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Sample records for aloe-induced toxic hepatitis

  1. Ceftriaxone-induced toxic hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erdal Peker; Eren Cagan; Murat Dogan

    2009-01-01

    Toxic hepatitis or drug-induced liver injury encompasses a spectrum of clinical disease ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to acute liver failure. The advantages of a long half-life, wide spectrum, high tissue penetration rate, and a good safety profile,make ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin,a frequent choice in the treatment of childhood infections. Previous studies have reported a few cases of high aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels, along with three cases ofhepatitis caused by ceftriaxone. Here, we report a case of drug-induced toxic hepatitis in a patient who was treated with ceftriaxone for acute tonsillitis.

  2. [Toxic hepatitis associated with Polygoni multiflori].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Dong Hyun; Bae, Young Seok; Lee, Kwang Jae; Kim, Dong Wan; Yoon, Jeoung Bin; Hong, Joon Ho; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2010-06-01

    Toxic hepatitis has been reported as a major cause of acute hepatitis, but its potential induction by herbal remedies and/or health foods is usually neglected. We experienced a case of toxic hepatitis associated with Polygoni multiflori, a Chinese herb commonly known as Ho-Shou-Wu. A 54-year-old woman consumed Ho-Shou-Wu for 1 month, after which she experienced fatigue and overall weakness. A diagnosis of toxic hepatitis was made based on her clinical history, the findings for viral markers and other laboratory data, and ultrasonography. Her condition improved considerably after she stopped taking Ho-Shou-Wu. However, she resumed taking Ho-Shou-Wu immediately after discharge from hospital, which aggravated her symptoms and liver function. She was immediately readmitted and stopped taking Ho-Shou-Wu. Her relapse into hepatitis immediate after resuming consumption of the herb is strongly indicative of the validity of Koch's postulate in this case. PMID:20606503

  3. Hepatic toxicity resulting from cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), often called radiation hepatitis, is a syndrome characterized by the development of anicteric ascites approximately 2 weeks to 4 months after hepatic irradiation. There has been a renewed interest in hepatic irradiation because of two significant advances in cancer treatment: three dimensional radiation therapy treatment planning and bone marrow transplantation using total body irradiation. RILD resulting from liver radiation can usually be distinguished clinically from that resulting from the preparative regime associated with bone marrow transplantation. However, both syndromes demonstrate the same pathological lesion: veno-occlusive disease. Recent evidence suggests that elevated transforming growth factor β levels may play a role in the development of veno-occlusive disease. Three dimensional treatment planning offers the potential to determine the radiation dose and volume dependence of RILD, permitting the safe delivery of high doses of radiation to parts of the liver. The chief therapy for RILD is diuretics, although some advocate steroids for severe cases. The characteristics of RILD permit the development of a grading system modeled after the NCI Acute Common Toxicity Criteria, which incorporates standard criteria of hepatic dysfunction

  4. Flutamide-induced liver toxicity including fatal hepatic necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe hepatic injuries in three patients who received flutamide prior to and during radiation treatment to make radiation oncologists aware of the need for careful monitoring of liver function during use of this drug. Methods and Materials: The records of three patients who developed abnormal liver function tests while undergoing total androgen suppression (TAS), as well as the literature concerning flutamide toxicity were reviewed and summarized. Results: Three of 34 patients treated with a TAS regimen incorporating flutamide developed significant hepatic abnormalities: elevated transaminases [2] and fatal hepatic necrosis [1]. Following the discontinuation of flutamide, two patients recovered fully. Unfortunately, the third patient's hepatic function continued to deteriorate, which culminated in his death. Transient elevations in serum transaminases, which do not exceed four times the upper limits of normal, are common and apparently without clinical significance. Unfortunately, idiosyncratic serious and/or fatal liver damage can occur. Significant liver toxicity may be obviated by monitoring of liver function tests (LFT) early in the course of flutamide therapy. Conclusion: The incidence of hepatic toxicity associated with flutamide may be higher than previously suggested. To prevent the development of serious hepatic dysfunction, all patients receiving flutamide should be monitored clinically for signs and symptoms referable to hepatic injury and with serial LFT. We recommend baseline LFT followed by serial LFT at weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 from the start of treatment with flutamide. Flutamide should be stopped promptly if significant liver abnormalities are detected

  5. Agranulocytosis and hepatic toxicity with ticlopidine therapy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Previtera Antonino M; Pagani Rossella

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Ticlopidine is a platelet inhibitor used to prevent thrombosis in patients with cerebrovascular or coronary artery disease. The most common side effects are mild and transitory: diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea and rashes. More serious, but less frequent, adverse effects are hematological dyscrasia and cholestatic hepatitis. We report a rare case of agranulocytosis associated with hepatic toxicity, probably related to the use of ticlopidine. Case presentation A 70-year-old Ca...

  6. [Toxic hepatitis by consumption Herbalife products a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Sara; Anders, Margarita; Turbay, Maximiliano; Olaiz, Emiliano; Mc Cormack, Lucas; Mastai, Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    Toxic hepatitis by consumption Herbalife products is an affection poorly documented and with a great impact in the population due to their massive consumption. We present the case of a 63-years-old woman with probable diagnosis of toxic hepatitis secondary to the consumption of nutritional supplements Herbalife. The nutritional supplements based on natural ingredients are of massive consumption worldwide. Because they are recognized like innocuous and of non-controlled comercialization, they lack suitable controls. Although there are reported cases of hepatotoxicity and other side effects induced by these products, there is still not strong evidence to generate a positive reaction of the control organisms. We report a case of acute toxic hepatitis potencially due to the consumption of Herbalife. PMID:19157382

  7. Agranulocytosis and hepatic toxicity with ticlopidine therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Previtera Antonino M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ticlopidine is a platelet inhibitor used to prevent thrombosis in patients with cerebrovascular or coronary artery disease. The most common side effects are mild and transitory: diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea and rashes. More serious, but less frequent, adverse effects are hematological dyscrasia and cholestatic hepatitis. We report a rare case of agranulocytosis associated with hepatic toxicity, probably related to the use of ticlopidine. Case presentation A 70-year-old Caucasian woman, with no previous history of hematological or liver diseases, was treated with ticlopidine 250 mg twice daily immediately after a vertebrobasilar stroke. Upon admission, her blood tests were normal. About four weeks later she developed agranulocytosis and hepatic toxicity. Ticlopidine was discontinued immediately, and aspirin 25 mg and dipyridamole 200 mg were given twice daily. She was treated with hematopoietic growth factors (granulocyte colony stimulating factor, with a rapidly increased white blood count and progressive normalization of liver tests as a result. Conclusion In the first three months following initiation of ticlopidine therapy, regular monitoring of complete blood cell count and of liver function tests is essential for the early detection of serious and unpredictable side effects.

  8. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

  9. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron (59Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca2+ uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca2+ uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by

  10. Effect of hepatic irradiation on the toxicity and pharmacokinetics of adriamycin in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hepatic irradiation on adriamycin toxicity and pharmacokinetics was studied in 10 children who received adriamycin with concurrent abdominal irradiation for Wilms' tumor. Hepatic irradiation to 2400 to 2700 rad at 100 to 150 rad per fraction did not alter the clinical toxicity or plasma pharmacokinetics of adriamycin

  11. Toxic hepatitis induced by infliximab in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with no relapse after switching to etanercept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, K M; Riis, L; Madsen, O R

    2009-01-01

    normal. Liver biopsy showed late signs of acute toxic hepatitis without MTX-related fibrosis. This is one the first cases that convincingly demonstrates that infliximab treatment may cause toxic hepatitis. Moreover, the case suggests a lack of hepatic cross-toxicity between infliximab and etanercept as...... the patient continued with etanercept without new episodes of liver dysfunction....

  12. Mitochondrial iron accumulation exacerbates hepatic toxicity caused by hepatitis C virus core protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Shuichi; Ito, Konomi; Watanabe, Haruna; Nakano, Takafumi [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan); Moriya, Kyoji; Shintani, Yoshizumi; Fujie, Hajime; Tsutsumi, Takeya; Miyoshi, Hideyuki; Fujinaga, Hidetake; Shinzawa, Seiko; Koike, Kazuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu, E-mail: t.horie@thu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8675 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    Patients with long-lasting hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at major risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Iron accumulation in the livers of these patients is thought to exacerbate conditions of oxidative stress. Transgenic mice that express the HCV core protein develop HCC after the steatosis stage and produce an excess of hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The overproduction of ROS in the liver is the net result of HCV core protein-induced dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This study examined the impact of ferric nitrilacetic acid (Fe-NTA)-mediated iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing HepG2 (human HCC) cells (Hep39b cells). A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS production were observed following Fe-NTA treatment. After continuous exposure to Fe-NTA for six days, cell toxicity was observed in Hep39b cells, but not in mock (vector-transfected) HepG2 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial iron ({sup 59}Fe) uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. This increase in mitochondrial iron uptake was inhibited by Ru360, a mitochondrial Ca{sup 2+} uniporter inhibitor. Furthermore, the Fe-NTA-induced augmentation of mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and cell toxicity were also inhibited by Ru360 in Hep39b cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates hepatocyte toxicity caused by the HCV core protein. - Highlights: • Iron accumulation in the livers of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is thought to exacerbate oxidative stress. • The impact of iron overload on mitochondrial damage and ROS production in HCV core protein-expressing cells were examined. • Mitochondrial iron uptake was increased in the livers of HCV core protein-expressing transgenic mice. • Ca{sup 2+} uniporter-mediated mitochondrial accumulation of iron exacerbates

  13. Folic acid supplementation reduces oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity in rats treated chronically with ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Soo-Jung; Kang, Myung-Hee; Min, Hyesun

    2011-01-01

    Folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia are found in most patients with alcoholic liver disease. Oxidative stress is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to homocysteine (Hcy)-induced tissue injury. However it has not been examined whether exogenous administration of folic acid attenuates oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effect of folic acid supplementation on oxidative stress and hepatic toxicity induced by chronic et...

  14. [Patho- and morphogenesis of microcirculation disturbances in toxic hepatitis in immature rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rykalo N.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic exogenous intoxication leads to the development of typical pathological processes. In this case the structural and functional disturbanses of the liver frequently occur. Objective: to investigate the pathogenic and morphogenetic violations of blood and lymph circulation at chronic toxic hepatitis in immature rats. Methods. Experiment was conducted on white laboratory immature rats. The chronic toxic hepatitis was modelled by intragastric administration of 20% oil solution ...

  15. Dimethylacetamide-induced occupational toxic hepatitis with a short term recurrence: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) is widely used in the textile and plastics industry as a solvent alternative to more toxic N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). At home and abroad, sporadic group case reports have revealed that DMAc could cause toxic hepatitis and symptoms or signs indicative of liver involvement among workers exposed to DMAc, with severe cases leading to death. This paper reports a rare case of severe acute toxic hepatitis with a short term recurrence induced by occupational contact with DMAc in a polyimide film factory, as well as in-depth analysis via relevant information and literature. PMID:27293868

  16. Voluntary Ingestion of Natural Cocoa Extenuated Hepatic Damage in Rats with Experimentally Induced Chronic Alcoholic Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Godwin Sokpor; Frederick Kwaku Addai; Richard Kwasi Gyasi; Kwasi Agyei Bugyei; John Ahenkorah; Bismarck Hottor

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic ethanol ingestion causes hepatic damage imputable to an increasedoxidative stress engendered by alcoholic toxicity. Polyphenols in cocoa have antioxidant properties, and natural cocoa powder (NCP) contains the highest levels of total antioxidant capacity when compared to all other kinds of edible cocoa products. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCP mitigates hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Three groups o...

  17. [Patho- and morphogenesis of microcirculation disturbances in toxic hepatitis in immature rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rykalo N.A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic exogenous intoxication leads to the development of typical pathological processes. In this case the structural and functional disturbanses of the liver frequently occur. Objective: to investigate the pathogenic and morphogenetic violations of blood and lymph circulation at chronic toxic hepatitis in immature rats. Methods. Experiment was conducted on white laboratory immature rats. The chronic toxic hepatitis was modelled by intragastric administration of 20% oil solution of CCl4 and 5% solution of ethanol during six weeks twice a week. Liver tissue was stained by hematoxylin and eosin and by Van Gieson for histological studies. Results. The liver is an important lymph producer in both normal and pathological conditions. At chronic toxic hepatitis in immature rats violation of lymph circulation leads to the dilation of lymph capillaries of the portal tracts and liver capsule, presence of anastomoses between superficial and deep lymphatic vessels, formation of new lymph vessels under the liver capsule, appearance of splits, lacunae, capillaries with a wide lumen, deformating the liver lobule. Connective tissue proliferation takes place on the background of lymphostasis. Сonclusion. The accumulation of fluid in the space of Disse can lead to capillarisation of sinusoids with formation of blood and lymphatic capillaries with the central direction of the fluid flow. Citation: Rykalo NA. [Patho- and morphogenesis of microcirculation disturbances in toxic hepatitis in immature rats]. Morphologia. 2015;9(3:67-73. Ukrainian.

  18. Functional activity of sphingomyelin cycle in rat liver in chronic toxic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, V Yu; Kuzmenko, D I; Burov, P G; Novitsky, S V

    2008-12-01

    Activities of sphingomyelinase and ceramidase decreased in the liver in chronic toxic hepatitis and the balance between the levels of proapoptotic ceramide and antiapoptotic sphyngosine-1-phosphate shifts towards the latter substance. Pronounced changes in the qualitative and quantitative composition of fatty acids in the sphingomyelin cycle effector molecules were revealed. PMID:19513367

  19. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Rezende Vilela; Lindisley Ferreira Gomides; Bruna Araújo David; Maísa Mota Antunes; Ariane Barros Diniz; Fabrício de Araújo Moreira; Gustavo Batista Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hyd...

  20. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  1. Cannabidiol rescues acute hepatic toxicity and seizure induced by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  2. Potassium permanganate toxicity: A rare case with difficult airway management and hepatic damage

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Agrawal; Abhishek Bansal; Ranjeet Kumar; Bhanwar Lal Kumawat; Parul Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ) is rarely used for suicidal attempt. Its ingestion can lead to local as well as systemic toxicities due to coagulation necrosis and damage, caused by free radicals of permanganate. We recently managed a case of suicidal ingestion of KMnO 4 in a lethal dose. She had significant narrowing of upper airway leading to difficult intubation as well as hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy as systemic manifestation. We suggest to keep ourselves ready to handle difficul...

  3. Technetium-99m labelled macroaggregated albumin arterial catheter perfusion scintigraphy: prediction of gastrointestinal toxicity in hepatic arterial chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, E; Masaneo, I; Clara, R; Valetto, M R; Bellò, M; Zanon, C; Chiappino, I; Grosso, M; Mussa, A; Bisi, G

    2000-06-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity from hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of floxuridine in patients with liver metastases is probably due to extrahepatic perfusion or to partial escape of the drug from first-pass liver extraction. The aim of this study was to verify the role of technetium-99m-labelled macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA) arterial catheter perfusion scintigraphy at the beginning of each chemotherapy cycle in decreasing or preventing gastrointestinal toxicity. We studied 167 consecutive patients. On the basis of the scintigraphic follow-up and the presence or absence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous shunt (IHAVS), we classified our patients into the following groups: (1) FU+ hepatic distribution pattern (DP), comprising 29 patients with regular scintigraphic follow-up who showed the expected distribution pattern at each control or a distribution pattern with transient alterations (extrahepatic escape) promptly reversed by the replacement of the catheter. Among these 29 patients there was one case of gastrointestinal toxicity. (2) FU- hepatic DP, comprising 128 patients who were evaluated with 99mTc-MAA only at the beginning of the first chemotherapy cycle, showed the expected distribution pattern and underwent HAI with no further scintigraphic evaluation. Among these 128 patients there were 28 cases of gastrointestinal toxicity. (3) FU+ pulmonary DP, comprising three patients with abnormally elevated pulmonary uptake (higher than 5%) and with regular scintigraphic follow-up. There were two cases of gastrointestinal toxicity among these three patients. (4) FU- pulmonary DP, comprising seven patients with abnormally elevated pulmonary uptake and without regular scintigraphic follow-up. There were four cases of gastrointestinal toxicity among these seven patients. The incidence of toxicity was significantly higher in group FU- hepatic DP than in group FU+ hepatic DP (21.9% vs 3.4%, Pscintigraphic follow-up is useful since it is able to promptly diagnose the

  4. [Structuro-functional changes in dog liver and regional lymph node lysosomes in toxic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Iu I; Korolenko, T A; Malygin, A E; Pupyshev, A B; Sharaĭkina, E O

    1978-10-01

    Structural and functional changes in the dog liver and regional lymph nodes lysosomes were studied during toxic hepatitis induced by CCl4 administration (single and repeated). Total activity of lysosomal enzymes (acid RNA-ase and beta-galactosidase) was higher in the regional lymph nodes than in the liver, reflecting the barrier, protective function of the organ. During acute toxic hepatitis the specific activities of acid RNA-ase and cathepsin D displayed a sharp rise. No normalization of the indices under study occurred during the observation period (from 8 to 30 days). At the same time there was a rise of the regional lymph node weight and an elevation of the relative macrophage and neutrophil content in the sinuses. The increased activity of the lysosome enzymes in the regional lymph nodes in injury of the liver was connected with greater functional load on the lymph nodes effecting hydrolysis of biopolymeres which penetrated into the regional lymphatic node with the lymph. PMID:708870

  5. Potassium permanganate toxicity: A rare case with difficult airway management and hepatic damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Agrawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 is rarely used for suicidal attempt. Its ingestion can lead to local as well as systemic toxicities due to coagulation necrosis and damage, caused by free radicals of permanganate. We recently managed a case of suicidal ingestion of KMnO 4 in a lethal dose. She had significant narrowing of upper airway leading to difficult intubation as well as hepatic dysfunction and coagulopathy as systemic manifestation. We suggest to keep ourselves ready to handle difficult airway with the aid of fiber optic bronchoscope or surgical airway management in such patients. Upper gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy should be done at the earliest to determine the extent of upper GI injury and further nutrition planning.

  6. Role of glucuronidation for hepatic detoxification and urinary elimination of toxic bile acids during biliary obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Perreault

    Full Text Available Biliary obstruction, a severe cholestatic condition, results in a huge accumulation of toxic bile acids (BA in the liver. Glucuronidation, a conjugation reaction, is thought to protect the liver by both reducing hepatic BA toxicity and increasing their urinary elimination. The present study evaluates the contribution of each process in the overall BA detoxification by glucuronidation. Glucuronide (G, glycine, taurine conjugates, and unconjugated BAs were quantified in pre- and post-biliary stenting urine samples from 12 patients with biliary obstruction, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The same LC-MS/MS procedure was used to quantify intra- and extracellular BA-G in Hepatoma HepG2 cells. Bile acid-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells was evaluated using MTS reduction, caspase-3 and flow cytometry assays. When compared to post-treatment samples, pre-stenting urines were enriched in glucuronide-, taurine- and glycine-conjugated BAs. Biliary stenting increased the relative BA-G abundance in the urinary BA pool, and reduced the proportion of taurine- and glycine-conjugates. Lithocholic, deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the most cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic/necrotic BAs for HepG2 cells. Other species, such as the cholic, hyocholic and hyodeoxycholic acids were nontoxic. All BA-G assayed were less toxic and displayed lower pro-apoptotic/necrotic effects than their unconjugated precursors, even if they were able to penetrate into HepG2 cells. Under severe cholestatic conditions, urinary excretion favors the elimination of amidated BAs, while glucuronidation allows the conversion of cytotoxic BAs into nontoxic derivatives.

  7. Technetium-99m labelled macroaggregated albumin arterial catheter perfusion scintigraphy: prediction of gastrointestinal toxicity in hepatic arterial chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelosi, E.; Masaneo, I.; Valetto, M.R.; Bello, M.; Bisi, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Clara, R.; Zanon, C.; Chiappino, I.; Mussa, A. [Division of Esophageal and Oncological Surgery, University of Turin, Turin (Italy); Grosso, M. [Division of Radiology, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity from hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of floxuridine in patients with liver metastases is probably due to extrahepatic perfusion or to partial escape of the drug from first-pass liver extraction. The aim of this study was to verify the role of technetium-99m-labelled macroaggregated albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-MAA) arterial catheter perfusion scintigraphy at the beginning of each chemotherapy cycle in decreasing or preventing gastrointestinal toxicity. We studied 167 consecutive patients. On the basis of the scintigraphic follow-up and the presence or absence of an intrahepatic arteriovenous shunt (IHAVS), we classified our patients into the following groups: (1) FU+ hepatic distribution pattern (DP), comprising 29 patients with regular scintigraphic follow-up who showed the expected distribution pattern at each control or a distribution pattern with transient alterations (extrahepatic escape) promptly reversed by the replacement of the catheter. Among these 29 patients there was one case of gastrointestinal toxicity. (2) FU- hepatic DP, comprising 128 patients who were evaluated with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA only at the beginning of the first chemotherapy cycle, showed the expected distribution pattern and underwent HAI with no further scintigraphic evaluation. Among these 128 patients there were 28 cases of gastrointestinal toxicity. (3) FU+ pulmonary DP, comprising three patients with abnormally elevated pulmonary uptake (higher than 5%) and with regular scintigraphic follow-up. There were two cases of gastrointestinal toxicity among these three patients. (4) FU- pulmonary DP, comprising seven patients with abnormally elevated pulmonary uptake and without regular scintigraphic follow-up. There were four cases of gastrointestinal toxicity among these seven patients. The incidence of toxicity was significantly higher in group FU- hepatic DP than in group FU+ hepatic DP (21.9% vs 3.4%, P<0.05). In both the FU+ pulmonary DP and FU- pulmonary DP groups, the

  8. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930140 Hepatocyte stimulator peptide and itsclinical significance in viral hepatitis.ZHOUWeiping(周卫平),et al.Instit Viral Hepatitis,Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(10):626-628.Hepatocyte stimulator peptide(HSP)is anewly developed hepatic stimulator substance.Its monoclonal antibodies have been obtained inour laboratory.In this study,HSP was deter-mined in the sera of 315 subjects including pa-

  9. Hepatic toxicity of dronedarone in mice: Role of mitochondrial β-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dronedarone is not hepatotoxic to mice up to 200 mg/kg/day. • At 400 mg/kg/day dronedarone decreases food intake and inhibits hepatic fatty acid metabolism. • Impaired hepatic fatty acid metabolism is associated with increased hepatocyte apoptosis and serum transaminases. • Mice with subclinical impairment of β-oxidation are slightly more susceptible to dronaderone than wild type mice. - Abstract: Dronedarone is an amiodarone-like antiarrhythmic drug associated with severe liver injury. Since dronedarone inhibits mitochondrial respiration and β-oxidation in vitro, mitochondrial toxicity may also explain dronedarone-associated hepatotoxicity in vivo. We therefore studied hepatotoxicity of dronedarone (200 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks or 400 mg/kg/day for 1 week by intragastric gavage) in heterozygous juvenile visceral steatosis (jvs+/−) and wild-type mice. Jvs+/− mice have reduced carnitine stores and are sensitive for mitochondrial β-oxidation inhibitors. Treatment with dronedarone 200 mg/kg/day had no effect on body weight, serum transaminases and bilirubin, and hepatic mitochondrial function in both wild-type and jvs+/− mice. In contrast, dronedarone 400 mg/kg/day was associated with a 10–15% drop in body weight, and a 3–5-fold increase in transaminases and bilirubin in wild-type mice and, more accentuated, in jvs+/− mice. In vivo metabolism of intraperitoneal 14C-palmitate was impaired in wild-type, and, more accentuated, in jvs+/− mice treated with 400 mg/kg/day dronedarone compared to vehicle-treated mice. Impaired β-oxidation was also found in isolated mitochondria ex vivo. A likely explanation for these findings was a reduced activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a in liver mitochondria from dronedarone-treated mice. In contrast, dronedarone did not affect the activity of the respiratory chain ex vivo. We conclude that dronedarone inhibits mitochondrial β-oxidation in and ex vivo, but not the respiratory chain. Jvs

  10. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009209 Effects of chronic hepatitis B virus infection on human hepatic cytochrome P450 2C9.ZHO Fuping(周福平),et al.Dept Infect Dis,Shanghai Changzheng Hosp,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Infect Dis,2009;27(2):94-98.

  11. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970349 Primary structure and variability of partialsequences in nonstructural gene 5 region of hepatitis Gvirus, CHANG Jinhong(常锦红), et al. Hepatol Instis,People’s Hosp, Beijing Med Univ, Beijing, 100044. NatlMed J China 1997; 77(3): 178-182. Objective: To sequence partial genome of hepatitis G

  12. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920691 The determination of serum hepa-titis B virus DNA by polymerase chain rea-ction in hepatitis B patients treated withalpha-interferon. XU. Jianye(徐建业), et al.Centr Lab, Chongqing Cancer Instit, 630030.Chin J Intern Med, 1992; 31(5): 278-280. To clarify the status of HBV in serum of

  13. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidati...

  14. Influence of methods of physical rehabilitation on quality of life in patients with toxic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmatova E.A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available He purpose was to improve the state of the quality of life in patients with chronic toxic hepatitis in-patient treatment phase by the use of comprehensive program of physical rehabilitation. We examined 84 patients, including 55 - and 29 men - women. Quality of life was measured using a questionnaire SF - 36. The data obtained were compared with those of healthy people - donors. Found that patients significantly reduced quality of life condition. A program of physical rehabilitation with the use of complex tools: physiotherapy, massage, segmental massage, treatment status, respiration system Yoga. On 10 - 15 day in-patient revealed a positive trend against other major symptoms of the disease. At 6 - 7 day disappeared signs asthenia, improved mood, appetite, depression and aggression disappeared, abdominal pain, heaviness in the right upper quadrant. It has also the normalization of the excretory function of the gastrointestinal - intestinal tract. Patients pay attention to the improvement of the symptoms: dyspnea, normalize heart rate, decrease pain and numbness in the legs.

  15. The protective effects of methyl jasmonate against adriamycin--induced hepatic and renal toxicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosoko, A M; Molokwu, C J; Farombi, E O; Ademowo, O G

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effect of methyl jasmonate (MJ) in adriamycin (ADR) induced hepatic and renal toxicities. 36 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into control, ADR (20 mg/kg), MJ (50 mg/kg) only, MJ (100 mg/kg) only, MJ (50 mg/ kg) + ADR, MJ (100 mg/kg) + ADR groups (n = 6). The 2 doses of MJ was administered for 7 days in MJ only groups, ADR was administered intraperitoneally on the 8th day after pretreatment with the 2 different doses of MJ while ADR was administered on the 8th day only for the ADR only group. The malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), H2O2 generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea and creatinine in the liver, kidneys and serum samples as applicable were estimated. Tissue MDA, H2O2 generation, and GST activity were markedly elevated while GSH content, CAT and SOD activities were significantly reduced in the tissues when compared to the control (p inhibition of tissue peroxidative damage might contribute to this beneficial effect. PMID:23678646

  16. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Home About GLMA Membership Resources Advocacy Lesbian Health Fund Conference Newsroom Support GLMA About GLMA Membership Resources Advocacy Lesbian Health Fund Conference Newsroom Support GLMA Site Search Hepatitis ...

  17. Voluntary Ingestion of Natural Cocoa Extenuated Hepatic Damage in Rats with Experimentally Induced Chronic Alcoholic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Sokpor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic ethanol ingestion causes hepatic damage imputable to an increasedoxidative stress engendered by alcoholic toxicity. Polyphenols in cocoa have antioxidant properties, and natural cocoa powder (NCP contains the highest levels of total antioxidant capacity when compared to all other kinds of edible cocoa products. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with NCP mitigates hepatic injury resulting from chronic ethanol consumption. Three groups of eight randomized Sprague-Dawley rats were fed standardrat food and treated daily for 12 weeks as follows: (i the Ethanol-water group was given unrestricted access to 40% (v/v ethanol for 12 hours (at night followed by water for the remaining 12 hours (daytime, (ii the Ethanol-cocoa group had similarly unrestricted access to 40% ethanol for 12 hours followed by 2% (w/v NCP for 12 hours, and (iii the control group was not given alcohol and had unrestricted access to only water which was synchronously replenished every 12 hours as it was for the ethanol treated animals.Results: Qualitative structural liver damage evidenced by hepatocyte cytoplasmic fatty accumulation, nuclear alterations, and disruption of general liver micro-architecture, was severe in the ethanol-water group when compared with the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Design-based stereologic assessment yielded a significantly greater volume (Tukey’s HSD, p = 0.0005 ofundamaged hepatocytes (9.61 ml, SD 2.18 ml in the ethanol-cocoa group as opposed to theethanol-water group of rats (2.34 ml, SD 1.21 ml. Control rats had 10.34 ml (SD 1.47 ml of undamaged hepatocytes, and that was not significantly greater (Tukey’s HSD, p=0.659 than the value for the ethanol-cocoa group of rats. Relative to controls, therefore, histomorphometryFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:166- 187 showed 93% hepatocyte preservation from alcoholic injury in rats that voluntarily imbibed NCP suspension compared with 23% in

  18. Experimental study on the toxicity of lipiodol injected into proper hepatic artery of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipiodol is iodized ethyl esters of the fatty acids of poppy-seed oil, and has recently been used as a mediator in combination with anticancer drugs or tagging with radioiodine to treat hepatocellular carcinoma because of higher concentration in tumor tissue compared to normal liver tissue. Author assessed toxic effects and lethal dose of Lipiodol when injected directly into the proper hepatic artery (PHA) of New Zealand white rabbits. 38 rabbits with normal liver function(SGOT < 50 K.U., total bilirubin < 0.1mg/dl) were divided into one control and three experimental groups according to a dosage of Lipiodol into PHA such as A group (10 rabbits) having as control, B group (10 rabbits) having as 0.15 ml/kg of Lipiodol comparable to the average dose to have used as mediator to treat human hepatocellular carcinoma, C group (12 rabbits) having as 1.58 ml/kg of Lipiodol comparable to the average lethal dose of ethiodol to dogs following intravenous injection and D group (6 rabbits) having as lethal dose to be given Lipiodol injection into PHA to death. And A, B, C groups were also subdivided into two groups such as group 1 with no ligation of PHA and group 2 with ligation of PHA after Lipiodol injection respectively. All rabbits were examined the liver function tests, radiographs and CT, and in D group, serial radiographs were taken to evaluate the spreading of Lipiodol. All rabbits except C2 and D groups were sacrificed 6 hours, 24 hours, 5 days, 15 days and 30 days, and then the liver, lungs and kidneys were removed for histologic examination. The results were as follows: 1. The average lethal dose of Lipiodol administered into PHA of white rabbits was 5.44 ml/kg, and the cause of death was pulmonary Lipiodol embolism. 2. The mean survival time of rabbits administered in a dose of 1.58 ml/kg of Lipiodol injection followed by PHA ligation was 25.3 hours, and the cause of death was hepatic failure due to hepatocellular necrosis. 3. On liver function tests, SGOT and

  19. Toxic hepatitis induced by infliximab in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis with no relapse after switching to etanercept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, K M; Riis, L; Madsen, O R

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of toxic hepatitis related to infliximab treatment in a 38-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The patient had previously been treated with different disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs) alone or in combination but had never revealed signs of liver dysfunction. Due to high...... disease activity, treatment with infliximab (3 mg/kg i.v.) was initiated in combination with methotrexate (MTX) (25 mg/week) and folic acid (5 mg/week). The patient stopped MTX and folic acid on her own initiative after 3 weeks due to improvement of joint symptoms. After seven infusions, progressive...... elevations of the transaminases up to five times the upper normal limit were noted and treatment with infliximab was terminated. Serological tests for viral and autoimmune hepatitis and for ANA and anti-dsDNA were all negative. Specific infliximab antibodies could not be detected. Ultrasound of the liver was...

  20. Mechanism of chloroform-induced renal toxicity: Non-involvement of hepatic cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloroform causes hepatic and renal toxicity in a number of species. In vitro studies have indicated that chloroform can be metabolized by P450 enzymes in the kidney to nephrotoxic intermediate, although direct in vivo evidence for the role of renal P450 in the nephrotoxicity has not been reported. This study was to determine whether chloroform renal toxicity persists in a mouse model with a liver-specific deletion of the P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (liver-Cpr-null). Chloroform-induced renal toxicity and chloroform tissue levels were compared between the liver-Cpr-null and wild-type mice at 24 h following differing doses of chloroform. At a chloroform dose of 150 mg/kg, the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were five times higher in the exposed group than in the vehicle-treated one for the liver-Cpr-null mice, but they were only slightly higher in the exposed group than in the vehicle-treated group for the wild-type mice. Severe lesions were found in the kidney of the liver-Cpr-null mice, while only mild lesions were found in the wild-type mice. At a chloroform dose of 300 mg/kg, severe kidney lesions were observed in both strains, yet the BUN levels were still higher in the liver-Cpr-null than in the wild-type mice. Higher chloroform levels were found in the tissues of the liver-Cpr-null mice. These findings indicated that loss of hepatic P450-dependent chloroform metabolism does not protect against chloroform-induced renal toxicity, suggesting that renal P450 enzymes play an essential role in chloroform renal toxicity

  1. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008449 A cross-sectional survey of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients. MA Jianxin(马建新), et al.Dept Infect Dis, Shanghai Public Health Clin Center, Shanghai 201508. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(7):574-577. Objective To assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected patients.

  2. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  3. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp. and hepatic triglyceride (TG levels (up to 528% in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g. significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35% and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g. significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%, it elevated the hepatic index (by 77% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment.

  4. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment. PMID:19592476

  5. Toxicity of cadmium in Japanese quail: Evaluation of body weight, hepatic and renal function, and cellular immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that is able to alter the immune function. Previous studies have shown that, in mammals, chronic exposure to Cd decreases the release of macrophagic cytokines such as IL1 and TNα and decreases phagocytosis activity. On the other hand contradictory results showed an increase in the humoral response. The cellular response could be decreased by exposure to Cd. These alterations were observed in mammals. The present study aimed to investigate some of the toxic effects of Cd exposure in birds. In particular, the main objective of this work was to elucidate the effects of exposure to this pollutant on the cellular immune function of the Japanese quail as a model for the study of toxicity in animals exposed in nature. The animals were exposed to the metal (100 ppm, per os) during development, i.e., from 1 to 28 days old. Body weight, biochemical parameters, and cellular immune response were measured during and at the end of treatment. The results showed that the exposure to Cd for 28 days significantly reduced the body weight and induced hepatic toxicity. The kidney function and cellular immune response were not affected by the Cd exposure

  6. Differential protein expression of hepatic cells associated with MeHg exposure: deepening into the molecular mechanisms of toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Susana; Madrid, Yolanda; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Camara, Carmen [Complutense University of Madrid, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Ramos, Sonia [Institute of Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying MeHg toxicity and the way in which this molecule interacts with living organisms is a critical point since MeHg represents a well-known risk to ecosystems and human health. We used a quantitative proteomic approach based on stable isotopic labeling by amino acids in cell culture in combination with SDS-PAGE and nanoflow LC-ESI-LTQ for analyzing the differential protein expression of hepatic cells associated to MeHg exposure. Seventy-eight proteins were found de-regulated by more than 1.5-fold. We identified a number of proteins involved in different essential biological processes including apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular trafficking and energy production. Among these proteins, we found several molecules whose de-regulation has been already related to MeHg exposure, thus confirming the usefulness of our discovery approach, and new ones that helped to gain a deeper insight into the biomolecular mechanisms related to MeHg-induced toxicity. Overexpression of several HSPs and the proteasome 26S subunit itself showed the proteasome system as a molecular target of toxic MeHg. As for the interaction networks, the top ranked was the nucleic acid metabolism, where many of the identified de-regulated proteins are involved. (orig.)

  7. Raltegravir, tenofovir, and emtricitabine in an HIV-Infected patient with HCV chronic hepatitis, NNRTI intolerance and protease inhibitors-induced severe liver Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortu F

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background in HIV-infected patients with HCV-related chronic hepatitis, liver impairment and drug toxicity may substantially reduce the number of possible therapeutic options. Case Description we here describe the case of an HCV-HIV coinfected woman who had repeated severe episodes of drug-related liver toxicity with indinavir, saquinavir, fosamprenavir, and darunavir, with minimal further therapeutic options left in this class. Previous treatment-limiting side effects with efavirenz and nevirapine also precluded use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Introduction of an integrase-inhibitor regimen based on raltegravir, tenofovir, and emtricitabine allowed a prompt achievement of undetectable viral load and a substantial rise of CD4 count to high levels, with no subsequent episodes of hepatic toxicity, and no other side effects. Conclusions given the relatively common prevalence of HCV-related chronic hepatitis among people with HIV, raltegravir might represent an important alternative option for a substantial number of patients who cannot be treated with protease inhibitors or NNRTI because of drug-related hepatic toxicity.

  8. Activity of sphingomyelinase in rat liver in acute and chronic toxic hepatitis: proportion between peroxidative and phospholipase pathways of lipid bilayer modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, V Yu; Kuzmenko, D I; Burov, P G; Novitsky, S V

    2009-01-01

    We showed that sphingomyelinase activity in the liver increased only during the acute phase of toxic hepatitis. Peroxidative modification of hepatocyte membrane bilayer prevailed during the acute phase, while after transformation of the process to the chronic phase phospholipase pathway predominated. PMID:19526125

  9. Continuous intravenous flumazenil infusion in a patient with chlordiazepoxide toxicity and hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh′d Al-Halawani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, is the drug of choice for the diagnosis and treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. We are presenting a patient with chronic alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease, who came with alcohol withdrawal symptoms and treated chlordiazepoxide. Subsequently he developed a prolonged change in mental status that required treatment for benzodiazepine overdose and hepatic encephalopathy with flumazenil infusion for 28 days.

  10. Mode of Action for Reproductive and Hepatic Toxicity Inferred from a Genomic Study of Triazole Antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole antifungals have been previously characterized by an observed increased in serum testosterone, hepatotoxicity, and reduced insemination and fertility indices. In order to refine our mechanistic understanding of these m...

  11. Protective effect of thymoquinone against lead-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Aymen; Bel Hadj Salah, Imen; Chaieb, Wafa; Ben Cheikh, Hassen

    2016-06-01

    Lead (Pb) intoxication is a worldwide health problem which frequently affects the liver. This study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the major active ingredient of volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds, against Pb-induced liver damage. Adult male rats were randomized into four groups: Control group received no treatment, Pb group was exposed to 2000 ppm Pb acetate in drinking water, Pb-TQ group was cotreated with Pb plus TQ (5 mg/kg/day, per orally), and TQ group receiving only TQ. All treatments were applied for 5 weeks. Results indicated that Pb exposure increased hepatic Pb content, damaged hepatic histological structure (necrotic foci, hepatic strands disorganization, hypertrophied hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization, cytoplasmic loss, chromatin condensation, mononuclear cell infiltration, congestion, centrilobular swelling), and changed liver function investigated by plasma biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, γ-GT, LDH). Pb treatment also decreased total antioxidant status level and increased lipid peroxidation in the liver. Supplementation with TQ remarkably improved the Pb-induced adverse effects without significantly reducing the metal accumulation in the liver. In conclusion, our results indicate, for the first time, a protective effect of TQ against Pb-induced hepatotoxicity and suggest that this component might be clinically useful in Pb intoxication. PMID:26971798

  12. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTION OF THYMALINUM AND SUSPENSION OF RED BONE MARROW IN TREATING EXPERIMENTAL TOXIC HEPATITIS OF RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Kulbekov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic decompensation problems make it timely to search for the methods of its treatment. Stem cells usage in attempt to restore structures of organs and tissues is a promising direction of researches. However the problem of possible blast-cell transformation slows down studies in this direction. Attempt of thymalinum use as an antitumoral immune system's modulator may be successful and may widen the possibilities of stem cells use in hepatology. On the basis of toxical affection of rats' lever by tetrachloromethane and paracetamol we have studied hepatoprotective activity of thymalinum and suspension of rats' red bone marrow (RBM and a thymalinum + suspension of RBM complex. Hepatoprotective action was estimated by the volume of discharged bile of control group rats which received paracetamol comparing with intact animals. This confirms the absence of reliable hepatotoxical action of paracetamol following the methodology applied. Significant reduction of discharged bile volume of control group rats which received tetrachloromethane comparing with intact animals confirms the successfulness of the formation method of hepatitis model in animals which received tetrachloromethane. The animals which were given tetrachloromethane and thymalinum + suspension of RBM combination had bigger volume of bile discharged than control group animals. Hepatoprotective action tendency of thymalinum + suspension of RBM combination shown before on mice is also true for rats. 

  13. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Bo; Csanaky, Iván L. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Aleksunes, Lauren M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy and Environmental and Occupational Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Patni, Meghan; Chen, Qi; Ma, Xiaochao; Jaeschke, Hartmut [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Weir, Scott; Broward, Melinda; Klaassen, Curtis D. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Guo, Grace L., E-mail: lguo@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  14. Gender-specific reduction of hepatic Mrp2 expression by high-fat diet protects female mice from ANIT toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerging evidence suggests that feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) to rodents affects the expression of genes involved in drug transport. However, gender-specific effects of HFD on drug transport are not known. The multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2, Abcc2) is a transporter highly expressed in the hepatocyte canalicular membrane and is important for biliary excretion of glutathione-conjugated chemicals. The current study showed that hepatic Mrp2 expression was reduced by HFD feeding only in female, but not male, C57BL/6J mice. In order to determine whether down-regulation of Mrp2 in female mice altered chemical disposition and toxicity, the biliary excretion and hepatotoxicity of the Mrp2 substrate, α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), were assessed in male and female mice fed control diet or HFD for 4 weeks. ANIT-induced biliary injury is a commonly used model of experimental cholestasis and has been shown to be dependent upon Mrp2-mediated efflux of an ANIT glutathione conjugate that selectively injures biliary epithelial cells. Interestingly, HFD feeding significantly reduced early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice and largely protected against ANIT-induced liver injury. In summary, the current study showed that, at least in mice, HFD feeding can differentially regulate Mrp2 expression and function and depending upon the chemical exposure may enhance or reduce susceptibility to toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a novel interaction between diet and gender in regulating hepatobiliary excretion and susceptibility to injury. -- Highlights: ► High-fat diet decreases hepatic Mrp2 expression only in female but not in male mice. ► HFD significantly reduces early-phase biliary ANIT excretion in female mice. ► HFD protects female mice against ANIT-induced liver injury.

  15. Role of Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Acute Acetaminophen Induced Hepatic Toxicity in Adult Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab M. Gebaly* and Gamal M. Aboul Hassan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic is known to cause hepatic injury in humans and experimental animals when administered in high doses. It was reported that toxic effects of acetaminophen are due to oxidative reactions that take place during its metabolism. L-carnitine is a cofactor in the transfer of long-chain fatty acid allowing to the beta-oxidation of fatty acid in the mitochondria. It is a known antioxidant with protective effects against lipid peroxidation. This study aimed to investigate the possible beneficial effect of L-carnitine as an antioxidant agent against acetaminophen induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Four rat groups (N=7 in each group. Group I is the control, group II received 500 mg/kg/ body weight of L-carnitine for 7 days by oral route, group III received 640/kg/ bw of acetaminophen by oral route, group IV acute acetaminophen group pretreated with L-carnitine for 7 days by gastric tube gavage tube. The liver of all rats were removed for investigation using light and electro microscopic studies. Results: Acetaminophen caused massive centrilobular necrosis and massive degenerative changes. The electron-microscopic study showed few mitochondria, increased fat droplets and scanty smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER, rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER.These changes were reduced by L-carnitine pretreatment. Conclusion: those results suggest that acetaminophen results damage in the liver as an acute effect and L-carnitine ameliorated the adverse effects of acetaminophen via its antioxidant role

  16. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  17. Relationship between the murine Ah locus and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin hepatic metabolism, enzyme induction, and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the Ah locus and hepatic microsomal enzyme induction on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) metabolism and hepatotoxicity was investigated using C57BL/6J (C57) and DBA/2J (DBA) mice. C57 mice are more sensitive to toxic and enzyme inductive effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD than DBA mice. Characterization of interstrain differences in hepatic enzyme induction, 2,3,7,8-TCDD metabolism, and hepatotoxicity may aid in identifying the mechanism(s) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity. The hepatic uptake and metabolism of [14C]2,3,7,8-TCDD were studied using isolated hepatocytes from control and 2,3,7,8-TCDD-pretreated C57 and DBA mice. Pretreated mice were injected with 2,3,7,8-TCDD at doses that maximally induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity or at doses that approach the LD50 value. Despite the induction of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity and benzo[a]pyrene metabolism, all 2,3,7,8-TCDD pretreatment doses failed to increase the rate of [14C]2,3,7,8-TCDD metabolism for both C57 and DBA mice. These results suggest that the uptake and rate of hepatic metabolism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD do not correlate with genetic differences at the murine Ah locus

  18. Mushroom extract protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity in hepatic and neuronal human cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizani, Nejib; Waly, Mostafa I

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide is an oxidative stress agent that is associated with depletion of intracellular glutathione and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes in different cell lines. Consumption of antioxidant-rich foods reduces cellular oxidative stress and its related health problems. This study aimed to assess the antioxidant properties of mushroom, Agaricus bisporous cultivar extract, against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress in cultured human hepatic (HepG2) and neuronal (SH-SY5Y) cells. In this study, hydrogen peroxide caused significant oxidative stress in HepG2 and SH-SY5Y cells as demonstrated by glutathione depletion, impairment of total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase). Agaricusbisporous extract ameliorated the observed hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative cellular insult as indicated by restoring the activity of glutathione and the assayed antioxidant enzymes to control levels. The results suggest that mushroom extract as antioxidant properties and protects against the oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide-in cultured human hepatic and neuronal cells. PMID:24261122

  19. Hepatic transcriptomic responses to TCDD in dioxin-sensitive and dioxin-resistant rats during the onset of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes a wide range of toxic effects in rodent species, all of which are mediated by a ligand-dependent transcription-factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). The Han/Wistar (Kuopio) (H/W) strain shows exceptional resistance to many TCDD-induced toxicities; the LD50 of > 9600 μg/kg for H/W rats is higher than for any other wild-type mammal known. We previously showed that this resistance primarily results from H/W rats expressing a variant AHR isoform that has a substantial portion of the AHR transactivation domain deleted. Despite this large deletion, H/W rats are not entirely refractory to the effects of TCDD; the variant AHR in these animals remains fully competent to up-regulate well-known dioxin-inducible genes. TCDD-sensitive (Long-Evans, L-E) and resistant (H/W) rats were treated with either corn-oil (with or without feed-restriction) or 100 μg/kg TCDD for either four or ten days. Hepatic transcriptional profiling was done using microarrays, and was validated by RT-PCR analysis of 41 genes. A core set of genes was altered in both strains at all time points tested, including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, Nqo1, Aldh3a1, Tiparp, Exoc3, and Inmt. Outside this core, the strains differed significantly in the breadth of response: three-fold more genes were altered in L-E than H/W rats. At ten days almost all expressed genes were dysregulated in L-E rats, likely reflecting emerging toxic responses. Far fewer genes were affected by feed-restriction, suggesting that only a minority of the TCDD-induced changes are secondary to the wasting syndrome.

  20. Toxicity of novel anti-hepatitis drug bicyclol: A preclinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng-Tao Liu; Yan Li; Huai-Ling Wei; Hong Lu; Hui Zhang; Yu-Gui Gao; Ling-Zhi Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the toxicity of bicyclol to animals.METHODS: Acute toxicity test was performed in Kunming strain mice that were orally given bicyclol at the doses of 3 and 5 g/kg body weight, respectively. Wistar rats were orally administered bicyclol at a dose of 5 g/kg body weight. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded within 7 d. Sub-acute toxicity test was carried out in rats that were treated with various doses of bicyclol (150, 300, 600 mg/kg) once daily for 14 d.Animal behaviors, blood biochemical markers, blood and urine pictures were examined. Chronic toxicity test was conducted in 80 Wistar rats of both sexes. The animals were orally administered with various doses of bicyclol[150, 300, 600 mg/kg, 100-400 folds corresponding to for patients] once daily for 6 mo except for Sunday. The control group was given the same volume of 0.2%sodium carboxyl methylcellulose (Na-CMC). Twenty-one beagle dogs received bicyclol (25, 75, 225 mg/kg, 16.6,50, 150 folds corresponding to the proposed therapeutic dose of bicyclol for patients) once a day for 6 mo except for Sunday. The body weight, food intake, urine and feces, blood picture, blood biochemical markers, and pathological examination of main organs were determined. Mutagenicity and teratogenicity were determined. Mutagenicity assay included Ames's test, chromosome aberration test in CHL cells and micronucleus test in mice. For the teratogenicity assay, pregnant Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were treated with 0.2, 1.0 g/kg bicyclol once daily from the 7th d of gestation for 10 d.RESULTS: The oral LD50 of bicyclol was over 5 g/kg in mice and rats. No noticeable alterations in subacute and chronic toxicity of rats and dogs were demonstrated. No mutagenicity and teratogenicity of bicyclol were found.CONCLUSION: Bicyclol has no detectable chronic toxicity as well as mutagenicity and teratogenicity in animals.

  1. Activation of the Farnesoid X Receptor Provides Protection against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Florence Ying; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Quad; Chong, Hansook Kim; Zhang, Yanqiao; Liu, Yaping; Jones, Stacey A.; Osborne, Timothy F.; Edwards, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor, farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4), is known to regulate cholesterol, bile acid, lipoprotein, and glucose metabolism. In the current study, we provide evidence to support a role for FXR in hepatoprotection from acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity. Pharmacological activation of FXR induces the expression of several genes involved in phase II and phase III xenobiotic metabolism in wild-type, but not Fxr−/− mice. We used chromatin immunoprecipitation-based genome-wide resp...

  2. HEPATOPROTECTIVE AND HEPATOCURATIVE EFFECTS OF NABK HONEY IN PENICILLIN-INDUCED HEPATIC TOXICITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ateeq M. J. Alarami; Mohammed S.A.Al-Awar

    2013-01-01

    In our present research, we investigated the hepatoprotective and hepatocurative effects nabk honey in penicillin-induced hepatotoxicity. Biochemical analysis of serum was done for all groups. Hepatotoxicity was confirmed by comparing the serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total protein and albumin in penicillin-treated group with that of normal salinetreated groups. Nabk honey considerably ameliorated the toxic effects of penicillin on livers. Nabk honey showed the ability to avert the elevated ...

  3. In vitro structure-toxicity relationship of chalcones in human hepatic stellate cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zenger, Katharina

    2015-07-19

    Xanthohumol (XN), the major prenylated chalcone from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), has received much attention within the last years, due to its multiple pharmacological activities including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, pro-apoptotic, anti-bacterial and anti-adhesive effects. However, there exists a huge number of metabolites and structurally-related chalcones, which can be expected, or are already known, to exhibit various effects on cells. We have therefore analyzed the effects of XN and 18 other chalcones in a panel, consisting of multiple cell-based assays. Readouts of these assays addressed distinct aspects of cell-toxicity, like proliferation, mitochondrial health, cell cycle and other cellular features. Besides known active structural elements of chalcones, like the Michael system, we have identified several moieties that seem to have an impact on specific effects and toxicity in human liver cells in vitro. Based on these observations, we present a structure-toxicity model, which will be crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms of wanted effects and unwanted side-effects of chalcones.

  4. In vitro structure-toxicity relationship of chalcones in human hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthohumol (XN), the major prenylated chalcone from hops (Humulus lupulus L.), has received much attention within the last years, due to its multiple pharmacological activities including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, pro-apoptotic, anti-bacterial and anti-adhesive effects. However, there exists a huge number of metabolites and structurally-related chalcones, which can be expected, or are already known, to exhibit various effects on cells. We have therefore analyzed the effects of XN and 18 other chalcones in a panel, consisting of multiple cell-based assays. Readouts of these assays addressed distinct aspects of cell-toxicity, like proliferation, mitochondrial health, cell cycle and other cellular features. Besides known active structural elements of chalcones, like the Michael system, we have identified several moieties that seem to have an impact on specific effects and toxicity in human liver cells in vitro. Based on these observations, we present a structure-toxicity model, which will be crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms of wanted effects and unwanted side-effects of chalcones

  5. Hepatic Cytochrome P450 as Biomarkers of Cypermethrin Toxicity in Freshwater Teleost, Channa punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawa Bhutia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Channa punctatus was treated with sub-lethal concentration of cypermethrin (6.6 µg/L for 5, 10 and 15 days and its effect on total CYP 450 and the activity of hepatic CYP450 isoforms measured. Total CYP450 content and CYP1A mediated EROD activity was significantly induced (p<0.05 in all three treated groups compared to control whereas only 15 days treated group showed significant induction in CYP2B mediated N,Ndimethylaniline demethylase activity. CYP2E1 mediated aniline hydroxylase activity showed only a marginal increase while there was inhibition of CYP3A4 mediated erythromycin demethylase activity. Liver somatic index (LSI also showed a marginal increase in all the treated groups. Results showed differential induction of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2E1 and inhibition of CYP3A4 isoform due to cypermethrin treatment in C. punctatus. The study clearly showed CYP1A isoform as the most responsive and important biomarker for monitoring the aquatic pollution.

  6. Activity of the Respiratory Chain Enzymes of Blood Leucocytes’ Mitochondria Under the Conditions of Toxic Hepatitis Induced Against the Background Alimentary Deprivation of Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Voloshchuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Full functioning of the leucocytes’ energy supply system is one of the essential factors for the immune surveillance system effective work. The pivotal enzymes of the leucocytes’ energy biotransformation system are NADH-ubiquitin reductase, a marker of the Complex I of respiratory chain activity, and succinate dehydrogenase, key enzyme of the Complex II of respiratory chain. The aim of research – to study the NADH-ubiquitin reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the blood leucocytes’ mitochondria under the conditions of toxic hepatitis induced against the background alimentary deprivation of protein. It is shown, that under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis a reduction of the NADH-ubiquitin reductase enzymatic activity is observed on the background activation of the succinate-dependent way of the mitochondrial oxidation. Conclusion was made that alimentary deprivation or protein is a factor, aggravating the misbalance of the energy biotransformation system in the leucocytes of rats with toxic hepatitis. Established activity changes of the leucocytes’ mitochondria respiratory chain key enzymes may be considered as one of the mechanisms, directed on the maintenance of leucocytes energy supply on a level, sufficient for their functioning. Research results may be used for the biochemical rationale of the therapeutic approaches to the elimination and correction of the leucocytes’ energy metabolism disturbances consequences under the conditions of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis, aggravated by the alimentary protein deprivation.

  7. Acute toxicity of carbamazepine to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on antioxidant responses, hematological parameters and hepatic EROD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Zlabek, Vladimir; Velisek, Josef; Grabic, Roman; Machova, Jana; Kolarova, Jitka; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2011-03-01

    Awareness of residual pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment is growing as investigations into these pollutants are increasing and analytical detection techniques are improving. However, the toxicological effects of PhACs have not been adequately researched. In this study, the toxic effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), an anticonvulsant drug commonly present in surface and groundwater, was studied in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by acute semi-static bioassay. Blood parameters, liver xenobiotic-metabolizing response and tissue antioxidant status were evaluated. Compared to the control group, fish exposed to CBZ (96 h LC50) showed significantly higher Er, Hb, MCHC, monocytes, neutrophil granulocytes and plasma enzymes activity, and significantly lower MCV and lymphocytes. CF and HSI were not significantly different among groups such as hepatic EROD. SOD, CAT, GPx and GR activity was significantly higher in liver of experimental groups, but decreased significantly in brain and gill. In general, antioxidant enzyme activity in intestine and muscle was less evident than in liver. Oxidative stress indices (levels of LPO and CP) were significantly higher in gill and brain, despite a trend to increased values were manifested in the remaining tissues. In short, CBZ-induced stress responses in different tissues were reflected in the oxidant stress indices and hematological parameters. However, before those parameters are used as special biomarkers for monitoring residual pharmaceuticals in aquatic environment, more detailed experiments in laboratory need to be performed in the future. PMID:20971511

  8. Characterization of Timed Changes in Hepatic Copper Concentrations, Methionine Metabolism, Gene Expression, and Global DNA Methylation in the Jackson Toxic Milk Mouse Model of Wilson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Le

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wilson disease (WD is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA (tx-j mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal to adulthood (28 weeks. Methods: Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results: Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion: Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation.

  9. Changes in Mitochondrial Toxicity in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells During Four-Year Administration of Entecavir Monotherapy in Chinese Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Li; Liu, Xiaoyu; REN, FENG; Chen, Yu; ZHENG Sujun; Han, Yuanping; Zhao, Caiyan; Duan, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess whether long-term entecavir monotherapy induces mitochondrial toxicity in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Material/Methods This was a prospective study in 34 antiviral treatment-naïve patients with CHB who received entecavir monotherapy and were followed up for 4 years. Blood samples were collected after 0, 2, 3, and 4 years of entecavir (ETC) monotherapy (ETC0, ETC2, ETC3, and ETC4, respectively). Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contents were determin...

  10. [Activity of the sphingomyelin cycle enzymes and concentration of products of sphingomyelin degradation in the rat liver in the course of acute toxic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, V Iu; Kuz'menko, D I; Burov, P G; Sapugol'tseva, O B

    2010-01-01

    Activity of key enzymes of a sphingomyelin cycle and the maintenance of its components (sphingomyelin, ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate) have been studied in livers of rats in dynamics of the acute toxic hepatitis caused by hypodermic introduction of an oil solution of CCl4. Sphingomyelinase activity significally increased already on early terms and remained increased over the whole period of observation. Activity of ceramidase insignificantly differed from the control level. The levels of sphingomyelin and sphingosine-1-phosphate did not undergo marked changes while ceramide content significally increased. Thus, balance between liver content of ceramide (proapoptotic) and the sphingosine-1-phosphate, being the antiapoptotic factor, was shifted towards ceramide. In sphingomyelin molecules there was a significant decrease in the content of fatty acids C18: and C22:2, while in ceramide molecules and sphingosine-1-phosphate only fatty acid C22:2 changed. In spite of significant decrease in content of some unsaturated fatty acids, calculated unsaturation coefficients of the fatty acid component of the sphingomyelin cycle metabolites. Thus, our results together with literature data suggests involvement of ceramide-mediated apoptosis in the pathogenesis of acute toxic hepatitis. Elimination of damaged hepatocytes facilitates realization of repair processes and optimization of cellular community of a liver. PMID:21341516

  11. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  12. Role of tumor necrosis factor-α in the development of spontaneous hepatic toxicity in Long-Evans Cinnamon rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential role of TNF-α in the onset of acute hepatitis in the Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, an animal model for inherited copper (Cu) toxicosis. In LEC rats, Cu is accumulated in the liver with age, and clinical signs of acute hepatitis were observed as, icterus, reduced body weight, nasal bleeding, dehydration, and reduced food intake at 12 weeks of age. Cellular changes such as apoptosis in the liver were evident in these rats with increasing age. Positive TNF-α and TNFR1 immunostainings were observed in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells in LEC rats. Hepatic levels of caspase-3 activity, TNF-α mRNA, and protein were also increased in LEC rats from 6 to 12 weeks of age as compared with control Long-Evans (LE) rats. The neutralization of TNF-α by passive immunization or the inhibition of caspase activity can block the apoptotic process initiated by TNF-α. In this study, we evaluated the effects of passive immunization of LEC rats with weekly administration of anti-rat TNF-α on Cu-induced acute hepatitis. This treatment resulted in a reduction of the percentage of apoptotic cells in the liver, decreased activity of caspase-3, and also in down-regulation of the TNF-α gene expression. Thus, these results suggest a major role for TNF-α on the pathogenesis of Cu-induced acute hepatitis in LEC rats

  13. Hepatic cytochrome P450s play a major role in monocrotaline-induced renal toxicity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Jun; Li, Cheng-Gang; Gong, Li-kun; FENG, CHEN-CHEN; Li, Chun-zhu; Gao, Man; Luan, Yang; Qi, Xin-ming; Ren, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Monocrotaline (MCT) in plants of the genus Crotalaria induces significant toxicity in multiple organs including the liver, lung and kidney. Metabolic activation of MCT is required for MCT-induced toxicity. In this study, we attempted to determine whether the toxicity of MCT in kidney was a consequence of the metabolic activation of MCT in the liver. Methods: Liver-specific cytochrome P450 reductase-null (Null) mice, wild-type (WT) mice and CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole-pretreated WT (KET-...

  14. Gene expression data from acetaminophen-induced toxicity in human hepatic in vitro systems and clinical liver samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robim M. Rodrigues

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This data set is composed of transcriptomics analyses of (i liver samples from patients suffering from acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure (ALF and (ii hepatic cell systems exposed to acetaminophen and their respective controls. The in vitro systems include widely employed cell lines i.e. HepaRG and HepG2 cells as well as a novel stem cell-derived model i.e. human skin-precursors-derived hepatocyte-like cells (hSKP-HPC. Data from primary human hepatocytes was also added to the data set “Open TG-GATEs: a large-scale toxicogenomics database” (Igarashi et al., 2015 [1]. Changes in gene expression due to acetaminophen intoxication as well as comparative information between human in vivo and in vitro samples are provided. The microarray data have been deposited in NCBI׳s Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GEO: GSE74000. The provided data is used to evaluate the predictive capacity of each hepatic in vitro system and can be directly compared with large-scale publically available toxicogenomics databases. Further interpretation and discussion of these data feature in the corresponding research article “Toxicogenomics-based prediction of acetaminophen-induced liver injury using human hepatic cell systems” (Rodrigues et al., 2016 [2].

  15. Severe Aplastic Anemia following Acute Hepatitis from Toxic Liver Injury: Literature Review and Case Report of a Successful Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis associated aplastic anemia (HAAA is a rare syndrome in which severe aplastic anemia (SAA complicates the recovery of acute hepatitis (AH. HAAA is described to occur with AH caused by viral infections and also with idiopathic cases of AH and no clear etiology of liver injury. Clinically, AH can be mild to fulminant and transient to persistent and precedes the onset SAA. It is assumed that immunologic dysregulation following AH leads to the development of SAA. Several observations have been made to elucidate the immune mediated injury mechanisms, ensuing from liver injury and progressing to trigger bone marrow failure with the involvement of activated lymphocytes and severe T-cell imbalance. HAAA has a very poor outcome and often requires bone marrow transplant (BMT. The findings of immune related myeloid injury implied the use of immunosuppressive therapy (IST and led to improved survival from HAAA. We report a case of young male who presented with AH resulting from the intake of muscle building protein supplements and anabolic steroids. The liver injury slowly resolved with supportive care and after 4 months of attack of AH, he developed SAA. He was treated with IST with successful outcome without the need for a BMT.

  16. Real-time monitoring of oxygen uptake in hepatic bioreactor shows CYP450-independent mitochondrial toxicity of acetaminophen and amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prill, Sebastian; Bavli, Danny; Levy, Gahl; Ezra, Elishai; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Jaeger, Magnus S; Schwarz, Michael; Duschl, Claus; Cohen, Merav; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2016-05-01

    Prediction of drug-induced toxicity is complicated by the failure of animal models to extrapolate human response, especially during assessment of repeated dose toxicity for cosmetic or chronic drug treatments. In this work, we present a 3D microreactor capable of maintaining metabolically active HepG2/C3A spheroids for over 28 days in vitro under stable oxygen gradients mimicking the in vivo microenvironment. Mitochondrial respiration was monitored using two-frequency phase modulation of phosphorescent microprobes embedded in the tissue. Phase modulation is focus independent and unaffected by cell death or migration. This sensitive measurement of oxygen dynamics revealed important information on the drug mechanism of action and transient subthreshold effects. Specifically, exposure to antiarrhythmic agent, amiodarone, showed that both respiration and the time to onset of mitochondrial damage were dose dependent showing a TC50 of 425 μm. Analysis showed significant induction of both phospholipidosis and microvesicular steatosis during long-term exposure. Importantly, exposure to widely used analgesic, acetaminophen, caused an immediate, reversible, dose-dependent loss of oxygen uptake followed by a slow, irreversible, dose-independent death, with a TC50 of 12.3 mM. Transient loss of mitochondrial respiration was also detected below the threshold of acetaminophen toxicity. The phenomenon was repeated in HeLa cells that lack CYP2E1 and 3A4, and was blocked by preincubation with ascorbate and TMPD. These results mark the importance of tracing toxicity effects over time, suggesting a NAPQI-independent targeting of mitochondrial complex III might be responsible for acetaminophen toxicity in extrahepatic tissues. PMID:26041127

  17. An engineered non-toxic superantigen increases cross presentation of hepatitis B virus nucleocapsids by human dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie D McIntosh

    Full Text Available Virus like particles (VLPs are potent immunogens capable of priming strong protective antibody responses due to their repetitive structural arrangement and affinity for specific B cell receptors. By contrast, T cell responses to VLPs can be weak due to inefficient uptake and processing by antigen presenting cells. We report here a novel strategy for increasing the T cell reactivity of a VLP, the nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus, through covalent coupling of M1, an engineered form of the Streptococcal superantigen SMEZ2, that binds MHC II with high affinity but lacks its T cell mitogenic capability. M1:HBcAg conjugates bound to dendritic cells and were efficiently endocytosed into late endosomes. Human dendritic cells pulsed with M1:HBcAgs stimulated HBV-specific CD8(+ T cells more effectively than cells pulsed with native capsids indicating that the modified VLP was more effectively cross presented by APCs. Coupling of M1 was also able to induce significantly greater reactivity of human CD4(+ T cells specific for a common T-helper epitope. These studies indicate the potential of recombinant superantigens to act as flexible molecular adjuvants that can be incorporated into various subunit vaccine platforms leading to enhanced T cell reactivity in humans.

  18. Pretreatment Hepatoprotective Effect of the Marine Fungus Derived from Sponge on Hepatic Toxicity Induced by Heavy Metals in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehad M. Abdel-Monem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the pretreatment hepatoprotective effect of the extract of marine-derived fungus Trichurus spiralis Hasselbr (TS isolated from Hippospongia communis sponge on hepatotoxicity. Twenty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n=7. Group I served as −ve control, group II served as the induced group receiving subcutaneously for seven days 0.25 mg heavy metal mixtures, group III received (i.p. TS extract of dose 40 mg for seven days, and group IV served as the protected group pretreated with TS extract for seven days as a protection dose, and then treated with the heavy metal-mixture. The main pathological changes within the liver after heavy-metal mixtures administrations marked hepatic damage evidenced by foci of lobular necrosis with neutrophilic infiltration, adjacent to dysplastic hepatocytes. ALT and AST measurements show a significant increase in group II by 46.20% and 45.12%, respectively. Total protein, elevated by about 38.9% in induction group compared to the −ve control group, in contrast to albumin, decreased as a consequence of metal administration with significant elevation on bilirubin level. The results prove that TS extract possesses a hepatoprotective property due to its proven antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties.

  19. Toxic acute hepatitis associated to the administration of prostaglandin in a dog Hepatite tóxica aguda associada à administração de prostaglandina em cão

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo; Liliane Celita da Conceição; Luiz Henrique de Araújo Machado; Maria Lúcia Gomes Lourenço; Sabrina Almeida Moreira; Emerson Legatti; Raquel Ribeiro Gutierrez; Maria Denise Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2? can be used in dogs to increase ejaculate volume in cases of artificial insemination, semen cryopreservation or reproductive biotechnologies. Side effects after administration of PGF2? in dogs as tachycardia, tachypnea, salivation, vomiting, diarrhea and seizures are usually dose- dependent. This paper reports the occurrence of acute toxic hepatitis after the application of PGF2? in a dog, and discusses the importance of using this drug with caution in dogs.A prostaglandina ...

  20. In vitro and in ovo effects of four brominated flame retardants on toxicity and hepatic mRNA expression in chicken embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egloff, Caroline; Crump, Doug; Chiu, Suzanne; Manning, Gillian; McLaren, Kristina K; Cassone, Cristina G; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Kennedy, Sean W

    2011-11-10

    Some currently used brominated flame retardants (BFRs), such as hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-dibromocyclooctane (HCDBCO), bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), are persistent organic contaminants detected in various environmental matrices, including wild birds. Data on potential toxicological and molecular responses to exposure of these BFRs are lacking for avian species. A combined in vitro/in ovo approach was used to determine the concentration-dependent effects of these BFRs on overt toxicity and hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 11 transcripts in (1) primary cultures of chicken embryonic hepatocytes (CEH; all four BFRs) and (2) chicken embryos (HCDBCO and BTBPE only). Neither hepatocyte viability nor embryonic pipping success were affected by the BFRs at any of the administered concentrations (CEH: 0.001-30 μM, egg injection: 0.1-10 μg/g nominal dose). In CEH, 10 μM HCDBCO induced cytochrome P450 2H1 (CYP2H1) and CYP3A37, while CYP1A4/5 were down-regulated at all tested concentrations. In contrast, only transthyretin was down-regulated by HCDBCO in embryonic liver. There was concordance between the BTBPE-induced transcriptional responses in vitro and in ovo for CYP1A4/5 (up-regulated) and type III iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (DIO3; down-regulated). DBDPE induced CYP1A4/5 29- and 59-fold at 0.2 μM in CEH and increased DIO1. None of the gene targets were responsive to BEHTBP exposure in CEH. The multi-tiered in vitro/in ovo screening approach was effective for assessing toxicological and molecular biological effects of these BFRs in an avian species. PMID:21893176

  1. Hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α may have an important role in the toxic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on offspring of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is associated with adverse effects on offspring, and the metabolites are agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, which exhibits species differences in expression and function. This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of DEHP-induced adverse effects on offspring in relation to maternal mouse and human PPARα. Male and female Sv/129 wild-type (mPPARα), Pparα-null and humanized PPARα (hPPARα) mice were treated with diets containing 0%, 0.01%, 0.05% (medium) or 0.1% (high) DEHP. After 4 weeks, males and females were mated. Dams were killed on gestational day 18 and postnatal day (PND) 2. High-dose DEHP decreased the number of total and live fetuses, and increased resorptions in mPPARα mice. In hPPARα mice, resorptions were increased above the medium dose, and the number of births was decreased at the high dose. The number of live pups on PND2 was decreased over the medium dose in mPPARα and at the high dose in hPPARα mice. No such findings were observed in Pparα-null mice. High-dose DEHP decreased plasma triglyceride in pregnant mPPARα mice, but not in Pparα-null and hPPARα ones. Above the medium dose in mPPARα mice significantly reduced hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) expression. Medium- and/or high-dose DEHP increased the levels of maternal PPARα target genes in mPPARα and hPPARα mice. Taken together, PPARα expression is required for the toxicity of DEHP in fetuses and pups and altered plasma triglyceride levels, through regulation of MTP may be important in mPPARα mice and not in hPPARα mice.

  2. Detection and characterization of the hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Doorn, Leendert-Jan

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe term hepatitis literally means 'inflammation of the liver', Hepatitis can be caused by toxic substances. metabolic disorders or viral infections. Most clinical hepatitis cases have a viral etiology. Viral hepatitis appears to be an ancient disease (Deinhardt, 1991) and has been recognized as infectious since centuries. Evaluation of hepatitis outbreaks led to the hypothesis that more than one type of viral hepatitis existed. Initially, two different forms of viral infectious a...

  3. Methimazole Induced Cholestatic Hepatitis: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bunyamin Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a very common endocrine disease. MMI-induced cholestatic hepatitis is a rare complication. Cholestatic hepatitis usually recovers completely with the discontinuation of MMI. In this case report, we report a cholestatic hepatitis case which was induced with methimazole in a patient who used methimazole with toxic multinodular goiter diagnosis and was completely recovered with discontinuation of the drug.

  4. Toksisk hepatitis efter indtagelse af kosttilskuddet purshianabark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claire; Semb, Synne; Kromann-Andersen, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Herbal medicinal products can cause toxic hepatitis. This case report presents a patient who developed severe toxic hepatitis with beginning liver failure following four weeks of consumption of the herbal medicinal product Cascara Sagrada. A similar case was reported from the United States. Cascara...

  5. 比较饮食摄取l-卡尼汀和dl-卡尼汀对氨中毒和肝代谢的作用%Comparative effects of diet supplementation with l-carnitine and dl-carnitine on ammonia toxicity and hepatic metabolism in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vilma A F G GAZOLA; Rose M M DIAS; Gisele LOPES; Rui CURI; Roberto B BAZOTTE

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of chronic supplementation with l-camitine (LCT) and dl-carnitine (DLC) on am monia toxicity and hepatic metabolism. METHODS: Three groups of male adult rats were studied: 1) supple mented with LCT ( 1.2 mmol· kg- 1 · d- 1 ), 2 ) supple mented with DLC ( 1.2 mmol· kg- 1· d- 1 ), and 3) con trol group (COG) not supplemented. RESULTS: The treatment with LCT decreased the toxicity to ammonia. However, the supplementation with DLC did not show any significant effect. In contrast, the effects of the supplementation with LCT and DLC on hepatic metabolism were quite similar, ie, both groups showed: (a) intensified ammonia uptake and decreased urea pro duction from ammonia; (b) increased glucose and urea production from L-glutamine (5 mmol/L). CONCLU SION: The results suggested that LCT supplementation might protect against ammonia toxicity by extra-hepatic mechanisms.

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy Associated With Cancer or Anticancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Willson, Kaspar J.; Nott, Louise M.; Broadbridge, Vy T.; Price, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is an uncommon cause of neurologic deterioration associated with hyperammonemia, which results from hepatic dysfunction or altered ammonia metabolism. Often overlooked, hyperammonemia may occur via any of several pathophysiological processes, and in the setting of malignancy, it is a potentially reversible cause of confusion and coma. Hepatic dysfunction as a result of malignant infiltration, chemotherapeutic toxicities, targeted anticancer therapies, reactivation hepat...

  7. Detection and characterization of the hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-J. van Doorn (Leendert-Jan)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe term hepatitis literally means 'inflammation of the liver', Hepatitis can be caused by toxic substances. metabolic disorders or viral infections. Most clinical hepatitis cases have a viral etiology. Viral hepatitis appears to be an ancient disease (Deinhardt, 1991) and has been recog

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  9. Treating hepatitis C - what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alex J; Holmes, Jacinta A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C infection causes cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, and is the most common indication for liver transplantation. Hepatitis C is curable and complications can be prevented. Until recently, treatment regimens involved peginterferon alfa. Although effective, their widespread use is limited by treatment-related toxicity. A number of direct-acting drugs for hepatitis C, such as sofosbuvir, have recently been developed and target multiple steps in the viral life cycle. These drugs are used in combination in interferon-free regimens. Short courses are highly effective with minimal toxicity. PMID:26843711

  10. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Si-Yuan Pan; Zhi-Ling Yu; Hang Dong; Chun-Jing Xiang; Wang-Fun Fong; Kam-Ming Ko

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significant...

  11. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed? A health care provider will make a diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis based on symptoms, a physical exam, blood tests, ... 2. A health care provider will make a diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis based on symptoms, a physical exam, blood tests, ...

  12. Hepatic ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen, causing injury to ... pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. Such conditions may include: Abnormal heart rhythms Dehydration ...

  13. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis viruses B and C can cause both acute and chronic infections. Chronic hepatitis B and C are serious health problems. They can lead to: Cirrhosis (suh-ROH-suhs) Liver failure Liver cancer Return to top How is viral ...

  14. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  15. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  16. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  17. Hepatic encephalopathy: clinical and experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Rijt, Carin

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is still unsolved. Therapy, therefore, is often insufficient. For the development of effective, new therapies insight into the disease-inducing substrates and the mechanisms of its toxic actions in the central nervous system ·are required. For both studies on pathogenesis and therapy of hepatic encephalopathy, methods for the quantitation of its severity are needed. For the measurement of hepatic encephalopathy clinical grading, conventio...

  18. Evaluation of the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the pulmonary and the hepatic toxicity induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation in male Sprague-Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalabotu, Siva Krishna

    The field of nanotechnology is rapidly progressing with potential applications in the automobile, healthcare, electronics, cosmetics, textiles, information technology, and environmental sectors. Nanomaterials are engineered structures with at least one dimension of 100 nanometers or less. With increased applications of nanotechnology, there are increased chances of exposure to manufactured nanomaterials. Recent reports on the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials have given scientific and regulatory agencies concerns over the safety of nanomaterials. Specifically, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has identified fourteen high priority nanomaterials for study. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles are one among the high priority group. Recent data suggest that CeO2 nanoparticles may be toxic to lung cell lines in vitro and lung tissues in vivo. Other work has proposed that oxidative stress may play an important role in the toxicity; however, the exact mechanism of the toxicity, has to our knowledge, not been investigated. Similarly, it is not clear whether CeO2 nanoparticles exhibit systemic toxicity. Here, we investigate whether pulmonary exposure to CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in the lungs and liver of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Our data suggest that the intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles can cause an increased lung weight to body weight ratio. Changes in lung weights were associated with the accumulation of cerium in the lungs, elevations in serum inflammatory markers, an increased Bax to Bcl-2 ratio, elevated caspase-3 protein levels, increased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and diminished phosphorylation of ERK1/2-MAPK. Our findings from the study evaluating the possible translocation of CeO2 nanoparticles from the lungs to the liver suggest that CeO 2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase

  19. Fialuridine induces acute liver failure in chimeric TK-NOG mice: a model for detecting hepatic drug toxicity prior to human testing.

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Xu; Toshi Nishimura; Sachiko Nishimura; Haili Zhang; Ming Zheng; Ying-Ying Guo; Marylin Masek; Michie, Sara A.; Jeffrey Glenn; Gary Peltz

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Before new drugs are approved for clinical use, they undergo extensive preclinical (laboratory-based) and clinical testing. In the preclinical studies, scientists investigate the causes of diseases, identify potential new drugs, and test promising drug candidates in animals. Animal testing is performed to determine whether the new drug is likely to work, and to screen for drug-induced toxicity. In preclinical toxicology studies, new drugs are given to two or more a...

  20. Developmental toxicity of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zebrafish is differentially dependent on AH receptor isoforms and hepatic cytochrome P4501A metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from fossil fuels are ubiquitous contaminants and occur in aquatic habitats as highly variable and complex mixtures of compounds containing 2 to 6 rings. For aquatic species, PAHs are generally accepted as acting through either of two modes of action: (1) 'dioxin-like' toxicity mediated by activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), which controls a battery of genes involved in PAH metabolism, such as cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and (2) 'nonpolar narcosis', in which tissue uptake is dependent solely on hydrophobicity and toxicity is mediated through non-specific partitioning into lipid bilayers. As part of a systematic analysis of mechanisms of PAH developmental toxicity in zebrafish, we show here that three tetracyclic PAHs (pyrene, chrysene, and benz[a]anthracene) activate the AHR pathway tissue-specifically to induce distinct patterns of CYP1A expression. Using morpholino knockdown of ahr1a, ahr2, and cyp1a, we show that distinct embryolarval syndromes induced by exposure to two of these compounds are differentially dependent on tissue-specific activation of AHR isoforms or metabolism by CYP1A. Exposure of embryos with and without circulation (silent heart morphants) resulted in dramatically different patterns of CYP1A induction, with circulation required to deliver some compounds to internal tissues. Therefore, biological effects of PAHs cannot be predicted simply by quantitative measures of AHR activity or a compound's hydrophobicity. These results indicate that current models of PAH toxicity in fish are greatly oversimplified and that individual PAHs are pharmacologically active compounds with distinct and specific cellular targets

  1. Vinyl chloride-induced hepatic coproporphyrinuria with transition to chronic hepatic porphyria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doss, M.; Lange, C.E.; Veltman, G.

    1984-02-15

    A chronic hepatic disorder of porphyrin metabolism was found in 36 workers with vinyl chloride (VC)-induced hepatic injury following long-time industrial exposure. Pathologic porphyrinuria, especially secondary coproporphyrinuria with transition to subclinical chronic hepatic porphyria, is a consistent pathobiochemical parameter for the recognition of VC hepatic lesions. The porphyrinuria is of diagnostic value for the incipient toxic phase. Erythrocyte uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity studied in six cases with initial chronic hepatic porphyria was normal, suggesting that VC affects only this enzyme in the liver.

  2. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  3. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  4. Defensive nature of Sargassum polycystum (Brown alga)against acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis in rats: Role of drug metabolizing microsomal enzyme system, tumor necrosis factor-α and fate of liver cell structural integrity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H Balaji raghavendran; A Sathivel; T Devaki

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the defensive nature of Sargassum polycystum (S. Polycystum) (Brown alga) against acetaminophen (AAP)-induced changes in drug metabolizing microsomal enzyme system, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α)and fine structural features of the liver during toxic hepatitis in rats.METHODS: Male albino Wistar strain rats used for the study were randomly categorized into 4 groups. Group Ⅰ consisted of normal control rats fed with standard diet.Group Ⅱ rats were administered with acetaminophen (800 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). Group Ⅲ rats were pre-treated with S. Polycystum extract alone.Group Ⅳ rats were orally pre-treated with S. Polycystum extract (200 mg/kg body weight for 21 d) prior to acetaminophen induction (800 mg/kg body weight,intraperitoneally). Serum separated and liver was excised and microsomal fraction was isolated for assaying cytochrome P450, NADPH Cyt P450 reductase and b5.Serum TNF-α was detected using ELISA. Fine structural features of liver were examined by transmission electron microscopy.RESULTS: Rats intoxicated with acetaminophen showed considerable impairment in the activities of drug metabolizing microsomal enzymes, such as cytochrome P450, NADPH Cyt P450 reductase and b5 when compared with the control rats. The rats intoxicated with acetaminophen also significantly triggered serum TNF-α when compared with the control rats. These severe alterations in the drug metabolizing enzymes were appreciably prevented in the rats pretreated with S. Polycystum. The rats pretreated with S. Polycystum showed considerable inhibition in the elevation of TNF-α compared to the rats intoxicated with acetaminophen. The electron microscopic observation showed considerable loss of structural integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum, lipid infiltration and ballooning of mitochondria in the acetaminophen-intoxicated rats,whereas the rats treated with S. Polycystum showed considerable protection against acetaminophen-induced alterations in

  5. Liver Toxicity of Current Antiretroviral Regimens in HIV-Infected Patients with Chronic Viral Hepatitis in a Real-Life Setting: The HEPAVIR SEG-HEP Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukam, Karin; Mira, José A.; Collado, Antonio; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Monje-Agudo, Patricia; Ruiz-Morales, Josefa; Ríos, María José; Merino, Dolores; Téllez, Francisco; Pérez-Camacho, Inés; Gálvez-Contreras, María Carmen; Rivero, Antonio; Pineda, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the current frequency of ART-associated grade 3–4 transaminase elevations (TE) and grade 4 total bilirubin elevations (TBE) in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis B and/or C, who start a new regimen of ART. Patients and Methods A total of 192 pre-treated or treatment-naive HIV infected patients with HBV and/or HCV-coinfection who started ART in eight Southern Spanish centers from July/2011-December/2013, were followed for 12 months in this prospective study. Results Forty-one (21.4%) subjects had been naïve to ART, median (IQR) follow-up was 11.6 (5.6–12.9) months. The most frequently initiated NRTI were tenofovir/emtricitabine [49 patients (25.5%)]. Eighty-nine (46.4%) patients started a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor and 77 (40.1%) individuals a NNRTI. Raltegravir and maraviroc were initiated in 24 (12.5%) and 9 (4.7%) individuals. Ten [5.21%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.53%-9.37%] patients presented grade 3 TE, while 8 (4.17%; 95%CI: 1.82%-8.04%) subjects showed grade 4 TBE. No episodes of grade 4 TE or ART discontinuation due to hepatotoxic events were observed. The use of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir was the only independent predictor for grade 4 TBE [adjusted odds ratio: 7.327 (95%CI: 1.417–37.89); p = 0.018] in an analysis adjusted for age, sex and baseline HIV-RNA levels, while no factor could be independently associated with grade 3–4 TE. Conclusions Currently, the frequency of severe ART-associated TE and TBE under real-life conditions in patients with chronic viral hepatitis is similar to what has been reported previously. However, episodes of grade 4 TE are less frequent and severe TE appears to be of lesser concern. PMID:26848975

  6. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  7. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  8. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerix-B® ... a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus.In ...

  9. Toxic acute hepatitis associated to the administration of prostaglandin in a dog Hepatite tóxica aguda associada à administração de prostaglandina em cão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Isa Poci Palumbo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandin F2? can be used in dogs to increase ejaculate volume in cases of artificial insemination, semen cryopreservation or reproductive biotechnologies. Side effects after administration of PGF2? in dogs as tachycardia, tachypnea, salivation, vomiting, diarrhea and seizures are usually dose- dependent. This paper reports the occurrence of acute toxic hepatitis after the application of PGF2? in a dog, and discusses the importance of using this drug with caution in dogs.A prostaglandina F2? pode ser usada em caes para aumentar o volume do ejaculado em casos de inseminação artificial, criopreservação seminal ou biotecnologias de reprodução. Os efeitos colaterais após a administração da PGF2a, como taquicardia, salivação, emese, diarréia e convulsões geralmente são relacionadas com a dose utilizada. Esse trabalho objetiva relatar a ocorrência de hepatite tóxica aguda após a administração de PGF2a em um cão, e discutir a importância de se utilizar essa droga com cautela nessa espécie.

  10. AFLATOXINAS: MECANISMOS DE TOXICIDAD EN LA ETIOLOGÍA DE CÁNCER HEPÁTICO CELULAR Aflatoxins and its mechanisms of toxicity in hepatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Urrego Novoa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La aflatoxina B1 (AFB1, producida por algunos hongos del género Aspergillus, está entre los más potentes carcinógenos conocidos. Su acción carcinogénica se basa en la biotransformación por el sistema hepático microsomal P450 a AFB1-8,9-epóxido, un intermediario altamente reactivo capaz de unirse a las proteínas, a los ácidos ribonucleico y desoxirribonucleico; formando un compuesto estable con el N7 de los residuos guanil que puede causar mutaciones en el codón 249 del gen p53 supresor de tumores. Esta alteración es característica de varios carcinomas, especialmente del carcinoma hepático en el hombre. La AFB1-8,9-epóxido forma uniones covalentes (aductos con los residuos de guanina del ADN, que se excretan por vía urinaria y pueden utilizarse como biomarcadores de exposición en los grupos a riesgo de cáncer del hígado. Dado que las aflatoxinas son frecuentes en los granos de consumo humano, los países tropicales como Colombia, requieren estudios para determinar su presencia en alimentos de consumo humano y la de sus biomarcadores. Esta información podía ayudar a generar normatividades que permitan delinear políticas de salud pública para un adecuado control de estos carcinógenos.Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is produced by some fungus of the Aspergillus genus and it is one of the most potent known carcinogens. Action mechanisms, involves its biotransformation by the hepatic microsomal system P450 to AFB1-8, 9-epoxide. This epoxide is very reactive and electrophilic and may react with intracellular proteins, RNA or DNA. When the epoxide reacts with nucleic acids it forms an stable adduct with the N7 of the guanine residues and may induce mutations at codon 249 of the tumor suppressor gene p53. This alteration is characteristic of several carcinomas, particularly human liver carcinoma. The AFB1-8, 9-epoxide forms covalent bonds (adducts with guanil residues in DNA; these adducts are excreted in the urine and can be used as

  11. Clinical Study of Dahuang Zhechong Pill (大黄Zhe虫丸) in Treating Posthepatitis B Hepatic Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝银; 李恩庆; 杨钦河; 章群; 孙立; 徐云生; 沈强

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is the only way for all kinds of chronic hepatic diseases to develop into liver cirrhosis. How to block and reverse hepatic fibrosis is the key issue for treatment of all kinds of chronic hepatic disease. After many years arduous effort in treating hepatic fibrosis, no satisfactory results in western medical treatment have been obtained. Though hepatic fibrosis could be definitely reversed by colchicines, the strong toxicity of colchicines limited its clinical application.

  12. Delta Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Gunsar

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires HBsAg for replication and transmission. It can cause acute or chronic hepatitis. Chronic infection with HDV is one of the most severe and difficult to treat forms of viral hepatitis. It has been estimated that there is a total of 15-20 million HDV carriers in the world. This review focuses on two fundamental aspects of HDV infection. On the one hand, epidemiological data are summarized, which are essential to understand the re...

  13. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  14. Hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild and include: Breath with a musty or sweet odor Change in sleep patterns Changes in thinking ... 24411831 . Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopumonary syndrome, and systemic complications of liver disease. ...

  15. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? ... portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with ...

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  18. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Indian subcontinent) Reside or work in a prison or correctional facility People with end-stage renal ... to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  20. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2016 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  2. Toxicity effect of two articular cartilage substitute materials on hepatic and renal function in rabbits%两种不同关节软骨替代材料对兔肝肾功能毒性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙淑建; 赵建宁; 王瑞; 熊党生; 郭亭

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytotoxicity, sensitization, stimulation and local reaction tests are demonstrated that nano-hydroxyapatite and Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hydrogels (n-HA/PVA) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) blended (PVA/PVP) have favorable biocompatibility and safety. However, the effects of n-HA/PVA and PVA/PVP on hepatic and renal function are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To assess the toxicity of n-HA/PVA and PVA/PVP on hepatic and renal function after implanted into bone tissues of rabbits. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Blood biochemical index observation, and randomized control experiment. The experiment was performed at the Department of comparative medicine, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, from November 2008 to March 2009. MATERIALS: The n-HA/PVA and PVA/PVP were supplied by Xiong Dang-sheng, a professor of institute of biological materials, Nanjing University of Science and Technology. METHODS: A total of 30 New Zealand white rabbits with clean grade, were randomly divided into 3 groups, with 10 animals in each group. In the n-HA/PVA group and PVA-PVP group, two materials were implanted to repair cartilage defects. There was no material implantation in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes of hepatic and renal function were compared at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12 after operation. RESULTS: The differences of hepatic and renal function were had no significance among three groups prior to implantation (P_(all) > 0.05). After implantation, the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, globulin, urea nitrogen and creatinine had no obvious changes compared to prior to implantation (P_(all) > 0.05). Moreover, there was no significantly difference among three groups after implantation (P_(all) > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Two different alternative materials have no effects on rabbit hepatic and renal function.%背景:目前已对纳米羟基磷灰石/聚乙烯醇水凝胶及聚乙烯醇/吡咯脘酮水凝

  3. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  4. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis ... samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. Antibody and antigen tests ...

  5. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also the most common type in jails and prisons. What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a ... risk for Hepatitis C because many people in jails or prisons already have Hepatitis C. • The most ...

  6. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  7. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis A FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  8. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Liver Guard Your Liver Protect Yourself From Hepatitis Hepatitis can make you feel as if you have ... viruses that attack your lungs and respiratory system; hepatitis is a liver disease. Some forms of hepatitis ...

  9. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  10. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  11. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... Stomach ache Nausea Diarrhea No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  12. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  13. Hepatic autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1......-phosphate --> glucose 6-phosphate --> glucose. Healthy men (n = 7) were fasted for 44 h. At 40 h, hepatic glycogen stores were depleted. GNG then contributed approximately 90% to a GP of approximately 8 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). Galactose, 9 g/h, was infused over the next 4 h. The contribution of GNG to GP.......5 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) and then returned to approximately 9 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1), while plasma glucose concentration increased from approximately 4.5 to 5.3 mM, accompanied by a rise in plasma insulin concentration. Over 50% of the galactose infused was accounted for in blood glucose and hepatic...

  14. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PA Berry; G Smith-Laing

    2007-01-01

    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness,experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4). Anti-nuclear antibodies were detectable, and liver biopsy was compatible with autoimmune hepatitis. The observation supports the role of HAV as a trigger of autoimmune hepatitis. Studies in helper T-cell activity and antibody expression against hepatic proteins in the context of hepatitis A infection are summarized, and the concept of molecular mimicry with regard to other forms of viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is briefly explored.

  15. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, PA; Smith-Laing, G

    2007-01-01

    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness, experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4...

  16. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology); Jupp, P.G.; Joubert, J.J.; Taylor, M.B.; Grabow, W.O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  17. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 ((90)Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This form of brachytherapy utilizes the unique dual vascular anatomy of the liver to preferentially deliver radioactive particles via the hepatic artery to tumor, sparing normal liver parenchyma. The main treatment inclusion criteria are patients with solid tumors, compensated liver functions, life expectancy of at least three months, and ECOG performance status 0-2. Benefit of RE has been proven in patients that have low-to-moderate extrahepatic disease burden, prior liver radiotherapy, heavy prior chemotherapy and biologic agent exposure, and history of hepatic surgery or ablation. Most of the clinical evidence is reported in metastatic colorectal, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET), and primary hepatocellular cancer. A growing body of data supports the use of RE in hepatic metastatic breast cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarinoma, and many other metastatic tumor types. Side effects are typically mild constitutional and GI issues limited to the first 7-14 days post treatment, with only 6% grade 3 toxicity reported in large series. Potentially serious or fatal radiation induced liver disease is extremely rare, reported in only 1% or fewer in major series of both metastatic and primary tumors treated with RE. Currently, high priority prospective clinical trials are testing RE combined with chemotherapy in first line therapy for colorectal hepatic metastases, and combined with sorafenib for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Fortunately, this beneficial and now widely available therapy

  18. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jérémie; Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Sobesky, Rodolphe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis and is an important therapeutic challenge, with a social and economic issue. If, now, the pathophysiology is not totally understood (main role of ammonia, but a better understanding of cerebral mechanisms), the clinical presentation is well-known. Some treatments are useful (disaccharides, treatment of the trigger) but their efficiency is limited. Nevertheless, the emergence of new treatments, such as non-absorbable antibiotics (rifaximin essentially), is an interesting therapeutic tool. PMID:26597584

  19. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  20. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) infections. Back to top Living With Hepatitis C In past years, many individuals learned that they have HCV from a blood test during a routine physical or because they attempted ...

  1. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available to protect against hepatitis A infection. Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all children older than age ... Saunders; 2016:chap 148. Sjogren MH, Bassett JT. Hepatitis A. In: ... Practices (ACIP); ACIP Child/Adolescent Immunization Work Group. ...

  2. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  3. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  4. Hepatitis C FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... URL - Redirecting ... Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & ...

  5. Hepatitis B FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... date URL - redirecting ... Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance ...

  6. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis B Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis ...

  7. Chemotherapy in patients with hepatic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxicity of chemotherapy in the liver may manifest as hepatocyte dysfunction with chemical hepatitis, veno-occlusive disease or chronic fibrosis. The hepatocyte dysfunction is caused by direct effect of the drug or its metabolites evidencing by increased bilirubin and liver enzymes (Sgot, SGPT). Prolonged effect leads to cholestasis and fatty infiltration. This dysfunction is concomitant enhanced by viral infection, liver metastases and other drugs as antiemetics. The vast majority of the indicated drugs in a cancer patient, cytostatics, antiemetics, analgésios, anticonvulsants, etc, are metabolized in the liver. The evidence of abnormal hepatocyte function in a patient in which involves chemotherapy raises the need for dose modification indicated and / or discontinuation. The aim of this paper is to review existing information on the use of cytostatics in cancer patients with hepatic impairment, classifying drugs according to their potential hepato toxicity and recommended dose modification in patients with hepatic dysfunction

  8. Hepatic encephalopathy: clinical and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.D. van der Rijt (Carin)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThe pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is still unsolved. Therapy, therefore, is often insufficient. For the development of effective, new therapies insight into the disease-inducing substrates and the mechanisms of its toxic actions in the central nervous system ·are required. For b

  9. Etiological role of brucellosis in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colakoglu Onder; Taskiran Bengur; Adnan Kirci; Tunakan Mine; Buyrac Zafer; Unsal Belkis; Aksoz Kadir; Yorukoglu Gazi

    2005-01-01

    To show that brucellosis may trigger autoimmune hepatitis(AIH), in addition to nonspecific liver involvement and toxic hepatitis, due to a class effect of tetracycline family used for treatment. We present a female patient admitted to our hospital due to partially improved fatigue and elevated liver enzymes following doxycycline and streptomycin usage for brucellosis. Brucellosis is endemic in our country, Turkey. It may involve any organ in the body. Liver is frequently involved. Doxycycline used for treatment occasionally may lead to hepatotoxicity. AIH is a necroinflammatory disease of the liver. Certain drugs (e.g. Minocycline), toxins, and viruses (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, EBV, etc.) can trigger AIH. Only one case of AIH probably caused by doxycycline and brucellosis was reported. We discuss the relationship between brucellosis, AIH, and hepatotoxicity of doxycycline. Brucellosis may trigger AIH.

  10. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A Text Size What's ... There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  11. Fulminant hepatic failure in children: Etiology, histopathology and MDCT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Banu [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: banutopcu@yahoo.com; Kirbas, Ismail [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: drismailk@yahoo.com; Demirhan, Beyhan [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pathology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: beyhand@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Tarhan, Nefise Cagla [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: caglat@gmail.com; Bozkurt, Alper [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: abozkurt78@hotmail.com; Ozcay, Figen [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: fozcay@baskent.edu.tr; Coskun, Mehmet [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cd. 10, Sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: mcoskun@baskent-ank.edu.tr

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to determine the etiologies, histopathology and MDCT findings of children with fulminant hepatic failure admitted to our institution. Materials and methods: Between June 2004 and November 2006, 15 children with fulminant hepatic failure who underwent MDCT were included retrospectively in this study. Twelve patients had liver biopsies. The patients were divided into three groups as hyperacute (Group I), acute (Group II) and subacute (Group III) depending on onset of hepatic encephalopathy. Results: Hepatitis A in 4 patients, non-A, non-E hepatitis in 4; mushroom poisoning in 3; fulminant Wilson's disease in 2; autoimmune hepatitis in 1; and both hepatitis B and toxic hepatitis (with leflunomide treatment) in 1 patient were detected. MDCT of all three groups revealed diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation in 11 patients; ascites in 9; periportal edema in 6; edema of gallbladder wall in 6; splenomegaly in 6; heterogeneous hepatic parenchyma in 6; hepatomegaly in 3; irregular contours of liver in 2; multiple micronodules in 1 and necrotic areas and regeneration in liver parenchyma in 2 patients. Histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsies showed massive hepatic necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and ductular proliferation in 8 patients, periportal edema in 6, edema of gallbladder wall in 5, regenerating nodules and fibrous septa consistent with cirrhotic pattern in 2, and regenerating nodules and necrotic areas in 2 patients. Conclusion: The most common MDCT findings in fulminant hepatic failure were diffuse reduction in hepatic attenuation and ascites. Massive hepatic necrosis was the most common histopathologic finding.

  12. Toxic action/toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathway, D E

    2000-02-01

    Some six or so physiological systems, essential to normal mammalian life, are involved in poisoning; an intoxication that causes severe injury to any one of them could be life threatening. Reversible chemical reactions showing Scatchard-type binding are exemplified by CO, CN- and cyclodiene neurotoxin insecticide intoxications, and by antigen-antibody complex formation. Haemoglobin (Hb) molecular biology accounts for the allosteric co-operativity and other characteristics of CO poisoning, CN- acts as a powerful cytochrome oxidase inhibitor, and antigen binding in a deep antibody cleft between two domains equipped with epitopes for antigen-binding groups explains hapten-specific immune reactions. Covalent chemical reactions with second-order (SN2) kinetics characterize Hg and Cd poisonings, the reactions of organophosphates and phosphonates with acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase and the reaction sequence whereby Paraquat accepts electrons and generates superoxide under aerobic conditions. Indirect carcinogens require cytochrome P450 activation to form DNA adducts in target-organ DNA and cause cancer, but a battery of detoxifying enzymes clustered with the P450 system must be overcome. Thus, S-metabolism competes ineffectively with target DNA for reactive vinyl chloride (VC) metabolites, epoxide hydrolase is important to the metabolism and carcinogenicity of alfatoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, etc.), and the non-toxic 2-naphthylhydroxylamine N-glucuronide acts as a transport form in 2-naphthylamine bladder cancer. VC liver-cancer pathogenesis is explicable in terms of the presence of the glutathione S-transferase detoxifying system in hepatocytes and its absence from the fibroblastic elements, and of the VC concentrations reaching the liver by different administrative routes. In VC carcinogenicity, chemical reactions give imidazo-cyclization products with nucleoside residues of target DNA, and in benzene leukaemia, Z

  13. Chronic Copper Toxicity in a Dairy Cow

    OpenAIRE

    Blakley, B R; Berezowski, J. A.; Schiefer, H B; Armstrong, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A three year old Holstein dairy cow fed a ration containing a copper supplement died of chronic copper poisoning. The concentration of copper in the liver was 331 ppm (wet weight). The typical lesions of chronic copper toxicity including icterus, hepatic fibrosis and hemoglobinemic nephrosis were found at necropsy. The chronic copper toxicity was not considered to be a herd problem since the liver copper concentration in a slaughtered cull animal and blood samples taken from five animals in t...

  14. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  15. Hepatic complications of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Idilman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic complications of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation contribute substantially to the overall success of the procedure and represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early hepatic complications consist of the sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, drug toxicities, infections, and acute graft-versus-host disease, while late hepatic complications consist of chronic graft-versus host disease, chronic viral hepatitis, and iron overload states. Successful management of the hepatic complications of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is dependent on several factors. These include the recognition and elimination of any pre-transplant risk factors for these problems and the development of strategies to evaluate and prevent them in both the early and later post-transplant periods. The aims of the present review are 1 to identify the early and late hepatic complications of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, in the chronological order in which they occur, 2 to characterize the diagnostic procedures used to identify them, and finally 3 to present the current therapeutic approaches used to manage these problems.

  16. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  17. Hepatitis B Blood Tests: FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  18. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  19. Introducing Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Bellinger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With this inaugural issue, Toxics begins its life as a peer-reviewed, open access journal focusing on all aspects of toxic chemicals. We are interested in publishing papers that present a wide range of perspectives on toxicants and naturally occurring toxins, including exposure, biomarkers, kinetics, biological effects, fate and transport, treatment, and remediation. Toxics differs from many other journals in the absence of a page or word limit on contributions, permitting authors to present their work in as much detail as they wish. Toxics will publish original research papers, conventional reviews, meta-analyses, short communications, theoretical papers, case reports, commentaries and policy perspectives, and book reviews (Book reviews will be solicited and should not be submitted without invitation. Toxins and toxicants concern individuals from a wide range of disciplines, and Toxics is interested in receiving papers that represent the full range of approaches applied to their study, including in vitro studies, studies that use experimental animal or non-animal models, studies of humans or other biological populations, and mathematical modeling. We are excited to get underway and look forward to working with authors in the scientific and medical communities and providing them with a novel venue for sharing their work. [...

  20. Infantile hepatic haemangioendothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiographic abnormalities in infantile hepatic haemangioendothelioma are analysed on the basis of previous reports and on 3 new cases. It is emphasized that the high specificity of angiography of the hepatic artery should make other diagnostic procedures unnecessary. (Auth.)

  1. Hepatitis Foundation International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partner – it's your best friend. Welcome. The Hepatitis Foundation International (HFI) is a 501 (c) 3 non- ... and cures is your participation in the Hepatitis Foundation International Registry. Whether you are affected, a caregiver, ...

  2. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help diagnose viral infections (such as hepatitis or mononucleosis) or to monitor medications that can cause liver- ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) ...

  3. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  4. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  5. Hepatic scintigraphy for leptospirosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with leptospirosis were investigated. Hepatic scintigraphy showed abnormal radiocolloidal distribution, with non-homogeneous concentration in all of them, and minimum to moderate splenic uptake. Hepatic scintigraphy is proved to be a good function test of the hepatic defeat system

  6. Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Antikchi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF is a rare disease that primarily involves hepatobiliary and renal systems. It is characterized by hepatic fibrosis, portal hypertension and renal cystic disease. We present a 22 years old man with fever, abdominal pain, icterus and hematemesis. On complete work up of the patient and liver with kidney biopsy, the diagnosis was congenital hepatic fibrosis.

  7. Beryllium Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: May 23, 2008 Page ...

  8. Antimony Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically.

  9. Effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on hepatic function in the duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, J.F.; Dieter, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    1. The indocyanine green dye clearance test for hepatic function was determined in mallard ducks before and during the chronic ingestion (7 months) of representative paraffinic or aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (PH). 2. No mortality or visible symptoms of toxicity occured in any of the tests. Ingestion of 4000 ppm aromatic PH produced significant increases in liver (25%), plasma clearance of indocyanine green (33%) and hepatic blood flow (30%). 3. Although the aromatics elicited a greater hepatic stress response than the paraffins, the ducks tolerated high concentrations of PH for extended periods.

  10. Feline hepatic biotransformation and transport mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Beusekom, C.D. van

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic biotransformation and drug transport mechanisms vary significantly between species. While these processes that determine largely the kinetic behavior of drugs have been studied abundantly in dogs, corresponding investigations in cats are hardly available, despite the increasing role of cats in veterinary practice, following the increasing popularity of cats in The Netherlands. Drug intolerance, toxic side effects or a lack of efficacy have been observed when treating feline patients w...

  11. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  12. Toxic neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misra Usha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic neuropathies generally result in length dependent axonal neuropathy with the exception of diphtheria and a few toxic neuropathies. In spite of occurrence of diphtheria in India there is paucity of published reports on diphtheritic neuropathy. Arsenic neuropathy commonly occurs in Bengal and Bangladesh because of ground water contamination whereas in Punjab it is due to contamination of opium. Lead neuropathy is rare and has been reported in battery workers and silver refining workers. It produces motor neuropathy resulting in foot drop and wrist drop. Organophosphates are used as pesticides, industrial chemicals and food adulterant. Certain organophosphates such as triorthocresyl phosphate used for or oil adulteration inhibit neurotoxic esterase and result in a delayed type of axonal neuropathy. Alcohol related neuropathy is a controversial issue whether it is due to alcohol related toxicity or due to nutritional deficiencies. Indian studies have revealed that neuropathy occurs both in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Hexane neuropathy is reported in screen printers and these cases highlight the need for better preventive and occupational measures. Iatrogenic toxic neuropathies have been reported with cisplatin and vincristine. Because of geographical, occupational and health related conditions toxic neuropathies are likely to be more common than reported and greater awareness is needed.

  13. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations. PMID:26691320

  14. Estimated exposure to EU regulated mycotoxins and risk characterization of aflatoxin-induced hepatic toxicity through the consumption of the toasted cereal flour called "gofio", a traditional food of the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Bernal-Suárez, María Del Mar; Camacho, María; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Rial-Berriel, Cristian; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Díaz-Díaz, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    "Gofio" is a type of flour made from toasted grain, which is part of the staple food in the Canary Islands, Spain, in which the occurrence of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) Ochratoxin A (OTA), Deoxynivalenol (DNV) and Zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated. 83% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 69.2% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxins (range 2 to 8). All the concentrations were well below the established limits (maximum values of AFs=0.42 μg/kg; FBs=178.3 μg/kg; OTA=0.3 μg/kg; DON=92.5 μg/kg; and ZEA=9.9 μg/kg). The daily dietary exposure to total AFs was estimated to be 7.1% of the TDI. This value was almost double in children, and considering the upper-bound approach could reach 35% of the TDI. For the rest of mycotoxins, the consumers would be exposed to less than 2% of their TDIs. The risk characterization indicates that there is a potential risk in developing aflatoxin induced liver cancer due to gofio consumption in the subpopulation which is simultaneously exposed to other hepatocarcinogens, such as the hepatitis B virus. PMID:27132021

  15. Flecainide toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, G A; Martin, R P

    1989-01-01

    Flecainide toxicity occurred in an infant being treated for refractory atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia. Ventricular tachycardia developed when dextrose was substituted for milk feeds. We believe that milk was interfering with the absorption of flecainide, and so a high serum concentration developed when milk feeds were stopped.

  16. Hepatic sarcoidosis complicating treatment-naive viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Gelson, William; Limbu, Anita; Brais, Rebecca; Richardson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic but rarely leads to adverse liver-related outcome. Co-existence of viral hepatitis and hepatic sarcoidosis is a rare, but recognised phenomenon. Obtaining a balance between immune suppression and anti-viral therapy may be problematic. Immunosuppression in the presence of viral hepatitis can lead to rapid deterioration of liver disease. Similarly, anti-viral therapy may exacerbate granulomatous hepatitis. Here we present two cases of viral hepatitis ...

  17. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  18. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. ...

  19. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  20. Clinical Study of Dahuang Zhechong Pill(大黄 虫丸)in Treating Posthepatitis B Hepatic Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈孝银; 李恩庆; 杨钦河; 章群; 孙立; 徐云生; 沈强

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hepatic fibrosis is the only way for all kinds of chronic hepatic diseases to develop into liver cirrhosis. How to block and reverse hepatic fibrosis is the key issue for treatment of all kinds of chronic hepatic disease. After many years arduous effort in treating hepatic fibrosis, no satisfactory results in western medical treatment have been obtained.Though hepatic fibrosis could be definitely reversed by colchicines, the strong toxicity of colchicines limited its clinical application. Studies in recent years showed that Chinese herbal medicine has made promising progress in treating hepatic fibrosis. Both experimental and clinical studies have confirmed that many Chinese herbal prescriptions have good effect in anti-hepatic fibrosis(1,2).

  1. Chemosaturation with Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion for Unresectable Isolated Hepatic Metastases from Sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneve, Jeremiah L., E-mail: Jeremiah.Deneve@Moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Cutaneous and Sarcoma Oncology (United States); Choi, Junsung [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Conley, Anthony P.; Stewart, Steven; Han, Dale [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Cutaneous and Sarcoma Oncology (United States); Werner, Philip; Chaudhry, Tariq A. [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesia (United States); Zager, Jonathan S., E-mail: Jonathan.Zager@Moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Cutaneous and Sarcoma Oncology (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Treatment of patients with unresectable liver metastases is challenging. Regional therapies to the liver have been developed that maximize treatment of the localized disease process without systemic toxic adverse effects. We discuss the procedural aspects of liver chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion (CS-PHP). Methods: We present as an illustration of this technique a case report of the treatment of unresectable metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the liver. Results: A randomized phase III trial for unresectable liver metastases from melanoma was recently completed comparing CS-PHP with melphalan vs. best alternative care (BAC). When compared with BAC, CS-PHP was associated with a significant improvement in hepatic progression-free survival (8.0 months CS-PHP vs. 1.6 months BAC, p < 0.0001) and overall progression-free survival (6.7 months CS-PHP vs. 1.6 months BAC, p < 0.0001), respectively. On the basis of these results, and given our experience as one of the treating institutions for this phase III trial, we appealed for compassionate use of CS-PHP in a patient with isolated bilobar unresectable hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma. Four target lesions were identified and monitored to assess treatment response. A total of 4 CS-PHP procedures were performed, with a 25 % reduction in size of the largest lesion observed and 16 month hepatic progression-free survival. Toxicity was mild (neutropenia) and manageable on an outpatient basis. Conclusion: CS-PHP offers several advantages for unresectable hepatic sarcoma metastases. CS-PHP is minimally invasive and repeatable, and it has a predictable and manageable systemic toxicity profile. For appropriately selected patients, CS-PHP can delay tumor progression and could potentially improve survival.

  2. Chemosaturation with Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion for Unresectable Isolated Hepatic Metastases from Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Treatment of patients with unresectable liver metastases is challenging. Regional therapies to the liver have been developed that maximize treatment of the localized disease process without systemic toxic adverse effects. We discuss the procedural aspects of liver chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion (CS-PHP). Methods: We present as an illustration of this technique a case report of the treatment of unresectable metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the liver. Results: A randomized phase III trial for unresectable liver metastases from melanoma was recently completed comparing CS-PHP with melphalan vs. best alternative care (BAC). When compared with BAC, CS-PHP was associated with a significant improvement in hepatic progression-free survival (8.0 months CS-PHP vs. 1.6 months BAC, p < 0.0001) and overall progression-free survival (6.7 months CS-PHP vs. 1.6 months BAC, p < 0.0001), respectively. On the basis of these results, and given our experience as one of the treating institutions for this phase III trial, we appealed for compassionate use of CS-PHP in a patient with isolated bilobar unresectable hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma. Four target lesions were identified and monitored to assess treatment response. A total of 4 CS-PHP procedures were performed, with a 25 % reduction in size of the largest lesion observed and 16 month hepatic progression-free survival. Toxicity was mild (neutropenia) and manageable on an outpatient basis. Conclusion: CS-PHP offers several advantages for unresectable hepatic sarcoma metastases. CS-PHP is minimally invasive and repeatable, and it has a predictable and manageable systemic toxicity profile. For appropriately selected patients, CS-PHP can delay tumor progression and could potentially improve survival.

  3. Telbivudine: A new treatment for chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty million people worldwide are estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis B virus. 15%-40% of these subjects will develop cirrhosis,liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma during their life. The treatment of chronic hepatitis B has improved dramatically over the last decade merits to the advent of nucleoside/nucleotide analogues and the use of pegylated interferons. Approved drugs for chronic hepatitis B treatment include: standard interferonalpha 2b, pegylated interferon-alpha 2a, lamivudine,adefovir dipivoxil, and entecavir. Unfortunately, these agents are not effective in all patients and are associated with distinct side effects. Interferons have numerous side effects and nucleoside or nucleotide analogues,which are well tolerated, need to be used for prolonged periods, even indefinitely. However, prolonged treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogues is associated with a high rate of resistance. Telbivudine is a novel,orally administered nucleoside analogue for use in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. In contrast to other nucleoside analogues, Telbivudine has not been associated with inhibition of mammalian DNA polymerase with mitochondrial toxicity. Telbivudine has demonstrated potent activity against hepatitis B with a significantly higher rate of response and superior viral suppression compared with lamivudine, the standard treatment.Telbivudine has been generally well tolerated, with a low adverse effect profile, and at its effective dose, no doselimiting toxicity has been observed. Telbivudine is one of the most potent antiviral agents for chronic hepatitis B virus and was approved by the FDA in late 2006.

  4. Sexually acquired hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current knowledge of sexually transmitted viral hepatitis in relation to epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and diagnosis with particular reference to resource-poor settings.

  5. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  6. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  7. Delta Hepatitis in Denver

    OpenAIRE

    Rector, William G.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Penley, Kent A.; Judson, Franklyn N.

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the mid-United States is not well defined. We tested 65 patients seen between 1983 and 1986 with HBV infection in Denver for evidence of coexisting HDV infection. Five patients had anti-delta (δ) antibody. The prevalence of HDV infection was higher in patients with chronic hepatitis B (4/37) than in patients with acute hepatitis B (1/28). The prevalence of HDV infection in male homosexual...

  8. Alopecia Due to Hepatitis Virus Infections (Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C)

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is an important problem in medical trichology. Sometimes, alopecia can be due to complicated etiologies including infections. In this article, the details of alopecia due to some important hepatitis viral infections (hepatitis B and hepatitis C) were specifically focused.

  9. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational...

  10. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of rifaximin for hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimer, Nina; Krag, Aleksander; Gluud, Lise L

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a complex disease entity ranging from mild cognitive dysfunction to deep coma. Traditionally, treatment has focused on a reduction of ammonia through a reduced production, absorption, or clearance. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable antibiotic, which reduces the production of ammonia by gut bacteria and, to some extent, other toxic derivatives from the gut. Clinical trials show that these effects improve episodes of hepatic encephalopathy. A large randomized trial found that rifaximin prevents recurrent episodes of hepatic encephalopathy. Most patients were treated concurrently with lactulose. Trials have varied greatly in design, outcomes, and duration of treatment regimes. Although a number of retrospective studies have indicated that long-term treatment with rifaximin is safe and possibly beneficial, high quality trials are needed to further clarify efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with rifaximin and evaluate effects of combination therapy with lactulose and branched-chain amino acids for patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:24672227

  11. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the same shot with other vaccines.Routine hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for some U.S. adults and children ... 95%, and by 75% in other age groups.Vaccination gives long-term protection from hepatitis B infection, possibly lifelong.

  12. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  13. Experimental models of hepatic encephalopathy: ISHEN guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Roger F; Norenberg, Michael D; Felipo, Vicente; Ferenci, Peter; Albrecht, Jan; Blei, Andres T

    2009-07-01

    Objectives of the International Society for Hepatic Encephalopathy and Nitrogen Metabolism Commission were to identify well-characterized animal models of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and to highlight areas of animal modelling of the disorder that are in need of development. Features essential to HE modelling were identified. The best-characterized animal models of HE in acute liver failure, the so-called Type A HE, were found to be the hepatic devascularized rat and the rat with thioacetamide-induced toxic liver injury. In case of chronic liver failure, surgical models in the rat involving end-to-side portacaval anastomosis or bile duct ligation were considered to best model minimal/mild (Type B) HE. Unfortunately, at this time, there are no satisfactory animal models of Type C HE resulting from end-stage alcoholic liver disease or viral hepatitis, the most common aetiologies encountered in patients. The commission highlighted the urgent need for such models and of improved models of HE in chronic liver failure in general as well as a need for models of post-transplant neuropsychiatric disorders. Studies of HE pathophysiology at the cellular and molecular level continue to benefit from in vitro and or ex vivo models involving brain slices or exposure of cultured cells (principally cultured astrocytes) to toxins such as ammonia, manganese and pro-inflammatory cytokines. More attention could be paid in the future to in vitro models involving the neurovascular unit, microglia and neuronal co-cultures in relation to HE pathogenesis. PMID:19638106

  14. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  15. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  16. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroto Tanaka; Hiroto Tujioka; Hiroki Ueda; Hiroko Hamagami; Youhei Kida; Masakazu Ichinose

    2005-01-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003.Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (×320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized,so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy,levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized.The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  17. A Rare Hepatic Tumor; Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Akyildiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary sarcomas of the liver account for about 1% of all liver tumors. Two basic histological forms of these sarcomas are hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a tumor of vascular origin that involves soft tissues and organs. Primary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver was first described by Ishak in 1984 and has an incidence of 1/100,000. We present a 68-year-old female case referred to the pathology department with an initial diagnosis of cholangiocellular carcinoma and diagnosed with primary hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with review of the literature.

  18. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  19. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from ... Immunization Practices (ACIP) released new guidelines that recommend hepatitis B vaccination for all unvaccinated adults with diabetes who are ...

  20. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  1. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K;

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  2. Intrahepatic and systemic therapy with oxaliplatin combined with capecitabine in patients with hepatic metastases from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D L; Nørgaard, H; Weber Vestermark, Lene;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate activity and toxicity of hepatic arterial infusion of oxaliplatin in combination with capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer with liver metastases and limited extrahepatic disease....

  3. Toxicity assays in nanodrops combining bioassay and morphometric endpoints.

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaire, Frédéric; Mandon, Céline A; Reboud, Julien; Papine, Alexandre; Angulo, Jesus; Pointu, Hervé; Diaz-Latoud, Chantal; Lajaunie, Christian; Chatelain, François; Arrigo, André-Patrick; Schaack, Béatrice

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Improved chemical hazard management such as REACH policy objective as well as drug ADMETOX prediction, while limiting the extent of animal testing, requires the development of increasingly high throughput as well as highly pertinent in vitro toxicity assays. METHODOLOGY: This report describes a new in vitro method for toxicity testing, combining cell-based assays in nanodrop Cell-on-Chip format with the use of a genetically engineered stress sensitive hepatic cell line. We tested ...

  4. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vente, M.A.D.; Nijsen, J.F.W.; De Wit, T.C.; Seppenwoolde, J.H.; Krijger, G.C.; Seevinck, P.R.; Huisman, A.; Zonneneberg, B.A.; Van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; Van het Schip, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Methods Healthy pigs (20–30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres (165HoMS; n = 5) or with holmium-166-l

  5. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E ... drugs. In some cases, hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Hepatitis: Acute or Chronic? Acute hepatitis is the initial ...

  6. Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝菁华; 石军; 任万华; 韩国庆; 朱菊人; 王书运; 谢英渤

    2002-01-01

    Objective To document morphological changes in hepatic microcirculation in liver tissue with hepatitis B and the pathogenesis of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Methods Liver tissue samples were obtained from patients with hepatitis B by liver biopsy. These samples were examined with a light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Results Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances existed in patients with hepatitis B, including those with normal liver function, manifested by red blood cell aggregation in sinusoids seen under light microscope and sinusoidal capillarization seen under electron microscope. Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells were seen in 26 out of 53 cases. Intimate contacts were found between lymphocyte/Kupffer cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Conclusions Hepatic microcirculatory disturbances exist in patients with hepatitis B .The appearance of Weibel-Palade bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells may be a key step in the development of hepatic microcirculatory disturbances.

  7. Hepatitis C and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Emma E; Nelson, Mark

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of acute hepatitis C among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in the last decade has been shown to be sexually transmitted. Initially recreational drug use, in particular drug injection, was not prevalent among those becoming infected with hepatitis C. However more recently chemsex (the use of drugs to enhance sexual experience) and its associated drugs, which are not uncommonly injected, have become more frequently reported among those diagnosed with hepatitis C. It is hoped that the widespread -introduction of direct-acting antivirals and upscaling of numbers treated may have a positive impact on this epidemic. However their introduction may negatively impact on the perceived risk of acquiring hepatitis C and in conjunction with the introduction of HIV transmission prevention strategies may result in increased transmissions and spread to the HIV-negative MSM population. PMID:27037392

  8. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...

  9. Imaging of hepatic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D J; Hanbidge, A E; O'Malley, M E

    2006-09-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented. PMID:16905380

  10. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  11. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  12. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  13. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  14. Hepatic abscesses after adhesiolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonsen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Febrilia and pain in upper right quadrant of the abdomen days after a simple operation for bowel obstruction could be caused by translocation of intestinal bacteria and subsequent formation of hepatic abscesses.

  15. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Chan; Maria Kean-Chong; David Gonzalez; Joseph Apuzzio

    1995-01-01

    Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out. Case: A 17-year-old, 12-week pregnant patient was evaluated for fever and right upper quadrant tenderness. A serologic evaluation revealed elevated liver function levels and a positi...

  16. Hepatitis B dan Permasalahannya

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, Lukman Hakim

    2008-01-01

    Pada tahun 1965, Blumberg dan kawan- kawan di Philadelphia menemukan suatu antibodi pada pasien yang ditransfusi yang berasal dari suku Aborigin Australia, sehingga ant igen tersebut dikenal dengan nama Antigen Australia. Pada tahun 1977, Blumberg mendapat hadiah nobel untuk penemuannya itu. Sekarang antigen tersebut dikenal dengan nama hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Hepatitis B merupakan penyakit infeksi pada jaringan hati yang disebabkan oleh virus yang berasal da...

  17. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  18. Hepatic stem cell niches

    OpenAIRE

    Kordes, Claus; Häussinger, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell niches are special microenvironments that maintain stem cells and control their behavior to ensure tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout life. The liver has a high regenerative capacity that involves stem/progenitor cells when the proliferation of hepatocytes is impaired. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of potential hepatic stem cell niches. There is evidence that hepatic progenitor cells can originate from niches in the canals...

  19. Hepatitis D Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John M

    2015-11-01

    This work reviews specific related aspects of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) reproduction, including virion structure, the RNA genome, the mode of genome replication, the delta antigens, and the assembly of HDV using the envelope proteins of its helper virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV). These topics are considered with perspectives ranging from a history of discovery through to still-unsolved problems. HDV evolution, virus entry, and associated pathogenic potential and treatment of infections are considered in other articles in this collection. PMID:26525452

  20. Diagnosis and management of late hepatic allograft dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Jian-min; YU Cong-hui

    2005-01-01

    Late hepatic allograft dysfunction (LHAD) is common after liver transplantation (LT) and can cause graft failure,retransplantation,or even death.A variety of etiologies including rejection,vascular complications,bile duct complications,recurrent diseases,infections,de novo diseases,neoplasms and drug toxicity can result in LHAD.The recurrent diseases have the potential to become the most serious problems facing LT in the future.It is difficult to differentiate late acute rejection from recurrent viral or autoimmune hepatitis.Accurate diagnosis of the cause of LHAD has therapeutic importance.

  1. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants. PMID:25962882

  2. Duplication of hepatic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hepatic arterial anatomy is aberrant in almost 33-41% of individuals. The variant arterial anatomy recognized during routine cadaveric dissection offers great learning potential. Such findings provide an alternative perspective to view common morphology and its structural and functional importance. These impart the concept of patient individuality and subsequent individualization of medical and surgical therapies. Adequate knowledge of normal and abnormal arterial anatomy is essential for peripancreatic surgery and liver transplantation. Aims of the study: To report on hepatic artery variations observed in the dissecting room and to find out the macroscopic pattern of varied human hepatic arterial vascularization by cadaveric dissection. Patients and Methods: Twenty human cadavers of caucasian origin were dissected to study the source and topographic pattern of hepatic arterial supply. Results: Nineteen cadavers exhibited typical hepatic arterial supply from the celiac axis. Only one female body out of twenty cadavers exhibited a dual arterial supply to all parts of liver and gallbladder. One artery originated from the celiac axis whereas the other was given off by the superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: No doubt, aberrant hepatic vascularization should be assessed preoperatively by invasive and noninvasive techniques to avoid fatal complications, but we favour careful dissection over angiography as a means of defining the arterial anatomy.

  3. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes viral hepatitis? Clinical Trials What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused by ... and adenovirus. [ Top ] What are the symptoms of viral hepatitis? Symptoms include jaundice, which causes a yellowing of ...

  4. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.Keywords: celiac disease, autoimmune liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, fatty liver, gluten-free diet

  5. Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, R H

    1994-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different...

  6. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Bekkering (Frank)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to

  7. Toxicity and clinical tolerance of lonidamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robustelli della Cuna, G; Pedrazzoli, P

    1991-04-01

    The new anticancer agent lonidamine has been recently revisited for the treatment of various solid tumors, due to its peculiar and unusual mechanism of action (ie, interference with energy metabolism of tumor cells, morphologically displayed by the appearance of "condensed mitochondria"). First generation trials have in fact demonstrated therapeutic activity and an unusual toxicity profile. Lonidamine is devoid of conventional side effects induced by antiproliferative agents (ie, myelosuppression, stomatitis, cystitis, alopecia, renal, hepatic, and cardiac toxicity). No serious or life-threatening adverse reactions have been recorded even over long term treatment periods. Given as a single agent (in daily doses ranging between 300 and 900 mg) lonidamine induces the following side effects: myalgia, testicular pain, asthenia, ototoxicity, nausea and vomiting, gastric pain, and drowsiness. Hyperesthesia and photophobia have also been reported. In combination with radiotherapy (in oral daily doses ranging between 300 and 450 mg) lonidamine was well tolerated, without any reported evidence of additional toxicity. When associated with cytotoxic agents no enhanced toxicity was observed. In particular, myelosuppression and other conventional nonhematological adverse reactions were never greater than would be expected with chemotherapy alone. The same applies to toxicity and tolerance of lonidamine when used concurrently with hypertermia. The data collected from large series of cancer patients treated with this new agent show that lonidamine is a safe drug whether used alone or in combination with other effective anticancer treatments. The reported therapeutic efficacy and the peculiar toxic profile make lonidamine an interesting new drug for future clinical trials. PMID:2031192

  8. Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) due to acute hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Younis, Bilal Bin; Arshad, Rozina; Khurhsid, Saima; Masood, Junaid; Nazir, Farhan; Tahira, Maham

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection has been identified as an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), characterized by rapid deterioration of liver function from massive hepatic necrosis leading to encephalopathy and multi-organ failure. We admitted a female patient at Shalamar Hospital with jaundice, fever, encephalopathy and coagulopathy of short duration with no history of any comorbidity. Her hepatitis viral screen revealed positive anti HCV. Her viral loads were also high. A di...

  9. NMDA receptors in hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llansola, Marta; Rodrigo, Regina; Monfort, Pilar; Montoliu, Carmina; Kosenko, Elena; Cauli, Omar; Piedrafita, Blanca; El Mlili, Nisrin; Felipo, Vicente

    2007-12-01

    The NMDA type of glutamate receptors modulates learning and memory. Excessive activation of NMDA receptors leads to neuronal degeneration and death. Hyperammonemia and liver failure alter the function of NMDA receptors and of some associated signal transduction pathways. The alterations are different in acute and chronic hyperammonemia and liver failure. Acute intoxication with large doses of ammonia (and probably acute liver failure) leads to excessive NMDA receptors activation, which is responsible for ammonia-induced death. In contrast, chronic hyperammonemia induces adaptive responses resulting in impairment of signal transduction associated to NMDA receptors. The function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway is impaired in brain in vivo in animal models of chronic liver failure or hyperammonemia and in homogenates from brains of patients died in hepatic encephalopathy. The impairment of this pathway leads to reduced cGMP and contributes to impaired cognitive function in hepatic encephalopathy. Learning ability is reduced in animal models of chronic liver failure and hyperammonemia and is restored by pharmacological manipulation of brain cGMP by administering phosphodiesterase inhibitors (zaprinast or sildenafil) or cGMP itself. NMDA receptors are therefore involved both in death induced by acute ammonia toxicity (and likely by acute liver failure) and in cognitive impairment in hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:17701332

  10. Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2014-02-01

    Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838

  11. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  12. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25654610 . Wedemeyer H. Hepatitis C. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and ... JT, Perrillo R. Hepatitis B. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and ...

  13. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,781 (2013) Number of new ...

  14. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  15. Acylcarnitine Profiles in Acetaminophen Toxicity in the Mouse: Comparison to Toxicity, Metabolism and Hepatocyte Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hinson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available High doses of acetaminophen (APAP result in hepatotoxicity that involves metabolic activation of the parent compound, covalent binding of the reactive intermediate N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI to liver proteins, and depletion of hepatic glutathione. Impaired fatty acid β-oxidation has been implicated in previous studies of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. To better understand relationships between toxicity and fatty acid β-oxidation in the liver in APAP toxicity, metabolomic assays for long chain acylcarnitines were examined in relationship to established markers of liver toxicity, oxidative metabolism, and liver regeneration in a time course study in mice. Male B6C3F1 mice were treated with APAP (200 mg/kg IP or saline and sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 or 48 h after APAP. At 1 h, hepatic glutathione was depleted and APAP protein adducts were markedly increased. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels were elevated at 4 and 8 h, while proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA expression, indicative of hepatocyte regeneration, was apparent at 24 h and 48 h. Elevations of palmitoyl, oleoyl and myristoyl carnitine were apparent by 2–4 h, concurrent with the onset of Oil Red O staining in liver sections. By 8 h, acylcarnitine levels were below baseline levels and remained low at 24 and 48 h. A partial least squares (PLS model suggested a direct association of acylcarnitine accumulation in serum to APAP protein adduct and hepatic glutathione levels in mice. Overall, the kinetics of serum acylcarnitines in APAP toxicity in mice followed a biphasic pattern involving early elevation after the metabolism phases of toxicity and later depletion of acylcarnitines.

  16. A New-Onset Rash in the Setting of Rifaximin Treatment for Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Cassandra D.L.; Adebajo, Corlan; Aronsohn, Andrew; Jensen, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    We present one of the first cases in the literature to describe an association between Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) and rifaximin treatment in a patient with a recent diagnosis of alcoholic hepatitis, stage 2 hepatic encephalopathy, and no known existing allergies. Although SJS/TEN may be a rare reaction with rifaximin, it should be an important clinical consideration.

  17. Reduced liver toxicity and drug leakage during chemotherapy of retrograde isolated hepatic perfusion in rat liver%逆行隔离灌注化疗可减轻对大鼠肝脏的毒性及药物的泄漏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房炯泽; 陆才德; 黄静; 吴胜东; 卢长江

    2010-01-01

    目的 采用大鼠肝脏隔离灌注模型探讨逆行隔离灌注(RIHP)较顺行隔离灌注(IHP)能否减少正常肝组织损伤及化疗药物外周泄漏率.方法 将90只体重300~350 g雄性SD大鼠随机分为A、B、C三组,每组30只:A组为空白对照组,经肝动脉及门静脉灌注乳酸林格液,以下腔静脉为灌注液流出道;B组行IHP,经肝动脉灌注含有350 mg/kg的氟尿嘧啶(5-Fu),门静脉灌注乳酸林格液,以下腔静脉为灌注液流出道;C组行RIHP,经肝动脉灌注含有350 mg/kg的氟尿嘧啶(5-Fu),经下腔静脉灌注乳酸林格液,以门静脉为灌注液流出道.术后1、3、5、7 d分别行血清ALT测定及肝组织病理学检查;高效液相色谱分析仪检测B、C组术中外周血药浓度.结果 三组术后3 d存活率分别为90.0%、86.7%和90.0%,三者差异无统计学意义.三组血清ALT均在术后第一天达到峰值,A组为(481.6±207.6)μmol/L;B组为(1641.6±658.0)μmol/L;C组为(913.0±353.5)μmol/L.B、C组均显著高于A组(P<0.05);B组显著高于C组(P<0.05).B组与C组术中外周血药浓度峰值分别为(131.2±29.4)μg/ml和(65.3±28.4)μg/ml.两组外周浓度有显著性差异(P<0.05).A组术后肝脏病理改变较轻,术后7 d基本恢复正常;B组术后肝脏病理学改变相对严重,术后7 d局部仍可见坏死灶;C组术后肝脏病理改变后较A组严重,但较B组轻,术后7 d基本恢复正常.结论 RIHP较之IHP能够显著减轻化疗药物对正常肝组织的毒副作用和药物的外周泄漏,有望成为一种对肝癌更加有效安全的区域化疗方法.%Objective The retrograde isolated hepatic perfusion (RIHP) model was used to compare with the isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) model in reducing the rate of normal hepatic tissue toxicity and peripheral drug leakage during chemotherapy in rat liver. Methods A total of 90 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g were randomized into 3 groups with 30 rats in each. Group A: perfusion with

  18. Hepatitis in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the different types of viral hepatitis and how they can be prevented. He also describes how hepatitis is transmitted and treated.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  19. Historical reflections on autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Ian R.

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), initially known as chronic active or active chronic hepatitis (and by various other names), first came under clinical notice in the late 1940s. However, quite likely, chronic active hepatitis (CAH) had been observed prior to this and was attributed to a persistently destructive virus infection of the liver. An earlier (and controversial) designation in 1956 as lupoid hepatitis was derived from associated L.E. cell test positivity and emphasized accompanying multisy...

  20. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    OpenAIRE

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in ...

  1. Hepatitis Awareness Month PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-11

    May is National Hepatitis Awareness Month. This 30 second PSA discusses hepatitis and encourages listners to talk to their health care professional about getting tested.  Created: 5/11/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention.   Date Released: 5/11/2011.

  2. Hepatic angiography: Portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portal hypertension is usually a manifestation of underlying hepatic parenchymal disease, although it may be secondary to portal or hepatic venous thrombosis and rarely to hyperdynamic portal states. Portal hypertension may present as encephalopathy, ascites, jaundice, hepatic failure, or catastrophic upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Radiologic investigation should include indirect or direct measurements of portal pressure, assessment of portal venous perfusion, visualization of collaterals, and demonstration of arterial and venous anatomy for potential shunt procedure. Following survival of initial variceal bleeding, the most effective procedure to prevent recurrent hemorrhage is a shunt to decompress the varices. The decision whether to intervene medically or surgically during the acute hemorrhagic episode as well as the type of shunt used to prevent future hemorrhage is the subject of continuing controversy

  3. Viral kinetics of the Hepatitis C virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bekkering, Frank

    2001-01-01

    textabstractHepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus were identified as the cause of infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis respectively in the beginning of the seventies. After introduction of screening tests for hepatitis A and B 4 only 25% of the cases of post transfusion hepatitis were found to be caused by hepatitis B and none by hepatitis A. One or more viruses other than hepatitis A or B were suspected to be the cause of the remaining 75% of post-transfusion hepatitis. Initially, this...

  4. Pharmacotherapy for hepatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsamran, Paula V; Kim, Jiwon W; Cupo Abbott, Jennifer; Rosenblatt, Angela

    2010-06-18

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a challenging clinical complication of liver dysfunction with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities that range from mild disturbances in cognitive function and consciousness to coma and death. The pathogenesis of HE in cirrhosis is complex and multifactorial, but a key role is thought to be played by circulating gut-derived toxins of the nitrogenous compounds, most notably ammonia. Therapeutic treatment options for HE are currently limited and have appreciable risks and benefits associated with their use. Management of HE primarily involves avoidance of precipitating factors, limitation of dietary protein intake, and administration of various ammonia-lowering therapies such as non-absorbable disaccharides and select antimicrobial agents. Non-absorbable disaccharides, such as lactulose, have traditionally been regarded as first-line pharmacotherapy for patients with HE. However, multiple adverse events have been associated with their use. In addition, recent literature has questioned the true efficacy of the disaccharides for this indication. Neomycin, metronidazole and vancomycin may be used as alternative treatments for patients intolerant or unresponsive to non-absorbable disaccharides. Antimicrobials reduce bacterial production of ammonia and other bacteria-derived toxins through suppression of intestinal flora. Neomycin has been reported to be as effective as lactulose, and similar efficacy has been reported with vancomycin and metronidazole for the management of HE. However, the adverse effects frequently associated with these antimicrobials limit their use as first-line pharmacological agents. Neomycin is the most commonly used antimicrobial for HE and, although poorly absorbed, systemic exposure to the drug in sufficient amounts causes hearing loss and renal toxicity. Long-term neomycin therapy requires annual auditory testing and continuous monitoring of renal function. Long-term use of metronidazole has been

  5. Hepatitis C in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashis Mukhopadhya

    2008-11-01

    Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India and an important pathogen causing liver disease in India. The high risk of chronicity of this blood-borne infection and its association with hepatocellular carcinoma underscores its public health importance. Blood transfusion and unsafe therapeutic interventions by infected needles are two preventable modalities of spread of hepatitis C infection. In addition, risk factor modification by reducing the number of intravenous drug users will help curtail the prevalence of this infection. This review summarizes the extent, nature and implications of this relatively new pathogen in causing disease in India.

  6. Hepatitis C in Hemophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Posthouwer, Dirk

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hemophilia. In our study with a follow-up of 35 years, we found that the risk for end-stage liver disease (liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver-related death) was 12% for HIV negative, and 35% for HIV coinfected patients. Although a significant proportion of hemophilia patients is at risk for long-term complications of hepatitis, many patients still have not been treated. In the Dutch hemophilia population, appro...

  7. Dysfunctional mitochondrial bioenergetics and the pathogenesis of hepatic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher eAuger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver is involved in a variety of critical biological functions including the homeostasis of glucose, fatty acids, amino acids and the synthesis of proteins that are secreted in the blood. It is also at the forefront in the detoxification of noxious metabolites that would otherwise upset the functioning of the body. As such, this vital component of the mammalian system is exposed to a notable quantity of toxicants on a regular basis. It therefore comes as no surprise that there are over a hundred disparate hepatic disorders, encompassing such afflictions as fatty liver disease, hepatitis and liver cancer. Most if not all of liver functions are dependent on energy, an ingredient that is primarily generated by the mitochondrion, the power house of all cells. This organelle is indispensable in providing adenosine triphosphate (ATP, a key effector of most biological processes. Dysfunctional mitochondria lead to a shortage in ATP, the leakage of deleterious reactive oxygen species (ROS and the excessive storage of fats. Here we examine how incapacitated mitochondrial bioenergetics triggers the pathogenesis of various hepatic diseases. Exposure of liver cells to detrimental environmental hazards such as oxidative stress, metal toxicity and various xenobiotics results in the inactivation of crucial mitochondrial enzymes and decreased ATP levels. The contribution of the latter to hepatic disorders and potential therapeutic cues to remedy these conditions are elaborated.

  8. Fatal fulminant hepatic failure in a 'solvent abuser'.

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, A S; Long, R G

    1992-01-01

    The case of a 17 year old abuser of butane aerosols who developed fulminant hepatic failure after taking a proprietary engine or carburetor cleaner is described. Fatalities as a result of liver failure due to volatile hydrocarbons or solvents have not previously been reported. The likely toxins included isopropyl alcohol, methyl amyl alcohol, butylated hydroxytoluene as well as petroleum products, and evidence for their toxicity is reviewed. The possibility of increased susceptibility to hepa...

  9. 13.3.Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920335 Prognostic evaluation of severe vir-al hepatitis.WU Yuzhang (吴玉章),et al.DeptEpidemic,3rd Milit Med Univ,Chongqing 630038.Chin J Intern Med 1992;31(1):18-20.The Cox’s regression model was used for

  10. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wright

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease.

  11. Azathioprine induced cholestatic hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Viju Moses; Banumathi Ramakrishna; Kurien Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of cholestatic hepatitis developed one week after exposure to azathioprine. The subsequent prolonged cholestatic phase was followed by full clinical remission. Current knowledge on pathogenesis and epidemiology and the diagnostic challenges presented by this rare complication are discussed, followed by recommendations for monitoring and management.

  12. Azathioprine induced cholestatic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viju Moses

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of cholestatic hepatitis developed one week after exposure to azathioprine. The subsequent prolonged cholestatic phase was followed by full clinical remission. Current knowledge on pathogenesis and epidemiology and the diagnostic challenges presented by this rare complication are discussed, followed by recommendations for monitoring and management.

  13. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... there are poor sanitary conditions or poor personal hygiene. The food and drinks most likely to be contaminated are ... restaurant has Hepatitis A. However, if an infected food handler is infectious and has poor hygiene, the risk goes up for patrons of that ...

  14. Increased incidence of antiretroviral drug discontinuation among patients with viremic hepatitis C virus coinfection and high hyaluronic acid, a marker of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, Daniel; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Juergen K;

    2014-01-01

    Most antiretroviral drugs are metabolized by the liver; hepatic disease or liver damage as a result of hepatitis C virus (HCV) could impair this metabolism leading to an increased risk of drug toxicity. This study aimed to determine the risk of antiretroviral drug discontinuation among HCV/HIV co...

  15. Hepatitis C und Psyche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser G

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C ist ein globales gesundheitliches Problem und eine der häufigsten infektiösen Erkrankungen weltweit. Nur die Hälfte der Betroffenen leidet nach einer Infektion unter Symptomen, die sie ärztliche Hilfe aufsuchen läßt, weshalb es oft Zufallsbefunde sind, die zu einer Diagnose führen. Die häufigsten Beschwerden der Betroffenen in frühen Stadien der Erkrankung sind unspezifisch und führen zu einer reduzierten Lebensqualität mit verminderter Leistungsfähigkeit und psychischer Beeinträchtigung. Wird dann die Diagnose gestellt, fühlen sich die Patienten durch die infektiöse Erkrankung häufig stigmatisiert, manche leiden unter immensen Schuldgefühlen und viele erleben ihre Erkrankung als fatal. In zahlreichen Studien konnte gezeigt werden, daß Patienten mit Hepatitis C unter einer deutlich reduzierten Lebensqualität sowie häufigen Depressionen und Angstsymptomen leiden, welche durch die derzeit gängige Therapie der Hepatitis C mit Interferon-alpha und Ribavirin zusätzlich induziert oder noch verstärkt werden können. Aber mehrere Studien weisen auch darauf hin, daß die Lebensqualität der Betroffenen weniger mit dem Grad der Hepatitis als mit den psychosozialen Folgen wie der psychiatrischen Co-Morbidität, dem Krankheitsverstehen und den krankheitsbezogenen Sorgen wie Stigmatisierung korreliert. Umso wichtiger scheint nach Mitteilung der Diagnose die Evaluation der psychosozialen Situation der Betroffenen. Abgesehen von einer medikamentösen Therapie der Hepatitis ist es entsprechend dem bio-psycho-sozialen Modell der Erkrankung daher wichtig, bei Bedarf eine integrierte psychosomatische Betreuung anzubieten und/oder eine interdisziplinäre Kooperation mit FachärztInnen der Psychiatrie zu etablieren.

  16. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J;

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  17. [Hepatitis C in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera, Miguel; Forns, Xavier

    2006-06-17

    Spain has a medium endemicity of hepatitic C infection among central Europe countries and Italy. Prevalence of anti-HCV varies among regions and it ranges from 1.6 to 2.6%, which means that there may be between 480,000 and 760,000 people infected with hepatitis C virus in Spain. The prevalence is very low in people under 20 years of age and it increases from age 30 years. Prisoners and drug addicts have the highest infectious rates, between 40 and 98%. Some populations of immigrants also have a high prevalence of HCV infection, especially people from Asia and sub-Saharan countries, whereas people from Latin America have rates lower than those in the autochtones population. Spanish people with chronic hepatitis C were mainly infected via blood transfusions, IV drug use, or during some medical and surgical hospitalization. The reduction in the use of IV drugs and the programs of needle sharing, as well as the eradication of post-transfusional hepatitis, have led to a progressive reduction in the incidence of new infections (from 6.8 per 100,000 in-habitants in 1997 to 2.3 in 2003). Preliminary data suggest that an important rate of new hepatitis C cases owe to nosocomial transmission. Transmission is almost exclusively vertical in children. In spite of a two-third reduction of incident cases of hepatitis C in Spain in last few years, it is foreseeable that the number of patients with advanced HCV liver disease attended in the health-care system will increase in forthcoming years. This is due to the fact that many, still undiagnosed patients will be likely recognized for the first time as a result of some complication of the disease. All efforts to increase the screening of hidden cases of hepatitis C in primary health-care centers, allowing a prompt treatment before an advanced stage, will have a beneficial impact both in economic and social terms. PMID:16828003

  18. Toxicity alarm: Case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late fall 1991, the Novacor petrochemical plant near Joffre, Alberta experienced a toxicity alarm, the first since its startup 14 years ago. Fish exposed to a normal toxicity test were stressed within 2 h and showed 100% mortality after 24 h. A history of the events leading up to, during, and after the toxicity alarm is presented. The major effluent sources were three cooling water systems. Although these sources are well characterized, the event causes were not immediately clear. Initial toxic screening indicated that one was very toxic, another moderately toxic, and the third not toxic at all. All three systems utilized the same chemical treatment program to avoid fouling: stabilized phosphates with minor variants. The most toxic of the cooling systems operated at 10-12 cycles, had three chemicals for biocide control, and had three makeup streams. Toxic and nontoxic system characteristics were compared. An in-depth modified toxicity identification and evaluation program was then performed to identify and evaluate the cause of the toxicity alarm for future prevention. The most probable causes of toxicity were identified by elimination. The combination of high numbers of cycles, hydrocarbons in the makeup water, and bromine added as an antifoulant resulted in formation of aromatic bromamines which are capable of causing the toxic condition experienced. 2 tabs

  19. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  20. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Secondary to Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayokunle T. Abegunde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatic angiosarcoma is a rare and aggressive tumor that often presents at an advanced stage with nonspecific symptoms. Objective. To report a case of primary hepatic angiosarcoma in an otherwise healthy man with normal liver function tests two months prior to presenting with a short period of jaundice that progressed to fulminant hepatic failure. Methods. Case report and review of literature. Conclusion. This case illustrates the rapidity of progression to death after the onset of symptoms in a patient with hepatic angiosarcoma. Research on early diagnostic strategies and newer therapies are needed to improve prognosis in this rare and poorly understood malignancy with limited treatment options.

  1. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Kuo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old Taiwanese man presented with dark urine for 5 days before admission to hospital and with fever on the 2nd day of admission to hospital. Laboratory studies showed acute hepatitis with hyperbilirubinemia. Acute hepatitis with nontyphoidal salmonella and hepatitis E virus coinfection was diagnosed. The fever subsided after treatment with ceftriaxone and cefepime. His serum bilirubin reached its peak value on the 3rd week after admission to hospital and then gradually returned to the normal range. To the best of our knowledge, acute hepatitis E coinfection with nontyphoidal salmonella has not been reported previously.

  2. Selective inhibition of acetaminophen oxidation and toxicity by cimetidine and other histamine H2-receptor antagonists in vivo and in vitro in the rat and in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, M C; Schenker, S.; Speeg, K V

    1984-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity results from hepatic enzymatic oxidation of acetaminophen to a toxic, electrophilic intermediate. Acetaminophen is ordinarily eliminated after conjugation with glucuronic acid and sulfate to nontoxic derivatives. Cimetidine has been shown to inhibit the hepatic oxidation of a number of drugs and to protect rats from acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis. The aim of this study was to define the mechanism by which cimetidine reduced acetaminophen-induced he...

  3. Computed tomography in hepatic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five patients with hepatic injury from blunt upper abdominal trauma were examined by computed tomography (CT). The spectrum of CT findings was recorded, and the size of the hepatic laceration and the associated hemoperitoneum were correlated with the mode of therapy used in each case (operative vs nonoperative). While the need for surgery correlated roughly with the size of the hepatic laceration, the size of the associated hemoperitoneum was an important modifying factor. Fifteen patients with hepatic lacerations but little or no hemoperitoneum were managed nonoperatively. CT seems to have significant advantages over hepatic scintigraphy, angiography, and diagnostic peritoneal lavage. By combining inforamtion on the clinical state of the patient and CT findings, therapy of hepatic injury can be individualized and the incidence of nontherapeutic laparotomies decreased

  4. Hepatic pseudolesion after biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of a hepatic pseudolesion due to percutaneous liver biopsy in a 30-year-old female patient with known chronic hepatitis C and renal insufficiency. In the course of transplant preparation, an abdominal spiral-CT examination pre and post i.v.-contrast injection as well as an angiography with CT-hepaticography and CT-portography were performed. In these examinations a 1 cm, hepatocellular-carcinoma mimicking liver lesion was found; it was hypodense in the CT-portography and showed a marked enhancement in the CT-hepaticography. This 'pseudolesion', which was supposed to be due to the liver biopsy, resolved spontaneously. (orig.)

  5. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a toxin produced by some types of Staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock-like syndrome (TSLS), can be caused by Streptococcal bacteria. Not all staph or strep infections cause toxic ...

  6. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... exposure to toxic substances or take nutritional supplements. Causes Toxic amblyopia may be caused by a nutritional ...

  7. Radioembolization of hepatic tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Unresectable primary and metastatic liver tumors are a leading cause of cancer mortality and morbidity. This remains a challenging and key task for every oncologist despite significant advances that have been made with selective targeted systemic agents and in technology advances with radiotherapy delivery. Radioembolization (RE) is a technique of permanently implanting microspheres containing Yttrium-90 (90Y), a beta-emitting isotope with a treatment range of 2 mm, into hepatic tumors. This ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: congenital hepatic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions congenital hepatic fibrosis congenital hepatic fibrosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Open All Close All Description Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a disease of the liver that is ...

  9. Hepatitis C: a clinical review

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, AA; Liang, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis C is a major cause of chronic liver disease. It has been recognized as a global health problem because of the progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer. Chronic hepatitis C is usually asymptomatic but can cause considerable liver damage before its recognition. This review discusses the natural history, clinical features, diagnosis, therapy, treatment responses and the side effects associated with the treatment of hepatitis C.

  10. Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh James Freeman

    2010-01-01

    Hugh James FreemanDepartment of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, ...

  11. The right hepatic artery syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazumi Miyashita; Katsuya Shiraki; Takeshi Ito; Hiroki Taoka; Takeshi Nakano

    2005-01-01

    Various benign and malignant conditions could cause biliary obstruction. Compression of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) by right hepatic artery was reported as a right hepatic artery syndrome but all cases were compressed EBD from stomach side. Our case compressed from dorsum was not yet reported, so it was thought to be a very rare case. We present here the first case of bile duct obstruction due to the compression of EBD from dorsum by right hepatic artery.

  12. Cytomegalovirus hepatitis and myopericarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leire Zubiaurre; Eva Zapata; Luis Bujanda; María Castillo; Igor Oyarzabal; Maria A Gutiérrez-Stampa; Angel Cosme

    2007-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in inmunocompetent hosts generally is asymptomatic or may present as a mononucleosis syndrome but rarely can lead to severe organ complications. We report a case of simultaneous hepatic and pericardic CMV infection in a 36-year old immunocompetent man. He was admitted to coronary unit with fever, chest pain radiated to shoulders,changes on electrocardiogram with diffuse ST elevation and modest laboratory elevations in the MB fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) of 33.77 μg/L (0.1-6.73), serum cardiac troponin T of 0.904 ng/mL (0-0.4), creatine kinase of 454 U/L (20-195) and myoglobin of 480.4 μg/L (28-72). Routine laboratory test detected an elevation of aminotransferase level: alanine aminotransferase 1445 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase 601 U/L. We ruled out other causes of hepatitis with normal results except IgM CMV. The patient was diagnosed with myopericarditis and hepatitis caused by cytomegalovirus and started symptomatic treatment with salicylic acid. In few days the laboratory findings became normal and the patient was discharged.

  13. Hepatitis E: Epidemiology and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis E is caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV), the major etiologic agent of enterically transmitted non-A hepatitis worldwide. HEV is responsible for major outbreaks of acute hepatitis in developing countries, especially in many parts of Africa and Asia. The HEV is a spherical, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus that is approximately 32 nm to 34 nm in diameter and is the only member in the family Hepeviridae and genus Hepevirus. There are four distinct genotypes o...

  14. Vaccination and transient hepatitis B surface antigenemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Dhanya; Railey, Mohammed; Al Rukhaimi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccination is mandatory for all hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative hemodialysis (HD) patients with low hepatitis B surface antibody titers. We report a case of transient hepatitis B surface antigenemia, detected incidentally, in an HD patient after the second dose of Hepatitis B vaccine. The patient had to be isolated on a separate HD machine, in a separate room, until further investigations ruled out a true hepatitis B virus infection. This led to further unnecessary t...

  15. Propylthiouracyl-induced severe liver toxicity: An indication for alanine aminotransferase monitoring?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Benyounes; C Sempoux; C Daumerie; J Rahier; AP Geubel

    2006-01-01

    Propylthiouracyl (PTU)-related liver toxicity is likely to occur in about 1% of treated patients. In case of acute or subacute hepatitis, liver failure may occur in about one third. We report two further cases of PTU-induced subacute hepatitis, in whom the delay between occurrence of liver damage after the initiation of treatment, the underestimation of its severity and the delayed withdrawal of the drug were all likely responsible for liver failure.The high incidence of liver toxicity related to PTU, its potential severity and delayed occurrence after initiation of treatment are in favor of monthly alanine aminotransferase monitoring, at least during the first six months of therapy.

  16. Hepatite E Hepatitis E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymundo Paraná

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da hepatite E (VHE é o segundo vírus de transmissão fecal-oral com hepatotropismo confirmado, após o vírus da hepatite A. As grandes epidemias de hepatite das décadas de 50 e 60 na Índia foram causadas pelo VHE. Observaram-se surtos da infecção na África Central, América Latina, Oriente Médio e Repúblicas independentes da ex-União Soviética. O quadro clínico da doença assemelha-se ao de outras hepatites virais. Não há casos descritos de hepatite E crônicas. Cerca de 20% das mulheres que adquirem a doença durante a gravidez desenvolvem formas graves, com insuficiência hepática fulminante. Confirma-se o diagnóstico quando se encontra no soro anticorpos (método de ELISA das classes IgM (fase aguda e/ou IgG (curados. O imunoblot e o PCR-RNA podem ser usados quando necessário. Não há tratamento específico. O uso de imunoglobulina hiperimune tem sido aconselhado por alguns autores. A prevenção se faz pelos cuidados higiênicos e dietéticos habituais. Não há vacina eficaz contra a doença.Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the second most frequent hepatotropic virus transmitted via fecal-oral route, following closely behind hepatitis A virus. The great epidemics of hepatitis described during the 50s and 60s, in India, were caused by this virus. Epidemic bursts have also been described in Central Africa, Latin America, Middle East and in the independent Republics of the ex-Soviet Union. The clinical features of the disease do not differ from those reported for other viral hepatitides. There have been no cases of chronic hepatitis E reported. Around 20% of women infected during pregnancy develop a severe form of hepatitis which courses to liver failure. Diagnosis of hepatitis is confirmed when antibodies (using ELISA of the IgM class (acute phase and/or IgG (infected and cured are found in the serum. Immunoblot and PCR-RNA may be used as necessary. There is no specific treatment for hepatitis E. Hyperimmune serum has

  17. Hepatitis B vs. hepatitis C infection on viral hepatitis-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hiotis Spiros P; Rahbari Nuh N; Villanueva Gerald A; Klegar Eunjie; Luan Wei; Wang Qin; Yee Herman T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background To determine clinical-pathologic variables in patients with a new diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and underlying hepatitis B vs. C infection. Methods Patients presenting to a single urban hospital with a new diagnosis of HCC were entered into a clinical database. Variables including number and size of tumors, presence of metastases, serum alpha-Fetoprotein, hepatitis serologies, severity of hepatic dysfunction, and presence of cirrhosis were evaluated in 127 pa...

  18. Adenoviral transduction of PTEN induces apoptosis of cultured hepatic stellate cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Li-sen; ZHANG Xiao-lan; AN Jun-yan; YAO Dong-mei; Justin Karlin; FANG Shu-ming; JIANG Hui-qing; BAI Wen-yuan; CHEN Shuang

    2009-01-01

    @@ Hepatic fibrosis is the liver's wound healing response to virtually all forms of chronic liver injury: toxic insult, viral infection, immunological conditions and metabolic diseases. Uncontrolled liver fibrosis eventually results in cirrhosis and associated complications, such as cancer and liver failure.

  19. Lead and radiation induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice and their inhibition by vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study has been carried out to access the protective role of vitamin E against hepato-toxicity induced by lead and radiation. The present study demonstrates that the application of vitamin E prior to lead and gamma radiation exposure is quite potential to provide protection against hepatic lesions induced by such teratogens

  20. Chronic hepatitis C is a common associated with hepatic granulomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ned Snyder; Juan G Martinez; Shu-Yuan Xiao

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the most frequent etiologies of hepatic epithelioid granulomas, and whether there was an association with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Both a retrospective review of the pathol-ogy database of liver biopsies at our institution from 1996 through 2006 as well as data from a prospective study of hepatic fibrosis markers and liver biopsies from 2003 to 2006 were reviewed to identify cases of hepatic epithelioid granulomas. Appropriate charts, liver biopsy slides, and laboratory data were reviewed to determine all possible associations. The diagnosis of HCV was based on a positive HCV RNA. RESULTS: There were 4578 liver biopsies and 36 (0.79%) had at least one epithelioid granuloma. HCV was the most common association. Fourteen patients had HCV, and in nine, there were no concurrent condi-tions known to be associated with hepatic granulomas. Prior interferon therapy and crystalloid substances from illicit intravenous injections did not account for the finding. There were hepatic epithelioid granulomas in 3 of 241 patients (1.24%) with known chronic HCV enrolled in the prospective study of hepatic fibrosis markers. CONCLUSION: Although uncommon, hepatic granu-Iomas may be part of the histological spectrum of chronic HCV. When epithelioid granulomas are found on the liver biopsy of someone with HCV, other clini-cally appropriate studies should be done, but if nothing else is found, the clinician can be comfortable with an HCV association.

  1. Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Hepatic Artery and the Hepatic Vein

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Howard; Malafa, M.; Coombs, Robert J.; Iannone, Anthony M.

    1989-01-01

    A patient is presented with multiple vascular anomalies in the branches of the celiac axis as well as in the portal vein and its branches. Apparently, unique in the literature is the presence of a large arteriovenous fistula between the hepatic artery and one of the hepatic veins. The anomalies are presumed to be congenital in origin.

  2. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  3. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Infections and Hepatitis B Vaccination in Pediatric Patients on Haemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, Mustafa; Aksu, Nejat; Caner KABASAKAL; Cura, Alphan

    1993-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence hepatitis B surfage antigen other hepatitis B markers anti HCV antibodies the variations during the course of haemodialysis and immun response to a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in children with chronic renal failure on haemodialysis nbsp; 54 patients 26 males and 28 females median age 12 1±2 7 years range 5 16 years treated with haemodialysis for median of 12 9±13 9 months were studied All hepatitis markers were detected in serum by an e...

  4. Noninvasive diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of hepatic fibrosis is important for determining prognosis, guiding management decisions,and monitoring disease. Histological evaluation of liver biopsy specimens is currently considered the reference test for staging hepatic fibrosis. Since liver biopsy carries a small but significant risk, noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis are desirable. This editorial gives an overview on noninvasive methods currently available to determine hepatic fibrosis and their diagnostic accuracy for predicting significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Based on available data, the performance of simple tests derived from routine laboratory parameters appears to be similar to that of more complex and expensive fibrosis panels. Transient elastography seems more accurate than blood tests for diagnosing cirrhosis.

  5. Hepatic steatosis secondary to capecitabine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Lillian L

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There are no known case reports of hepatic steatosis caused by oral fluoropyrimidines such as capecitabine. With increasing use of capecitabine since its approval for the treatment of metastatic colon cancer in 2001, and more recently for adjuvant treatment of colon cancer and treatment of metastatic breast cancer, we can anticipate increased recognition of potential toxicities associated with this 5-fluorouracil derivative. Case presentation We report the case of a 74-year-old Armenian woman who received capecitabine as adjuvant treatment for colon cancer and subsequently developed abnormal liver biochemical tests and radiographic findings in keeping with hepatic steatosis. There was complete reversal of liver enzyme abnormalities with discontinuation of the drug and this patient represents a case of reversible liver injury due to capecitabine. Conclusion In this original case report, capecitabine use was associated with hepatic steatosis. It is important for clinicians to recognize and monitor for this potential toxicity, which may be a cause of abnormal liver enzymes in this patient population.

  6. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  7. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  8. Safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability of rifaximin for hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimer N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nina Kimer,1 Aleksander Krag,2 Lise L Gluud1 1Gastrounit, Medical Division, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Odense University Hospital, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark Abstract: Hepatic encephalopathy is a complex disease entity ranging from mild cognitive dysfunction to deep coma. Traditionally, treatment has focused on a reduction of ammonia through a reduced production, absorption, or clearance. Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable antibiotic, which reduces the production of ammonia by gut bacteria and, to some extent, other toxic derivatives from the gut. Clinical trials show that these effects improve episodes of hepatic encephalopathy. A large randomized trial found that rifaximin prevents recurrent episodes of hepatic encephalopathy. Most patients were treated concurrently with lactulose. Trials have varied greatly in design, outcomes, and duration of treatment regimes. Although a number of retrospective studies have indicated that long-term treatment with rifaximin is safe and possibly beneficial, high quality trials are needed to further clarify efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with rifaximin and evaluate effects of combination therapy with lactulose and branched-chain amino acids for patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. Keywords: prevention, lactulose, liver cirrhosis

  9. [Hepatitis in dogs; a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothuizen, J; van den Ingh, T S

    1998-04-15

    As with most liver diseases, the symptoms of hepatitis in dogs are nearly always aspecific: the dogs eat less, are apathetic, sometimes have polyuria/polydipsia, and sometimes have diarrhoea. Hepatoencephalopathy and ascites only occur with these symptoms in very advanced stages of chronic hepatitis. Only a part of the dogs have jaundice. Because of these aspecific symptoms, the diagnosis hepatitis is often not taken into consideration, even though the presence of a liver disease can be easily detected by measuring plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and bile acids, one or both of which are elevated. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of a liver biopsy sample. The most common forms of hepatitis are non-specific reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis. Non-specific reactive hepatitis is a reaction against endotoxin as a result of sepsis or an increased gastrointestinal absorption. Treatment is directed to the primary process. Leptospirosis also causes non-specific reactive hepatitis, but then renal insufficiency is the most prominent feature. The diagnosis is made not on the basis of a liver biopsy but on the basis of increased IgM titres against Leptospira. Immediate treatment with antibiotics and infusions at the first signs (jaundice and uraemia) can save the animal's life. Acute hepatitis can develop as a result of infection, toxins, or liver hypoxia. There is no specific treatment, but adequate recovery often occurs with supportive treatment. Corticosteroids are contraindicated. Chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis, is the most common form of hepatitis. It is an autoimmune inflammatory reaction that is usually caused by a virus infection but sometimes by poisoning (intoxication). Long treatment with prednisolone or azathioprine is usually successful, but early recognition of the disease increases the likelihood of success. Nowadays, chronic hepatitis due to hepatic copper accumulation in Beddlington

  10. Auto immune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Nicole Mf; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris Jj; van Nieuwkerk, Carin Mj; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-05-21

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: "auto immune hepatitis", "clinical presentation", "symptoms", "signs", "diagnosis", "auto antibodies", "laboratory values", "serology", "histopathology", "histology", "genetics", "HLA genes", "non-HLA genes", "environment", "epidemiology", "prevalence", "incidence", "demographics", "complications", "HCC", "PBC", "PSC", "corticosteroid", "therapy", "treatment", "alternative treatment". English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens. PMID:27217697

  11. A single-center experience in radioembolization as salvage therapy of hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overall survival (OS) of patients with hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma is strongly linked with hepatic tumor control. Due to the lack of an effective systemic chemotherapy, locoregional therapies like radioembolization should play an increasingly important role. To report complications and response rates of radioembolization as salvage therapy for hepatic uveal melanoma metastases. Between October 2006 and January 2014, eight patients (age, 59.1 ± 15.3 years; 5 men) with histologically proven uveal melanoma and hepatic metastases received radioembolization with glass microspheres at a single center. All patients had been heavily pretreated with multiple systemic/locoregional therapies resulting in a long median interval between diagnosis of hepatic metastases and radioembolization (17.1 months; range, 6.4–23.2 months). Follow-up consisted of clinical assessment, laboratory tests and tri-phasic computed tomography (CT) before and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after radioembolization. Response to therapy was evaluated by CT using RECIST version 1.1 and by survival time. Safety (laboratory and clinical toxicity) was rated according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 4.03. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis time to progression of hepatic metastases (hTTP) and OS were calculated. One month after radioembolization 50% of patients presented with stable and 50% with progressive disease. Median hTTP and OS after radioembolization were 4.3 weeks (range, 3.4–28.6 weeks) and 12.3 weeks (range, 3.7–62.6 weeks), respectively. Median OS after diagnosis of hepatic metastases was 19.9 months (range, 7.3–31.4 months). Radioembolization was tolerated well in all patients without toxicity higher than grade 2. Radioembolization is a safe salvage therapy even in heavily pretreated hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma

  12. Secondary bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia during treatment of chronic hepatitis C: role of pegylated interferon alfa-2a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Soares Martins

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of chronic hepatitis C has frequent side effects such as cytopenias and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, pulmonary toxicity associated with interferon is rarely described. This paper describes the clinical case of a 67-year-old female patient with chronic hepatitis C who presented an acute onset of dry cough, dyspnoea, and fever 36 weeks after the use of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. The lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP. Corticotherapy was initiated, with clinical and radiological improvement. This paper aims to advise physicians to this occasional, though severe, adverse event related to hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment.

  13. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    de Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G.; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  14. Four-year follow up of hepatitis C patients vaccinated against hepatitis B virus

    OpenAIRE

    Chlabicz, Slawomir; Lapinski, Tadeusz Wojciech; Grzeszczuk, Anna; Prokopowicz, Danuta

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Patients with chronic hepatitis C have been recommended to receive vaccinations against hepatitis B. Our study aimed at evaluating the hepatitis B immunogenicity and efficacy against hepatitis B virus infection 4 years after primary immunization series in a group of patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  15. Delta hepatitis: another concern for dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, J A

    1986-01-01

    Delta hepatitis is a defective virus dependent on hepatitis B virus for replication and transmission. Delta hepatitis infection is becoming more prevalent in the United States, especially in parenteral drug abusers; several outbreaks have occurred. Infection control procedures and the hepatitis B vaccine can protect the dental staff from infection and transmission. PMID:3455994

  16. Understanding hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, C K

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects over 170 million people worldwide and is a common cause for liver transplantation in Canada. The prevalence of HCV infection in the dialysis population is estimated to be 20% to 50%. Today, intravenous drug use remains the most common route of transmission. The risk of acquiring HCV infection in patients on long-term hemodialysis is expected to decrease because of the screening of blood products for HCV. The diagnostic tests for hepatitis C include anti-HCV, HCV RNA, serum ALT levels, and liver biopsy. Liver biopsy is the definitive diagnostic procedure. Of patients acutely infected with the virus 50% to 85% will become carriers. HCV infection progresses slowly and the minority of patients develop cirrhosis over 20 years. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma is increased once cirrhosis is present. The current standard of treatment that employs interferon and ribavirin has its limitations and is not indicated for many patients groups, such as patients on long-term hemodialysis. Interferon monotherapy is possible but is poorly tolerated by patients on dialysis. Patient and family education, as well as counselling, are important in that patients infected with HCV should be partners with health care providers in the management of their disease. PMID:11785189

  17. Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tram T.; Martin, Paul

    2001-12-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 40% of cases of chronic liver disease in the United States and is now the most common indication for liver transplantation. Estimates suggest that 4 million people (1.8%) of the American population are or have been infected with HCV. Currently, the treatment of choice for patients with chronic HCV infection is recombinant interferon alfa with ribavirin. Pegylated interferons are a promising new development, and in combination with ribavirin, they will rapidly become the standard of care. The goals of therapy are to slow disease progression, improve hepatic histology, reduce infectivity, and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Sustained virologic response, which generally implies the absence of viremia for 6 months or more following completion of therapy, is increasingly being regarded as a cure, with evidence of slowing or even regression of fibrosis on follow-up liver biopsy. A number of factors have been shown to be predictive of a sustained response, including viral genotype other than 1, low serum HCV RNA levels, absence of cirrhosis, younger age, female gender, and shorter duration of infection. Disease severity as assessed by liver biopsy, comorbidities, and possible contraindications to therapy should be weighed in the decision to begin treatment. Counseling patients regarding transmission, natural history, and drug and alcohol abstinence also should be included in management. Close monitoring should be done during treatment for side effects of interferon, including depression and bone marrow suppression. Hemolytic anemia is the major side effect of ribavirin. PMID:11696276

  18. Toxicity of lunar dust

    OpenAIRE

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowle...

  19. [Autoimmunization induced by interferon alpha therapy in chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Pierre; Codes, Liana; Chevallier, Michèle; Trépo, Christian; Zoulim, Fabien

    2004-11-01

    We report the case of a 56 year-old woman with post-transfusion chronic hepatitis C who presented with a severe ALT flare up associated with a rapid progression of liver fibrosis during interferon alpha 2b therapy. Several hypotheses were considered to explain the etiology of this ALT flare: there was no viral super infection by other hepatotropic viruses, no toxic hepatitis, no metabolic disease, and no other specific liver diseases could be identified. HLA typing showed a specific profile A1 B8 DR3 (risk factor of auto-immunization during interferon alpha therapy) with antinuclear antibodies and anti smooth muscle antibodies. This case suggests that auto-immunization induced by interferon alpha should be investigated in case of ALT flare that is not followed by an HCV breakthrough. PMID:15657545

  20. Rare earth contrast agents in hepatic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials with atomic numbers ranging from the upper 50's to the lower 70's proved to have the highest computed tomography (CT) numbers when scanned at 120 kVp. Therefore, to produce particulate contrast agents possessing maximum radiopacity, suspensions of cerium oxide, gadolinium, and dysprosium oxides as well as silver iodide colloid were prepared. All 4 agents were selectively concentrated in the reticulo-endothelial system. The agents produced greater and longer opacification of the normal liver and larger liver-to-tumor differences in rabbits with hepatic tumors than did equivalent amounts of standard intravenous iodinated agents. Lesions as small as 5 mm were visible with CT. These materials have favorable characteristics as hepatic contrast agents, but their toxicity (LD50 in mice = 5.4 g/kg for Ce) and long-term retention may limit clinical use. (Auth.)

  1. Euforia-induced acute hepatitis in a patient with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Encarnación, Esther; Ríos, Grissel; Muñoz-Mirabal, Angel; Vilá, Luis M

    2012-01-01

    Euforia, a supplement containing a variety of natural ingredients, is widely used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory formula. It is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and its side effects are unknown. We report a 45-year-old woman with limited systemic sclerosis who presented with jaundice and marked elevation of serum transaminases. One month before, she started taking Euforia juice. A liver biopsy disclosed submassive hepatocellular necrosis with histopathological changes consistent with toxic hepatitis. The patient's symptoms resolved with cessation of Euforia. Six months later, she persisted with abnormal liver function tests, but these resolved 18 months after discontinuation of Euforia. The mechanism by which Euforia causes liver injury is unknown. Some ingredients contained in this supplement (green tea, Aloe vera, noni and goji) are linked to hepatic injury. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hepatotoxicity associated with Euforia. PMID:23257938

  2. The use of novel agents in multiple myeloma patients with hepatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Lindsay C; Gonsalves, Wilson I; Buadi, Francis K

    2015-01-01

    Novel drugs such as immunomodulators and proteasome inhibitors have improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma. Like all therapeutic agents, appropriate dosing based on metabolism and clearance is important to maintain efficacy while avoiding toxicity. Hepatic impairment (HI) in multiple myeloma patients is rare but well described either due to disease or therapy-related factors. However, limited data are available on the appropriate use and dosing of the novel agent therapeutics in myeloma patients with HI. Furthermore, data on HI secondary to the novel agent toxicity are also sparse. This systematic review highlights the evidence on the use of novel agents like thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide, bortezomib and carfilzomib in patients with HI as well as their associated hepatic toxicities. PMID:25675129

  3. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU), there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000): 215-220

  4. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  5. Toxicity. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicological studies of radioprotective substances are reviewed. Some variations in reported results are ascribed to differences in the initial purity of the compounds tested, to the use of different strains of animals, and to the deterioration of stocks and thiols on storage despite all protective measures. Consideration is first given to the toxicity of various sulphydryl compounds when separately administered. The most active sulphur-containing radioprotective chemicals are toxic to all living systems and particularly to mammals; the range between the active and the toxic dose is narrow. Deleterious effects occur at cellular, tissue and general levels, and cellular toxicity appears to be the responsible factor for the protective power, at least in mammals. Studies have been made of the acute and subacute toxicity, the LD50 and tolerated doses, long-term and embryonic toxicity, the cumulative toxicity of repeated injections and the effects of continuous feeding. Mixtures of chemical protective agents have been used to increase protection against radiation damage, while decreasing some of the general toxic effects, but these potent mixtures may have side effects not seen with single compounds. Attempts have been made to diminish the toxicity of protective compounds by giving substances counteracting their generally deleterious effects. Further investigations are necessary before these radioprotective substances may be tried in man. (U.K.)

  6. Hepatitis B immunization in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M H; Goldstein, M A

    1995-10-01

    This article reviews the epidemiology of hepatitis B in the United States, previous vaccination strategy, and reasons for its failure and issues leading to the recommendation to vaccinate all adolescents. A review of specific hepatitis B virus risk behaviors of adolescents and barriers to vaccinating adolescents is covered. Strategies that favor successful completion of the immunization series are also examined. Hepatitis B infection is an important public health concern for adolescents. The previous vaccine strategy to immunize only individuals though to be at high risk was unsuccessful, especially because providers of care could not identify these individuals. Furthermore, many individuals thought not to be at high risk for infection were exposed through contacts which could not be identified. Challenges to immunization of adolescents include logistical issues, patient education, cost of the vaccine, and patient compliance. Several of these issues can be addressed by a school-based hepatitis B immunization program. The body of evidence and national policy is rapidly changing to support the recommendation that all adolescents receive the hepatitis B immunization series. The series would be most effective if administered during the middle-school years. A universal adolescent hepatitis B vaccination program would result in the most immediate health benefits and acceleration toward the eradication of hepatitis B in the United States. PMID:8580124

  7. Hepatic fibrosis in Kabuki syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Valerio; Marcellini, Matilde; Devito, Rita; Capolino, Rossella; Viola, Laura; Digilio, M Cristina

    2004-01-15

    Kabuki (Niikawa-Kuroki) syndrome (KS) is characterized by a distinctive face, mental retardation, growth deficiency, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, palatal anomalies, congenital heart defects, and urogenital malformations. Congenital hepatic abnormalities have been sporadically described in patients with KS from the literature, consisting of extrahepatic biliary atresia, neonatal sclerosing cholangitis, and severe neonatal jaundice. We report here on an additional patient with a congenital abnormality of the liver consisting of hepatic fibrosis. To our knowledge, idiopathic congenital hepatic fibrosis has not been reported in KS. Thus, our observation expands the spectrum of liver malformations found in KS with the inclusion of hepatic fibrosis and supports the evidence that hepatic abnormalities may not be uncommon in KS. Clinician should be advised to search for the specific facial anomalies of KS in patients with syndromic congenital hepatic diseases, and KS should be added to the list of previously recognized multiple congenital anomaly syndromes with hepatic involvement. Due to the frequent association with congenital heart malformations, KS should be considered in the evaluation of patients with neonatal liver disease and cardiac malformation. Due to the expression patterns of Notch genes, involvement of the Notch signaling pathway in the development of heart and liver anomalies in KS should be considered. PMID:14699623

  8. Role of selenium toxicity and oxidative stress in aquatic birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, David J

    2002-04-01

    hepatic GSH peroxidase, depletion of hepatic protein bound thiols and total thiols, but a small increase in GSH. Diving ducks in the San Francisco Bay area exhibited a positive correlation between hepatic Se concentration and GSH peroxidase activity (r=0.63, P<0.05), but a negative correlation between hepatic Se and GSH concentration (r=-0.740, P<0.05). In willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) from the San Diego area, positive correlations occurred between hepatic Se concentration and GSSG (r=0.70, P<0.001), GSSG:GSH ratio, and TBARS. In emperor geese (Chen canagica) from western Alaska, blood levels of up to 9.4 ppm occurred and were associated with increased plasma GSH peroxidase activity (r=0.62, P<0.001), but with decreased plasma GSSG reductase activity. When evaluating Se toxicity, interactive nutritional factors, including other elements and dietary protein, should also be taken into consideration. Further studies are needed to examine the relationship between different forms of environmentally occurring selenium, arsenic and mercury on reproduction, hepatotoxicity and immune function of aquatic birds. Further selenium nutritional interaction studies may also help to illucidate the mechanism of selenium induced teratogenesis, by optimizing GSH and other antioxidant defense mechanisms in a manner that would stabilize or raise the cell's threshold for susceptibility to toxic attack from excess selenium. It is concluded that Se-related manifestations of oxidative stress may serve as useful bioindicators of Se exposure and toxicity in wild aquatic birds. PMID:11879935

  9. Liver scintigraphy of fulminant hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liver scintigraphies of five patients with fulminant hepatitis were examined. Scintiphotos using sup(99m)Tc-phytate were taken within two weeks after the onset. Scintiphotos of 12 normal subjects, 11 cases with acute hepatitis, 17 cases with liver cirrhosis were served as control. Their scintiphotos showed reduction of the size, well-maintained uptake, mostly homogenous RI distribution, and no left lobe enlargement, which could differentiate them from the chronic liver dysfunction. In one of the cases chronological changes in liver scintigraphy were observed. The size of the liver was reduced progressively until the 16th day and re-enlarged at the 30th day and thereafter. Three indices [S/W, (R + L)/W, and L/R] were calculated. S: area of liver, R or L: longitudinal length of the right or left lobe, W: body width. Relative size of the liver expressed by S/W or (R + L)/W showed significant reduction in fulminant hepatitis compared with acute hepatitis. However, they were not different significantly from those of normal subjects. Except for liver cirrhosis, L/R (left lobe swelling index) did not show significant differences among fulminant hepatitis, normal subjects, and acute hepatitis. These indices were also useful in follow-up study of the liver scintigraphy. The liver scintigraphy in the early phase of fulminant hepatitis seems to reflect the degree of massive hepatic necrosis. It is also useful to differentiate chronic hepatic failure. Apparant reduction in scintigraphical liver size seems to suggest poor prognosis, however, it should also kept in mind that the size of the liver in this condition might change quite rapidly and greatly. (author)

  10. Chronic urticaria following acute hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Paul M.; Kevat, Dev A S; James S. McCarthy; Woods, Marion L

    2012-01-01

    Urticaria has a documented association with the prodromal phases of hepatitis A, B and, although still contentious, likely hepatitis C. Despite the documented association there are few actual reported cases of urticaria occurring with hepatitis A infection and in all of the cases reported so far the urticaria preceded the diagnosis of hepatitis A and was acute rather than chronic. We describe a case of urticaria occurring following acute infection with hepatitis A, which persisted beyond 6 we...

  11. Hepatitis Associated Aplastic Anemia: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad-ur-Rehman; Hussain Abrar; Ali Liaqat; Butt Azeem M; Butt Sadia; Shah Shahida; Idrees Muhammad; Rauff Bisma; Ali Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA) is an uncommon but distinct variant of aplastic anemia in which pancytopenia appears two to three months after an acute attack of hepatitis. HAAA occurs most frequently in young male children and is lethal if leave untreated. The etiology of this syndrome is proposed to be attributed to various hepatitis and non hepatitis viruses. Several hepatitis viruses such as HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV and HGV have been associated with this set of symptom...

  12. Hepatic Resection Using a Water Jet Dissector

    OpenAIRE

    H. U. Baer; Stain, S. C.; Guastella, T.; G. J. Maddern; Blumgart, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity in major hepatic resection is often related to hemorrhage. A high pressure, high velocity water jet has been developed and has been utilized to assist in hepatic parenchymal transection. Sixty-seven major hepatic resections were performed for solid hepatic tumors. The tissue fracture technique was used in 51 patients (76%), and the water jet dissector was used predominantly in 16 patients (24%). The extent of hepatic resection using each technique was similar. The ...

  13. Failure to incriminate hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and hepatitis E viruses in the aetiology of fulminant non-A non-B hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutimer, D; Shaw, J.; Neuberger, J; Skidmore, S.; Martin, B.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Hubscher, S; McMaster, P; Elias, E

    1995-01-01

    Sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis is the most common indication for liver transplantation in patients presenting with fulminant and subacute liver failure. This study used serological, histological, and molecular biological techniques to examine specimens from 23 consecutive patients transplanted for sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis. No evidence was found of hepatitis C virus, hepatitis E virus, or 'cryptic' hepatitis B virus infection.

  14. Complement levels in acute infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, J. C.; Leader-Williams, Lesley K.

    1972-01-01

    The level of the third component of complement was measured in serial specimens of serum taken from thirty-one patients with acute viral hepatitis. Fourteen of the thirty-one patients were positive for the hepatitis-associated antigen. A characteristic fluctuation was observed in twenty-nine of the thirty-one patients. This consisted of an initial fall of the level of C3, followed by an increase to a higher than normal level and then a gradual return to normal. No difference was observed between the patients who were positive and those who were negative for the hepatitis-associated antigen. These results support the view that immune complexes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute viral hepatitis. PMID:4624985

  15. [Treatment of viral hepatitis (II). Treatment of chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Quijano, Armando; Lissen-Otero, Eduardo

    2006-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection is the principal cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the Western World. Chronic hepatitis C is often silent, most of the times discovered only by routine serologic or biochemical testing and the interval between infection and the development of cirrhosis exceed 30 years. Interestingly the complications of chronic hepatitis C virus infection can be prevented by antiviral therapy. At present, the combination of pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirina has become the standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The management of HCV infection in "special populations" (HIV coinfection and HCV therapy-experienced patient) has improved significantly over the past few years, through a better knowledge of the disease and the publication of several clinical trials performed in these patients. At presents, a number of new anti-HCV therapies are in development. Future drugs for HCV infection might make possible to eradicate HCV in future. PMID:16987471

  16. [Molecular diagnosis of hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidovec Lepej, Snjezana; Dusek, Davorka; Budimir, Jelena; Vince, Adriana

    2009-12-01

    Molecular methods are a well-established part of routine diagnostic work-up in patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Confirmation of active viral replication in infected patients is based on detection and/or quantification of viral genome in serum by molecular assays. Diagnostic algorithm for hepatitis C includes detection and/or quantification of HCV RNA in serum of infected patients and HCV genotyping. Diagnostic work-up in patients with hepatitis B includes quantification of HBV DNA in serum, HBV genotyping, and determination of resistance to nucleoside and nucleotide analogues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the standard recommended molecular method for quantification of HCV RNA and HBV DNA in clinical samples. Due to superior sensitivity, real-time PCR assays can provide both qualitative detection of viral genome and quantification. Molecular diagnosis of HCV and HBV infections in clinical laboratories should be limited to certified standardized assays. PMID:20198893

  17. Hepatology after Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The ∼90% probability of curing individual patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)using direct-acting antivirals represents one of the most dramatic medical success stories of the modern era, and the journey from viral discovery to treatment occurred over just ∼25 years. The realities of the global burden of disease (2-3% of the world's population is infected), limited access to care and cost of treatment mean that HCV will continue to be a major problem for the next 25 years. But what if HCV (and hepatitis B) could be eradicated? Since liver transplantation and HCV management have been the mainstays of academic hepatology practice, where do we go from here? Unfortunately, we are in an era where the incidence and prevalence of liver diseases around the globe is increasing, and death from complications of cirrhosis is now among the top 10 causes in most countries; so hepatologists are expected to play a major role in the future. Despite remarkable progress, success at the population level is limited by the resource-intensive nature of caring for patients with end-stage disease. Accordingly, the major advances in the next decade are likely to focus on (i) the earlier identification of individuals and populations at higher risk for liver diseases, and (ii) initiation in high-risk populations of specific strategies for early detection and treatment of fibrosis, cancer and cirrhosis. The answers will lie in large part in the further exploration of the human genome in carefully phenotyped patients. Risk variants in the PNPLA3 gene represent the best example to date. The risk variants are common and are enriched in certain populations around the globe; and individuals that possess risk variants are more likely to have liver injury from fatty liver disease (even as children), alcohol and viral hepatitis. Further, those with liver injury are more likely to progress to cirrhosis and hepatoma. Similarly, in those with established liver disease, use of biomarkers and other

  18. Hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s and vaccination has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the HB-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented.   Neutralizing (protective) antibodies (anti-HBs) induced by vaccination are targeted largely towards the amino acid hydrophilic region, referred to as the common a determinant which is present on the outer protein coat or surface antigen (HBsAg), spanning amino acids 124-149. This provides protection against all HBV genotypes (from A to H) and is responsible for the broad immunity afforded by hepatitis B vaccination. Thus, alterations of residues within this region of the surface antigen may determine conformational changes that can allow replication of the mutated HBV in vaccinated people. An important mutation in the surface antigen region was identified in Italy some 25 years ago in infants born to HBsAg carrier mothers who developed breakthrough infections despite having received HBIG and vaccine at birth. This virus had a point mutation from guanosine to adenosine at nucleotide position 587, resulting in aa substitution from glycine (G) to arginine (R) at position 145 in the a determinant. Since the G145R substitution alters the projecting loop (aa 139-147) of the a determinant, the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination are no longer able to recognize the mutated epitope. Beside G145R, other S-gene mutations potentially able to evade neutralizing anti-HBs and infect vaccinated people have been described worldwide. In addition, the emergence of Pol mutants associated with resistance to treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues can select viruses with crucial changes in the overlapping S-gene, potentially able to alter the S protein immunoreactivity. Thus

  19. Three cases of liver toxicity with a dietary supplement intended to stop hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Julieta; Navascués, Carmen; Albines, Gino; Franco, Lissa; Pipa, María; Rodríguez, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Liver toxicity associated with herbal remedies and dietary supplements is an increasing concern. Several toxic hepatitis cases have been reported in the literature in association with products intended for weight loss where green tea extracts are an ingredient.Three hepatotoxicity cases are reported below in association with the use of Inneov masa capilar®, a dietary supplement intended to stop hair loss whose primary component is green tea catechins. In all of them, other potential causes of acute hepatitis were ruled out.We highlight the importance of awareness regarding these substances at history taking in order to identify and report hepatic adverse reactions secondary to apparently safe herbs as described in the present manuscript. PMID:25544415

  20. Three cases of liver toxicity with a dietary supplement intendedto stop hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Fernández

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver toxicity associated with herbal remedies and dietary supplements is an increasing concern. Several toxic hepatitis cases have been reported in the literature in association with products intended for weight loss where green tea extracts are an ingredient. Three hepatotoxicity cases are reported below in association with the use of Inneov masa capilar®, a dietary supplement intended to stop hair loss whose primary component is green tea catechins. In all of them, other potential causes of acute hepatitis were ruled out. We highlight the importance of awareness regarding these substances at history taking in order to identify and report hepatic adverse reactions secondary to apparently safe herbs as described in the present manuscript.

  1. Noninvasive Markers of Hepatic Fibrosis in Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Poynard, Thierry; Ngo, Yen; Munteanu, Mona; Thabut, Dominique; Ratziu, Vlad

    2011-01-01

    A serum biomarker (FibroTest; Biopredictive, Paris, France; FibroSure; LabCorp, Burlington, USA) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by Fibroscan (Echosens, Paris, France) have been extensively validated in chronic hepatitis C. This review updates the clinical validation of serum biomarkers and LSM in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). One meta-analysis combined all published studies and another used a database combining FibroTest individual data. Sensitivity analysis assessed the imp...

  2. The hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram in alcoholic hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to identify abnormalities in the hepatic-arterial/portal-venous scintiangiogram (SA) in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SA's were performed in 35 patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), 8; acute alcoholic hepatitis superimposed on cirrhosis (A/C), 14; and cirrhosis (C), 13. Posterior flows were done with a bolus of 10 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid with computer time-activity curves over the liver and left kidney. Curves were analyzed for per cent of hepatic arterial (HA) and portal venous contribution using the slope ratio method. Hepatic arterialization was estimated from the angle of the HA component of the curve. Reversal of the relative contribution of the hepatic and portal components of total flow were seen in all groups. Although quite severe in AH, the degree of reversal could not be used to differentiate among the groups. The average HA angle in AAH was 48.3 +- 8.1, in A/C 41.5 +- 10.6, and in C 30.4 +- 12.1. In reviewing the data of only those in the acute clinical phase of AH and not the recovery phase (1 AAH, 3 A/C) and those without other causes of alteration in hepatic arterialization (1 hepatoma, 1 portalcaval shunt, 6 renal failure), the average HA angle in AAH was 50.1 +- 6.6, 45.4 +- 8.2 in A/C, and 23.2 +- 4.2 in C. In 6 with renal failure (2 C, 2AAH, 2 A/C) the HA angle ws 52.7 +- 5.7. In all cases cirrhosis could be differentiated from both A/C (P=.05) and AAH (P<.01) using the HA angle. In absence of renal failure, portal shunt, or hepatoma, P was <.01 in both comparisons

  3. Low toxicity corrosion inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the design and testing of low toxicity corrosion inhibitors. New chemistries have been investigated with respect to corrosion protection and impact on the marine environment. The resulting chemicals, while they are effective corrosion inhibitors, present significant improvements in terms of environmental properties over current products. The discussion includes results of the corrosion inhibition, toxicity, biodegradability and partitioning studies

  4. Epstein-Barr virus hepatitis associated withicterus: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBVI in children is usually asymptomatic with seroconversion. If primary infection occurs in adolescents or in adulthood, the most common manifestation is acute infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis of acute infectious mononucleosis is made by virus and serologic tests. The most important evidence of primary EBV infection includes IgM class antibodies detected by using EBV virus-capsidantigen (EBV VCA which appears at the beginning of illness and usually lasts 1 to 2 months. Paul Bunnell Davidson test, although non-specific, is still in use today in diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and for detection of heterophile antibodies. Case report. Acute hepatitis with icterus is a rare clinical manifestation in primary EBV infection. However, sometimes it is the only manifestation of the disease. This is a case report of a patient with EBV hepatitis and icterus associated with long-lasting fever without pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy, which are characteristics of infectious mononucleosis. The etiologic diagnosis was confirmed by positive Paul Bunnell Davidson test and by detection of specific antibodies (class IgM to EBV VCA in patient's serum. Discussion. The pathogenetic mechanism which causes destruction of hepatic cells and provokes cholestasis during EBV infection, has not been cleared yet. It is supposed that EBV has no direct cytocide effects on hepatic cells, yet destruction of these cells is caused by toxic action of free radicals through lipid peroxidation. Patients with infectious mononucleosis have autoantibodies directed against enzyme superoxide-dismutase which neutralizes enzyme's antioxidant action. As a result of this action, free radicals accumulate in hepatic cells and cause their damage. Conclusion. Icteric forms of EBV infection are rare. In differential diagnosis of icterus caused by infectious agents, one should not forget EBV. .

  5. HEPATITIS A VIRAL INFECTION TRIGGERS AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS IN A PATIENT: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Jakkal Darpan; Solanke Sachin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus is an infectious agent known to trigger autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We present a case in a 40years old woman with Autoimmune hepatitis who presented 4 months after viral hepatits A infection. Diagnosis of hepatitis A virus was attributed on viral serological tests and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in accordance with international autoimmune hepatitis group system. [1] She is in remission with steroid therapy. The case we present is unusual with paucity ob...

  6. Prevalence of parenterally transmitted hepatitis viruses in clinically diagnosed cases of hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Arora D; Sehgal R; Gupta N; Yadav A; Mishra N; Siwach S

    2005-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most important causative agent of blood borne hepatitis in humans. Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) infection occurs either as a coinfection or superinfection in HBV carriers. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis and continues to be a major cause of human liver disease throughout the world. The present study was conducted on 70 clinically diagnosed cases of viral hepatitis to study the prevalence of parenterally transmitted vir...

  7. Hyperacute drug-induced hepatitis with intravenous amiodarone: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Nasser, Timothy R Larsen, Barryton Waanbah, Ibrahim Sidiqi, Peter A McCullough Providence Hospitals and Medical Centers, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Southfield and Novi, MI, USA Abstract: Amiodarone is a benzofuran class III antiarrhythmic drug used to treat a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The parenteral formulation is prepared in polysorbate 80 diluent. We report an unusual case of acute elevation of aminotransaminase concentrations after the initiation of intravenous amiodarone. An 88-year-old Caucasian female developed acute hepatitis and renal failure after initiating intravenous amiodarone for atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response in the setting of acutely decompensated heart failure and hepatic congestion. Liver transaminases returned to baseline within 7 days after discontinuing the drug. Researchers hypothesized that this type of injury is related to liver ischemia with possible superimposed direct drug toxicity. The CIOMS/RUCAM scale identifies our patient’s acute hepatitis as a highly probable adverse drug reaction. Future research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which hyperacute drug toxicity occurs in the setting of impaired hepatic perfusion and venous congestion. Keywords: intravenous amiodarone, acute hepatotoxicity, liver transaminases, drug-induced liver toxicity

  8. Prevalence of hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus and hepatitis E virus as causes of acute viral hepatitis in North India: A hospital based study

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, P; Prakash, S.; Gupta, S; Singh, K.P.; Shrivastava, S; Singh, D. D.; Singh, J; Jain, A.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Acute viral hepatitis (AVH) is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Aim: The aim of the present study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) as causes of AVH in a tertiary care hospital of North India. Settings and Design: Blood samples and clinical information was collected from cases of AVH referred to the Grade I v...

  9. Hepatic tumor volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate CT quantification of hepatic tumor volume in sequential CT studies of oncology patients could provide a reliable morphologic marker of disease response to chemotherapy. At present, estimates of morphologic response are based on number and size of individual lesions. In this paper three-dimensional (3D) technique is presented. A filtering program is applied to all two-dimensional (2D) sections to increase signal-to-noise ratio while maintaining boundary delineation. A CT number histogram of normal and abnormal intrahepatic tissue derived from a representative 2D section is applied in sequence to contiguous 2D sections in 3D space. A user graphics tool is available to correct for false delineation

  10. Hepatitis B in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guglielmo Borgia; Maria Aurora Carleo; Giovanni Battista Gaeta; Ivan Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects about 350 million individuals worldwide.Management of HBV infection in pregnancy is difficult because of several peculiar and somewhat controversial aspects.The aim of the present review is to provide a tool that may help physicians to correctly manage HBV infection in pregnancy.This review focuses on (1) the effect of pregnancy on HBV infection and of HBV infection on pregnancy; (2) the potential viral transmission from mother to newborn despite at-birth prophylaxis with immunoglobulin and vaccine; (3) possible prevention of mother-to-child transmission through antiviral drugs,the type of antiviral drug to use considering their efficacy and potential teratogenic effect,and the timing of their administration and discontinuation; and (4) the evidence for the use of elective caesarean section vs vaginal delivery and the possibility of breastfeeding.

  11. Update on autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Teufel; Peter R Galle; Stephan Kanzler

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a necroinflammatory liver disease of unknown etiology that occurs in children and adults of all ages. Characteristics are its autoimmune features, hyperglobulinemia (IgG), and the presence of circulating autoantibodies, as well as a response to immunosuppressant drugs. Current treatment consists of prednisone and azathioprine and in most patients this disease has become very treatable. Over the past 2 years, a couple of new insights into the genetic aspects, clinical course and treatment of AIH have been reported, which will be the focus of this review. In particular, we concentrate on genome-wide microsatellite analysis, a novel mouse model of AIH, the evaluation of a large AIH cohort for overlap syndromes,suggested novel criteria for the diagnosis of AIH, and the latest studies on treatment of AIH with budenoside and mycophenolate mofetil.

  12. Hepatic encephalopathy: historical remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, Piero

    2015-03-01

    The history of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is briefly reviewed since the beginning of western medicine by Hippocrates. For about 2000 years the main evidence was the mere association between jaundice, fever and delirium. A clear link between delirium and cirrhosis was proven in the 17th century by Morgagni. In subsequent times the focus was manly the descriptions of symptoms and the only pathophysiological improvement was the evidence that jaundice, per se, does not alter brain function. Only at the end of the 19th century Hann et al proved the role of portal-systemic shunt and pf nitrogenous derivates in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. A terrific development of knowledge occurred in the last 60 years, after the works of Sherlock in London. Nowadays some consensus about HE was reached, so that new developments will likely occur. PMID:26041956

  13. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  14. Auto immune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Nicole MF; de Boer, Ynto S; Mulder, Chris JJ; van Nieuwkerk, Carin MJ; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    To provide an update of the latest trends in epidemiology, clinical course, diagnostics, complications and treatment of auto immune hepatitis (AIH). A search of the MEDLINE database was performed using the search terms: “auto immune hepatitis”, “clinical presentation”, “symptoms”, “signs”, “diagnosis”, “auto antibodies”, “laboratory values”, “serology”, “histopathology”, “histology”, “genetics”, “HLA genes”, “non-HLA genes”, “environment”, “epidemiology”, “prevalence”, “incidence”, “demographics”, “complications”, “HCC”, “PBC”, “PSC”, “corticosteroid”, “therapy”, “treatment”, “alternative treatment”. English-language full-text articles and abstracts were considered. Articles included reviews, meta-analysis, prospective retrospective studies. No publication date restrictions were applied. AIH is an immune meditated progressive inflammatory liver disease that predominantly affects middle-aged females but may affect people of all ages. The clinical spectrum of AIH is wide, ranging from absent or mild symptoms to fulminant hepatic failure. The aetiology of AIH is still unknown, but is believed to occur as the consequence of an aberrant immune response towards an un-known trigger in a genetically susceptible host. In the absence of a gold standard, diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical, biochemical and histopathological criteria. Immunosuppressive treatment has been the cornerstone of treatment since the earliest description of the disease in 1950 by Waldenström. Such treatment is often successful at inducing remission and generally leads to normal life expectancy. Nevertheless, there remain significant areas of unmet aetiological a clinical needs including fundamental insight in disease pathogenesis, optimal therapy, duration of treatment and treatment alternatives in those patients unresponsive to standard treatment regimens. PMID:27217697

  15. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  16. [Impaired cognitive function in hepatitis C - a review.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter; Hjerrild, Simon;

    2010-01-01

    Impaired cognitive function is commonly seen in patients with hepatitis C-virus (HCV). This might be due to a toxic effect of the virus itself or to neuroinflammatory processes with a direct damaging cerebral effect. The symptoms appear in the pre-cirrhotic stage and impair the patient's level...... of functioning. Therefore, doctors in contact with HCV patients should be up to date on the existing knowledge in the field to be able to inform patients about their cognitive deficits and take them into consideration. It is unknown if the cognitive deficits decline when the virus is eradicated. Udgivelsesdato...

  17. The functional hepatic volume assessed by 99mTc-GSA hepatic scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Ishikawa, N; Takeda, T; Tanaka, Y; Pan, X Q; Sato, M; Todoroki, T; Hatakeyama, R; Itai, Y

    1995-11-01

    The accuracy of measurement of the functional hepatic volume by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-galactosyl serum albumin (99mTc-GAS) was evaluated. 99mTc-GSA planar scintigraphic images were obtained dynamically and the hepatic SPECT imaging was then performed in 25 patients with hepatobiliary tumors. The patients were divided into 4 groups with normal hepatic function, and mild, moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction. The functional hepatic volume determined by SPECT was compared with the morphological hepatic volume determined by compute tomography. The ratio of the hepatic volumes obtained by the two methods was calculated. The mean hepatic volume ratio was 96.6 +/- 2.3% in the normal hepatic function group and 95.9 +/- 2.2% in the mild dysfunction group (n.s.). In both the moderate and severe hepatic dysfunction groups, the hepatic volume ratio was smaller than that in the normal group (87.9 +/- 5.2%, p hepatic volume ration and various indices of reserve hepatic function, such as LHL15 (r = 0.83, p hepatic volume ratio is proportional to the severity of hepatic dysfunction, and suggest that the functional hepatic volume measured with 99mTc-GSA faithfully reflects the functioning hepatocyte mass. 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy and hepatic SPECT therefore provide information regarding global and regional reserve hepatic function. PMID:8770291

  18. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic...

  19. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  20. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  1. Safety of Curcuma aromatica oil gelatin microspheres administered via hepatic artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Gui Deng; Zhi-Feng Wu; Wei-Ying Li; Zhi-Gang Yang; Gang Chang; Fan-Zhe Meng; Li-Li Mo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety of Curcuma aromatica oilgelatin microspheres (CAO-GMS) infused via hepatic artery against primary liver cancer.METHODS: The safety of CAO-GMS was evaluated in view of its acute toxicity in rats, long-term toxicity in Beagle dogs and general pharmacology in rats and mongrel dogs. RESULTS: The 50% lethal dose (LD50) of CAO-GMS infusedvia the hepatic artery was 17.19 mg/kg, and the serum biochemical indices of dying rats after the administration changed markedly while those of survived rats did not. Subsequent pathological examination of the tissues from the dead rats indicated improper embolism. Similar edema and small necrotic foci in the hepatic Iobule were found in the hepatic tissue of rats receiving 10 and 5 mg/kg CAO GMS and GMS 60 d after the last administration, while not in the rats of the blank control group, indicating that microspheres infused via the hepatic artery may induce irreversible liver damage dose-dependently. General pharmacological study showed that the activities (postureand gait), respiration frequency, blood pressure or heart rate of the dogs were not affected by CAO-GMS, nor were salivation, tremor or pupil changes of the rats observed or their balancing ability compromised, suggesting CAO-GMSinfused via the hepatic artery did not significantly affect the nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. CONCLUSION: CAO-GMS embolization administered via the hepatic artery is safe but undesired embolization induced by vascular variation should be given due attention in its clinical application. Individualized embolization dosage and super-selective catheterization technique are recommended to avoid undesired embolism and reduce complications.

  2. Recurrent Acute Liver Failure Because of Acute Hepatitis Induced by Organic Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Ito, Kyoji; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Fujinaga, Hidetaka; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The authors present a case of recurrent acute liver failure because of occupational exposure to organic solvents. A 35-year-old man with a 3-week history of worsening jaundice and flu-like symptoms was admitted to our hospital. Viral hepatitis serology and autoimmune factors were negative. The authors considered liver transplantation, but the patient's liver function spontaneously recovered. Liver biopsy revealed massive infiltration of neutrophils, but the cause of the acute hepatitis was not identified. Four months after discharge, the patient's liver function worsened again. The authors considered the possibility of antinuclear antibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis and initiated steroid treatment, which was effective. Four months after discharge, the patient was admitted for repeated liver injury. The authors started him on steroid pulse therapy, but this time it was not effective. Just before the first admission, he had started his own construction company where he was highly exposed to organic solvents, and thus the authors considered organic solvent-induced hepatitis. Although urine test results for organic solvents were negative, a second liver biopsy revealed severe infiltration of neutrophils, compatible with toxic hepatitis. Again, his liver function spontaneously improved. Based on the pathology and detailed clinical course, including the patient's high exposure to organic solvents since just before the first admission, and the spontaneous recovery of his liver damage in the absence of the exposure, he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis. The authors strongly advised him to avoid organic solvents. Since then, he has been in good health without recurrence. This is the first report of recurrent acute liver failure because of exposure to organic solvents, which was eventually diagnosed through a meticulous medical history and successfully recovered by avoiding the causative agents. In acute liver failure with an undetermined etiology, clinicians

  3. Recurrent Acute Liver Failure Because of Acute Hepatitis Induced by Organic Solvents: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Daisuke; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Ito, Kyoji; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Fujinaga, Hidetaka; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors present a case of recurrent acute liver failure because of occupational exposure to organic solvents. A 35-year-old man with a 3-week history of worsening jaundice and flu-like symptoms was admitted to our hospital. Viral hepatitis serology and autoimmune factors were negative. The authors considered liver transplantation, but the patient's liver function spontaneously recovered. Liver biopsy revealed massive infiltration of neutrophils, but the cause of the acute hepatitis was not identified. Four months after discharge, the patient's liver function worsened again. The authors considered the possibility of antinuclear antibody-negative autoimmune hepatitis and initiated steroid treatment, which was effective. Four months after discharge, the patient was admitted for repeated liver injury. The authors started him on steroid pulse therapy, but this time it was not effective. Just before the first admission, he had started his own construction company where he was highly exposed to organic solvents, and thus the authors considered organic solvent-induced hepatitis. Although urine test results for organic solvents were negative, a second liver biopsy revealed severe infiltration of neutrophils, compatible with toxic hepatitis. Again, his liver function spontaneously improved. Based on the pathology and detailed clinical course, including the patient's high exposure to organic solvents since just before the first admission, and the spontaneous recovery of his liver damage in the absence of the exposure, he was diagnosed with toxic hepatitis. The authors strongly advised him to avoid organic solvents. Since then, he has been in good health without recurrence. This is the first report of recurrent acute liver failure because of exposure to organic solvents, which was eventually diagnosed through a meticulous medical history and successfully recovered by avoiding the causative agents. In acute liver failure with an undetermined etiology, clinicians should rule

  4. Microwave Ablation of Hepatic Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Lubner, Meghan G.; Brace, Christopher L.; Ziemlewicz, Tim J.; Hinshaw, J. Louis; Lee, Fred. T.

    2013-01-01

    Microwave ablation is an extremely promising heat-based thermal ablation modality that has particular applicability in treating hepatic malignancies. Microwaves can generate very high temperatures in very short time periods, potentially leading to improved treatment efficiency and larger ablation zones. As the available technology continues to improve, microwave ablation is emerging as a valuable alternative to radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of hepatic malignancies. This article rev...

  5. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 st...

  6. Subacute fulminant hepatic failure with intermittent fever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Xin Chen; Bo Liu; Yong Hu; Joyce E. Johnson; Yi-Wei Tang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Viral hepatitis B accounts for over 80%of acute hepatic failures in China and the patients die mainly of its complications. A patient with hepatic failure and fever is not uncommon, whereas repeated fever is rare. METHODS:A 32-year-old female was diagnosed with subacute hepatic failure and hepatitis B viral infection because of hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, hepatic encephalopathy, serum anti-HBs-positive without hepatitis B vaccination, and typical intrahepatic pathological features of chronic hepatitis B. Plasma exchange was administered twice and she awoke with hyperbilirubinemia and discontinuous fever. RESULTS:Urethritis was conifrmed and medication-induced fever and/or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (Gram-negative bacillus infection) was suspected. The patient was treated with antibiotics, steroids and a Chinese herbal medicine, matrine, for three months and she recovered. CONCLUSION:The survival rate of patients with hepatic failure might be improved with comprehensive supporting measures and appropriate, timely management of com-plications.

  7. Drug-induced hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Andreasen, P B

    1992-01-01

    The Danish Committee on Adverse Drug Reactions received 1100 reports of suspected drug-induced hepatic injury during the decade 1978-1987. The causal relationship between drug and hepatic injury was classified as definite in 57 (5.2%) reports, probable in 989 (89.9%) reports, possible in 50 (4.......5%) reports and unclassifiable in four (0.4%) reports. Hepatic injuries accounted for 5.9% of all adverse drug reactions reported, and 14.7% of the lethal adverse drug reactions. A total of 47.2% were classified as acute cytotoxic, 16.2% as acute cholestatic and 26.9% as abnormal hepatic function. In 52 (4.......7%) cases the hepatic injury was lethal; only 14 (1.3%) cases were chronic. Halothane accounted for 25% of the cases. The incidence of halothane-induced hepatic injury is decreasing, and only one lethal case has been reported since 1981. Next to halothane, sulfasalazine was the drug most often suspected...

  8. Amiodarone Pulmonary, Neuromuscular and Ophthalmologic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen EA Burns

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is an iodinated benzofuran derivative class III antiarrhythmic that is highly effective in suppressing ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias. It is also associated with an imposing side effect profile, which often limits its use. Numerous adverse effects have been documented including skin discolouration, photosensitivity, hepatitis, thyroid dysfunction, corneal deposits, pulmonary fibrosis, bone marrow suppression and drug interactions. These side effects are thought to be correlated with the total cumulative dose of amiodarone, but idiopathic reactions have been reported. The majority of adverse reactions resolve with discontinuation of the drug; however, rapid progression may occur, which may be fatal. The present report documents a patient who had a combination of serious amiodarone toxicities that, once recognized, were treated and eventually resulted in a good outcome.

  9. Experimental oral lead toxicity in young dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowe, H.D.; Goyer, R.A.; Krigman, M.M.; Wilson, M.; Cates, M.

    1973-02-01

    Litter-mate male pups were fed a calcium-and-phosphorus-low purified diet with and without 100 ppm of lead as lead acetate from age 6 to 18 weeks. Lead-toxic dogs exhibited cyclic but terminally severe anorexia and cachexia, significant anemia, normoblastocytosis and leukopenia within six weeks, hypoproteinemia, decreased serum albumin, ..cap alpha../sub 1/-globulin, ..beta../sub 2/-globulin, alkaline phosphatase and lactic dehydrogenase 1, elevated serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic transaminases, delayed closure of the thoracic vertebral epiphyses, lead lines in the distal radii and thoracic spinous processes, enlargement of liver, kidney, and brain, hepatic fatty metamorphosis, focal proximal renal tubular necrosis, hydropic degeneration of spermatognia, and lead inclusion body formation. Approximately 97% of the tissue lead was estimated to be skeletal; the greatest concentration of lead in the brain was found in the occipital gray matter.

  10. When Someone Close to You Has Chronic Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... close to someone who has Hepatitis B. Is Hepatitis B vaccination recommended for all infants? Yes. Vaccination is recommended ... to determine if they unknowingly became infected with Hepatitis B before vaccination. Publication No. 21-1304 Is Hepatitis B common? ...

  11. What I Need to Know about Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español What I need to know about Hepatitis A Page Content On this page: What is hepatitis ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis * A is a virus , or infection, that ...

  12. What I Need to Know about Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español What I need to know about Hepatitis C Page Content On this page: What is hepatitis ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis * C is a virus , or infection, that ...

  13. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A. Protocol for a Cochrane Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, M; Du, XM

    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  14. Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

  15. Unintended hepatic adverse events associated with cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, John R

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy is meant to be toxic, but it is particularly aimed at the tumor cells. Collateral damage may occur to normal cells and tissues, especially if they are fairly rapidly regenerating, as is the case for bone marrow cells, intestinal epithelial cells, and liver cells after hepatic injury. The liver has a great capacity to resist injury, overcome it, and to regenerate, even after quite massive injury (resection of 50%-65%, for example). This capacity may make it susceptible to chemotherapeutic toxicity, and a struggle between injury and adaptation, leading to recovery and tolerance or to failure and death. If the chemotherapy is aimed just at delaying progression of the cancer for a few weeks or months, it may not be worth the risk of irreversible liver injury developing in that time. Close clinical observation and sound clinical judgment are required. PMID:19858501

  16. Counter-attack on virol hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B

  17. Contact Lens Solution Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Contact Lens Solution Toxicity Information for adults A A A This image shows a reaction to contact lens solution. The prominent blood vessels and redness ...

  18. Toxic Substances Portal- Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Page last reviewed: February 12, 2013 Page ... Favorites Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Contact Us: Agency for Toxic Substances and ...

  19. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  20. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  1. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  2. Lipiodol-TAE and hepatic blood flow in radiation hepatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Kazuyoshi; Hirokawa, Yutaka; Fukuoka, Haruhito (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1991-06-01

    A 58-year-old man with biliary tract cancer associated with obstructive jaundice was treated with radiation therapy. The area encompassing the common bile duct and the porta hepatis was irradiated with 2 Gy per fraction to a total dose of 40 Gy. One day after the completion of irradiation, Lipiodol-transcatheter arterial embolization (Lipiodol-TAE) was performed. The irradiated field was seen as contrast media accumulation on hepatic arteriography and as defect shadow on superior mesenteric arteriography. Retention of Lipiodol, injected from the hepatic artery, was not seen in the irradiated field. Hepatic parenchyma exposed to irradiation was shown as low density area on CT performed 28 days after Lipiodol-TAE. The irradiated field was gradually enhanced on serial CT scans, and was seen as high density area on delayed scans. These radiologic appearances lead to the diagnosis of radiation hepatitis in this patient. A review of the literature, in addition to these findings, revealed that sinusoid blood flow in radiation hepatitis is delayed, depending on arterial blood, and that peribiliary plexus is strongly involved in hemodynamics of arterially injected Lipiodol. (N.K.).

  3. Severity of depression in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess and compare the severity of depression in chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and healthy subjects. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad from July 2011 to February 2012. Methodology:A total of 206 subjects were divided in three groups. Group-I (chronic hepatitis C, n = 95), group-II (chronic hepatitis B, n = 29) and group-III (healthy subjects, n = 82). They were matched for age, gender and socioeconomic status and were compared for frequency and severity of depression as measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: Some degree of depression was noted in all groups. Frequency of depression was 72.6% in group-I, 58.6% in group-II and 37.8% in group-III (p value < 0.001). Conclusion: Both CHC and CHB had high frequency of some degree of depression. Hepatitis C patients had more depressive features than CHB. It is worthwhile to do more close mental health observation in them. A multidisciplinary team including a psychiatric specialist can help in this approach. (author)

  4. Acute hepatitis in three patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis taking interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollister J Roger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose We investigated the etiology of acute hepatitis in three children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA taking Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA. Methods Laboratory and clinical data for three children with sJIA diagnosed at ages 13 months to 8 years who developed acute hepatitis during treatment with IL1RA were reviewed for evidence of sJIA flare, infection, macrophage activation syndrome (MAS, malignancy, and drug reaction. Results In all patients, hepatitis persisted despite cessation of known hepatotoxic drugs and in absence of known infectious triggers, until discontinuation of IL1RA. Liver biopsies had mixed inflammatory infiltrates with associated hepatocellular injury suggestive of an exogenous trigger. At the time of hepatitis, laboratory data and liver biopsies were not characteristic of MAS. In two patients, transaminitis resolved within one week of discontinuing IL1RA, the third improved dramatically in one month. Conclusions Although sJIA symptoms improved significantly on IL1RA, it appeared that IL1RA contributed to the development of acute hepatitis. Hepatitis possibly occurred as a result of an altered immune response to a typical childhood infection while on IL1RA. Alternatively, hepatitis could have represented an atypical presentation of MAS in patients with sJIA taking IL1RA. Further investigation is warranted to determine how anti-IL1 therapies alter immune responsiveness to exogenous triggers in patients with immune dysfunction such as sJIA. Our patients suggest that close monitoring for hepatic and other toxicities is indicated when treating with IL1RA.

  5. Hepatic radioembolization with yttrium-90 containing glass microspheres: Preliminary results and clinical follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J.C.; Walker, S.C.; Ackermann, R.J. [Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arborn, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-10-01

    The treatment of hepatic tumors remains unsatisfactory. These lesions receive most of their blood supply from the hepatic artery, therefore the hepatic artery administration of beta-emitting particulate radiopharmaceuticals is an attractive approach to deliver therapeutic irradiation to the liver and differentially to tumors within the liver. A Phase 1 dose escalation study of the hepatic tolerance to radiation delivered by {sup 90}Y containing glass microspheres was carried out in 24 patients with hepatic malignancy. Doses of {sup 90}Y microspheres to achieve an estimated whole-liver nominal absorbed radiation dose of 5000 cGy (two patients), 7500cGy (six patients), 10,000 cGy (seven patients), 12,500 cGy (six patients), and 15,000 cGy (three patients) were administered via the hepatic artery. The administered nominal absorbed radiation dose (NARD) was estimated based on liver volume determined from CT scans and the assumption of uniform distribution of microspheres throughout the liver. No hematologic, hepatic or pulmonary toxicity was encountered in the dose range examined during a mean follow-up period of up to 53 mo. Reversible gastritis or duodenitis was encountered in four patients without imaging or biopsy evidence for extra-hepatic deposition of microspheres. Response data, based on CT scans obtained 16 wk after treatment, showed progressive disease in eight patients, stable disease in seven patients, minimal response in four patients and partial response in five patients. Subsequent follow-up revealed three long-term survivors at 204, 216 and 228 wk. These preliminary data demonstrates that in the examined dose range, radiation may be safely delivered to liver tumors by means of {sup 90}Y glass microspheres with encouraging response data. 39 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gvozdenović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome is now recognized as a toxin-mediated, multisystem illness. It is characterized by an early onset of shock with multiorgan failure and continues to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, caused by group A Streptococcus pyogenes. The symptoms for staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are similar. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was not well described until 1993, when children who had suffered from varicella presented roughly 2-4 weeks later with a clinical syndrome highly suggestive of toxic shock syndrome. Characteristics, complications and therapy. It is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, chills, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle aches and rash. It can rapidly progress to severe and intractable hypotension and multisystem dysfunction. Almost every organ system can be involved. Complications of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome may include kidney failure, liver failure and even death. Crystalloids and inotropic agents are used to treat the hypovolemic shock aggressively, with close monitoring of the patient’s mean arterial pressure and central venous pressure. An immediate and aggressive management of hypovolemic shock is essential in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Targeted antibiotics are indicated; penicillin or a betalactam antibiotic is used for treating group A streptococci, and clindamycin has emerged as a key portion of the standard treatment.

  7. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  8. Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S,M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homoand heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes posttranslationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane.During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

  9. Acute hepatitis associated with autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection--San Antonio, Texas, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; Drobeniuc, Jan; Sanchez, Roger; Heseltine, Gary; Alsip, Bryan; Kamili, Saleem; Hu, Dale J; Guerra, Fernando; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2011-10-01

    Locally acquired hepatitis E infection is increasingly being observed in industrialized countries. We report 2 cases of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in the United States. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3a related to US-2 and swine hepatitis E virus strains was isolated from one of the patients, indicating potential food-borne or zoonotic transmission. PMID:21896699

  10. Latent hepatitis B is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Arvind; May, Elizabeth; Ehrinpreis, Murray; Mutchnick, Milton

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the potential association between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), cirrhosis and latent hepatitis B (LHB) infection, defined as the absence of detectable serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb).

  11. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper;

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  12. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J;

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  13. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B We provide this video in a variety of formats and lengths for use by your organization free-of-charge. Branded videos contain ...

  14. Hepatitis B - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Moms-to-be English Hepatitis B At Ang Mga Nag-dadalantaong Ina - Tagalog (Tagalog) PDF Stanford University, ... ALAMIN ANG HBV: Ano ang dapat malaman ng mga taga-Asia tungkol sa Hepatitis B at Kanser ...

  15. Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_160112.html Sharing Drug 'Snorting Straws' Spreads Hepatitis C Study highlights more fallout from opioid epidemic ... to snort opioids is a major cause of hepatitis C infection, a new study finds. The sharing ...

  16. Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_159609.html Epclusa Approved for Chronic Hepatitis C Combination drug treats six major forms of ... to treat the six major strains of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Epclusa combines sofosbuvir, FDA-approved ...

  17. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B We provide this video in a variety of ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  18. Pharmacological Intervention in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Hepatic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Bartneck, Matthias; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Nattermann, Jacob; Lammers, Twan; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into contractile, matrix-producing myofibroblasts (MFBs) are central events in hepatic fibrogenesis. These processes are driven by autocrine- and paracrine-acting soluble factors (i.e., cytokines and chemokines). Proof-of-concept studies of the last decades have shown that both the deactivation and removal of hepatic MFBs as well as antagonizing profibrogenic factors are in principle suitable to attenuate ongoing hepatic fibrosis. Although several drugs show potent antifibrotic activities in experimental models of hepatic fibrosis, there is presently no effective pharmaceutical intervention specifically approved for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Pharmaceutical interventions are generally hampered by insufficient supply of drugs to the diseased liver tissue and/or by adverse effects as a result of affecting non-target cells. Therefore, targeted delivery systems that bind specifically to receptors solely expressed on activated HSCs or transdifferentiated MFBs and delivery systems that can improve drug distribution to the liver in general are urgently needed. In this review, we summarize current strategies for targeted delivery of drugs to the liver and in particular to pro-fibrogenic liver cells. The applicability and efficacy of sequestering molecules, selective protein carriers, lipid-based drug vehicles, viral vectors, transcriptional targeting approaches, therapeutic liver- and HSC-specific nanoparticles, and miRNA-based strategies are discussed. Some of these delivery systems that had already been successfully tested in experimental animal models of ongoing hepatic fibrogenesis are expected to translate into clinically useful therapeutics specifically targeting HSCs. PMID:26941644

  19. Toxic effects of imidacloprid on adult loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohua; Xia, Xiaopei; Huo, Weiran; Dong, Hui; Zhang, Linxia; Chang, Zhongjie

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation was aimed to assess the effects of imidacloprid on the survival, genetic materials, hepatic transaminase activity and histopathology of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). The values of LC50 (24, 48, 72 and 96h) of imidacloprid were 167.7, 158.6, 147.9 and 145.8mg/L, respectively, and the safety concentration was 42.55mg/L. The erythrocyte micronuclei assays and the comet assay results showed that imidacloprid had genetic toxic effect on the loach erythrocytes. To assess the physiological and biochemical damage caused by imidacloprid, the activities of hepatic glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) were measured and their values declined in treatment groups. Histological examination of testis revealed that imidacloprid treatment resulted in disorganized lobules and cysts structures. In the present work, we also investigated the joint toxicity of pesticides commonly used in paddy fields (imidacloprid and lambda-cyhalothrin) on M. anguillicaudatus, and confirmed that a synergistic effect existing in the binary mixtures. The results of our study provide relevant and comparable toxicity information that are useful for safety application of pesticides. PMID:27299658

  20. Hepatitis non-A, non-B.

    OpenAIRE

    Feinman, C V; Berris, B.; Sinclair, J. C.; Wrobel, D

    1980-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of hepatitis non-A, non-B includes epidemiologic data and results of transmission studies indicating the presence of hepatitis that could not be explained by known causative agents. The diagnosis is suggested in patients who have multiple episodes of acute hepatitis or who contract hepatitis after transfusion, hemodialysis or drug abuse. Sporadic cases are common. Three such cases are described to illustrate that the disease is clinically indistinguishable from hepa...

  1. Hepatitis E in a Canadian Traveller

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis E is clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis A and is caused by an enterically transmitted rna virus that is endemic in developing countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and North America. This report describes a Canadian traveller to Nepal, Thailand and India with one of the first confirmed cases of hepatitis E reported in Canada. Although this disease is usually self-limited with no known sequelae, it may produce fulminant hepatitis with a high case fatality rate in pregna...

  2. Insulin Protects against Hepatic Damage Postburn

    OpenAIRE

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Kraft, Robert; Song, Juquan; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Cox, Robert A.; Brooks, Natasha C; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury causes hepatic dysfunction associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress/UPR leads to hepatic apoptosis and activation of the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, leading to vast metabolic alterations. Insulin has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage and to improve liver function. We therefore hypothesized that insulin administration exerts its effects by attenuating postburn hepatic ER stress and subs...

  3. ACTUALLY TREATMENT OF THE HEPATIC MALIGNANT TUMORS

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of the hepatic malignant tumors is a challenge for every surgeon. In present days there are a lot of techniques with different indications and results. These methods and their efficacity are presented in some recent papers. Hepatic resection is the gold standard treatment for hepatic malignancies with a decreasing postoperative morbidity and mortality. But only 10 - 20% of the patients with hepatic malignancies are able to be operated. For the other patients the treatment is pal...

  4. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  5. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  6. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王细文; 梁平; 李洪艳

    2004-01-01

    @@ Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is defined as a malignant hepatic tumour containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. Strictly, it should be distinguished from collision tumour and carcinoma with foci of spindle-shaped epithelial cells. Primary hepatic carcinosarcoma is rare, and less than 11 adequately documented cases have been reported. In this article, a case of primary hepatic carcinosarcoma was discussed as to its potential histogenesis.

  7. The experimental studies of Chinese herbs as a vascular embolization agent for the hepatic arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the efficacy, safety and correlative characteristics of Chinese herb as a vascular embolization agent. Methods: Vascular embolization agent combined from several kinds of Chinese herb was manufactured and served as anticarcinogen and coagulant according to the chinese Pharmacopoeia. The characteristics of the combination embolization agent through embolizing the hepatic arteries in eight pigs were studied. Results: The combination agent was a non-homogenous suspension, easily to be injected through 5-F catheter with hyper attenuation under fluoroscopy; simultaneously with good histocompatibility and hemo-compatibility and without feverish response and toxicity. The combination agent mainly embolized the peripheral arteries with maintaining occlusion for 5 weeks and without formation of collateral circulation. Slight injuries of normal hepatic tissues with hepatic cytonecrosis and endochyloma focal necrosis were found through optical and electronic microscopy. Conclusions: The Chinese herb combination agent is safe and effective in experimental application with good angioembolic function and a potential peripheral embolization agent. (authors)

  8. Hepatic enzymes activity in the fish Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) after sublethal cypermethrin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loteste, A; Scagnetti, J; Simoniello, M F; Campana, M; Parma, M J

    2013-05-01

    Prochilodus lineatus, a fish, was exposed to sublethal concentrations of cypermethrin: 0.075, 0.150, and 0.300 μg L(-1) and a control group (without cypermethrin) for 96 h. Five specimens were exposed in each concentration for triplicate (n = 60). Hepatic biochemical values and behavioral changes were studied. The results revealed a significantly higher level of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase in hepatic tissue at different concentrations of cypermethrin tested compared to control (p  0.05). This study provides information to know toxic mechanisms of cypermethrin on hepatic enzymes of P. lineatus that are poorly understood. PMID:23417111

  9. Hepatitis B virus replication in acute glomerulonephritis with chronic active hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Cadrobbi, P; Bortolotti, F; Zacchello, G.; Rinaldi, R; Armigliato, M; Realdi, G

    1985-01-01

    A 3 year old boy who had chronic active hepatitis type B with features of ongoing liver damage and active virus replication, developed acute membranous glomerulonephritis two years after the clinical onset of liver disease, when both hepatitis B e antigen and antibody were detectable in serum. After withdrawal of short term steroid treatment and resolution of hepatitis B virus replication, both glomerulonephritis and chronic hepatitis went into remission. Some months later hepatitis B surface...

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis B seromarkers and hepatitis C antibodies in blood donors in Basra, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubaye, Ali; Tariq, Ziad; Alrubaiy, Laith

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-caused hepatitis remains a major problem in Iraq. Therefore, testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and antibodies to hepatitis C antigen (anti-HCV) is a very important preventative measure. The objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus seromarkers among blood donors as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in Iraq. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was con...

  11. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type a

  12. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...

  13. Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Soo; Koh, Byung Hee; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Cho, On Koo; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Kwang Su [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-01-01

    Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumor, most frequently occurring in liver parenchyma. We recently encountered an exophytic hepatic leiomyosarcoma ; CT scans indicated an indistinct border, with the parenchyme of the liver and parenchymal beaking suggesting a primary hepatic mass. We present an unusual case of primary leiomyosarcoma which showed exophytic growth.

  14. Hepatitis C: a current perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, G C

    1995-03-01

    This article covers several dilemmas posed by hepatitis C for the family physician. It is proposed that patients with known risk factors, such as injecting drug use or blood transfusion, be treated for an anti HCV. The problems of counselling the patient with an incidental positive anti HCV test are discussed; at present, the history of risk factors and liver test results are the most important aspects as there is no gold standard for hepatitis C diagnosis. Family and sexual transmission of HCV are rare; only mothers with extremely high levels of HCV viraemia are likely to transmit HCV to their offspring. Decisions about interferon treatment for hepatitis C require consideration of the natural history of this disease, the chances of a long-term response to treatment, and the adverse affects of interferon. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma is proposed for patients who already have cirrhosis. PMID:7717894

  15. Spontaneous hepatic rupture in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E W; Archibald, L; Albo, D

    1977-12-01

    Hepatic rupture as a late complication of toxemic pregnancy is a rare yet lethal condition requiring rapid recognition and surgical management. The clinical triad of toxemia, right upper quadrant pain, and sudden hypotension is the diagnostic hallmark of presentation. Most patients present near the time of delivery and are found to have subcapsular hematomas of the right hepatic lobe with free rupture into the peritoneal cavity and resultant exsanguinating hemorrhage. The association of toxemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation with secondary microembolic damage to the liver and other organs has been discussed. Basic surgical principles in the managment of hepatic subcapsular hematomas, and the prolonged postoperative course and frequent complications in these patients have been stressed. PMID:596550

  16. Aminoadamantanes for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamers, Mieke H; Broekman, Mark; Drenth, Joost Ph;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Around 3% of the world's population (approximately 160 million people) are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus. The proportion of infected people who develop clinical symptoms varies between 5% and 40%. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin...... response in genotype 1 infected patients to at least 70%. There is therefore an unmet need for drugs that can achieve a higher proportion of sustained virological response. Aminoadamantanes are antiviral drugs used for treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial...... and harmful effects of aminoadamantanes for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by conducting a systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials, as well as trial sequential analyses. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled...

  17. INFEKSI VIRUS HEPATITIS B DAN HEPATITIS C PADA PENDERITA HEPATITIS KRONIS DAN HEMODIALISIS DI JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Yuwono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus Hepatitis C dan Hepatitis B merupakan penyebab hepatitis kronik aktif yang dapat berkembang menjadi hepatoselular karsinoma. Untuk mengetahui peranan kedua jenis virus tersebut sebagai penyebab hepatoselular karsinoma, telah dilakukan pemeriksaan HbsAg, anti-VHC dan RNA-VHC pada 17 penderita hepatitis kronis. 19 Pasien hemodialisis dan 198 donor darah PMI. Pemeriksaan HbsAg dilakukan dengan RPHA Cell: pemeriksaan anti-VHC dengan dipstik anti-VHC kit diagnotik produksi NTB Mataram, Lombok. Deteksi RNA-VHC dilakukan dengan teknik RT-PCR, menggunakan primer spesifik untuk daerah 5'NCR. Hasil pemeriksaan menunjukkan bahwa pada penderita hepatitis kronis ditemukan 5 orang (23,5% positif HbsAg dan 1 orang (5,8% anti-VHC. Pada penderita hemodialisis ditemukan 14 orang (73,6% positif anti-VHC, persentase anti-VHC meningkat sesuai dengan meningkatnya frekuensi hemodialisis. Pada donor darah PMI ditemukan 5 orang (2,2% positif HbsAg dan tidak satupun ditemukan anti-VHC positif.

  18. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®). PMID:26355220

  19. Insulin resistance and hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manuel Romero-Gómez

    2006-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the major feature of the metabolic syndrome and depends on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. In chronic hepatitis C, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are more often seen than in healthy controls or chronic hepatitis B patients.Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection promotes insulin resistance, mainly by increased TNF production together with enhancement of suppressor of cytokine (SOC-3); both events block PI3K and Akt phosphorylation. Two types of insulin resistance could be found in chronic hepatitis C patients: "viral" and "metabolic" insulin resistance. Insulin resistance in chronic hepatitis C is relevant because it promotes steatosis and fibrosis. The mechanisms by which insulin resistance promotes fibrosis progression include: (1) steatosis, (2) hyperleptinemia, (3) increased TNF production, (4) impaired expression of PPARy receptors. Lastly, insulin resistance has been found as a common denominator in patients difficult-to-treat like cirrhotics, overweight, HIV coinfected and Afro-American.Insulin resistance together with fibrosis and genotype has been found to be independently associated with impaired response rate to peginterferon plus ribavirin.Indeed, in genotype 1, the sustained response rate was twice (60%) in patients with HOMA ≤ 2 than patients with HOMA > 2. In experiments carried out on Huh-7cells transfected by full length HCVRNA, interferon alpha blocks HCV replication. However, when insulin (at doses of 128 μU/mL, similar that seen in the hyperinsulinemic state) was added to interferon, the ability to block HCV replication disappeared, and the PKR synthesis was abolished. In summary, hepatitis C promotes insulin resistance and insulin resistance induces interferon resistance,steatosis and fibrosis progression.

  20. Stereotactic radiotherapy of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, Joern; Guckenberger, Matthias; Haedinger, Ulrich; Oppitz, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerd; Baier, Kurt; Flentje, Michael [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2006-09-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the clinical results of stereotactic radiotherapy in primary liver tumors and hepatic metastases. Five patients with primary liver cancer and 39 patients with 51 hepatic metastases were treated by stereotactic radiotherapy since 1997. Twenty-eight targets were treated in a 'low-dose'-group with 3x10 Gy (n=27) or 4x7 Gy (n=1) prescribed to the PTV-encl. 65%-isodose. In a 'high-dose'-group patients were treated with 3x12 - 12.5 Gy (n=19; same dose prescription) or 1x26 Gy/PTV-enclosing 80%-isodose (n=9). Median follow-up was 15 months (2-48 months) for primary liver cancer and 15 months (2-85 months) for hepatic metastases. While all primary liver cancers were controlled, nine local failures (3-19 months) of 51 metastases were observed resulting in an actuarial local control rate of 92% after 12 months and 66% after 24 months and later. A borderline significant correlation between dose and local control was observed (p=0.077): the actuarial local control rate after 12 and 24?months was 86% and 58% in the low-dose-group versus 100% and 82% in the high-dose-group. In multivariate analysis high versus low-dose was the only significant factor predicting local control (p=0.0089). Overall survival after 1 and 2 years was 72% and 32% for all patients and was impaired due to systemic progression of disease. No severe acute or late toxicity exceeding RTOG/EORTC-score 2 were observed. Stereotactic irradiation of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases offers a locally effective treatment without significant complications in patients, who are not amenable for surgery. Patient selection is important, because those with low risk for systemic progression are more likely to benefit from this approach.

  1. Stereotactic radiotherapy of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to evaluate the clinical results of stereotactic radiotherapy in primary liver tumors and hepatic metastases. Five patients with primary liver cancer and 39 patients with 51 hepatic metastases were treated by stereotactic radiotherapy since 1997. Twenty-eight targets were treated in a 'low-dose'-group with 3x10 Gy (n=27) or 4x7 Gy (n=1) prescribed to the PTV-encl. 65%-isodose. In a 'high-dose'-group patients were treated with 3x12 - 12.5 Gy (n=19; same dose prescription) or 1x26 Gy/PTV-enclosing 80%-isodose (n=9). Median follow-up was 15 months (2-48 months) for primary liver cancer and 15 months (2-85 months) for hepatic metastases. While all primary liver cancers were controlled, nine local failures (3-19 months) of 51 metastases were observed resulting in an actuarial local control rate of 92% after 12 months and 66% after 24 months and later. A borderline significant correlation between dose and local control was observed (p=0.077): the actuarial local control rate after 12 and 24?months was 86% and 58% in the low-dose-group versus 100% and 82% in the high-dose-group. In multivariate analysis high versus low-dose was the only significant factor predicting local control (p=0.0089). Overall survival after 1 and 2 years was 72% and 32% for all patients and was impaired due to systemic progression of disease. No severe acute or late toxicity exceeding RTOG/EORTC-score 2 were observed. Stereotactic irradiation of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases offers a locally effective treatment without significant complications in patients, who are not amenable for surgery. Patient selection is important, because those with low risk for systemic progression are more likely to benefit from this approach

  2. Effect of trifluoperazine on toxicity, HIF-1α induction and hepatocyte regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are important mechanisms in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. The MPT inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) reduced MPT, oxidative stress, and toxicity in freshly isolated hepatocytes treated with APAP. Since hypoxia inducible factor-one alpha (HIF-1α) is induced very early in APAP toxicity, a role for oxidative stress in the induction has been postulated. In the present study, the effect of TFP on toxicity and HIF-1α induction in B6C3F1 male mice treated with APAP was examined. Mice received TFP (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) prior to APAP (200 mg/kg IP) and at 7 and 36 h after APAP. Measures of metabolism (hepatic glutathione and APAP protein adducts) were comparable in the two groups of mice. Toxicity was decreased in the APAP/TFP mice at 2, 4, and 8 h, compared to the APAP mice. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences in toxicity between the two groups. TFP lowered HIF-1α induction but also reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of hepatocyte regeneration. TFP can also inhibit phospholipase A2, and cytosolic and secretory PLA2 activity levels were reduced in the APAP/TFP mice compared to the APAP mice. TFP also lowered prostaglandin E2 expression, a known mechanism of cytoprotection. In summary, the MPT inhibitor TFP delayed the onset of toxicity and lowered HIF-1α induction in APAP treated mice. TFP also reduced PGE2 expression and hepatocyte regeneration, likely through a mechanism involving PLA2. -- Highlights: ► Trifluoperazine reduced acetaminophen toxicity and lowered HIF-1α induction. ► Trifluoperazine had no effect on the metabolism of acetaminophen. ► Trifluoperazine reduced hepatocyte regeneration. ► Trifluoperazine reduced phospholipase A2 activity and prostaglandin E2 levels.

  3. Effect of trifluoperazine on toxicity, HIF-1α induction and hepatocyte regeneration in acetaminophen toxicity in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Shubhra, E-mail: SCHAUDHURI@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); McCullough, Sandra S., E-mail: mcculloughsandras@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Hennings, Leah, E-mail: lhennings@uams.edu [Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Brown, Aliza T., E-mail: brownalizat@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Li, Shun-Hwa [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Simpson, Pippa M., E-mail: psimpson@mcw.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Hinson, Jack A., E-mail: hinsonjacka@uams.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); James, Laura P., E-mail: jameslaurap@uams.edu [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, Arkansas Children' s Hospital Research Institute, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) are important mechanisms in acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity. The MPT inhibitor trifluoperazine (TFP) reduced MPT, oxidative stress, and toxicity in freshly isolated hepatocytes treated with APAP. Since hypoxia inducible factor-one alpha (HIF-1α) is induced very early in APAP toxicity, a role for oxidative stress in the induction has been postulated. In the present study, the effect of TFP on toxicity and HIF-1α induction in B6C3F1 male mice treated with APAP was examined. Mice received TFP (10 mg/kg, oral gavage) prior to APAP (200 mg/kg IP) and at 7 and 36 h after APAP. Measures of metabolism (hepatic glutathione and APAP protein adducts) were comparable in the two groups of mice. Toxicity was decreased in the APAP/TFP mice at 2, 4, and 8 h, compared to the APAP mice. At 24 and 48 h, there were no significant differences in toxicity between the two groups. TFP lowered HIF-1α induction but also reduced the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of hepatocyte regeneration. TFP can also inhibit phospholipase A{sub 2}, and cytosolic and secretory PLA{sub 2} activity levels were reduced in the APAP/TFP mice compared to the APAP mice. TFP also lowered prostaglandin E{sub 2} expression, a known mechanism of cytoprotection. In summary, the MPT inhibitor TFP delayed the onset of toxicity and lowered HIF-1α induction in APAP treated mice. TFP also reduced PGE{sub 2} expression and hepatocyte regeneration, likely through a mechanism involving PLA{sub 2}. -- Highlights: ► Trifluoperazine reduced acetaminophen toxicity and lowered HIF-1α induction. ► Trifluoperazine had no effect on the metabolism of acetaminophen. ► Trifluoperazine reduced hepatocyte regeneration. ► Trifluoperazine reduced phospholipase A{sub 2} activity and prostaglandin E{sub 2} levels.

  4. Hepatitis B Infection and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü E et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%, intermediate (2-7% to low (<2% prevalence. The predominant routes of transmission vary according to the endemicity of the HBV infection. In areas with high HBV endemicity, perinatal transmission is the main route of transmission, whereas in areas with low HBV endemicity, sexual contact amongst high-risk adults and using shared needles amongst injection drug users are the predominant route. Three main strategies have been approved to be effective in preventing HBV infection. They are behavior modification, passive immunoprophylaxis, and active immunization.

  5. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. PMID:25742731

  6. Hepatitis C and liver transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert S.

    2005-08-01

    Liver transplantation is a life-saving therapy to correct liver failure, portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C infection. But despite the successful use of living donors and improvements in immunosuppression and antiviral therapy, organ demand continues to outstrip supply and recurrent hepatitis C with accelerated progression to cirrhosis of the graft is a frequent cause of graft loss and the need for retransplantation. Appropriate selection of candidates and timing of transplantation, coupled with better pre- and post-transplant antiviral therapy, are needed to improve outcomes.

  7. CT manifestation of hepatic toxoplasmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the CT manifestation of hepatic toxoplasmosis, and to provide image basis for its clinical diagnosis. Methods: Three patients with hepatic toxoplasmosis were examined by abdomen MSCT (pre- and post-contrast), and were confirmed by laboratory exams. The images were analyzed with information of clinical manifestation. Results: The positive appearances included the enlargement of liver, patches of multiple scattered low densities. Post-contrast lesions appearances: (1) No significant enhancement. (2) No significant occupying effection, and normal vessels inserting lesion occasionally. Conclusion: CT manifestation of hepar toxoplasmosis are some characteristic. But the diagnosis was made by a combination both clinical manifestation and laboratory exams. (authors)

  8. Hepatitis Delta Virus RNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsin Tseng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis delta virus (HDV is a distant relative of plant viroids in the animal world. Similar to plant viroids, HDV replicates its circular RNA genome using a double rolling-circle mechanism. Nevertheless, the production of hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg, which is indispensible for HDV replication, is a unique feature distinct from plant viroids, which do not encode any protein. Here the HDV RNA replication cycle is reviewed, with emphasis on the function of HDAg in modulating RNA replication and the nature of the enzyme involved.

  9. Iron toxicity in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśnicka, R; Krzepiłko, A; Wawryn, J; Biliński, T

    1997-01-01

    It has been found that yeast cells are sensitive to iron overload only when grown on glucose as a carbon source. Effective concentration of ferrous iron is much higher than that found in natural environments. Effects of ferrous iron are strictly oxygen dependent, what suggest that the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the Fenton reaction is a cause of the toxicity. Respiratory deficiency and pretreatment of cells with antimycin A prevent toxic effects in the late exponential phase of growth, whereas uncouplers and 2mM magnesium salts completely protect even the most vulnerable exponential cells. Generally, toxic effects correlate with the ability of cells to take up this metal. The results presented suggest that during ferrous iron overload iron is transported through the unspecific divalent cation uptake system which is known in fungi. The data suggest that recently described high and low affinity systems of iron uptake in yeast are the only source of iron in natural environments. PMID:9516981

  10. Hepatic Encephalopathy: Early Diagnosis in Pediatric Patients With Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi DARA*

    2014-01-01

    . Hepatology 2009; 50:2014–21.Norenberg MD, Jayakumar AR, Rama Rao KV, Panickar KS. New concepts in the mechanism of ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling. Metab Brain Dis 2007;22:219–34.Häussinger D, Görg B. Interaction of oxidative stress, astrocyte swelling and cerebral ammonia toxicity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010; 13:87–92.Hassall E, Benson L,HartM, et al.Hepatic encephalopathy after portacaval shunt in a noncirrhotic child. J Pediatr 1984;105:439–41.Zaki AE, Ede RJ, Davis M, Williams R. Experimental studies of blood brain barrier permeability in acute hepatic failure. Hepatology 1984;4:359–63.Zaki AE, Wardle EN, Canalese J, et al. Potential toxins of acute liver failure and their effects on blood–brain barrier permeability. Experientia 1983;39:988–91.Roy S, Pomier-Layrargues G, Butterworth RF, Huet PM. Hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic and portacaval shunted dogs: lack of changes in brain GABAuptake, brain GABAlevels, brain glutamic acid decarboxylase activity and brain postsynaptic GABA receptors. Hepatology 1988;8:845–9.Schliess F, Görg B, Häussinger D. RNA oxidation and zinc in hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. Metab Brain Dis 2009;24:119–34.Jalan R, Hayes PC. Hepatic encephalopathy and ascites. Lancet 1997;350:1309-15.Walker CO, Schenker S. Pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy--with special reference to the role of ammonia. Am J Clin Nutr 1970;23:619–32.Romero-Gómez M, Ramos-Guerrero R, Grande L, et al. Intestinal glutaminase activity is increased in liver cirrhosis and correlates with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. J Hepatol 2004; 41:49–54.Nance FC, Kaufman HJ, Kline DG. Role of urea in the hyperammonemia of germ-free Eck fistula dogs.Gastroenterology 1974;66:108–12.Llansola M, Rodrigo R, Monfort P, Montoliu C, Kosenko E, Cauli O, et al. NMDA receptors in hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis 2007;22:321–35.Montoliu C, Piedrafita B, Serra MA, del Olmo JA, Urios A, Rodrigo JM, et al. IL-6 and IL

  11. Hepatic Haemangioma: Diagnose for Hepatic gamma-graphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of 39 years old female patient is presented, in which the diagnosis of hepatic haemangioma was done strictly on the bases of a 99m TC - labelled red blood cells scintigraphy. A revision of the literature and diagnostic procedures is presented, emphasizing in nuclear medicine methods

  12. Exposure to a northern contaminant mixture (NCM alters hepatic energy and lipid metabolism exacerbating hepatic steatosis in obese JCR rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Mailloux

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, defined by the American Liver Society as the buildup of extra fat in liver cells that is not caused by alcohol, is the most common liver disease in North America. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are viewed as the major causes of NAFLD. Environmental contaminants have also been implicated in the development of NAFLD. Northern populations are exposed to a myriad of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, flame retardants, and toxic metals, while also affected by higher rates of obesity and alcohol abuse compared to the rest of Canada. In this study, we examined the impact of a mixture of 22 contaminants detected in Inuit blood on the development and progression of NAFLD in obese JCR rats with or without co-exposure to 10% ethanol. Hepatosteatosis was found in obese rat liver, which was worsened by exposure to 10% ethanol. NCM treatment increased the number of macrovesicular lipid droplets, total lipid contents, portion of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. This was complemented by an increase in hepatic total cholesterol and cholesterol ester levels which was associated with changes in the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism and transport. In addition, NCM treatment increased cytochrome P450 2E1 protein expression and decreased ubiquinone pool, and mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit ATP5A and Complex IV activity. Despite the changes in mitochondrial physiology, hepatic ATP levels were maintained high in NCM-treated versus control rats. This was due to a decrease in ATP utilization and an increase in creatine kinase activity. Collectively, our results suggest that NCM treatment decreases hepatic cholesterol export, possibly also increases cholesterol uptake from circulation, and promotes lipid accumulation and alters ATP homeostasis which exacerbates the existing hepatic steatosis in genetically obese JCR rats with

  13. Anti-rods/rings autoantibody generation in hepatitis C patients during interferon-α/ribavirin therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Keppeke, Gerson Dierley; Calise, S John; Chan, Edward KL; Andrade, Luis Eduardo C

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can lead to disabling liver diseases with progression to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the recent availability of more effective and less toxic therapeutic options, in most parts of the world the standard treatment consists of a weekly injection of pegylated interferon α (IFN-α) together with a daily dose of ribavirin. HCV patients frequently present circulating non-organ-specific autoantibodies dem...

  14. The use of novel agents in multiple myeloma patients with hepatic impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Stansfield, Lindsay C; Gonsalves, Wilson I.; Buadi, Francis K.

    2015-01-01

    Novel drugs such as immunomodulators and proteasome inhibitors have improved the survival of patients with multiple myeloma. Like all therapeutic agents, appropriate dosing based on metabolism and clearance is important to maintain efficacy while avoiding toxicity. Hepatic impairment (HI) in multiple myeloma patients is rare but well described either due to disease or therapy-related factors. However, limited data are available on the appropriate use and dosing of the novel agent therapeutics...

  15. Galactosamine induced hepatitis induces a reduction in hepatocyte epidermal growth factor receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Vesey, D A; Woodman, A C; Hodgson, H J

    1992-01-01

    The rapid regenerative response of the rat liver to partial hepatectomy is associated with a decline in liver epidermal growth factor receptor numbers which implies that ligand epidermal growth factor receptor interactions maybe important in initiating and/or modulating this process. The proliferative process in toxic hepatitis (where in contrast with partial hepatectomy the majority of hepatocytes have been exposed to damaging influences) has been less widely investigated. We studied the DNA...

  16. Hepatic steatosis,low-grade chronic inflammation and hormone/growth factor/adipokine imbalance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni; Tarantino; Silvia; Savastano; Annamaria; Colao

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a further expression of metabolic syndrome, strictly linked to obesity and diabetes mellitus, is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), elevated serum levels of free fatty acids and fatty infi ltration of the liver, which is known as hepatic steatosis. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a key feature of this disease and correlates with its severity. Free-fatty-acidinduced toxicity represents one of mechanisms for the pathogenesis of NAFLD and hormones, growth factors and a...

  17. Gemcitabine-Induced Hepatitis in a Pancreatic Cancer Patient Receiving Adjuvant Therapy following Metastasectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Saadati; Jennifer Peccerillo; Kristin Kaley; Schilsky, Michael L.; Muhammad Wasif Saif

    2009-01-01

    Dear Sir: Gemcitabine is the only FDA-approved cytotoxic agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Although a relatively safe drug, the major side effects of gemcitabine include bone marrow suppression and flulike symptoms. Transient abnormalities of liver transaminase enzymes are seen in two-third of patients; elevations of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are less common, but severe hepatic toxicity is uncommon. We describe a case of patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer who de...

  18. Hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy in patients with advanced primary liver tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Spada, Francesca; Fazio, Nicola; Bonomo, Guido; Monfardini, Lorenzo; Vigna, Paolo Della; Radice, Davide; Boselli, Sabrina; Orsi, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Background: Primary liver tumours (PLTs) are currently a major health problem worldwide. The study’s aim was to investigate the feasibility, toxicity, and activity of hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy (HIAC) in patients with advanced PLTs. Methods: We retrospectively analysed 43 patients with advanced unresectable PLT, who were consecutively treated. HIAC with 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and mitomycin-C was administered through a radiologically positioned temporary percutaneous catheter ever...

  19. Amla as an antihyperglycemic and hepato-renal protective agent in fluoride induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupal A Vasant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study was to examine the antihyperglycemic and hepato-renal protective effects of Emblica officinalis (Eo fruit as a food supplement in fluoride induced toxicity. Eo fruit powder was incorporated into the diet (2.5, 5 and 10 gm % of fluoride exposed animals for a duration of 30 days. Fluoride exposure caused significant elevation in plasma glucose, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, acid phosphatase (ACP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities, hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase and decreased hepatic glycogen content, hexokinase activity and antioxidant profiles (hepatic and renal. An inclusion of Eo fruit powder significantly reduced plasma glucose levels, SGOT, SGPT, ACP and ALP activities, hepatic G-6-Pase activity and increased hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity. Hepatic and renal antioxidant status of fluoride exposed animals improved upon feeding Eo fruit powder. We, therefore, conclude that E. officinalis fruit could be useful in regulating hyperglycemia and enhances antioxidant status of fluoride exposed animals.

  20. Toxic and Metabolic Myelopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Joana; Nunes, Renato Hoffmann; da Rocha, Antonio José; Castillo, Mauricio

    2016-10-01

    Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. It is most commonly caused by its compression by neoplasms, degenerative disc disease, trauma, or infection. Less common causes of myelopathy include spinal cord tumors, infection, inflammatory, neurodegenerative, vascular, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Conditions affecting the spinal cord must be recognized as early as possible to prevent progression that may lead to permanent disability. Biopsy is rarely performed, thus the diagnosis and management rely on patient׳s history, physical examination, laboratory results, and imaging findings. Here we review the clinical presentations, pathophysiological mechanisms, and magnetic resonance imaging findings of myelopathies related to metabolic or toxic etiologies. PMID:27616316

  1. Psychostimulant toxicity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ekinci

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate is used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children above the age of 6 with a high safety and tolerability. When used above the recommended dosage, methylphenidate has been reported to cause toxicity symptoms including neuro-psychiatric and cardiac adverse reactions. In this overview paper, the available literature on psyhcostimulant toxicity in children and the clinical symptoms and follow-up of a 4-year-old child who accidentally used high dose of methylphenidate will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 184-193

  2. Current research of hepatic cirrhosis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Xian Yao; Shu-Lin Jiang; Dong-Mei Yao

    2005-01-01

    Hepatic cirrhosis is a common disease that poses a serious threat to public health, and is characterized by chronic,progressive and diffuse hepatic lesions preceded by hepaticfibrosis regardless of the exact etiologies. In recent years,considerable achievements have been made in China in research of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and especially the treatment of hepatic fibrosis, resulting in much improved prognosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. In this paper, the authors review the current status of research in hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis and their major complications.

  3. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Azadmanesh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1. It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2. Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3. While the majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, approximately 10-30% of these patients will eventually develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality(4.More than 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HCV. According to WHO report in 2002, chronic liver diseases were responsible for 1.4 million deaths, including 796,000 due to cirrhosis and 616,000 due to primary liver cancer. At least 20% of these deaths are probably attributable to HCV infection- more than 280,000 deaths(5, 6. The prevalence of chronic HCV infection in general population varies greatly in different parts of the world, being estimated between 0.1 and 5%, with a peak prevalence of 20- 25% in Egypt. HCV prevalence seems to be less than 1% in Iran, which is much lower than most of the neighboring countries(7. HCV was the first virus discovered by molecular cloning method without the direct use of biologic or biophysical methods. This was accomplished by extracting, copying into cDNA, and cloning all the nucleic acid from the plasma of a chimpanzee infected with non- A, non-B hepatitis by contaminated factor XIII concentrate(8. The HCV genome is a positive-sense, singlestranded RNA genome approximately 10 kb long. It has marked similarities to those of members of the genera Pestivirus and Flavivirus. Different HCV isolates from around the world show substantial nucleotide sequence variability

  5. Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased hepatic FDG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The use of liver as a reference tissue for semi-quantification of tumour FDG uptake may not be valid in hepatic steatosis (HS). Previous studies on the relation between liver FDG uptake and HS have been contradictory probably because they ignored blood glucose (BG). Because hepatocyte and blood FDG concentrations equalize, liver FDG uptake parallels BG, which must therefore be considered when studying hepatic FDG uptake. We therefore re-examined the relation between HS and liver uptake taking BG into account. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 304 patients undergoing routine PET/CT with imaging 60 min post-FDG. Average standard uptake value (SUVave), maximum SUV (SUVmax) and CT density (index of HS) were measured in a liver ROI. Blood pool SUV was based on the left ventricular cavity (SUVLV). Correlations were assessed using least squares fitting of continuous data. Patients were also divided into BG subgroups (<4, 4–5, 5–6, 6–8, 8–10 and 10+ mmol/l). Results: SUVave, SUVmax and SUVLV displayed similar relations with BG. SUVmax/SUVLV, but not SUVave/SUVLV, correlated significantly with BG. SUVmax, but not SUVave, correlated inversely with CT density before and after adjusting for BG. SUVmax/SUVave correlated more strongly with CT density than SUVmax. CT density correlated inversely with SUVmax/SUVLV but positively with SUVave/SUVLV. Conclusions: Hepatic SUV is more influenced by BG than by HS. Its relation with BG renders it unsuitable as a reference tissue. Nevertheless, hepatic fat does correlate positively with liver SUV, although this is seen only with SUVmax because SUVave is ‘diluted’ by hepatic fat

  6. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  7. Diagnostic value of CT on hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess CT manifestations and diagnostic value in patients with hepatic tuberculosis. Methods: Ten cases of hepatic tuberculosis proved by hepatic biopsy or surgical specimens were analyzed retrospectively. Results: This group of hepatic tuberculosis included three types. (1) Five cases of miliary hepatic tuberculosis demonstrated that the liver swelled diffusely associated with multiple miliary low attenuations, and showed no enhancement after contrast agents administration. (2) Three cases of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis depicted multiple hypodensity areas or mixed density regions in the liver. The extension of lesions reduced in arterial phase, and a ring-like enhancement was displayed in the portal phase. (3) One case of hepatic tuberculoma illustrated solitary space occupying lesion accompanied with central necrosis. The envelope was thin and smooth which enhanced slightly after injecting Gd-DTPA. Another one was hepatic abscess and depicted fluid-fluid level inside the lesion. Conclusions: The CT manifestations of miliary hepatic tuberculosis lack of characteristics, it is hard to make the diagnosis clear-cut unless integrating the medical history and lab test. The 'powder calcification' findings of tubercle hepatic tuberculosis is propitious to draw a qualitative diagnosis. And the feature of hepatic tuberculomas with fluid- fluid level is in favor of making a differential diagnosis against parallel tumors. (authors)

  8. Hepatic yersiniosis in a cougar (Felis concolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, Michael A; Wu, Ching Ching; Ramos-Vara, José A

    2006-09-01

    A cougar (Felis concolor) was diagnosed with hepatic yersiniosis by bacterial culture and histopathology. The animal had a 2-week history of anorexia and jaundice before its death. Grossly, the liver exhibited caseo-necrotic foci. Histopathologically, there was necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis, with large numbers of intralesional gram-negative coccobacilli. Additional hepatic lesions included central vein thrombosis, lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis, and capsulitis. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis coccobacilli were isolated in pure culture from the hepatic lesions. Because the hepatic lesions in this animal resemble those of other zoonotic diseases, such as plague and tularemia, veterinarians and laboratory personnel who handle samples should take adequate safety precautions. This report is the first to describe the pathology associated with hepatic yersiniosis in a cougar. PMID:17037628

  9. Cholestatic hepatitis due to Salmonella typhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Albayrak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella infection occurs worldwide and is still an important public health problem in many developing countries. The infection can affect almost all major organs including the liver. Severe hepatic involvement with a clinical feature of acute hepatitis is a rare complication. In this paper, a 39-year-old male with acute cholestatic typhoid hepatitis is presented. The case had a tender hepatomegaly and elevated serum alanine and aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase levels; these features cannot been distinguished from those of acute viral hepatitis. Serological and viral markers of acute viral hepatitis were negative. No pathology could be determined in abdomen Ultrasonography (USG or Magnetic Reso - nance (MR Cholangiography. As enteric fever is a common infection, the recognition of salmonella hepatitis is of clinical importance. When patients from an endemic or outbreak area present acute febrile hepatitis, typhoid fever should be a consideration.

  10. Acute hepatitis C: Prospects and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More than 170 million people worldwide have chronic hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed because it is commonly asymptomatic. Most infected patients are unaware of their condition until the symptoms of chronic infection manifest. Treatment of acute hepatitis C is something of a paradox because spontaneous resolution is possible and many patients do not have symptoms.However, several factors provide a rationale for treating patients who have acute hepatitis C. Compared with acute hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a worse prognosis, the need for more intensive treatment,longer treatment duration, and a decrease in successful treatment outcomes. Conversely, early intervention is associated with improved viral eradication, using a regimen that is better tolerated, less expensive, more convenient, and of shorter duration than the currently approved combination therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  11. Transfusion-associated hepatitis before the screening of blood for hepatitis risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engle, Ronald E; Bukh, Jens; Alter, Harvey J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The true incidence of transfusion-associated hepatitis (TAH) before blood screening is unknown. Our aims were to reevaluate blood recipients receiving unscreened blood and analyze hepatitis viruses circulating more than 45 years ago. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cryopreserved serum samples......%) developed biochemical evidence of hepatitis; of these, 20 (67%) were infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) alone, four (13%) with hepatitis B virus (HBV) alone, and six (20%) with both viruses. Among the 36 patients who did not develop hepatitis, four (11%) were newly infected with HCV alone, nine (25......%) with HBV alone, and one (3%) with both viruses. Overall, 100% of patients with hepatitis and 39% of those without hepatitis were infected with HBV and/or HCV; one patient was also infected with hepatitis E virus. The donor carrier rate for HBV and/or HCV was estimated to be more than 6%; contemporaneously...

  12. Novel Radiolytic Rotenone Derivative, Rotenoisin B with Potent Anti-Carcinogenic Activity in Hepatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srilatha Badaboina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rotenone, isolated from roots of derris plant, has been shown to possess various biological activities, which lead to attempting to develop a potent drug against several diseases. However, recent studies have demonstrated that rotenone has the potential to induce several adverse effects such as a neurodegenerative disease. Radiolytic transformation of the rotenone with gamma-irradiation created a new product, named rotenoisin B. The present work was designed to investigate the anticancer activity of rotenoisin B with low toxicity and its molecular mechanism in hepatic cancer cells compared to a parent compound, rotenone. Our results showed rotenoisin B inhibited hepatic cancer cells’ proliferation in a dose dependent manner and increased in apoptotic cells. Interestingly, rotenoisin B showed low toxic effects on normal cells compared to rotenone. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential has been decreased, which leads to cytochrome c release. Down regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 levels as well as the up regulation of proapoptotic Bax levels were observed. The cleaved PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase level increased as well. Moreover, phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK and p38 slightly up regulated and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS increased as well as cell cycle arrest predominantly at the G2/M phase observed. These results suggest that rotenoisin B might be a potent anticancer candidate similar to rotenone in hepatic cancer cells with low toxicity to normal cells even at high concentrations compared to rotenone.

  13. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two papers in this volume are in INIS scope, respectively dealing with MRI in the study of viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and The use of 131I-labeled Lipidol in the diagnosis of hepato-cellular carcinoma. (H.W.). refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  15. Adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Senda, P.; Dahan, H.; Tubiana, J.M.; Arrive, L. [Service de Radiologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Wendum, D. [Service d' Anatomie Pathologie, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France); Balladur, P. [Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Generale, Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-08-01

    We report a case of adenosarcoma arising in hepatic endometriosis. Both CT and MR scans demontrated a huge heterogeneous mass containing septated, thick-walled cystic lesions. After enlarged right hepatectomy, the patient was asymptomatic with no abnormalities at liver and abdominal CT scan at 2-year follow-up. (orig.)

  16. [Autoimmune hepatitis induced by isotretionine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos Lopez, Roxana; Ciliotta Chehade, Alessandra; Scavino, Yolanda; Morales, Alejandro; Tagle, Martín

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a teenage patient with the diagnosis of drug induced autoimmune hepatitis. The patient is a 16 years old female, with the past medical history of Hashimoto’s hypothyroidism controlled with levothyroxine, who started treatment with Isotretionin (®Accutane) 20 mg q/12 hours for a total of 3 months for the treatment of severe acne. The physical examination was within normal limits and the results of the laboratory exams are: Baseline values of ALT 28 U/L, AST 28 U/L. Three months later: AST 756 U/L, ALT 1199U/L, alkaline phosphatase 114 U/L, with normal bilirrubin levels throughout the process. The serology studies were negative for all viral hepatitis; ANA titers were positive (1/160) and igG levels were also elevated. A liver biopsy was performed, and was compatible with the diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Corticosteroid therapy was started with Prednisone 40 mg per day one week after stopping the treatment with isotretionin, observing an improvement in the laboratory values. We describe this case and review the world literature since there are no reported cases of Isotretinoin-induced autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:27131947

  17. Hepatic adenomas: comprehensive imaging diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the US, CT and MR imaging findings and diagnosis of hepatic adenomas. Methods: The comprehensive imaging features in 6 patients with 6 hepatic adenomas confirmed pathologically were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with pathologic findings. Results: One case was diagnosed correctly, four cases were mistaken for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), and one case was mistaken for focal nodular hyperplasia. US: six lesions were hypoechoic with hypo-halo in four lesions, and there was low velocity arterial and venous flow within the six lesions. CT: six lesions were hypodense with pseudo capsule in four lesions, and the four lesions showed slight enhancement during arterial and portal venous phases, and one lesion showed moderate enhancement during arterial phase and slight enhancement during portal venous phase. MRI: six lesions had heterogeneously high signal intensity on T1WI and T2WI, and the high intensity on T1WI remained unchanged after using fat saturation. Two lesions showed strong enhancement during arterial phase and slight enhancement during portal venous and delayed phases, and three lesions showed slight enhancement during arterial, portal venous, and delayed phases. Pseudo capsule detected in six lesions showed slight enhancement on portal venous or delayed phases. Conclusion: The comprehensive imaging findings of hepatic adenomas were nonspecific. The presence of pseudo capsule, heterogeneous high signal intensity on T1WI, and the high intensity remained unchanged after using fat saturation may help make a correct diagnosis of hepatic adenoma

  18. Application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for risk assessment: Acetaminophen as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic systems toxicology is the integrative analysis of toxicogenomic technologies, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, in combination with traditional toxicology measures to improve the understanding of mechanisms of hepatotoxic action. Hepatic toxicology studies that have employed toxicogenomic technologies to date have already provided a proof of principle for the value of hepatic systems toxicology in hazard identification. In the present review, acetaminophen is used as a model compound to discuss the application of toxicogenomics in hepatic systems toxicology for its potential role in the risk assessment process, to progress from hazard identification towards hazard characterization. The toxicogenomics-based parallelogram is used to identify current achievements and limitations of acetaminophen toxicogenomic in vivo and in vitro studies for in vitro-to-in vivo and interspecies comparisons, with the ultimate aim to extrapolate animal studies to humans in vivo. This article provides a model for comparison of more species and more in vitro models enhancing the robustness of common toxicogenomic responses and their relevance to human risk assessment. To progress to quantitative dose-response analysis needed for hazard characterization, in hepatic systems toxicology studies, generation of toxicogenomic data of multiple doses/concentrations and time points is required. Newly developed bioinformatics tools for quantitative analysis of toxicogenomic data can aid in the elucidation of dose-responsive effects. The challenge herein is to assess which toxicogenomic responses are relevant for induction of the apical effect and whether perturbations are sufficient for the induction of downstream events, eventually causing toxicity.

  19. Comprehensive insights into microcystin-LR effects on hepatic lipid metabolism using cross-omics technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongyao; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Yin, Jinbao; Yu, Yunjiang; Yang, Liuyan

    2016-09-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) can induce hepatic tissue damages and molecular toxicities, but its effects on lipid metabolism remain unknown. This study investigated the effects of MC-LR exposure on mice lipid metabolism and uncovered the underlying mechanism through metabonomic, transcriptomic and metagenomic analyses after administration of mice with MC-LR by gavage for 28 d. Increased liver weight and abdominal fat weight, and evident hepatic lipid vacuoles accumulation were observed in the mice fed with 0.2mg/kg/d MC-LR. Serum nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that MC-LR treatment altered the levels of serum metabolites including triglyceride, unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and very low density lipoprotein. Digital Gene Expression technology was used to reveal differential expression of hepatic transcriptomes, demonstrating that MC-LR treatment disturbed hepatic UFA biosynthesis and activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathways via Pparγ, Fabp1 and Fabp2 over-expression. Metagenomic analyses of gut microbiota revealed that MC-LR exposure also increased abundant ratio of Firmicutes vs. Bacteroidetes in gut and altered biosynthetic pathways of various microbial metabolic and pro-inflammatory molecules. In conclusion, oral MC-LR exposure can induce hepatic lipid metabolism disorder mediated by UFA biosynthesis and PPAR activation, and gut microbial community shift may play an important role in the metabolic disturbance. PMID:27208774

  20. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John G

    2016-06-01

    The liver has a central role in the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid fluxes during feeding and fasting and also relies on these substrates for its own energy needs. These parallel requirements are met by coordinated control of carbohydrate and lipid fluxes into and out of the Krebs cycle, which is highly tuned to nutrient availability and heavily regulated by insulin and glucagon. During progression of type 2 diabetes, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis fluxes become elevated, thus contributing to hyperglycaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Over this interval there are also significant fluctuations in hepatic energy state. To date, it is not known to what extent abnormal glucose and lipid fluxes are causally linked to altered energy states. Recent evidence that the glucose-lowering effects of metformin appear to be mediated by attenuation of hepatic energy generation places an additional spotlight on the interdependence of hepatic biosynthetic and oxidative fluxes. The transition from fasting to feeding results in a significant re-direction of hepatic glucose and lipid fluxes and may also incur a temporary hepatic energy deficit. At present, it is not known to what extent these variables are additionally modified by type 2 diabetes and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, there is a compelling need to measure fluxes through oxidative, gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways and determine their relationship with hepatic energy state in both fasting and fed conditions. New magnetic resonance-based technologies allow these variables to be non-invasively studied in animal models and humans. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium entitled 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by Hannele Yki-Järvinen, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3944-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Michael

  1. NEW HAVEN TOXICS INVENTORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA will be working with the New Haven Department of Health to collect data and create an inventory of toxic air pollutants in the New Haven area. Under section 112 of the Clean Air Act, EPA and cities and states are required to reduce cancer and non-cancer health risks in urb...

  2. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  3. Uranium: biokinetics and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was achieved as a part of a collaboration with the Fuel Cycle Direction. Its aim was to give the state of the art about: the behaviour of uranium in the human organism (biokinetics) after ingestion, its toxicity (mainly renal) and the current regulation about its incorporation. Both in the upstream and in the downstream of the fuel cycle, uranium remains, quantitatively, the first element in the cycle which is, at the present time, temporarily disposed or recycled. Such a considerable quantity of uranium sets the problem of its risk on the health. In the long term, the biosphere may be affected and consequently the public may ingest water or food contaminated with uranium. In this way, radiological and chemical toxicity risk may be activated. This report emphasizes: the necessity of confirming some experimental and epidemiological biokinetic data used or not in the ICRP models. Unsolved questions remain about the gastrointestinal absorption according to chemical form (valency state, mixtures...), mass and individual variations (age, disease) further a chronic ingestion of uranium. It is well established that uranium is mainly deposited in the skeleton and the kidney. But the skeleton kinetics following a chronic ingestion and especially in some diseases has to be more elucidated; the necessity of taking into account uranium at first as a chemical toxic, essentially in the kidney and determining the threshold of functional lesion. In this way, it is important to look for some specific markers; the problem of not considering chemical toxicity of uranium in the texts regulating its incorporation

  4. Cisplatin Pharmacokinetics in Nontumoral Pig Liver Treated With Intravenous or Transarterial Hepatic Chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabrot, Pascal, E-mail: pchabrot@chu-clermontferrand.fr [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole de Radiologie (France); Cardot, Jean-Michel [Universite d' Auvergne Clermont 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Service de Biopharmacie (France); Guibert, Pierre; Bouculat, Francois [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole Digestif et Hepato-Biliaire (France); Cassagnes, Lucie [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole de Radiologie (France); Leger-Enreille, Anne [Centre Jean Perrin, Service de Biologie (France); Buc, Emmanuel [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole Digestif et Hepato-Biliaire (France); Dechelotte, Pierre [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Service d' Anatomie-Pathologique (France); Bommelaer, Gilles [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole Digestif et Hepato-Biliaire (France); Boyer, Louis [CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Pole de Radiologie (France); Abergel, Armand [Universite d' Auvergne Clermont 1, Faculte de Medecine, ISIT, UMR CNRS 6284 (France)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate cisplatin (CDDP) pharmacokinetics after its intravenous (IV) or intrahepatic arterial administration (IHA) in healthy pigs with or without embolization by absorbable gelatine. Material and Methods: We analysed plasmatic and hepatic drug concentration in four groups of six mini-pigs each according to the modality of administration of CDDP (1 mg/kg): IV, IHA, IHA with partial embolization using absorbable gelatine (IHA-Pe), and IHA with complete embolization (IHA-Te). Unbounded plasmatic and hepatic platinum concentrations were measured. Concentration and pharmacokinetics parameters were compared using analysis of variance. Results: For all groups, there was a rapid and biexponential decrease in free platinum concentration. Plasmatic terminal half-life (T{sub 1/2}) was significantly decreased after embolization at 191, 178, 42, and 41 min after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te administration, respectively. Maximal plasmatic concentration and systemic exposure to CDDP (AUC{sub 24}) values were significantly decreased after embolization (C{sub max}p = 0.0075; AUC{sub 24}p = 0.0053). Hepatic CDDP concentration rapidly peaked and then decreased progressively. After 24 h, the residual concentration represented 45, 47, 60, and 63 % of C{sub max}, respectively, after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te. Hepatic T{sub 1/2} and AUC{sub {infinity}} values were increased after embolization, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This preliminary study confirms the feasibility of a pig model to study systemic and hepatic CDDP pharmacokinetics. Systemic exposure is lower after embolization, which could minimize systemic toxicity. Hepatic T{sub 1/2} elimination and hepatic exposition values are increased with IHA compared with IV administration.

  5. Engineering EMT using 3D micro-scaffold to promote hepatic functions for drug hepatotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyu; Chen, Fengling; Liu, Longwei; Qi, Chunxiao; Wang, Bingjie; Yan, Xiaojun; Huang, Chenyu; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Michael Q; Chen, Yang; Du, Yanan

    2016-06-01

    Accompanied by decreased hepatic functions, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was observed in two dimensional (2D) cultured hepatocytes with elongated morphology, loss of polarity and weakened cell-cell interaction, while upgrading to 3D culture has been considered as significant improvement of its 2D counterpart for hepatocyte maintenance. Here we hypothesize that 3D culture enhances hepatic functions through regulating the EMT status. Biomaterial-engineered EMT was achieved by culturing HepaRG as 3D spheroids (SP-3D) or 3D stretched cells (ST-3D) in non-adherent and adherent micro-scaffold respectively. In SP-3D, constrained EMT of HepaRG, a hepatic stem cell line, as represented by increased epithelial markers and decreased mesenchymal markers, was echoed by improved hepatic functions. To investigate the relationship between EMT status and hepatic functions, time-series RNA-Seq and gene network analysis were used for comparing different cell culture models, which identified histone deacetylases (HDACs) as key mediating factors. Protein analysis confirmed that high HDAC activity was correlated with high expression of Cadherin-1 (CDH1) and hepatic function genes, which were decreased upon HDAC inhibitor treatment in SP-3D, suggesting HDACs may play positive role in regulating EMT and hepatic functions. To illustrate the application of 3D micro-scaffold culture in drug safety evaluation, hepatotoxicity and metabolism assays of two hepatotoxins (i.e. N-acetyl-p-aminophenol and Doxorubicin) were performed and SP-3D showed more biomimetic toxicity response, indicating regulation of EMT as a vital consideration in designing 3D hepatocyte culture configuration. PMID:26994875

  6. Cisplatin Pharmacokinetics in Nontumoral Pig Liver Treated With Intravenous or Transarterial Hepatic Chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate cisplatin (CDDP) pharmacokinetics after its intravenous (IV) or intrahepatic arterial administration (IHA) in healthy pigs with or without embolization by absorbable gelatine. Material and Methods: We analysed plasmatic and hepatic drug concentration in four groups of six mini-pigs each according to the modality of administration of CDDP (1 mg/kg): IV, IHA, IHA with partial embolization using absorbable gelatine (IHA-Pe), and IHA with complete embolization (IHA-Te). Unbounded plasmatic and hepatic platinum concentrations were measured. Concentration and pharmacokinetics parameters were compared using analysis of variance. Results: For all groups, there was a rapid and biexponential decrease in free platinum concentration. Plasmatic terminal half-life (T1/2) was significantly decreased after embolization at 191, 178, 42, and 41 min after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te administration, respectively. Maximal plasmatic concentration and systemic exposure to CDDP (AUC24) values were significantly decreased after embolization (Cmaxp = 0.0075; AUC24p = 0.0053). Hepatic CDDP concentration rapidly peaked and then decreased progressively. After 24 h, the residual concentration represented 45, 47, 60, and 63 % of Cmax, respectively, after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te. Hepatic T1/2 and AUC∞ values were increased after embolization, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This preliminary study confirms the feasibility of a pig model to study systemic and hepatic CDDP pharmacokinetics. Systemic exposure is lower after embolization, which could minimize systemic toxicity. Hepatic T1/2 elimination and hepatic exposition values are increased with IHA compared with IV administration.

  7. Blood Borne Hepatitis at Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunor Rashid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An pilgrims estimated 2.5 million Muslims from all over the world are expected to converge in Mecca, Saudi Arabia by the end of this December for Hajj pilgrimage. Overcrowding during the largest annual mass gathering of such enormous proportions inevitably increases exposure to and risk of a variety of infections, some with pandemic potential (1. Adopting simple measures and offering appropriate immunisations to the pilgrims can prevent many of these infections. Knowledge of the nature and extent of infections however is important to implement the effective protective measures.As part of the rites of Hajj, men shave their heads although trimming the hair is also acceptable; women cut a lock of their hair. Communal use of razors or blades carries the risk of blood borne infections such as Hepatitis B, hepatitis C or HIV(2. To minimise this risk the Saudi authorities require all barbers looking after the pilgrims to be licensed but many pilgrims use the services of opportunistic makeshift barbers or help by shaving each other, often reusing their razors at the risk of transmitting blood borne virus infections. Unlike the respiratory infections that have a short incubation, infection with blood borne viruses takes much longer to manifest or indeed may remain undetected for many years while it may progress to chronic liver disease.Studies on barbers have shown a high prevalence of carriage and disease among barbers. Extrapolating from various studies Memish et al. (2003 estimated that about 10% of the barbers are carriers of hepatitis C and 4% carry hepatitis B, over a tenth of whom are in active carrier stage (3. Many pilgrims will come from areas of the world with a high endemicity of blood borne infections such as hepatitis B and/or C. To our knowledge there have not been any studies to establish the exact incidence of viral hepatitis among the pilgrims. There is an urgent need to understand the true epidemiology and to measure the burden of

  8. A special issue on reviews in biomedical applications of nanomaterials, tissue engineering, stem cells, bioimaging, and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalwa, Hari Singh

    2014-10-01

    This second special issue of the Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology in a series contains another 30 state-of-the-art reviews focused on the biomedical applications of nanomaterials, biosensors, bone tissue engineering, MRI and bioimaging, single-cell detection, stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, toxicity and biosafety of nanodrugs, nanoparticle-based new therapeutic approaches for cancer, hepatic and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25992404

  9. Usefulness of screening ultrasonography for hepatocellular carcinoma detection: chronic hepatitis versus hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of screening liver ultrasonography (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection in patients with chronic hepatitis or hepatic cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). A retrospective study was performed with 1,189 patients with clinical hepatopathy caused by HBV who underwent screening liver US for HCC detection at least twice. All patients were followed up with liver US examinations (mean, 8.3 times), CT, or MR for at least 3 months (range, 3-102 months; mean, 47 months) for the detection of HCC. The study population was divided into two groups: chronic hepatitis (n=492) and hepatic cirrhosis (n=697), which was further divided into two groups with (n=156) or without (n=541) evident shrinkage. The radiologic examinations that had detected HCC for the first time were analyzed and compared between the groups. Among 20 (4.1%) patients with chronic hepatitis and 132 (18.9%) patients with hepatic cirrhosis diagnosed as HCC, screening US was the modality of detection in 17 (85.0%) of 20 patients with chronic hepatitis and 76 (57.6%) of 132 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (p=0.038, Chi-square test). The detection rate of HCC on screening US between the chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage (51.4%, 19/37) showed a significant difference (p=0.027, Chi-square test). For chronic liver disease caused by HBV, screening US for HCC detection is more useful in patients with chronic hepatitis than with hepatic cirrhosis with evident shrinkage

  10. How to Treat Pain in the Hepatic Region Due to Chronic Hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗广

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic viral hepatitis type B and C both have the symptoms of pain in the hepatic region, asthenia, poor appetite, abdominal fullness, among which pain in the hepatic region is the most commonly seen. According to the author's clinical experience, treatment based on accurate TCM differentiation can not only eliminate pain in the hepatic region but also restore the hepatic function at the same time. Differentiation includes analysis of the nature of the hepatic pain and the accompanying symptoms, and the treatment is aimed at the differentiated symptoms. The following are methods of treatment.

  11. Is autoimmune hepatitis a frequent finding among HCV patients with intense interface hepatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosilene; G; Badiani; Vitória; Becker; Renata; M; Perez; Carla; AL; Matos; Lara; B; Lemos; Valéria; P; Lanzoni; Luis; Eduardo; C; Andrade; Alessandra; Dellavance; Antonio; Eduardo; B; Silva; Maria; Lucia; G; Ferraz

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the overlap of autoimmune hepatitis in hepatitis C virus(HCV)-infected patients with intense interface hepatitis.METHODS:Among 1759 patients with hepatitis C submitted to liver biopsy,92(5.2%) presented intense interface hepatitis.These patients were evaluated regarding the presence of antinuclear antibody(ANA),anti-smooth muscle antibody(SMA) and anti-liver/kidney microsomal antibody(LKM-1),levels of γ-globulin and histological findings related to autoimmune hepatitis(plasma cell infiltrate...

  12. Identification of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Target Gene TiPARP as a Mediator of Suppression of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and of Nicotinamide as a Corrective Agent for This Effect*

    OpenAIRE

    Diani-Moore, Silvia; Ram, Payal; Li, Xintian; Mondal, Prosenjit; Youn, Dou Yeon; Sauve, Anthony A.; Rifkind, Arleen B.

    2010-01-01

    The environmental toxin TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, dioxin) produces diverse toxic effects including a lethal wasting syndrome whose hallmark is suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis. All TCDD toxicities require activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. Whereas the mechanism for AHR induction of target genes is well understood, it is not known how AHR activation produces any TCDD toxicity. This report identifies for the first time ...

  13. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.

  14. Hepatitis C: What to Expect When Getting Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C What to Expect When Getting Tested Getting tested for Hepatitis C • A blood test, called a Hepatitis C Antibody Test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with Hepatitis C. • The Hepatitis C Antibody Test, sometimes called the ...

  15. Acute toxicity of oil sands wastewater: A toxic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to identify and determine the relative importance of the acutely toxic fractions of wastewater from oil sands extraction using a bioassay directed toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), to use these data to construct a toxic balance, and to determine whether the same fractions were acutely toxic to Microtox, Daphnia, and rainbow trout. Samples of extraction wastewater were obtained from the Mildred Lake tailings pond in Alberta during summer 1991 and 1992. The samples were centrifuged to remove suspended solids and the toxicity of the supernatant was evaluated. Seven manipulations, each of which was designed to remove a different class of compounds, was performed on the supernatant samples. A complete TIE was performed using the Microtox bacterial bioassay. All acute toxicity of the surface tailings pond water to Microtox was removed by precipitation of organic acids or by removal of nonpolar organics. These results suggest that the main toxic fraction was a surfactant. In the interstitial water of the fine tails, volatiles accounted for 15% of the acute toxicity. However, all the acute toxicity of interstitial water was removed by precipitation of organic acids or by removal of nonpolar organics. Organic acids accounted for all the acute toxicity of tailings pond water to Daphnia and rainbow trout. Differences in relative sensitivity of test organisms to the toxic fraction demonstrate the importance of using more than one test organism to evaluate acute toxicity. Daphnia was 0.4 times less sensitive and rainbow trout 3 times more sensitive than Microtox. 20 refs., 6 tabs

  16. Rifaximin in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iadevaia MD

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Maddalena Diana Iadevaia, Anna Del Prete, Claudia Cesaro, Laura Gaeta, Claudio Zulli, Carmelina LoguercioDepartment of Internistica Clinica e Sperimentale, F Magrassi e A Lanzara, Hepatogastroenterology Unit, Second University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Hepatic encephalopathy is a challenging complication in patients with advanced liver disease. It can be defined as a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by portosystemic venous shunting, ranging from minimal to overt hepatic encephalopathy or coma. Its pathophysiology is still unclear, although increased levels of ammonia play a key role. Diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy is currently based on specific tests evaluating the neuropsychiatric state of patients and their quality of life; the severity of hepatic encephalopathy is measured by the West Haven criteria. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy consists of pharmacological and corrective measures, as well as nutritional interventions. Rifaximin received approval for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy in 2010 because of its few side effects and pharmacological benefits. The aim of this work is to review the use and efficacy of rifaximin both in acute and long-term management of hepatic encephalopathy. Treatment of overt hepatic encephalopathy involves management of the acute episode as well as maintenance of remission in those patients who have previously experienced an episode, in order to improve their quality of life. The positive effect of rifaximin in reducing health care costs is also discussed.Keywords: acute hepatic encephalopathy, recurrent hepatic encephalopathy, rifaximin, lactulose, cost, health-related quality of life

  17. Hepatic Involvement in Dengue Fever in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenahalli Jagadishkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepatic dysfunction is common in dengue infection and the degree of liver dysfunction in children varies from mild injury with elevation of transaminases to severe injury with jaundice. This study was undertaken to asses the spectrum of hepatic involvement in dengue infection.Methods: 110 children with serologically positive dengue fever aged between 2 months - 14 years were studied for their hepatic functions both clinically and biochemically after excluding malaria, enteric fever, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B with relevant investigations.Findings: All cases were grouped into DF (Dengue fever, DHF (Dengue hemorrhagic fever and DSS (Dengue shock syndrome according to WHO criteria. The spectrum of hepatic manifestations included hepatomegaly (79%, hepatic tenderness (56%, jaundice (4.5%, raised levels of aspartate transaminase (AST(93 %, alanine transaminase (ALT(78%, alkaline phosphatase (AP (57%, prolonged prothrombin time (PT (20%, reduced levels of serum albumin (66% and abnormal abdomen ultrasound (65%.Conclusion: Hepatic dysfunction was observed more in DHF and DSS group compared to DF group. About 17.27% of children had >10 fold increase in the liver enzymes. There was no correlation between the degree of hepatic enlargement or hepatic tenderness with the abnormalities of liver functions. Any child with fever, jaundice and tender hepatomegaly in geographical areas where dengue is endemic, the diagnosis of dengue infection should be strongly considered.

  18. Hepatic resection and regeneration. Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic surgery has been performed on condition that the liver regenerates after hepatic resection, and the development of liver anatomy due to Glisson, Rex, and Couinaud has thrown light on hepatic surgery Understanding of feeding and drainage vessels became feasible for systemic hepatic resection; however, it seems to have been the most important problem to control the bleeding during hepatic resection. New types of devices such as cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and Microwave coagulation were exploited to control blood loss during hepatic surgery. Pringle maneuver for exclusion feeding vessels of the liver and the decrease of central venous pressure during anesthesia enabled further decrease of blood loss. Nowadays, 3D-CT imaging may depict feeding and drainage vessels in relation to liver mass, and surgeons can simulate hepatic surgery in virtual reality before surgery, allowing hepatectomy to be performed without blood transfusion. Thus, hepatic resection has been a safe procedure, but there's been a significant research on how much of the liver can be resected without hepatic failure. A prediction scoring system based on ICGR15, resection rates, and age is mostly reliable in some criteria. Even if hepatectomy is performed with a good prediction score, the massive bleeding and associated infection may induce postoperative hepatic failure, while the criteria of postoperative hepatic failure have not yet established. Hepatic failure is supposed to be induced by the apoptosis of mature hepatocytes and necrosis originated from microcirculation disturbance of the liver. Prostaglandin E1 for the improvement of microcirculation, steroid for the inhibition of cytokines inducing apoptosis, and blood purification to exclude cytokines have been tried separately or concomitantly. New therapeutic approaches, especially hepatic regeneration from the stem cell, are expected. (author)

  19. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Widget

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) widget allows users to identify facilities in a user-specified area of interest that have toxic releases as reported by the...

  20. Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple

  1. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Vente, M.A.D.; Nijsen, J. F. W.; De Wit, T.C.; Seppenwoolde, J.H.; Krijger, G. C.; Seevinck, P. R.; Huisman, Albert; Zonnenberg, Bernard A.; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Schip, A.D. van het

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Methods: Healthy pigs (20–30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres (165HoMS; n=5) or with holmium-166-loaded microspheres (166HoMS; n=13). The microspheres’ biodistribution was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography and/or MRI. The animals were monitored clinically, biochemically, and (...

  2. Clinical effects of transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization with holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres in healthy pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Vente, M.A.D.; Nijsen, J. F. W.; De Wit, T.C.; Seppenwoolde, J.H.; Krijger, G. C.; Seevinck, P. R.; Huisman, A.; Zonneneberg, B.A.; van den Ingh, T.S.G.A.M.; van het Schip, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of holmium-166 poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres administered into the hepatic artery in pigs. Methods Healthy pigs (20–30 kg) were injected into the hepatic artery with holmium-165-loaded microspheres (165HoMS; n = 5) or with holmium-166-loaded microspheres (166HoMS; n = 13). The microspheres’ biodistribution was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography and/or MRI. The animals were monitored clinically, biochemically, and...

  3. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  4. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  5. Bats and toxic pollutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukal, Jan; Pikula, J.; Bandouchová, H.

    Granollers: Museum of Natural Sciences, 2012 - (Flaquer, C.; Montserrat, X.), s. 75-79 ISBN 978-84-87790-69-0. [International Symposium on the Importance of Bats as Bioindicators. Granollers (ES), 05.12.2012-09.12.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : bats * toxic pollutants * bioindication Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  6. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  7. Manganese toxicity upon overexposure

    OpenAIRE

    Crossgrove, Janelle; Zheng, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a required element and a metabolic byproduct of the contrast agent mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP). The Mn released from MnDPDP is initially sequestered by the liver for first-pass elimination, which allows an enhanced contrast for diagnostic imaging. The administration of intravenous Mn impacts its homeostatic balance in the human body and can lead to toxicity. Human Mn deficiency has been reported in patients on parenteral nutrition and in micronutrient studies. Mn toxicit...

  8. Impaired hepatic counterregulatory response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in hepatic denervated pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Festersen Nielsen

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings indicate a blunted hepatic counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia following complete hepatic denervation. This implies that intact neural impulses to and from the liver are necessary to maintain the increase in EGP that protects the organism against hypoglycemia.

  9. Evaluation of the Clinical Relevance of Body Composition Parameters in Patients with Cancer Metastatic to the Liver Treated with Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Parsons, Henrique A.; Apostolia M Tsimberidou; Pontikos, Michael; Fu, Siqing; Hong, David; Wen, Sijin; Baracos, Vickie E; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2012-01-01

    The association between body composition parameters and toxicity associated with hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy regimens has not been analyzed. We analyzed data from patients with advanced cancer and liver metastases treated on a clinical trial of HAI oxaliplatin combination regimen. Patient characteristics, response and toxicities were analyzed in relevance with body composition data from CT images. Forty-eight of 57 patients (mean age 57 years; 60% women) had available CT scan...

  10. Scrub typhus hepatitis confirmed by immunohistochemical staining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Hoon Chung; Sung-Chul Lim; Na-Ra Yun; Sung-Heui Shin; Choon-Mee Kim; Dong-Min Kim

    2012-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi (O.tsutsugamushi).We report herein the case of a woman who presented with fever and elevated serum levels of liver enzymes and who was definitively diagnosed with scrub typhus by histopathological examination of liver biopsy specimens,serological tests and nested polymerase chain reaction.Immunohistochemical staining using a monoclonal anti-O.tsutsugamushi antibody showed focally scattered positive immunoreactions in the cytoplasm of some hepatocytes.This case suggests that scrub typhus hepatitis causes mild focal inflammation due to direct liver damage without causing piecemeal necrosis or interface hepatitis.Thus,scrub typhus hepatitis differs from acute viral hepatitis secondary to liver damage due to host immune responses,which causes severe Iobular disarray with diffuse hepatocytic degeneration,necrosis and apoptosis as well as findings indicative of hepatic cholestasis,such as hepatic bile plugs or brown pigmentation of hepatocytes.

  11. Management of blunt hepatic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letoublon, C; Amariutei, A; Taton, N; Lacaze, L; Abba, J; Risse, O; Arvieux, C

    2016-08-01

    For the last 20 years, nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt hepatic trauma (BHT) has been the initial policy whenever this is possible (80% of cases), i.e., in all cases where the hemodynamic status does not demand emergency laparotomy. NOM relies upon the coexistence of three highly effective treatment modalities: radiology with contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CT) and hepatic arterial embolization, intensive care surveillance, and finally delayed surgery (DS). DS is not a failure of NOM management but rather an integral part of the surgical strategy. When imposed by hemodynamic instability, the immediate surgical option has seen its effectiveness transformed by development of the concept of abbreviated (damage control) laparotomy and wide application of the method of perihepatic packing (PHP). The effectiveness of these two conservative and cautious strategies for initial management is evidenced by current experience, but the management of secondary events that may arise with the most severe grades of injury must be both rapid and effective. PMID:27519150

  12. Imaging of hepatic venocclusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports hepatic venocclusive disease (VOD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). This paper reviews the imaging findings in patients with VOD. The authors retrospectively reviewed 377 patients who had undergone autologous BMT. Twenty-nine patients had either pathologic proof (6/29) or met established clinical (McDonald's) criteria for VOD. Imaging methods used included ultrasound (US) (19), CT (10), and MR imaging in four; all studies were done during acute episode, with an average of 5.6 days from peak bilirubin. US showed ascites in 10/19, gallbladder wall thickening in 11/19 (sludge in 5/19), and periocholecystic fluid in 4/19; hepatomegaly was diagnosed by US in 2/19, increased periportal echogenicity was present in 6/19 and hepatic veins were generally poorly visualized or not imaged

  13. Hepatitis E in liver biopsies from patients with acute hepatitis of clinically unexplained origin

    OpenAIRE

    MargareteOdenthal; HeidemarieHolzmann; NadineWinkel

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a small RNA virus and the infectious agent of hepatitis E that occurs worldwide either as epidemics in Asia caused by genotype 1 and 2 or as sporadic disease in industrialized countries induced by genotype 3 and 4. The frequency might be underestimated in central Europe as a cause of acute hepatitis. Therefore, we analyzed on liver biopsies, if cases of acute hepatitis with clinically unknown or obscure diagnosis were actually caused by the infection with HEV. We...

  14. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Gambia and the role of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Davies-Russell, Angela; Fielder, Mark; Jewell, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the commonest form of cancer in The Gambia, and although Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C are known risk factors, accurate baseline data on Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C distribution in the region are limited. Similarly data including information on the involvement of the viruses in HCC remains unknown. The current study was undertaken to estimate the risk of HCC in relation to HCV and HBV in The Gambia. Methods Thirteen patients with histological proven histor...

  15. Chronic hepatitis in chimpanzee carriers of hepatitis B virus: morphologic, immunologic, and viral DNA studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Shouval, D.; Chakraborty, P R; Ruiz-Opazo, N.; Baum, S.; Spigland, I; Muchmore, E; Gerber, M. A.; Thung, S. N.; Popper, H.; Shafritz, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Years after infection with hepatitis B virus, chimpanzees may have manifestations of the carrier state as described in man. In addition to serologic evidence for persistent viral infection, percutaneous liver biopsy specimens showed hepatitis B virus surface antigen in the cytoplasm and hepatitis B virus core antigen in the nucleus. Four carrier animals had portal inflammatory reaction as seen in human chronic persistent hepatitis. Viral DNA was demonstrated in nucleic acid extracts of liver ...

  16. Hepatitis in skunks caused by the virus of infectious canine hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstad, L; Ramsden, R; Berry, T J; Binn, L N

    1975-10-01

    Two cases of acute, fatal, hepatitis occurred in young, striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in southern Ontario. Histologically, lesions in the liver were similar to infectious canine hepatitis. A virus was isolated which produced large intranuclear inclusions in dog kidney cell cultures. These inclusions were Feulgen-positive and fluoresced green with acridine orange stain. The skunk hepatitis isolate was identified as the virus of infectious canine hepatitis by virus neutralization tests. PMID:172663

  17. Pregnant woman with fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis B virus infection:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Bo Yang; Xiao-Mao Li; Zhong-Jie Shi; Lin Ma

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To report the experience in successfully treating pregnant women with severe hepatitis.METHODS: Comprehensive medical treatments were performed under strict monitoring.RESULTS: Pregnant woman with severe hepatitis was successfully rescued.CONCLUSION: Vital measures taken in the treatment of pregnant women with severe hepatitis include termination of the pregnancy at a proper time and control of various complications, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy and infection.

  18. Networking for Overcoming on Viral Hepatitis in Middle East and Central Asia: Asian Hepatitis Network

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Moayed Alavian

    2007-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is an important health challenge in the world, where hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the main causes of liver insufficiency. HBV infection is a serious global health problem, with two billion people infected worldwide, and 350 million suffering from chronic HBV infection. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) affects more than 400 million people globally, of whom 75% are Asians (1). Hepatitis B infection is the 10th leading cause of death worldwide,...

  19. Abnormal right hepatic artery injury resulting in right hepatic atrophy: diagnosed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Martino Valter; Ferrarese Alessia; Bindi Marco; Marola Silvia; Gentile Valentina; Rivelli Matteo; Ferrara Yuri; Enrico Stefano; Berti Stefano; Solej Mario

    2015-01-01

    An intact hepatic artery is the gateway to successful hepato-biliary surgery. Introduction of laproscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has stimulated a renewed interest in the anatomy of hepatic artery. In this case report we have highlighted importance of variations of right hepatic artery in terms of origin and course We present a rare asymptomatic case of liver atrophy due to an intraoperative lesion of right hepatic artery. We also performed a literature review about surgical vascular lesions and...

  20. Acetaminophen from liver to brain: New insights into drug pharmacological action and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Carolina I; Pérez, María J; Manautou, José E; Mottino, Aldo D

    2016-07-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a well-known analgesic and antipyretic drug. It is considered to be safe when administered within its therapeutic range, but in cases of acute intoxication, hepatotoxicity can occur. APAP overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the northern hemisphere. Historically, studies on APAP toxicity have been focused on liver, with alterations in brain function attributed to secondary effects of acute liver failure. However, in the last decade the pharmacological mechanism of APAP as a cannabinoid system modulator has been documented and some articles have reported "in situ" toxicity by APAP in brain tissue at high doses. Paradoxically, low doses of APAP have been reported to produce the opposite, neuroprotective effects. In this paper we present a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of hepatic toxicity as well as a thorough review of both toxic and beneficial effects of APAP in brain. PMID:26921661

  1. Thyroid cancer in toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerci C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Many authors have claimed that hyperthyroidism protects against thyroid cancer and believed that the incidence of malignancy is lower in patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG than in those with non-toxic multinodular goiter. But in recent studies, it was reported that the incidence of malignancy with TMG is not as low as previously thought. Aim : To compare the thyroid cancer incidence in patients with toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. Settings and Design : Histology reports of patients treated surgically with a preoperative diagnosis of toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter were reviewed to identify the thyroid cancer incidence. Patients having a history of neck irradiation or radioactive iodine therapy were excluded from the study. Materials and Methods : We reviewed 294 patients operated between 2001-2005 from toxic and non-toxic multinodular goiter. One hundred and twenty-four of them were toxic and 170 were non-toxic. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed by elevated tri-iodothyroinine / thyroxine ratios and low thyroid-stimulating hormone with clinical signs and symptoms. All patients were evaluated with ultrasonography and scintigraphy and fine needle aspiration biopsy. Statistical Analysis Used : Significance of the various parameters was calculated by using ANOVA test. Results : The incidence of malignancy was 9% in the toxic and 10.58% in the non-toxic multinodular goiter group. Any significant difference in the incidence of cancer and tumor size between the two groups could not be detected. Conclusions : The incidence of malignancy in toxic multinodular goiter is not very low as thought earlier and is nearly the same in non-toxic multinodular goiter.

  2. Peliosis hepatic: a possible diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peliosis is a rarely occurring bening pathology which generally, but not exclusively, affects the liver. it is characterized by the presence of blood-filled lacunae. Presented is a case of peliosis hepatis confirmed through laparoscopy with biopsy in a 67-year-old woman with associated chronic hepatopathy. The echography was not specific, with a focal hepatic enhancement of non-uniform arboraceous clusteres morphology being observed in the TC. (Author) 19 refs

  3. Management of Overt Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Praveen; Sharma, Barjesh C.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an important complication of cirrhosis with significant morbidity and mortality. Management of HE primarily involves avoidance of precipitating factors and administration of various ammonia-lowering therapies such as non-absorbable disaccharides, antimicrobial agents like rifaximin and l-ornithine l-aspartate. The non-absorbable disaccharides which include lactulose and lactitol are considered the first-line therapy for the treatment of HE and in primary and sec...

  4. Problems in diagnosing viral hepatitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonino, F; Colloredo Mels, G; Bellati, G; Ideo, G; Oliveri, F; Colombatto, P; Brunetto, M R

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method of making a specific aetiological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis would be to identify virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responsible for the killing of virus infected hepatocytes in each patient's liver. Unfortunately, this can not be proposed for routine diagnosis and surrogate tests are required. The detection of virus markers, and even of the virus itself, does not imply that liver damage is caused by virus infection. Indirect markers of the host's antivi...

  5. Desperately seeking hepatitis C virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ricardo Moreno-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Spanish investigators described recently the so-called occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, emphasizing the detection of genomic and antigenomic HCV RNA strands in liver and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Therefore, the persistence of viral replication in occult HCV infection should be considered as a putative source of infection among family members and patients undergoing invasive procedures, transfusion or transplantation. Additionally, the most worrisome finding is that an occult HCV infection may persist in patients with sustained virological response.

  6. Hepatitis B vaccination in prisons.

    OpenAIRE

    Awofeso Niyi

    2002-01-01

    The opportunities and problems for hepatitis B vaccination programmes in prison settings are discussed. In particular, the advantages of modelling are stressed and an active case-finding approach is advocated. Measures for maintaining good case-holding are also discussed, and a 0, 1, 2 months vaccination regimen with 20 microg doses of vaccine is advocated for prison settings. A higher reference level for inferring adequate immunization is also recommended, with booster injections for inmates...

  7. Adipokines and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Li; Lin Ding; Waseem Hassan; Daoud Abdelkader; Jing Shang

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Adipose tissue is now considered to be an active endocrine organ that secretes various adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumour necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. Recent studies have shown that these factors might provide a molecular link between increased adiposity and impaired insulin sensitivity. Since hepatic insulin resistance plays the key role in the whole body insulin resistance, clarificatio...

  8. Historical reflections on autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian R Mackay

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH),initially known as chronic active or active chronic hepatitis (and by various other names),first came under clinical notice in the late 1940s.However,quite likely,chronic active hepatitis (CAH) had been observed prior to this and was attributed to a persistently destructive virus infection of the liver.An earlier (and controversial) designation in 1956 as lupoid hepatitis was derived from associated L.E.cell test positivity and emphasized accompanying multisystem features and immunological aberrations.Young women featured prominently in early descriptions of CAH.AIH was first applied in 1965 as a descriptive term.Disease-characteristic autoantibodies were defined from the early 1960s,notably antinuclear antibody (ANA),smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and liver-kidney microsomal (LKM) antibody.These are still widely used diagnostically but their relationship to pathogenesis is still not evident.A liver and disease specific autoantigen has long been searched for but unsuccessfully.Prolonged immunosuppressive therapy with predisolone and azathioprine in the 1960s proved beneficial and remains standard therapy today.AIH like many other autoimmune diseases is associated with particular HLA alleles especially with the "ancestral" B8,DR3 haplotype,and also with DR4.Looking forwards,AIH is one of the several enigmatic autoimmune diseases that,despite being (relatively) organ specific,are marked by autoimmune reactivities with non-organ-specific autoantigens.New paradigms are needed to explain the occurrence,expressions and pathogenesis of such diseases.

  9. Percutaneous Ablation of Hepatic Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    McCarley, James R.; Soulen, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The liver is a common site of both primary and secondary malignancy resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Careful patient evaluation and triage allows for optimal utilization of all oncologic therapies, including radiation, systemic chemotherapy, surgery, transarterial therapies, and ablation. Although the role of interventional oncologists in the management of hepatic malignancies continues to evolve, the use of percutaneous ablation therapies has proven to be an effective and mi...

  10. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  11. What I Need to Know about Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... URL Español What I need to know about Hepatitis B Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis * B is a virus , or infection, ...

  12. Urinary porphyrin excretion in hepatitis C infection

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Jacob, Karl; Zachoval, Reinhart

    1999-01-01

    A high prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in porphyria cutanea tarda in some populations suggests a close link between viral hepatitis and alteration of porphyrin metabolism. Moreover, there is evidence of a role of porphyrinopathies in hepatocarcinogenesis. The aim of our study was to obtain data on the prevalence and patterns of heme metabolism alterations in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Urinary porphyrin excretion was prospectively studied in 100 consecutive ou...

  13. Hepatic lymphatics: anatomy and related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pupulim, Lawrence; Vilgrain, Valérie; Ronot, Maxime; Becker, Christoph; Breguet, Romain; Terraz, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The liver normally produces a large amount of lymph. It is estimated that between 25% and 50% of the lymph received by the thoracic duct comes from the liver. In normal conditions, hepatic lymphatics are not depicted on cross-sectional imaging. They are divided in lymphatics of deep system (lymphatics following the hepatic veins and the portal tract) and those of superficial system (convex surface and inferior surface). A variety of diseases may affect hepatic lymphatics and in general they m...

  14. Scintigraphic finding of a silent hepatic haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borse, Rohan; Mahapatra, G N; Meht, Rajeev; Plumber, Saifee; Dhuri, Sandeep; Ali, Sarfaraz

    2010-10-01

    Hepatic haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of liver. Most of them remain asymptomatic and are detected incidentally. Tc 99m RBC blood pool imaging is highly specific diagnostic modality of choice for hepatic haemangioma as its hypervascular nature may create equivocal result on CT or MRI. The sensitivity and specificity increases using SPECT especially in lesion less than 2 cm. Therefore all patients suspected of having hepatic haemangioma should undergo Tc 99m blood pool imaging. PMID:21510118

  15. Update on Alcohol and Viral Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Gitto, Stefano; Vitale, Giovanni; Villa, Erica; Andreone, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with viral hepatitis. Although alcohol is known to worsen viral liver disease, the interactions between alcohol and viral hepatitis are not fully understood. Molecular alterations in the liver due to alcohol and viral hepatitis include effects on viral replication, increased oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, and a weakened immune response. Clinically, alcohol enhances disease progression and favors induction of primitive liver neoplasm. The use of new ant...

  16. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mijailović Željko D.; Čanović Predrag S.; Gajović Olgica M.; Todorović Zoran V.; Nešić Ljiljana

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination,...

  17. Hepatitis B virus vaccination rate with immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, H; Macedo, M.; Estrada, A.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, thus making it a serious public health issue. The purpose of this study was to determine the hepatitis B virus vaccination rate with immunization, the risk of this population group becoming infected before vaccination and the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection. The study involved randomly analyzing the serum of 311 adolescents of both sexes aged 14 from a total population of 536 adolescents attending scho...

  18. Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patient presenting with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology.

  19. Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Perrini, S; B. Guidi; Torelli, P; A. Forte

    2014-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of Parvovirus B19 associated acute cholestatic hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM) and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in peripheral blood. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patient presenting with acute hepatitis of unknown etiology.

  20. Influence of posture on hepatic blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic blood flow was measured in 28 patients in supine and prone positions using the 133Xe-inhalation washout method. Even though the reactions in individual patients were considerably different, a man blood flow of 60.9 ml/100 g/min was unaltered in both positions. This constancy of hepatic blood flow values is valid for patients without liver disease with chronic hepatitis, and with liver cirrhosis. (orig.)