopped

  4. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers.

  5. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behaviour of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg E. von Mérey

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behaviour of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behaviour. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behaviour under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies.

  6. Myotonic dystrophy CTG expansion affects synaptic vesicle proteins, neurotransmission and mouse behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Oscar; Guiraud-Dogan, Céline; Sicot, Géraldine; Huguet, Aline; Luilier, Sabrina; Steidl, Esther; Saenger, Stefanie; Marciniak, Elodie; Obriot, Hélène; Chevarin, Caroline; Nicole, Annie; Revillod, Lucile; Charizanis, Konstantinos; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Takashi; Matsuura, Tohru; Cisneros, Bulmaro; Swanson, Maurice S; Trovero, Fabrice; Buisson, Bruno; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Hamon, Michel; Humez, Sandrine; Bassez, Guillaume; Metzger, Friedrich; Buée, Luc; Munnich, Arnold; Sergeant, Nicolas; Gourdon, Geneviève; Gomes-Pereira, Mário

    2013-03-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 is a complex multisystemic inherited disorder, which displays multiple debilitating neurological manifestations. Despite recent progress in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 in skeletal muscle and heart, the pathways affected in the central nervous system are largely unknown. To address this question, we studied the only transgenic mouse line expressing CTG trinucleotide repeats in the central nervous system. These mice recreate molecular features of RNA toxicity, such as RNA foci accumulation and missplicing. They exhibit relevant behavioural and cognitive phenotypes, deficits in short-term synaptic plasticity, as well as changes in neurochemical levels. In the search for disease intermediates affected by disease mutation, a global proteomics approach revealed RAB3A upregulation and synapsin I hyperphosphorylation in the central nervous system of transgenic mice, transfected cells and post-mortem brains of patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1. These protein defects were associated with electrophysiological and behavioural deficits in mice and altered spontaneous neurosecretion in cell culture. Taking advantage of a relevant transgenic mouse of a complex human disease, we found a novel connection between physiological phenotypes and synaptic protein dysregulation, indicative of synaptic dysfunction in myotonic dystrophy type 1 brain pathology.

  7. COMBINING COOPERATIVE LEARNING WITH READING ALOUD BY TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    George Jacobs; Dan Hannah

    2004-01-01

    This article begins with a section that describes cooperative learning and explains eight cooperative learning principles. The second section discusses the interface between cooperative learning and language pedagogy. Next is a section about the why and how of reading aloud by teachers. The heart of the article resides in the last and longest section which describes techniques for integrating cooperative learning with reading aloud by teachers. These techniques include ones that can be used b...

  8. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans.

  9. From Affective Experience to Motivated Action: Tracking Reward-Seeking and Punishment-Avoidant Behaviour in Real-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichers, Marieke; Kasanova, Zuzana; Bakker, Jindra; Thiery, Evert; Derom, Catherine; Jacobs, Nele; van Os, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Many of the decisions and actions in everyday life result from implicit learning processes. Important to psychopathology are, for example, implicit reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant learning processes. It is known that when specific actions get associated with a rewarding experience, such as positive emotions, that this will increase the likelihood that an organism will engage in similar actions in the future. Similarly, when actions get associated with punishing experiences, such as negative emotions, this may reduce the likelihood that the organism will engage in similar actions in the future. This study examines whether we can observe these implicit processes prospectively in the flow of daily life. If such processes take place then we expect that current behaviour can be predicted by how similar behaviour was experienced (in terms of positive and negative affect) at previous measurement moments. This was examined in a sample of 621 female individuals that had participated in an Experience Sampling data collection. Measures of affect and behaviour were collected at 10 semi-random moments of the day for 5 consecutive days. It was examined whether affective experience that was paired with certain behaviours (physical activity and social context) at previous measurements modified the likelihood to show similar behaviours at next measurement moments. Analyses were performed both at the level of observations (a time scale with units of ± 90 min) and at day level (a time scale with units of 24 h). As expected, we found that affect indeed moderated the extent to which previous behaviour predicted similar behaviour later in time, at both beep- and day-level. This study showed that it is feasible to track reward-seeking and punishment-avoidant behaviour prospectively in humans in the flow of daily life. This opens up a new toolbox to examine processes determining goal-oriented behaviour in relation to psychopathology in humans. PMID:26087323

  10. Environmental agency in read-alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Rogers, Patterson; Quigley, Cassie F.; Samburskiy, Denis; Barss, Kimberly; Rivera, Seema

    2015-06-01

    Despite growing interest in helping students become agents of environmental change who can, through informed decision-making and action-taking, transform environmentally detrimental forms of human activity, science educators have reduced agency to rationality by overlooking sociocultural influences such as norms and values. We tackle this issue by examining how elementary teachers and students negotiate and attribute responsibility, credit, or blame for environmental events during three environmental read-alouds. Our verbal analysis and visual representation of meta-agentive discourse revealed varied patterns of agential attribution. First, humans were simultaneously attributed negative agentive roles (agents of endangerment and imbalance) and positive agentive roles (agents of prevention, mitigation, and balance). Second, while wolves at Yellowstone were constructed as intentional (human-like) agents when they crossed over into the human world to kill livestock in nearby farms, polar bears in the Arctic were denied any form of agential responsibility when they approached people's homes. Third, anthropogenic causation of global warming was constructed as distal and indirect chains of cause and effect (i.e., sophisticated sequences of ripple effects), whereas its mitigation and prevention assumed the form of simple and unidirectional causative links (direct and proximal causality). Fourth, the notion of balance of nature was repeatedly used as a justification for environmental conservation but its cause and dynamic nature remained unclear. And, fifth, while one teacher promoted environmental agency by encouraging students to experience positive emotions such as love of nature, freedom, and oneness with nature, the other teachers encouraged students to experience negative emotions such as self-blame and guilt. This study's main significance is that it highlights the need for environmental educators who set out to promote environmental agency to expand the focus of

  11. Attitudinal Factors Affecting Viral Advertising Pass-On Behaviour of Online Consumers in Food Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Salleh, Nurhidayah; Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Zakuan, Norhayati; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Zameri Mat Saman, Muhamad

    2016-05-01

    The increase number of active users of social media, especially Facebook, stimulates viral advertising behaviour among them, thus attracting e-marketers to focus on viral advertising in promoting their products. In global market, use of Facebook platform indicated that food services/restaurant of food industry is ranked number 11 with 18.8% users’ response rate within the platform. This development calls for e-marketers in Malaysia to use Facebook as their viral advertising channel. Attitudinal factors affecting the viral advertising pass-on behaviour (VAPB) especially among members of social media is of interest to many researchers. The typical attitudinal factors used were attitude toward social media (ATSM), attitude toward advertising in social media (AASM) and attitude toward advertising in general (AAIG). Attitude toward advertised brand (ATAB) is important in fast food industry because users of social media tend to share their experience about tastes and features of the food. However, ATAB is less emphasized in the conceptual model between attitudinal factors and VAPB. These four factors of consumer attitude served as independent variables in the conceptual model of this study and their effect on viral advertising pass-on behaviour among members of Domino's Pizza Malaysia Facebook page was examined. Online survey using a set of questionnaire which was sent to the members of this group via private message was employed. A total of 254 sets of usable questionnaires were collected from the respondents. All the attitudinal factors, except for AASM, were found to have positive and significant effect on VAPB. AAIG exerted the strongest effect on VAPB. Therefore, e-marketers should emphasize on developing a favourable attitude toward advertising in general among members of a social media to get them involve in viral advertising. In addition, instilling a favourable attitude towards advertised brand is also vital as it influences the members to viral the brand

  12. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  13. Routine handling methods affect behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks in a novel test of anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ralph R.J.; Paul, Elizabeth S.; Radford, Andrew N.; Purser, Julia; Mendl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Fish are increasingly popular subjects in behavioural and neurobiological research. It is therefore important that they are housed and handled appropriately to ensure good welfare and reliable scientific findings, and that species-appropriate behavioural tests (e.g. of cognitive/affective states) are developed. Routine handling of captive animals may cause physiological stress responses that lead to anxiety-like states (e.g. increased perception of danger). In fish, these may be particularly pronounced when handling during tank-to-tank transfer involves removal from water into air. Here we develop and use a new combined scototaxis (preference for dark over light areas) and novel-tank-diving test, alongside conventional open-field and novel-object tests, to measure the effects of transferring three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) between tanks using a box or net (in and out of water respectively). Preference tests for dark over light areas confirmed the presence of scototaxis in this species. Open-field and novel-object tests failed to detect any significant differences between net and box-handled fish. However, the combined diving and scototaxis detected consistent differences between the treatments. Net-handled fish spent less time on the dark side of the tank, less time in the bottom third, and kept a greater distance from the ‘safe’ bottom dark area than box-handled fish. Possible explanations for this reduction in anxiety-like behaviour in net-handled fish are discussed. The combined diving and scototaxis test may be a sensitive and taxon-appropriate method for measuring anxiety-like states in fish. PMID:26965568

  14. Routine handling methods affect behaviour of three-spined sticklebacks in a novel test of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ralph R J; Paul, Elizabeth S; Radford, Andrew N; Purser, Julia; Mendl, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Fish are increasingly popular subjects in behavioural and neurobiological research. It is therefore important that they are housed and handled appropriately to ensure good welfare and reliable scientific findings, and that species-appropriate behavioural tests (e.g. of cognitive/affective states) are developed. Routine handling of captive animals may cause physiological stress responses that lead to anxiety-like states (e.g. increased perception of danger). In fish, these may be particularly pronounced when handling during tank-to-tank transfer involves removal from water into air. Here we develop and use a new combined scototaxis (preference for dark over light areas) and novel-tank-diving test, alongside conventional open-field and novel-object tests, to measure the effects of transferring three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) between tanks using a box or net (in and out of water respectively). Preference tests for dark over light areas confirmed the presence of scototaxis in this species. Open-field and novel-object tests failed to detect any significant differences between net and box-handled fish. However, the combined diving and scototaxis detected consistent differences between the treatments. Net-handled fish spent less time on the dark side of the tank, less time in the bottom third, and kept a greater distance from the 'safe' bottom dark area than box-handled fish. Possible explanations for this reduction in anxiety-like behaviour in net-handled fish are discussed. The combined diving and scototaxis test may be a sensitive and taxon-appropriate method for measuring anxiety-like states in fish. PMID:26965568

  15. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-01

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species.

  16. Food chain transport of nanoparticles affects behaviour and fat metabolism in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Cedervall

    Full Text Available Nano-sized (10(-9-10(-7 m particles offer many technical and biomedical advances over the bulk material. The use of nanoparticles in cosmetics, detergents, food and other commercial products is rapidly increasing despite little knowledge of their effect on organism metabolism. We show here that commercially manufactured polystyrene nanoparticles, transported through an aquatic food chain from algae, through zooplankton to fish, affect lipid metabolism and behaviour of the top consumer. At least three independent metabolic parameters differed between control and test fish: the weight loss, the triglycerides∶cholesterol ratio in blood serum, and the distribution of cholesterol between muscle and liver. Moreover, we demonstrate that nanoparticles bind to apolipoprotein A-I in fish serum in-vitro, thereby restraining them from properly utilising their fat reserves if absorbed through ingestion. In addition to the metabolic effects, we show that consumption of nanoparticle-containing zooplankton affects the feeding behaviour of the fish. The time it took the fish to consume 95% of the food presented to them was more than doubled for nanoparticle-exposed compared to control fish. Since many nano-sized products will, through the sewage system, end up in freshwater and marine habitats, our study provides a potential bioassay for testing new nano-sized material before manufacturing. In conclusion, our study shows that from knowledge of the molecular composition of the protein corona around nanoparticles it is possible to make a testable molecular hypothesis and bioassay of the potential biological risks of a defined nanoparticle at the organism and ecosystem level.

  17. Expectancy-Value models of health behaviour: the role of salience and anticipated affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1998-01-01

    Expectancy-value models of health behaviour are based upon the assumption that this behaviour is determined by a subjective cost-benefit analysis. Generally, these models emphasize cognitive appraisal processes focusing on the likelihood and evaluation of the consequences of health-related behaviour

  18. How do different data logger sizes and attachment positions affect the diving behaviour of little penguins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Knott, Nathan; Chiaradia, André; Kato, Akiko

    2007-02-01

    It is crucial in any bio-logging study to establish the potential effect that attachment of loggers may have on the animal. This ensures that the behaviour monitored by the loggers has a biological relevance, as well as for ethical reasons. Evaluation of the effects of externally attached loggers shows that they increase the drag of swimming animals and increase their energy expenditure. Nevertheless, little research has been done on the effects of size or position of such loggers. In this study, we tested whether the size (i.e. large: 4.9% versus small: 3.4% of the bird's frontal area) or the place of attachment (middle versus lower back) affected the diving behaviour of male and female little penguins ( Eudyptula minor). The positioning of the data logger on the middle or lower section of little penguins' back had little, if no effect, on the diving variables measured in this study. Size of the loggers, however, had strong effects. Birds with large loggers made shorter dives and reached shallower depths than those with small loggers. In addition, birds with large loggers made more dives probably to compensate for the extra cost of carrying a large logger. The measured variables also differed between the sexes, with males diving deeper and longer than females. Logger size had a sex-specific effect on the trip duration and descent speed, with males equipped with large loggers staying longer at sea than those with small loggers, and females with large loggers descending faster than those with small loggers. From our results, it appears that effects of logger position do not exist or are very small in comparison with the effects of logger size. The results of the current study indicate that the effects of size of loggers be evaluated more commonly in bio-logging research into the diving activity of free-ranging birds.

  19. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  20. Ambiance Factors, Emotions, and Web User Behaviour:a Model Integrating and Affective and Symbolical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Brice

    2006-01-01

    The present paper addresses the efficiency of manipulating music in a merchant website, and it:- proposes a review of the literature on ambiance factors in advertising & shopping behaviour, capitalizing on it to:- propose a theoretical framework that enhances our understanding of the web-user behaviour in specific ambiance factors such as music, with a specific attention devoted to his loyalty, & affiliation behaviour;- a model of is proposed.

  1. Early non-parental care and toddler behaviour problems: Links with temperamental negative affectivity and inhibitory control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Putnam, S.; Jong, M. de; Weerth, C. de

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the link between multiple aspects of early non-parental care and internalizing and externalizing behaviour at 30 months of age. We also examined whether this link was mediated by children's inhibitory control and moderated by early temperamental negative affectivity.

  2. Considerations affecting dietary behaviour of immigrants with type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study among Surinamese in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.E. Kohinor; K. Stronks; M. Nicolaou; J.A. Haafkens

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural factors affecting the dietary behaviour of Dutch Surinamese patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods. In this qualitative study, 32 Surinamese primary care patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in semi-structured intervi

  3. Linking Languages through a Bilingual Read-Aloud Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyster, Roy; Collins, Laura; Ballinger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The present study was carried out in French immersion classrooms in an urban Quebec school board that is increasingly characterised by the heterogeneity of its French-dominant, English-dominant, and French/English bilingual student population. The study explored the extent to which a bilingual read-aloud project would (1) raise teachers' awareness…

  4. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  5. The Consequences of Progressive Phonological Impairment for Reading Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M.; Patterson, Karalyn

    2012-01-01

    The "primary systems" view of reading disorders proposes that there are no neural regions devoted exclusively to reading, and therefore that acquired dyslexias should reliably co-occur with deficits in more general underlying capacities. This perspective predicted that surface dyslexia, a selective deficit in reading aloud "exception" words (those…

  6. Service Learning: Flooding Students with Vocabulary through Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kerry; Thompson, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In the spirit of the Steven Stahl 600 Book Kid Challenge, 90 preservice teachers engaged children in 36 read-aloud sessions for a vocabulary improvement service learning project. This article describes how the preservice teachers used narrative and informational books as a vehicle for rare-word vocabulary exposure for children ages 8-12.

  7. Incrementality in Planning of Speech During Speaking and Reading Aloud: Evidence from Eye-Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganushchak, Lesya Y; Chen, Yiya

    2016-01-01

    Speaking is an incremental process where planning and articulation interleave. While incrementality has been studied in reading and online speech production separately, it has not been directly compared within one investigation. This study set out to compare the extent of planning incrementality in online sentence formulation versus reading aloud and how discourse context may constrain the planning scope of utterance preparation differently in these two modes of speech planning. Two eye-tracking experiments are reported: participants either described pictures of transitive events (Experiment 1) or read aloud the written descriptions of those events (Experiment 2). In both experiments, the information status of an object character was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture or sentence. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where object character was literally mentioned (e.g., fly). In the No Mention condition, stories did not literally mention nor prime the object character depicted on the picture or written in the sentence. The target response was expected to have the same structure and content in all conditions (The frog catches the fly). During naming, the results showed shorter speech onset latencies in the Literal condition than in the No Mention condition. However, no significant differences in gaze durations were found. In contrast, during reading, there were no significant differences in speech onset latencies but there were significantly longer gaze durations to the target picture/word in the Literal than in the No Mention condition. Our results shot that planning is more incremental during reading than during naming and that discourse context can be helpful during speaker but may hinder during reading aloud. Taken together our results suggest that on-line planning of response is affected by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors.

  8. Incrementality in planning of speech during speaking and reading aloud: evidence from eye-tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesya eGanushchak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is an incremental process where planning and articulation interleave. While incrementality has been studied in reading and online speech production separately, it has not been directly compared within one investigation. This study set out to compare the extent of planning incrementality in online sentence formulation versus reading aloud and how discourse context may constrain the planning scope of utterance preparation differently in these two modes of speech planning. Two eye-tracking experiments are reported: participants either described pictures of transitive events (Experiment 1 or read aloud the written descriptions of those events (Experiment 2. In both experiments, the information status of an object character was manipulated in the discourse preceding each picture or sentence. In the Literal condition, participants heard a story where object character was literally mentioned (e.g., fly. In the No Mention condition, stories did not literally mention nor prime the object character depicted on the picture or written in the sentence. The target response was expected to have the same structure and content in all conditions (The frog catches the fly. During naming, the results showed shorter speech onset latencies in the Literal condition than in the No Mention condition. However, no significant differences in gaze durations were found. In contrast, during reading, there were no significant differences in speech onset latencies but there were significantly longer gaze durations to the target picture/word in the Literal than in the No Mention condition. Our results shot that planning is more incremental during reading than during naming and that discourse context can be helpful during speaker but may hinder during reading aloud. Taken together our results suggest that on-line planning of response is affected by both linguistic and non-linguistic factors.

  9. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance. PMID

  10. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne Chisholm

    Full Text Available Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation and dyadic (joint attention and warmth behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical

  11. Interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affect and externalising behaviour in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Vivienne; Gonzalez, Andrea; Atkinson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Mother-child interactions around a shared activity have been shown to play a key role in the development of young children's capacity to interact cooperatively with others. This evidence is particularly germane to type 1 diabetes (T1D) management in younger children where cooperation with parental treatment efforts is crucial for treatment success and where maternal distress and child behavioural problems are risk factors for treatment management, biomedical and psychological outcomes. In 49 4-to-8 year old children with T1D, we investigated whether the association between maternal affect and child problematic behaviour is mediated by mother-child interactions in the context of a T1D-relevant collaborative problem-solving activity. Mothers completed standardised measures of maternal and child psychological adjustment and interacted with their children in the problem-solving activity, analysed for quality of interpersonal engagement based on evaluations of maternal (sensitivity and cognitive stimulation) and dyadic (joint attention and warmth) behaviours. Mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesis that interpersonal engagement mediates the relation between maternal affective state and child behavioural problems. Specifically, more negative maternal affect is associated with lower levels of interpersonal engagement; these less engaged interactions in turn are associated with more behavioural problems in children. These findings are consistent with research involving typically developing children. The implications of our findings are twofold. First, in the context of psychological adjustment to T1D, maternal affect and mother-child interactions are 2 potential targets for interventions which promote cooperative interactions. Second, understanding and caring for children at biological risk requires attention to developmental psychology theory and method; in particular, research addressing parent-child cooperation carries both conceptual and clinical relevance.

  12. Group Member Prototypicality and Intergroup Negotiation: How One's Standing in the Group Affects Negotiation Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Kleef (Gerben); W. Steinel (Wolfgang); D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); M.A. Hogg (Michael); A. Svensson

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow does a representative's position in the group influence behaviour in intergroup negotiation? Applying insights from the social identity approach (specifically self-categorization theory), the effects of group member prototypicality, accountability, and group attractiveness on competi

  13. Impaired affective and cognitive theory of mind and behavioural change in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hulst, Egberdina-Józefa; Bak, Thomas H.; Abrahams, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Executive and behavioural changes are well-recognised in classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), indicating a subclinical behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in some patients. Social cognitive deficits in ALS have been recently described and an impairment was identified on a simple Theory of Mind (ToM) test, which assesses the judgement of the preference of another through direction of eye gaze. The present study further delineated this deficit, by distingui...

  14. More support for mothers: a qualitative study on factors affecting immunisation behaviour in Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Wamani Henry; Kiguli Juliet; Rutebemberwa Elizeus; Babirye Juliet N; Nuwaha Fred; Engebretsen Ingunn MS

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The proportion of Ugandan children who are fully vaccinated has varied over the years. Understanding vaccination behaviour is important for the success of the immunisation programme. This study examined influences on immunisation behaviour using the attitude-social influence-self efficacy model. Methods We conducted nine focus group discussions (FGDs) with mothers and fathers. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with those in charge of community mobilisation fo...

  15. Cognitive, affective and behavioural characteristics of mothers with anxiety disorders in the context of child anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, Catharine; Apetroaia, Adela; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Parental emotional distress, particularly high maternal anxiety, is one of the most consistent predictors of child anxiety treatment outcome. In order to identify the cognitive, affective and behavioural parenting characteristics of mothers of children with anxiety disorders who themselves have an anxiety disorder, we assessed the expectations and appraisals of 88 mothers of anxious children (44 not anxious (NONANX) and 44 with a current anxiety disorder (ANX)) before and after interacting wi...

  16. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC. By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary development of behaviour from the aspect of the animal's adaption to living conditions, and ecotoxicology. In this mutual connection, the role of etology is to identify changes in animal behaviour which will serve as the first bioindicator of the presence of EDC in a certain environment, and before the occurrence of organic changes that could have lethal consequences.

  17. The Time Course for Processing Vowels and Lexical Tones: Reading Aloud Thai Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Schoknecht, Colin; Kim, Jeesun; Burnham, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Three naming aloud experiments and a lexical decision (LD) experiment used masked priming to index the processing of written Thai vowels and tones. Thai allows for manipulation of the mapping between orthography and phonology not possible in other orthographies, for example, the use of consonants, vowels and tone markers in both horizontal and vertical orthographic positions (HOPs and VOPs). Experiment I showed that changing a vowel between prime and target slowed down target naming but changing a tone mark did not. Experiment I used an across item-design and a different number of HOPs in the way vowels and tones were specified. Experiment 2 used a within-item design and tested vowel and tone changes for both 2-HOP and 3-HOP targets separately. The 3-HOP words showed the same tone and vowel change effect as Experiment 1, whereas 2-HOP items did not. It was speculated that the 2-HOP result was due to the variable position of the vowel affecting priming. Experiment 3 employed a more stringent control over the 2-HOP vowel and tone items and found priming for the tone changes but not for vowel changes. The final experiment retested the items from Experiment 3 with the LD task and found no priming for the tone change items, indicating that the tone effect in Experiment 3 was due to processes involved in naming aloud. In all, the results supported the view that for naming a word, the development of tone information is slower than vowel information. PMID:27363253

  18. Experimentally induced distraction impacts cognitive but not emotional processes in think-aloud cognitive assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean J. Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies have examined the impact of distraction on basic task performance (e.g., working memory, motor responses, yet research is lacking regarding its impact in the domain of think-aloud cognitive assessment, where the threat to assessment validity is high. The Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations think-aloud cognitive assessment paradigm was employed to address this issue. Participants listened to scenarios under three conditions (i.e., while answering trivia questions, playing a visual puzzle game, or with no experimental distractor. Their articulated thoughts were then content-analyzed both by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC program and by content analysis of emotion and cognitive processes conducted by trained coders. Distraction did not impact indices of emotion but did affect cognitive processes. Specifically, with the LIWC system, the trivia questions distraction condition resulted in significantly higher proportions of insight and causal words, and higher frequencies of non-fluencies (e.g., uh or umm and filler words (e.g., like or you know. Coder-rated content analysis found more disengagement and more misunderstanding particularly in the trivia questions distraction condition. A better understanding of how distraction disrupts the amount and type of cognitive engagement holds important implications for future studies employing cognitive assessment methods.

  19. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Samantha J.; Vicky Melfi

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different rel...

  20. Do Auditing and Reporting Standards Affect Firms’ Ethical Behaviours? The Moderating Role of National Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zengin Karaibrahimoglu, Yasemin; Guneri Cangarli, Burcu

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the impact of national cultural values on the relation between auditing and reporting standards and ethical behaviours of firms. Based on a regression analysis using data regarding 54 countries between the years 2007 and 2012, we found that the impact of the perceived stre

  1. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    in the presence of virgin when compared with mated females and that the cue is waterborne. The ability to distinguish between virgin and mated females may reduce male mortality during mate search and the cost related to mating behaviour (precopula) in both sexes. We estimate that at realistic population densities...

  2. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Niu, N.; Yang, X.; Qin, W.; Martins Bento, Celia; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insuffic

  3. Behaviour of U-Series Radionuclides in an Estuary Affected by Acid Mine Drainage and Industrial Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuary formed by the Tinto and Odiel rivers is an ecosystem of great interest because it is seriously affected by the acid mine drainage (AMD) produced by the high mining activity in the watersheds of these rivers, generating in their waters an extremely low pH (2.5- 3.5), and consequently high concentrations of heavy metals and natural radionuclides in dissolution. Secondly, in their estuary there is a large chemical industrial complex, and in particular two phosphoric acid production plants, which use a sedimentary phosphate rock from Morocco as raw material containing at approximately 1.5 Bq/g of U-series radionuclides, which produce annually about 2.5-3 millions of tonnes of a byproduct, called phosphogypsum (PG). PG contains high concentrations of some U-series radionuclides as 226Ra (650 Bq/kg), 210Pb-210Po (600 Bq/kg) or 230Th (450 Bq/kg). Seventeen sampling stations along the end of these rivers and this estuary were selected to study the behaviour of U-series radionuclides in the recent surface sediments and its waters. The most relevant results show a non-conservative behaviour of Uisotopes, precipitating in the zone where large pH changes (3-5) are produced. This behaviour is different from the majority of typical estuaries where only salinity changes are produced, and therefore, a conservative behaviour of uranium is observed. (author)

  4. Lexical orthographic acquisition: Is handwriting better than spelling aloud?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Line eBosse

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lexical orthography acquisition is currently described as the building of links between the visual forms and the auditory forms of whole words. However, a growing body of data suggests that a motor component could further be involved in orthographic acquisition. A few studies support the idea that reading plus handwriting is a better lexical orthographic learning situation than reading alone. However, these studies did not explore which of the cognitive processes involved in handwriting enhanced lexical orthographic acquisition. Some findings suggest that the specific movements memorized when learning to write may participate in the establishment of orthographic representations in memory. The aim of the present study was to assess this hypothesis using handwriting and spelling aloud as two learning conditions. In two experiments, fifth graders were asked to read complex pseudo-words embedded in short sentences. Immediately after reading, participants had to recall the pseudo-words’ spellings either by spelling them aloud or by handwriting them down. One week later, orthographic acquisition was tested using two post-tests: a pseudo-word production task (spelling by hand in Experiment 1 or spelling aloud in Experiment 2 and a pseudo-word recognition task. Results showed no significant difference in pseudo-word recognition between the two learning conditions. In the pseudo-word production task, orthography learning improved when the learning and post-test conditions were similar, thus showing a massive encoding-retrieval match effect in the two experiments. However, a mixed model analysis of the pseudo-word production results revealed a significant learning condition effect which remained after control of the encoding-retrieval match effect. This later finding suggests that orthography learning is more efficient when mediated by handwriting than by spelling aloud, whatever the post-test production task.

  5. Triangulation of the neurocomputational architecture underpinning reading aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Woollams, Anna M

    2015-07-14

    The goal of cognitive neuroscience is to integrate cognitive models with knowledge about underlying neural machinery. This significant challenge was explored in relation to word reading, where sophisticated computational-cognitive models exist but have made limited contact with neural data. Using distortion-corrected functional MRI and dynamic causal modeling, we investigated the interactions between brain regions dedicated to orthographic, semantic, and phonological processing while participants read words aloud. We found that the lateral anterior temporal lobe exhibited increased activation when participants read words with irregular spellings. This area is implicated in semantic processing but has not previously been considered part of the reading network. We also found meaningful individual differences in the activation of this region: Activity was predicted by an independent measure of the degree to which participants use semantic knowledge to read. These characteristics are predicted by the connectionist Triangle Model of reading and indicate a key role for semantic knowledge in reading aloud. Premotor regions associated with phonological processing displayed the reverse characteristics. Changes in the functional connectivity of the reading network during irregular word reading also were consistent with semantic recruitment. These data support the view that reading aloud is underpinned by the joint operation of two neural pathways. They reveal that (i) the ATL is an important element of the ventral semantic pathway and (ii) the division of labor between the two routes varies according to both the properties of the words being read and individual differences in the degree to which participants rely on each route.

  6. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Olufunmilola K. Odukoya, BPharm, MS; Michelle A. Chui, PharmD, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies.Purpose: The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems.Methods: Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seve...

  7. How the making and marketing of sustainable brand affect consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Vy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to concentrate on sustainable businesses. This whole report will deal with sustainable production/making and marketing products, as well as their effect on consumer behaviour. In the first stage, the author looked through the greening concept of mainstream business. Then, based on the review, the sustainable business part is developed and divided into making sustainable products and sustainable marketing. Sustainable production covers the main ideas of envir...

  8. Consumer risk perception, attitudes and behaviour related to food affected by radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on consumer attitudes to the countermeasures being taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food. Data is collected from a 1998 survey of 1003 Norwegian and 200 Scottish consumers on their fear of experiencing ill health due to radioactive contamination of food products, their risk averting behaviour connected to the Chernobyl accident of 1986, and their willingness to pay (WTP) for untreated food

  9. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary developmen...

  10. Group Member Prototypicality and Intergroup Negotiation: How One's Standing in the Group Affects Negotiation Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kleef, Gerben; Steinel, Wolfgang; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hogg, Michael; Svensson, A.

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHow does a representative's position in the group influence behaviour in intergroup negotiation? Applying insights from the social identity approach (specifically self-categorization theory), the effects of group member prototypicality, accountability, and group attractiveness on competitiveness in intergroup bargaining were examined. As representatives of their group, participants engaged in a computer-mediated negotiation with a simulated outgroup opponent. In Exp. 1 (N = 114), ...

  11. Local analgesia for infant pyloromyotomy. Does wound infiltration with bupivacaine affect postoperative behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Sury, M. R.; McLuckie, A; Booker, P D

    1990-01-01

    A series of 20 infants undergoing general anaesthesia for pyloromyotomy were studied in a randomised, blind and controlled trial to determine the postoperative behavioural and cardiorespiratory effects of wound infiltration of bupivacaine. Ten infants received bupivacaine (0.6 ml/kg, 0.25% = 1.5 mg/kg) injected intradermally into the wound during general anaesthesia and 10 infants received general anaesthesia only. Postoperatively, an independent observer assessed conscious level, crying, pos...

  12. The Relations of Parental Affect and Encouragement to Children's Moral Emotions and Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Eisenburg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of observed parental affect and encouragement in children's empathy-related responding and moral behavior, specifically cheating on a puzzle activity. Finds that (1) parents' affect and encouragement positively related to children's sympathy (not empathy) and (2) boys' cheating on the puzzle correlated to parents' affect and…

  13. From global change to a butterfly flapping: biophysics and behaviour affect tropical climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Boggs, Carol L; Stamberger, Jeannie A; Deutsch, Curtis A; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2014-10-22

    Difficulty in characterizing the relationship between climatic variability and climate change vulnerability arises when we consider the multiple scales at which this variation occurs, be it temporal (from minute to annual) or spatial (from centimetres to kilometres). We studied populations of a single widely distributed butterfly species, Chlosyne lacinia, to examine the physiological, morphological, thermoregulatory and biophysical underpinnings of adaptation to tropical and temperate climates. Microclimatic and morphological data along with a biophysical model documented the importance of solar radiation in predicting butterfly body temperature. We also integrated the biophysics with a physiologically based insect fitness model to quantify the influence of solar radiation, morphology and behaviour on warming impact projections. While warming is projected to have some detrimental impacts on tropical ectotherms, fitness impacts in this study are not as negative as models that assume body and air temperature equivalence would suggest. We additionally show that behavioural thermoregulation can diminish direct warming impacts, though indirect thermoregulatory consequences could further complicate predictions. With these results, at multiple spatial and temporal scales, we show the importance of biophysics and behaviour for studying biodiversity consequences of global climate change, and stress that tropical climate change impacts are likely to be context-dependent.

  14. More support for mothers: a qualitative study on factors affecting immunisation behaviour in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wamani Henry

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of Ugandan children who are fully vaccinated has varied over the years. Understanding vaccination behaviour is important for the success of the immunisation programme. This study examined influences on immunisation behaviour using the attitude-social influence-self efficacy model. Methods We conducted nine focus group discussions (FGDs with mothers and fathers. Eight key informant interviews (KIIs were held with those in charge of community mobilisation for immunisation, fathers and mothers. Data was analysed using content analysis. Results Influences on the mother's immunisation behaviour ranged from the non-supportive role of male partners sometimes resulting into intimate partner violence, lack of presentable clothing which made mothers vulnerable to bullying, inconvenient schedules and time constraints, to suspicion against immunisation such as vaccines cause physical disability and/or death. Conclusions Immunisation programmes should position themselves to address social contexts. A community programme that empowers women economically and helps men recognise the role of women in decision making for child health is needed. Increasing male involvement and knowledge of immunisation concepts among caretakers could improve immunisation.

  15. Reproductive state affects hiding behaviour under risk of predation but not exploratory activity of female Spanish terrapins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Marzal, Alfonso; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2015-02-01

    Female investment during reproduction may reduce survivorship due to increased predation risk. During pregnancy, the locomotor performance of gravid females might be diminished due to the additional weight acquired. In addition, egg production may also increase thermoregulatory, metabolic and physiological costs. Also, pregnant females have greater potential fitness and should take fewer risks. Thus, females should ponder their reproductive state when considering their behavioural responses under risky situations. Here, we examine how reproductive state influence risk-taking behaviour in different contexts in female Spanish terrapins (Mauremys leprosa). We simulated predator attacks of different risk levels and measured the time that the turtles spent hiding entirely inside their own shells (i.e. appearance times). We also assessed the subsequent time after emergence from the shell that the turtles spent immobile monitoring for predators before starting to escape actively (i.e. waiting times). Likewise, we performed a novel-environment test and measured the exploratory activity of turtles. We found no correlations between appearance time, waiting time or exploratory activity, but appearance times were correlated across different risk levels. Only appearance time was affected by the reproductive state, where gravid females reappeared relatively later from their shells after a predator attack than non-gravid ones. Moreover, among gravid females, those carrying greater clutches tended to have longer appearance times. This suggests that only larger clutches could affect hiding behaviour in risky contexts. In contrast, waiting time spent scanning for predators and exploratory activity were not affected by the reproductive state. These differences between gravid and non-gravid females might be explained by the metabolic-physiological costs associated with egg production and embryo maintenance, as well as by the relatively higher potential fitness of gravid females. PMID

  16. Mechanisms affecting stormflow generation and solute behaviour in a Sahelian headwater catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Karambiri, H.; Bariac, T.; Benedetti, M; Caquineau, Sandrine; Descloitres, Marc; Aventurier, A. (préf.)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse stormflow processes and the behaviour of solutes therein (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, alkalinity, NO3-, So(4)(2-), Cl-, Si), during flood events in tropical semi-arid conditions. The study site was a small Sahelian catchment (1.4 ha) located in northern Burkina Faso. Runoff and rain water was sampled over a 2-year period (1999 and 2000). In addition to dissolved load, suspended load was measured in the stream water collected at the outlet of the catchment. Isotop...

  17.  Do enclosure characteristics affect anti-predator behaviour in the European bison (Bison bonasus)?

    OpenAIRE

    Hofling, Annika

    2009-01-01

    Animals raised in captivity often fail to express appropriate anti-predator behaviour when reintroduced into the wild. The European bison (Bison bonasus) is a species that was close to extinction in the early 20th century but was saved in the last moment by intense captive breeding and subsequent reintroduction into the wild. In this study, seven groups of European bison living in different locations in Sweden were studied to investigate whether there was any difference in the anti-predator b...

  18. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (Pneuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  19. The role of the general practitioner's affective behaviour in medical encounters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.; Schreurs, K.; Rijk, A. de

    1996-01-01

    Analyzed the role of the general practitioner's (GP's) affective behavior in the medical encounter. The relationship between the GP's affective and instrumental behavior, patient satisfaction, and patient's space in consultation were studied at both the consultation and GP-level. Data are based on a

  20. Putting Up a Big Front: Car Design and Size Affect Road-Crossing Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Wilhelm K; Chesham, Alvin; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that people tend to see faces in car fronts and that they attribute personality characteristics to car faces. In the present study we investigated whether car design influences pedestrian road-crossing behaviour. An immersive virtual reality environment with a zebra crossing scenario was used to determine a) whether the minimum accepted distance for crossing the street is larger for cars with a dominant appearance than for cars with a friendly appearance and b) whether the speed of dominant-looking cars is overestimated as compared to friendly-looking cars. Participants completed both tasks while either standing on the pavement or on the centre island. We found that people started to cross the road later in front of friendly-looking low-power cars compared to dominant-looking high-power cars, but only if the cars were relatively large in size. For small cars we found no effect of power. The speed of smaller cars was estimated to be higher compared to large cars (size-speed bias). Furthermore, there was an effect of starting position: From the centre island, participants entered the road significantly later (i. e. closer to the approaching car) and left the road later than when starting from the pavement. Similarly, the speed of the cars was estimated significantly lower when standing on the centre island compared to the pavement. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that car fronts elicit responses on a behavioural level. PMID:27434187

  1. Does underwater flash photography affect the behaviour, movement and site persistence of seahorses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasti, D; Gladstone, W

    2013-11-01

    The effect of flash photography on seahorse species has never been tested. An experiment was established to test the effect of flash photography and the handling of Hippocampus whitei, a medium-sized seahorse species endemic to Australia, on their behavioural responses, movements and site persistence. A total of 24 H. whitei were utilized in the experiment with eight in each of the three treatments (flash photography, handling and control). The effect of underwater flash photography on H. whitei movements was not significant; however, the effect of handling H. whitei to take a photograph had a significant effect on their short-term behavioural responses to the photographer. Kaplan-Meier log-rank test revealed that there was no significant difference in site persistence of H. whitei from each of the three treatments and that flash photography had no long-term effects on their site persistence. It is concluded that the use of flash photography by divers is a safe and viable technique with H. whitei, particularly if photographs can be used for individual identification purposes.

  2. Acupuncture Affects Autonomic and Endocrine but Not Behavioural Responses Induced by Startle in Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dias Villas-Boas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Startle is a fast response elicited by sudden acoustic, tactile, or visual stimuli in a variety of animals and in humans. As the magnitude of startle response can be modulated by external and internal variables, it can be a useful tool to study reaction to stress. Our study evaluated whether acupuncture can change cardiac autonomic modulation (heart rate variability; and behavioural (reactivity and endocrine (cortisol levels parameters in response to startle. Brazilian Sport horses (n=6 were subjected to a model of startle in which an umbrella was abruptly opened near the horse. Before startle, the horses were subjected to a 20-minute session of acupuncture in acupoints GV1, HT7, GV20, and BL52 (ACUP and in nonpoints (NP or left undisturbed (CTL. For analysis of the heart rate variability, ultrashort-term (64 s heart rate series were interpolated (4 Hz and divided into 256-point segments and the spectra integrated into low (LF; 0.01–0.07 Hz; index of sympathetic modulation and high (HF; 0.07–0.50 Hz; index of parasympathetic modulation frequency bands. Acupuncture (ACUP changed the sympathovagal balance with a shift towards parasympathetic modulation, reducing the prompt startle-induced increase in LF/HF and reducing cortisol levels 30 min after startle. However, acupuncture elicited no changes in behavioural parameters.

  3. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    This paper analyses the changing competence requirements which members of the food chain face in their pursuit of competitive advantage. Two groups of trends serve as point of departure: more dynamic and heterogeneous consumer demands, which can be analysed in terms of consumer demands for sensory......, health, process and convenience qualities, and changing roles for retailers in the food chain. Based on these trends, it is argued that competencies which can increase producers' level of market orientation get increased weight in the attainment of competitive advantage, and three types of competencies...... are singled out as especially important: consumer understanding, relationship management, and new product development. The development of market-related competencies aimed at exploiting trends in consumer behaviour and retailing will also entail changing forms of cooperation among members of the value chain...

  4. How do gender differences affect families' pro-environmental consumer behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    Studies of "green" consumer behaviour have often reported differences in male and female environmental concern and participation. This paper looks into the nature of such differences within the family. Husband-wife differences with regard to family participation in a number of environmentally...... significant consumption issues were explored in a qualitative study including 30 couples with children. The couples' responses to the issues did not differ much. Nevertheless, the participants perceived the differences between themselves and their partner to be rather large. A number of reasons for this could...... be discerned. Most notably, the division of household and consumption roles within families often made sub-activities of pro-environmental practices the prime responsibility of either one of the partners. This division was, however, not always fully recognized by both partners. It is suggested...

  5. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation in the......The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...

  6. Not Just for After Lunch: Accelerating Vocabulary Growth during Read-Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Aimee

    2013-01-01

    This Teaching Tip is based on a vocabulary study conducted at Thetford Elementary in Thetford, Vermont. It explores the positive effects of utilizing paired conversational response and teaching of associative connections within read aloud. Teachers who scaffold student understanding during read aloud using the Four C's: compare and contrast…

  7. Reading Culturally Relevant Literature Aloud to Urban Youths with Behavioral Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verden, Claire E.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the viability of reading culturally relevant literature aloud to urban middle school youth. The findings from a research study are shared and guidelines for implementing a culturally sensitive read aloud program in your own middle school or high school classroom are discussed. Anecdotes from students involved in the study…

  8. Comparison of Think-Aloud and Constructive Interaction in Usability Testing with Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Benedikte Skibsted; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Constructive interaction provides natural thinking-aloud as test subjects collaborate to solve tasks. Since children may face difficulties in following instructions for a standard think-aloud test, constructive interaction has been suggested as evaluation method when usability testing with children....... However, the relationship between think-aloud and constructive interaction is still poorly understood. We present an experiment that compares think-aloud and constructive interaction in usability testing. The experiment involves 60 children with three setups where children apply think......-aloud, and constructive interaction in acquainted and non-acquainted pairs. Our results show that the pairing of children had impact on identification of usability problems as acquainted dyads identified more problems both in total and of the most severe than non-acquainted dyads and individual testers. Finally...

  9. Nutrient balance affects foraging behaviour of a trap-building predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren; Vollrath, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    flies of different nutrient composition and in different amounts during their first instar and measured the subsequent frequency of web building and aspects of web architecture. We found that both the likelihood of web building and the number of radii in the web were affected by prey nutrient...

  10. Studying User Income through Language, Behaviour and Affect in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoţiuc-Pietro, Daniel; Volkova, Svitlana; Lampos, Vasileios; Bachrach, Yoram; Aletras, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Automatically inferring user demographics from social media posts is useful for both social science research and a range of downstream applications in marketing and politics. We present the first extensive study where user behaviour on Twitter is used to build a predictive model of income. We apply non-linear methods for regression, i.e. Gaussian Processes, achieving strong correlation between predicted and actual user income. This allows us to shed light on the factors that characterise income on Twitter and analyse their interplay with user emotions and sentiment, perceived psycho-demographics and language use expressed through the topics of their posts. Our analysis uncovers correlations between different feature categories and income, some of which reflect common belief e.g. higher perceived education and intelligence indicates higher earnings, known differences e.g. gender and age differences, however, others show novel findings e.g. higher income users express more fear and anger, whereas lower income users express more of the time emotion and opinions.

  11. Studying User Income through Language, Behaviour and Affect in Social Media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Preoţiuc-Pietro

    Full Text Available Automatically inferring user demographics from social media posts is useful for both social science research and a range of downstream applications in marketing and politics. We present the first extensive study where user behaviour on Twitter is used to build a predictive model of income. We apply non-linear methods for regression, i.e. Gaussian Processes, achieving strong correlation between predicted and actual user income. This allows us to shed light on the factors that characterise income on Twitter and analyse their interplay with user emotions and sentiment, perceived psycho-demographics and language use expressed through the topics of their posts. Our analysis uncovers correlations between different feature categories and income, some of which reflect common belief e.g. higher perceived education and intelligence indicates higher earnings, known differences e.g. gender and age differences, however, others show novel findings e.g. higher income users express more fear and anger, whereas lower income users express more of the time emotion and opinions.

  12. Selection on feather pecking affects response to novelty and foraging behaviour in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Haas, Elske N; Nielsen, Birte L; Buitenhuis, A J (Bart);

    2010-01-01

    , therefore we studied the behaviour of 16 birds from a high feather pecking (HFP) line and 16 birds from a low feather pecking (LFP) line at 35 weeks of age inside a plus-maze. Birds were from the 10th generation of selection for either high or low FP. First exposure to the maze was used to measure birds......' fear-responses to a novel barren environment. Hereafter, birds were trained three times in the maze with four different food-items that were offered in one of the four arms (i.e. regular food-pellets, feathers, grass, and mealworms hidden in wood-shavings). On the fifth day, birds were tested...... in the maze for 10 min during which they could choose to eat from all available food-items. When exposed for the first time in the maze HFP birds walked a longer distance, vocalized sooner and had more exploratory pecks compared to LFP birds who showed more wing-movements and defecations. When given a choice...

  13. Studying User Income through Language, Behaviour and Affect in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preoţiuc-Pietro, Daniel; Volkova, Svitlana; Lampos, Vasileios; Bachrach, Yoram; Aletras, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Automatically inferring user demographics from social media posts is useful for both social science research and a range of downstream applications in marketing and politics. We present the first extensive study where user behaviour on Twitter is used to build a predictive model of income. We apply non-linear methods for regression, i.e. Gaussian Processes, achieving strong correlation between predicted and actual user income. This allows us to shed light on the factors that characterise income on Twitter and analyse their interplay with user emotions and sentiment, perceived psycho-demographics and language use expressed through the topics of their posts. Our analysis uncovers correlations between different feature categories and income, some of which reflect common belief e.g. higher perceived education and intelligence indicates higher earnings, known differences e.g. gender and age differences, however, others show novel findings e.g. higher income users express more fear and anger, whereas lower income users express more of the time emotion and opinions. PMID:26394145

  14. Social bonds affect anti-predator behaviour in a tolerant species of macaque, Macaca nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Waller, Bridget M; Panggur, Maria R; Neumann, Christof; Duboscq, Julie; Agil, Muhammad; Engelhardt, Antje

    2012-10-01

    Enduring positive social bonds between individuals are crucial for humans' health and well being. Similar bonds can be found in a wide range of taxa, revealing the evolutionary origins of humans' social bonds. Evidence suggests that these strong social bonds can function to buffer the negative effects of living in groups, but it is not known whether they also function to minimize predation risk. Here, we show that crested macaques (Macaca nigra) react more strongly to playbacks of recruitment alarm calls (i.e. calls signalling the presence of a predator and eliciting cooperative mobbing behaviour) if they were produced by an individual with whom they share a strong social bond. Dominance relationships between caller and listener had no effect on the reaction of the listener. Thus, strong social bonds may improve the coordination and efficiency of cooperative defence against predators, and therefore increase chances of survival. This result broadens our understanding of the evolution and function of social bonds by highlighting their importance in the anti-predator context. PMID:22859593

  15. Maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone in rats affects offspring neurochemistry and behaviour in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed O Farid

    Full Text Available Naltrexone is not recommended during pregnancy. However, sustained-release naltrexone implant use in humans has resulted in cases of inadvertent foetal exposure. Here, we used clinically relevant dosing to examine the effects of maternally administered sustained-release naltrexone on the rat brain by examining offspring at birth and in adulthood. Maternal treatment (naltrexone or placebo implant started before conception and ceased during gestation, birth or weaning. Morphometry was assessed in offspring at birth and adulthood. Adult offspring were evaluated for differences in locomotor behaviour (basal and morphine-induced, 10 mg/kg, s.c. and opioid neurochemistry, propensity to self-administer morphine and cue-induced drug-seeking after abstinence. Blood analysis confirmed offspring exposure to naltrexone during gestation, birth and weaning. Naltrexone exposure increased litter size and reduced offspring birth-weight but did not alter brain morphometry. Compared to placebo, basal motor activity of naltrexone-exposed adult offspring was lower, yet they showed enhanced development of psychomotor sensitization to morphine. Developmental naltrexone exposure was associated with resistance to morphine-induced down-regulation of striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression in adulthood. Adult offspring also exhibited greater operant responding for morphine and, in addition, cue-induced drug-seeking was enhanced. Collectively, these data show pronounced effects of developmental naltrexone exposure, some of which persist into adulthood, highlighting the need for follow up of humans that were exposed to naltrexone in utero.

  16. Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2008-07-01

    A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data. PMID:18612855

  17. THINK ALOUD PAIR PROBLEM SOLVING (TAPPS STRATEGY IN TEACHING READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zuhri Dj

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is aim to know what extent the achievement of students’ reading comprehension by using Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS strategy at the tenth grade students of SMKN 3 Watampone. the objectives of the research is to know what extent the achievement of student’s reading comprehension by using Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS strategy. The population of this research is the tenth grade students of SMKN 3 Watampone which has 149 students. The writers applied random sampling, because the school has students more than 100 students. The X Multimedia Class is taken as the sample, because it has many students who have low values in English subject based on their teacher report. This research employs an instrument based on the problem statements investigated, It is Reading comprehension test. After several meetings, this research finds out the achievement of students’ reading comprehension significantly effective to improve the student’s reading comprehension. The result of this research shows that the mean score obtained by the students through pretest was 46.545 and posttest was 88.364; the t-test value was higher than the t-table (49.385 > 2.080. It means that there is a significant difference between the result of the students’ pretest and posttest

  18. Valence of physical stimuli, not housing conditions, affects behaviour and frontal cortical brain activity in sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Vögeli, Sabine; Lutz, Janika; Wolf, Martin; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of short-term emotions by long-term mood is little understood but relevant to understand the affective system and of importance in respect to animal welfare: a negative mood might taint experiences, whilst a positive mood might alleviate single negative events. To induce different mood states in sheep housing conditions were varied. Fourteen ewes were group-housed in an unpredictable, stimulus-poor and 15 ewes in a predictable, stimulus-rich environment. Sheep were tested individua...

  19. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine M Egan

    Full Text Available The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0 were fed either T1 basal diet or T2 basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001, had lower intake per visit (P<0.001, spent less time eating per day (P<0.001, had a lower eating rate (P<0.01 and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001 compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05 and time effect (P<0.05 on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05, Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01, neuromedin B (P<0.05, neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05 in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05 in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo.

  20. Behaviour of U-Isotopes in an Estuary Affected by Acid Mine Drainage and Industrial Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto and Odiel rivers (SW of Spain) is an ecosystem of great interest that is seriously affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) from long-term mining activities (pH < 3). Additionally, a large industrial complex is located in the surroundings of this estuary and Huelva town, which includes two phosphate rock processing plants that produce about 3 millions of tons per year of a byproduct called phosphogypsum (PG) containing high U-series radionuclides concentrations. For these reasons, the estuary of Huelva is one of the most heavy metals and radionuclides polluted estuarine systems in Europe with extremely low pH.

  1. Evidence that the type of person affects the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paschal; Trafimow, David; Finlay, Krystina A; Norman, Paul

    2002-06-01

    This study examined the role of person type in explaining the relationship between perceived behavioural control and behavioural intentions. Participants (N = 187) completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) variables regarding 30 behaviours. Within-participants analyses demonstrated that intentions were more strongly predicted by perceived behavioural control (PBC) than a combination of attitudes and subjective norms among a minority of the sample. When these 'PBC controlled' participants were considered separately, the effects for perceived behavioural control obtained in previous between-participants analyses were augmented. Conversely, when these participants were excluded from the sample, the effects of perceived behavioural control were reduced. PBC control was also modestly associated with dispositional measures of perceived controllability. Overall, the findings indicate that the strength of the perceived behavioural control-intention relationship depends not only on the type of behaviour but also on the type of person. PMID:12133227

  2. Using Think Aloud Protocols to Assess E-Prescribing in Community Pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola K. Odukoya, BPharm, MS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Think aloud protocol has rarely been used as a method of data collection in community pharmacies.Purpose: The aim of the report is to describe how think aloud protocols were used to identify issues that arise when using e-prescribing technology in pharmacies. In this paper, we report on the benefits and challenges of using think aloud protocols in pharmacies to examine the use of e-prescribing systems.Methods: Sixteen pharmacists and pharmacy technicians were recruited from seven community pharmacies in Wisconsin. Data were collected using direct observation alongside think aloud protocol. Direct observations and think aloud protocols took place between January-February, 2011. Participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they process electronic prescriptions.Results: Participants identified weaknesses in e-prescribing that they had previously not conceived. This created heightened awareness for vigilance when processing e-prescriptions. The main challenge with using think aloud protocols was due to interruptions in the pharmacies. Also, a few participants found it challenging to remember to continue verbalizing their thought process during think aloud sessions.Conclusion: The use of think aloud protocols as method of data collection is a new way for understanding the issues related to technology use in community pharmacy practice. Think aloud protocol was beneficial in providing objective information on e-prescribing use not solely based on pharmacist’s or technician’s opinion of the technology. This method provided detailed information on a wide variety of real time challenges with e-prescribing technology use in community pharmacies. Using this data collection method can help identify potential patient safety issues when using e-prescribing and suggestions for redesign.

  3. Predicting intentions to purchase organic food: the role of affective and moral attitudes in the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvola, A; Vassallo, M; Dean, M; Lampila, P; Saba, A; Lähteenmäki, L; Shepherd, R

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the usefulness of integrating measures of affective and moral attitudes into the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-model in predicting purchase intentions of organic foods. Moral attitude was operationalised as positive self-rewarding feelings of doing the right thing. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Italy (N=202), Finland (N=270) and UK (N=200) in March 2004. Questions focussed on intentions to purchase organic apples and organic ready-to-cook pizza instead of their conventional alternatives. Data were analysed using Structural Equation Modelling by simultaneous multi-group analysis of the three countries. Along with attitudes, moral attitude and subjective norms explained considerable shares of variances in intentions. The relative influences of these variables varied between the countries, such that in the UK and Italy moral attitude rather than subjective norms had stronger explanatory power. In Finland it was other way around. Inclusion of moral attitude improved the model fit and predictive ability of the model, although only marginally in Finland. Thus the results partially support the usefulness of incorporating moral measures as well as affective items for attitude into the framework of TPB. PMID:18036702

  4. Does testosterone affect lateralization of brain and behaviour? A meta-analysis in humans and other animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, Kristina A; Bouma, Anke; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2009-04-12

    Lateralization of brain and behaviour has been the topic of research for many years in neuropsychology, but the factors guiding its development remain elusive. Based on sex differences in human lateralization, four hypotheses have been postulated that suggest a role for androgens, specifically testosterone. With the discovery that lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour among vertebrates, it has now become possible to experimentally test such hypotheses in animal models. The use of different taxa, humans, other mammalian species and birds (with oestradiol and not testosterone involved in sexual differentiation in birds) facilitates to differentiate between the hypotheses. We used meta-analyses for analysing papers that provided sufficient information, and a semi-quantitative approach based on all relevant studies that we extracted from the literature. We tested the predictions of these hypotheses regarding strength and direction of lateralization for motor output, language and visuospatial cognition in these three taxa. We tested for sex differences and early organizational effects of testosterone (both correlative and experimental studies). We found sex differences in the direction of lateralization for non-human mammals (motor biases similar to humans) and in direction and strength in birds (visual cognitive tasks). However, the prediction that prenatal testosterone exposure affects the direction of lateralization was not supported for humans. In birds and non-human mammals, opposite trends were found, with the effect in non-human mammals being opposite to the expectation based on sex differences. None of the four hypotheses was sufficiently supported and more studies, testing a wider array of functions in different taxa while reporting the data more completely are needed. PMID:19064349

  5. What do thinking-aloud participants say? A comparison of moderated and unmoderated usability sessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Borlund, Pia; Kristoffersen, Kristina Bonde

    2015-01-01

    The value of thinking aloud in usability tests depends on the content of the users’ verbalizations. We investigated moderated and unmoderated users’ verbalizations during relaxed thinking aloud (i.e., verbalization at levels 1 through 3). Verbalizations of user experience were frequent and mostly...... relevant to the identification of usability issues. Explanations and redesign proposals were also mostly relevant, but infrequent. The relevance of verbalizations of user experience, explanations, and redesign proposals showed the value of relaxed thinking aloud but did not clarify the tradeoff between...... rich verbalizations and test reactivity. Action descriptions and system observations – two verbalization categories consistent with both relaxed and classic thinking aloud – were frequent but mainly of low relevance. Across all verbalizations, the positive or negative verbalizations were more often...

  6. Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  7. Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): Biological lifestyle factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants study (ALOUD): Biological lifestyle factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  8. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  9. Managerial practices and perception of how music affects customers’ shopping behaviour: an insight from clothing retailers :  

    OpenAIRE

    Berrio Rueda, Diana; Echeverria Monsalve, Angelica; Hoyos Jaramillo, Andres

    2011-01-01

    Background Several researchers have studied atmospheric factors like crowding, col-ours, music and olfactory cues and tested their effect on shopping behav-iour. In the particular case of the influence of music in consumers‟ be-haviour, several notable observations have been made. Yet, the majority of the studies have focused on the phenomena of the music and the influences of its different factors towards consumers‟ be-haviour but little research has focused on managerial awareness of such e...

  10. Obstetric danger signs and factors affecting health seeking behaviour among the Kassena-Nankani of Northern Ghana: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aborigo, Raymond A; Moyer, Cheryl A; Gupta, Mira; Adongo, Philip B; Williams, John; Hodgson, Abraham; Allote, Pascale; Engmann, Cyril M

    2014-09-01

    Improving community members' knowledge of obstetric danger signs is one strategy for increasing the use of skilled care during pregnancy and the puerperium. This study explored knowledge of obstetric danger signs among a range of community members, examined the sources of their information, and the perceived factors that affect health seeking behaviour in rural northern Ghana. We conducted 72 in-depth interviews and 18 focus groups with community members. All interactions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo 9.0. Community members demonstrated knowledge of a wide range of obstetric danger signs, including excessive bleeding, stomach aches, waist pains, vomiting and fever. Pregnant women learn about danger signs from a range of providers, and regular contact with formal providers typically coincided with increased knowledge of danger signs. Traditional remedies for problems in obstetrics are plentiful and cultural beliefs often restrict the use of allopathic medicine. Increasing knowledge of obstetric danger signs is necessary but not sufficient to overcome cultural preferences for traditional treatments for pregnancy danger signs.

  11. Association, Haplotype, and Gene-Gene Interactions of the HPA Axis Genes with Suicidal Behaviour in Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Family twin and adoption studies have noted the heritability of specific biological factors that influence suicidal behaviour. Exposure to stress is one of the factors that strongly contribute to suicide attempts. The biological response to stress involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Therefore, we found it interesting to study polymorphisms of genes involved in the HPA axis (CRHR1, NR3C1, and AVPBR1. The study was performed on 597 patients, 225 of whom had a history of suicide attempts. We did not observe any significant differences in the studied polymorphisms between the group of patients with a history of suicide attempts and the control subjects. Our haplotype analysis of the AVPR1b gene revealed an association between the GCA haplotype and suicide attempts; however, this association was not significant after correcting for multiple testing. We did not observe any other association in haplotype and MDR analysis. We report here a comprehensive analysis of the HPA axis genes and a lack of association for genetic variations regarding the risk of suicide attempts in affective disorder patients. Nonetheless, the inconsistencies with the previously published results indicate the importance of the further investigation of these polymorphisms with respect to the risk of suicide attempts.

  12. Association, haplotype, and gene-gene interactions of the HPA axis genes with suicidal behaviour in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, Monika; Hauser, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Family twin and adoption studies have noted the heritability of specific biological factors that influence suicidal behaviour. Exposure to stress is one of the factors that strongly contribute to suicide attempts. The biological response to stress involves the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Therefore, we found it interesting to study polymorphisms of genes involved in the HPA axis (CRHR1, NR3C1, and AVPBR1). The study was performed on 597 patients, 225 of whom had a history of suicide attempts. We did not observe any significant differences in the studied polymorphisms between the group of patients with a history of suicide attempts and the control subjects. Our haplotype analysis of the AVPR1b gene revealed an association between the GCA haplotype and suicide attempts; however, this association was not significant after correcting for multiple testing. We did not observe any other association in haplotype and MDR analysis. We report here a comprehensive analysis of the HPA axis genes and a lack of association for genetic variations regarding the risk of suicide attempts in affective disorder patients. Nonetheless, the inconsistencies with the previously published results indicate the importance of the further investigation of these polymorphisms with respect to the risk of suicide attempts.

  13. Contextual Variables Affecting Aggressive Behaviour in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities Who Live in a Residential Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, P. J. C. M.; Didden, R.; Huitink, C.; Schreuder, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Aggression is a common type of problem behaviour in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability who live in a residential facility. We explored contextual events that elicit aggressive behaviour and variables that were associated with such events. Method: Respondents were 87 direct-care staff members of 87 clients with…

  14. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  15. Do health literacy and patient empowerment affect self-care behaviour? A survey study among Turkish patients with diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyüboğlu, Ezgi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of health literacy and patient empowerment on diabetes self-care behaviour in patients in metropolitan Turkish diabetes centres. The conceptual background is provided by the psychological health empowerment model, which holds that health literacy without patient empowerment comes down to wasting health resources, while empowerment without health literacy can lead to dangerous or suboptimal health behaviour. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study was conducted with 167 patients over the age of 18 from one of two diabetes clinics in a major Turkish City. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to eligible outpatients who had an appointment in one of the clinics. Health literacy was measured by a newly translated Turkish version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) and the Chew self-report scale. Patient empowerment was measured by a 12-item scale based on Spreitzer's conceptualisation of psychological empowerment in the workplace. Self-care behaviour was measured by the Self-care behaviours were measured by the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Measure (SDSCA). Level of diabetes knowledge was measured by Diabetes Knowledge Test. Results Two subscales of empowerment, impact and self-determination, predicted self-reported frequency of self-care behaviours. Neither health literacy nor diabetes knowledge had an effect on self-care behaviours. Conclusions Health literacy might be more effective in clinical decisions while empowerment might exert a stronger influence on habitual health behaviours. PMID:26975936

  16. Age affects the expression of maternal care and subsequent behavioural development of offspring in a precocial bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Pittet

    Full Text Available Variations of breeding success with age have been studied largely in iteroparous species and particularly in birds: survival of offspring increases with parental age until senescence. Nevertheless, these results are from observations of free-living individuals and therefore, it remains impossible to determine whether these variations result from parental investment or efficiency or both, and whether these variations occur during the prenatal or the postnatal stage or during both. Our study aimed first, to determine whether age had an impact on the expression of maternal breeding care by comparing inexperienced female birds of two different ages, and second, to define how these potential differences impact chicks' growth and behavioural development. We made 22 2-month-old and 22 8-month-old female Japanese quail foster 1-day-old chicks. We observed their maternal behaviour until the chicks were 11 days old and then tested these chicks after separation from their mothers. Several behavioural tests estimated their fearfulness and their sociality. We observed first that a longer induction was required for young females to express maternal behaviour. Subsequently as many young females as elder females expressed maternal behaviour, but young females warmed chicks less, expressed less covering postures and rejected their chicks more. Chicks brooded by elder females presented higher growth rates and more fearfulness and sociality. Our results reveal that maternal investment increased with age independently of maternal experience, suggesting modification of hormone levels implied in maternal behaviour. Isolated effects of maternal experience should now be assessed in females of the same age. In addition, our results show, for first time in birds, that variations in maternal care directly induce important differences in the behavioural development of chicks. Finally, our results confirm that Japanese quail remains a great laboratory model of avian

  17. Modelling Affective Pain in Mice: Effects of Inflammatory Hypersensitivity on Place Escape/Avoidance Behaviour, Anxiety and Hedonic State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Louise Konradsen; Hoffmann-Petersen, Julie; Sahlholt, Maj;

    2016-01-01

    field setup, and a saccharin preference test, respectively, and correlated with the PEAP behaviour to examine potentially confounding parameters of the novel paradigm. Results In the PEAP, CFA-treated animals spent more time in the light area. CFA also increased anxiety-like behaviour significantly......, whereas locomotor activity was unaffected. A significant, albeit modest, reduction in saccharin preference was observed. PEAP responses showed no significant correlations with any other behavioural measure. Comparison with Existing Method and Conclusions The PEAP results suggest that this paradigm might...

  18. Do health literacy and patient empowerment affect self-care behaviour? A survey study among Turkish patients with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Eyüboğlu, Ezgi; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of health literacy and patient empowerment on diabetes self-care behaviour in patients in metropolitan Turkish diabetes centres. The conceptual background is provided by the psychological health empowerment model, which holds that health literacy without patient empowerment comes down to wasting health resources, while empowerment without health literacy can lead to dangerous or suboptimal health behaviour. Design, setting and participants A cro...

  19. Parental stress-coping styles affect the behaviour of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at early developmental stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Erik; Gjoen, H.-M.; Pottinger, T.G.;

    2008-01-01

    to environmental stressors, in that they showed a shorter reaction time to low oxygen levels. Previous studies on adult and juvenile individuals from these strains demonstrated a number of correlated physiological and behavioural differences. In yolk-sac larvae, growth and development depended mainly on internal...... factors, which suggest that at least some aspects of stress-coping styles are inherent to the individual, before factors such as social experience or variable access to food resources could modify behavioural strategy....

  20. Low doses of the common alpha-cypermethrin insecticide affect behavioural thermoregulation of the non-targeted beneficial carabid beetle Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merivee, Enno; Tooming, Ene; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid H

    2015-10-01

    Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly investigated in non-targeted beneficial carabids. Conspicuous changes in locomotor activity of carabids exposed to sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic insecticides suggest that many other behaviours of these insects might be severely injured as well. We hypothesize that behavioural thermoregulation of carabids may be affected by low doses of neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide alpha-cypermethrin which may have direct deleterious consequences for the fitness and populations of the beetles in the field. Automated video tracking of the carabid beetle Platynus assimilis Paykull (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on an experimental thermal mosaic arena using EthoVision XT Version 9 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands) showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations (0.1-10mgL(-1)) drastically reduces the ability of the beetles for behavioural thermoregulation. At noxious high temperature, a considerable number of the beetles died due to thermo-shock. Other intoxicated beetles that survived exposure to high temperature displayed behavioural abnormalities. During heating of the arena from 25 to 45°C, insecticide treated beetles showed a significant fall in tendency to hide in a cool shelter (20°C) and prolonged exposure to noxious high temperatures, accompanied by changes in locomotor activity. Next day after insecticide treatment the beetles recovered from behavioural abnormalities to a large extent but they still were considerably longer exposed to noxious high temperatures compared to the negative control beetles. Our results demonstrated that behavioural thermoregulation is a sensitive and important etho-toxicological biomarker in ground-dwelling carabids. Prolonged exposure to unfavourably high temperatures has an array of negative effects decreasing fitness and survival of these insects at elevated thermal conditions with deep temperature gradients

  1. DBI/ACBP loss-of-function does not affect anxiety-like behaviour but reduces anxiolytic responses to diazepam in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budry, Lionel; Bouyakdan, Khalil; Tobin, Stephanie; Rodaros, Demetra; Marcher, Ann-Britt; Mandrup, Susanne; Fulton, Stephanie; Alquier, Thierry

    2016-10-15

    Diazepam is well known for its anxiolytic properties, which are mediated via activation of the GABAA receptor. Diazepam Binding Inhibitor (DBI), also called acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP), is a ubiquitously expressed protein originally identified based on its ability to displace diazepam from its binding site on the GABAA receptor. Central administration of ACBP or its cleaved fragment, commonly referred to as endozepines, induces proconflict and anxiety-like behaviour in rodents. For this reason, ACBP is known as an anxiogenic peptide. However, the role of endogenous ACBP in anxiety-like behaviour and anxiolytic responses to diazepam has not been investigated. To address this question, we assessed anxiety behaviour and anxiolytic responses to diazepam in two complementary loss-of-function mouse models including astrocyte-specific ACBP KO (ACBP(GFAP) KO) and whole-body KO (ACBP KO) mice. Male and female ACBP(GFAP) KO and ACBP KO mice do not show significant changes in anxiety-like behaviour compared to control littermates during elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field (OF) tests. Surprisingly, ACBP(GFAP) KO and ACBP KO mice were unresponsive to the anxiolytic effect of a low dose of diazepam during EPM tests. In conclusion, our experiments using genetic ACBP loss-of-function models suggest that endozepines deficiency does not affect anxiety-like behaviour in mice and impairs the anxiolytic action of diazepam. PMID:27363924

  2. Analysis of the Factors That Affect Dental Health Behaviour and Attendance at Scheduled Dental Check-ups Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato,Kimiko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey was administered to 317 parents who attended infant health check-ups in City B, Okayama Prefecture between October, 2008 and March, 2009. The questionnaire survey studied 7 factors based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. We analysed factors that affected oral health behaviour and attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups. The survey containing 22 items concerning matters such as 'QOL' and 'health problems' was posted to parents and guardians in advance, and then collected on the day of the medical check-up. The collected data was analysed using the t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, following which we conducted a covariance structure analysis. The results showed that dental health behaviour was directly affected by reinforcing factors, and indirectly associated with enabling and predisposing factors influenced by reinforcing factors. It was also shown that predisposing factors and oral health behaviour were associated with attendance at scheduled oral health check-ups. The results indicated that strengthening oral health education by sharing knowledge that acts as predisposing factors and introducing adaptations of oral health behaviour that that fit individual lives will lead to improved attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups.

  3. Analysis of the factors that affect dental health behaviour and attendance at scheduled dental check-ups using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimiko; Oda, Megumi

    2011-04-01

    A questionnaire survey was administered to 317 parents who attended infant health check-ups in City B, Okayama Prefecture between October, 2008 and March, 2009. The questionnaire survey studied 7 factors based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. We analysed factors that affected oral health behaviour and attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups. The survey containing 22 items concerning matters such as 'QOL' and 'health problems' was posted to parents and guardians in advance, and then collected on the day of the medical check-up. The collected data was analysed using the t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient, following which we conducted a covariance structure analysis. The results showed that dental health behaviour was directly affected by reinforcing factors, and indirectly associated with enabling and predisposing factors influenced by reinforcing factors. It was also shown that predisposing factors and oral health behaviour were associated with attendance at scheduled oral health check-ups. The results indicated that strengthening oral health education by sharing knowledge that acts as predisposing factors and introducing adaptations of oral health behaviour that that fit individual lives will lead to improved attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups. PMID:21519364

  4. Exploring the Writing Process of Indonesian EFL Students: The Effectiveness of Think-Aloud Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Hermilinda Abas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to explore the writing process of the Indonesian English as a Foreign Language (EFL students and to find out the effectiveness of using  think-aloud protocol to understand the writing process. The data were obtained from six proficient EFL students who were doing Postgraduate English Language Studies Program in Indonesia. The participants were selected based on the following criteria: had completed a minimum of two academic writing courses, had written a thesis in English, had taught English for more than two years and considered as proficient writers based on IELTS result. The finding of the study showed that all of the participants went through the following writing process: prewriting, planning, drafting, pausing, reading, revising, editing and publishing. In addition, the think-aloud protocol had different effects on the participants. Five of the participants admitted that the think-aloud protocol had a positive effect because it helped them in organizing their thoughts and ideas. However, only one participant found thinking aloud made her difficult to focus on the writing task due to the demand to verbalize and write at the same time.Keywords: think-aloud protocol, writing process, proficient writers, English as a Foreign Language (EFL

  5. Are leaders' well-being, behaviours and style associated with the affective well-being of their employees? A systematic review of three decades of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne; Nielsen, Karina M.; Borg, Vilhelm;

    2010-01-01

    This study is an overview of published empirical research on the impact of leaders and leadership styles on employee stress and affective well-being. A computerized search and systematic review of nearly 30 years of empirical research was conducted. Forty-nine papers fulfilled the inclusion.......g. support, consideration and empowerment) (30 papers) and specific leadership styles (20 papers) on employees’ stress and affective well-being. Three research questions were addressed. The review found some support for leader stress and affective well-being being associated with employee stress...... and affective well-being. Leader behaviours, the relationship between leaders and their employees and specific leadership styles were all associated with employee stress and affective well-being. It is recommended that future studies include more qualitative data, use standardise questionnaires and examine...

  6. The eye-voice span during reading aloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eLaubrock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS, the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations. For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of single fixation durations during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the eye-voice span is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the eye-voice span gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

  7. Analysis of the Factors That Affect Dental Health Behaviour and Attendance at Scheduled Dental Check-ups Using the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Kimiko; ODA, MEGUMI

    2011-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was administered to 317 parents who attended infant health check-ups in City B, Okayama Prefecture between October, 2008 and March, 2009. The questionnaire survey studied 7 factors based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model. We analysed factors that affected oral health behaviour and attendance at scheduled dental health check-ups. The survey containing 22 items concerning matters such as 'QOL' and 'health problems' was posted to parents and guardians in advance, and then colle...

  8. Thinking Aloud in the Science Classroom: Can a literacy strategy increase student learning in science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockel, Lindsey Joan

    This research study investigated the effect of using the think aloud protocol while reading informational text on students' ability to learn from text in a secondary science classroom. The participants in this study were high school students (n=47) in three classes of a mixed-grade Integrated Biology, Chemistry, and Physics course. The study tracked student achievement during a four-week curriculum unit on the theory of evolution and evidence for biological evolution. All students received instruction on using the think aloud protocol, and all students practiced the think aloud protocol when reading short articles related to scientific evidence for evolution. The researcher measured student's ability to read and understand science text by comparing scores from a reading skills pre-assessment and post-assessment from each student. Student surveys were conducted to gather feedback on the effectiveness of the strategy in teaching students to use a literacy strategy while reading science text. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

  9. Proportion of insoluble fibre in the diet affects behaviour and hunger in broiler breeders growing at similar rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm; Thodberg, Karen; Malmkvist, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    in birds fed C1 and almost none in birds fed L2, whereas birds fed H2 were intermediate. Stereotypic pecking at fixtures was seen twice as frequently in birds fed C1. Birds on diet L2 displayed behavioural signs indicative of discomfort, and the high water usage on this diet created problems with litter...

  10. Cortisol administration to pregnant sows affects novelty-induced locomotion, aggressive behaviour, and blunts gender differences in their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Taveme, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Several behavioural effects of prenatal stress are reported in literature, and these seem to depend, among other factors, on the gender studied and the period of gestation in which prenatal stress is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) to 41 pregnant so

  11. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p behaviour (p behaviour.

  12. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring piglets at weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to compare the behaviour of sows in stalls and group housing systems, and the physiological indices of their offspring, 28 sows were randomly distributed into 2 systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into 3 groups with 4 sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls a...

  13. Does testosterone affect lateralization of brain and behaviour? A meta- analysis in humans and other animal species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfannkuche, K.A.; Bouma, J.M.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Lateralization of brain and behaviour has been the topic of research for many years in neuropsychology, but the factors guiding its development remain elusive. Based on sex differences in human lateralization, four hypotheses have been postulated that suggest a role for androgens, specifically testo

  14. Home tank water versus novel water differentially affect alcohol-induced locomotor activity and anxiety related behaviours in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Facciol, Amanda; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish may be uniquely well suited for studying alcohol's mechanisms of action in vivo, since alcohol can be administered via immersion in a non-invasive manner. Despite the robust behavioural effects of alcohol administration in mammals, studies reporting the locomotor stimulant and anxiolytic effects of alcohol in zebrafish have been inconsistent. In the current study, we examined whether differences in the type of water used for alcohol exposure and behavioural testing contribute to these inconsistencies. To answer this question, we exposed zebrafish to either home water from their housing tanks or novel water from an isolated reservoir (i.e. water lacking zebrafish chemosensory and olfactory cues) with 0% or 1% v/v alcohol for 30min, a 2×2 between subject experimental designs. Behavioural responses were quantified throughout the 30-minute exposure session via a video tracking system. Although control zebrafish exposed to home water and novel water were virtually indistinguishable in their behavioural responses, alcohol's effect on locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavioural responses were dependent on the type of water used for testing. Alcohol exposure in home tank water produced a mild anxiolytic and locomotor stimulant effect, whereas alcohol exposure in novel water produced an anxiogenic effect without altering locomotor activity. These results represent a dissociation between alcohol's effects on locomotor and anxiety related responses, and also illustrate how environmental factors, in this case familiarity with the water, may interact with such effects. In light of these findings, we urge researchers to explicitly state the type of water used. PMID:26921455

  15. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  16. Neonatal intramuscular injection of plasmid encoding glucagon-like peptide-1 affects anxiety behaviour and expression of the hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor in adolescent rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huitao Fan; Lina Wang; Feng Guo; Shi Wei; Ruqian Zhao

    2010-03-01

    Early-life endocrine intervention may programme hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and cause psychiatric disorders in later life. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has been implicated in the regulation of neuroendocrine and behavioural responses, but it is yet to be determined whether and how neonatal GLP-1 overexpression may modify hippocampal GR expression and thus programme adolescent behaviour in rats. Two-dayold pups were injected intramuscularly with vacant plasmid (VP) or plasmid DNA encoding secretory GLP-1 (GP). Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test at 8 weeks of age. Plasma corticosterone levels were measured with enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Protein and mRNA levels were determined by western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. The DNA methylation status of the GR exon 17 promoter was determined by bisulphate sequencing PCR (BSP). GP rats exhibited anxiolytic behaviour compared with their VP counterparts. Hippocampal GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and GR mRNA expression were significantly elevated in GP rats without a significant difference in plasma corticosterone. Significant reduction in DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression was observed in GP rats disconnected with alterations in DNA methylation of the GR exon 17 promoter. Nevertheless, mRNA expression of nerve growth factor-inducible protein A (NGFI-A) was significantly elevated in GP rats. These results suggest that neonatal intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA encoding GLP-1 affects anxiety behaviour in adolescent rats, probably through NGFI-A-activated upregulation of hippocampal GR expression.

  17. Dietary magnesium deficiency affects gut microbiota and anxiety-like behaviour in C57BL/6N mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bettina Merete Pyndt; Winther, Gudrun; Kihl, Pernille;

    2015-01-01

    and whether there was a link between the two. A total of 20 C57BL/6 mice, fed either a standard diet or a magnesium-deficient diet for 6 weeks, were tested using the light-dark box anxiety test. Gut microbiota composition was analysed by denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: We demonstrated...... altered behavior. The duration of magnesium deficiency is suggested to influence behaviour in the evaluated test....

  18. Suicidal behaviour in first-episode non-affective psychosis: Specific risk periods and stage-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Alcaraz, Elisa García; Hernández, Begoña Vicente; Pérez-Iglesias, Rocío; López Moríñigo, Javier David; Duta, Rina; David, Anthony S; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2015-12-01

    Suicide is a major cause of premature death in psychosis. Earlier stages have been associated with higher risk. However, such risk periods have not been specifically determined and risk factors for suicidal behaviour may change over those periods, which may have crucial implications for suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to determine and characterize the highest risk period for suicide in a representative sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. Suicidal behaviour prior to first presentation of psychosis and during a 3-year follow-up was examined in a sample of 397 individuals. Risk factors for suicidal behaviour during specific time periods were investigated and compared. The greatest suicide risk was found during the month before and 2 months after first contact with psychiatric services (i.e., 'early' attempts). Severity of depressive symptoms and cannabis use emerged as predominant risk factors across time. 'Early' attempters were characterized as being male, living in urban areas, having poor premorbid adjustment, requiring hospitalization, scoring higher on anxiety measures and unusual thought content than non-attempters. Greater suspiciousness and more severe depressive symptoms distinguished the 'late' attempters. In conclusion, there is a specific high risk period for suicide in FEP around the time of the first presentation. Early intervention programmes targeting phase-specific risk factors, particularly psychotic symptoms management and secondary depression prevention strategies may be useful for suicide prevention in psychosis. PMID:26475577

  19. Evaluating municipal websites: a methodological comparison of three think-aloud variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, van den Maaike J.; Jong, de Menno D.T.; Schellens, Peter Jan

    2009-01-01

    Usability methods have received relatively little methodological attention within the field of E-Government. This paper aims to address this gap by reporting on a usability test of the municipal website of Deventer (the Netherlands), carried out by means of three variants of the think-aloud method (

  20. Is Reading Tests Aloud an Accommodation for Youth with or at Risk for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, Craig Freeman; Mixon, Clifton S.; Holdaway, Alex S.; Evans, Steven W.; Harrison, Judith R.; Zoromski, Allison K.; Yost, Joanna Sadler

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we intend to determine if reading tests aloud provides a differential boost to youth with elevated symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) relative to same-aged peers. Participants were 36 youth, 44% with or at risk for ADHD, who participated in a week long summer camp. Over the course of the week, youth attended…

  1. Teaching First Graders to Comprehend Complex Texts through Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Priscilla G.

    2016-01-01

    This formative and design study examined how the Complex Text Analysis (CTA) instructional approach provided support for first-grade students to increase their comprehension of texts of increasing complexity. The students in the diverse class participated in weekly lessons during which fictional texts were read aloud and analyzed in terms of key…

  2. Engaging Children with Print: Building Early Literacy Skills through Quality Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Sofka, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Preschool teachers and early childhood professionals know that storybook reading is important, but they may not know how to maximize its benefits for later reading achievement. This indispensable guide presents research-based techniques for using reading aloud to intentionally and systematically build children's knowledge of print. Simple yet…

  3. Hypermedia Reading Strategies Used by Persian Graduate Students in TEFL: A Think-Aloud Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketabi, Saeed; Ghavamnia, Maedeh; Rezazadeh, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive strategies used by Persian EFL (English as a foreign language) graduate students while reading a hypermedia text. Prior to the start of the study, the Nelson-Denny Reading Test was used in order to measure the reading ability of the students. Data was collected through think-aloud protocols, and the strategies…

  4. Podcasts on Mobile Devices as a Read-Aloud Testing Accommodation in Middle School Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Don; Wright, Rachel; Cihak, David F.; Moore, Tara C.; Lamb, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a digitized podcast to deliver read-aloud testing accommodations on mobile devices to students with disabilities and reading difficulties. The total sample for this study included 47 middle school students with reading difficulties. Of the 47 students, 16 were identified as students with disabilities who received special education services. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental testing conditions, standard administration, teacher-controlled read-aloud in traditional group delivery format, and student-controlled read-aloud delivered as a podcast and accessed on a mobile device, and given sample end-of-year science assessments. Based on a factorial analysis of variances, with test conditions and student status as the fixed factors, both student groups demonstrated statistically significant gains based on their testing conditions. Results support the use of podcast delivery as a viable alternative to the traditional teacher-delivered read-aloud test accommodation. Conclusions are discussed in the context of universal design for learning testing accommodations for future research and practice.

  5. The Effect of Story Read-Alouds on Children's Foreign Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norato Cerón, Catalina

    2014-01-01

    This action research project examines the impact of reading stories aloud on the development of children's reading and critical thinking strategies as well as on the improvement of English as a foreign language. Analysis of journal entries and transcriptions of recordings of the sessions were used to gather the information. Data collected revealed…

  6. Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Investigate Secondary School Chemistry Teachers' Misconceptions about Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Secondary school chemistry teachers' understanding of chemical equilibrium was investigated through interviews using the think-aloud technique. The interviews were conducted with twelve volunteer chemistry teachers in Hong Kong. Their teaching experience ranged from 3 to 18 years. They were asked to predict what would happen to the equilibrium…

  7. Print Referencing during Read-Alouds: A Technique for Increasing Emergent Readers' Print Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Ward, Allison E.; Justice, Laura M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how educators can readily increase emergent readers' print knowledge by using an evidence-based technique called print referencing to ensure that classroom read-alouds include not only a comprehension focus, but also a complementary focus on print. Print referencing was recently described in "The Reading Teacher" as an…

  8. A Think-Aloud Protocols Investigation of Dictionary Processing Strategies among Saudi EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaysony, Maha

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine qualitatively how Saudi EFL female students look-up word meanings in their dictionaries while reading. We aimed to identify and describe the look-up strategies used by these students. The subjects of the study were ten third-year English major students. A think-aloud protocol was used in order to gain insights into the…

  9. Revisiting Read-Aloud: Instructional Strategies that Encourage Students' Engagement with Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Vanessa; Wlodarczyk, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of comprehension strategy instruction in the early grades. It explains how one teacher integrated Alphaboxes, making connections, and the discussion web as part of her read aloud instructional practice. The article argues that, through careful planning, higher order thinking strategies can be modified for…

  10. Fully Transparent Orthography, yet Lexical Reading Aloud: The Lexicality Effect in Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliuca, Giovanni; Arduino, Lisa S.; Barca, Laura; Burani, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This is the first study that reports the lexicality effect (i.e., words read better than nonwords) in Italian with fully transparent and methodologically well-controlled stimuli. We investigated how words and nonwords are read aloud in the Italian transparent orthography, in which there is an almost strict one-to-one correspondence between…

  11. Stories: A List of Stories to Tell and to Read Aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ellin, Comp.

    This booklet contains lists of folk and fairy tales, stories to be read aloud, and books of poetry for young children. It includes references to children's stories from many countries, stories of heroes and saints, and stories for special occasions. A section of source materials for the storyteller is also included along with subject and…

  12. Death Discussion in Science Read-Alouds: Cognitive, Sociolinguistic, and Moral Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Reis, Giuliano; Chaize, Daniel O.; Snyder, Michele A.

    2014-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on how to address the complex topic of death when teaching science to children. The present paper addresses this issue by examining how three elementary teachers discuss the death of wild animals during science read-aloud sessions. Our findings reveal the variety of ways in which nonhuman death can be…

  13. I am the Greatest Driver in the World! : -Does self-awareness of driving ability affect traffic safety behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Sommarström, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This simulator study aims to investigate if there is a relationship between self-awareness of driving ability and traffic safety behaviour. Self-awareness in this study is accurate self-evaluation of one’s abilities. By letting 97 participants (55-75 years old) drive the simulator and answering the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI; Warner et al., 2013) as well as the Multidimensional locus of control (T-loc; Özkan & Lajunen, 2005). A measure of self-awareness was computed using the residuals f...

  14. Workers’ Affective Commitment and their Willingness to Perform Discretionary Work Behaviour: the Impact of Commitment-Oriented Human Resources Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Zeidan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM literature through developing the linkages between HRM practices and employee attitudes and behaviours. It is widely believed that the implementation of high commitment human resource management (HRM practices (e.g., training and development, communication, and participative decision making can create strategic advantage for the organisation (e.g., Arthur, 1994; Delaney and Huselid, 1996. It is also suggested that HRM practices could shape employee attitudes and behaviours. However, the intervening mechanisms of this effect are yet to be examined. Researchers have pointed to the need to understand the means by which these practices exert their influence on employee commitment and other individual outcomes (Meyer and Smith, 2000.Drawing on social exchange theory (Blau, 1964, this paper aims to address this need by developing a theoretical framework which explicitly links employee perceptions of HRM practices and important work outcomes via perceived fulfilment of the psychological contract. Drawing upon psychological contract theory, it is proposed that commitment HRM practices create a more positive psychological contract (and thus higher perceptions of fulfilment of the psychological contract. This will in turn, lead to increased affective commitment and enhanced organisational citizenship behaviours (OCB.

  15. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice. PMID:26682899

  16. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  17. Parental stress affects the emotions and behaviour of children up to adolescence: a Greek prospective, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakoula, Chryssa; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Veltsista, Alexandra; Gika, Artemis; Chrousos, George P

    2009-11-01

    Systematic research about the continuity of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence is limited, but necessary to design effective prevention and intervention strategies. We used a population-based representative sample of Greek adolescents, followed-up from birth to the age of 18 years, to assess early influences on and the persistence of mental health problems in youth. We examined the role of peripartum, early development and parental characteristics in predicting mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Results suggest a strong relationship between behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence for both genders, while emotional problems were more likely to persist in boys. Age and sex-specific models revealed significant positive associations between higher scores on the behavioural and emotional problems scales and higher frequency of accidents in preschool years, physical punishment in early childhood, lack of parental interest in child's school and activities, and perceived maternal stress in all children. Perceived paternal stress was associated with higher scores on the Total and Internalizing problems scales in the total population. Our results suggest that early interventions are necessary as mental health problems strongly persist from childhood to late adolescence. The adverse effects of parental stress and poor care-giving practices on child's psychopathology need to be recognised and improved. PMID:19206015

  18. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed efficiency up to 8 weeks after the end of the

  19. Analysis on Factors Affecting Famel's Behaviour Choice in Grain Production%农户种粮选择行为影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾福生; 戴鹏

    2012-01-01

    对农户种粮行为选择的影响因素进行了分析。指出:农户种粮行为的选择受资源禀赋、心理认知和种粮收益三大类因素的影响,但这三大类因素对农户种粮行为选择的作用机理不同,其中种粮收益的大小直接影响农户对种粮是否满意,进而影响农户种粮行为的选择。基于调查所得资料,运用有序多分类Logistic模型,实证分析了农户种粮行为选择的影响因素以及各影响因素的内在作用机理,指出提高亩均种粮收益和扩大种粮收益占农户家庭总收入中的比重是促使农户继续选择种粮的最根本途径。最后讨论了促使农户选择种粮应采取的措施。%Through analyzing the factors affecting the farmers' behaviour choice in grain production,this paper points out as follows:the farmer's choice in grain production is affected by three kinds of factors,namely resource endowment, cognitive psychology and grain income, and the effect mechanisms of these factors are different ; grain income directly affects farmer's satisfaction for grain production, and further affects farmer's behaviour choice in grain production. Based on the survey data,it empirically analyzes the factors affecting the farmer's behaviour choice in grain production and the underlying mechanisms of these factors by using the ordinal Logistic model. The result indicates that improving grain income and increasing the share of farmer's grain income in total household income are the most fundamental ways to urge farmers to continue choosing grain production. Finally,it discusses the measures which should be taken to urge farmers to choose grain production.

  20. Repeated forced swim stress differentially affects formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour and the endocannabinoid system in stress normo-responsive and stress hyper-responsive rat strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Elaine M; Okine, Bright N; Olango, Weredeselam M; Roche, Michelle; Finn, David P

    2016-01-01

    Repeated exposure to a homotypic stressor such as forced swimming enhances nociceptive responding in rats. However, the influence of genetic background on this stress-induced hyperalgesia is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of repeated forced swim stress on nociceptive responding in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats versus the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat strain, a genetic background that is susceptible to stress, negative affect and hyperalgesia. Given the well-documented role of the endocannabinoid system in stress and pain, we investigated associated alterations in endocannabinoid signalling in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and amygdala. In SD rats, repeated forced swim stress for 10 days was associated with enhanced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour, compared with naive, non-stressed SD controls. In contrast, WKY rats exposed to 10 days of swim stress displayed reduced late phase formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour. Swim stress increased levels of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA in the ipsilateral side of the dorsal spinal cord of SD rats, an effect not observed in WKY rats. In the amygdala, swim stress reduced anandamide (AEA) levels in the contralateral amygdala of SD rats, but not WKY rats. Additional within-strain differences in levels of CB1 receptor and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) mRNA and levels of 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) were observed between the ipsilateral and contralateral sides of the dorsal horn and/or amygdala. These data indicate that the effects of repeated stress on inflammatory pain-related behaviour are different in two rat strains that differ with respect to stress responsivity and affective state and implicate the endocannabinoid system in the spinal cord and amygdala in these differences.

  1. How the nature of science is presented to elementary students in science read-alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Seema

    Students as early as elementary school age are capable of learning the aspects of the nature of science (NOS), and the National Benchmarks incorporate the NOS as part of the learning objectives for K--2 students. Learning more about elementary science instruction can aid in understanding how the NOS can be taught or potentially integrated into current teaching methods. Although many teaching methods exist, this study will focus on read-alouds because they are recommended for and are very common in elementary schools. The read-aloud practice is particularly helpful to young students because most of these students have a higher listening comprehension than reading comprehension. One of the main components of the read-aloud practice is the discourse that takes place about the trade book. Both explicit and implicit messages are communicated to students by teachers' language and discussion that takes place in the classroom. Therefore, six multisite naturalistic case studies were conducted to understand elementary teachers' understanding of the NOS, students' understandings of the NOS, trade book representations of the NOS, and read-aloud practices and understandings in upstate New York. The findings of the study revealed that teachers and students held mostly naive and mixed understandings of the NOS. The trade books that had explicit connections to the NOS helped teachers discuss NOS related issues, even when the teachers did not hold strong NOS views. Teachers who held more informed NOS views were able to ask students NOS related questions. All teachers showed they need guidance on how to translate their NOS views into discussion and see the significance of the NOS in their classroom. Explicit NOS instruction can improve student understanding of the NOS, however the focus should be not only on teachers and their NOS understanding but also on the books used. These results show that quality trade books with explicit connections to the NOS are a useful instructional tool

  2. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the diet. The intake of the postnatal HFS diet drastically reduced feed intake, but improved feed efficiency up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary intervention, i.e. 16 weeks of age

  3. Mixed housing of different genetic lines of laying hens negatively affects feather pecking and fear related behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Decuypere, E.; Komen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Adult laying hens from Rhode Island Red (RIR) origin both express lower levels of feather pecking and lower fear responses towards a novel object than laying hens from White Leghorn (WL) origin. The present study investigated whether mixed housing of RIR and WL laying hens would affect their behavio

  4. How severe plastic deformation at cryogenic temperature affects strength, fatigue, and impact behaviour of grade 2 titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Anibal; Kliauga, Andrea M.; Ferrante, Maurizio; Sordi, Vitor L.

    2014-08-01

    Samples of grade 2 Ti were processed by Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP), either isolated or followed by further deformation by rolling at room temperature and at 170 K. The main interest of the present work was the evaluation of the effect of cryogenic rolling on tensile strength, fatigue limit and Charpy impact absorbed energy. Results show a progressive improvement of strength and endurance limit in the following order: ECAP; ECAP followed by room temperature rolling and ECAP followed by cryogenic rolling. From the examination of the fatigued samples a ductile fracture mode was inferred in all cases; also, the sample processed by cryogenic rolling showed very small and shallow dimples and a small fracture zone, confirming the agency of strength on the fatigue behaviour. The Charpy impact energy followed a similar pattern, with the exception that ECAP produced only a small improvement over the coarse-grained material. Motives for the efficiency of cryogenic deformation by rolling are the reduced grain size and the association of strength and ductility. The production of favourable deformation textures must also be considered.

  5. DAIRY CATTLE FARMERS’ BEHAVIOUR AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE EFFORT TO ENHANCE THE ECONOMIC OF SCALE AT GETASAN DISTRICT, SEMARANG REGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.T. Eddy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to investigate the behavior of dairy farmers and factorsaffecting the effort to enhance the economic of scale. Survey was conducted on 75 dairy farmers atGetasan District, Semarang Regency. Samples were drawn in random from villages of Jetak, Batur andTajur, 25 farmers each. The data were analyzed by logit model regression, using 15 indicators ofbehavioural approach and socio-economic factors as predictors (independent variables i.e. ages, formaleducation, family size, experience in cattle rearing, number of cattle raised, production of milk and landoccupation. The result showed that 40.04% of the farmers were good, 33.07% were moderate and20.89% were low risk takers. The farmers’ behaviour in enhancing economic of scale significantlyinfluenced by the farmers’ age, milk production and number of cattle reared. The odds ratio of ages,milk production and number of cattle reared were 0.93; 1.32 and 1.37, respectively. These valuesindicated that as values of ages increased as much as 1 year, the values of the willingness on risk takingwill decrease as much as 0.93 times; the values of milk production increase as much as 1 litre, the valuesof the willingness on risk taking will increase as much as 1.32 times; and the values of the number ofcattle increased as much as 1 AU, the values of the willingness on risk taking will increase as much as1.37 times.

  6. Exploring the Writing Process of Indonesian EFL Students: The Effectiveness of Think-Aloud Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Imelda Hermilinda Abas; Noor Hashima Abd Aziz

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the writing process of the Indonesian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students and to find out the effectiveness of using  think-aloud protocol to understand the writing process. The data were obtained from six proficient EFL students who were doing Postgraduate English Language Studies Program in Indonesia. The participants were selected based on the following criteria: had completed a minimum of two academic writing courses, had written a the...

  7. Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages in Temporal Lobectomy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein; Frohlich, Jonathan; Porter, Gwinne Wyatt; Dimitri, Diana; Cofer, Lucas; Labar, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen temporal lobectomy patients (9 left, LTL; 9 right, RTL) were administered four verbal tasks, an Affective Implicit Task, a Neutral Implicit Task, an Affective Explicit Task, and a Neutral Explicit Task. For the Affective and Neutral Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading aloud passages with affective or neutral content,…

  8. Usability evaluation of a laboratory order entry system: cognitive walkthrough and think aloud combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peute, Linda W P; Jaspers, Monique M W

    2005-01-01

    Though designing physician order entry (POE) systems has been a highly discussed research topic in the last decade, it seems that engineering POE systems that truly optimise the quality and efficiency of ordering is still a challenge. This study addresses a usability evaluation of an emerging POE for the electronically ordering of laboratory tests. By applying two complementary cognitive approaches, specifically the cognitive walkthrough and think aloud method with seven potential end users of the system, we analyzed usability problems in the prototype system and their potential effect on the quality of orders in terms of efficiency and errors in ordering. The cognitive walkthrough provided a coding scheme that was used to analyse in more detail usability errors encountered during the think aloud tests with the seven end users. The analyses revealed a total of 33 usability problems, which indeed led to inefficiency, omissions in ordering and even to cancelled orders. Most of these usability problems referred to incomprehensiveness of required actions by the user and incomprehensiveness of text used in the system. Next to the discussion of the reasons for these usability problems, the surplus value of the think aloud method as supplementary to the cognitive walkthrough in evaluating physician order entry systems is outlined in this paper. PMID:16160323

  9. The Contributions of Segmental and Suprasegmental Information in Reading Chinese Characters Aloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Li, Chuchu; Lin, Candise Y.

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese writing system provides an excellent case for testing the contribution of segmental and suprasegmental information in reading words aloud within the same language. In logographic Chinese characters, neither segmental nor tonal information is explicitly represented, whereas in Pinyin, an alphabetic transcription of the character, both are explicitly represented. Two primed naming experiments were conducted in which the targets were always written characters. When logographic characters served as the primes (Experiment 1), syllable segmental and tonal information appeared to be represented and encoded as an integral unit which in turn facilitated target character naming. When Pinyin served as the primes (Experiment 2), the explicit phonetic representation facilitated encoding of both segmental and suprasegmental information, but with later access to suprasegmental information. In addition, Chinese speakers were faster to name characters than Pinyin in a simple naming task (Experiment 3), suggesting that Pinyin may be read via a phonological assembly route, whereas characters may be read via a lexical route. Taken together, our findings point to the need to consider the contributions of both segmental and suprasegmental information and the time course in the well-established models for reading aloud, as well as the cognitive mechanisms underlying the reading aloud of logographic characters versus alphabetic Pinyin script. PMID:26551251

  10. IMPROVING ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION OF ADULT ESL LEARNERS THROUGH READING ALOUD ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication skill nowadays becomes a must that everyone should master. The agreement of such conceptual meaning in communication should meet the same perception among speakers. One of the tools to improve one’s communication skill is by learning pronunciation through Reading Aloud for misperception emerged from mispronunciation can be avoided. This research aims at improving English pronunciation through reading aloud in the form of short texts. The research was carried out in Statistics Data Center (BPS by employing A Classroom Action Research with two cycles of assessments. There were 20 IT engineers of Networking Operation Center with various background of knowledge as an object of the research. The data was collected by observation, note taking, and test. Questionnaire is designed and administered to identify the participants’ core and frequency of English tasks and also to investigate participants’ previous experiences with English. Findings show that there is an improvement on participants’ pronunciation skill through Reading Aloud as it can be seen from the increase of a mean score on the second cycle with 77.75 that is considered as good predicate.

  11. Environmental and behavioural factors affecting the prevalence of foot lameness in New Zealand dairy herds - a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesterton, R N; Pfeiffer, D U; Morris, R S; Tanner, C M

    1989-12-01

    A case-control study of environmental and behavioural factors influencing foot lameness was undertaken on 62 dairy herds comprising an average of 185 milking cows in Taranaki, New Zealand. Thirty two case herds were identified as having had at least 10 per cent of the cows lame during the milking season in which the herd was studied, and thirty control herds were selected on the basis that no more than 3 per cent of cows in these herds had been lame per year for at least two years immediately prior to investigation. Each herd was visited at both a morning and an afternoon milking, and 58 risk factors were measured between the time the farmer began to assemble the cows for milking and the completion of milking. Comparison of single variables between case and control herds identified 24 which showed differences (p<0.10). These variables were then subjected to stepwise multivariate logistic regression, and statistically significant variables in this analysis were used to create a tentative path diagram of possible causal web relationships between the various risk factors and the outcome variable, the lameness prevalence level. Information from a review of the published literature was used to include further variables to the 24 into the initial (or null hypothesis) path model. Logistic path analysis was then used to eliminate non-significant paths from the diagram, leaving 19 arrows joining 13 variables in the final path diagram, compared with 33 joining 20 variables in the initial version. The most influential variables in explaining variation between case and control herds were the average level of maintenance of the track and the degree of patience shown by the farmer in bringing the cows in for milking. Overall, factors associated with the movement of animals to the milking shed explained 40 per cent of the variation (deviance) with regard to the lameness prevalence level. Risk factors associated with characteristics of the milking process explain 24 per cent, and

  12. Health service utilization for mental, behavioural and emotional problems among conflict-affected population in Georgia: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivdity Chikovani

    Full Text Available There is large gap in mental illness treatment globally and potentially especially so in war-affected populations. The study aim was to examine health care utilization patterns for mental, behavioural and emotional problems among the war-affected adult population in the Republic of Georgia.A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 3600 adults affected by 1990s and 2008 armed conflicts in Georgia. Service use was measured for the last 12 months for any mental, emotional or behavioural problems. TSQ, PHQ-9 and GAD-7 were used to measure current symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Descriptive and regression analyses were used.Respondents were predominantly female (65.0%, 35.8% were unemployed, and 56.0% covered by the government insurance scheme. From the total sample, 30.5% had symptoms of at least one current mental disorder. Among them, 39.0% sought care for mental problems, while 33.1% expressed facing barriers to accessing care and so did not seek care. General practitioners (29% and neurologists (26% were consulted by the majority of those with a current mental disorder who accessed services, while use of psychiatric services was far more limited. Pharmacotherapy was the predominant type of care (90%. Female gender (OR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.80, middle-age (OR 1.83, 95% CI: 1.48, 2.26 and older-age (OR 1.62, 95% CI: 1.19, 2.21, possession of the state insurance coverage (OR 1.55, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.86, current PTSD symptoms (OR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.90 and depression (OR 2.12, 95% CI: 1.70, 2.65 were associated with higher rates of health service utilization, while employed were less likely to use services (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.89.Reducing financial access barriers and increasing awareness and access to local care required to help reduce the burden of mental disorders among conflict-affected persons in Georgia.

  13. Quantum dots do not affect the behaviour of mouse embryonic stem cells and kidney stem cells and are suitable for short-term tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska

    Full Text Available Quantum dots (QDs are small nanocrystals widely used for labelling cells in order to enable cell tracking in complex environments in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo. They present many advantages over traditional fluorescent markers as they are resistant to photobleaching and have narrow emission spectra. Although QDs have been used effectively in cell tracking applications, their suitability has been questioned by reports showing they can affect stem cell behaviour and can be transferred to neighbouring cells. Using a variety of cellular and molecular biology techniques, we have investigated the effect of QDs on the proliferation and differentiation potential of two stem cell types: mouse embryonic stem cells and tissue-specific stem cells derived from mouse kidney. We have also tested if QDs released from living or dead cells can be taken up by neighbouring cells, and we have determined if QDs affect the degree of cell-cell fusion; this information is critical in order to assess the suitability of QDs for stem cell tracking. We show here that QDs have no effect on the viability, proliferation or differentiation potential of the two stem cell types. Furthermore, we show that the extent of transfer of QDs to neighbouring cells is 85%, they are rapidly depleted from both stem cell populations. Taken together, our results suggest that QDs are effective cell labelling probes that are suitable for short-term stem cell tracking.

  14. Beyond the initial 140 ms, lexical decision and reading aloud are different tasks: An ERP study with topographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Gwendoline; Zesiger, Pascal; Laganaro, Marina

    2015-11-15

    Most of our knowledge on the time-course of the mechanisms involved in reading derived from electrophysiological studies is based on lexical decision tasks. By contrast, very few ERP studies investigated the processes involved in reading aloud. It has been suggested that the lexical decision task provides a good index of the processes occurring during reading aloud, with only late processing differences related to task response modalities. However, some behavioral studies reported different sensitivity to psycholinguistic factors between the two tasks, suggesting that print processing could differ at earlier processing stages. The aim of the present study was thus to carry out an ERP comparison between lexical decision and reading aloud in order to determine when print processing differs between these two tasks. Twenty native French speakers performed a lexical decision task and a reading aloud task with the same written stimuli. Results revealed different electrophysiological patterns on both waveform amplitudes and global topography between lexical decision and reading aloud from about 140 ms after stimulus presentation for both words and pseudowords, i.e., as early as the N170 component. These results suggest that only very early, low-level visual processes are common to the two tasks which differ in core processes. Taken together, our main finding questions the use of the lexical decision task as an appropriate paradigm to investigate reading processes and warns against generalizing its results to word reading. PMID:26244274

  15. How Black women make sense of 'White' and 'Black' fashion magazines: a qualitative think aloud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Russell, Sheriden

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative think aloud study explored how Black women (n = 32) processed information from a White or Black fashion magazine. Comments to the 'White' magazine were characterised by rejection, being critical of the media and ambivalence, whereas they responded to the 'Black' magazine with celebration, identification and a search for depth. Transcending these themes was their self-identity of being a Black woman that was brought to the fore either by a sense of exclusion (White magazine) or engagement (Black magazine). Such an identity provides resilience against the media's thin ideals by minimising the processes of social comparison and internalisation.

  16. SUBPAL: A Device for Reading Aloud Subtitles from Television and Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon; Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2007-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is accessibility barriers for visually impaired people and people with dyslexia. Due to their disability a segment of these people have limited accessibility to the subtitle content presented on television and in the cinema. It is utterly important to be able...... to this problem is SubPal, a text to speech device which can be connected to the television or to a video camera. The subtitle content in the presented video stream is read aloud through a multilingual speech synthesizer. Hence the solution is applicable for television and in the cinema, in several countries...

  17. Reduction in 50-kHz call-numbers and suppression of tickling-associated positive affective behaviour after lesioning of the lateral hypothalamic parvafox nucleus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roccaro-Waldmeyer, Diana M; Babalian, Alexandre; Müller, Annelies; Celio, Marco R

    2016-02-01

    The parvafox nucleus is located ventrolaterally in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). Its core and shell are composed of neurons expressing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) and the transcription factor Foxb1, respectively. Given the known functions of the LHA and that the parvafox nucleus receives afferents from the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and projects to the periaqueductal gray matter, a functional role of this entity in the expression of positive emotions has been postulated. The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether the deletion of neurons in the parvafox nucleus influenced the tickling-induced 50-kHz calls, which are thought to reflect positive affective states, in rats. To this end, tickling of the animals (heterospecific play) was combined with intracerebral injections of the excitotoxin kainic acid into the parvafox nucleus. The most pronounced surgery-associated reduction in 50-kHz call-numbers was observed in the group of rats in which, on the basis of PV-immunoreactive-cell counts in the parvafox nucleus, bilateral lesions had been successfully produced. Two other parameters that were implemented to quantify positive affective behaviour, namely, an approach towards and a following of the hand of the tickling experimenter, were likewise most markedly suppressed in the group of rats with bilaterally successful lesions. Furthermore, positive correlations were found between each of the investigated parameters. Our data afford evidence that the parvafox nucleus plays a role in the production of 50-kHz calls in rats, and, more generally, in the expression of positive emotions. PMID:26554726

  18. Visibility conditions and diel period affect small-scale spatio-temporal behaviour of pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P A; Baktoft, Henrik; Boel, Mikkel;

    2012-01-01

    Pike Esox lucius in the absence of prey and conspecifics were shown to have the highest habitat-change activity during dusk and to decrease preference for complex habitats in turbid water. As the behaviours indicate routine responses in the absence of behavioural interactions, E. lucius spatio...

  19. Modelling the Factors that Affect Individuals' Utilisation of Online Learning Systems: An Empirical Study Combining the Task Technology Fit Model with the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tai-Kuei; Yu, Tai-Yi

    2010-01-01

    Understanding learners' behaviour, perceptions and influence in terms of learner performance is crucial to predict the use of electronic learning systems. By integrating the task-technology fit (TTF) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper investigates the online learning utilisation of Taiwanese students. This paper provides a…

  20. Neural activation in speech production and reading aloud in native and non-native languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berken, Jonathan A; Gracco, Vincent L; Chen, Jen-Kai; Soles, Jennika; Watkins, Kate E; Baum, Shari; Callahan, Megan; Klein, Denise

    2015-05-15

    We used fMRI to investigate neural activation in reading aloud in bilinguals differing in age of acquisition. Three groups were compared: French-English bilinguals who acquired two languages from birth (simultaneous), French-English bilinguals who learned their L2 after the age of 5 years (sequential), and English-speaking monolinguals. While the bilingual groups contrasted in age of acquisition, they were matched for language proficiency, although sequential bilinguals produced speech with a less native-like accent in their L2 than in their L1. Simultaneous bilinguals activated similar brain regions to an equivalent degree when reading in their two languages. In contrast, sequential bilinguals more strongly activated areas related to speech-motor control and orthographic to phonological mapping, the left inferior frontal gyrus, left premotor cortex, and left fusiform gyrus, when reading aloud in L2 compared to L1. In addition, the activity in these regions showed a significant positive correlation with age of acquisition. The results provide evidence for the engagement of overlapping neural substrates for processing two languages when acquired in native context from birth. However, it appears that the maturation of certain brain regions for both speech production and phonological encoding is limited by a sensitive period for L2 acquisition regardless of language proficiency.

  1. Neural correlates reveal sub-lexical orthography and phonology during reading aloud: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalinka eTimmer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sub-lexical conversion of graphemes-to-phonemes (GPC during reading has been investigated extensively with behavioral measures, as well as event-related potentials (ERPs. Most research utilizes silent reading (e.g., lexical decision task for which phonological activation is not a necessity. However, recent research employed reading aloud to capture sub-lexical GPC. The masked priming paradigm avoids strategic processing and is therefore well suitable for capturing sub-lexical processing instead of lexical effects. By employing ERPs, the on-line time course of sub-lexical GPC can be observed before the overt response. ERPs have revealed that besides phonological activation, as revealed by behavioral studies, there is also early orthographic activation. This review describes studies in one’s native language, in one’s second language, and in a cross-language situation. We discuss the implications the ERP results have on different (computational models. First, the ERP results show that computational models should assume an early locus of the grapheme-to-phoneme-conversion (GPC. Second, cross-language studies reveal that the phonological representations from both languages of a bilingual become activated automatically and the phonology belonging to the context is selected rapidly. Therefore, it is important to extend the scope of computational models of reading (aloud to multiple lexicons.

  2. Using the Think-Aloud Technique for Determining Different Reading Strategies Used by Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Bakhshalinezhad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the reading strategies used by advanced and intermediate Persian EFL learners in both English and Persian reading comprehension texts.  Based on the aims of the study reading comprehension texts were administered to the learners and their reading strategies in both English and Persian reading comprehension texts were examined through the think-aloud method. The findings showed that while the advanced EFL learners employed all the strategies (which were included in the strategy table of the study in their English texts, the intermediate learners used only some of them and also used their strategies with different frequencies in comparison with the advanced learners. Therefore, the findings supported the view that the use of the reading strategies may be related to the learners’ proficiency level. The findings also supported the idea that reading strategies can be transferred from one language to another based on the learners’ proficiency level.Keywords: learning strategies, reading strategies, think aloud protocols, threshold level, transferability

  3. Exploring information seeking behaviour in a digital museum context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Mette; Ingwersen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of a case study of task-based interactive information seeking and retrieval behaviour of virtual museum visitors in context. The research described here is part of a larger study: this paper specifically looks at 1) leisure tasks/interests and derived...... information needs, and 2) main characteristics of virtual museum visitors' information seeking behaviour. Both quantitative and qualitative data were gathered from written enquiries to the museum, an online questionnaire and a user study of simulated interest tasks combined with retrospective think......-aloud sessions. The data collected did not show exploratory behaviour to be predominant as expected. Rather analysis of data indicates a broad coverage of different types of needs. Finally, four main characteristics of virtual museum guests' information seeking behaviour were identified....

  4. Biogeochemical investigations on processes affecting the transport behaviour of trace elements in the tidal Elbe River; Biogeochemische Prozessuntersuchungen zum Transportverhalten von Spurenelementen in der Tide-Elbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, K. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserphysik

    1997-12-31

    This work concentrates on distribution and transport of micropollutants in anthropogenically affected estuary systems. Choosing the tidal Elbe River as an example, the influence of microlagae on two important partial processes of the transport regime, the remobilization (a) from undisturbed sediments and (b) from suspended particulate matter, was simulated and quantified in the laboratory. Benthic and planktonic release of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn into the dissolved phase of the river pelagial were estimated and comparatively evaluated for summer/late summer situation. During that season natural decomposition of suspended particulate matter in the water column thus represents the quantitatively most significant mobilization pathway for particle bound heavy metals in the river section between Hamburg and Glueckstadt. Knowing the composition and heavy metal load of suspended particulate matter, rich in algae, mobilization rates can consequently be calculated for the water column with regard to conditions typical for estuaries. The prognosis of the differing transport behaviour of single heavy metals for greater sections of estuaries is also possible if these rates are implemented into transport-reaction models. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit Verteilung und Transport von Spurenschadstoffen in anthropogen belasteten Aestuarsystemen. Am Beispiel der Tide-Elbe wurde der Einfluss von Mikroalgen auf zwei wichtige Teilprozesse des Transportregimes, die Remobilisierung (a) aus ungestoerten Sedimenten und (b) aus suspendierten Schwebstoffen, im Labor simuliert und quantifiziert. Benthische und planktische Freisetzung von Cd, Cu, Pb und Zn in die Loesungsphase des Flusspelagials der Tide-Elbe wurden fuer die Sommer-/Spaetsommer-Situation abgeschaetzt und vergleichend bewertet. Der natuerliche Schwebstoff-Abbau in der Wassersaeule stellt demnach in dieser Jahreszeit im Stromabschnitt zwischen Hamburg und Glueckstadt den quantitativ bedeutsamsten

  5. Dialogic Strategies in Read-Alouds of English-Language Information Books in a Second-Grade Bilingual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Varelas, Maria; Patton, Sofia Kokkino; Ye, Li; Ortiz, Ibett

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how various dialogic discourse strategies were used in read-alouds of English science information books in a 2nd-grade bilingual classroom. Using a variety of discursive strategies, Ibett encouraged her Spanish-speaking students to provide explanations and reasoning related to science ideas. Similarly, she used intertextual…

  6. Instructional Challenges in Developing Young Children's Science Concepts: Using Informational Text Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Collins, Molly F.; Schickedanz, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood instruction tends to focus heavily on literacy development, sometimes at the expense of rich concept development (CEP, 2007; Neuman, 2006; NRC, 2012; NSTA, 2014). Because of the emphasis on literacy instruction, many early childhood teachers integrate content areas, such as science, in literacy instruction through read alouds of…

  7. Creating an Adaptive Technology Using a Cheminformatics System to Read Aloud Chemical Compound Names for People with Visual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Haruo; Morii, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Wataru; Toyooka, Naoki; Tada-Umezaki, Masahito; Hirobayashi, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Various tactile methods, such as Braille, have been employed to enhance the recognition ability of chemical structures by individuals with visual disabilities. However, it is unknown whether reading aloud the names of chemical compounds would be effective in this regard. There are no systems currently available using an audio component to assist…

  8. Using Comic Books as Read-Alouds: Insights on Reading Instruction from an English as a Second Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranker, Jason

    2007-01-01

    A first-grade teacher used comic books as read-alouds during her implementation of a reading/writing workshop. The students, primarily English-language learners, were able to make use of this medium in order to learn new reading practices. The teacher used the comics to teach multiple aspects of various reading processes such as reading with an…

  9. Flexible Strategy Use by Students Who Learn Much versus Little from Text: Transitions within Think-Aloud Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromley, Jennifer G.; Wills, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    Van den Broek's landscape model explicitly posits sequences of moves during reading in real time. Two other models that implicitly describe sequences of processes during reading are tested in the present research. Coded think-aloud data from 24 undergraduate students reading scientific text were analysed with lag-sequential techniques to compare…

  10. Beyond Sentiment: A Descriptive Case Study of Elementary School Teachers' Experiences Selecting Children's Literature for Read-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Stacy M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how and why elementary teachers select books for the read-aloud. A phenomenological approach was used to conduct a fourteen week descriptive study. Three participants were purposefully selected to provide an in-depth examination of teachers' book selection processes. Data was collected through observations,…

  11. ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition, He

  12. ALOUD biological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants study - Association of biological determinants with study success in formal lifelong learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 15 March). ALOUD biological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants study - Association of biological determinants with study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognitio

  13. Reconceptualizing Reactivity of Think-Alouds and Eye Tracking: Absence of Evidence Is Not Evidence of Absence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfroid, Aline; Spino, Le Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study extends previous reactivity research on the cognitive effects of think-alouds to include eye-tracking methodology. Unlike previous studies, we supplemented traditional superiority tests with equivalence tests, because only the latter are conceptually appropriate for demonstrating nonreactivity. Advanced learners of English read short…

  14. Before They Read: Teaching Language and Literacy Development through Conversations, Interactive Read-Alouds, and Listening Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cathy Puett

    2010-01-01

    Preschool and kindergarten educators know that strong oral language skills must be in place before children can learn to read. In "Before They Read: Teaching Language and Literacy Development through Conversations, Interactive Read-Alouds, and Listening Games," Cathy Puett Miller helps educators teach those early literacy skills with engaging…

  15. Birth origin differentially affects depressive-like behaviours: are captive-born cynomolgus monkeys more vulnerable to depression than their wild-born counterparts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine M J Camus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse early-life experience might lead to the expression of abnormal behaviours in animals and the predisposition to psychiatric disorder (e.g. major depressive disorder in Humans. Common breeding processes employ weaning and housing conditions different from what happens in the wild. METHODS: The present study, therefore, investigated whether birth origin impacts the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 captive-born and 40 wild-born socially-housed cynomolgus macaques in farming conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses. RESULTS: We identified 10 distinct profiles (groups A to J that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, distances between individuals and locations in the cage. Data suggest that 4 captive-born and 1 wild-born animals (groups G and J present depressive-like symptoms, unnatural early life events thereby increasing the risk of developing pathological symptoms. General differences were also highlighted between the captive- and wild-born populations, implying the expression of differential coping mechanisms in response to the same captive environment. CONCLUSIONS: Birth origin thus impacts the development of atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups.

  16. Y5 neuropeptide Y receptor overexpression in mice neither affects anxiety- and depression-like behaviours nor seizures but confers moderate hyperactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V; Christiansen, Søren Hofman Oliveira; Gøtzsche, Casper René;

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been implicated in anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like behaviour as well as seizure-suppressant effects in rodents. Although these effects appear to be predominantly mediated via other NPY receptors (Y1 and/or Y2), several studies have also indicated a role for Y5 receptors....... Gene therapy using recombinant viral vectors to induce overexpression of NPY, Y1 or Y2 receptors in the hippocampus or amygdala has previously been shown to modulate emotional behaviour and seizures in rodents. The present study explored the potential effects of gene therapy with the Y5 receptor...

  17. Students’ beliefs and behaviour regarding low-calorie beverages, sweets or snacks: are they affected by lessons on healthy food and by changes to school vending machines?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Kesteren, N.M.C. van; Buijs, G.; Snel, J.; Dusseldorp, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of school lessons about healthy food on adolescents’ self-reported beliefs and behaviour regarding the purchase and consumption of soft drinks, water and extra foods, including sweets and snacks. The lessons were combined with the introduction of lower-calorie foods, f

  18. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data. PMID:26408077

  19. Understanding text after severe closed-head injury: assessing inferences and memory operations with a think-aloud procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Bales, James W

    2005-09-01

    A think-aloud method was used to examine the content of information available to working memory during narrative comprehension in a CHI population. Twenty severe CHI participants (>1 year post-injury) and 20 controls talked aloud after they read each sentence of story narratives. Trabasso and Magliano's (1996a) verbal protocol analysis was then used to code for the production of inferential and non-inferential clauses and the memory operations that supported inferential clause production. We found that CHI and control groups produced a comparable number of clauses, that inferences dominated narrative comprehension, and that both groups produced more explanatory inferences than predictive or associative inferences. Despite these qualitative similarities, the CHI group demonstrated poorer comprehension, generated proportionately fewer inferences, relied less on retrieval as a memory source for explanatory inferences, and produced more non-inferential clauses and associative inferences.

  20. Thinking outside the box when reading aloud: Between (localist) module connection strength as a source of word frequency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Derek; Risko, Evan F

    2016-10-01

    The frequency with which words appear in print is a powerful predictor of the time to read monosyllabic words aloud, and consequently all models of reading aloud provide an explanation for this effect. The entire class of localist accounts assumes that the effect of word frequency arises because the mental lexicon is organized around frequency of occurrence (the action is inside the lexical boxes). We propose instead that the frequency of occurrence effect is better understood in terms of the hypothesis that the strength of between module connections varies as a function of word frequency. Findings from 3 different lines of investigation (experimental and computational) are difficult to understand in terms of the "within lexicon" account, but are consistent with the strength of between-module connections account. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27657439

  1. Reading Aloud Activities as a Way to Determine Students’ Narrative Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez Valencia José Aldemar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the description of a methodological innovation implemented in a beginner’s English class at university level in Bogotá, Colombia which had two aims: First, to explore the role of reading aloud activities in the teaching of English, and second, to describe the narrative template students use when retelling a story in writing. Data collection sources for this smallscale project incorporated class observation during the reading aloud activity, students’ written samples as the means for them to retell the story, and interviews that were held at the end of the research process. This experience allowed both the teacher and the learners to approach English and see themselves playing a different role in the classroom. Moreover, it helped students foster their communicative competence as well as their motivation toward English language learning. Thus, this study promotes pedagogical debate about literacy processes in English in adults and the applicability of this kind of innovation in an EFL context. Key words: Literacy, Reading Aloud, Storytelling, Narrative Template, English Innovation, Foreign Language-Innovation El objetivo de este artículo es describir una innovación que se implementó en un curso de inglés básico a nivel universitario en Bogotá, Colombia y el cual tuvo dos objetivos: primero, explorar el rol de de las actividades de lectura en voz alta para el aprendizaje del Inglés y segundo describir el modelo narrativo que usan los estudiantes cuando narran una historia. Los métodos de recolección de datos para este proyecto a menor escala incorporaron observación de clases durante las actividades de lectura en voz alta, producción escrita de los estudiantes como un medio para que ellos narraran las historias y entrevistas al final del proceso de investigación. Esta experiencia permitió al profesor y a los estudiantes acercase al inglés de una manera diferente y verse a sí mismos asumiendo

  2. Is pre-breeding prospecting behaviour affected by snow cover in the irruptive snowy owl? A test using state-space modelling and environmental data annotated via Movebank

    OpenAIRE

    Therrien, Jean-François; Pinaud, David; Gauthier, Gilles; Lecomte, Nicolas; Bildstein, Keith L.; Bety, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Background Tracking individual animals using satellite telemetry has improved our understanding of animal movements considerably. Nonetheless, thorough statistical treatment of Argos datasets is often jeopardized by their coarse temporal resolution. State-space modelling can circumvent some of the inherent limitations of Argos datasets, such as the limited temporal resolution of locations and the lack of information pertaining to the behavioural state of the tracked individuals at each locati...

  3. Workers’ Affective Commitment and their Willingness to Perform Discretionary Work Behaviour: the Impact of Commitment-Oriented Human Resources Management Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Zeidan

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the development of the human resource management (HRM) literature through developing the linkages between HRM practices and employee attitudes and behaviours. It is widely believed that the implementation of high commitment human resource management (HRM) practices (e.g., training and development, communication, and participative decision making) can create strategic advantage for the organisation (e.g., Arthur, 1994; Delaney and Huselid, 1996). It is also suggested ...

  4. Using Think-Aloud Protocols to Uncover Misconceptions and Improve Developmental Math Instruction: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Secolsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in education continue to escalate around the world. The focus on outcomes assessment has narrowed instructional research and curriculum evaluation to standardized testing in certain subject areas. A prototype for a quantitative literacy assessment instrument was developed with the goal of diagnosing student misconceptions of basic mathematics content and changing instructional practices to undo the misconceptions by applying cognitive psychological theory. Two hundred thirty-eight basic math high school students and 209 remedial community college students in New Jersey and New York were administered the instrument, which had been based on coded data from think-aloud protocols. The instrument asked students to answer 20 basic mathematics items and, in addition, to evaluate four possible solution strategies. For each item, frequencies of selected solution strategies and the association between strategy selection and performance on the 20-question math test are presented as a means for improving instruction. Follow-up research is proposed for determining whether undoing the student misconceptions first before teaching material on a new unit of instruction may yield more positive student outcomes.

  5. Planning of in-situ experiment for understanding of gas migration behaviour in sedimentary rock. (2) Affects of dissolved methane to the gas migration in bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been planning in-situ gas migration test in Horonobe URL, Hokkaido. It is expected that dissolved methane in Horonobe groundwater might have an effect on gas migration behaviour in bedrock. A series of two-phase multi-component analyses by use of GETFLOWS were conducted to understand the influence of dissolved methane. The increase of total gas pressure has been shown due to the existence of dissolved methane. The results also indicated that the injected nitrogen gas volume was influenced by dissolved methane. (author)

  6. A schema theory analysis of students' think aloud protocols in an STS biology context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Catherine Louise

    This dissertation study is a conglomerate of the fields of Science Education and Applied Cognitive Psychology. The goal of this study is to determine what organizational features and knowledge representation patterns high school students exhibit over time for issues pertinent to science and society. Participants are thirteen tenth grade students in a diverse suburban-urban classroom in a northeastern state. Students' think alouds are recorded, pre-, post-, and late-post treatment. Treatment consists of instruction in three Science, Technology, and Society (STS) biology issues, namely the human genome project, nutrition and health, and stem cell research. Coding and analyses are performed using Marshall's knowledge representations---identification knowledge, elaboration knowledge, planning knowledge, and execution knowledge, as well as qualitative research analysis methods. Schema theory, information processing theory, and other applied cognitive theory provide a framework in which to understand and explain students' schema descriptions and progressions over time. The results show that students display five organizational features in their identification and elaboration knowledge. Students also fall into one of four categories according to if they display prior schema or no prior schema, and their orientation "for" or "against," some of the issues. Students with prior schema and orientation "against" display the most robust schema descriptions and schema progressions. Those with no prior schemas and orientation "against" show very modest schema progressions best characterized by their keyword searches. This study shows the importance in considering not only students' integrated schemas but also their individual schemes. A role for the use of a more schema-based instruction that scaffolds student learning is implicated.

  7. Identification of candidate volatiles that affect the behavioural response of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to an active kairomone blend: laboratory and semi-field assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Bukovinszkine Kiss, G.; Otieno, B.; Mbadi, P.A.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) is the most important vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, affecting the lives of millions of people. Existing tools such as insecticide-treated nets and indoor-residual sprays are not only effective, but also have limitations as a

  8. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  9. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  10. 朗读教学在英语教学中的益处%The Advantages of Aloud-reading Teaching in English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永生

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate objective of learning English is to apply it to communicate and full aloud-reading is the decisive factor in improving communicative ability. Hence, emphasizing aloud-reading and bringing the role of aloud-reading into full play is an effective way to improve English teaching competence.%我们学习英语的最终目的就是熟练地运用它来进行交际.而充分地进行朗读是提高交际能力的关键所在。所以,重视朗读,充分发挥朗读在英语教学中的作用是我们提高英语教学水平的一条有效途径。

  11. To what extent are CO2 emissions from intra-urban shopping trips by cars affected by drivers’ travel behaviour and store location?

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Tao; Håkansson, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Transportation is seen as one of the major sources of CO2 pollutants nowadays. The impact of increased transport in retailing should not be underestimated. Most previous studies have focused on transportation and underlying trips, in general, while very few studies have addressed the specific affects that, for instance, intra-city shopping trips generate. Furthermore, most of the existing methods used to estimate emission are based on macro-data designed to generate national or regional inven...

  12. Environmental and human factors affecting spatial behaviour and detectability of roe deer (capreolus capreolus): influence on population estimate

    OpenAIRE

    Bongi, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This work confirmed one of the most crucial issues of wildlife management, i.e., how it’s difficult to estimate roe deer population density. I checked for different accuracy of roe deer census methods. Census methods were considered according to environmental characteristic, i.e., one of the major factors affecting bias in roe deer density estimation. A strong underestimation was given in the use of the line transect, block count, and spotlight count techniques. Depending on en...

  13. Deletion of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors differentially affects spontaneous behaviour and cocaine-induced locomotor activity, reward and CREB phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasinska, Joanna M; George, Susan R; Cheng, Regina; O'Dowd, Brian F

    2005-10-01

    Co-localization of dopamine D1 and D3 receptors in striatal neurons suggests that these two receptors interact at a cellular level in mediating dopaminergic function including psychostimulant-induced behaviour. To study D1 and D3 receptor interactions in cocaine-mediated effects, cocaine-induced locomotion and reward in mice lacking either D1, D3 or both receptors were analysed. Spontaneous locomotor activity was increased in D1-/- and D1-/-D3-/- mice and D1-/-D3-/- mice did not exhibit habituation of spontaneous rearing activity. Cocaine (20 mg/kg) increased locomotor activity in wild-type and D3-/- mice, failed to stimulate activity in D1-/- mice and reduced activity in D1-/-D3-/- mice. In the conditioned place preference, all groups exhibited reward at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of cocaine. D1-/-D3-/- mice did not demonstrate preference at 2.5 mg/kg of cocaine although preference was observed in wild-type, D1-/- and D3-/- mice. The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) is activated by phosphorylation in striatal regions following dopamine receptor activation. Striatal pCREB levels following acute cocaine were increased in wild-type and D3-/- mice and decreased in D1-/- and D1-/-D3-/- mice. After repeated administration of 2.5 mg/kg of cocaine, D1-/- mice had lower pCREB levels in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. Our findings suggest that, although spontaneous and cocaine-induced horizontal activity depended mainly on the presence of the D1 receptor, there may be crosstalk between D1 and D3 receptors in rearing habituation and the perception of cocaine reward at low doses of the drug. Furthermore, alterations in pCREB levels were associated with changes in cocaine-induced locomotor activity but not reward. PMID:16197514

  14. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  15. Curricular impact on elementary students' images of science: Informational science text read aloud and scientific inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tammy Colburn

    Understanding what influences images elementary students create about science has been researched for 30 years. This researcher sought to understand how the way science is presented in school influences images elementary students hold about science. The study's questions included: (1) What images of science do 2nd and 4th grade students portray through dialogue as they experience read alouds of informational science texts? (2) What images of science do 2nd and 4th grade students portray through dialogue as they experience science through inquiry with manipulative objects? and (3) What lifeworld resources influence students' images of science? Drawing upon symbolic interaction within a sociocultural framework, this qualitative study began during the summer of 2005 while students were enrolled in a summer program at their school and continued into the fall of 2007. Primary data included transcripts of students' dialogue during sessions, interviews, observations, field notes, demographic data, and assessment data. The researcher conducted 3 sessions with each of 4 groups of 3 students, spending 30 minutes observing, listening, and taping students in each session. All 12 students were interviewed after each of the 3 sessions on the same day resulting in approximately 18 hours of audiotapes. The researcher met with reading coaches, parents, and the selected students' teachers. Observations of the students and teachers in the context of their school environment were also made throughout the 2006-2007 regular school year. Emergent themes suggest that despite students using process skills in both sessions, the informational book reading sessions were ritualized such that the students viewed the experience as a reading exercise only and not being a scientist. In contrast, students in the manipulative sessions saw themselves as acting like or being scientists. Last, students in both sessions drew upon funds of knowledge accrued from sociocultural influences and home

  16. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  17. How does Australia's largest dolphin-watching industry affect the behaviour of a small and resident population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckenreuter, Andre; Möller, Luciana; Harcourt, Robert

    2012-04-30

    The small, genetically distinct population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Port Stephens, New South Wales (NSW), is the target of the largest dolphin-watching industry in Australia and is located within the Port Stephens - Great Lakes Marine Park that was created in 2005. The effects of this industry have been identified as of significant management importance by the Marine Parks Authority NSW. Accordingly, the impact of commercial dolphin-watching boats was investigated from boat-based surveys from August 2008 to August 2009. Presence of dolphin-watching boats altered both the dolphins' behavioural states and activity budgets. Dolphins spent 66.5% less time feeding and 44.2% less time socialising, spent four times more milling, and were never observed to rest in the presence of dolphin-watching boats. Moreover, dolphin groups were more cohesive during dolphin-watching boat encounters and dolphins tended to avoid tour boats. These effects were exacerbated as the number of boats increased and the distance from boats decreased. The rate of approach was high with boats approaching each dolphin group three times per day in winter and six times in summer. Moreover, groups of dolphins with newborns were approached closer than state regulated minimum approach distances in nine out of ten encounters. Globally, dolphin-watching industries frequent small resident groups of coastal dolphins and effects are likely to be similar. We suggest that existing controls are inadequate and that these together with additional regulations be enforced by a regular presence of authorities. We suggest no more than one dolphin-watching boat within 50 m of a group of dolphins, or 100 m if calves are present. Operating times of dolphin-watching boats should be restricted in numbers after 1 pm, i.e., during preferred foraging times for dolphins. Additionally, exclusion zones should be considered to reduce pressure on dolphins undertaking critical activities such as

  18. Suitability of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 for Dance Research: A Think Aloud Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, Jennie E; Quested, Eleanor; Duda, Joan L

    2015-12-01

    The Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2) adapted for dance has been employed in a variety of dance settings. However, the content validity of the measure and the relevance of particular subscales (e.g., Intra-Team Member Rivalry) have been questioned. Thus, the aims of this study were twofold: first, to examine the content validity of the PMCSQ-2 and identify problematic items and the nature and frequency of such problems experienced by dancers completing the measure; and second, to determine whether the content of task-involving and ego-involving climates, as captured in the subscales of the PMCSQ-2, are relevant and meaningful in dance contexts. Think aloud interviews were conducted with 21 dancers (10 male, 11 female) representing diverse types and levels of dance experience. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and segmented into text related to each item in the PMCSQ-2. Each participant's responses were individually analyzed, with the nature and frequency of problems encountered recorded in relation to five potential causes: errors in understanding, interpretation, retrieval, judgment, and responding. Think aloud interviews revealed that 72% of the participant responses presented no problem, indicating that the measure has an acceptable degree of content validity. However, the findings highlight a number of potentially problematic areas that warrant further attention. Implications for the interpretation of previous research and the conduct of future research employing the PMCSQ-2 in dance as well as other achievement contexts (e.g., sport) are discussed. PMID:26641702

  19. Taxonomies in L1 and L2 Reading Strategies: A Critical Review of Issues Surrounding Strategy-Use Definitions and Classifications in Previous Think-Aloud Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaleefah, Tarek A.

    2016-01-01

    Considering the various classifications of L1 and L2 reading strategies in previous think-aloud studies, the present review aims to provide a comprehensive look into those various taxonomies reported in major L1 and L2 reading studies. The rationale for this review is not only to offer a comprehensive overview of the different classifications in…

  20. Paper Partners: A Peer-Led Talk-Aloud Academic Writing Program for Students Whose First Language of Academic Study Is Not English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vechter, Andrea; Brierley, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the Paper Partners program at Ryerson University, Toronto. This peer-mentoring program was developed to support the academic writing skills of students whose first language of academic study was not English. The program integrated a team of student-facilitators, a talk-aloud co-editing process, and a reflective feedback…

  1. The Growing Trend of Reading Movements in Japan: Animacion a la Lectura, Ten-Minutes Reading in the Morning, and Reading Aloud by Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Sachiko

    This study examines the growing trend of reading movements in Japan and their origins. There are three main movements: Animacion a la Lectura; Ten-Minutes Reading in the Morning; and Reading Aloud by Parents in schools. This paper reports on the three movements from a review of the literature, personal observations, and practice. The paper…

  2. The ALOUD Study: Adult Open University Determinants Study - Influence of psychological determinants on academic achievement in formal lifelong learning in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, October). The ALOUD Study: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study - Influence of psychological determinants on academic achievement in formal lifelong learning in adults. Presentation at the second meeting of the ICO Introduction C

  3. Intertextuality in Read-Alouds of Integrated Science-Literacy Units in Urban Primary Classrooms: Opportunities for the Development of Thought and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelas, Maria; Pappas, Christine C.

    2006-01-01

    The nature and evolution of intertextuality was studied in 2 urban primary-grade classrooms, focusing on read-alouds of an integrated science-literacy unit. The study provides evidence that both debunks deficit theories for urban children by highlighting funds of knowledge that these children bring to the classroom and the sense they make of them…

  4. ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Association between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Neroni, Joyce; Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    De Groot, R. H. M., Neroni, J., Gijselaers, J., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 6 December). ALOUD: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study: Associations between biological and psychological determinants and study success in adult formal distance education. Presented at the Open University for t

  5. The ALOUD Study: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study - Influence of biological and psychological determinants on study success in formal lifelong learning in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Gijselaers, H. J. M., Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011, September). The ALOUD Study: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study - Influence of biological and psychological determinants on study success in formal lifelong learning in adults. Presentation given for visit

  6. A Qualitative Study in a Rural Community: Investigating the Attitudes, Beliefs, and Interactions of Young Children and Their Parents regarding Storybook Read Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyak, Natalie Conrad

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study describes the physical and verbal interactions of rural children and their parents regarding reading books aloud. The participants' attitudes and beliefs about sharing storybooks are also explored. The theoretical framework is based upon Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Model. One interview was conducted with each participant and…

  7. Behaviour Genetics of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Budimir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of pigs can be divided into several categories, which include maternal behavior, aggressive behavior, sexual behavior, feeding behavior, and various other forms of emotional behavior. Domestication has caused many changes in the original behaviour of boar, such as in reproductive and sexual behaviour, and has lead to a general increase in social tolerance between animals. Further modifications in behaviour are also possible, as suggested by the optimization of environmental factors which affect maternal behavior. The behaviour of a sow after farrowing appeared as a consequence of natural selection for protection of piglets from predators in the wild boar population, and affects the survival of piglets and the longevity of the sow in breeding. The behavior of the sows which includes the protection of the piglets from predators appears as a consequence of natural selection in the wild boar population. Familiarity with the molecular mechanisms which determine the patterns of behavior enables understanding of behavioral problems such as aggressiveness and helps the improvement of the well-being of pigs. Research conducted on pigs has determined that there are regions on chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 15, and chromosome X which can explain the genetic aspect of appearance of some behavioral patterns in sows. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the behavioral patterns appeared in the populations of domestic breeds of pigs and their genetic aspects, which knowledge may provide some help in improving the production qualities and creating higher economic gain during production.

  8. Older Cancer Patients’ User Experiences With Web-Based Health Information Tools: A Think-Aloud Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijn, Geke; Smets, Ellen M A; Loos, Eugene F; Kunneman, Marleen; van Weert, Julia C M

    2016-01-01

    Background Health information is increasingly presented on the Internet. Several Web design guidelines for older Web users have been proposed; however, these guidelines are often not applied in website development. Furthermore, although we know that older individuals use the Internet to search for health information, we lack knowledge on how they use and evaluate Web-based health information. Objective This study evaluates user experiences with existing Web-based health information tools among older (≥ 65 years) cancer patients and survivors and their partners. The aim was to gain insight into usability issues and the perceived usefulness of cancer-related Web-based health information tools. Methods We conducted video-recorded think-aloud observations for 7 Web-based health information tools, specifically 3 websites providing cancer-related information, 3 Web-based question prompt lists (QPLs), and 1 values clarification tool, with colorectal cancer patients or survivors (n=15) and their partners (n=8) (median age: 73; interquartile range 70-79). Participants were asked to think aloud while performing search, evaluation, and application tasks using the Web-based health information tools. Results Overall, participants perceived Web-based health information tools as highly useful and indicated a willingness to use such tools. However, they experienced problems in terms of usability and perceived usefulness due to difficulties in using navigational elements, shortcomings in the layout, a lack of instructions on how to use the tools, difficulties with comprehensibility, and a large amount of variety in terms of the preferred amount of information. Although participants frequently commented that it was easy for them to find requested information, we observed that the large majority of the participants were not able to find it. Conclusions Overall, older cancer patients appreciate and are able to use cancer information websites. However, this study shows the importance

  9. In-vivo administration of clozapine affects behaviour but does not reverse dendritic spine deficits in the 14-3-3ζ KO mouse model of schizophrenia-like disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaehne, Emily J; Ramshaw, Hayley; Xu, Xiangjun; Saleh, Eiman; Clark, Scott R; Schubert, Klaus Oliver; Lopez, Angel; Schwarz, Quenten; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-11-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia, which has been shown to reverse behavioural and dendritic spine deficits in mice. It has recently been shown that deficiency of 14-3-3ζ has an association with schizophrenia, and that a mouse model lacking this protein displays several schizophrenia-like behavioural deficits. To test the effect of clozapine in this mouse model, 14-3-3ζ KO mice were administered clozapine (5mg/kg) for two weeks prior to being analysed in a test battery of cognition, anxiety, and despair (depression-like) behaviours. Following behavioural testing brain samples were collected for analysis of specific anatomical defects and dendritic spine formation. We found that clozapine reduced despair behaviour of 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the forced swim test (FST) and altered the behaviour of wild types and 14-3-3ζ KO mice in the Y-maze task. In contrast, clozapine had no effects on hippocampal laminar defects or decreased dendritic spine density observed in 14-3-3ζ KO mice. Our results suggest that clozapine may have beneficial effects on clinical behaviours associated with deficiencies in the 14-3-3ζ molecular pathway, despite having no effects on morphological defects. These findings may provide mechanistic insight to the action of this drug.

  10. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...

  11. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy. PMID:23888587

  12. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  13. On Theory and Practice in Reading Aloud from Character of Phonetics%从语音性质谈朗读的理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵介平

    2012-01-01

    朗读学是关于朗读的专门学说,在阅读学、语文教学论的视野下研究朗读非常重要。从语言角度看,朗读把文字语言转化为有声语言是语音的外显、语音的"复活",因此对语音性质的研究,是朗读理论与朗读实践中的重要内容。语音的社会性质是语音的本质属性,其内涵不仅在于字符词语语音形式的表"义",更在于其表"意",更在于有声语流的语音形式如何"传情达意",对朗读起决定作用。朗读者遵循朗读的科学规律与艺术规律,可以更好地实现语言的社会功能。%The study of reading aloud is a specialized theory.It is important to carry on researches on reading aloud from reading education and from Chinese teaching perspectives.Viewing from the language,reading aloud converts the written language into verbal language,and is the explicit behavior of the phonetics as well as the revival of the phonetics.Therefore,the study on the nature of phonetics is an important part in the reading aloud theory and practice.The social quality of phonetics is its essence.Not only does the connotation of the social quality of phonetics lie in the characters and words and forms of phonetics but also the meaning of it.In fact,people pay more attention to the expression of one's idea through intonation of the verbal language.The reader following the scientific law and artistic rules of reading aloud can better realize the social function of the language.

  14. Think-Aloud Process Superior to Thought-Listing in Increasing Children's Critical Processing of Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozendaal, Esther; Buijzen, Moniek; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and tests a model of children's critical processing of advertising. Within this model, 2 paths to reduced advertising susceptibility (i.e., attitude toward the advertised brand) were hypothesized: a cognitive path and an affective path. The secondary aim was to compare these paths for different thought verbalization processes:…

  15. Think-aloud process superior to thought-listing in increasing children's critical processing of advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, E.; Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and tests a model of children's critical processing of advertising. Within this model, 2 paths to reduced advertising susceptibility (i.e., attitude toward the advertised brand) were hypothesized: a cognitive path and an affective path. The secondary aim was to compare these path

  16. Healthy eating behaviour - a social marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kazbare, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Nutritionists and dieticians unequivocally consider diet as a significant contributor to health. Despite the fact that we know quite a lot about the relationship between diet and health outcomes, much less is known about how to affect behavioural change in a systematic and sustainable way at population levels. Therefore, there is a call for additional research in order to identify the alternative ways of changing dietary behaviours. Healthy eating is a target behaviour of social marketing, wh...

  17. Restrictive dermopathy and fetal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, EJH; Beemer, FA; Stoutenbeek, P

    2001-01-01

    We report three siblings from consecutive pregnancies affected with restrictive dermopathy (RD). During the second pregnancy, fetal behavioural development and growth were studied extensively using ultrasound at 1-4 week intervals. Dramatic and sudden changes occurred in fetal body movements and gro

  18. FONÉTICA APLICADA: DIAGNOSTICO Y TRATAMIENTO DE DEFICIENCIAS EN LA LECTURA EN VOZ ALTA APPLIED PHONETICS: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF DEFICIENCIES IN READING ALOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUMBERTO VALDIVIESO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que la lectura en voz alta es una actividad culturalmente muy relevante y frente a ella la comunidad parece adoptar la actitud más crítica, este trabajo presenta los principales resultados de un diagnóstico y un tratamiento fonético de deficiencias en la lectura en voz alta. Para realizar el diagnóstico se utilizan 30 estudiantes de primer año de Pedagogía en Español y para el tratamiento fonético, 12 de ellos, 6 para la muestra experimental y 6 para el grupo control. Las principales tendencias que se perfilan de este estudio muestran que los estudiantes presentan serias deficiencias en la calidad de la lectura oral, pero también que mediante un tratamiento fonético adecuado, que incluye evaluación o diagnóstico de la expresión oral, actividades de lectura en voz alta y ejercicios fonéticos pertinentes, es posible corregir y desarrollar este aspecto de la lengua maternaConsidering that reading aloud is a very relevant activity from a cultural point of view, this article presents the main results from a phonetic diagnosis and a phonetic treatment on reading aloud disabilities. The diagnosis was applied to 30 first-year university students of Spanish as a mother tongue. The treatment was performed with a selection of 12 of these students: 6 for the experimental sample, and the other 6 for the control group. The main trends outlined from the study reveal the students have serious difficulties in managing the quality of their oral reading. However, the results also show that it is possible to correct and improve this aspect of the mother tongue competence through proper phonetic treatment -in this case including oral expression testing, reading aloud activities and related phonetic drills

  19. General practitioners trained in motivational interviewing can positively affect the attitude to behaviour change in people with type 2 diabetes. One year follow-up of an RCT, ADDITION Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, S.; Sandbaek, A.; Lauritzen, T.;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether training GPs in motivational interviewing (MI) can improve type 2 diabetic patients' (1) understanding of diabetes, (2) beliefs regarding prevention and treatment, and (3) motivation for behaviour change. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial including 65 GPs and 26...

  20. Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langen, M.J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Repetitive behaviour in autism: Imaging pathways and trajectories Repetitive and rigid behaviour is one of the core symptoms of autism, a severe and lifelong child psychiatric disorder. Although repetitive behaviour symptoms often form a significant impairment for affected individuals, systematic st

  1. THE IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    OMER TURUNC; MAZLUM CELIK; IBRAHIM SANI MERT

    2013-01-01

    Ethical behaviour is one of the dynamics of modern business life of which importance have been increasing. Many factors affect to make the employees behave ethically. Being one of these factors, leader's behaviour is a premise of ethical behaviour as it is of many organizational behaviors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of transformational leadership and contingent reward leadership styles, two important leadership styles, on the employees' ethical behaviour. An...

  2. Do High-Risk Young Adults Use the HIV Self-Test Appropriately? Observations from a Think-Aloud Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; John, Rita Marie; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand high-risk young adults' use of the rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-test. The highest rate of new HIV infections occurs in people between 15 and 24 years. Improving identification of young people infected with HIV is a critical public health priority. The first rapid HIV self-testing kit was approved in the US in 2012. Despite the product's promise, its use by untrained young adults is not well-understood. We conducted a mixed methods study using surveys, a think-aloud protocol, observations, and in-depth interviews. A systematic checklist was developed to assess participants' use of the test. A total of 21 racial and/or ethnic minority young adults aged 18-24 participated in this study. Analysis of our interview data was guided by the theory of reasoned action (TRA). Participants completed the initial procedures of the test with a mean time of 8:36 min (range of 2:04'-16:33'). On a 14-point checklist, participants had a mean score of 10.8 (SD 2.26, range 3-14). In the qualitative analysis of the participants' interviews, guided by the theoretical constructs of the TRA, the following themes emerged: "Did I use it correctly?", "Can I trust the results?" (attitude); "How will my partner react?!", "What will people think?" (subjective norm); "Quick, easy and blood free," and "Avoids the hassle of dealing with the healthcare system" (behavioral intention). This study provided evidence of the usefulness of the test perceived by young adults, especially in light of their concerns about lack of privacy in medical settings. Since many participants did not follow all of the instructions while using the test, it is not evident that young adults can correctly use the HIV self-test. Development of instructions manuals that are understandable and guide proper use of medical devices is a great need, especially in the context of home testing technology. PMID:26518679

  3. MICROSCOPIC BEHAVIOUR OF POROUS MACROMOLECULES

    OpenAIRE

    Del Regno, Annalaura

    2014-01-01

    This Thesis investigates computationally the behaviour of two novel microporous materials,organic molecules of intrinsic microporosity (OMIMs) and polymers of intrinsic microporosity(PIMs). OMIMs and PIMs are organic amorphous materials, which achieve microporosityby packing inefficiently. The design of amorphous materials is challenging because their self-assembly process is not known. Predictive molecular simulations can help in recognising thefeatures that affect the properties of these ma...

  4. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  5. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  6. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...... of Reasoned Action (TRA) with regard to understanding recycling behaviour. Further, examples of misleading policy conclusions are discussed suggested that within the framework of cognitive psychology, Schwartz's model of altruistic behaviour offers a more satisfying starting point for understanding recycling...

  7. Fundamentals of soil behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gens Solé, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews in summary form the generalised behaviour of soils under nonisothermal and chemically varying conditions. This generalised soil behaviour underlies the performance of a number of ground improvement techniques. The behaviour of frozen soil is examined first showing that some concepts of unsaturated soil mechanics appear to be readily applicable. Afterwards, the observation that volumetric behaviour of saturated and unsaturated soils at high temperature is similar, leads to th...

  8. The Relationship between Scientific Knowledge and Behaviour: An HIV/AIDS Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnguni, Lindelani; Abrie, Mia; Ebersohn, Liesel

    2016-01-01

    Debates on the role of scientific knowledge to affect behaviour are continuing. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that behaviour is influenced by attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control and not by knowledge. However, a large body of knowledge argues that increased HIV/AIDS-related knowledge leads to the adoption of…

  9. Predatory behaviour of wolves in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The study of predatory behaviour is essential for understanding the interactions that may affect the behaviour and population dynamics of the species involved and consequent cascading ecosystem effects. In the case of large carnivores feeding on large ungulate prey, predation is strongly impacted by humans who alter the habitat of both predators and their prey, control population sizes, and compete with large carnivores for the same prey species. The objectives of this thesis were to 1) es...

  10. "Even 'Daily' is Not Enough": How Well Do We Measure Domestic Violence and Abuse?-A Think-Aloud Study of a Commonly Used Self-Report Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Maggie; Gregory, Alison; Feder, Gene; Howarth, Emma; Hegarty, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of providing a quantitative measure of domestic violence and abuse (DVA), illustrated by the Composite Abuse Scale, a validated multidimensional measure of frequency and severity of abuse, used worldwide for prevalence studies and intervention trials. Cognitive "think-aloud" and qualitative interviewing with a sample of women who had experienced DVA revealed a tendency toward underreporting their experience of abuse, particularly of coercive control, threatening behavior, restrictions to freedom, and sexual abuse. Underreporting was linked to inconsistency and uncertainty in item interpretation and response, fear of answering truthfully, and unwillingness to identify with certain forms of abuse. Suggestions are made for rewording or reconceptualizing items and the inclusion of a distress scale to measure the individual impact of abuse. The importance of including qualitative methods in questionnaire design and in the interpretation of quantitative findings is highlighted. PMID:26645540

  11. Comparing the performance and preference of students experiencing a Reading Aloud Accommodation to those who do not on a virtual science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Angela

    Many United States secondary students perform poorly on standardized summative science assessments. Situated Assessments using Virtual Environments (SAVE) Science is an innovative assessment project that seeks to capture students' science knowledge and understanding by contextualizing problems in a game-based virtual environment called Scientopolis. Within Scientopolis, students use an "avatar" to interact with non-player characters (NPCs), artifacts, embedded clues and "sci-tools" in order to help solve the problems of the townspeople. In an attempt to increase students' success on assessments, SAVE science places students in an environment where they can use their inquiry skills to solve problems instead of reading long passages which attempt to contextualize questions but ultimately cause construct-irrelevant variance. However, within these assessments reading is still required to access the test questions and character interactions. This dissertation explores how students' in-world performances differ when exposed to a Reading Aloud Accommodation (RAA) treatment in comparison to a control group. Student perceptions of the treatment are also evaluated. While a RAA is typically available for students with learning disabilities or English language learners, within this study, all students were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control, regardless of any demographic factors or learning barriers. The theories of Universal design for learning and brain-based learning advocate for multiple ways for students to engage, comprehend, and illustrate their content knowledge. Further, through providing more ways for students to interact with content, all students should benefit, not just those with learning disabilities. Students in the experimental group listened to the NPCs speak the dialogue that provides them with the problem, clues, and assessment questions, instead of relying on reading skills to gather the information. Overall, students in the treatment

  12. Laboratory animal welfare: cage enrichment and mouse behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfer, David P; Litvin, Oxana; Morf, Samuel; Nitsch, Roger M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Würbel, Hanno

    2004-12-16

    Mice housed in standard cages show impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile, all of which can be lessened by making the cage environment more stimulating. But concerns have been raised that enriched housing might disrupt standardization and so affect the precision and reproducibility of behavioural-test results (for example, see ref. 4). Here we show that environmental enrichment increases neither individual variability in behavioural tests nor the risk of obtaining conflicting data in replicate studies. Our findings indicate that the housing conditions of laboratory mice can be markedly improved without affecting the standardization of results. PMID:15602544

  13. Urbanisation shapes behavioural responses to a pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Nedim; Debecker, Sara; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2015-06-01

    The degree of urbanisation is rapidly increasing worldwide. Due to anthropogenic impact, urban populations are exposed to higher levels of contaminants and higher temperatures. Despite this, urbanisation is a largely overlooked spatial component in ecotoxicology. We tested in a common garden rearing experiment whether replicated urban and rural populations of the damselfly Coenagrion puella differ in their vulnerability to sublethal levels of a widespread pesticide, chlorpyrifos, in terms of ecologically relevant behaviours (exploration behaviour, activity, boldness and food intake), and to what extent these patterns are affected by temperature (20 and 24°C). Except boldness, all behaviours were affected by previous pesticide exposure. While the pesticide did not affect exploration behaviour at 20°C, it was associated with increased exploration at 24°C, which may reflect an increased toxicity of chlorpyrifos at higher temperatures. Importantly, rural and urban larvae showed consistently different, sometimes even opposite behavioural responses to pesticide exposure. When exposed to the pesticide, rural larvae decreased activity and food intake at both temperatures; urban larvae instead increased activity at both temperatures and only reduced food intake at the high temperature. This suggests that urban larvae were less affected by the pesticide, which would be consistent with a scenario of local adaptation to higher contaminant levels. Our results highlight that urbanisation may be an important factor to arrive at a spatially explicit ecological risk assessment, and may be an ignored reason why studies on the same species may generate widely different vulnerabilities to pesticides. PMID:25863029

  14. Information seeking behaviour in the digital environment: information science vs. non-information science students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Furi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper presents selected findings of a small-scale pilot study on the actual information-seeking behaviour of the Osijek University students in the digital environment.Design/Methodology/Approach: A qualitative research was conducted on the sample of six graduate students of different social science disciplines (information sciences, psychology, economy, cultural management who were asked to perform searches in order to provide answers to several information tasks. The research method used in the research was a think-aloud method where the respondents were asked to verbalise their thoughts and feelings while performing the simulated search tasks. The respondents were video-recorded and the transcripts of video material were subsequently analysed and interpreted.Research limitations: The small and convenient sample limits the findings.Originality/Value: The results provide the useful insight into the information behaviour of students in the electronic environment (their search strategy, search steps, feelings, etc. but surprisingly reveals the poor information seeking skills of information-science students.Keywords: students, information seeking behaviour, digital environment, University of Osijek

  15. The Shared Decision Making Frontier: a Feasibility and Usability Study for Managing Non-Critical Chronic Illness by Combining Behavioural & Decision Theory with Online Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Amina; Van Woensel, William; Abidi, Samina Raza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine if shared decisions for managing non-critical chronic illness, made through an online biomedical technology intervention, us feasible and usable. The technology intervention incorporates behavioural and decision theories to increase patient engagement, and ultimately long term adherence to health behaviour change. We devised the iheart web intervention as a "proof of concept" in five phases. The implementation incorporates the Vaadin web application framework, Drools, EclipseLink and a MySQL database. Two-thirds of the study participants favoured the technology intervention, based on Likert-scale questions from a post-study questionnaire. Qualitative analysis of think aloud feedback, video screen captures and open-ended questions from the post-study questionnaire uncovered six main areas or themes for improvement. We conclude that online shared decisions for managing a non-critical chronic illness are feasible and usable through the iheart web intervention. PMID:26262028

  16. The impact of behavioural screening on intervention outcomes in a randomised, controlled multiple behaviour intervention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjeldsoe Brianna S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing research focus on multiple health behaviour change interventions, a methodological issue requiring further investigation is whether or not to employ pre-trial behavioural screening to exclude participants who are achieving a pre-specified level of one or more behaviours. Behavioural screening can be used to direct limited resources to participants most in need of a behaviour change intervention; but may reduce the representativeness of the sample and limit comparability with trials that do not employ pre-trial behavioural screening. Furthermore, the impact of this type of screening on intervention participation and intervention effects is unknown. Methods Data for this study come from the Logan Healthy Living Program, a randomised, controlled telephone counselling lifestyle intervention trial which did not employ behavioural screening prior to randomisation. Screening for physical activity, diet or the combination was simulated using baseline trial data. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention participation (in terms of participant characteristics, intervention dose received and retention, characteristics of participants included an excluded under the various screening scenarios were compared. To examine the impact of behavioural screening on intervention effects, results from the main trial analysis were compared with results obtained from the same analyses performed separately for each of the screened groups. Results Simulated pre-trial behavioural screening impacted minimally on intervention dose received and trial retention rate. Beyond the anticipated effect of reducing baseline levels of the behaviours being screened for, behavioural screening affected baseline levels of behaviours not targeted by screening, and participants' demographic and health-related characteristics. Behavioural screening impacted on intervention effects in ways that were anticipated and positive, but also

  17. Rethinking retailer buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Research of retailer buying behaviour has previously focused on the buying decision. In this paper a new approach to studying retailer buying behaviour is suggested, one which focuses on the sensemaking processes leading up to a decision being made. A research project taking a sensemaking...... perspective is outlined and the implications and expected contribution of studying retailer buying behaviour from a sensemaking perspective are discussed....

  18. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...

  19. A multicomponent model of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Blanchard, Chris M; Matheson, Deborah Hunt

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the measurement and predictive structure of multiple components of attitude (affective and instrumental), subjective norm (injunctive and descriptive) and an alternative measure of perceived behavioural control (PBC; skills/ability, opportunity, and resources) in the exercise domain. An additional purpose of the study was to compare the validity of the alternative PBC measure to a standard PBC measure for predicting exercise intention and behaviour. Participants were 220 undergraduates who completed measures of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and a 2-week follow-up of exercise behaviour. Results supported the discriminant validity in the measurement domains of all TPB components. Predictive validity of exercise behaviour for these components, however, was only evident for attitude and PBC components. Our alternative PBC measure was found commensurate with the standard PBC measure. Finally, intention significantly (p exercise behaviour (R2 = .42), while affective attitude, and perceived opportunity significantly (p < .05) predicted intention (R2 = .47).

  20. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    of which describe the cows' activity in the two regarded behavioural scenarios, non-lame and lame. Using the experimental measurement data the different behavioural relations for the two regarded behavioural scenarios are assessed. The three models comprise activity within last hour, activity within last......This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...... for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output and an autonomous stochastic automaton with coinciding state and output, all...

  1. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  2. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours.

  3. From perceived autonomy support to intentional behaviour: Testing an integrated model in three healthy-eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Laura; Hagger, Martin; Mallia, Luca; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    A motivational model integrating self-determination theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the health action process approach was tested in three samples in three behavioural contexts: fruit and vegetable, breakfast, and snack consumption. Perceived support for autonomous (self-determined) forms of motivation from parents and autonomous motivation from self-determination theory were hypothesised to predict intention and behaviour indirectly via the mediation of attitude and perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. It was also expected that planning strategies would mediate the effect of intention on behaviour. Relations in the proposed models were expected to be similar across the behaviours. A two-wave prospective design was adopted. Three samples of high-school students (total N = 1041; 59.60% female; M age = 17.13 years ± 1.57) completed measures of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, theory of planned behaviour constructs, planning strategies and behaviour for each of the three behavioural contexts. Three months later, 816 participants (62,24% female; M age: 17.13 years, SD = 1.58) of the initial sample self-reported their behaviour referred to the previous three months. Structural equation models provided support for the key hypothesised effects of the proposed model for the three health-related behaviours. Two direct effects were significantly different across the three behaviours: the effect of perceived autonomy support on perceived behavioural control and the effect of attitude on intention. In addition, planning strategies mediated the effect of intention on behaviour in fruit and vegetable sample only. Findings extend knowledge of the processes by which psychological antecedents from the theories affect energy-balance related behaviours. PMID:26423363

  4. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild;

    coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  5. Nutrition, neurotoxicants & aggressive behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition, neurotoxicants and aggressive behaviour Antisocial behaviour, such as violence, is explained not only by the social environment, as was long believed. Also nutrients and neurotoxicants might play a role. Whether this is the case was studied in this thesis. In two empirical studies possibl

  6. Occupants' window opening behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano;

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption in buildings is influenced by several factors related to the building properties and the building controls, some of them highly connected to the behaviour of their occupants.In this paper, a definition of items referring to occupant behaviour related to the building control...

  7. Behavioural hybrid process calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, H.; Krilavicius, T.

    2005-01-01

    Process algebra is a theoretical framework for the modelling and analysis of the behaviour of concurrent discrete event systems that has been developed within computer science in past quarter century. It has generated a deeper nderstanding of the nature of concepts such as observable behaviour in th

  8. Behavioural aspects of terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J

    2013-05-10

    Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process.

  9. A Test of Transactional and Transformational Leadership Behaviour of Salesman on Customer Relationship Marketing Behaviour: A Study of the Indian Banking Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit Duggal; Puja Khatri

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed to test constituents as well as complete theories of Transactional and Transformational Leadership behaviour of salesman on customer relationship marketing behaviour in Indian Banking scenario. For Transactional Leadership it was hypothesized that contingency reward system and management by exception of salesperson positively affect customer trust, customer commitment and together they contribute to customer relationship behaviour .For transformational Leadership i...

  10. Consumer behaviour analysis and the behavioural perspective model.

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, G.R.; Oliveira-Castro, J.M.; James, V.K.; Schrezenmaier, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    This is the FIRST of TWO linked articles on consumer behavioural analysis. Cognitive theories have dominated the field of consumer behaviour for the last few decades, however, an observed lack of consistency between attitudes and behaviour has suggested the need to investigate more thoroughly situational and behavioural variables. Consumer behaviour analysis can be viewed as an alternative theoretical approach that emphasizes situational variables and measures of behaviour. Within consumer be...

  11. Reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculation intervention (Learning therapy) improves inhibition, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rui eNouchi; Yasuyuki eTaki; Hikaru eTakeuchi; Takayuki eNozawa; Atsushi eSekiguchi; Ryuta eKawashima

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPrevious reports have described that simple cognitive training using reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, so-called learning therapy, can improve executive functions and processing speed in the older adults. Nevertheless, it is not well-known whether learning therapy improve a wide range of cognitive functions or not. We investigated the beneficial effects of learning therapy on various cognitive functions in healthy older adults.MethodsWe used a single-blinde...

  12. The Clustering of Bullying and Cyberbullying Behaviour within Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Therese; Cross, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Bullying between students at school can seriously affect students' health and academic outcomes. To date, little is known regarding the extent to which bullying behaviour is clustered within certain schools rather than similarly prevalent across all schools. Additionally, studies of bullying behaviour in schools that do not account for clustering…

  13. Pharmacotherapy and aggressive behaviour in psychiat r ic pat ients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhard, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Aggressive behaviour is an important problem in mental health care. Aggressive behaviour does not only affect staff and other patients, but also has a negative impact on the patient himself. Studies have shown that aggressive patients are admitted on psychiatric wards longer compared to non-aggressi

  14. Sedentary behaviour in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Russell R; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Byun, Wonwoo; Dowda, Marsha

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the amount of time children spend in sedentary behaviour and to determine if there are specific factors that associate with sedentary behaviour in children. The following search terms were used to identify relevant articles: sedentary behaviour, inactivity, television, computer, video games, small screen, sitting, prevalence, patterns, correlates, factors and determinants. The databases used to conduct the search included PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and Academic Search Premier. The studies reviewed were limited to those that sampled children (2-18 years), were written in English and used a measure of sedentary behaviour as the dependent variable. Several studies reported the time spent watching television or the proportion of children at or above a threshold for television viewing (eg, ≥3 h/day). Among the accelerometer studies included, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey is the largest and reported ∼6.1, 7.5 and 8.0 h/day mean sedentary time in children 6-11, 12-15 and 16-19 years old, respectively. Taken together, the existing literature across the world indicates a slightly higher level of sedentary behaviour in older children. Higher levels of sedentary behaviour were also reported in non-white children, children from lower socioeconomic status background and children from households with more access to televisions/computers. Lower levels of sedentary behaviour were reported in children whose parents have rules/limitations on screen time. PMID:21836174

  15. FINDING AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON READING ALOUD ERRORS TO BILINGUAL TURKISH STUDENT (ROMANIA SAMPLE - İKİ DİLLİ TÜRK ÇOCUKLARININ SESLİ OKUMA HATALARI ÜZERİNE TESPİT VE ÖNERİLER (ROMANYA ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KARA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to identify reading aloud errors of the bilingual Turkish children while teaching standard Turkish to them and to show the methods and techniques that can be used to correct these reading aloud errors. Due to the contribution of reading aloud to multiple language skills, detecting of errors made during reading aloud and their eliminations will contribute greatly to the development of reading, listening, speaking and writing skills. In this study, 16 different reading aloud errors were detected. These errors were 16 different reading aloud errors under two main headings as pronunciation and posture. They were repeating words, repeating syllables, eliding syllables, eliding sounds, elision, pronunciation, crosstalk, spelling mistakes, uttering failure, adding sounds, adding syllables, adding words, uncontrolled breathing, arrest, tracking with fingers, leaning while reading. In this study, the text “Olive Cube” with 812 words was designated as an application text on the basis of students’ proficiency levels. The students were made to read aloud the text and the data was collected by video recording while the students were reading. This study is an observational, descriptive model of qualitative research built upon video recording, video decoding and observation. The data was obtained according to proficiency levels, genders and marriage types. As a result of the study, totally 4689 errors were recorded in all of the proficiency classes. In all of the classes most errors were made in repeating words. It was shown that as the students’ levels increased, their error numbers decreased. When we measured all the reading aloud errors in all the proficiency classes according to students’ genders, it was emerged that the average errors that the female students made was lower than those of male students. Female students did all errors less than male students. When we evaluated the students’ reading aloud errors

  16. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour.

  17. Suicide and suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Brent, David A

    2016-03-19

    Suicide is a complex public health problem of global importance. Suicidal behaviour differs between sexes, age groups, geographic regions, and sociopolitical settings, and variably associates with different risk factors, suggesting aetiological heterogeneity. Although there is no effective algorithm to predict suicide in clinical practice, improved recognition and understanding of clinical, psychological, sociological, and biological factors might help the detection of high-risk individuals and assist in treatment selection. Psychotherapeutic, pharmacological, or neuromodulatory treatments of mental disorders can often prevent suicidal behaviour; additionally, regular follow-up of people who attempt suicide by mental health services is key to prevent future suicidal behaviour. PMID:26385066

  18. Being Sherlock Holmes: Can we sense empathy from a brief sample of behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Mentalizing (otherwise known as 'theory of mind') involves a special process that is adapted for predicting and explaining the behaviour of others (targets) based on inferences about targets' beliefs and character. This research investigated how well participants made inferences about an especially apposite aspect of character, empathy. Participants were invited to make inferences of self-rated empathy after watching or listening to an unfamiliar target for a few seconds telling a scripted joke (or answering questions about him/herself or reading aloud a paragraph of promotional material). Across three studies, participants were good at identifying targets with low and high self-rated empathy but not good at identifying those who are average. Such inferences, especially of high self-rated empathy, seemed to be based mainly on clues in the target's behaviour, presented either in a video, a still photograph or in an audio track. However, participants were not as effective in guessing which targets had low or average self-rated empathy from a still photograph showing a neutral pose or from an audio track. We conclude with discussion of the scope and the adaptive value of this inferential ability.

  19. Being Sherlock Holmes: Can we sense empathy from a brief sample of behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenjie; Sheppard, Elizabeth; Mitchell, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Mentalizing (otherwise known as 'theory of mind') involves a special process that is adapted for predicting and explaining the behaviour of others (targets) based on inferences about targets' beliefs and character. This research investigated how well participants made inferences about an especially apposite aspect of character, empathy. Participants were invited to make inferences of self-rated empathy after watching or listening to an unfamiliar target for a few seconds telling a scripted joke (or answering questions about him/herself or reading aloud a paragraph of promotional material). Across three studies, participants were good at identifying targets with low and high self-rated empathy but not good at identifying those who are average. Such inferences, especially of high self-rated empathy, seemed to be based mainly on clues in the target's behaviour, presented either in a video, a still photograph or in an audio track. However, participants were not as effective in guessing which targets had low or average self-rated empathy from a still photograph showing a neutral pose or from an audio track. We conclude with discussion of the scope and the adaptive value of this inferential ability. PMID:26531895

  20. An experimental study on a training support system utilizing trainee's eye gaze point and think aloud protocol for diagnosing nuclear power plant anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental system has been developed for aiming at supporting the simulator training of diagnosis nuclear power plant anomaly, where an expert provides the instructions to a trainee by his/her own educational and experienced point of view. This system has several characteristics as follows: (1) the expert can provide the instruction through the local area network or the Internet, (2) the training task is the detection of the primary cause of plant anomaly, which is not including the plant operation but requires only thinking, and (3) the system can automatically detects the trainee's view-point and think aloud protocols and provide these two types of information to the expert in real time for supporting his/her instruction. A laboratory experiment using this system was conducted, where an expert, who had really engaged in plant operation as a chief operator, was employed as the instructor for novice students. As the result of analyzing the experimental data, it was found that the two types of information, trainee's viewpoints and his verbal protocols, have some potential of effectiveness for supporting the instructor to estimate the trainees diagnostic thinking process and provide the instruction. (author)

  1. The Effect of Three Kinds of Reading Strategies on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension and Gender Difference Using Think-aloud Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fathi Karizak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension strategy instruction is a powerful tool in teaching context. The present study examines the effect of teaching three kinds of reading strategies on L2 learners’ reading comprehension ability as well as identifying the gender role in this intervention. This quasi experimental study was carried out on 100 Iranian EFL students who were chosen on the basis of a convenient sampling procedure. These participants were divided into two groups of experimental and control.  50 students (experimental group were taught to use three reading comprehension strategies while reading English texts over 16 sessions, whereas the other 50 students (control group were taught reading comprehension traditionally. The results of the study revealed significant effect of reading strategies application on L2 learners’ reading comprehension ability. It also showed that not only male learners employ reading strategies more than their female counterparts, but also male learners had higher reading comprehension performance in comparison to their female counterparts. Thus, it seems that training of reading strategy raised students' awareness towards these strategies and could encourage some learners to use them; which in turn could improve the students' reading comprehension skill.  Keywords: Reading; Strategy; Reading strategies; Reading comprehension; Think-aloud protocol

  2. Psychology: Inducing green behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-02-01

    Economic arguments, such as saving money, are often used to promote pro-environmental actions -- for example, reducing energy use. However, research shows that people's environmental motives are sometimes better drivers of behavioural change.

  3. Behaviour of Anastrepha fraterculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of experiments and observations on the behaviour, host associations, attractants for adults and pupation of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), conducted under field or semi-natural conditions are presented here. (author)

  4. Nonverbal expressive behaviour in schizophrenia and social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Salesse, Robin N; Marin, Ludovic; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Philippe Boulenger, Jean; Christine Gély-Nargeot, Marie; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2013-11-30

    Expressive behaviour plays a crucial role in the success of social interactions. Abnormality of expressive behaviour has been reported in interpersonal interactions of patients suffering from schizophrenia and social phobia, two debilitating mental disorders with important social deficits. However, no study has compared the expressive behaviour in these two disorders. Thirty schizophrenia patients, 21 social phobia patients and 30 healthy controls were evaluated and compared on expressive, cognitive and clinical dimensions. Expressive behaviour was assessed using the Motor Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale (MASS). Covariables include the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the anxiety level Liebowitz-Social-Anxiety-Scale (LSAS) and cognitive tasks. After controlling for depression, schizophrenia and social phobia patients both exhibited significantly fewer expressive behaviours compared to healthy controls. Moreover, our results showed specific signatures: schizophrenia patients performed fewer spontaneous gestures (hand gestures and smiles) whereas social phobia patients had an impaired ability to produce voluntary smiles in comparison to healthy controls. Interestingly, poor social functioning was significantly correlated with a decrease of expressive behaviour for schizophrenia patients. Expressive behaviour is impaired in different ways in social phobia and schizophrenia and is associated in schizophrenia with poorer social functioning. The Motor Affective subscale of the MASS is an interesting tool for assessing the dysfunction of interpersonal expressive behaviour in mental disorders. PMID:23845416

  5. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour...... and Link Nested Logit. Estimates were produced from model specifications that considered level-of-service, label and facility dummy variables. Moreover, a modelling framework was designed to represent drivers’ choices as affected by the latent constructs extracted with factor analysis. Previous experience...

  6. Think-aloud process superior to thought-listing in increasing children’s critical processing of advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Rozendaal; M. Buijzen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2012-01-01

    This study develops and tests a model of children's critical processing of advertising. Within this model, 2 paths to reduced advertising susceptibility (i.e., attitude toward the advertised brand) were hypothesized: a cognitive path and an affective path. The secondary aim was to compare these path

  7. Gender differences in environmental related behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente

    2011-11-15

    This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this

  8. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.

    2012-04-01

    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  9. A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.;

    2013-01-01

    that affect the results accuracy. Above all, the real energy performance can be affected by the actual behaviour of the building occupants. Thus, there are great benefits to be derived from improving models that simulate the behaviour of human beings within the context of engineered complex systems......An energy simulation of a building is a mathematical representation of its physical behaviour considering all the thermal, lighting, acoustics aspects. However, a simulation cannot precisely replicate a real construction because all the simulations are based on a number of key assumptions....... The occupant behaviour related to the building control potentialities is a very complex process that has been studied only in the last years with some focuses related to natural ventilation (window opening behaviour), space heating energy demand (in particular the adjustments in the temperature set...

  10. Rewards for safe road behaviour.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    It is known from psychology that behaviour can be changed more quickly and long lasting by rewarding desirable behaviour than by penalizing undesirable behaviour. Rewarding road safety behaviour can also be effective, as shown by research into, for instance, the use of seatbelts and driving speeds.

  11. Information behaviour: models and concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vilar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of the research area of information behaviour. Information behaviour is defined as the behaviour of individuals in relation to information sources and channels, which results as a consequence of their information need, and encompasses passive and active searching of information, and its use. Theoretical foundations are presented, as well as some fundamental conceptual models of information behaviour and related concepts: information searching behaviour, which occurrs in active, purposeful searching for information, regardless of the information source used; and information seeking behaviour, which represents a micro-level of information searching behaviour, and is expressed by those individuals who interact with information retrieval systems.

  12. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    . Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...... and cultural festivals, both practices indicate that design is implemented as means of creating affective spaces in the city. Both cases show how immaterial production of affects and emotions in the city can be seen in relation to economic potential and urban development. Finally, I will discuss whether urban......Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  13. Consumer Behaviour Model on the Furniture Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEDNÁRIK, Éva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the furniture purchasing behaviour model. The study describes thebehaviour model and characteristics of decision making and the environmental factors affecting theindividuals besides emphasising the family character of furniture purchase. We introduce a chapterfrom the primary research verifying the model that analyses the validity of customer behaviour trendsdefined as elements of the impersonal environment on the furniture market. We touch on our lifestylebased segmentation model which is elaborated in our work in detail. The method of primary researchis quantitative, personal interview. While working out our research model we applied a method thatenables multi-level cross-section and cohort analyses. Our work has verified the need for trendresearches on the furniture market so we suggest the construction and the near-future launch of a trendresearch system consisting of several modules that reveals the specific factors on the furniture marketbesides verifying the validity of general behaviour trends.

  14. Psychiatric Illness and Behavioural Problems in Adults with Learning Disability and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoumitro Deb

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We retrospectively collected data on the rate and type of psychiatric illness and behavioural problems on 143 adults with learning disability and epilepsy. 55% behavioural problems. 19% verbal aggression and temper tantrums, and 13% injurious behaviour. The overall rates of behavioural problems and different types of behaviours found in the current study cohort are similar to what was found before in learning disabled adults in general, as well as in epileptic and non-epileptic learning disabled adults. Psychiatric diagnosis was made in 12.6% combined diagnosis of schizophrenia, delusional disorder and schizo-affective disorder was most common (5% diagnosis of depressive episode (3% bipolar affective disorder.

  15. Behavioural perspectives on piglet survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D

    1990-01-01

    Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which produce one or more small 'spare' young whose death or survival is determined by sibling competition. Death through competition is natural in such species. Prevention of death requires the early identification and separate rearing of unsuccessful competitors. The major behavioural pathways leading to piglet deaths are considered to be malnutrition through unsuccessful suckling behaviour, and crushing of piglets by the sow. Crushing involves two distinct behavioural sequences: posterior crushing (beneath the sow's hind quarters) and ventral crushing (beneath the udder and rib cage). Farrowing crates are designed to prevent posterior but not ventral crushing. Malnourished piglets appear to be more vulnerable to crushing, perhaps because persistent suckling attempts cause them to spend more time near the sow. Prevention of crushing thus requires a reduction in malnutrition, not merely restriction of the sow's movements. Under certain conditions, dehydration may be an important but neglected aspect of malnutrition. Some litters of piglets have much higher death losses than others, presumably because of risk factors that apply to the litter as a whole. Early malnutrition, resulting from hypogalactia in the sow in the first days after farrowing, appears to be an important risk factor. Farrowing difficulties leading to piglet hypoxia during the birth process may be another. Risk factors that affect whole litters deserve greater emphasis in future research. PMID:2192051

  16. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  17. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  18. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  19. Changing physician prescribing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J

    2006-01-01

    Didactic approaches to educating physicians and/or other health professionals do not produce changes in learner behaviour. Similarly, printed materials and practice guidelines have not been shown to change prescribing behaviour. Evidence-based educational approaches that do have an impact on provider behaviour include: teaching aimed at identified learning needs; interactive educational activities; sequenced and multifaceted interventions; enabling tools such as patient education programs, flow charts, and reminders; educational outreach or academic detailing; and audit and feedback to prescribers. Dr. Jean Gray reflects over the past 25 years on how there has been a transformation in the types of activities employed to improve prescribing practices in Nova Scotia. The evolution of Continuing Medical Education (CME) has resulted in the creation of the Drug Evaluation Alliance of Nova Scotia (DEANS) program, which is one exemplar of an evidence-based educational approach to improving physician prescribing in that province. Key words: Evidence-based, education, prescribing.

  20. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  1. Consumers' Response to Irresponsible Corporate Behaviour : A Study of the Swedish Consumers' Attitude and Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Apell Karlsson, Jennifer; Gustafsson, Moa; Rasmusson, Rikard

    2015-01-01

    How companies in the apparel industry produce their products is receiving increasingly more attention, both in the society and marketplace, as well as by consumers. Despite the increasing amount of corporate scandals and corporate irresponsibility within the apparel industry, the previous research conducted within this field has mainly focused on how positive CSR affects consumers. This thesis aims to investigate how Swedish consumers’ attitude and behaviour are affected by negative CSR in th...

  2. Information behaviour and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rafferty, Pauline; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    This special issue explores information behaviour and practice in general, and specifically focuses on the implications for library and information services. Information seeking behaviour and information practice remain areas of importance in information science and librarianship, perhaps even more so in the digital age. This special issue is an opportunity to share ideas and scholarship and to explore models and methods. The papers chosen for inclusion cover a range of topics and approach them from a number of different epistemological and methodological positions demonstrating the liveliness

  3. Does brood size manipulation affect later competitive behaviour of offspring?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deKogel, CH

    1997-01-01

    Data from several field experiments support the existence of a trade-off between number and quality of offspring. However, long term effects of brood size on fitness related traits of offspring have been a relatively neglected area of research. In a laboratory experiment the effect of manipulated br

  4. Anxious ultimatums: How anxiety disorders affect socioeconomic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grecucci, A.; Giorgetta, C.; Brambilla, P.; Zuanon, S.; Perini, L.; Balestrieri, M.; Bonini, N.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in socioeconomic decision making is increasingly recognised, the impact of specific emotional disorders, such as anxiety disorders, on these decisions has been surprisingly neglected. Twenty anxious patients and twenty matched controls completed a commonly used socioecon

  5. Environmentally mediated synergy between perception and behaviour in mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschure, Paul F M J; Voegtlin, Thomas; Douglas, Rodney J

    2003-10-01

    The notion that behaviour influences perception seems self-evident, but the mechanism of their interaction is not known. Perception and behaviour are usually considered to be separate processes. In this view, perceptual learning constructs compact representations of sensory events, reflecting their statistical properties, independently of behavioural relevance. Behavioural learning, however, forms associations between perception and action, organized by reinforcement, without regard for the construction of perception. It is generally assumed that the interaction between these two processes is internal to the agent, and can be explained solely in terms of the neuronal substrate. Here we show, instead, that perception and behaviour can interact synergistically via the environment. Using simulated and real mobile robots, we demonstrate that perceptual learning directly supports behavioural learning and so promotes a progressive structuring of behaviour. This structuring leads to a systematic bias in input sampling, which directly affects the organization of the perceptual system. This external, environmentally mediated feedback matches the perceptual system to the emerging behavioural structure, so that the behaviour is stabilized.

  6. Behavioural Finance: Theory and Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Jurevičienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the importance of behavioural finance theories in household decision-making process. Behavioural finance theories investigate emotional characteristics to explain subjective factors and irrational anomalies in financial markets. In this regard, behavioural theories and behavioural anomalies in the decision-making process are examined; the application opportunities in the financial market are described. The aim of investigation is to determine the basic features and slopes of behavioural finance in concordance with financial decisions of a household. The survey method was applied to ascertain financial behaviour of literate households.

  7. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Jong; D. den Hartog

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions: th

  8. Behavioural Real Estate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Salzman (Diego); R.C.J. Zwinkels (Remco)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe behavioural approach to decision making under uncertainty combines insights from psychology and sociology into economic decision making. It steps away from the normative homo economicus and introduces a positive approach to human decision making under uncertainty. We provide an overv

  9. PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF SUICIDE BEHAVIOUR*

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Devi, S. Parvathi

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Evidence from genetic research, monoamine studies and psychopharmacological trials points towards a possible biological predisposition and precipitant for suicidal behaviour. The implications for early detection and management based on a biological model have been discussed. The limitations of the model have been discussed.

  10. Modelling cellular behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endy, Drew; Brent, Roger

    2001-01-01

    Representations of cellular processes that can be used to compute their future behaviour would be of general scientific and practical value. But past attempts to construct such representations have been disappointing. This is now changing. Increases in biological understanding combined with advances in computational methods and in computer power make it possible to foresee construction of useful and predictive simulations of cellular processes.

  11. Managing Behaviour in Classrooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹柯

    2008-01-01

    Managing the class is a fussy but indispensable job for the class teacher. The relationship between teachers and students is a subtle one, which is different with each group. So it is a duty to manage their behaviour, meanwhile the teachers'skills of management appears more important.

  12. Locomotion and postural behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diversity of primate locomotor behaviour for people who are involved in research using laboratory primates. The main locomotor modes displayed by primates are introduced with reference to some general morphological adaptations. The relationships between locomotor behaviour and body size, habitat structure and behavioural context will be illustrated because these factors are important determinants of the evolutionary diversity of primate locomotor activities. They also induce the high individual plasticity of the locomotor behaviour for which primates are well known. The article also provides a short overview of the preferred locomotor activities in the various primate families. A more detailed description of locomotor preferences for some of the most common laboratory primates is included which also contains information about substrate preferences and daily locomotor activities which might useful for laboratory practice. Finally, practical implications for primate husbandry and cage design are provided emphasizing the positive impact of physical activity on health and psychological well-being of primates in captivity.

  13. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O.; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are proba...

  14. Job Finding, Job Loss and Consumption Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, E.

    2015-01-01

    According to the permanent income / life-cycle hypothesis (PILCH), under standard preferences anticipated changes in employment status should not affect the changes in consumption. In this paper, we investigate the consumption behaviour of individuals who lose their jobs and those who find a job. For a representative sample of American households anticipated changes between employment and unemployment states are identified using monthly transition expectations. Firstly, it is shown that expec...

  15. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    2010-01-01

    This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life for the affected livestock. By featuring training data consisting of measurements of cow activity, three different models are obtained, namely an autonomous stochastic automaton, a stochastic automaton with coinci...

  16. A cognitive human behaviour model for pedestrian behaviour simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hollmann, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Pedestrian behaviour simulation models are being developed with the intention to simulate human behaviour in various environments in both non-emergency and emergency situations. These models are applied with the objective to understand the underlying causes and dynamics of pedestrian behaviour and how the environment or the environment’s intrinsic procedures can be adjusted in order to provide an improvement of human comfort and safety. In order to realistically model pedestrian behaviour...

  17. ‘Nudging’ behaviours in healthcare: insights from behavioural economics

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin G. Voyer

    2015-01-01

    Since the creation of the Behavioural Insight Team in 2010, the word ‘nudge’ has become a popular one in social and public policy. According to policymakers and managers, applications of behavioural economics to public sector management results in increased policy efficiency and savings. This article offers a critical perspective on the topic, and discusses how the application of behavioural economics can foster innovative healthcare management. It first reviews behavioural economics principl...

  18. Behavioural lateralisation in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yngve Espmark

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus kept in corrals or otherwise forced to clump typically start milling in response to stressing events. This behaviour is generally considered to have an antipredator effect. An inquiry on herd behaviour, to which 35 Norwegian reindeer husbandry districts responded, showed that 32 experienced that corralled rein¬deer consistently circled leftwards, whereas the remaining three reported consistently rightward circling. Regular monitoring of a reindeer herd in central Norway over a two-year period (1993-94, and experimental studies on a fraction of the same herd, revealed the following traits. Free-ranging reindeer showed no right- or left-turning preference during grazing or browsing, but when the reindeer were driven into corrals or forced to clump in the open they invariably rotated leftwards. The circling of corralled reindeer was triggered at an average group size of 20 to 25 animals, apparently independently of the age and sex of the animals. When they dug craters in the snow to reach food, the reindeer used their left foreleg significantly more often than their right. In 23 out of 35 reindeer, the right hemisphere of the brain was heavier than the left. However, in the sample as a whole, the weights of the left and right hemispheres did not differ significantly. Lateralised behaviour in reindeer is thought to be determined by natural and stress induced asymmetries in brain structure and hormonal activity. In addition, learning is probably important for passing on the behaviour between herd members and generations. Differences in lateralised behaviour between nearby herds are thought to be related primarily to different exposure to stress and learning, whereas genetical and environmental fac¬tors (e.g. diet, age structure and sex ratio are probably more important for explaining differences between distant pop¬ulations.

  19. Pelagic behaviour of reservoir fishes: sinusoidal swimming and associated behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    JAROLÍM, Oldřich

    2009-01-01

    Annotation Long-term fixed-location hydroacoustic study with uplooking transducer was performed during 2005 in Římov reservoir, Czech Republic. It dealt mainly with fish behaviour in the open water of reservoir, especially with sinusoidal swimming behaviour. The dependence of pelagic fish behaviour on environmental conditions was also studied.

  20. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  1. Trends in information behaviour research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014. Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed. Results. Qualitative methods still dominate information behaviour research. Content analysis and participatory designs...

  2. Neuroendocrine control of maternal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Caughey, Sarah Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Maternal behaviour during the peri-partum period, albeit in differing forms, can be observed in all mammals, thus it must serve an important evolutionary purpose in enabling the successful raising of offspring. Maternal behaviour is comprised of a large suite of behaviours; in rodents these are generally defined as lactation, pup retrieval, maternal aggression and pup grooming. The maternal behaviour circuitry involves many brain regions including the hypothalamus and the limbi...

  3. Factors Influencing Drivers' Speeding Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Wallén Warner, Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Every year many people all over the world are killed and severely injured in road traffic accidents. Even though driving too fast is a behaviour well known to contribute to both the number and the outcome of these accidents, drivers are still speeding. The general aim of this thesis, and its five empirical studies, is therefore to further the knowledge about drivers speeding behaviour by using the theory of planned behaviour and the model underpinning the driver behaviour questionnaire as fra...

  4. Behavioural development, fat reserves and their association with productivity in Lasius flavus founding queens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, V. C.; Pamminger, T.; Hughes, W. O. H.

    2016-04-01

    Reproduction-related behaviours are key components determining individual fitness. Many behavioural traits are linked, and such trait associations often affect fitness. Here, we combine behavioural and physiological data during two critical time points of founding queens (early and late nest-founding stage) in the claustral ant Lasius flavus to assess how these factors affect their initial productivity. We show that most behavioural traits, except brood care behaviour, are plastic during queen development and demonstrate that there are alternative behavioural pathways to achieve high productivity under standardised conditions. These results indicate that queens can utilise multiple behavioural trait combinations to maximise reproductive output at the earliest, and arguably most critical, time of colony foundation.

  5. The stability of lifestyle behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M; Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Bouma, J; van den Heuvel, WJA

    1998-01-01

    Background The stability of Lifestyle behaviour has been studied over a 4-year period in a sample of 1400 men in The Netherlands. The influence of both socioeconomic status and age was studied in relation to lifestyle behaviour change. Methods Lifestyle behaviour was analysed by means of index score

  6. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  7. Behavioural and Neuroendocrine Effects of Stress in Salmonid Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Øverli, Øyvind

    2001-01-01

    Stress can affect several behavioural patterns, such as food intake and the general activity level of an animal. The central monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine are important in the mediation of both behavioural and neuroendocrine stress effects. This thesis describes studies of two salmonid fish model systems: Fish that become socially dominant or subordinate when reared in pairs, and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genetically selected for high (HR) and l...

  8. Rorschach personality characteristics in obesity, eating behaviour and treatment outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Elfhag, Kristina

    2003-01-01

    Obesity is a growing public health problem influenced by several factors. Psychology is essential in the study of obesity. Reasons for behaviour are complex and can be partly inaccessible and difficult to reveal in self-reported information. A performance-based psychological technique such as the Rorschach method enables a study of underlying personality aspects affecting behaviours and can provide data complementary to self-reports. This can be of particular relevance in de...

  9. Education and political behaviour : evidence from the Catalan linguistic reform

    OpenAIRE

    Clots-Figueras, Irma; ASPACHS-BRACONS, Oriol; MASELLA, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between schooling and political behaviour in ethnically divided societies. It draws on survey data from Catalonia to investigate how the introduction in 1983 of a bilingual education system affects political behaviour. Using within and between cohort variation in exposure to Catalan language at school, we find that individuals who have experienced greater exposure to teaching in Catalan are more likely to declare to have voted in 1999 regional elections and...

  10. DIFFERENCES IN CUSTOMER BEHAVIOUR AND EXPECTATIONS BETWEEN FINLAND AND GERMANY

    OpenAIRE

    Ober, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to find out differences in the behaviour and expectations of customers in restaurants in different countries, and how those differences affect the restaurant industry. The countries Finland and Germany were chosen to be compared with each. Respondents of both countries were asked in questionnaires about their preferences of service, complaining and tipping behaviour. In addition restaurant owners/managers were asked about their way of conducting service in their...

  11. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a research study conducted at Natura, a large Brazilian cosmetic company, in order to stimulate more systematic sustainable innovation practices by means of behavioural change. Within the “soft side” of ecodesign implementation, “nudging” is a novel approach brought from social...... sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to practice ecodesign. This original experience of green nudging in a private company context supported the diffusion...... systemically consider individuals’ engagement, including behavioural aspects, interaction with project teams and higher level business organisations....

  12. Female Buying Behaviour Related to Facial Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kokoi, Isa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the buying behaviour of Finnish women related to facial skin care products. The primary purpose of the study is to discover the similarities and differences in the buying behaviour of young and middle-aged women when purchasing facial skin care products. The objective is to study what kinds of factors affect the buying behaviour of both young (20 to 35 years old) and middle-aged (40 to 60 years old) women and then compare the findings from both groups. Furthermore, the aim...

  13. Essays on Economic Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hudík, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The main thesis of these essays is that social phenomena are different from psychological phenomena and thus social sciences do not belong to behavioural sciences. Chapter 1 introduces the fundamental problem of the rational choice theory ("Macaulay's problem"): either the theory is empirical and false or it is without empirical content and true. Various suggested solutions to this problem are reviewed and criticized. It is argued that the problem is evaded once it is admitted that rational c...

  14. e-Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, C.; Merrilees, B; Jayawardhena, C; Wright, L T

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The primary purpose of this article is to bring together apparently disparate and yet interconnected strands of research and present an integrated model of e-consumer behaviour. It has a secondary objective of stimulating more research in areas identified as still being underexplored. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is discursive, based on analysis and synthesis of econsumer literature. Findings – Despite a broad spectrum of disciplines that investigate e-cons...

  15. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  16. Internet user behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furt...

  17. Adsorption behaviour of bulgur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaş, Mustafa; Aykın, Elif; Arslan, Sultan; Durak, Atike N

    2016-03-15

    The aim of this research was to determine the adsorption behaviour of bulgur. Three different particle sizes (2dry matter and 4.96-16.57, respectively. Constant k was between 0.85 and 0.93, and GAB equation was determined to fit very well for bulgur adsorption, because of %E values lower than 10%. Bulgur must be stored below 70% relative humidity and with less than 10 g water per 100 g of dry mater. PMID:26575716

  18. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  19. Opiate antagonists stimulate affiliative behaviour in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Nys, C; Meller, R E; Keverne, E B

    1982-04-01

    The effects of treating captive talapoin monkeys acutely (twice daily for 7 days) with naltrexone hydrochloride (0.25 mg 0.5 mg and 1 mg/kg intramuscular injections twice daily), naloxone hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg IM twice daily) and sulpiride (1.5 mg/kg IM twice daily) was studied in social pairs and singly caged animals. The behaviour of social pairs and endocrine changes in all treated monkeys were monitored before, during and after withdrawal of the course of drug treatment. Naltrexone and naloxone, but not sulpiride, significant increased grooming and grooming invitations while aggressive behaviour, self grooming, scratching and general locomotor activity were unaffected. There was an overall increase in LH, testosterone and cortisol in plasma samples taken 60 mins after opiate receptor blockade. Prolactin was unchanged but increased dramatically in animals treated with sulpiride. No significant endocrine changes were observed to precede the increased grooming behaviour which opiate receptor blockade induced. The behavioural changes reported for this primate support the view that positive affect arising from social bonds may be mediated by cerebral endorphin containing systems. PMID:6280208

  20. 小学语文课堂朗读教学有效性探究%On the Validity Teaching of Primary School Chinese Reading Aloud in Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙阳

    2013-01-01

    朗读是阅读学习常用方法之一,在小学语文阅读教学过程中占有举足轻重的地位。现实中,小学语文课堂中的朗读教学在重视程度、时间安排和评价考核方面均有不同程度的缺失,朗读教学并未有效发挥发展学生语言能力、阅读能力的作用。从有效教学理念入手,综合儿童心理发展在不同学段的特点和朗读教材的文本类型两个维度探讨朗读教学目标及教学注意,再次诠释有效朗读教学。教师作为教学活动的主导应当对学生抱以积极的期望,重视学生的朗读体验和领悟。教学相长,恰当的朗读教学实践和教学研究同样有助于教师专业素养的提升。%Reading teaching is the main body of primary language of teaching. In elementary student ’s learning process ,reading as an significant method of study plays an important role. However, reading teaching in emphasis, scheduling, and evaluating are different degree of loss. It did not play its role of developing student’s language ability and reading ability .This article obtains from the effective teaching, through the children’s psychological development features and reading materials type two aspects of effective reading teaching. Teachers as the leading should hold to students of the teaching activities in a positive expectation , and attache great importance to the students ’ reading experience and insights. Learning, read aloud practice and study on teaching of the moderate right also helps the professional quality of teachers improved.

  1. Psychological Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Vainikka, Bianca

    2015-01-01

    This paper’s aim is to provide an in-depth elucidation of the many aspects that influence consumer behaviour. The study of consumer behaviour emphasizes the “why” and “how” questions involved in decision making and buying behaviour. This exciting field visits a dynamic blend of themes of consumer marketing strategies, psychology and behavioural discipline. Consumer behaviour in this day and age is highly applicable to modern society as it is an integral part of our everyday lives. This paper ...

  2. Predicting People's Environmental Behaviour: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Long

    2012-01-01

    Using different measures of self-reported and other-reported environmental behaviour (EB), two important theoretical models explaining EB--Hines, Hungerford and Tomera's model of responsible environmental behaviour (REB) and Ajzen's theory of planned behaviour (TPB)--were compared regarding the fit between model and data, predictive ability,…

  3. Frustrative reward omission increases aggressive behaviour of inferior fighters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Vela-Avitua, Sergio;

    2014-01-01

    Animals use aggressive behaviour to gain access to resources, and individuals adjust their behaviour relative to resource value and own resource holding potential (RHP). Normally, smaller individuals have inferior fighting abilities compared with larger conspecifics. Affective and cognitive proce...... and physiological response to OER in fish indicates that frustration is an evolutionarily conserved affective state. Moreover, our results indicate that aggressive motivation to reward unpredictability affects low RHP individuals strongest...... processes can alter contest dynamics, but the interaction between such effects and that of differing RHPs has not been adjudged. We investigated effects of omission of expected reward (OER) on competing individuals with contrasting RHPs. Small and large rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were conditioned...... to associate a light with reward. Thereafter, the reward was omitted for half of the fish prior to a contest between individuals possessing a 36–40% difference in RHP. Small control individuals displayed submissive behaviour and virtually no aggression. By contrast, small OER individuals were more aggressive...

  4. Visual behaviour analysis and driver cognitive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baujon, J.; Basset, M.; Gissinger, G.L. [Mulhouse Univ., (France). MIPS/MIAM Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception - plays a key role in the ''driver-vehicle-road'' system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. Within the framework of the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL), this paper presents a correlative, qualitative and quantitative study, comparing the information given by visual perception and by the trajectory followed. This information will help to obtain a cognitive model of the Rasmussen type according to different driver classes. Many experiments in real driving situations have been carried out for different driver classes and for a given trajectory profile, using a test vehicle and innovative, specially designed, real-time tools, such as the vision system or the positioning module. (orig.)

  5. Corporate Social Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Peter; Rahbek Pedersen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    management systems, social accountability, corporate citizenship, occupational health and safety and so forth. However, both the idea of government regulation and the literature acclaiming corporate self-regulation should be met with some scepticism. This paper offers a short assessment of the potentials......, human rights and environmental protection. Without a common point of reference in national regulation, managers in multinational enterprises now have to develop their own codes of corporate social behaviour. This has created a growing market for private standards within the field of environmental...

  6. Predicting exercise behaviour : extending the theory of planned behaviour with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated exercise behaviour over a six-week period in a theory of planned behaviour context, extended with implementation intentions, dispositional variables, and past behaviour. Two waves of questionnaires were used to measure behavioural intention, perceived behavioural control, past behaviour, and three dispositional variables, that is optimism, self-efficacy and action-orientation, as well as actual performance of exercise behaviour. Implementation intentions were ma...

  7. The psychology of suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Nock, Matthew K

    2014-06-01

    The causes of suicidal behaviour are not fully understood; however, this behaviour clearly results from the complex interaction of many factors. Although many risk factors have been identified, they mostly do not account for why people try to end their lives. In this Review, we describe key recent developments in theoretical, clinical, and empirical psychological science about the emergence of suicidal thoughts and behaviours, and emphasise the central importance of psychological factors. Personality and individual differences, cognitive factors, social aspects, and negative life events are key contributors to suicidal behaviour. Most people struggling with suicidal thoughts and behaviours do not receive treatment. Some evidence suggests that different forms of cognitive and behavioural therapies can reduce the risk of suicide reattempt, but hardly any evidence about factors that protect against suicide is available. The development of innovative psychological and psychosocial treatments needs urgent attention. PMID:26360404

  8. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves. PMID:26154200

  9. Driver behaviour at roadworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy; Calvert, Malcolm

    2015-11-01

    There is an incompatibility between how transport engineers think drivers behave in roadworks and how they actually behave. As a result of this incompatibility we are losing approximately a lane's worth of capacity in addition to those closed by the roadworks themselves. The problem would have little significance were it not for the fact a lane of motorway costs approx. £30 m per mile to construct and £43 k a year to maintain, and that many more roadworks are planned as infrastructure constructed 40 or 50 years previously reaches a critical stage in its lifecycle. Given current traffic volumes, and the sensitivity of road networks to congestion, the effects of roadworks need to be accurately assessed. To do this requires a new ergonomic approach. A large-scale observational study of real traffic conditions was used to identify the issues and impacts, which were then mapped to the ergonomic knowledge-base on driver behaviour, and combined to developed practical guidelines to help in modelling future roadworks scenarios with greater behavioural accuracy. Also stemming from the work are novel directions for the future ergonomic design of roadworks themselves.

  10. REM sleep Behaviour Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Rinaldi, Fabrizio; Giora, Enrico; Marelli, Sara; Galbiati, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) is a REM sleep parasomnia characterized by loss of the muscle atonia that typically occurs during REM sleep, therefore allowing patients to act out their dreams. RBD manifests itself clinically as a violent behaviour occurring during the night, and is detected at the polysomnography by phasic and/or tonic muscle activity on the electromyography channel. In absence of neurological signs or central nervous system lesions, RBD is defined as idiopathic. Nevertheless, in a large number of cases the development of neurodegenerative diseases in RBD patients has been described, with the duration of the follow-up representing a fundamental aspect. A growing number of clinical, neurophysiologic and neuropsychological studies aimed to detect early markers of neurodegenerative dysfunction in RBD patients. Anyway, the evidence of impaired cortical activity, subtle neurocognitive dysfunction, olfactory and autonomic impairment and neuroimaging brain changes in RBD patients is challenging the concept of an idiopathic form of RBD, supporting the idea of RBD as an early manifestation of a more complex neurodegenerative process.

  11. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  12. Does trust influence consumer behaviour?

    OpenAIRE

    Dierks, Leef H.

    2007-01-01

    Against the background of diverse food scandals this article investigates the role of trust as a determinant of consumer behaviour in Germany. As empirical analyses indicate, the impact of trust on consumer behaviour in a quotidian and presumably safe setting is to be neglected. In the environment of a food scandal, however, trust proves to be a crucial element with regard to a more in-depth understanding of consumer behaviour under uncertainty. Moreover, it is analysed whether different valu...

  13. Behaviour Trees for Evolutionary Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Scheper, Kirk Y. W.; Tijmons, Sjoerd; de Visser, Coen C.; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary Robotics allows robots with limited sensors and processing to tackle complex tasks by means of sensory-motor coordination. In this paper we show the first application of the Behaviour Tree framework to a real robotic platform using the Evolutionary Robotics methodology. This framework is used to improve the intelligibility of the emergent robotic behaviour as compared to the traditional Neural Network formulation. As a result, the behaviour is easier to comprehend and manually ad...

  14. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    Träskman Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism...

  15. Urine marking in male common voles: does behavioural activity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantová, Petra; Brixová, Lenka; Lanta, Vojtěch

    2012-06-01

    Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890

  16. Health behaviour and safety in the construction sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliá, José L; Becerril, Marta

    2009-08-01

    Workers' health behaviour includes habits or actions related to physical exercise, nutrition, smoking, and drug or alcohol consumption. Unhealthy behaviour, and especially alcohol consumption, has been considered a source of accidents and injuries among construction workers. However, unhealthy behaviour can also be seen as a result of the safety and risk conditions of these jobs. The purpose of this paper is to contrast the role of unhealthy behaviour as a source or as an outcome of safety and risk in the construction sector. Data was collected from 180 workers belonging to a Spanish construction company. Two path models representing these two hypotheses were tested. The model in which unhealthy behaviour is an antecedent of injuries did not fit the data (Chi square=73.798, df=3, p<0.001). Results support the hypothesis of unhealthy behaviour as a result of safety and risk factors through the mediating effect of the experience of tension (Chi-square=4.507, df=2, p=.212). This model not only corroborates the stressful nature of exposure to risk and the absence of supervisors' safety response, but it also makes it possible to consider injuries as a cause of tension that, in turn, affects the employees' unhealthy behaviour. PMID:19622324

  17. Six quantitative trait loci influence task thresholds for hygienic behaviour in honeybees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Peter R; Spivak, Marla; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2010-04-01

    Honeybee hygienic behaviour provides colonies with protection from many pathogens and is an important model system of the genetics of a complex behaviour. It is a textbook example of complex behaviour under simple genetic control: hygienic behaviour consists of two components--uncapping a diseased brood cell, followed by removal of the contents--each of which are thought to be modulated independently by a few loci of medium to large effect. A worker's genetic propensity to engage in hygienic tasks affects the intensity of the stimulus required before she initiates the behaviour. Genetic diversity within colonies leads to task specialization among workers, with a minority of workers performing the majority of nest-cleaning tasks. We identify three quantitative trait loci that influence the likelihood that workers will engage in hygienic behaviour and account for up to 30% of the phenotypic variability in hygienic behaviour in our population. Furthermore, we identify two loci that influence the likelihood that a worker will perform uncapping behaviour only, and one locus that influences removal behaviour. We report the first candidate genes associated with engaging in hygienic behaviour, including four genes involved in olfaction, learning and social behaviour, and one gene involved in circadian locomotion. These candidates will allow molecular characterization of this distinctive behavioural mode of disease resistance, as well as providing the opportunity for marker-assisted selection for this commercially significant trait. PMID:20298472

  18. Behavioural Spillover in the Environmental Domain: An Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanzini, Pietro; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    behaviours. However, the spillover mostly affects low-cost behaviours. Not unexpectedly, the monetary inducement had a stronger direct impact on "green" shopping than verbal encouragement and praise. However, contrary to popular beliefs, the spillover effects of a monetary inducement on other pro-environmental......This study tests hypotheses about behavioural spillover in the environmental domain as well as the impacts of monetary inducements and verbal praise on behavioural spillover by means of a field experiment. A sample of 194 students from a large university in Denmark were randomly allocated...... to a control group or to one of two experimental conditions where they were encouraged to purchase "green" products by means of either financial compensation and incentives or verbal encouragement and praise. Participants answered a baseline survey containing questions concerning a wide range...

  19. Affective responses in tamarins elicited by species-specific music

    OpenAIRE

    SNOWDON, CHARLES T.; Teie, David

    2009-01-01

    Theories of music evolution agree that human music has an affective influence on listeners. Tests of non-humans provided little evidence of preferences for human music. However, prosodic features of speech (‘motherese’) influence affective behaviour of non-verbal infants as well as domestic animals, suggesting that features of music can influence the behaviour of non-human species. We incorporated acoustical characteristics of tamarin affiliation vocalizations and tamarin threat vocalizations...

  20. The impact of feedback on students’ affective states

    OpenAIRE

    Grawemeyer, B.; Mavrikis, M.; Holmes, W.; Hansen, A.; Loibl, K.; Gutierrez-Santos, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Affective states play a significant role in students' learning behaviour. Positive affective states can enhance learning, while negative affective states can inhibit it. This paper describes a Wizard-of-Oz study that investigates the impact of different types of feedback on students' affective states. Our results indicate the importance of providing feedback matched carefully to the affective state of the students in order to help them transition into more positive states. For example when st...

  1. Unpredictable chronic mild stress not chronic restraint stress induces depressive behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shenghua; Shi, Ruoyang; Wang, Junhui; Wang, Jun-Feng; Li, Xin-Min

    2014-10-01

    The chronic stress model was developed on the basis of the stress-diathesis hypothesis of depression. However, these behavioural responses associated with different stress paradigms are quite complex. This study examined the effects of two chronic stress regimens on anxiety-like and depressive behaviours. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress or to chronic restraint stress for 4 weeks. Subsequently, both anxiety-like behaviours (open field, elevated plus maze and novelty suppressed feeding) and depression-like behaviours (tail suspension, forced swim and sucrose preference) were evaluated. Both chronic stress models generated anxiety-like behaviours, whereas only unpredictable chronic mild stress could induce depressive behaviours such as increased immobility and decreased sucrose consumption. These results of the present study provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects behavioural responses and point to the importance of the validity of animal models of chronic stress in studying depression. PMID:25089805

  2. Physical conditions affecting pyrethroid toxicity in arthropods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to obtain mechanistic information about how the toxicity of pesticides in the field is affected by physical factors, pesticide bioavailability and arthropod behaviour. The pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin and linyphiid spiders were selected as pesticide-effect model. In

  3. Sperm Membrane Behaviour during Cooling and Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieme, H; Oldenhof, H; Wolkers, W F

    2015-09-01

    Native sperm is only marginally stable after collection. Cryopreservation of semen facilitates transport and storage for later use in artificial reproduction technologies, but cryopreservation processing may result in cellular damage compromising sperm function. Membranes are thought to be the primary site of cryopreservation injury. Therefore, insights into the effects of cooling, ice formation and protective agents on sperm membranes may help to rationally design cryopreservation protocols. In this review, we describe membrane phase behaviour of sperm at supra- and subzero temperatures. In addition, factors affecting membrane phase transitions and stability, sperm osmotic tolerance limits and mode of action of cryoprotective agents are discussed. It is shown how cooling only results in minor thermotropic non-cooperative phase transitions, whereas freezing causes sharp lyotropic fluid-to-gel phase transitions. Membrane cholesterol content affects suprazero membrane phase behaviour and osmotic tolerance. The rate and extent of cellular dehydration coinciding with freezing-induced membrane phase transitions are affected by the cooling rate and ice nucleation temperature and can be modulated by cryoprotective agents. Permeating agents such as glycerol can move across cellular membranes, whereas non-permeating agents such as sucrose cannot. Both, permeating and non-permeating protectants preserve biomolecular and cellular structures by forming a protective glassy state during freezing. PMID:26382025

  4. The Affective Legacy of Silent Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    In the fiftieth year since the publication of Silent Spring, the importance of Rachel Carson’s work can be measured in its affective influence on contemporary environmental writing across the humanities. The ground broken by Silent Spring in creating new forms of writing has placed affect at the very centre of contemporary narratives that call for pro-environmental beliefs and behaviours. A critical public-feelings framework is used to explore these issues and trace their passage from the pri...

  5. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research described in this thesis was to develop speech-based affect recognition systems that can deal with spontaneous (‘real’) affect instead of acted affect. Several affect recognition experiments with spontaneous affective speech data were carried out to investigate what combinati

  6. Behavioural and Cognitive-Behavioural Treatments of Parasomnias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galbiati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behaviours or experiences that occur predominantly during or within close proximity to sleep. Pharmacological treatments of parasomnias are available, but their efficacy is established only for few disorders. Furthermore, most of these disorders tend spontaneously to remit with development. Nonpharmacological treatments therefore represent valid therapeutic choices. This paper reviews behavioural and cognitive-behavioural managements employed for parasomnias. Referring to the ICSD-3 nosology we consider, respectively, NREM parasomnias, REM parasomnias, and other parasomnias. Although the efficacy of some of these treatments is proved, in other cases their clinical evidence cannot be provided because of the small size of the samples. Due to the rarity of some parasomnias, further multicentric researches are needed in order to offer a more complete account of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural treatments efficacy.

  7. Men with cancer : psychosocial issues, health behaviours, coping and help seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background: A range of factors contribute to men with cancer having worse mortality and morbidity rates than women. The research specifically focused on psychosocial issues and health behaviours in men with cancer, and factors affecting help seeking behaviour. Methods: A mixed-methods study recruited adult men with cancer in the East of Scotland. The quantitative cross-sectional study explored psychosocial issues, health behaviours, and desire for support. Data from the Scottish Longitudin...

  8. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    OpenAIRE

    Łatuszyńska, Małgorzata; Furaiji, Fatimah; Wawrzyniak, Agata

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable) in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data e...

  9. The association of children's distress during venepuncture with parent and staff behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Susan; Ayers, Susan; Pervilhac, Charlotte; Mahoney, Liam; Seddon, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Venepuncture and other needle-related procedures can distress children and have a lasting negative impact. Adults' behaviour during these procedures may affect children's reactions. However, the literature is contradictory and rarely considers verbal and non-verbal behaviour together. This study therefore examined the effect of adults' verbal and non-verbal behaviour on children's distress during venepuncture. Participants comprised 51 child and carer dyads and 10 staff members. Child anxiety...

  10. Study on Electronic Journal Reading Behaviour of Social Scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China

    OpenAIRE

    王梅玲、肖希明、朱慶華 Mei-Ling Wang, Xi-Ming Xiao, Qing-Hua Zhu

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to investigate the electronic journal reading behaviour of social scientists in Taiwan and Mainland China. The main purposes of the study are as follows: to explore the importance of e-journals amongst social scientists’ research; to explore the e-journal reading behaviour of Taiwanese and Chinese social scientists; to unearth factors affecting e-journal article reading thereby allowing comparisons to be made between the e-journal reading behaviour of social scientists in ...

  11. Buying Behaviour Of International Shopping Center Consumers- An Application In Bursa

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Akat; Cagatan Task›n; Aysun Ozdemir

    2006-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is affected by many factors such as demographic, economic, social, psychological, cultural factors and product, price, place and promotion decisions. The composition of these factors determinesconsumer behaviour. Besides these factors, retail industry which is a developing sector, has a great impact on the differentiation of shopping habits. Supermarkets, hypermarkets and especially international shopping centers are shaping the buying behaviour of the consumers. As a natur...

  12. The effects of brand perception on consumers purchasing behaviour : Case: Unilever Nigeria PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Onaneye, Adedapo

    2014-01-01

    The topic of this study was chosen bearing in mind the effect of brand perception on consumers’ purchasing behaviour. It is imperative to know that product quality and product attribute affects consumer perception. Consumer’s perception forms an integral part of consumers’ buying behaviour and it determines the survival or failure of goods and services. However, the study aims to examine brand perception and the effect on consumers’ purchasing behaviour and highlight the satisfaction that...

  13. Internet user behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furthermore, the paper looks at a representative sample of Romanian internet users. The results reveal that the Romanians are using the Internet especially for information gathering, e-mail, entertainment and social networking.

  14. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyf Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  15. Iodine behaviour in severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Grindon, E.; Handy, B.J.; Sutherland, L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Bruns, W.G.; Sims, H.E. [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom); Dickinson, S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Hueber, C.; Jacquemain, D. [IPSN/CEA, Cadarache, Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    1996-12-01

    A description is given of analyses which identify which aspects of the modelling and data are most important in evaluating the release of radioactive iodine to the environment following a potential severe accident at a PWR and which identify the major uncertainties which affect that release. Three iodine codes are used namely INSPECT, IODE and IMPAIR, and their predictions are compared with those of the PSA code MAAP. INSPECT is a mechanistic code which models iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, spray water and sump water, and the partitioning of volatile species between the aqueous phases and containment gas space. Organic iodine is not modelled. IODE and IMPAIR are semi-empirical codes which do not model iodine behaviour in the aqueous aerosol, but model organic iodine. The fault sequences addressed are based on analyses for the Sizewell `B` design. Two types of sequence have been analysed.: (a) those in which a major release of fission products from the primary circuit to the containment occur, e.g. a large LOCAS, (b) those where the release by-passes the containment, e.g. a leak into the auxiliary building. In the analysis of the LOCA sequences where the pH of the sump is controlled to be a value of 8 or greater, all three codes predict that the oxidation of iodine to produce gas phase species does not make a significant contribution to the source term due to leakage from the reactor building and that the latter is dominated by iodide in the aerosol. In the case where the pH of the sump is not controlled, it is found that the proportion of gas phase iodine increases significantly, although the cumulative leakage predicted by all three codes is not significantly different from that predicted by MAAP. The radiolytic production of nitric acid could be a major factor in determining the pH, and if the pH were reduced, the codes predict an increase in gas phase iodine species leaked from the containment. (author) 4 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  16. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian A; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light......-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night....

  17. Candidate genes for behavioural ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ben-Sahar, Y.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Sokolowski, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behavi

  18. Reconsidering the sedentary behaviour paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Maher

    Full Text Available AIMS: Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. RESULTS: Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = -0.06 and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04. Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08-0.30 while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12. CONCLUSION: There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity.

  19. Financial Literacy and Financial Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sayinzoga, Aussi; Bulte, Erwin H.; Lensink, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We organise a field experiment with smallholder farmers in Rwanda to measure the impact of financial literacy training on financial knowledge and behaviour. The training increased financial literacy of participants, changed their savings and borrowing behaviour and had a positive effect on the ne

  20. Reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculation intervention (Learning therapy improves inhibition, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eNouchi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPrevious reports have described that simple cognitive training using reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, so-called learning therapy, can improve executive functions and processing speed in the older adults. Nevertheless, it is not well-known whether learning therapy improve a wide range of cognitive functions or not. We investigated the beneficial effects of learning therapy on various cognitive functions in healthy older adults.MethodsWe used a single-blinded intervention with two groups (learning therapy group: LT and waiting list control group: WL. Sixty-four elderly were randomly assigned to LT or WL. In LT, participants performed reading Japanese aloud and solving simple calculations training tasks for 6 months. WL did not participate in the intervention. We measured several cognitive functions before and after 6 months intervention periods.ResultsCompared to WL, results revealed that LT improved inhibition performance in executive functions (Stroop: LT (Mean = 3.88 vs. WL (Mean = 1.22, adjusted p =.013 and reverse Stroop LT (Mean = 3.22 vs. WL (Mean = 1.59, adjusted p =.015, verbal episodic memory (logical memory: LT (Mean = 4.59 vs. WL (Mean = 2.47, adjusted p =.015, focus attention(D-CAT: LT (Mean = 2.09 vs. WL (Mean = -0.59, adjusted p =.010 and processing speed compared to the waiting list control group (digit symbol coding: LT (Mean = 5.00 vs. WL (Mean = 1.13, adjusted p =.015 and symbol search: LT (Mean = 3.47 vs. WL (Mean = 1.81, adjusted p =.014.DiscussionThis RCT can showed the benefit of learning therapy on inhibition of executive functions, verbal episodic memory, focus attention, and processing speed in healthy elderly people. Our results were discussed under overlapping hypothesis.Trial registrationThis trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000006998.

  1. Beneficial effects of reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations (learning therapy on a wide range of cognitive functions in the healthy elderly: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouchi Rui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost all cognitive functions decline with age. Results of previous studies have shown that cognitive training related to everyday life (reading aloud and solving simple arithmetic calculations, namely learning therapy, can improve two cognitive function (executive functions and processing speed in elderly people. However, it remains unclear whether learning therapy engenders improvement of various cognitive functions or not. We investigate the impact of learning therapy on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed in healthy older adults. Methods We use a single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (a learning therapy group and a waiting list control group. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the group membership of participants. Through an advertisement in local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited. They will be assigned randomly to a learning therapy group or a waiting list control group. In the learning therapy group, participants are required to perform two cognitive tasks for 6 months: reading Japanese aloud and solving simple calculations. The waiting list group does not participate in the intervention. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the following: verbal fluency task, logical memory, first and second names, digit span forward, digit span backward, Japanese reading test, digit cancellation task, digit symbol coding, and symbol search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first study which investigates the beneficial effects of learning therapy on a wide range of cognitive functions of elderly people. Our study provides sufficient evidence of learning therapy effectiveness. Most cognitive functions, which are

  2. 基于有声思维法的中西方思维差异研究%A Study on Discrepancies between Chinese and English Thinking Pattern Based on Think-aloud Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏淼

    2014-01-01

    作为一种实证性研究,有声思维借鉴了认知心理学的研究模式,试图通过实证,探究大脑的思维认知过程。本文采用“有声思维”的方法收集中外十名大学生在母语写作过程中的数据,并从选词、句型和语篇结构方面对数据进行整理和分析,得出中英思维差异主要体现在三大类:形合和意合、主观型和客观型、归纳型和演绎型。%As an empirical study, the think-aloud method learns from the research pattern of cogni-tive psychology, and tries to explore the cognitive process of thinking by empirical study. By using the method of think-aloud, this paper collects data from ten subjects who are university students with English and Chinese as their mother tongue respectively when they are writing. Through data reduction and analy-sis of word-choice, sentence pattern and discourse structure;there are mainly three types of discrepancies:hypostasis and parataxis, subjective thinking and objective thinking as well as induction and deduction. This paper aims to explore what influence different thinking pattern and process have on writing strategies and writing unit choosing.

  3. La competencia prosódica en la lectura en voz alta: análisis de los aspectos rítmicos (Prosody competence when reading aloud: analysis of rythm aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Gaminde

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Las actuales tendencias metodológicas aportan especial relevancia a la enseñanza de la oralidad. De este modo, en diversas investigaciones ha quedado verificado que realizar lecturas en voz alta a los niños contribuye de forma positiva en el desarrollo cognitivo de los futuros jóvenes. Aunque, para llegar a conseguir el objetivo que se propone con este tipo de lectura, no se debe olvidar el aspecto prosódico, ya que a pesar de los pocos trabajos publicados hasta hoy en día, se considera imprescindible realizar la descripción de las características prosódicas que poseen los jóvenes cuando leen en voz alta, para crear unas reglas generales que se podrán enseñar en nuestras escuelas y universidades. Este trabajo se limita al análisis de los tipos de ritmo; para ello se han seleccionado cinco informantes y se les ha pedido que leyeran un texto escrito en euskera estándar. (The current methodological tendencies give particular importance to the teaching of orality. Thus, several investigations have verified that reading aloud to children contributes positively to their cognitive development. However, in order to achieve the objective proposed with this type of reading, the prosodic aspect should not be forgotten. In spite of the few articles published up to now, the prosodic aspect is considered to be essential to provide a description of young people’s prosodic features when reading aloud, especially in order to create general rules that can be taught in our schools and universities. This paper is limited to the analysis of the types of rhythm, and for this, five informants have been selected and asked to read a text written in standard Basque.

  4. Dyadic and Triadic Behaviours in Infancy as Precursors to Later Social Responsiveness in Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Sally; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between dyadic (eye contact and affect) and triadic (joint attention) behaviours in infancy, and social responsiveness at pre-school age, was investigated in 36 children with Autistic Disorder. Measures of eye contact and affect, and joint attention, including requesting behaviours, were obtained retrospectively via parental…

  5. Security affects us all!

    CERN Multimedia

    SMB Department

    2016-01-01

    In the hope of minimising the number of thefts of the Organization’s property, which can lead to months of work going to waste on certain projects, you are reminded of the importance that CERN attaches to the rules concerning the protection of equipment for which we are responsible. If you see any unusual behaviour or if you are the victim of a theft, don’t hesitate to report it by submitting a ticket through the CERN Portal or calling the CSA. Security affects us all!   CERN is attractive in more ways than one, and it remains as attractive as ever to thieves. With the nice weather and with the holiday season in full swing, the number of thefts recorded at CERN is on the rise. Items stolen include money, computers, electronic equipment, cable drums and copper antennae.   There are a few basic precautions that you should take to protect both your own and the Organization’s property: lock your door, don’t leave valuable items in your office, st...

  6. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  7. No effects of dominance rank or sex on spatial behaviour of rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.A.; Groeneveld, M.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2006-01-01

    The home range is an important measure of the spatial behaviour of animals. In rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus), spatial behaviour may be affected by social rank and sex. Subdominant animals are expected to have a larger home range and to forage farther from the burrow than dominant animals. Females a

  8. Effects of rearing and housing environment on behaviour and performance of pigs with different coping characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of a rooting substrate may profoundly affect behaviour and welfare of pigs. Apart from their actual housing environment, also the conditions present in early life and individual characteristics may influence the behaviour of pigs. The present study investigated the relative importan

  9. Multiple goals and time constraints: perceived impact on physicians' performance of evidence-based behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Jillian J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural approaches to knowledge translation inform interventions to improve healthcare. However, such approaches often focus on a single behaviour without considering that health professionals perform multiple behaviours in pursuit of multiple goals in a given clinical context. In resource-limited consultations, performing these other goal-directed behaviours may influence optimal performance of a particular evidence-based behaviour. This study aimed to investigate whether a multiple goal-directed behaviour perspective might inform implementation research beyond single-behaviour approaches. Methods We conducted theory-based semi-structured interviews with 12 general medical practitioners (GPs in Scotland on their views regarding two focal clinical behaviours--providing physical activity (PA advice and prescribing to reduce blood pressure (BP to Results Most GPs reported strong intention to prescribe to reduce BP but expressed reasons why they would not. Intention to provide PA advice was variable. Most GPs reported that time constraints and patient preference detrimentally affected their control over providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP, respectively. Most GPs perceived many of their other goal-directed behaviours as interfering with providing PA advice, while fewer GPs reported goal-directed behaviours that interfere with prescribing to reduce BP. Providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP were perceived to be facilitated by similar diabetes-related behaviours (e.g., discussing cholesterol. While providing PA advice was perceived to be mainly facilitated by providing other lifestyle-related clinical advice (e.g., talking about weight, BP prescribing was reported as facilitated by pursuing ongoing standard consultation-related goals (e.g., clearly structuring the consultation. Conclusion GPs readily relate their other goal-directed behaviours with having a facilitating and interfering influence on their

  10. Healthy Behaviours in Music and Non-Music Performance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsborg, Jane; Kreutz, Gunter; Thomas, Mike; Williamon, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the self-reported health-promoting behaviours of music and non-music performance students in higher education. It also seeks to determine the extent to which perceived health and self-reported symptoms are associated with lifestyle, emotional affect state, self-regulation and self-efficacy.…

  11. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, van der E.

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables. This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on t

  12. Variables influencing the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijgen, N.K.; Masen, M.A.; Heide, E. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, skin friction research has focused on determining which variables are important to affect the frictional behaviour of in vivo human skin. Until now, there is still limited knowledge on these variables.This study has used a large dataset to identify the effect of variables on the

  13. A numerical study of cyclic behaviour of polar ice sheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1983-01-01

    Possible cyclic behaviour of polar ice sheets is studied with a numerical ice-flow model. The model includes a calculation of bedrock adjustment and temperature field in the ice sheet. Basal water is traced and affects ice-mass discharge. Relaxation oscillations occur only for low ice-accumulation r

  14. Behaviour-Related Scalar Habitat Use by Cape Buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Bennitt

    Full Text Available Studies of habitat use by animals must consider behavioural resource requirements at different scales, which could influence the functional value of different sites. Using Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, we tested the hypotheses that behaviour affected use between and within habitats, hereafter referred to as macro- and microhabitats, respectively. We fitted GPS-enabled collars to fifteen buffalo and used the distances and turning angles between consecutive fixes to cluster the resulting data into resting, grazing, walking and relocating behaviours. Distance to water and six vegetation characteristic variables were recorded in sites used for each behaviour, except for relocating, which occurred too infrequently. We used multilevel binomial and multinomial logistic regressions to identify variables that characterised seasonally-preferred macrohabitats and microhabitats used for different behaviours. Our results showed that macrohabitat use was linked to behaviour, although this was least apparent during the rainy season, when resources were most abundant. Behaviour-related microhabitat use was less significant, but variation in forage characteristics could predict some behaviour within all macrohabitats. The variables predicting behaviour were not consistent, but resting and grazing sites were more readily identifiable than walking sites. These results highlight the significance of resting, as well as foraging, site availability in buffalo spatial processes. Our results emphasise the importance of considering several behaviours and scales in studies of habitat use to understand the links between environmental resources and animal behavioural and spatial ecology.

  15. Measuring Thermoforming Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeli, W.; Hopmann, C.; Ederleh, L.; Begemann, M.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoforming is the process of choice for manufacturing thin-gauge or large-area parts for packaging or technical applications. The process allows low-weight parts to be produced rapidly and economically from thermoplastic semi-finished products. A technical and consequently economical problem is the choice of the right material in combination with the thermoformability of the product. The prediction of thermoformability includes the aspired product features and geometry and defined wall thickness distributions, depending on the specific stretchability of the semifinished product. In practice, thermoformability is estimated by empirical tests with the particular semi-finished product using e.g. staged pyramidal moulds or model cars. With this method, it still cannot be ensured that the product can be thermoformed with the intended properties. A promising alternative is the forming simulation using finite element analysis (FEA). For the simulation, it is necessary to describe the material behaviour using defined material models and the appropriate parameters. Therefore, the stress-/strain-behaviour of the semi-finished product under defined conditions is required. There are several, entirely different measurement techniques used in industry and at research facilities. This paper compares a choice of different measurement techniques to provide an objective basis for future work and research. The semi-finished products are examined with the Membrane-Inflation-Rheometer (MIR), an equibiaxial strain rheometer. A flat sample is heated to the desired temperature in silicone oil. During the measurement, a servohydraulic linear drive advances a piston, thus displacing the hot silicone oil and inflating the specimen to form a sphere. Further measurements are carried out with the Karo IV Laboratory Stretching Machine at Brückner Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG, Siegsdorf, Germany. The samples are heated using hot air. During the biaxial stretching, the resulting forces at the

  16. Behavioural social choice: a status report

    OpenAIRE

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Cavagnaro, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations ...

  17. Behavioural management of migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Brown

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to recognise that migraine is a ′biological′ and not a ′psychological′ entity. However, psychological factors can be involved in migraine in 4 different ways:- 1 Migraines can be triggered by psychological stressors; 2 Severe migraine can itself be a cause of significant psychological stress which can, in turn, exacerbate the problem; 3 Even if psychological stress is not significantly involved in the genesis of the headache, pain management techniques can help people cope with their pain more effectively; 4 Longitudinal data demonstrate a complex bidirectional association between mood disorders and migraine. Treatment of a co-existing mood disorder, for example with cognitive behavioural techniques, may therefore reduce the impact of migraine. It would thus appear logical to view medical and psychological approaches as potentially synergistic rather than mutually exclusive. Functional imaging indicates that cognition, emotions, and pain experiences change the way the brain processes pain inputs. This may provide a physiological rationale for psychological interventions in pain management. As most studies of psychological management of migraine have been relatively small and the approach often varies between clinicians, the magnitude of benefit, optimum method of delivery, and the length of intervention are uncertain.

  18. Human behaviour in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the current international state of the art of methodology for evaluation of human errors for PSA, many research projects have been initiated by the competent departments of the BMU and the BfS (Federal Min. of the Environment and Reactor Safety, Federal Radiation Protection Office). Three major areas of the research activities are discussed: Database: - Specific investigations into the applicability of generic data (THERP) to other than the original cases, possibly elaboration of approaches for application-specific modification, further evaluation of operating results; - general enhancement of insight into human performance and errors, e.g. with respect to causes of error and application areas (influence of organisation, cognitive performance); interviews with experts as a supplementary approach for data verification and database enhancement. Sensitivity analysis: - Identification of information describing human errors essentially contributing to frequency of occurrence of incidents and system non-availability; - establishment of relevance rating system, methodology for uncertainty analysis. Further development of methodology: - Modelling of repair activities and knowledge-based behaviour. (orig./CB)

  19. Behavioural Treatments for Tourette Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourette syndrome (TS is a disorder characterised by multiple motor and vocal tics and is frequently associated with behavioural problems. Tics are known to be affected by internal factors such as inner tension and external factors such as the surrounding environment. A number of behavioural treatments have been suggested to treat the symptoms of TS, in addition to pharmacotherapy and surgery for the most severe cases. This review compiled all the studies investigating behavioural therapies for TS, briefly describing each technique and assessing the evidence in order to determine which of these appear to be effective. Different behavioural therapies that were used included habit reversal training (HRT, massed negative practice, supportive psychotherapy, exposure with response prevention, self-monitoring, cognitive-behavioural therapy, relaxation therapy, assertiveness training, contingency management, a tension-reduction technique and biofeedback training. Overall, HRT is the best-studied and most widely-used technique and there is sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that it is an effective treatment. Most of the other treatments, however, require further investigation to evaluate their efficacy. Specifically, evidence suggests that exposure with response prevention and self-monitoring are effective, and more research is needed to determine the therapeutic value of the other treatments. As most of the studies investigating behavioural treatments for TS are small-sample or single-case studies, larger randomised controlled trials are advocated.

  20. Toward interactive context-aware affective educational recommendations in computer-assisted language learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Olga C.; Saneiro, Mar; Boticario, Jesus G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the benefits of supporting learners affectively in a context-aware learning situation. This features a new challenge in related literature in terms of providing affective educational recommendations that take advantage of ambient intelligence and are delivered through actuators available in the environment, thus going beyond previous approaches which provided computer-based recommendation that present some text or tell aloud the learner what to do. To address this open issue, we have applied TORMES elicitation methodology, which has been used to investigate the potential of ambient intelligence for making more interactive recommendations in an emotionally challenging scenario (i.e. preparing for the oral examination of a second language learning course). Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform is used both to sense changes in the learners' affective state and to deliver the recommendation in a more interactive way through different complementary sensory communication channels (sight, hearing, touch) to cope with a universal design. An Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform (AICARP) has been built to support the whole experience, which represents a progress in the state of the art. In particular, we have come up with what is most likely the first interactive context-aware affective educational recommendation. The value of this contribution lies in discussing methodological and practical issues involved.

  1. Neurobiological changes after intervention in individuals with anti-social behaviour: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornet, L.J.M.; Kogel, C.H. de; Nijman, H.L.I.; Raine, A.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2015-01-01

    Background A neurobiological perspective has become accepted as a valuable approach for understanding anti-social behaviour. There is literature to suggest that, in non-offending populations, psychological treatments affect both neurobiological measures and clinical presentation. A theoretical posit

  2. Contextualised mobility histories of moving desires and actual moving behaviour (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulter, R.; Van Ham, M.

    2011-01-01

    Conceptually, adopting a life course approach when analysing residential mobility enables us to investigate how experiencing particular life events affects mobility decision-making and behaviour throughout individual lifetimes. Yet although a growing body of longitudinal research links mobility deci

  3. Acute behavioural dysfunctions following exposure to γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ionizing radiations (IR) has been reported to have many ill effects. These are manifested immediately after exposure and may persist or develop long after the incident. The severity and manifestation is dependent on the absorbed dose and type of the IR. These have been reported extensively in human subjects; especially among the victims of the accidental exposure and radiotherapy patients. Additionally, there have been a plethora of studies in animal models which support these findings, and are being used to test radio-mitigative or radio-protective strategies. The vulnerability of neuronal tissue to IR is well known, however the acute dose-dependent behavioural consequences have yet to be understood. Thus, our laboratory has been trying to decipher the dose-dependent behavioural dysfunctions which have occurred 24-72 hours post IR exposure and possible radio-protective strategies. We are utilizing mouse models of studying the behavioural processes, in a test battery conceptualized to study the affective and cognitive skills as well as motor skills of the animals. Additionally, we have observed cellular damage to different areas of the brain and subsequent correlations to behavioural dysfunctions. This has being carried out by using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). The findings show that after exposure to sub-lethal γ-rays, there are significant changes that occur in all the behavioural parameters. The most sensitive area has been found to be the Hippocampus as visualized by DTI and the SCGE. Consequently, short term and long term memory functions have been shown to be disrupted within 24-72 hours of exposure. Acute dysfunctions of affective functions have also been demonstrated to materialise within 24 hours post exposure. Unexpectedly, the behavioural dysfunctions were seen to be dose independent. Thus, this study provides a foundation to help decipher the acute behavioural manifestations of IR exposure

  4. Mentoring students: exploring and managing incivil behaviour in community nursing placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jacqui; Pitt, Margaret; Perrell, Elizabeth; Recchia, Natasha

    2016-04-01

    Students who demonstrate quiet incivility can be challenging and disrupt the learning that takes place in the community setting. Recognising incivility and acting to address this behaviour with students is difficult because the behaviour is not overt or obvious to others. The most important component in attempting to manage incivility is exploring the behaviour with the student to identify the potential cause, and negotiate a strategy to improve it. It is acknowledged that the behaviour may be due to personal, academic, or professional issues. If issues are not addressed, care activity and learning are affected, and this can result in failure to achieve in practice. PMID:27282507

  5. Exploring self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nureeva, Liliya; Brunsø, Karen; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2016-01-01

    – Focusing on improving adolescents’ self-regulatory skills in the domain of eating behaviour is a promising approach in developing future interventions. Originality/value – The present article explores self-regulatory strategies for eating behaviour in adolescence and discusses their relevance.......Purpose – Healthy eating behaviour in adolescence may be negatively affected by lack of self-regulation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies for regulating eating behaviour as formulated by adolescents themselves. Design/methodology/approach – Self-regulatory strategies were elicited...

  6. Behaviourally mediated indirect effects : interference competition increases predation mortality in foraging redshanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minderman, J; Lind, J; Cresswell, W

    2006-01-01

    The effect of competition for a limiting resource on the population dynamics of competitors is usually assumed to operate directly through starvation, yet may also affect survival indirectly through behaviourally mediated effects that affect risk of predation. Thus, competition can affect more than

  7. Examining the scale of the Behaviour Energy Efficiency Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitner, John A. ' Skip' ; Ehrhardt-Martinez, Karen; McKinney, Vanessa (ACEEE, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, D.C. (United States))

    2009-07-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the 'human dimension' of energy use. As but one example, the second annual Behavior, Energy, and Climate Conference (co-convened by the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, the Precourt Inst. for Energy Efficiency, and the California Inst. for Energy and Environment) exceeded capacity almost six weeks before the November 2008 conference date (see, for example, the conference website at http://www.BECCconference.org). At the same time, many analysts suggest that, yes, behaviour-oriented programs provide a nice way to help deploy smart technologies but that they are, essentially, boutique or niche strategies; they can only help round out a technology-based deployment effort. We suggest to the contrary; elements of the behaviour or human dimension may have a surprising scale which rivals a pure technology-based perspective in terms of expected efficiency gains. In this paper we highlight the potential impact of changed habits, lifestyles and technology-based behaviours in terms of potential energy savings within the United States for the residential sector. We explore the level of potential savings along what we call a Behaviour Energy Response Continuum. In other words, we explore the energy savings if different motivations and habits drove a different behaviour, and if different lifestyles similarly drove a different behaviour as they all, in turn, affect energy consumption. Preliminary research suggests that changed behaviours might reduce household use of energy by about 22 percent within the United States. In this paper we characterize the elements along this behaviour continuum, estimate the potential impact, and describe potential next steps in the needed research.

  8. Sexual differentiation of behaviour in monkeys: role of prenatal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, K; Hassett, J M

    2009-03-01

    The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to the sexual differentiation of behaviour has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation that requires both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about the sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance of the genitals and how other's reactions to the gender role of the assigned sex affect individual gender socialisation. Effects of the social environment and gender expectations in human cultures are ubiquitous, overshadowing the potential underlying biological contributions in favour of the more observable social influences. Recent work in nonhuman primates showing behavioural sex differences paralleling human sex differences, including toy preferences, suggests that less easily observed biological factors also influence behavioural sexual differentiation in both monkeys and humans. We review research, including Robert W. Goy's pioneering work with rhesus monkeys, which manipulated prenatal hormones at different gestation times and demonstrated that genital anatomy and specific behaviours are independently sexually differentiated. Such studies demonstrate that, for a variety of behaviours, including juvenile mounting and rough play, individuals can have the genitals of one sex but show the behaviour more typical of the other sex. We describe another case, infant distress vocalisations, where maternal responsiveness is best accounted for by the mother's response to the genital appearance of her offspring. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that sexual differentiation arises from complex interactions where anatomical and behavioural biases, produced by hormonal and other biological processes, are shaped by social experience into the behavioural sex

  9. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  10. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many species of tephritid fruit flies have gained global status as pests of economic importance in fruit and vegetable cultivation. Bactrocera species are no exception. Males of most Bactrocera species are known to be attracted to either methyl eugenol (ME) or cuelure (CL)/raspberry ketone (RK) (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1987 and 1990). At the turn of the century, male fruit flies of both B. diversa (Coquillett) (formerly Dacus diversus) and B. zonata (Saunders) (formerly Dacus zonatus) were first observed to have a strong attraction to citronella oil (Howlett 1912). The chemical responsible for the attraction was discovered to be ME (Howlett 1915). Since that discovery, ME has been used successfully in monitoring and male annihilation programmes (Steiner et al. 1965), in estimating native population density and survival rates (Tan 1985, Tan and Jaal 1986, Tan and Serit 1994), and movements between ecosystems (Tan and Serit 1988). The unique characteristic of male Bactrocera flies is that not only are they strongly attracted to certain male attractants but they compulsively feed on them. This phenomenon was not fully understood (Fletcher 1987, Metcalf 1990, Metcalf and Metcalf 1992) until early this decade. Certain male attractants play a very important role in the behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies, and aid in the understanding of the intricate interrelationships between plants, fruit flies and their predators (Tan 1993). Every organism actively or passively secretes chemicals which act as a characteristic 'body odour'. This 'body odour' affects behaviour of individuals, both intraspecies and interspecies, within a community and it is here referred to as ecomone (ecohormone) under a large group of semiochemicals (behaviour modifying chemicals). To understand the different roles of chemicals acting as a medium in communication between individuals and affecting behaviour of a receptive organism, a brief classification of semiochemicals is essential

  11. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-09-01

    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  12. Norms for environmentally responsible behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    assessment of the taxonomy is carried out based of a survey of a random sample of Danish residents 18 years or older. A range of norm constructs were measured with regard to four environmentally relevant behaviours: buying organic milk, buying energy saving light bulbs, source-separating compostable kitchen...... waste, and using public transportation for work and shopping. The frequency of performing the four behaviours was measured as well. The revised taxonomy possesses content, predictive, and nomological validity and satisfactory test-retest reliability. The taxonomy's construct and discriminant validity...... is also supported, with the reservation that the different behavioural references are more than just different methods of measuring the same latent construct(s). People evidently hold different norms for different environmentally responsible behaviours....

  13. Retailer buying behaviour: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tommy Holm; Skytte, Hans

    1998-01-01

    committees, the relationship with manufacturers, European buying alliances, the use of information, retail buyer task, sales man influences, acce of trade deals, country or origin effects and new information technology. Keywords Retailer buying behaviour, review, buying criteria, retailing, assortment...

  14. Trends in information behaviour research

    OpenAIRE

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. This paper traces current trends in information behaviour research, both in terms of methods and topics. Results are put into relation to the previous trend analysis by Julien et al. (2011) and Vakkari (2008).Method. Trends derive from a publication analysis taken from information behaviour related publication venues between 2012 and 2014.Analysis. Publication titles, authors, years, publication venue, methods and topics were collected and quantitatively analysed.Results. Qualit...

  15. Scitovsky, behavioural economics, and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Pugno, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    By revisiting Scitovsky's work on well-being, which introduces 'novelty' into the consumer's option set as a peculiar source of satisfaction, this paper finds a number of connections with the recent behavioural economics so as to open new lines on inquiry. First, similarly to behavioural economics, Scitovsky used psychology to interpret sub-optimal choices. However, his welfare benchmark is different from rational choice, as understood by the economists, because 'novelty' implies a very stron...

  16. Collective behaviour across animal species

    OpenAIRE

    DeLellis, P.; G. Polverino; Ustuner, G.; Abaid, N.; Macri, S.; Bollt, E. M.; M. Porfiri

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, whe...

  17. Group Norms and Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan; Rajan, Jainey S.; Variyamveettil, Sunitha; Mathew, Dhanu E.; Nath, Subodh S.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of group norms on forming consumer behaviour is an important attribute of man’s social life. The market segmentation principles acknowledge the presence of this phenomenon. People belong to different age group, professional status, income levels, educational status etc. are seemed to display some specific consumer behaviour that can be attributed to a particular group. The present study attempts to find the influence of certain selected group norms on consumption pattern.

  18. Social Behaviour in Public Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Hult, Nicole Alicia-Marie; Munch, Kathrine; Johansen, Gitte Højgaard; Duvarci, Medine

    2011-01-01

    Social behaviour in public transportation is a project that focuses on how passengers within the public transportation system behave, in terms of social psychology and psychological anthropology. Through the use of theoretical approaches, that being social psychology and psychological anthropology, we aimed to find patterns of social and anti-social behaviour. In order to gather valid research data, we conducted various observations in trains and busses in both London and Copenhagen. Through...

  19. Dynamic behaviour of fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Weydahl, Helge

    2006-01-01

    This thesis addresses the dynamic behaviour of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and alkaline fuel cells (AFCs). For successful implementation in automotive vehicles and other applications with rapidly varying power demands, the dynamic behaviour of the fuel cell is critical. Knowledge of the load variation requirements as well as the response time of the cell at load change is essential for identifying the need for and design of a buffer system.The transient response of a PEMFC su...

  20. Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication and Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana; Colleoni, Elanor

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word......-of-mouth communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer...

  1. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  2. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Godin Gaston; Amireault Steve; Vohl Marie-Claude; Pérusse Louis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC)- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, parti...

  3. The influence of social, individual and linguistic factors on children's performance in tasks of reading single words aloud / A Influência de fatores sociais, individuais e lingüísticos no desempenho de crianças na leitura em voz alta de palavras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Silva Lúcio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates social, individual and linguistic factors in the performance of a single- word reading aloud task. A group of 1st to 4th grade school children from Belo Horizonte-MG (N = 333 read aloud 323 single words presented in a computer screen. Measures of reaction time (RT and error scores were collected. The Generalized Estimating Equations method exhibited the grapheme-phoneme and phoneme-grapheme regularity effect in reading and also showed an impact on the number of categories of regularity in this effect. No social factor was important to explain the results, but their mothers' education was correlated to the error scores (in opposite direction. There was no gender effect. Other factors rather than the traditional ones were also relevant, such as the age of reading acquisition and the verbal comprehension. The work brings important theoretical issues to cognitive reading assessment in Brazil.

  4. Psychological aspects of road user behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothengatter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of road users is an important factor in accident causation. Traffic psychology, defined as ''the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour'', attempts to identify the determinants of road user behaviour with the aim of developing eff

  5. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DES

  6. Moderation of cognition-intention and cognition-behaviour relations: a meta-analysis of properties of variables from the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Richard; Sheeran, Paschal

    2004-06-01

    Meta-analysis was used to quantify the moderating effects of seven properties of cognitions-accessibility, temporal stability, direct experience, involvement, certainty, ambivalence and affective-cognitive consistency-on cognition-intention and cognition-behaviour relations. Literature searches revealed 44 studies that could be included in the review. Findings showed that all of the properties, except involvement, moderated attitude-behaviour consistency. Similarly, all relevant moderators improved the consistency between intentions and behaviour. Temporal stability moderated PBC-behaviour relations, certainty moderated subjective norm-intention relations, and ambivalence, certainty, and involvement all moderated attitude-intention relations. Overall, temporal stability appeared to be the strongest moderator of cognition-behaviour relations. PMID:15285829

  7. Dynamic behaviour of a rolling tyre: Experimental and numerical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Diaz, Cristobal; Kindt, Peter; Middelberg, Jason; Vercammen, Stijn; Thiry, Christophe; Close, Roland; Leyssens, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Based on the results of experimental and numerical analyses, the effect of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour is investigated. Better understanding of these effects will further improve the ability to control and optimize the noise and vibrations that result from the interaction between the road surface and the rolling tyre. Therefore, more understanding in the complex tyre dynamic properties will contribute to develop tyre design strategies to lower the tyre/road noise while less affecting other tyre performances. The presented work is performed in the framework of the European industry-academia project TIRE-DYN, with partners Goodyear, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and LMS International. The effect of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour is quantified for different operating conditions of the tyre, such as load, air pressure and rotation speed. By means of experimental and numerical analyses, the effects of rotation on the tyre dynamic behaviour are studied.

  8. Affective States and State Tests: Investigating How Affect and Engagement during the School Year Predict End-of-Year Learning Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Pardos, Zach A; Baker, Ryan S. J. D.; San Pedro, Maria; Gowda, Sujith M; Gowda, Supreeth M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the correspondence between student affect and behavioural engagement in a web-based tutoring platform throughout the school year and learning outcomes at the end of the year on a high-stakes mathematics exam in a manner that is both longitudinal and fine-grained. Affect and behaviour detectors are used to estimate student affective states and behaviour based on post-hoc analysis of tutor log-data. For every student action in the tutor, the detectors give us an es...

  9. Best behaviour? Ontologies and the formal description of animal behaviour

    KAUST Repository

    Gkoutos, Georgios V.

    2015-07-28

    The development of ontologies for describing animal behaviour has proved to be one of the most difficult of all scientific knowledge domains. Ranging from neurological processes to human emotions, the range and scope needed for such ontologies is highly challenging, but if data integration and computational tools such as automated reasoning are to be fully applied in this important area the underlying principles of these ontologies need to be better established and development needs detailed coordination. Whilst the state of scientific knowledge is always paramount in ontology and formal description framework design, this is a particular problem with neurobehavioural ontologies where our understanding of the relationship between behaviour and its underlying biophysical basis is currently in its infancy. In this commentary, we discuss some of the fundamental problems in designing and using behaviour ontologies, and present some of the best developed tools in this domain. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  10. Linking behavioural syndromes and cognition: a behavioural ecology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Del Giudice, Marco

    2012-10-01

    With the exception of a few model species, individual differences in cognition remain relatively unstudied in non-human animals. One intriguing possibility is that variation in cognition is functionally related to variation in personality. Here, we review some examples and present hypotheses on relationships between personality (or behavioural syndromes) and individual differences in cognitive style. Our hypotheses are based largely on a connection between fast-slow behavioural types (BTs; e.g. boldness, aggressiveness, exploration tendency) and cognitive speed-accuracy trade-offs. We also discuss connections between BTs, cognition and ecologically important aspects of decision-making, including sampling, impulsivity, risk sensitivity and choosiness. Finally, we introduce the notion of cognition syndromes, and apply ideas from theories on adaptive behavioural syndromes to generate predictions on cognition syndromes.

  11. Agent-based simulation of animal behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how animal behaviour can be simulated in an agent-based manner. Different models are shown for different types of behaviour, varying from purely reactive behaviour to pro-active, social and adaptive behaviour. The compositional development method for multi-agent systems DESIRE and its software environment supports the conceptual and detailed design, and execution of these models. Experiments reported in the literature on animal behaviour have been simulated for a num...

  12. BFS Human Behaviour Model for Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Molan, Marija; Molan, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    The Butterfly Flower Shower (BFS) Human Behaviour Model describes human behaviour in each demanding, possible accidental situation. The BFS human behaviour model is presented for a traffic situation. The key elements (perception, cognition, reaction) of the human behaviour are identified. Also possible limitations and errors in all elements of human behaviour are presented. The model is presented as the butterfly on the flower under the shower of interventions. The flower is environment descr...

  13. Behavioural effects of histamine and its antagonists: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J M; Rumbold, G R

    1988-01-01

    This review focuses on the behavioural effects of histamine and drugs which affect histaminergic function, particularly the H1- and H2-receptors antagonists. Research in this area has assumed considerable importance with increasing interest in the role of brain histamine, the clinical use of both H1 and H2 antagonists and evidence of nonmedical use of H1 antagonists. Results from a number of studies show that H1 and H2 antagonists have clear, but distinct subjective effects and that H1 antagonists have discriminative effects in animals. While H1 antagonists are reinforcers in certain conditions, histamine itself is a punisher. Moderate doses of H1 antagonists affect psychomotor performance in some situations, but the results are variable. The exceptions are terfenadine and astemizole, which do not seem to penetrate the blood-brain barrier readily. In studies of schedule-controlled behaviour, marked changes in response rate have been observed following administration of H1 antagonists, with the magnitude and direction dependent on the dose and the baseline behaviour. Histamine reduces avoidance responding, an effect mediated via H1-receptors. Changes in drinking and aggressive behaviour have also been observed following histamine administration and distinct roles for H1- and H2-receptors have been delineated. Separate H1- and H2-receptor mechanisms have also been suggested to account for changes in activity level. While the H2 antagonists do not always have strong behavioural effects when administered peripherally, there is evidence that cimetidine has a depressant effect on sexual function. These and other findings reveal an important role for histaminergic systems in a wide range of behaviour. PMID:3133686

  14. Habit versus planned behaviour: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, B; Aarts, H; van Knippenberg, A; Moonen, A

    1998-03-01

    A field experiment investigated the prediction and change in repeated behaviour in the domain of travel mode choices. Car use during seven days was predicted from habit strength (measured by self-reported frequency of past behaviour, as well as by a more covert measure based on personal scripts incorporating the behaviour), and antecedents of behaviour as conceptualized in the theory of planned behaviour (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention). Both habit measures predicted behaviour in addition to intention and perceived control. Significant habit x intention interactions indicated that intentions were only significantly related to behaviour when habit was weak, whereas no intention-behaviour relation existed when habit was strong. During the seven-day registration of behaviour, half of the respondents were asked to think about the circumstances under which the behaviour was executed. Compared to control participants, the behaviour of experimental participants was more strongly related to their previously expressed intentions. However, the habit-behaviour relation was unaffected. The results demonstrate that, although external incentives may increase the enactment of intentions, habits set boundary conditions for the applicability of the theory of planned behaviour. PMID:9554090

  15. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fatouros-Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS. In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

  16. Hypocretin-1 dose-dependently modulates maternal behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, K L; Gammie, S C

    2006-08-01

    Increases in neuronal activity of hypocretin (HCRT), a peptide involved in arousal, and in HCRT-1 receptor mRNA expression have recently been identified in association with lactation. HCRT is released within brain regions regulating maternal behaviour and it is possible that increased HCRT neurotransmission during lactation supports maternal care. The present study examined for the first time the behavioural effects of HCRT on lactating mice. At intermediate doses, intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of HCRT-1 (0.06 and 0.1 microg) elevated levels of licking and grooming of pups (but not self-grooming) and number of nursing bouts without affecting other behaviours. At the highest dose, HCRT-1 (0.3 microg, i.c.v) delayed latency to nurse, decreased nursing, increased time off nest, and decreased maternal aggression. Intraperitoneal injections of the HCRT-1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867, exhibited a general trend towards increasing time spent low-arched back nursing (P = 0.053) and decreasing licking and grooming of pups while high-arched back nursing (P = 0.052). This suggests that the endogenous release of HCRT, working independently or dependently with other neuromodulators, may be necessary for full maternal behaviour expression. Possible sites of HCRT action in enhancing and impairing maternal care were identified via examinations of c-Fos immunoreactivity in association with i.c.v. HCRT injections. Together, these finding support the idea of HCRT modulating maternal behaviour, with intermediate levels (0.06 and 0.1 microg) supporting (even augmenting) some behaviours, but with levels that are too high (0.3 microg HCRT, i.c.v.), maternal behaviour and aggression are suppressed. PMID:16867176

  17. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren.

  18. Behavioural flexibility in migratory behaviour in a long-lived large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggeman, Scott L; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bohm, Holger; Whittington, Jesse; Merrill, Evelyn H

    2016-05-01

    Migratory animals are predicted to enhance lifetime fitness by obtaining higher quality forage and/or reducing predation risk compared to non-migratory conspecifics. Despite evidence for behavioural flexibility in other taxa, previous research on large mammals has often assumed that migratory behaviour is a fixed behavioural trait. Migratory behaviour may be plastic for many species, although few studies have tested for individual-level flexibility using long-term monitoring of marked individuals, especially in large mammals such as ungulates. We tested variability in individual migratory behaviour using a 10-year telemetry data set of 223 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) in the partially migratory Ya Ha Tinda population in Alberta, Canada. We used net squared displacement (NSD) to classify migratory strategy for each individual elk-year. Individuals switched between migrant and resident strategies at a mean rate of 15% per year, and migrants were more likely to switch than residents. We then tested how extrinsic (climate, elk/wolf abundance) and intrinsic (age) factors affected the probability of migrating, and, secondly, the decision to switch between migratory strategies. Over 630 individual elk-years, the probability of an individual elk migrating increased following a severe winter, in years of higher wolf abundance, and with increasing age. At an individual elk level, we observed 148 switching events of 430 possible transitions in elk monitored at least 2 years. We found switching was density-dependent, where migrants switched to a resident strategy at low elk abundance, but residents switched more to a migrant strategy at high elk abundance. Precipitation during the previous summer had a weak carryover effect, with migrants switching slightly more following wetter summers, whereas residents showed the opposite pattern. Older migrant elk rarely switched, whereas resident elk switched more frequently to migrate at older ages. Our results show migratory

  19. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  20. Repeatability and Heritability of Behavioural Types in a Social Cichlid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémie Chervet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The quantitative genetics underlying correlated behavioural traits (‘‘animal personality’’ have hitherto been studied mainly in domesticated animals. Here we report the repeatability ( and heritability (ℎ2 of behavioural types in the highly social cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Methods. We tested 1779 individuals repeatedly and calculated the ℎ2 of behavioural types by variance components estimation (GLMM REML, using 1327 offspring from 162 broods from 74 pairs. Results. Repeatability of behavioural types was significant and considerable (0.546, but declined from 0.83 between tests conducted on the same day, to 0.19 on tests conducted up to 1201 days apart. All ℎ2 estimates were significant but low (e.g., pair identity ℎ2=0.15±0.03 SE. Additionally, we found significant variation between broods nested within the parent(s, but these were not related to several environmental factors tested. Conclusions. We conclude that despite a considerable , ℎ2 in this cichlid species is low, and variability in behavioural type appears to be strongly affected by other (nongenetic effects.

  1. Thickness dependence of fracture behaviour in a superconducting strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When subjected to a magnetic field, a superconducting strip will undergo an electromagnetic body force induced by flux pinning. The magnitude of the body force is dependent on the critical current density. It is well known that the critical current density in the strip will decrease with increasing thickness. In addition, the mechanical behaviour of the strip will also be affected by the thickness of the strip. Thus, the strip thickness has an influence on both the electromagnetic and mechanical behaviours. In this paper, we analyse the fracture behaviour by considering the competition of electromagnetic and mechanical behaviours. In order to study the central crack problem of a superconducting strip with different thicknesses, we replace the electromagnetic body force with the total surface force. Using a Fourier transform method, the boundary value problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. By solving the singular integral equation, we obtain the stress intensity factors for two different crack lengths during field descent. The results show that the stress intensity factor is not a monotonic function of the thickness and that two competing factors dominate in different field regions. It is necessary to obtain the optimized thickness by considering both the superconductivity and mechanical behaviour in the superconducting strip. (paper)

  2. Study of Deceleration Behaviour of Different Vehicle Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh Kumar Maurya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Deceleration characteristics of vehicles are important for intersection design, deceleration lane design, traffic simulation modeling, vehicular emission and fuel consumption modeling, etc. Heterogeneous traffic stream consists of vehicles with wide variation in their physical dimensions, weight to power ratio and dynamic characteristics, which affect their deceleration behaviour. Majority of past studies are restricted to deceleration behaviour study of cars and trucks in homogenous traffic. Present study aims to analyze the deceleration behaviour of different vehicles types (like truck, car, motorized two and three-wheeler on Nagpur-Mumbai Express Highway at Wardha, India. Drivers were asked to decelerate their vehicles from their maximum speed to zero speed in shortest time and their speed profiles are collected using Global Positioning System. Deceleration behaviour of different vehicle types is significantly different. Vehicles with higher maximum speed have higher deceleration time, deceleration distance, maximum and mean deceleration rates during their deceleration manoeuvre. In deceleration manoeuvre, vehicle’s deceleration rate initially increases, attains the maximum deceleration and decreases afterwards. A dual regime model is developed to describe deceleration behaviour over entire speed range of all vehicle types except car. For car, a second order polynomial is proposed.

  3. Cycling in multimodal transport behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsson, Anton Stahl; Nielsen, Thomas Sick; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2016-01-01

    explores how cycling forms part of multimodal transport behaviour based on survey data on transport modes and travel purposes and the weekly frequency of out-of-home activities and travel mode use in a representative sample of adult Danes (n = 1957). The following five distinct multimodal travel segments......Multimodality is important for achieving less car dependent lifestyles and more sustainable transport behaviours. It is widely recognised that cycling plays a prominent role in sustainable transport. However, research has largely focused on cycling substituting motorised transport. This study...... or 'modality styles' are identified: 'education transport'; 'public-based transport'; 'limited transport'; 'bicycle-based transport'; and 'car-based transport'. Travel behaviour is predominantly multimodal with few unimodal car-drivers being identified. Substantial cycling takes place in all modality styles...

  4. Tribological behaviour of unveneered and veneered lithium disilicate dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Pina, C G; Patas, N; Canhoto, J; Cláudio, R; Olhero, S M; Serro, A P; Ferro, A C; Guedes, M

    2016-01-01

    The friction and wear behaviour of a lithium disilicate dental ceramic against natural dental enamel is studied, including the effect of the presence of a fluorapatite veneering upon the tribological properties of the material. The tribological behaviour was assessed using reciprocating pin-on-plate test configuration, at pH 3 and pH 7. The surface energy of the plates was determined, as well as the zeta potential of fluorapatite, lithium disilicate and enamel particles in artificial saliva. It was found that the friction and wear behaviour of the tested enamel/plate material tribocouples is less severe in unveneered plates. Initial surface roughness of the plate does not affect wear results. However the topography of the resulting wear track affects the corresponding wear loss: a smoother final wear track is associated with lower wear. The surface topography of the wear track, and thus the tribological performance of the tested materials, is very sensitive to the pH of the sliding solution. This is because the dissolution trend, wettability and surface charge of the used materials are pH dependent. Overall friction and wear are higher under basic pH conditions, especially when plates are veneered. A wear model is proposed that correlates the effect of the described parameters with the observed tribological behaviour at pH 7. Attained results show that fluorapatite coating of lithium disilicate dental crowns affects tooth/crown wear behaviour, resulting in increased wear of both the artificial crown and the opposing natural teeth. Coating should therefore be avoided in occlusal crown surfaces. PMID:26342288

  5. Behaviour and meat quality of Podolian young bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From April to August 2008, twelve Podolian subjects, aged about 11 months at the beginning of the experimental period, were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system (Confined vs. Freerange and season (spring vs. summer on their behaviour and meat quality. Nine sessions of behavioural observations were performed. During a 6-h period, the behaviour of a focal animal, was continuously monitored. In each session a different animal was chosen. All the animals were slaughtered at 18 months of age. Walking (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.05 were lower in summer, whereas inactivity was higher (P<0.05. Free-range bulls spent more time walking (P<0.05, feeding (P<0.001 and standing (P<0.01 and showed a lower number of agonistic (P<0.05 and non-agonistic social interaction than confined animals (P<0.01. Self- and allo-grooming were not affected by rearing system, whereas season influenced self-grooming with higher values in spring (P<0.05. Confined animals showed higher final weights (P<0.05 and a lighter meat (P<0.05, whereas no differences between groups were observed for average daily gains, carcass yield, water holding capacity and a* and b* indexes. Confinement markedly affected the behaviour of the animals, whereas free-ranging had only minor negative effects on meat lightness.

  6. Managerial Ownership Influencing Tunnelling Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Juliarto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent and the determinants of tunnelling behaviour in five ASEAN countries (i.e. Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Related party transactions (RPTs in the form of loans to related parties are used as the proxy for tunnelling. With 200 firm-year observations over the period 2006-2009, this study finds a positive association between managerial ownership and the extent of tunnelling.The other important findings are that business environment (BE, foreign ownership, and independent directors are ineffective governance mechanisms to rein in tunnelling behaviour. This suggests that regulators need to evolve more effective governance mechanisms.

  7. Customer behaviour and student satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enache, I. C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Having to overcome new challenges, the higher education institutions need to understand their customer behaviour. The students’ satisfaction is becoming an important objective for universities and society as the role of the tertiary level institution is being questioned. The aim of this paper is to provide a concrete marketing approach to the student satisfaction problem. The literature review section aims to present resources that deliver relevant and updated information about the marketing perspectives on student satisfaction. A short survey is developed in order to provide insights on student behaviour and student satisfaction.

  8. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim;

    2005-01-01

    appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...... understanding of the way in which consumers perceive risks, and how these relate to an effective food safety and technology commercialisation policy....

  9. Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures.......The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....

  10. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107

  11. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined.

  12. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov-Maxwell system.A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma.It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light,as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction.The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period.The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade,which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures.For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation,higher-harmonic generation and wave-wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter.In addition,stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light.

  13. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  14. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  15. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Futu...

  16. Fundamental Theories on Consumer Behaviour: An Overview of the Influences Impacting Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Andreea Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a component of the economic behaviour, which in its turn is a manifestation of human behaviour. As a consequence of the social and economic development of modern societies, the study of consumer behaviour has undergone a strong development process, during the past years consumer behaviour acquiring its own status among sciences. However scientists concern with the study of consumer behaviour covers a time span of many decades. Due to the multiple interdependences and par...

  17. An Empirical Study on the Practice of Cognitive Experience Mode of Second Language Reading-aloud%二语朗读认知体验模式实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎素薇

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores a second language reading-aloud teaching mode which is effective for sophomores majoring in English at different levels by conducting an empirical study on the practice of three modes-reading mode, auditory-reading mode and cognitive e%文章通过对比二语朗读的“读模式”、“听读模式”和“认知体验模式”三种不同教学模式对英语专业二年级学习者二语朗读熟练程度和听写、口语能力的影响,探讨适合不同水平学习者的二语朗读教学模式。研究表明,听读模式对提高学习者二语朗读准确性、连贯性和流畅性有积极的促进作用,认知体验模式对提高学习者二语朗读信息传递和交际能力作用显著。

  18. Pyrogenic carbon characteristics relate to wildfire behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina; Preston, Caroline; Bryant, Rob; Merino, Augustin

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic carbon (PyC) comprises the whole range of organic compounds produced both naturally during wildfires (by charring or incomplete combustion) and anthropogenically by pyrolysis processes (heating in absence of oxygen). Relationships between pyrolysis conditions and biochar properties (i.e. 'antropogenic PyC') are well established, but limitations affecting wildfire research make these relationships more difficult to be investigated for wildfire PyC. Here, we study relationships between wildfire behaviour and characteristics of PyC by taking advantage of the experimental FireSmart boreal forest fire (June 2012, NWT- Canada), which reproduced wildfire conditions, and, at the same time, allowed fire behaviour monitoring and immediate post-fire sampling. Before the fire, three parallel transects of 18-m length were established in the direction of the prevailing wind in the central area of the burnt plot. These were instrumented at a spacing of 2 m with thermocouples connected to data loggers (Lascar, Easylog) to continuously (every second) record temperatures at the forest floor surface. Immediately after fire, samples of the PyC produced in the forest floor where collected adjacent to each thermocouple. PyC samples were characterized by elemental analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Our results show that transformation of the forest floor material by fire into PyC led to an enrichment of the carbon content, a higher carbon/nitrogen ratio and an increase of the thermal recalcitrance. Statistically significant relationships between some PyC characteristics and wildfire conditions were found such as an increase of carbon content of PyC with maximum temperature recorded during fire and an increase of thermal stability of PyC with fire duration. Considering that in boreal forests the fuel component most affected by fire is the forest floor and that the enhanced recalcitrance of PyC is likely to increase its resistance to biological degradation compared

  19. Protein structure and physical behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel J. Belton; Miller, Aline F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the structure and behaviour of Protective Antigen (PA), which is the main constituent in a new and improved Anthrax vaccine. The long term goal of the work is to reduce degradation of PA by improving processing, formulation and storage.

  20. Seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vinale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some fundamental considerations regarding the behaviour of geotechnical structures under seismic loading. First a complete definition of the earthquake disaster risk is provided, followed by the importance of performing site-specific hazard analysis. Then some suggestions are provided in regard to adequate assessment of soil parameters, a crucial point to properly analyze the seismic behaviour of geotechnical structures. The core of the paper is centered on a critical review of the analysis methods available for studying geotechnical structures under seismic loadings. All of the available methods can be classified into three main classes, including the pseudo-static, pseudo-dynamic and dynamic approaches, each of which is reviewed for applicability. A more advanced analysis procedure, suitable for a so-called performance-based design approach, is also described in the paper. Finally, the seismic behaviour of the El Infiernillo Dam was investigated. It was shown that coupled elastoplastic dynamic analyses disclose some of the important features of dam behaviour under seismic loading, confirmed by comparing analytical computation and experimental measurements on the dam body during and after a past earthquake.