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Sample records for alnus rubra amended

  1. Improving germination of red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) seeds with gibberellic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda Morales; Charles Barden; Cheryl Boyer; Jason Griffin; Lillian Fisher; Joni Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) are considered important plants for many Native American tribes in the United States. Native Americans use these 3 species for a variety of traditional and medicinal purposes. For example, red elm is still the preferred firewood for the cultural ceremonies of several tribes....

  2. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus Rubra following fertiliztion with urea or biosolids Fixação de nitrogênio e crescimento de Alnus Rubra fertilização com uréia ou biosólidos

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    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization of forests using biosolids offers a potentially environmentally friendly means to accelerate tree growth. This field study was designed to analyze the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N-fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. Anaerobically digested, class B biosolids and synthetic urea (46% N were applied at rates of 140, 280 and 560 kg ha-1 available N to a well-drained, sandy, glacial outwash soil in the Indianola series (mixed, mesic Dystric Xeropsamments. Plots were planted with A. rubra seedlings. At the end of each of two growing seasons trees were harvested and analyzed for the rate of N fixation (as acetylene reduction activity, biomass and foliar N. At year 1, there was no N fixation for trees grown with urea amendments, but control (17 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 and biosolids (26-45 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 trees were fixing N. At the end of year 2, all trees in all treatments were fixing N (7 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, 4-16 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, and 20-29 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 for control, urea and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with biosolids amendments were larger overall (year 1 shoot biomass 10 g, 5 g, and 23 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 shoot biomass 50 g, 51 g, and 190 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively with higher concentrations of foliar N for both years of the study (year 1 foliar N 26 g kg-1, 27 g kg-1, and 40 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 foliar N 17 g kg-1, 19 g kg-1, and 23 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with urea amendments appeared to use the urea N over Frankia supplied N, whereas the biosolids trees appeared to be able to use both N in biosolids and N from Frankia. The results from this study indicated that the greater growth of A. rubra may have been responsible for the observed higher N demand. Biosolids may have supplied other nutrients to the

  3. Festuca rubra L. op Terschelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijsen, A.H.J.; Heusden, van H.T.A.

    1965-01-01

    The authors performed a preliminary survey of Festuca rubra L. s.l. in the outer dunes of the West- Frisian island of Terschelling. Starting-point was the question which dune-form of this grass — Festuca juncifolia St. Amans or Festuca rubra subvar. arenaria (Osb.) Hack. — was growing there. In the

  4. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

    OpenAIRE

    GAURAV MISHRA; KRISHNA GIRI; ANTARA DUTTA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder) is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixa...

  5. Association pityriasis rubra pilaire et myasthenie

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    Fatima Zahra Agharbi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Le pityriasis rubra pilaire est un trouble de keratinisation rare dont l�etiopathogenie reste inconnue mais dont l�association avec autres pathologies a ete deja rapportee. Nous rapportons l�observation d�une jeune patiente qui presente un pityriasis rubra pilaire associe a une myasthenie. Traitee par Neostigmine et thymectomie avec bonne evolution sur le plan neurologique. Vu son desir de grossesse un traitement systemique de son pityriasis rubra pilaire n�a pas pu etre instaure et l�evolution sous dermocorticoides n�etait pas tres favorable.

  6. Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils.

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

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    Kubanov Alexey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with clinical diagnosis and treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP. The authors analyze the diagnostic errors, present literature review, and their own observations. The clinical study included 23 patients with pityriasis rubra pilaris: 18 women and 5 men, average age of 54 ± 7.2. The clinical diagnosis of all examined patients was subsequently confirmed by histological analysis of the skin. The primary clinical diagnosis was psoriasis in 15 (65.2% patients, 6 (26% patients received treatment for toxic exanthema, and only 2 (8.8% patients were presumptively diagnosed with pityriasis rubra pilaris. In conclusion, pityriasis rubra pilaris was initially misdiagnosed in 91.2% of patients. Considering the great number of diagnostic errors, we analyzed the main diagnostic and differential diagnostic features of PRP. The most effective of all synthetic retinoids in PRP treatment is acitretin. Although symptomatic improvement in PRP occurs within a month, substantial improvement, even clearing is possible within 4 - 6 months.

  8. Reclamation of a lignite combustion waste disposal site with alders (Alnus sp.): assessment of tree growth and nutrient status within 10 years of the experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Pająk, Marek; Wanic, Tomasz; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Chodak, Marcin

    2018-04-11

    Combustion wastes are characterised by extremely low N contents. Therefore, introduction of nitrogen-fixing species at the first stage of their biological reclamation is required. This paper presents an assessment of the growth parameters of alders (Alnus sp.) 10 years after their introduction to a disposal site of lignite combustion waste in Central Poland. Black (Alnus glutinosa) and grey alders (Alnus incana) were planted directly in the combustion waste. The soil amendment included three variants: control with pure combustion waste, admixture of lignite culm and addition of acid sand. Both alder species displayed good growth parameters comparable to those of alders in natural habitats. However, black alder had better growth parameters, such as stand density index (SDI), diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H) than grey alder. The lignite amendment exerted a positive effect on tree growth, reflected in a higher SDI and H, whereas the acid sand amendment did not affect any of the growth parameters of the studied alder species. Despite the good growth parameters, the measured N:P and N:K ratios in the alder leaves largely differed from the optimal values indicating insufficient P and K supply at the combustion waste disposal site. This may pose a threat to further development of the introduced tree plantings. The introduction of alders along with the lignite addition into the planting holes seems to be a successful method of combustion waste revegetation.

  9. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O P

    2011-07-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus.

  10. Systemic sclerosis in a patient with pityriasis rubra pilaris | Frikha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare, chronic erythematous squamous disorder of unknown etiology. It has been found in association with several autoimmune diseases, including thyroiditis, myositis, myasthenia gravis and vitiligo. Herein we report a case of systemic sclerosis in a patient with classic adult pityriasis rubra ...

  11. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... The nodules of actinorhizal plants, such as Alnus species, are perennial (Baker and Schwintzer 1990; Huss-Danell 1997). In a naturally regenerated Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica stand on the roadside in the central part of Japan, we found as well as the nodule biomass per tree, the nodule size distribution, as.

  12. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris In The Indian Scenario

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    Sarkar Rashmi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an uncommon idiopathic papulosqamous disorder characterized by circumscribed follicular keratosis, palmoplantar keratoderma and frequently erythroderma. Seven patients of PRP (five females and two males in the age range of 2 to 50 years seen over a 2-year period are presented with their clinical features, triggering factors, associations and laboratory investigations. The clinical type of PRP was adult onset classical variety in three, juvenile circumscribed variety in two and adult onset atypical variety and juvenile classical variety in one each. The triggering factors were upper respiratory tract infection with nutritional deficiencies in two and folliculitis in one. The histopathology was consistent with PRP in all. Four patients were managed with oral vitamin A while one each was put on methotrexate, etretinate and topical steroids and they showed a good response. More number of cases should be studied over a longer period to substantiate the suggested immunologic mechanism of PRP.

  13. Occurrence and succession of mycorrhizas in Alnus incana

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    Arveby, A.S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Section of Forest Ecophysiology; Granhall, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of different mycorrhizas of the grey alder, Alnus incana (L.) Moench., in Sweden was investigated. Root sampling was carried out in planted and natural grey alder stands, representing different soil types, geographical sites, and plant ages. Mycorrhizal infection of roots was found to be frequent at all investigated sites, except for some planted peat bogs, where alders do not occur naturally. At the latter sites, mycorrhizal infection was less frequent and consisted only of ectomycorrhizas. Young trees here were non-mycorrhizal. At all other sites vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) was found to be the almost exclusive type of mycorrhiza in first-year seedlings. In trees older than one year ectomycorrhiza was the dominating type. In the planted stands up to five years of age no fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. In such stands the ectomycorrhizas generally had thin, translucent mantles and could be observed only by microscopic examination. In one old plantation (27 years) and in the natural stands sporocarps of several specific `alder fungi` were found. Here, the mycorrhizal root tips had thick, mostly whitish mantles. The Hartig net was in all cases confined to penetration between epidermal cells. Soil collected from one alder site and two non-alder biotopes readily infected grey alder seedlings with Frankia and VAM fungi whereas a peat soil failed to infect seedlings with any symbiont. In vitro inoculation of nodulated seedlings with Glomus mossae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe resulted in VAM-infection. Simultaneous syntheses with isolates of alder-specific, and other, ectomycorrhizal fungi, using three different methods, failed. On the basis of these results an endomycorrhizal-ectomycorrhizal succession after the first growth season in Alnus incana is concluded. A subsequent succession of ectomycorrhizal species from early-stage to late-stage ones is discussed 58 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Oral Alitretinoin for the Treatment of Recalcitrant Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

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    Laurenz Schmitt

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of pityriasis rubra pilaris is still challenging. We here present a 74-year-old woman who had not experienced stable remission of her skin symptoms during prior treatments including topical and systemic corticosteroids, phototherapy, orally administered acitretin, cyclosporine, methotrexate and adalimumab. A therapy with oral alitretinoin was started and tolerated very well. After a few weeks, skin condition improved significantly and itching and scaling disappeared. The present case shows that alitretinoin might be an alternative in the treatment of recalcitrant pityriasis rubra pilaris type I. Further studies are needed to investigate the benefit of this encouraging result.

  15. Management of stretch marks (with a focus on striae rubrae

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    Uwe Wollina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stretch marks are one of the most common benign cutaneous lesions and encountered esthetic problems. Striae rubrae and striae albae can be differentiated on the basis of clinical appearance. Histologically, disturbances of the dermal fiber network and local expression of receptors for sexual steroids have been detected. The epidermal changes are secondary. Prevention of stretch marks using topical ointments and oils is debatable. Treatment of striae rubrae by lasers and light devices improves appearance. Microneedling and non-ablative and fractionated lasers have been used. This review provides an overview on current treatment options with a special focus on laser treatments.

  16. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  17. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To isolate, purify and characterize protease from the latex of the plant. Methods: Protease was isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra Linn using acetone precipitation method and purified by a sequence of DEAE cellulose column chromatography, followed by two successive column purification in Sephadex G-50 ...

  18. A Protease Isolated from the Latex of Plumeria rubra Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Spinacia oleracea and Petroselinum crispum leaves [5]. Proteases are important enzymes of plant metabolism and are instrumental in regulating senescence [6]. They are responsible for the degradation of proteins. Proteolytic enzymes are used extensively in industrial and medical applications [7]. Plumeria rubra Linn.

  19. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixation and capability to restore fertility of degraded lands. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 60 days under controlled conditions to validate the carbon and nutrients mineralization potential of alder litter. Soil fertility indicators, i.e. soil organic carbon (SOC, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K were analyzed using standard procedures. Significant differences were observed in the soil properties after addition of litter. Nutrient composition of alder litter was found superior by providing significantly higher organic matter and helped in better nutrient cycling. Therefore, alder based land use system may be replicated in other degraded lands or areas for productivity enhancement which is important for sustaining biodiversity and soil fertility.

  20. The Genus Alnus, A Comprehensive Outline of Its Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueyang; He, Ting; Chang, Yanli; Zhao, Yicheng; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; Wang, Le; Shen, Meng; She, Gaimei

    2017-08-21

    The genus Alnus (Betulaceae) is comprised of more than 40 species. Many species of this genus have a long history of use in folk medicines. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of diarylheptanoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and other compounds. Diarylheptanoids, natural products with a 1,7-diphenylheptane structural skeleton, are the dominant constituents in the genus, whose anticancer effect has been brought into focus. Pure compounds and crude extracts from the genus exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities both in vitro and in vivo. This paper compiles 273 naturally occurring compounds from the genus Alnus along with their structures and pharmacological activities, as reported in 138 references.

  1. Evaluation of various therapeutic measures in striae rubra

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    Umesh Karsandas Karia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Striae are linear atrophic depressions that form in areas of dermal damage in the skin. As on date, no consensus or protocol exists for the treatment of stria rubra. Topical retinoids, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, radiofrequency, photothermolysis, intense pulsed light and lasers are some of the modalities used. Aims and Objective: To compare the efficacy of various therapeutic modalities in striae rubra. Methods: This prospective cohort study comprised of a total of fifty patients from August-2012 to October-2013 in a tertiary care center in Western India, Gujarat having striae rubra. They were randomly divided into five groups of ten patients each. Patients were evaluated on the basis of visual assessment, both by doctor as well as the patient. Group I was given topical tretinoin (0.1% w/w gel applied once at night, Group II-microdermabrasion (MDA combined with trichloroacetic acid (TCA (30% peel, Group III-mesotherapy, Group IV-Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, and Group V-combination treatment of microdermabrasion, salicylic acid peel and retinol (yellow peel. Patients were treated at an interval of 15 days for 2 months and then at monthly intervals. Objective assessment was done at 2nd month, 6th month, and at the end of 1st year. Results: Patients in Group I treated with topical tretinoin showed the least response with 80% (8 of them showing minimal clinical improvement (0–25% as compared to patients in Group V in which 60% (6 patients showed moderate clinical improvement (50–75%. While majority of the patients in Group II, III, and IV showed mild clinical improvement (25–50%. Conclusions: Striae rubra is a common cause of concern for adolescent population. Combination treatment with microdermabrasion, salicylic acid and retinol yellow peel gave superior results as compared to other therapeutic options. Mild to moderate improvement was seen with Nd: YAG laser, mesotherapy and MDA + TCA whereas minimal improvement were seen

  2. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 ...

  3. Nitrogen metabolism in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa: expression of glutamine synthetase and acetylornithine transaminase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.; Ribeiro, A.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Jing, Y.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.; Pawlowski, K.

    1996-01-01

    Two nodule cDNA clones representing genes involved in Alnus glutinosa nitrogen metabolism were analysed. ag11 encoded glutamine synthetase (GS), the enzyme responsible for ammonium assimilation, while ag118 encoded acetylornithine transaminase (AOTA), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of

  4. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-alnus symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules

  5. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... Previous address: Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Graduate School of Agriculture,. Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan. To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction ...

  6. Development of Alnus tenuifolia stands on an Alaskan floodplain: patterns of recruitment, disease, and succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana R. Nossov; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Roger W. Ruess; Knut. Kielland

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the population dynamics of the keystone symbiotic N-fixing species Alnus tenuifolia (thinleaf alder) and the patterns of primary succession on the Tanana River floodplains of interior Alaska, USA. The goals of this study were to characterize (i) the variation in the population structure of thinleaf alder and its influence on...

  7. Effect of Alnus japonica extract on a model of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Eun; Park, Kwan Hee; Jeong, Mi Sook; Kim, Han Hyuk; Lee, Do Ik; Joo, Seong Soo; Lee, Chung Soo; Bang, Hyoweon; Choi, Young Wook; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Seo, Seong Jun; Lee, Min Won

    2011-07-14

    The bark of Alnus species has long been used in traditional oriental medicine in the treatment of many pathological conditions, including fever, hemorrhage, diarrhea, alcoholism, various skin diseases (e.g. chronic herpes, eczema and prurigo), and inflammation. In order to assess the immunomodulatory efficacy of a novel herbal medicine in treating atopic dermatitis, we measured serum levels of several allergic and inflammatory biomarkers in NC/Nga mice before and after treatment with this experimental agent. Gene and protein expression analyses of iNOS and COX-2 were quantified by real time PCR and Western blot analysis and serum levels of IL-4, -5 and -13 were also measured by ELISA, all of which were reduced after treatment with the experimental agent. Additionally, serum concentrations of IgE and blood eosinophil counts were reduced in treated mice. The topical application of leaf and bark extract from Alnus japonica suppressed the development of AD-like skin lesions. The percent of blood eosinophils was decreased after treatment with leaf and bark extract from Alnus japonica. The serum IgE and Th2-related cytokine levels were decreased after treatment with leaf and bark extract from Alnus japonica compared with those treated with base cream (vehicle treated AD group). The IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 were lower than those of vehicle treated AD group. We contend that leaf and bark extract from Alnus japonica may prove useful in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and other allergic skin diseases, although more in-depth clinical studies are necessary before clinical implementation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Study on the pharmacognosy identification and UV identification of Basella rubra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hua; Liang, Zi-Ning; Yang, Xiu-Mei; Wei, Zhi-Ying

    2012-06-01

    To provide reference for identification and development of Basella rubra. Microscopic identification and UV spectrometry methods were used. Obvious characteristics were found in the tissue structures of the roots, stems and leaves . And Basella rubra showed some UV spectrometry characteristics. The results can be used as the reference for analyzing the quality of the crude drug.

  9. Growth, nitrogen fixation and mineral acquisition of Alnus sieboldiana after inoculation of Frankia together with Gigaspora margarita and Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi Yamanaka; Akio Akama; Ching-Yan Li; Hiroaki. Okabe

    2005-01-01

    The role of tetrapartite associations among Frankia, Gigaspora margarita (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus), Pseudomonas putida (rhizobacterium), and Alnus sieboldiana in growth, nitrogen fixation, and mineral acquisition of A. sieboldiana was investigated....

  10. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  11. SYSTEMIC BLASTOMYCOSIS IN A CAPTIVE RED RUFFED LEMUR (VARECIA RUBRA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Michael F; Lindemann, Dana M; Barger, Anne M; Allender, Matthew C; Hsiao, Shih-Hsuan; Howes, Mark E

    2016-09-01

    A 5-yr-old, intact male red ruffed lemur ( Varecia rubra ) presented for evaluation as the result of a 1-wk history of lethargy and hyporexia. Physical examination findings included thin body condition, muffled heart sounds, harsh lung sounds, and liquid brown diarrhea. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry showed an inflammatory leukogram, mild hyponatremia, and mild hypochloremia. Orthogonal trunk radiographs revealed a severe alveolar pattern in the right cranial lung lobes with cardiac silhouette effacement. Thoracic ultrasound confirmed a large, hypoechoic mass in the right lung lobes. Fine-needle aspiration of the lung mass and cytology revealed fungal yeast organisms, consistent with Blastomyces dermatitidis. Blastomyces Quantitative EIA Test on urine was positive. Postmortem examination confirmed systemic blastomycosis involving the lung, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, liver, cerebrum, and eye. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of blastomycosis in a prosimian species.

  12. Granulosis rubra nasi – a case report. A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzezinski Piotr

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Granulosis Rubra Nasi (GRN, a rare childhood dermatitis that was also defined as "Acne papulo-rosacea of the nose". Is an inflammatory dermatosis which consists on erythema, papules and itch. The hyperhidrosis the most conspicuous features of the disease and small beads of sweat and erythema on the tip of the nose may often occur. Sometimes small red papules and comedo-like lesions may be present. Etiology is unknown. lt's uncommon, chronic process and benign course. Usually subsides spontaneously at adolescence. The treatment is symptomatic and cosmetic. An 14-year-old boy presented with erythematous lesions over the nose of childhood duration without sensitivity to sunlight. Physical examination showed also excessive sweating of the nose, and erythema of the nose covered by small pustules, papules ang macules. The patient responded well to low doses of oral Isotretinoine. Should remember GRN could be a complication of hyperhidrosis.

  13. [Hepatocellular carcinoma in a lemur (Varecia variegata rubra x variegata)--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, P; Petzold, D R; Brandt, H P

    1996-05-01

    This case report describes a spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma in a six years-old female lemur (Varecia variegata rubra x variegata) with widespread metastases. Potential causes of hepatic neoplasms are discussed.

  14. Gustatory perception and metabolic utilization of sugars by Myrmica rubra ant workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boevé, J-L.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    The suitability of various nectar and honeydew sugars as a food source for the polyphagous ant species M. rubra (L.) was studied. The sugars used included monosaccharides (fructose, glucose, galactose, mannose, rhamnose), disaccharides (sucrose, maltose, trehalose, melibiose, lactose) and

  15. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli

    OpenAIRE

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Perry, Jonathan M. G.

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (Vb )—the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole—and found that Vb scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between Vb and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in Vb between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to...

  16. Antifungal constituents in alnus acuminata H.B.K. nodules Constituyentes antifungicos en nódulos radicales de Alnus Acuminata H.B.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Jaime

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata. H.B.K. is a native specimen of economic importance. that is characterized for having root nodules
    that can fix nitrogen. The nodules chemical composition has not been sstablished, but, it has been seen that it has influence over the soil microflora. In order to establish the chemical composition and the activity of the obtained fractions, there were made extractions of the alder nodules. The insulated compounds were; xylose and ribose; an aromatic carboxylicaeid, an fatty aeid, an phenolic biarylheptanoid and a flavonoid glycosic. were also founded. The Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium sp. growing was inhibited by this last one sustance.Alnus acuminata. H.B.K. es una especie nativa de importancia económica que se caracteriza por tener nódulos radicales
    fijadores de nitrógeno. La composición química de los nódulos no se ha establecido; sin embargo, se ha observado que actúa sobre la microflora del suelo. Con el fin de establecer la composición química de las fracciones obtenidas, se.realizaron extracciones a partir de nódulos de Aliso. Los compuestos
    aislados 'fueron: xilosa y ribosa; además se caracterizaron un ácido carboxílico aromático, un ácido graso, un biariheptanoide
    fenólico y un glicósido de flavonoide. Esta última sustancia inhibió el crecimiento de Fusarium oxvsporum y Pythium sp.

  17. Daños causados por Fitopatógenos y Entomofauna asociada en Alnus acuminata H.B.K Damages cause o by Phytopagogenus and Entomofauna asociated in Alnus aeuminata H.B.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Mary Ruth; Coba de Gutierrez Bertha; Acosta Gómez Alfredo

    1989-01-01

    Con estudios realizados sobre árboles de aliso, Alnus aeuminata H.B.K. se sugiere que la presencia de Saltahojas (HOM:Cicadellidae) en alta densidad, proporciona un marco propicio para la invasión de hongos fitopatógenos como Gloesporium, Alternaria y posiblemente roya, entre otros
    lo que conlleva al deterioro gradual de las plantas, debido al efecto sobre los procesos fisiológicos normales.Studies conducted on trees of Alnus aeumínata H.B.K., showed that the presence of leaf hoppe...

  18. Susceptibility of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) seeds and seedlings to Phytophthora alni and other Phytophthora species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M. M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Phytophthora alni is a highly destructive host specific pathogen to alders (Alnus spp.) spreading all over Europe. Recently this pathogen has been reported to cause diseases in common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in Spain. Seeds and seedlings of A. glutinosa were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to alder Phytophthora and other Phytophthora species. Isolates of P. alni ssp. alni, P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. nicotianae and P. palmivora were used in the experiments. Seeds and seedlings were inoculated with a zoospore suspension and uniform mycelial blocks of agar of the Phytophthora species. Susceptibility was calculated in terms of pathogen virulence on seed germination and seedling mortality 42 and 67 days after inoculation respectively. Seed germination and seedling mortality rates varied differently among the isolates used. Results implied that common alder and its seeds and seedlings are at risk to be infected by P. alni. In addition, other Phytophthora species are able to infect this kind of material showing their relative host non-specificity. This is one important finding concerning alder regeneration in infected areas, and the possibility of disease spread on this plant material. (Author) 42 refs.

  19. Antithrombotic Effect and Mechanism of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

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    Pingyao Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The compounds of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR were isolated and identified by bioassay-guided method, and antithrombotic effects and mechanism were investigated by the acute blood stasis rat model. The RPR extract was evaluated by APTT, TT, PT, and FIB assays in vitro. Results indicated that RPR extract exhibited the anticoagulant activity. In order to find active compounds, six compounds were isolated and identified, and four compounds, paeoniflorin (Pae, pentagalloylglucose (Pen, albiflorin (Ali, and protocatechuic acid (Pro, exhibited the anticoagulant activity in vitro. Therefore, the antithrombosis effects of RPR extract and four active compounds were investigated in vivo by measuring whole blood viscosity (WBV, plasma viscosity (PV, APTT, PT, TT, and FIB. Meanwhile, the levels of TXB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α, eNOS, and ET-1 were detected. Results suggested that RPR extract and four active compounds had the inhibition effect on thrombus formation, and the antithrombotic effects were associated with the regulation of vascular endothelium active substance, activating blood flow and anticoagulation effect.

  20. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, Paolino; Angelino, Donato

    2013-09-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris cicla, BVc) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra, BVr) are vegetables of the Chenopodiaceae family, widely consumed in traditional western cooking. These vegetables represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients. They can be cultivated in soils with scarce organic material and little light and water. BVc and BVr have a long history of use in folk medicine. Modern pharmacology shows that BVc extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines. BVr contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods. Moreover, the promising results of their phytochemicals in health protection suggest the opportunity to take advantage of the large availability of this crop for purification of chemopreventive molecules to be used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Host species and habitat affect nodulation by specific Frankia genotypes in two species of Alnus in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Damon Anderson; Roger W. Ruess; David D. Myrold; D. Lee. Taylor

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the genetic structure (nifD-K spacer RFLP haplotypes) of Frankia assemblages symbiotic with two species of Alnus (A. tenuifolia and A. viridis) in four successional habitats in interior Alaska. We used one habitat in which both hosts occurred to...

  2. Halovenus rubra sp. nov., isolated from salted brown alga Laminaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin; Li, Zheng-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic archaeal strain R28(T) was isolated from the brown alga Laminaria produced at Dalian, Liaoning Province, China. The cells of the strain were pleomorphic and lysed in distilled water, stained Gram-negative, and formed red-pigmented colonies. Strain R28(T) was able to grow at 25-50 °C (optimum 42 °C), in the presence of 3.1-5.1 M NaCl (optimum 3.9 M NaCl), with 0.005-1.0 M MgCl(2) (optimum 0.01 M MgCl(2)) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5). The minimal NaCl concentration to prevent cell lysis was 15 % (w/v). The major polar lipids of the strain were identified as phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, and two glycolipids chromatographically identical to those of Halovenus aranensis CGMCC 1.11001(T). The 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene of strain R28(T) were phylogenetically related to the corresponding genes of Hvn. aranensis CGMCC 1.11001(T) (91.9-97.2 and 82.9 % nucleotide identity, respectively). The DNA G+C content of strain R28(T) was determined to be 56.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic properties suggest that strain R28(T) (=CGMCC 1.10592(T) = JCM 17269(T)) represents a novel species of the genus Halovenus, for which the name Halovenus rubra sp. nov. is proposed.

  3. Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G; Sharma, E; Sharma, R; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years.

  4. Removal of acorns of the alien oak Quercus rubra on the ground by scatter-hoarding animals in Belgian forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merceron, NR.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Quercus rubra L. is considered an invasive species in several European countries. However, little is known about its dispersal in the introduced range. Objectives. We investigated the significance of animal dispersal of Q. rubra acorns on the ground by vertebrates in its introduced range, and identified the animal species involved. Method. During two consecutive autumns, the removal of acorns from Q. rubra and from a native oak was assessed weekly in forest sites in Belgium. We used automated detection camera traps to identify the animals that removed acorns. Results. Quercus rubra acorns were removed by wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus L., red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris L., rats (Rattus sp., and wild boars (Sus scrofa L.. The two former are scatter-hoarding rodents and can be considered potential dispersers. Conclusions. Dispersal of Q. rubra acorns in Western Europe by scatter-hoarding animals may help the species increasingly colonize forest ecosystems.

  5. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs.

  6. Daños causados por Fitopatógenos y Entomofauna asociada en Alnus acuminata H.B.K Damages cause o by Phytopagogenus and Entomofauna asociated in Alnus aeuminata H.B.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Mary Ruth

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Con estudios realizados sobre árboles de aliso, Alnus aeuminata H.B.K. se sugiere que la presencia de Saltahojas (HOM:Cicadellidae en alta densidad, proporciona un marco propicio para la invasión de hongos fitopatógenos como Gloesporium, Alternaria y posiblemente roya, entre otros
    lo que conlleva al deterioro gradual de las plantas, debido al efecto sobre los procesos fisiológicos normales.Studies conducted on trees of Alnus aeumínata H.B.K., showed that the presence of leaf hoppers (Hom: Cicadellidae on high density gives the right conditions for the Phytopathogenic fungus invasion like: mildew, Gloesporium, Alternaría and other. Which result gradual damage on aliso trees, because the normal physiology process of the plants could be affected.

  7. Urethral obstruction with a copulatory plug following natural breeding in a ruffed lemur, Varecia rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Jenifer A; Chatfield, Jerilyn J; Chatfield, John A

    2014-04-01

    An 18-year old captive male lemur (Varecia rubra) housed in a breeding situation presented for lethargy and anorexia. Physical exam revealed urethral obstruction. Urethral plugs secondary to semen collection are common in lemurs. Here, we report the first case of naturally occurring urethral copulatory plug in a ruffed lemur. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  9. Competitive capacity of Quercus rubra L. planted in Arkansas' Boston Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel C. Dey; Paul S. Johnson; David L. Graney

    2002-01-01

    Results of an 11 yr study of the growth and survival of planted northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings (2-0 bare-root) are presented. More than 4,000 seedlings were planted under shelterwood overstories that were harvested 3 yr after planting. Results are expressed as planted-tree dominance probabilities. Dominance probability is the...

  10. Effects of moisture and nitrogen stress on gas exchange and nutrient resorption in Quercus rubra seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Francis Salifu; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2008-01-01

    The effects of simulated soil fertility at three levels (poor, medium, and rich soils) and moisture stress at two levels (well watered versus moisture stressed) on gas exchange and foliar nutrient resorption in 1+0 bareroot northern red oak (Quercus rubra) seedlings were evaluated. Current nitrogen (N) uptake was labeled with the stable isotope

  11. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    A somatic embryogenesis protocol for plant regeneration of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was established from immature cotyledon explants. Embryogenic callus cultures were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) containing 3% sucrose, 0.24% Phytagel™, and various concentrations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) after 4 weeks of...

  12. An analysis of phenotypic selection in natural stands of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery W. Stringer; David B. Wagner; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Daniel B. Houston

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of growth and stem quality parameters of 19-year-old progeny from superior and comparison trees indicates that rigorous phenotypic selection of trees in natural stands may not be an efficient method of parent tree selection for Quercus rubra L. Total tree height, dbh, number of branches in the butt log, fork height, and number of mainstem...

  13. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  14. On merging Acer sections Rubra and Hyptiocarpa: Molecular and morphological evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Harris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we expanded Acer sect. Rubra Pax to include A. sect. Hyptiocarpa Fang. Traditionally, section Rubra comprises two iconic species, Acer rubrum Linnaeus (red maple and A. saccharinum Linnaeus (silver maple, of eastern North American forests as well as the rare Japanese montane species, A. pycnanthum K. Koch. Section Hyptiocarpa consists of A. laurinum Hasskarl and A. pinnatinervium Merrill, which occur in subtropical and tropical regions of southwestern China to southeast Asia. Here, we confirm prior phylogenetic results showing the close relationship between sects. Rubra and Hyptiocarpa, and we use scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate that leaves of species within these sections have similar arrangements of cuticular waxes, which account for the silvery color of their abaxial surfaces. We describe that the sections also share labile sex expression; inflorescences that range from compound racemose thyrses, to racemes or umbels and that may have undergone evolutionary reduction; and several features of their fruits, such as seed locules without keels, basal portion of wings straight, acute attachment angle between mericarps, and production of some mericarps that are seedless and partially developed at maturity. Our expansion of sect. Rubra to include sect. Hyptiocarpa better elucidates the biogeographic and evolutionary history of these species. Additionally, we show that A. laurinum and A. pinnatinervium have intergrading morphology and are probably synonymous, but we note that further studies are required to conclude their taxonomic status.

  15. Studies upon morhological and biological traits of Festuca rubra, subsp.fallax (Poaceae

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    Bogusław Sawicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Observation and measurements of some traits of Festuca rubra L., subsp. fallax (Thuill. Hack. ecotypes were made in 1995-1997 using samples selected from natural habitats and collected in Grassland Experimental Station in Sosnowica. High differentiation of traits under study and their correlations were found. Valorized ecotypes are good material for new varieties breeding.

  16. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: II. Intraspecific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Natalie

    2002-06-01

    Based on a year-long field study in northeastern Madagascar, I summarize annual patterns of niche use (food patch size, diet, forest height, and forest site) in two sympatric lemurs, Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons. Furthermore, I examine intraspecific patterns of niche use according to sex, season, and reproductive stage in these two lemurs that differ in terms of energetic investment in reproduction. Lemurs as a group provide a special opportunity to test hypotheses concerning sex differences in niche use. Due to their body size monomorphism and seasonal, synchronous pattern of breeding, it is possible to directly evaluate whether sex differences in diet reflect high energetic investment in reproduction by females. Results confirm the hypothesis that intraspecific variation in niche use (e.g., sex differences, seasonal differences) would be more pronounced in V. v. rubra than in E. f. albifrons, due in large measure to the former's relatively high energetic investment in reproduction: 1a) Dietary sex differences in V. v. rubra are most pronounced during costly reproductive stages and involve acquisition of low-fiber, high-protein plant foods. Females of both species consume more seasonally available low-fiber protein (young leaves, flowers) relative to conspecific males during the hot dry season, but only in V. v. rubra females is this pattern also evident during gestation and lactation. 1b) The diets of female V. v. rubra and female E. f. albifrons are more similar to each other than are the diets of conspecific males and females in the case of V. v. rubra. This is not uniformly the case for female E. f. albifrons. This finding confirms a hypothesis put forward in Vasey ([2000] Am J Phys Anthropol 112:411-431) that energetic requirements of reproductive females drive niche separation more than do the energetic requirements of males. 1c) Both species synchronize most or all of lactation with seasonal food abundance and diversity. E. f

  17. Changes in the structural indices of annual shoots of Quercus rubra under anthropogenic impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is one of the important problems of large cities. In connection with this, comprehensive study of the mechanisms of the corresponding reactions of tree species, introduced in the process of landscaping, to various environmen tal factors is required. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of urban technogenic environmental pollution on the anatomical characteristics of Quercus rubra Linnaeus, 1753 annual shoots. The object of research was 35-year-old plants of Q. rubra, which grew in a non-polluted site (conditionally clean zone, the Botanical Garden of DNU (plot 1, and in a polluted site (roadside planting (plot 2 of Dnipro City. Industrial emissions of the city’s western, northeastern and northwest industrial complexes also have an effect on plants, depending on the wind direction. For anatomical research, the annual shoots were taken at the tips of the vegetation from the south-eastern side of the model trees at a height of 2 m and fixed in 70% alcohol. Cross sections were made at a distance of 1 cm from the beginning of growth. Phloroglucine was used to dye the cells. The influence of industrial and automobile emissions on the structural parameters of Q. rubra shoots was investigated. We established that the membrane thickened evenly in both control and experimental plants. Cork thickness of Q. rubra shoots growing in the roadside plantation was higher than in plants of the Botanical Garden by 57.5%. Increasing its thickness in plants exposed to atmospheric air pollution has an adaptive value. Q. rubra shoots have a tabulate type of collenchyma, the tangent walls of whose cells thicken. The collenchyma cells of the control variant of shoots are larger. This tissue was thicker in Q. rubra shoots from the polluted site by 26.8% compared to those from the non-polluted zone. The parenchyma cells of the primary cortex were large and contained chloroplasts. The thickness of this histological element on the shoot

  18. In situ pollen of Alnus kefersteinii (Goeppert) Unger (Betulales: Betulaceae) from the Oligocene of Bechlejovice, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dašková, Jiřina

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 177, č. 2 (2008), s. 27-31 ISSN 1802-6842 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : pollen * palaeobotany * Tertiary * Bechlejovice (Czech Republic) * Alnus Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/publikace-download.php?name=File1&dir=archiv&table=tabPublikaceArchiv&id=2174

  19. 15-demethylisoplumieride acid, a new iridoid isolated from the bark of Plumeria rubra and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba; Acido 15-desmetilisoplumierideo, um novo iridoide isolado das cascas de Plumeria rubra e do latex de Himatanthus sucuuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Alaide de Sa; Amaral, Ana Claudia F. [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia em Farmacos -Farmanguinhos. Lab. de Plantas Medicinais e Derivados; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: jrocha_01@ufam.edu.br; Schripsema, Jan [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais; Rezende, Claudia M.; Pinto, Angelo C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-09-15

    Himatanthus sucuuba and Plumeria rubra are used in folk medicine in Brazil to treat various ailments. The isolation of the new iridoid 15-demethylisoplumieride from the bark of Plumeria rubra L. var. acutifolia (Ait) Woodson and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson is reported. Other iridoid glycosides were obtained from both plants. The structures of these substances were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison with data already reported. (author)

  20. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ambrož, M.; Hanušová, V.; Skarka, A.; Boušová, I.; Králová, V.; Langhansová, Lenka; Skálová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 82, 1/2 (2016), s. 89-96 ISSN 0032-0943 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Myrica rubra * Myricaceae * cytotoxicity Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.342, year: 2016

  1. Annual pollen sums of alnus in Lublin and Roztocze in the years 2001-2007 against selected meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław M. Kaszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alder (Alnus Mill., as an anemophilous species, produces large quantities of easily dispersed pollen. Annual pollen sums recorded in south-eastern Poland (by the volumetric method - Lanzoni trap and in the area of the village of Guciów in the Central Roztocze region (pollen deposition in Tauber traps were compared. The height at which the respective trap sites were located as well as local and regional vegetation and the distance from the nearest alder communities differ in both cases, likewise, the climate of these two regions differ. The analysed pollen data series cover the years 1998-2007 in Roztocze and 2001-2007 in Lublin. Large differences have been noted in Alnus pollen deposition values between particular years. Among them, there were observed years of very high annual sums (2001, 2003, 2006, as well as years of very low pollen deposition values in both regions (2002, 2005, 2007. In the period in question, the mean value of annual Alnus pollen count for Lublin was 5372 alder pollen grains in m3 of air, and in Roztocze 1647 grains per cm2 of area. During the seven-year period of monitoring (2001-2007, very similar trends were noted with respect to airborne alder pollen concentrations at both trap sites. Pollen data have been analysed against meteorological factors affecting alder pollen production and deposition. These are total precipitation and mean monthly air temperature in June, July and August in the year preceding pollen emission and the same weather elements in January and February in the year of pollen emission. In Roztocze a statistically significant negative correlation has been found between Alnus pollen annual sums and total precipitation in August in the year preceding alder pollen emission and in February in the year of pollen emission. In both regions, the Spearman's correlation coefficient does not show any statistically significant values when comparing annual Alnus pollen sums with mean monthly temperatures of both

  2. Models of sustainable use of alder (Alnus acuminate Kunth hillside area in forest mist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco-Agudo Edilberto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Timber extractions non planned affect negatively in the reduction of forest cover, proper management and planned with minor extractions preserve the natural production allow for longer and sustainable forms a stand to benefit local populations and the same ecosystem. In the basin of Acero Marca has two stands Alnus acuminata that they are extracted continuously. With the purpose of planning the extraction of timber resourses were constructed and evaluated matrix models sustainable harvest of this species on the basis of structures of age. For this, two old structures we worked following a dendrochronological analysis and demographic model of the forestall mass, from making local information by transectos Gentry. According to the demographic model, the potential regression evidences significant differences (p 1 and could be the most appropriate for a planned extraction becoming sustainable over time. The second structure of age proved extremely sensitive to any change. To use the matrix models is not a simple path of going over. In spite of the results, the matrix models joined to ample experience of the observer would be able to present proposals of sustainable handling of the forestal resources.

  3. Morphological variations of genus Alnus in Iran: assessment of five new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shayanmehr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alnus has two species in old references of the flora of Iran in which two varieties and one subspecies have been recorded. However, recently, five new taxa have been described and recorded for the flora of Iran. In this study, the herbarium samples were obtained during a widespread sampling from 25 stands, ranged from the most eastern limit of alder dispersion in Golestan to the west of Talish, across the plains and highlands of Hyrcanian forests. After sampling, 28 leaf and female cone morphological traits belonging to 140 alder individuals were measured and analyzed. The results of discriminant analysis showed 11 most important traits in differentiation of the taxa such as leaf angle in apex, blade shape at the base, type of serration, villosity intensity, presence of hairs on the upper surface of leaf and cone shape. In this analysis, 84.3% of recognized individuals were correctly grouped in the related taxon. The maximum disagreement between predicted and recognized groups corresponded to allocation of A. subcordata varieties to villosa and visc versa. Generally, the morphological traits of the two new species including A. dolichocarpa and A. djavanshirii were very similar to that of A. subcordata var. subcordata. While, three sub-species of A. glutinosa were distinguished by the same traits. Finally, the use of DNA barcoding techniques is suggested in order to verify the presence of new taxa in Iran.

  4. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shigeaki F; Yazaki, Kenichi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Kitao, Mitsutoshi

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 fixation to the nitrogen (N) economy in this alder stand, we also measured the phenology of the alder, the litterfall, the decomposition rate of the leaf litter, and N accumulation in the soil. The acetylene reduction activity per unit nodule mass (ARA) under field conditions appeared after bud break, peaked the maximum in midsummer after full expansion of the leaves, and disappeared after all leaves had fallen. There was no consistent correlation between ARA and tree size (dbh). The amount of N2 fixed in this alder stand was estimated at 56.4 kg ha-1 year-1 when a theoretical molar ratio of 3 was used to convert the amount of reduced acetylene to the amount of fixed N2. This amount of N2 fixation corresponded to the 66.4 percent of N in the leaf litter produced in a year. These results suggested that N2 fixation still contributed to the large portion of N economy in this alder stand.

  5. 15-demethylisoplumieride acid, a new iridoid isolated from the bark of Plumeria rubra and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, Alaide de Sa; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A.; Schripsema, Jan; Rezende, Claudia M.; Pinto, Angelo C.

    2007-01-01

    Himatanthus sucuuba and Plumeria rubra are used in folk medicine in Brazil to treat various ailments. The isolation of the new iridoid 15-demethylisoplumieride from the bark of Plumeria rubra L. var. acutifolia (Ait) Woodson and latex of Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce) Woodson is reported. Other iridoid glycosides were obtained from both plants. The structures of these substances were elucidated by spectral analysis and comparison with data already reported. (author)

  6. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Perry, Jonathan M G

    2011-01-01

    In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (V(b))-the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole-and found that V(b) scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between V(b) and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in V(b) between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to those eaten by P. coquereli), and least-squares regression of V(b) and three different measures of body mass showed no scaling relationship within each species. We believe that this lack of relationship results from the relatively narrow intraspecific body size variation and seemingly patternless individual variation in V(b) within species and take this study as further evidence that general scaling questions are best examined interspecifically rather than intraspecifically.

  7. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (Vb—the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole—and found that Vb scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between Vb and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in Vb between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to those eaten by P. coquereli, and least-squares regression of Vb and three different measures of body mass showed no scaling relationship within each species. We believe that this lack of relationship results from the relatively narrow intraspecific body size variation and seemingly patternless individual variation in Vb within species and take this study as further evidence that general scaling questions are best examined interspecifically rather than intraspecifically.

  8. Niche separation in Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons: I. Interspecific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, N

    2000-07-01

    Niche separation was documented in a year-long study of Varecia variegata rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Feeding trees were measured, and diet, forest height, and forest site were recorded at 5-min time points on focal animals. For time point data, multivariate and bivariate analysis of frequencies was employed to examine how niche dimensions vary between species according to sex, season, and reproductive stage. V. v. rubra feeds in larger trees than E. f. albifrons. V. v. rubra has a diet consisting mainly of fruit, whereas E. f. lbifrons has a more varied diet. V. v. ubra ranges mainly above 15 m in tree crowns, whereas E. f. albifrons ranges mainly below 15 m in a wide array of forest sites. Both species are largely frugivorous, but they harvest fruit in different-sized trees, in different quantities, and in different forest strata. Niche partitioning varies in tandem with seasonal shifts in climate and food availability and with reproductive stages. Seasonal shifts in forest site and forest height use are largely attributed to species-specific tactics for behavioral thermoregulation and predator avoidance. The diet of E. f. albifrons is diverse whether examined by season or reproductive stage. However, females of both species diversify their diets with more low-fiber protein than males during gestation, lactation, and the hot seasons. This pattern is most pronounced for V. v. rubra females and may be directly attributed to high energetic investment in reproduction. These results suggest that niche partitioning may be driven more by the energetic requirements of reproductive females than males. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Pachydermoperiostosis-Like Disease In Captive Red Ruffled Lemurs (Varecia Variegatus Rubra)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Rothschild; Donald Neiffer; Steve Marks

    2011-01-01

    Pachydermatoperiostosis, a rare form of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, is of unknown etiology and previously thought limited to humans. The only periosteal reaction previously reported in prosimians is related to renal disease. Notation of hypertrophic osteoarthritis in three prosimians led to recognition that this was the first non-human documentation of the disease. Three related red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegatus rubra) had diaphyseal periosteal reaction classic for hypertrophic osteoar...

  10. A 2-Substituted Prodiginine, 2-(p-Hydroxybenzyl)prodigiosin, from Pseudoalteromonas rubra

    OpenAIRE

    Fehér, Domonkos; Barlow, Russell S.; Lorenzo, Patricia S.; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.

    2008-01-01

    In the course of work aimed at the discovery of new pharmaceutical lead compounds from marine bacteria, a lipophilic extract of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas rubra displayed significant cytotoxicity against SKOV-3, a human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line. Bioassay-directed fractionation of this extract resulted in the isolation of a series of known and new prodiginine-type azafulvenes. The structure of the major metabolite was elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data as a 2-subst...

  11. The negative impact of intentionally introduced Quercus rubra L. on a forest community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Woziwoda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some alien woody species used in commercial forestry become invasive and, as invaders, cause major problems in natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, the deliberate introduction of aliens can bring unintended negative changes also within areas of their cultivation. This paper presents the effects of the intentional introduction of the North-American Quercus rubra in European mixed Scots pine-Pedunculate oak forests (POFs: Querco roboris-Pinetum (W. Mat. 1981 J. Mat. 1988. Phytosociological data from field research combined with GIS data analysis of the current distribution of Northern Red oak in the studied habitat were used to determine the composition and structure of forest communities in plots with and without Q. rubra participation.  The results show that Q. rubra significantly reduces native species richness and abundance, both in old-growth and in secondary (post-agricultural forests. Not one resident vascular plant benefits from the introduction of Northern Red oak and only a few are able to tolerate its co-occurrence. The natural restocking of all native woody species is also strongly limited by this alien tree.  The introduction of Northern Red oak significantly limits the environmental functions of the POF ecosystem and weakens its economic and social aspects. However, its further cultivation is justified from an economic point of view, as the essential function of the studied forests is commercial timber production, and the introduction of this fast growing alien tree supports the provisioning ecosystem services. A clear description of the level of trade-off between the accepted negative and positive effects of the introduction of Q. rubra on forest ecosystem services requires further interdisciplinary studies.

  12. The intriguing complexity of parthenogenesis inheritance in Pilosella rubra (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaumová, Radka; Krahulcová, Anna; Krahulec, František

    2012-09-01

    Neither the genetic basis nor the inheritance of apomixis is fully understood in plants. The present study is focused on the inheritance of parthenogenesis, one of the basic elements of apomixis, in Pilosella (Asteraceae). A complex pattern of inheritance was recorded in the segregating F(1) progeny recovered from reciprocal crosses between the facultatively apomictic hexaploid P. rubra and the sexual tetraploid P. officinarum. Although both female and male reduced gametes of P. rubra transmitted parthenogenesis at the same rate in the reciprocal crosses, the resulting segregating F(1) progeny inherited parthenogenesis at different rates. The actual transmission rates of parthenogenesis were significantly correlated with the mode of origin of the respective F(1) progeny class. The inheritance of parthenogenesis was significantly reduced in F(1) n + n hybrid progeny from the cross where parthenogenesis was transmitted by female gametes. In F(1) n + 0 polyhaploid progeny from the same cross, however, the transmission rate of parthenogenesis was high; all fertile polyhaploids were parthenogenetic. It appeared that reduced female gametes transmitting parthenogenesis preferentially developed parthenogenetically and only rarely were fertilized in P. rubra. The fact that the determinant for parthenogenesis acts gametophytically in Pilosella and the precocious embryogenesis in parthenogenesis-transmitting megagametophytes was suggested as the most probable explanations for this observation. Furthermore, we observed the different expression of complete apomixis in the non-segregating F(1) 2n + n hybrids as compared to their apomictic maternal parent P. rubra. We suggest that this difference is a result of unspecified interactions between the parental genomes.

  13. Effect of nocardia rubra species as stimulant drugs on growth of bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алия Агасаф кызы Агаева

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study about stimulating properties of Nocardia rubra. It is found that the microorganism on Sabouraud agar medium allocates water-soluble red pigment. It easily extracted from the nutrient agar. It is completely harmless and has a strong stimulating effect on the growth of bacteria, particularly gram negative. As the dye it can be used in the food industry

  14. Influence of the soil Ca on the tolerance of Festuca rubra populations against toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karataglis, S.S.

    1981-02-15

    Festuca rubra populations from toxic or non-toxic areas were studied. Their tolerance against the soil content in toxic metals and in combination with the Ca content was also correlated. It was demonstrated that the Festuca rubra populations developed in an environment with high concentrations of toxic metals and with high concentrations of Ca at the same time, showed very little or almost no tolerance against these metals. On the contrary, populations from other mines with normal Ca concentrations in their soil indicated increased tolerance against the toxic metals found in it. This behaviour expressed by the Festuca rubra populations of the Ecton mine is probably due to the high Ca concentration found in the soil in the form of CaCO/sub 2/. CaCO/sub 3/ along with the heavy metals has the ability to form undissolved or not easily dissolved carbonate salts. As a result there are no free ions of toxic metals in the immediate environment of the root and consequently the plants cannot be selected against these metals.

  15. Essential oils of the Sextonia rubra (Mez van der Werff (Lauraceae Óleos essenciais de Sextonia rubra (Mez van der Werff (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Moreira Alcântara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of the leaves and branches of Sextonia rubra were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. In the leaves were identified as the major constituents α-pinene (21.7%, β-pinene (15.4%, α-copaene (12.5% and germacrene D (12.1%. In the branches essential oil, α-copaene (22.9%, β-selinene (7.9% and β-elemene (7.2% were identified as the most abundant constituents. This paper describes for the first time the composition of these essential oils.Os óleos essenciais das folhas e galhos de Sextonia rubra foram obtidos por hidrodestilação e analisados por cromatografia em fase gasosa com detectores de ionização de chama e espectrometria de massas. O α-pineno (21,7%, β-pineno (15,4%, α-copaeno (12,5% e o germacreno D (12,1% foram identificados como constituintes majoritários no óleo essencial das folhas. No óleo essencial dos galhos foram identificados como constituintes majoritários o α-copaeno (22,9%, β-selineno (7,9% e o β-elemeno (7,2%. A composição química destes óleos essenciais está sendo relatada pela primeira vez neste trabalho.

  16. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  17. Influence of roadside pollution on the phylloplane microbial community of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S R

    2008-09-01

    The North Eastern region of India is undergoing industrial development at a faster rate than expected. Roads form the main system of transportation and communication owing to the hilly topography of the region. Automobiles discharge a number of gaseous and trace metal contaminants. Human activities like stone grinding, road construction and sand milling also increase the atmospheric dust and heavy metal contaminant level. These contaminants get settled on leaf surfaces at roadsides and enter in contact with phylloplane microorganisms. This study compares microorganisms on leaf surfaces of alder (Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae)) on roadside and non-roadside environments. Two sites dominated by alder were selected. One at a busy road intersection on the National Highway no. 44 in Shillong with high traffic density (8 000-9 000 heavy vehicles/day), taken as the polluted site and the other one in a forest approximately 500 m away from the roadside considered as the unpolluted site. Analysis of phylloplane microorganisms, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur was carried out from leaves. The bacterial population was higher at the unpolluted site. Bacterial population showed a significant negative correlation with lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur. Similarly, fungal population was higher at the unpolluted site. A total of 29 fungal species were isolated from the phylloplane of A. nepalensis (polluted site 16 species; unpolluted site 28 species). Some fungal forms like Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Aureobasidium pollulans were dominant in the polluted site. Numbers of phylloplane fungi and bacteria were significantly reduced in the polluted site. The correlation coefficient indicated a detrimental effect of metals like lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur on the microbial community of leaf surfaces. The specificity of certain fungi to the unpolluted site may be attributed to their sensitivity to pollution. The predominance of Aureobasidium pollulans

  18. Nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activities in young Alnus glutinosa, relationship and effect of light-dark treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, S.; Thiery, G.; Pizelle, G.

    1995-01-01

    Relations between in vivo nitrogenase (N-2-ase; EC 1.18.6.1) and nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) activities were studied in young nodulated Alnus glutinosa (L. ) Gaertn. Positive correlations linked N-2-ase activity, constitutive (non-inducible by nitrate) leaf NR activity and plant growth. Light/dark treatments applied to the whole shoot or, separately, to the upper and lower part of shoot led to the finding that(a) the constitutive leaf NR activity depended on direct illumination of the leaf and did not appear subordinate to the N-2-ase activity; (b) the N-2-ase activity was much more efficiently supported by the illumination of the upper (young) leaves than by that of the lower (mature) leaves; (c) the maintenance of nitrate-inducible root NR activity required leaf illumination. The variations of both N-2-ase and root NR activities in response to light/dark treatments emphasize the importance of the photosynthesis for the reduction of dinitrogen and nitrate in nodulated roots of Alnus glutinosa

  19. Informe preliminar sobre aspectos de la biología del Aliso (Alnus acuminata h.b.k.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés de Granada Emira

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Alnus se consideran de gran Importancia porque la raíz se asocia simblóticamente con Actinomycetes, formando nódulos fijadores de nitrógeno atmosférico, siendo este el principal mecanismo para la Incorporación de nitrógeno reducido en suelos pobres (Burns y Hardy, 1975; Torrey, 1976; Normand y Lalonde, 1982. En colombia el Aliso (Alnus acumlnata H.B.K., se encuentra ampliamente distribuido y se ha Iniciado su utilizAción en proyectos de reforestación (Cáceres y Oyola, 1981. La madera es empleada como carbón vegetal y para la fabricación de cajas, cajones, palillos y postes (Slcco
    et al., 1965, también es Importante por el contenido de tanino (Torres, 1983. Sin embargo se hace necesario conocer aspectos básicos de la biologla de esta especie que
    incluyan germinación, fenologla, crecimiento, desarrollo y las interacciones entre la planta y otros organismos asociados, de los cuales se desconoce su relación biológica.

  20. Influence of roadside pollution on the phylloplane microbial community of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R Joshi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The North Eastern region of India is undergoing industrial development at a faster rate than expected. Roads form the main system of transportation and communication owing to the hilly topography of the region. Automobiles discharge a number of gaseous and trace metal contaminants. Human activities like stone grinding, road construction and sand milling also increase the atmospheric dust and heavy metal contaminant level. These contaminants get settled on leaf surfaces at roadsides and enter in contact with phylloplane microorganisms. This study compares microorganisms on leaf surfaces of alder (Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae on roadside and non-roadside environments. Two sites dominated by alder were selected. One at a busy road intersection on the National Highway no. 44 in Shillong with high traffic density (8 000-9 000 heavy vehicles/day, taken as the polluted site and the other one in a forest approximately 500 m away from the roadside considered as the unpolluted site. Analysis of phylloplane microorganisms, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur was carried out from leaves. The bacterial population was higher at the unpolluted site. Bacterial population showed a significant negative correlation with lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur. Similarly, fungal population was higher at the unpolluted site. A total of 29 fungal species were isolated from the phylloplane of A. nepalensis (polluted site 16 species; unpolluted site 28 species. Some fungal forms like Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Aureobasidium pollulans were dominant in the polluted site. Numbers of phylloplane fungi and bacteria were significantly reduced in the polluted site. The correlation coefficient indicated a detrimental effect of metals like lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur on the microbial community of leaf surfaces. The specificity of certain fungi to the unpolluted site may be attributed to their sensitivity to pollution. The predominance of

  1. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalapa, J E; Brunet, J; Guries, R P

    2008-01-01

    Ulmus pumila is an elm species, non-native to the USA that hybridizes with Ulmus rubra. In order to study the genetic structure and hybridization patterns between these two elm species, we developed 15 primer pairs for microsatellite loci in U. rubra and tested their cross-amplification in U. pumila. All 15 primers amplified in both species, 11 of which possessed species-specific alleles. Eight loci were polymorphic in U. pumila and eight in U. rubra, each with two to eight alleles per locus. In addition, five primer pairs previously developed in U. laevis and U. carpinifolia (syn. U. minor) cross-amplified and showed polymorphic loci in U. pumila and/or U. rubra. These markers will facilitate the study of genetic structure and gene flow between U. rubra and exotic, invasive U. pumila. © 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd No claim to original US government works.

  2. The breeding system of wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra): a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Natalie

    2007-01-01

    Captive studies have shown that ruffed lemurs (Varecia) have an unusual suite of reproductive traits combined with extremely high maternal reproductive costs. These traits include the bearing of litters, nesting of altricial young, and absentee parenting. To characterize the breeding system of this enigmatic lemur, reproductive traits must be contextualized in the wild. Here, I provide a preliminary report of mating and infant care in one community of wild red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra). Observations span a 15-month period covering two birth seasons and one mating season on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Factors that are not possible to replicate in captivity are reported, such as mating pattern, natality and mortality rates, the location of nests within the home range, and the structuring of infant care within a natural community. V. rubra at Andranobe have a fission-fusion, multifemale-multimale grouping pattern and a polygamous mating system. They do not mate monogamously or live strictly in family-based groups as suggested by previous workers. During the first 2 months of life, nests and infant stashing localities are situated within each mother's respective core area, and inhabitants of each core area within the communal home range provide care for young. As part of their absentee parenting system, infants are left in concealed, protected, and supportive spots high in the canopy, while mothers travel distantly. This practice is termed 'infant stashing'. Alloparenting appears to be an integral part of V. rubra's overall reproductive strategy in the wild, as it was performed by all age-sex classes. Among the alloparental behaviors observed were infant guarding, co-stashing, infant transport, and allonursing. Alloparenting and absentee parenting may mitigate high maternal reproductive costs. Furthermore, V. rubra may have a breeding system in which genetic partners (i.e., mating partners) do not always correspond to infant care-providers. Combined with

  3. A 2-substituted prodiginine, 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)prodigiosin, from Pseudoalteromonas rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Domonkos; Barlow, Russell S; Lorenzo, Patricia S; Hemscheidt, Thomas K

    2008-11-01

    In the course of work aimed at the discovery of new pharmaceutical lead compounds from marine bacteria, a lipophilic extract of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas rubra displayed significant cytotoxicity against SKOV-3, a human ovarian adenocarcinoma cell line. Bioassay-directed fractionation of this extract resulted in the isolation of a series of known and new prodiginine-type azafulvenes. The structure of the major metabolite was elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data as a 2-substituted prodigiosin, which we named 2-(p-hydroxybenzyl)prodigiosin (HBPG).

  4. Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris: A Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an idiopathic inflammatory hyperproliferative chronic dermatosis characterized by: perifollicular coalescing papules with central keratotic acuminate plugs gradually submerged in sheets of erythema; perifollicular erythema with islands of unaffected skin; palmoplantar keratoderma; diffuse desquamation which typically spreads from the head down to the feet. The cause of the condition is unknown, but possible etiological factors include: vitamin A deficiency, trauma, infections, autoimmune mechanisms, and malignancies. Taking into account different age of onset, clinical course, morphology and prognosis, there are six different types of the disease: two in adults (classical and atypical; three in children (classical, circumscribed and atypical; one in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

  5. Phytoconstituents and stability of betalains in fruit extracts of Malabar spinach (Basella rubra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sandopu Sravan; Manoj, Prabhakaran; Nimisha, Girish; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutrient composition, minerals, and stability of betalains pigment from fruit extracts of Basella rubra. The proximate composition included total carbohydrates (1.64 g), protein (51 mg), total lipid (1.38%), moisture (81.76%), niacin (0.5 mg), ascorbic acid (89.33 mg), and total tocopherols (1.27 mg) in 100 g fresh deseeded fruit. Total dietary fibre of 32.52 g and soluble dietary fibre of 12.34 g in 100 g dry deseeded fruits. Fatty acid composition of dry desee...

  6. Acantholytic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris Associated with Imiquimod 3.75% Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Atanaskova Mesinkovska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Imiquimod is an immunomodulator with both antitumor and antiviral properties. It is currently available in two cream formulations as Aldara (imiquimod 5% and the newly approved Zyclara (imiquimod 3.75%. Imiquimod has been associated with localized erythema, crusting, and scaling at the site of application. However, more severe generalized skin eruptions including erythema multiforme, psoriasis, and hyperpigmentation have been described. The newly approved imiquimod 3.75% cream is a presumably safer alternative due to its lower concentration. This paper describes the development of generalized acantholytic pityriasis rubra pilaris after the treatment of an actinic keratosis on the forehead with imiquimod 3.75% cream.

  7. Myrica rubra leaves as a potential source of a dual 5-LOX/COX inhibitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; Tauchen, Jan; Maršík, Petr; Rezek, Jan; Lou, J.D.; Yun, Z.L.; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2017), s. 343-353 ISSN 0954-0105 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12165; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-07193S Grant - others:OPPK(CZ) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24014 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : in-vitro * antiinflammatory activity * zucc. leaves * 5-lipoxygenase * sieb. * cyclooxygenase * constituents * antioxidants * myricitrin * metabolism * Myrica rubra * anti-inflammatory * cyclooxygenase 1 * cyclooxygenase 2 * 5-lipoxygenase Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry OBOR OECD: Medicinal chemistry Impact factor: 1.392, year: 2016

  8. Alnus acuminata in dual symbiosis with Frankia and two different ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola and Alpova diplophloeus) growing in soilless growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandra G. Becerra; Euginia Menoyo; Irene Lett; Ching Y. Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the capacity of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth), inoculated with Frankia and two ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola Dominguez and Alpova diplophloeus [Zeller and Dodge] Trappe and Smith), for nodulation and growth in pots of a soilless medium...

  9. Two new polyploid species closely related to Alnus glutinosa in Europe and North Africa - An analysis based on morphometry, karyology, flow cytometry and microsatellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Petr; Douda, Jan; Krak, Karol; Havrdová, Alena; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 567-583 ISSN 0040-0262 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Alnus glutinosa * flow cytometry * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  10. Fungi occurring on forests injured by air pollutants in the Upper Silesia and Cracow industrial regions. Pt. 10. Mycoflora of dying young trees of Alnus incana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanski, S.; Kowalski, T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a 10-year study on the mortality of Alnus incana in the Upper Silesia industrial region (Poland) are presented in this paper. Fungi which infected the trees at different stages of the disease were identified. The most common were: Cryptosphora suffusa, Hypoxylon fuscum, Peniophora cinerea, P. erikssonii, Pezicula cinnamomea, Tymipanis alnea, and Valsa diatrypa.

  11. N2 fixing alder (Alnus viridis spp.fruticosa) effects on soil properties across a secondary successional chronosequence in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer S. Mitchell; Roger W. Ruess

    2009-01-01

    Green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. fruticosa) is a dominant understory shrub during secondary successional development of upland forests throughout interior Alaska, where it contributes substantially to the nitrogen (N) economy through atmospheric N2 fixation. Across a replicated 200+ year old vegetation...

  12. Phytoconstituents and stability of betalains in fruit extracts of Malabar spinach (Basella rubraL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandopu Sravan; Manoj, Prabhakaran; Nimisha, Girish; Giridhar, Parvatam

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutrient composition, minerals, and stability of betalains pigment from fruit extracts of Basella rubra . The proximate composition included total carbohydrates (1.64 g), protein (51 mg), total lipid (1.38%), moisture (81.76%), niacin (0.5 mg), ascorbic acid (89.33 mg), and total tocopherols (1.27 mg) in 100 g fresh deseeded fruit. Total dietary fibre of 32.52 g and soluble dietary fibre of 12.34 g in 100 g dry deseeded fruits. Fatty acid composition of dry deseeded fruits comprised 57.52% SFA, 20.62% MUFA and 22.28% PUFA. Pigment (betalain) rich fruit extracts showed excellent stability over 20 days of storage under varied pH, temperature, light, acids, salts and sugars. B. rubra fruit was observed as a potential source of nutrients and betalains as a functional food.

  13. Hemimandibulectomy and vascularized fibula flap in bisphosphonate-induced mandibular osteonecrosis with polycythaemia rubra vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, N; Collyer, J C; Tighe, J V

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the successful management of an advanced and refractory bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) by hemimandibulectomy and an osteocutaneous fibula flap reconstruction in a patient with polycythaemia rubra vera, a rare haematological condition in which there is increased risk of thrombosis and haemorrhage. Union of the vascularized bone with the mandible depends on obtaining a BRONJ-free margin and rigid fixation of the bony ends. Magnetic resonance imaging can provide accurate delineation of necrotic bone and area of osteomyelitis. Placement of a 1cm margin beyond this can envisage a BRONJ-free margin. Aggressive medical management of polycythaemia rubra vera by venesection, asprin and cytoreduction therapy along with anticoagulant prophylaxis against thromboembolic events in the first 2 weeks following major surgery can provide the basis of a good surgical and flap outcome. Nevertheless, the possibility of unpredictable haemorrhage must be considered throughout. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecological features of flowers and the amount of pollen released in Corylus avellana (L. and Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazel and alder bloom as one of the first plants in climatic conditions of Poland. In the present study, detailed observations were made of the structure of flowers of Corylus avellana L. and Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. Pollen yield of the abovementioned species was determined. The number of pollen grains in the theca, anther, flower and inflorescence was calculated. A comparison was made of the number of pollen grains of these taxa recorded during the atmospheric pollen seasons analysed over a period of 8 years in the conditions of Lublin. The study demonstrates that pollen yield of the common hazel inflorescence was 66 mg, whereas for black alder it was 120 mg. It was found that the number of pollen grains produced by the alder inflorescence was 2.2 times higher than by the hazel inflorescence. The atmospheric pollen season of the studied plant taxa was recorded at similar dates, but alder pollen was in much larger concentrations.

  15. Phytophthora alni sp. nov. and its variants: designation of emerging heteroploid hybrid pathogens spreading on Alnus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, Clive M; Kirk, Susan A; Delcan, Jose; Cooke, David E L; Jung, Thomas; Man in't Veld, Willem A

    2004-10-01

    In 1993 a destructive new Phytophthora pathogen of riparian Alnus trees was discovered in the UK and subsequently shown to be present in other parts of Europe. The new Phytophthora comprised a group of emergent heteroploid hybrids, probably between P. cambivora and a species related to P. fragariae. These included a common, near tetraploid standard hybrid, the presumptive allopolyploid; and four scarcer major variant types with chromosome numbers intermediate between diploid and tetraploid, named the Swedish, Dutch, German and UK variants. The standard hybrid type is formally designated here as Phytophthora alni subsp. alni. The Swedish variant is designated as P. alni subsp. uniformis; and the Dutch, German and UK variants collectively as P. alni subsp. multiformis. The properties of the Dutch, German and UK variants within subsp. multiformis are informally described. The problems of designating emergent species hybrids under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and the reasons for the taxonomic choices made are discussed.

  16. Black walnut growth increased when interplanted with nitrogen fixing shrubs and trees. [Elaeagnus umbellata, Alnus glutinosa, and Robina pseudocacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.M.; Williams, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Black walnuts (1 year old) were planted at 11 x 11 foot spacing at a site in S. Indiana, in 1967. Two years later they were interplanted with autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), European alder (Alnus glutinosa) or black locust (Robina pseudocacia), or broadcast- sown with Lespedeza striata. Weeds were controlled with amazine in all except the lespedeza plots, and in 1973 the locust trees were killed because they were overtopping the walnuts. No consistent pattern of improved growth was observed until 1975. From 1975 until the end of the study in 1978, height and diameter of walnuts grown with autumn olive were significantly greater than in other treatments, although European alder and black locust also increased growth. The lespedeza failed to establish even after resowing. Walnuts in control plants were not as straight and required more pruning than those grown with nurse trees.

  17. Root desiccation and drought stress responses of bareroot Quercus rubra seedlings treated with a hydrophilic polymer root dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Root hydrogel, a hydrophilic polymer, has been used to improve transplanting success of bareroot conifer seedlings through effects on water holding capacity. We examined mechanisms by which Terra-sorb Fine Hydrogel reduces damage that occurs when roots of 1-year old, dormant northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were subjected to shortterm (1, 3, and 5...

  18. Essential oil from Myrica rubra leaves inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several human intestinal lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langhansová, Lenka; Hanusová, V.; Rezek, Jan; Stohanslová, B.; Ambrož, M.; Králová, V.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Lou, J.D.; Yun, Z.L.; Yang, J.; Skálová, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, AUG 2014 (2014), s. 20-26 ISSN 0926-6690 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12165 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Myrica rubra * Essential oil * Antiproliferative effect Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.837, year: 2014

  19. Morphology and molecular phylogeny of Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. (Cnidaria: Octocorallia), a new bubblegum coral species from a seamount in the tropical Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zhan, Zifeng; Xu, Kuidong

    2017-07-01

    A new species of bubblegum coral, Paragorgia rubra sp. nov., discovered from a seamount at a water depth of 373 m near the Yap Trench is studied using morphological and molecular approaches. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is the fourth species of the genus found in the tropical Western Pacific. The new gorgonian is red-colored, uniplanar, and measures approximately 530 mm high and 440 mm wide, with autozooids distributed only on one side of the colony. Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. is most similar to P. kaupeka Sánchez, 2005, but differs distinctly in the polyp ovals with large and compound protuberances (vs. small and simple conical protuberances) and the medullar spindles possessing simple conical protuberances (vs. compound protuberances). Moreover, P. rubra sp. nov. differs from P. kaupeka in the smaller length/width ratio of surface radiates (1.53 vs. 1.75). The genetic distance of the mtMutS gene between P. rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka is 0.66%, while the intraspecific distances within Paragorgia Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1857 except the species P. regalis complex are no more than 0.5%, further supporting the establishment of the new species. Furthermore, the ITS2 secondary structure of P. rubra sp. nov. is also different from those of congeners. Phylogenetic analyses indicate Paragorgia rubra sp. nov. and P. kaupeka form a clade, which branched early within Paragorgia and diversified approximately 15 Mya.

  20. Activity budgets and activity rhythms in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar: seasonality and reproductive energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Natalie

    2005-05-01

    The activity budgets and daily activity rhythms of Varecia rubra were examined over an annual cycle according to season and reproductive stage. Given the relatively high reproductive costs and patchy food resources of this species, I predicted that V. rubra would 1) travel less and feed more during seasonal resource scarcity in an attempt to maintain energy balance, and 2) show sex differences in activity budgets due to differing reproductive investment. Contrary to the first prediction, V. rubra does not increase feeding time during seasonal food scarcity; rather, females feed for a consistent amount of time in every season, whereas males feed most during the resource-rich, hot dry season. The results are consistent with other predictions: V. rubra travels less in the resource-scarce cold rainy season, and there are some pronounced sex differences, with females feeding more and resting less than males in every season and in every reproductive stage except gestation. However, there are also some provocative similarities between the sexes when activity budgets are examined by reproductive stage. During gestation, female and male activity budgets do not differ and appear geared toward energy accumulation: both sexes feed and rest extensively and travel least during this stage. During lactation, activity budgets are geared toward high energy expenditure: both sexes travel most and in equal measure, and rest least, although it remains the case that females feed more and rest less than males. These similarities between female and male activity budgets appear related to cooperative infant care. The high energetic costs of reproduction in V. rubra females may require that they allot more time to feeding year round, and that their overall activity budget be more directly responsive to seasonal climate change, seasonal food distribution, and reproductive schedules. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  1. Adsorption recovery of thorium(IV) by Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin immobilized onto collagen fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xuepin Liao; Li Li; Bi Shi

    2004-01-01

    Novel adsorbents which can concentrate Th(IV) in aqueous solution were prepared by immobilizing Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin onto collagen fibre matrices. The adsorption capacities of the immobilized tannins to Th(IV) are related to temperature and pH value of the adsorption process. For example, when the initial concentration of Th(IV) was 116.0 mg x l -1 and the immobilized tannin was 100 mg, the adsorption capacities of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin and larch tannin were 55.98 mg Th(IV) x g -1 and 13.19 mg Th(IV) x g -1 , respectively at 303 K, and 73.67 mg Th(IV) x g -1 and 18.19 mg Th(IV) x g -1 at 323 K. It was also found that the higher adsorption capacity was obtained at higher pH value. The adsorption equilibrium data of the immobilized tannins for Th(IV) can be well fitted by the Langmuir model and the mechanism of the adsorption was found to be a chemical adsorption. In general, the adsorption capacity of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin to Th(IV) is significantly higher than that of immobilized larch tannin, probably due to the fact that the B ring of Myrica rubra tannin has a pyrogallol structure which has higher reaction activity with metal ions. The breakthrough point of the adsorption column of immobilized Myrica rubra tannin was at 33 bed volumes for the experimental system. The mass transfer coefficient of adsorption column determined by Adams-Bohart equation was 1.61 x 10 -4 l x mg -1 x min -1 . The adsorption column can be easily regenerated by 0.1 mol x l -1 HNO 3 solution, showing outstanding ability of concentrating Th(IV). (author)

  2. Essential Oil from Myrica rubra Leaves Potentiated Antiproliferative and Prooxidative Effect of Doxorubicin and its Accumulation in Intestinal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrož, Martin; Hanušová, Veronika; Skarka, Adam; Boušová, Iva; Králová, Věra; Langhasová, Lenka; Skálová, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil from the leaves of Myrica rubra, a subtropical Asian fruit tree traditionally used in folk medicines, has a significant antiproliferative effect in several intestinal cancer cell lines. Doxorubicin belongs to the most important cytostatics used in cancer therapy. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of defined essential oil from M. rubra leaves on efficacy, prooxidative effect, and accumulation of doxorubicin in cancer cell lines and in non-cancerous cells. For this purpose, intestinal adenocarcinoma CaCo2 cells were used. Human fibroblasts (periodontal ligament) and a primary culture of rat hepatocytes served as models of non-cancerous cells. The results showed that the sole essential oil from M. rubra has a strong prooxidative effect in cancer cells while it acts as a mild antioxidant in hepatocytes. Combined with doxorubicin, the essential oil enhanced the antiproliferative and prooxidative effects of doxorubicin in cancer cells. At higher concentrations, synergism of doxorubicin and essential oil from M. rubra was proved. In non-cancerous cells, the essential oil did not affect the toxicity of doxorubicin and the doxorubicin-mediated reactive oxygen species formation. The essential oil increased the intracellular concentration of doxorubicin and enhanced selectively the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Taken together, essential oil from M. rubra leaves could be able to improve the doxorubicin efficacy in cancer cells due to an increased reactive oxygen species production, and the doxorubicin accumulation in nuclei of cancer cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. New pyrone and quinoline alkaloid from Almeidea rubra and their trypanocidal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrozin, Alessandra R.P.; Mafezoli, Jair; Vieira, Paulo C.; Fernandes, Joao B.; Silva, M. Fatima das G.F. da [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: paulo@dq.ufscar.br; Ellena, Javier A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Albuquerque, Sergio de [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Analises Clinicas, Toxicologicas, Bromatologicas

    2005-05-15

    The investigation of the ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract from leaves of Almeidea rubra A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae) afforded two new compounds 4-methoxy-6-[2-(methylamino)phenyl]-2Hpyran- 2-one and rel-(7R,8R)-8-[(E)-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-butenyl]-4,8-dimethoxy-5,6,7,8- tetrahydrofuro[2,3-b]quinoline-7-yl acetate, along with the known compounds arborinine, N-methyl- 1-hydroxy-3-methoxyacridone, skimmianine, kokusagine, isodutaduprine, isoskimmianine, and isokokusagine. Their structures were established based on their spectral data, and for the new compounds these data are described herein. Additionally, these compounds were assayed on the tripomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi showing moderate trypanocidal activity. (author)

  4. Dry deposition of sulfate to Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera foliage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates were made of the rate of dry deposition to red oak (Quercus rubra) and tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) foliage. In the laboratory, radioactive ammonium sulfate aerosols were generated in an exposure chamber. These aerosols were dry deposited onto leaves that were sequentially washed to examine the efficacy of washing procedures in removal of surface deposits. Over 90% of dry deposited sulfate was removed after a 30 second wash duration. Laboratory procedures also estimated the magnitude of foliar sulfur that leached into leaf wash solutions. The majority of laboratory leaves demonstrated no leaching of sulfur from the internal pool. However, some leaves showed significant sulfur leaching. It was concluded that leaching of internal sulfur was highly leaf specific. This indicated that each leaf used in field experiments needed to be individually examined for leaching

  5. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Dirihan

    Full Text Available Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42, and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28, whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56. Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation

  6. Comparison of Ra-226 nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Tykva, Richard; Vaňková, Radomíra; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2007), s. 76-82 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : radium * Alnus glutinosa * Betula pendula * Sambucus nigra Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2007

  7. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Chinese Bayberry (Morella rubra, Myricaceae: Implications for Understanding the Evolution of Fagales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Xian Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morella rubra (Myricaceae, also known as Chinese bayberry, is an economically important, subtropical, evergreen fruit tree. The phylogenetic placement of Myricaceae within Fagales and the origin of Chinese bayberry’s domestication are still unresolved. In this study, we report the chloroplast (cp genome of M. rubra and take advantage of several previously reported chloroplast genomes from related taxa to examine patterns of evolution in Fagales. The cp genomes of three M. rubra individuals were 159,478, 159,568, and 159.586 bp in length, respectively, comprising a pair of inverted repeat (IR regions (26,014–26,069 bp separated by a large single-copy (LSC region (88,683–88,809 bp and a small single-copy (SSC region (18,676–18,767 bp. Each cp genome encodes the same 111 unique genes, consisting of 77 different protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA genes and four ribosomal RNA genes, with 18 duplicated in the IRs. Comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes from four representative Fagales families revealed the loss of infA and the pseudogenization of ycf15 in all analyzed species, and rpl22 has been pseudogenized in M. rubra and Castanea mollissima, but not in Juglans regia or Ostrya rehderiana. The genome size variations are detected mainly due to the length of intergenic spacers rather than gene loss, gene pseudogenization, IR expansion or contraction. The phylogenetic relationships yielded by the complete genome sequences strongly support the placement of Myricaceae as sister to Juglandaceae. Furthermore, seven cpDNA markers (trnH-psbA, psbA-trnK, rps2-rpoC2, ycf4-cemA, petD-rpoA, ndhE-ndhG, and ndhA intron with relatively high levels of variation and variable cpSSR loci were identified within M. rubra, which will be useful in future research characterizing the population genetics of M. rubra and investigating the origin of domesticated Chinese bayberry.

  8. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots root production (roots 1-2 mm. Proportionally more C was allocated to fine roots (≤2 mm) in N or water-limited Salix; 2.7 and 2.3 times the allocation to fine roots in the unlimited regime, respectively. Estimated input to soil organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  9. Uji Sitotoksisitas Ekstrak Metanol Umbi Bit (Beta Vulgaris L. Var. Rubra L.) Terhadap Cell Line T47d

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfa, Elya; susilowati, sri; budiarti, aqnes

    2015-01-01

    Therapy failure of breast cancer as a consequence of cell resistention has encouraged the effort to develop a cancer medicine including herbal medicine. Based on some research, it can be concluded that there is antioxydant and anticancer activity from beetroot involved with betasianin and betasantin substance that belong to flavonoid compound. The purpose of this research was to find the effect cytotoxic of methanolic extract of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra L.) on cell line T47D whic...

  10. Nitrogen fixation in lysimeter-grown grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) saplings - influence of nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Tom; Rytter, L.

    1998-07-01

    A lysimeter study was started in order to test if nitrogen fixation as well as biomass production in grey alder plantations (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) can be stimulated by daily addition of small N doses. One-year-old grey alder saplings were planted in undrained lysimeters, each filled with 200 litres of quartz sand. Water and a low-concentrated balanced nutrient solution were distributed daily via a drip irrigation system. In this paper a complete N budget for the first growing season is presented. The results showed that presence of mineral N in the growth substrate had no beneficial effect on growth during the first growing season. The capacity of the plants to make use of the daily N additions was overestimated in this investigation. Almost twice as much N was added with fertilizers as the amount of N accumulating in the tissues. Consequently, the N concentration in the drainage water increased and the annual rate of N{sub 2}-fixation was strongly suppressed, 31 mg N plant{sup -1} (1 kg N ha{sup -1}) versus 1700 mg N plant{sup -1} (32 kg N ha{sup -1}) in the controls. However, no harmful effect of the elevated soil-N concentration on nodule development could be detected.

  11. High Genetic Diversity and Distinctiveness of Rear-Edge Climate Relicts Maintained by Ancient Tetraploidisation for Alnus glutinosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepais, Olivier; Muller, Serge D.; Ben Saad-Limam, Samia; Benslama, Mohamed; Rhazi, Laila; Belouahem-Abed, Djamila; Daoud-Bouattour, Amina; Gammar, Amor Mokhtar; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Bacles, Cécile Fanny Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Populations located at the rear-edge of a species’ distribution may have disproportionate ecological and evolutionary importance for biodiversity conservation in a changing global environment. Yet genetic studies of such populations remain rare. This study investigates the evolutionary history of North-African low latitude marginal populations of Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., a European tree species that plays a significant ecological role as a keystone of riparian ecosystems. We genotyped 551 adults from 19 populations located across North Africa at 12 microsatellite loci and applied a coalescent-based simulation approach to reconstruct the demographic and evolutionary history of these populations. Surprisingly, Moroccan trees were tetraploids demonstrating a strong distinctiveness of these populations within a species otherwise known as diploid. Best-fitting models of demographic reconstruction revealed the relict nature of Moroccan populations that were found to have withstood past climate change events and to be much older than Algerian and Tunisian populations. This study highlights the complex demographic history that can be encountered in rear-edge distribution margins that here consist of both old stable climate relict and more recent populations, distinctively diverse genetically both quantitatively and qualitatively. We emphasize the high evolutionary and conservation value of marginal rear-edge populations of a keystone riparian species in the context of on-going climate change in the Mediterranean region. PMID:24098677

  12. Ancient plant remains with special reference to buckthorn, Frangula alnus Mill., pyrenes from Dascyleum, Balıkesir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oybak Dönmez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonized plant remains recovered from the ancient city Dascyleum (Daskyleion in the province of Balıkesir in northwestern Turkey provide an outline of several phases of plant use in archaic, Hellenistic, and medieval times. At the study site, various crop plant remains of Near Eastern agriculture, including cereals (barley, Hordeum vulgare L. and bread/durum/rivet wheat, Triticum aestivum L. / T. durum Desf. / T. turgidum L. and pulses [bitter vetch, Vicia ervilia (L. Willd.; grass pea, Lathyrus sativus L. / L. cicera L.; fava bean, V. faba L.; and chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.] were found. Drupaceous fruits and pyrenes of buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. were also found, probably representing dyes and/or medicines used by the inhabitants of the mound. Archaeometrical analyses of the ancient buckthorn pyrenes by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA provide chemical evidence for traces of ancient mordants remaining until the present day. Some of the pulse seed remains retrieved from the medieval layers at the study site were found to have been infested by bruchid beetles (Bruchidae.

  13. Pre-logging Treatment of Invasive Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. Promotes Regeneration of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-native glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. is invasive in forests of the northeastern USA but little is known of its effects on tree regeneration. We tested whether killing buckthorn stems before logging reduces its post-logging abundance and increases the density and height of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings. Three 0.4 ha plots were clearcut, three were thinned, and three were left as controls. Each plot had previously been divided into three subplots that received different buckthorn treatments during the two years before logging. Buckthorn treatments were (1 stems cut at base five times; (2 stems cut once then heat killed four times; (3 untreated control. Three years post-logging, buckthorn density and stem height were unaffected by logging but equally reduced by the two buckthorn treatments. Buckthorn reduction increased density and height of pine seedlings, and seedling height also increased with logging. In the fifth year post-logging, pine height growth and biomass were greater in clearcut than in thinned treatments, greater in areas of buckthorn removal and, within treated subplots, greater in areas with low buckthorn density than in thickets of recovering buckthorn. Thus, although buckthorn inhibited regenerating pine, pre-logging destruction of buckthorn stems reduced such competition for at least four years.

  14. Amendment 80 Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Amendment 80 Program was adopted by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) in June 2006. The final rule implementing Amendment 80 published in...

  15. Genetic architecture of two red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) populations of Masoala national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razakamaharavo, Vololoniaina R; McGuire, Susie M; Vasey, Natalie; Louis, Edward E; Brenneman, Rick A

    2010-01-01

    The current range of the red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) population is primarily restricted to forests of the Masoala Peninsula on the northeastern coast of Madagascar. Whereas much of the peninsula is protected as Masoala National Park, parts of the forest are at risk from anthropogenic pressures and habitat fragmentation. We sampled 32 individual red ruffed lemur from two sites: Ambatoledama (DAMA), a narrow forest corridor across an area of degraded habitat connecting larger blocks of forest in the northwestern reaches of the park, and Masiaposa (MAS) forest, a largely pristine forest on the lower western side of the peninsula. Population genetic parameters were estimated for these two populations employing 15 microsatellite loci derived from the V. variegata genome. We found that by exceeding the expected heterozygosity at mutation-drift equilibrium, the DAMA population has undergone a recent population bottleneck. Population structure analysis detected individuals harboring genotypic admixture of the DAMA genetic cluster in the MAS population, suggesting a possibility of unilateral gene flow or movement between these populations.

  16. Preliminary biomedical evaluation of wild ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and V. rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2005-05-01

    Complete medical examinations were performed on 11 wild ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and V. rubra) from three sites in Madagascar. Each animal received a complete physical examination, several physiological parameters were analyzed (complete blood count, serum biochemical profile, and fecal bacterial culture), and the animals were examined for endo-, ecto-, and hemoparasites. Additional tests were performed as samples were available, including fat-soluble vitamin analysis, trace mineral analysis, toxoplasmosis serology, and viral serology. We found that the ruffed lemurs were in good health, harbored a low endoparasite load, and frequently had external parasites (e.g., ticks (Haemophysalis lemuris)). Statistically significant differences between captive and wild lemurs were found for the following serum biochemical and blood count parameters: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total protein (TP), albumin, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, glucose, amylase, band neutrophil count, and eosinophil count. Low blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum cholesterol values in wild lemurs (compared to those of North American captive zoo ruffed lemurs) may suggest differences between diets in the wild and captivity. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. Phytochemical Content of Some Black (Morus nigra L. and Purple (Morus rubra L. Mulberry Genotypes

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    Murat Tosun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright black (Morus nigra and purple mulberry (Morus rubra are particularly desirable fruits in Turkey. More recently, the interest in these bright black and purple mulberry fruits has also increased because of the popularization of healthy properties of these fruits. The study was carried out in 2008 aiming to determine the antioxidant activity (ferric reducing ability of plasma, FRAP, total phenolic, total anthocyanin, mineral, soluble solid, vitamin C, and total acid content of four black and four purple mulberry genotypes grown in Turkey. The results show that black mulberry genotypes have a higher bioactive content than purple mulberry genotypes. The average total phenolic content and total anthocyanins of black mulberry genotypes were 2149 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per g and 719 μg of cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalent (Cy 3-glu per g of fresh mass. In purple mulberry, these values were for GAE 1690 μg/g and for Cy 3-glu 109 μg/g on fresh mass basis. The average antioxidant activity of black mulberry genotypes was also found to be higher than that of the purple ones according to FRAP assay (Trolox equivalent (TE per fresh mass of black and purple mulberries was 13.35 and 6.87 μmol/g, respectively.

  18. THE ALLELOPATHIC INFLUENCE OF TARAXACUM OFFICINALE ON THE INITIAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF FESTUCA RUBRA L.

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    Jolanta Jankowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg is perennial plant often stepping out in very large quantity in the sward of natural meadows. This species expands, enlarging its population very quickly. In the literature there is the lack of data related to influences of the common dandelion on plants growing in it’s neighbourhood. It is also unknown why this species creates large clusters. It may compete with different plants through the allelopatic influence. Therefore, the aim of this work was to test of the influence of water extracts from leaves and from the roots of common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale as well as soil extracts from the radicular layer of this species on the germination of the seeds and the initial growth of Red fescue (Festuca rubra L.. The investigative material came from leaves and roots of Taraxacum officinale and soil coming from the radicular layer of this species. It was applied most often in biotest experiments on germination. Red fescue was the tested plant. The germination energy of red fescue was the most braked through the plant extracts prepared from roots and leaves of Taraxacum officinale.

  19. Ustekinumab as an Alternative Treatment Option for Chronic Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

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    Mudit Chowdhary

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP is an exceptionally rare, chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Patients classically present with small, follicular keratosis and salmon-colored plaques that begin at the head and neck and slowly progress to widespread erythroderma including the palms and soles. It is difficult to distinguish PRP from other inflammatory dermatoses; however, features that help aid in the diagnosis include ‘islands' of spared skin, orangish hue and typical findings on biopsy. There are no specific guidelines on therapy and treatment options include corticosteroids, vitamin D analogs, retinoids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, azathioprine and tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonists. Unfortunately options are limited for patients when these drugs do not work. We report a case of chronic PRP, refractory to conventional treatment, successfully treated with ustekinumab monotherapy. The patient was treated with 90 mg subcutaneous ustekinumab injections and began to show improvement within only 8 weeks. Long-term control of the disease has been attained without any significant side effects. We report this case to show that ustekinumab can be used as an alternative treatment method for patients with chronic, unremitting PRP. Treatment response is remarkably rapid and the infrequent dosing leads to patient compliance and a significantly improved quality of life.

  20. [Effects of simulated acid rain on water physiological characteristics of Myrica rubra seedlings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaho, Zhao-bin; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Shu-quan; Lu, Mei-juan

    2011-08-01

    Taking the seedlings of typical subtropical economic tree species Myrica rubra in Zhejiang Province as test materials, a pot experiment was conducted to study their water physiological characteristics under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 2.5 and pH 4.0), with water (pH 5.6) as the control. Season, year, and acid rain all had significant effects on the photosynthetic rate (Pn). Among the treatments, the Pn had a greater difference in summer than in spring and autumn, and was higher in treatment acid rain (pH 4.0). Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of the three factors had significant effects on the stomata conductance (Gs), and also, the Gs had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain had inhibitory effect on Gs. Season, year, acid rain, and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain affected the transpiration rate (Tr) significantly. Same as Pn and Gs, the Tr had a greater difference among the treatments in summer than in spring and autumn. Acid rain (pH 2.5) had the strongest inhibitory effect on Tr. Acid rain and the interactions of season and year and of season and acid rain had significant effects on the water use efficiency (WUE), and acid rain (pH 2.5) had definitely positive effect on the WUE.

  1. Characterization of a neutral recombinant xylanase from Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yi-Rui; Hu, Qing-Wen; Xian, Wen-Dong; Zhang, Feng; Zhou, En-Min; Ming, Hong; Xiao, Min; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-03-01

    A xylanase gene (TrXyn10) from Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501 T was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence displayed 78% homology with Microbispora mesophila xylanase (WP_062413927.1). The recombinant xylanase (TrXyn10), with MW 46.1 kDa, could hydrolyse beechwood, birchwood and oatspelt xylan. Based on the sequence, enzymatic properties and tertiary structure of the protein, TrXyn10 belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10). The optimal pH and temperature for the recombinant enzyme were determined to be 7.0 and 55 °C, respectively. TrXyn10 was stable over a wide pH range, and it retained more than 45% of the total activity at pH 6.0-12.0 for 12 h. In addition, the activity was greatly promoted, by approximately 200% of the initial activity, after incubation at pH 6.0 and 7.0 for 12 h. Based on enzymatic properties and product analysis, we showed that TrXyn10 is a neutral endoxylanase.

  2. Effects of invasive European fire ants (Myrmica rubra on herring gull (Larus argentatus reproduction.

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    Luke E DeFisher

    Full Text Available Various invasive ant species have negatively affected reproductive success in birds by disrupting nest site selection, incubation patterns, food supply, and by direct predation on nestlings. Impacts can be particularly severe when non-native ants colonize seabird nesting islands where thousands of birds may nest in high densities on the ground or in burrows or crevices. Here we report on the first documented effects of Myrmica rubra, the European fire ant, on the reproduction of birds in its non-native range. We documented herring gulls (Larus argentatus on Appledore Island, Maine, engaging in more erratic incubation behaviors at nests infested by the ants. Newly-hatched chicks in some nests were swarmed by ants, leading to rapid chick death. Due to high overall rates of chick mortality, survival probabilities did not vary between nests with and without ant activity, however chick growth rates were slower at nests with ants than at ant-free nests. Ant infestation likely leads to longer-term fitness consequences because slower growth rates early in life may ultimately lead to lower post-fledging survival probabilities.

  3. Extreme consumption of Beta vulgaris var. rubra can cause metal ion accumulation in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázovics, Anna; Sárdi, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Váli, L; Takács-Hájos, Mária; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva

    2007-09-01

    Redox homeostasis can be considered as the cumulative action of all free radical reactions and antioxidant defences in different tissues, which provide suitable conditions for life. Transition metal ions are ubiquitous in biological systems. Beta vulgaris var. rubra (table beet root) contains several bioactive agents (e.g. betain, betanin, vulgaxanthine, polyphenols, folic acid) and different metal elements (e.g. Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn), which act on the various physiological routes. Therefore we studied the effect of this metal rich vegetable on element content of the liver in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 7) (200 +/- 20 g) were treated with lyophilised powder of table beet root (2 g/kg b.w.) added into the rat chow for 10 days. Five healthy animals served as control. We found significant accumulation of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P in the liver, which was proved by ICP-AES measurements. We suppose that the extreme consumption of table beet root can cause several disturbances not only in cases of healthy patients but, e.g. in patients suffering with metal accumulating diseases, e.g. porphyria cutanea tarda, haemochromatosis or Wilson disease-although moderate consumption may be beneficial in iron-deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  4. Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and phosphorus forms in ancient and post-agricultural black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn.] woodlands

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    Anna Orczewska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black alder, an N-fixing tree is considered to accelerate the availability of phosphorus in soils due to the increased production of phosphatase enzymes, which are responsible for the P release from the litter. Acid phosphatase activity plays a pivotal role in organic P mineralization in forest soils and in making P available to plants. In order to check whether Alnus glutinosa stimulates acid phosphomonoesterase (PHACID activity, we compared enzyme activities, total P concentration (PTOT, plant-available P (PAVAIL, organic P (PORG and inorganic P (PINORG, and organic matter content in 27 ancient and 27 post-agricultural alder woods (the latter ones representing different age classes: 11-20, 21-40 and 41-60 years of soil samples taken from the litter and the mineral layers. Phosphomonoesterase activity, organic matter, PTOT, PINORG and PORG concentrations were significantly higher in ancient alder woods than in the soils of post-agricultural forests. Significant differences in the acid phosphatase activity, organic matter and PAVAIL concentration were noted between the litter and mineral layers within the same forest type. In recent stands the amount of organic matter and phosphatase activity increased significantly with the age of alder stands, although only in the mineral layer of their soils. Phosphomonoesterase activity, organic matter and PAVAIL content were higher in a litter layer and decreased significantly at a mineral depth of the soil. The acid phosphatase activity was significantly correlated with organic matter content in both ancient and recent stands. There was no significant relationship between PHACID activity and any P forms.

  5. Physiological Adjustments of Leaf Respiration to Atmospheric Warming in Betula alleghaniensis and Quercus rubra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmar, A.; Gunderson, C.

    2006-01-01

    Global air temperatures are predicted to rise 1° to 4.5° Celsius by the year 2100. This climatic change is expected to have a great effect on the succession and migration of temperate deciduous forest species. Most physiologically based models of forest response to climatic change focus on the ecosystems as a whole instead of on individual tree species, assuming that the effects of warming on respiration are generally the same for each species, and that processes can not adjust to a changing climate. Experimental data suggest that physiological adjustments are possible, but there is a lack of data in deciduous species. In order to correctly model the effects of climate change on temperate species, species-specific respiration acclimation (adjustment) to rising temperatures is being determined in this experiment. Two temperate deciduous tree species Betula alleghaniensis (BA) and Quercus rubra (QR) were grown over a span of four years in open-top chambers and subjected to two different temperature treatments; ambient and ambient plus 4° Celsius (E4). Between 0530 hours and 1100 hours, respiration was measured over a range of leaf temperatures on several comparable, fully expanded leaves in each treatment. Circular punches were taken from the leaves and dried at 60°C to determine leaf mass per area (LMA). Respiration rates at a common temperature decreased by 15-18% in both species, and the entire resperation versus temperature curve shifted by at least 4°C, indicating a large degree of physiological acclimation. Foliar mass per area decreased with increasing growth temperature for both species. It can be concluded that there is a relationship between leaf respiration and foliar mass as it relates to respiratory acclimation, and that these two species had similar patterns of adjustment to warming.

  6. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bologna, Audrey; Detrain, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects -positive, negative or none - on ants' demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants.

  7. Steep Decline and Cessation in Seed Dispersal by Myrmica rubra Ants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bologna

    Full Text Available Myrmecochorous diaspores bear a nutrient-rich appendage, the elaiosome, attractive to ant workers that retrieve them into the nest, detach the elaiosome and reject the seed intact. While this interaction is beneficial for the plant partner by ensuring its seed dispersal, elaiosome consumption has various effects -positive, negative or none - on ants' demography and survival, depending on both the ant/plant species involved. In this context, the contribution of ants to seed dispersal strongly varies according to the ant/plant pairs considered. In this paper, we investigate whether the dynamics of myrmecochory also vary on a temporal scale, for a given pair of partners: Myrmica rubra ants and Viola odorata seeds. During their first encounter with seeds, ants collect all the diaspores and eat the majority of elaiosomes. Both the harvesting effort and the elaiosome consumption decline when seeds are offered on the next week and completely cease for the following weeks. This is related to a decrease in the number of foragers reaching the food source, as well as to a reduced probability for an ant contacting a seed to retrieve it. Seed retrieval is not reactivated after seven weeks without any encounter with V. odorata seeds. By contrast, naive ant colonies only fed with fruit flies do not show a decline of prey harvesting of which the speed of retrieval even increases over the successive weeks. Myrmecochory may thus be labile at the scale of a fruiting season due to the ability of ants to steeply tune and cease for several months the harvesting of these seemingly poorly rewarding items and to maintain cessation of seed exploitation. The present study emphasizes the importance of a long-lasting follow up of the myrmecochory process, to assess the stability of this ant-plant partnership and to identify mechanisms of adaptive harvesting in ants.

  8. Myrmica rubra ants are more communicative when young: Do they need experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsarkina, Natalia V; Panteleeva, Sofia N; Reznikova, Zhanna I

    2017-05-01

    The role of experience in the development of communication in animals is a matter of special interest to many ethologists and psychologists. Ants are known to possess sophisticated and flexible communication systems based mainly on their antennal movements (Reznikova & Ryabko, 2011). However, it is still enigmatic whether young ants need stimulation performances by adults to develop their communication capacities. Experiments with pairwise interactions of Myrmica rubra ants revealed significant differences in individual behavior and the mode of communication in callow (newly emerged) and adult workers. Adult ants are much more mobile than callow ones, and they switch their behavior depending on what partner they interact with, whereas callows behave independently. Adults communicate with callows and queens much longer than with other adults. Both callows and queens seem to be rather attractive to adults, although in different ways. Adults pay close attention to callow ants and initiate prolonged antennal contacts with them, touching their bodies and not leaving them alone. Young (callow) ants appear to be more communicative than adults, and they are equally ready to communicate with each other and with adults. Antennal movements are slow and clumsy in young ants, and they often switch from communication to other activities. It is likely that patterns of antennal movements in callows change gradually. Peculiarities of the mode of communication enable us to speculate that young ants need prolonged contacts with adult nestmates to gain the experience of communication. Some parallels with the development of communication skills in vertebrate species are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váli, László; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Fébel, Hedvig; Sárdi, Eva; Lugasi, Andrea; Kocsis, Ibolya; Blázovics, Anna

    2007-02-01

    Table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) contains important bioactive agents (betaine and polyphenols), which have a wide range of physiologic effects. Because nutritive antioxidants may reduce the occurrence of complications and postoperative mortality, dietary intake of polyphenols and vitamins before surgery may greatly contribute to the survival of patients. Our aim was to determine the liver-protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: non-treated (n = 24) and fed with table beet (n = 8). For 10 days the second group was treated with lyophilized table beet (2 g/kg body weight daily) mixed into the rat chow. Hepatic ischemia was maintained for 45 min, followed by 15 min of reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion was carried out on animals from both groups. Chemiluminescent intensity, H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration, Randox-total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry. Fatty acid (Shimadzu GC) and metal ion (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) concentrations were observed in the liver. As a result of feeding, global parameters (H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) of the liver were found to increase significantly, which indicated that the treatment had a positive effect on its redox state. The increase found in zinc and copper content may protect the hepatocytes against oxidative stress because these elements are required for the function of superoxide dismutase enzymes. In the table beet group the concentration of short-chain fatty acids decreased, whereas that of long-chain fatty acids increased. The changes in metal element and fatty acid concentrations confirmed that these elements have an essential function

  10. Climate Influences the Content and Chemical Composition of Foliar Tannins in Green and Senesced Tissues of Quercus rubra

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    Sara M. Top

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses not only influence production of plant metabolites but could also modify their resorption during leaf senescence. The production-resorption dynamics of polyphenolic tannins, a class of defense compound whose ecological role extends beyond tissue senescence, could amplify the influence of climate on ecosystem processes. We studied the quantity, chemical composition, and tissue-association of tannins in green and freshly-senesced leaves of Quercus rubra exposed to different temperature (Warming and No Warming and precipitation treatments (Dry, Ambient, Wet at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment (BACE in Massachusetts, USA. Climate influenced not only the quantity of tannins, but also their molecular composition and cell-wall associations. Irrespective of climatic treatments, tannin composition in Q. rubra was dominated by condensed tannins (CTs, proanthocyanidins. When exposed to Dry and Ambient*Warm conditions, Q. rubra produced higher quantities of tannins that were less polymerized. In contrast, under favorable conditions (Wet, tannins were produced in lower quantities, but the CTs were more polymerized. Further, even as the overall tissue tannin content declined, the content of hydrolysable tannins (HTs increased under Wet treatments. The molecular composition of tannins influenced their content in senesced litter. Compared to the green leaves, the content of HTs decreased in senesced leaves across treatments, whereas the CT content was similar between green and senesced leaves in Wet treatments that produced more polymerized tannins. The content of total tannins in senesced leaves was higher in Warming treatments under both dry and ambient precipitation treatments. Our results suggest that, though climate directly influenced the production of tannins in green tissues (and similar patterns were observed in the senesced tissue, the influence of climate on tannin content of senesced tissue was partly mediated by the effect

  11. Climate Influences the Content and Chemical Composition of Foliar Tannins in Green and Senesced Tissues of Quercus rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top, Sara M; Preston, Caroline M; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Tharayil, Nishanth

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stresses not only influence production of plant metabolites but could also modify their resorption during leaf senescence. The production-resorption dynamics of polyphenolic tannins, a class of defense compound whose ecological role extends beyond tissue senescence, could amplify the influence of climate on ecosystem processes. We studied the quantity, chemical composition, and tissue-association of tannins in green and freshly-senesced leaves of Quercus rubra exposed to different temperature ( Warming and No Warming ) and precipitation treatments ( Dry, Ambient, Wet ) at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment (BACE) in Massachusetts, USA. Climate influenced not only the quantity of tannins, but also their molecular composition and cell-wall associations. Irrespective of climatic treatments, tannin composition in Q. rubra was dominated by condensed tannins (CTs, proanthocyanidins). When exposed to Dry and Ambient * Warm conditions, Q. rubra produced higher quantities of tannins that were less polymerized. In contrast, under favorable conditions ( Wet ), tannins were produced in lower quantities, but the CTs were more polymerized. Further, even as the overall tissue tannin content declined, the content of hydrolysable tannins (HTs) increased under Wet treatments. The molecular composition of tannins influenced their content in senesced litter. Compared to the green leaves, the content of HTs decreased in senesced leaves across treatments, whereas the CT content was similar between green and senesced leaves in Wet treatments that produced more polymerized tannins. The content of total tannins in senesced leaves was higher in Warming treatments under both dry and ambient precipitation treatments. Our results suggest that, though climate directly influenced the production of tannins in green tissues (and similar patterns were observed in the senesced tissue), the influence of climate on tannin content of senesced tissue was partly mediated by the effect on

  12. The Hybrid Strategy of Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501T for Utilizing Cellulose as a Carbon Source at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rui Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thermoactinospora rubra YIM 77501T is an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming and cellulose degrading thermophilic actinomycete isolated from a sandy soil sample of a volcano. Its growth temperature range is 28–60°C. The genomic sequence of this strain revealed that there are 27 cellulase genes belonging to six glycoside hydrolase families. To understand the strategy that this strain uses to utilize carbon sources such as cellulose at different temperatures, comparative transcriptomics analysis of T. rubra YIM 77501T was performed by growing it with cellulose (CMC and without cellulose (replaced with glucose at 30, 40, and 50°C, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed four cellulase genes (TrBG2, TrBG3, TrBG4, and ThrCel6B were up-regulated at 30, 40, and 50°C. The rate of gene expression of TrBG2, TrBG3, TrBG4, and ThrCel6B were 50°C > 30°C > 40°C. One cellulase gene (TrBG1 and two cellulase genes (TrBG5 and ThrCel6A were up-regulated only at 30 and 50°C, respectively. These up-regulated cellulase genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzymatic properties of up-regulated cellulases showed a variety of responses to temperature. Special up-regulated cellulases TrBG1 and ThrCel6A displayed temperature acclimation for each growth condition. These expression patterns revealed that a hybrid strategy was used by T. rubra to utilize carbon sources at different temperatures. This study provides genomic, transcriptomics, and experimental data useful for understanding how microorganisms respond to environmental changes and their application in enhancing cellulose hydrolysis for animal feed and bioenergy production.

  13. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  14. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A

    2010-06-01

    Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of

  15. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Endophytic Bacillus spp. have reduced the lead toxicity in Alnus firma plants. ► The bacteria have sequestered the Pb molecules extracellularly. ► The bacteria have increased the growth rate of plants in the presence of Pb. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants.

  16. The effect of induced heat waves on Pinus taeda and Quercus rubra seedlings in ambient and elevated CO2 atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameye, Maarten; Wertin, Timothy M; Bauweraerts, Ingvar; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2012-10-01

    Here, we investigated the effect of different heat-wave intensities applied at two atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) on seedlings of two tree species, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra). Seedlings were assigned to treatment combinations of two levels of [CO2] (380 or 700 μmol mol(-1)) and four levels of air temperature (ambient, ambient +3°C, or 7-d heat waves consisting of a biweekly +6°C heat wave, or a monthly +12°C heat wave). Treatments were maintained throughout the growing season, thus receiving equal heat sums. We measured gas exchange and fluorescence parameters before, during and after a mid-summer heat wave. The +12°C heat wave, significantly reduced net photosynthesis (Anet) in both species and [CO2] treatments but this effect was diminished in elevated [CO2]. The decrease in Anet was accompanied by a decrease in Fv'/Fm' in P. taeda and ΦPSII in Q. rubra. Our findings suggest that, if soil moisture is adequate, trees will experience negative effects in photosynthetic performance only with the occurrence of extreme heat waves. As elevated [CO2] diminished these negative effects, the future climate may not be as detrimental to plant communities as previously assumed. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Differential effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chishao on cytokine and chemokine expression inducible by mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li James

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon initial infection with mycobacteria, macrophages secrete multiple cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, to mediate host immune responses against the pathogen. Mycobacteria also induce the production of IL-10 via PKR activation in primary human monocytes and macrophages. As an anti-inflammatory cytokine, over-expression of IL-10 may contribute to mycobacterial evasion of the host immunity. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (RPR, Chishao, a Chinese medicinal herb with potentials of anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective effects, is used to treat tuberculosis. This study investigates the immunoregulatory effects of RPR on primary human blood macrophages (PBMac during mycobacterial infection. Methods The interaction of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG with PBMac was used as an experimental model. A series of procedures involving solvent extraction and fractionation were used to isolate bioactive constituents in RPR. RPR-EA-S1, a fraction with potent immunoregulatory effects was obtained with a bioactivity guided fractionation scheme. PBMac were treated with crude RPR extracts or RPR-EA-S1 before BCG stimulation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were measured by qPCR and ELISA. Western blotting was used to determine the effects of RPR-EA-S1 on signaling kinases and transcriptional factors in the BCG-activated PBMac. Results In BCG-stimulated macrophages, crude RPR extracts and fraction RPR-EA-S1 specifically inhibited IL-10 production while enhanced IL-8 expression at both mRNA and protein levels without affecting the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α. Inhibition of BCG-induced IL-10 expression by RPR-EA-S1 occurred in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RPR-EA-S1 did not affect the phosphorylation of cellular protein kinases including MAPK, Akt and GSK3β. Instead, it suppressed the degradation of IκBα in the cytoplasm and inhibited the

  18. Recent similarity in distribution ranges does not mean a similar postglacial history: a phylogeographical study of the boreal tree species Alnus incana based on microsatellite and chloroplast DNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Havrdová, Alena; Krak, Karol; Hadincová, Věroslava; Vít, Petr; Zákravský, Petr; Douda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 4 (2016), s. 1395-1407 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : postglacial migration * population structure * Alnus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  19. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Parker; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was established in a secondgrowth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first...

  20. Philometra rubra (Nematoda: Philometridae) first description of the male from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and implications for re-introduction of an extirpated population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Measures, L.; Moravec, František; Douglas, S.; Lair, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2017), s. 345-352 ISSN 0008-4301 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Philometra rubra * striped bass * Morone saxatilis * re-introduction * conservation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 1.347, year: 2016

  1. Effects of NaCl salinity on nitrate uptake and partitioning of N and C in Festuca rubra L. in relation to growth rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubinigg, M; Elzenga, JTM; Stulen, G

    2002-01-01

    The effect of salinity on nitrate net uptake rate was studied in the moderately salt tolerant halophyte Festuca rubra L., in relation to changes in relative growth rate, root weight ratio and nitrogen and carbon partitioning. Plants were grown for 21 days on nutrient solution containing 50, 100 and

  2. Use of radiometric indices to evaluate Zn and Pb stress in two grass species (Festuca rubra L. and Vulpia myuros L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Yunta, F; Esteban, E; Carpena, R O; Zornoza, P

    2016-11-01

    Vegetation indices obtained from radiometric measurements have been used to estimate the stress response of plants grown in contaminated sites. The phytotoxicity of Pb and Zn in Festuca rubra L. and Vulpia myuros L. plants grown under hydroponic conditions was evaluated using vegetation indices obtained from radiometric measurements. The plants were supplied with 3 mM Zn (+Zn), 500 μM Pb (+Pb) and 500 μM Pb with EDTA (+PbEDTA) for 3 months. Significantly higher Zn concentrations in F. rubra shoots compared with V. myuros shoots were detected for Zn and Pb treatments. EDTA increased Pb transport to the shoots for both grasses, while Pb-treated plants retained Pb primarily in the roots. All vegetation indices tested showed the highest differences in F. rubra under +PbEDTA treatment and minor effects under +Zn, whereas the major variations for V. myuros corresponded to +Zn treatment, followed by +PbEDTA. Red edge normalized difference vegetation index, yellowness index and anthocyanin concentration index were the most sensitive indices to report Zn and Pb phytotoxicity in these grasses. According to the results obtained, both metal concentrations and radiometric indices suggested that Pb is more phytotoxic to F. rubra, which tolerates high Zn levels, whereas V. myuros was strongly affected by high Zn levels and markedly tolerant to Pb, even when applied in a mobile form (PbEDTA). Both species could be used in the phytostabilization of Zn- and Pb-contaminated soils. The abilities of F. rubra to accumulate Zn and V. myuros to accumulate Pb in the roots would facilitate a more efficient phytoremediation strategy when used in combination.

  3. Conventional crops and organic amendments for Pb, Cd and Zn treatment at a severely contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichtel, J; Bradway, D J

    2008-03-01

    The ability of selected plants and amendments to treat Pb, Cd and Zn accumulations from a metalliferous waste disposal site was studied both in the greenhouse and field. Spinach (Spinacea oleracea), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), and a grass-legume mix (red fescue, Festuca rubra; ryegrass, Lolium perenne); and bean (Vicia faba) were grown in the greenhouse on blast furnace slag or baghouse dust amended with composted peat (CP). All plant species accumulated Pb, Cd and Zn to varying degrees. Total soil metal concentrations had a marked influence on plant uptake. Topdressing versus incorporating CP had a significant (p<0.05) effect on spinach and cabbage tissue metal concentrations. Soil Pb and Zn tended to shift towards less bioavailable forms after treatment with CP. Field plots were treated with CP, farmyard manure (FYM), or inorganic fertilizer. Dry matter production of spinach, cabbage and a grass-legume mix was greatest on either the CP or FYM treatments. Phytostabilization in combination with organic amendments may be the most appropriate technology to ensure stabilization of soil metals at this site.

  4. China rubra for side-effects of quinine: a prospective, randomised study in pregnant women with malaria in Cotonou, Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danno, Karine; Rerolle, Frédéric; de Sigalony, Sylvie; Colas, Aurélie; Terzan, Laurence; Bordet, Marie-France

    2014-07-01

    In endemic areas, gestational malaria is responsible for low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Quinine is the reference treatment for acute malaria in pregnant women, irrespective of term. However, quinine administration is associated with various side-effects. We evaluated the impact of the homeopathic medicine China rubra 7CH on the side-effects of quinine used as treatment for acute malaria in pregnant women in Cotonou, Benin. This prospective, comparative, randomised study was carried out between June and December 2007 in the Saint Jean-Baptiste Medical Centre, Cotonou. Women were included if they were >3 months pregnant and had a clinical diagnosis of malaria confirmed by a positive thick blood smear. The study population was divided into two groups: (i) patients who presented between the 1st and 15th of each month and who received China rubra 7CH plus quinine (China group); and (ii) patients who presented from the 16th to the end of each month and who received treatment with quinine only (Standard group). The aim was to compare the frequency of side-effects of quinine in the two groups until day 6 after the start of treatment. Neither the patients nor the care givers were blinded to study treatment. Statistical comparison of the two groups was carried out with an alpha risk fixed at 5%. 211 women were recruited: 105 received quinine plus China rubra 7CH (China group) and 106 received quinine only (Standard group). A decrease in proportion of patients presenting with side-effects was observed in the China group from day 0 to day 6 of follow-up (53.9%-23.3%) whereas the proportion of patients with side-effects in the Standard group did not change significantly (85.9% on day 0 vs. 82.5% on day 6). Ninety-six (72.4%) patients in the China group and 103 (97.2%) in the Standard group reported at least one side-effect during follow-up (p quinine used for the treatment of acute malaria in pregnant women. Copyright © 2014 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by

  5. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N tot , ammonium and generating higher BOD 7 . Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H + -ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. - Highlights: ► We examined Acer negundo and Alnus glutinosa leaf extract effects on hydrophytes. ► Nitellopsis obtusa and Lemna minor responded differently to leaf litter leachates. ► 90-day biodegraded A. negundo leaves lost twofold more biomass than that of A. glutinosa. ► A. negundo leachates evoked higher mortality and cell depolarization of N. obtusa. ► Leachates affected H + -ATPase activity in algae membrane preparations. - Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter waterbody can be environmental factor affecting differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems, thus influencing ecological scenarios.

  6. Procesos morfológicos en la iniciación y desarrollo de nódulos en aliso (Alnus acuminata H.B.K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niño Luz Marina

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available La especie nativa Alnus ecuminata H.B.K. (Aliso establece una relación simbiótica en las raíces con un Actinomycete
    del género Frankia. De esta asociación resulta la formación de nódulos que tienen capacidad para fijar nitrógeno atmosférico y mejorar la disponibilidad de este elemento
    en los suelos. Para evaluar y analizar los cambios morfológicos originados por el establecimiento de la asociación, se inocularon con nódulos macerados plántulas de. Aliso sembradas en medio estéril. Periódicamente, a partir de los tratamientos, las raíces de Aliso fueron muestradas y procesadas empleando técnicas de microscopía óptica y electrónica. Las observaciones efectuadas mostraron
    al simbionte en cuatro formas: esporas, hifas, ves ículas y bacteroides y revelaron que el proceso de iniciación y desarrollo de los nódulos fue similar al de otras especies del
    género Alnus estudiadas en las Zonas templadas. Frankia penetró a los tejidos de la planta vía pelo radical, invadió luego el tejido cortical e indujo la formación del nódulo, el cual emergió a manera de una raíz lateral. Además se estableció que la hifas forma inefectiva de Frankia, penetró por células epidermales jóvenes. En estadios iniciales de infección, el Actinomycete se encontró en espacios intercelulares, aunque siempre terminó estableciéndose en células del tejido cortical.

  7. Surgical and medical management for fractures of the second through fifth metacarpals in a red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerveny, Shannon N S; Harper, Justin; Voges, Andra; Coke, Rob L

    2013-03-01

    A 21-yr-old female red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) was presented with swelling and disuse of the right manus. Severely displaced fractures of metacarpals II-V were diagnosed radiographically. The fractures were surgically stabilized with intramedullary Kirschner wires attached externally with an acrylic external fixator and a bone plate on the dorsal aspect of metacarpal III. The fractures of metacarpals II-V were predominantly healed on radiographs obtained 12 wk after surgery. However, diffuse disuse osteopenia and phalangeal contracture were present, with possible osteomyelitis. An exercise regimen of the affected hand was initiated due to the incomplete extension of the phalanges. After 4 wk of therapy, the extension of the phalanges had improved and the fractures appeared radiographically to be nearly completely healed. Although metacarpal fractures are common in nonhuman primates, they are reported infrequently in the literature.

  8. Sex ratio affects sex-specific innovation and learning in captive ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lewis G; Hoppitt, William; Laland, Kevin N; Kendal, Rachel L

    2011-12-01

    Recent years have witnessed extensive research into problem solving and innovation in primates, yet lemurs have not been subjected to the same level of attention as apes and monkeys, and the social context in which novel behavior appears has rarely been considered. We gave novel foraging puzzlebox devices to seven groups of ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata and Varecia rubra) to examine the factors affecting rates of innovation and social learning. We found, across a range of group sex ratios, that animals of the less-represented sex were more likely to contact and solve the puzzlebox sooner than those of the more-represented sex. We established that while some individuals were able to solve the puzzleboxes there was no evidence of social learning. Our findings are consistent with previously reported male deference as a sexual strategy, but we conclude that the need for male deference diminishes when, within a group, males are rare. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. On a new species of Cosmocerca (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae) from Microhyla rubra (Anura: Microhylidae) from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Sujan K; Nandi, Anadi P

    2015-06-01

    Cosmocerca microhylae sp. nov., recovered from the rectum of a red narrow-mouthed frog, Microhyla rubra (Jerdon, 1854) (Anura: Microhylidae), collected from Bolpur in the Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, is described and figured. This species is similar to C. acanthurum, C. banyulensis, C. cruzi, C. japonica, C. kalesari, C. novaeguineae, C. ornata, C. paraguayensis, C. parva, C. podicipinus and C. travassosi in having 5 pairs of plectanes supporting preanal papillae but differs from these species by smaller size, absence of somatic papillae in females and having only one pair of adanal papillae in males and one pair postanal papillae in females. Cosmocerca microhylae sp. nov. represents 27th species assigned to the genus, and 4th species from India.

  10. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) (Passeriformes: Parulidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Medina, Juan Pablo; Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; García-Conejo, Michele; Galindo-Sánchez, Karla Patricia; Janczur, Mariusz Krzysztof; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2016-10-01

    A new coccidian species (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the red warbler Cardellina rubra (Swainson) is reported from the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico. Isospora cardellinae n. sp. has subspherical oöcysts, measuring on average 26.6 × 25.4 μm, with smooth, bi-layered wall, c.1.3 μm thick. Micropyle, oöcyst residuum, and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ovoidal, measuring on average 19.0 × 12.0 µm, with a knob-like Stieda body, a trapezoidal sub-Stieda body and sporocyst residuum composed of scattered spherules of different sizes. Sporozoites are vermiform with one refractile body and a nucleus. This is the fourth description of an isosporoid coccidian infecting a New World warbler.

  11. Fungal endophyte (Epichloë festucae alters the nutrient content of Festuca rubra regardless of water availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz R Vázquez-de-Aldana

    Full Text Available Festuca rubra plants maintain associations with the vertically transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. A high prevalence of infected host plants in semiarid grasslands suggests that this association could be mutualistic. We investigated if the Epichloë-endophyte affects the growth and nutrient content of F. rubra plants subjected to drought. Endophyte-infected (E+ and non-infected (E- plants of two half-sib lines (PEN and RAB were subjected to three water availability treatments. Shoot and root biomass, nutrient content, proline, phenolic compounds and fungal alkaloids were measured after the treatments. The effect of the endophyte on shoot and root biomass and dead leaves depended on the plant line. In the PEN line, E+ plants had a greater S:R ratio than E-, but the opposite occurred in RAB. In both plant lines and all water treatments, endophyte-infected plants had greater concentrations of N, P and Zn in shoots and Ca, Mg and Zn in roots than E- plants. On average, E+ plants contained in their shoots more P (62%, Zn (58% and N (19% than E- plants. While the proline in shoots increased in response to water stress, the endophyte did not affect this response. A multivariate analysis showed that endophyte status and plant line impose stronger differences in the performance of the plants than the water stress treatments. Furthermore, differences between PEN and RAB lines seemed to be greater in E- than in E+ plants, suggesting that E+ plants of both lines are more similar than those of their non-infected version. This is probably due to the endophyte producing a similar effect in both plant lines, such as the increase in N, P and Zn in shoots. The remarkable effect of the endophyte in the nutrient balance of the plants could help to explain the high prevalence of infected plants in natural grasslands.

  12. Agronomic, leaf anatomy, morphology, endophyte presence and ploidy characterization of accessions of Festuca group rubra collected in northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J. A.; Gutierrez-Villarias, M. I.; Fernandez-Casado, M. A.; Costal-Andrade, L.; Gonzalez-Arraez, E.; Bughrara, S. S.; Afif, E.

    2008-07-01

    Fifteen accessions of Facet's group rubra collected in northern Spain were characterized and grouped into four Festuca taxa on the basis of leaf anatomy, morphology and ploidy; seven were identified as F. heteromalla; two as F. trichophylla ssp. asperifolia; two as F. nigrescens ssp. microphylla and four as F. rubra ssp. pruinosa. All the accessions and one commercial cultivar Wilma (F. nigrescens ssp. nigrescens), used as control, were established at the Mabegondo Agronomical Research Centre, A Coruna (Galicia) in a completely randomised block design with three replicates of 10 plants per accession. The plants were agronomically characterized for seven traits during 2004 and 2005. Cluster analysis was useful in identifying four clusters that described 66.5% of the phenotypic variation. Cluster 1 consisted of nine accessions with early heading, intermediate values of green colour and tolerance to crown rust in autumn and the highest seasonal growth. Cluster 2 contained two accessions with intermediate values of heading, green colour, good tolerance to crown rust in autumn and intermediate seasonal growth. Cluster 3 contained two accessions and the cultivar Wilma, which showed early heading, dark green colour, good tolerance to crown rust in autumn and spring and intermediate seasonal growth. Cluster 4 consisted of two late heading accessions with dark green colour, and the best tolerance to crown rust in autumn and intermediate seasonal growth. Thirteen of the 15 accessions (86.6%) were infected by fungal endophytes, with the degree of infection ranging from 2 to 73%. Additional key words: endophyte, fine fescues, genetic resources, hierarchical clustering, leaf sections, multivariate analysis, turf grass. (Author) 33 refs.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Cariniana rubra stem bark in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson N. Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularly known as "jequitibá-vermelho'', is a large Brazilian tree whose bark is used in infusion and decoction for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. This study aims to assess the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antipyretic effects of Cariniana rubra methanolic stem bark extract (EM Cr using experimental animals. Anti-inflammatory activity of EM Cr was tested on carrageenan and dextran-induced rat paw edema, carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and acetic acid-increase vascular permeability in mice. Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities were evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin and hot-plate tests in mice, as well as brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The extract inhibitied carrageenan and dextran-induced edema, reduced exudate volume and leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced pleurisy and on the vascular permeability increase induced by acetic acid. The EM Cr inhibited nociception on the acetic acid-induced writhing and in the second phase of formalin test, and decreased rectal temperature. It was, however, inactive against thermal nociception.Phytochemical analysis with EM Cr showed the occurrence of saponins, triterpenes, sterols and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols (β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, pentacyclic triterpenes (α- and β-amyrin as a mixture, arjunolic acid, a phytosterol glycoside (sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and triterpenoid saponins (28-β-glucopyranosyl-23-O-acetyl arjunolic acid; 3-O-β-glucopyranosyl arjunolic acid and 28-O-[α-L-Rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-β-glucopyranosyl]-23- O-acetyl arjunolic acid were the main identified compounds. It can be presumed that EM Cr caused their effects by inhibiting the liberation and/or action of different inflammatory mediators. These findings support the traditional use of Cariniana rubra preparations to treat inflammation.Cariniana rubra Miers (Lecythidaceae, popularmente conhecido como

  14. Atomic Act amended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabova, D.

    2002-01-01

    In the paper by the chairwoman of the Czech nuclear regulatory authority, the history of Czech nuclear legislation is outlined, the reasons for the amendment of the Atomic Act (Act No. 18/1997) are explained, and the amendments themselves are highlighted. The Act No. 13/2002 of 18 December 2001 is reproduced from the official Collection of Acts of the Czech Republic in the facsimile form. The following acts were thereby amended: Atomic Act No. 18/1997, Metrology Act No. 505/1990, Public Health Protection Act No. 258/2000, and Act No. 2/1969 on the Establishment of Ministries and Other Governmental Agencies of the Czech Republic. (P.A.)

  15. Frugivory and seed dispersal patterns of the red-ruffed lemur, Varecia rubra, at a forest restoration site in Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Barbara T; Razafindratsima, Onja H

    2014-01-01

    Frugivorous primates can play a critical role in the regeneration of degraded habitats by dispersing seeds of their food plants. We studied the diet and seed dispersal patterns of 3 groups of habituated red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) in a rain forest restoration site in Masoala National Park, Madagascar, to assess the species' seed dispersal effectiveness. Fruits accounted for 61% of the diet, with an average foraging time of 10 min per fruit patch per day. Seeds from 75% of the consumed fruit species were recovered in the collected V. rubra feces. We traced the potential parent plants of 20 dispersed-seed species to calculate a gut passage range (63-423 min; mean = 225, n = 35). The median seed dispersal distance from the potential parent plant was 48 m (mean = 83 m, range 0-568 m, n = 194). The home ranges of 2 of the 3 groups overlapped with the regenerating forest parcels. Although 92% of fecal samples with seeds were dispersed into the undisturbed forest, V. rubra fed on the fruits of the non-native pioneer shrub Clidemia hirta, while also dispersing native and non-native seed species into the regenerating forest parcels. 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Patterns of genetic connectivity among anchialine habitats: a case study of the endemic Hawaiian shrimp Halocaridina rubra on the island of Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Scott R

    2006-09-01

    Anchialine habitats, landlocked bodies of mixohaline water that fluctuate with the tides but have no surface connection to the sea, are known from around the world. Many anchialine organisms have widespread distributions and it has been hypothesized that high levels of gene flow and low levels of genetic differentiation are characteristic of populations from these habitats. However, the generality of this hypothesis requires further assessment, particularly in light of the significant negative impact these habitats and their biota have experienced from anthropogenic causes. This study investigated the population structure and demography of an endemic Hawaiian anchialine species, the atyid shrimp Halocaridina rubra, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. A survey of 305 individuals from 16 populations collected on the island of Hawaii revealed 135 haplotypes. These haplotypes belonged to one of two divergent (2.7-4.9%) lineages; notably, no haplotypes were shared between the two coasts of the island. Along each coast, strong subdivision and little to no gene flow occurs between populations separated by > 30 km. The population structure and demography of H. rubra on Hawaii are influenced by regional hydrology, geology, volcanism and two distinct colonization events of the island. Thus, H. rubra on Hawaii demonstrates that populations of endemic anchialine organisms may exhibit significant levels of genetic structure and restricted levels of gene flow over limited geographic scales. This report brings novel insight into the biology of anchialine organisms and has important implications for the future management of these habitats and their biota.

  17. A Place to Call Home: An Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Two Tethya rubra Samaai and Gibbons 2005 Populations in Algoa Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Samantha C; Jiwaji, Meesbah; Kalinski, Jarmo-Charles J; Parker-Nance, Shirley; Dorrington, Rosemary A

    2017-03-25

    Sponges are important sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. These compounds are frequently synthesized by bacterial symbionts, which may be recruited from the surrounding seawater or transferred to the sponge progeny by the parent. In this study, we investigated the bacterial communities associated with the sponge Tethya rubra Samaai and Gibbons 2005. Sponge specimens were collected from Evans Peak and RIY Banks reefs in Algoa Bay, South Africa and taxonomically identified by spicule analysis and molecular barcoding. Crude chemical extracts generated from individual sponges were profiled by ultraviolet high performance liquid chromatography (UV-HPLC) and subjected to bioactivity assays in mammalian cells. Next-generation sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used to characterize sponge-associated bacterial communities. T. rubra sponges collected from the two locations were morphologically and genetically indistinguishable. C hemical extracts from sponges collected at RIY banks showed mild inhibition of the metabolic activity of mammalian cells and their UV-HPLC profiles were distinct from those of sponges collected at Evans Peak. Similarly, the bacterial communities associated with sponges from the two locations were distinct with evidence of vertical transmission of symbionts from the sponge parent to its embryos. We conclude that these distinct bacterial communities may be responsible for the differences observed in the chemical profiles of the two Algoa Bay T. rubra Samaai and Gibbons 2005 populations.

  18. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of primitive Biłgoraj horses on the glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus)-dominated understory in a mixed coniferous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the understory dominated by glossy buckthorn Frangula alnus via the influence of primitive horses were analyzed in a 28-year-old enclosure in the village of Szklarnia at the Biłgoraj Horse-Breeding Centre near Janów Lubelski (eastern Poland). The analysis was conducted in 20 circular plots (30 m2) defined in adjacent, similar forest stands (enclosed and control). Disturbance by the horses, mainly through trampling, caused numerous paths to form within the glossy buckthorn-dominated understory and led to a decrease in density of stems of lower height classes (30-80 and 81-130 cm, respectively). An increase in species diversity at the expense of glossy buckthorn density was also observed. The horses' trampling caused an increase in Padus avium density and the encroachment of other woody plant species that were less shade-tolerant and grew well in soils rich in nutrients. An increase in the density of woody plants over 180 cm above ground was observed within the enclosure, which was probably the result of the horses' excretion of feces. The results presented here provide new insight into the ecological role that horses play in forest-meadow landscape mosaics, which, via altering the development of vegetation, may contribute to an increase in biodiversity within forest habitats.

  20. Expectations about numerical events in four lemur species (Eulemur fulvus, Eulemur mongoz, Lemur catta and Varecia rubra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Laurie R; Barnes, Jennifer L; Mahajan, Neha

    2005-10-01

    Although much is known about how some primates--in particular, monkeys and apes--represent and enumerate different numbers of objects, very little is known about the numerical abilities of prosimian primates. Here, we explore how four lemur species (Eulemur fulvus, E. mongoz, Lemur catta, and Varecia rubra) represent small numbers of objects. Specifically, we presented lemurs with three expectancy violation looking time experiments aimed at exploring their expectations about a simple 1+1 addition event. In these experiments, we presented subjects with displays in which two lemons were sequentially added behind an occluder and then measured subjects' duration of looking to expected and unexpected outcomes. In experiment 1, subjects looked reliably longer at an unexpected outcome of only one object than at an expected outcome of two objects. Similarly, subjects in experiment 2 looked reliably longer at an unexpected outcome of three objects than at an expected outcome of two objects. In experiment 3, subjects looked reliably longer at an unexpected outcome of one object twice the size of the original than at an expected outcome of two objects of the original size. These results suggest that some prosimian primates understand the outcome of simple arithmetic operations. These results are discussed in light of similar findings in human infants and other adult primates.

  1. Biomedical evaluation of free-ranging red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) within the Masoala National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher J; Junge, Randall E; Louis, Edward E

    2008-03-01

    Complete health assessments were performed on 22 adult red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), comprising nine males and 13 females, found within the Masoala National Park in northeast Madagascar. Each animal was anesthetized using tiletamine and zolazepam and underwent a thorough physical examination, including measurement of its weight and vital signs; blood collection for hematology, plasma total protein concentration, serum chemistries, fat-soluble vitamins, trace minerals, assessment of iron metabolism, toxoplasmosis serology, viral serologies, and examination for hemoparasites; fecal collection for bacterial culture and parasite examination; and collection of a representative number of any ectoparasites. Comparison of blood values with those of captive lemurs demonstrated a number of significant differences thought to be associated with physiologic state (e.g., reproductive stage and stress), hydration, and diet. There was no evidence of serious infectious diseases, and hemoparasites were not detected. The enteric flora appeared unremarkable; however, results may have been skewed toward more cold-tolerant bacteria. The fecal parasite burden was low. Lemurostrongylus spp. was identified in two of the lemurs, and there were moderate numbers of Laelapidae mites present on approximately one third of the lemurs. This study demonstrated the substantial amount of data that can be collected from free-ranging populations, considered invaluable in the management of captive populations, in reducing the incidence of captivity-related diseases, and in the risk assessment associated with reintroduction programs.

  2. [Growth rings in roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and its application on identification of Paeoniae Radix Rubra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shan-Shan; Zha, Liang-Ping; Duan, Hai-Yan; Xu, Tao; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    The growth years of medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, and "Herb-chronology" has been used to determine the growth years of perennial dicotyledonous plants in recent years. On the basis of conventional paraffin section and freehand section, the anatomical study on roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and main roots of cultivated Paeonia lactiflora was conducted in this paper. The results showed that, there existed some differences in microstructure of the seven species such as P. lactiflora, P. obovata, P. veitchii, P. mairei, P. anomala, P. sinjiangensis and P. anomala var. intermedia, and this could be used to distinguish different species. In the roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species, distinct growth rings were formed because that the different diameters or density of xylem vessels in the secondary xylem formed clusters and arranged interrupted rings in tangential direction. There were growth rings in the main roots of P. lactiflora cultivated 1-4 years in Siping, Jilin, which were all consistent with their growth years. Due to the similar growth characteristics between wild Sect. Paeonia species and cultivated P. lactiflora, the growth rings can provide a basis for the age identification and lay the foundation for the quality evaluation of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Phytochemical Characterization of Chinese Bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) of 17 Cultivars and Their Antioxidant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianan; Huang, Huizhong; Zhang, Qiaoli; Fan, Fangjuan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Li, Xian; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-06-02

    In order to fully understand the variations of fruit quality-related phytochemical composition in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), mature fruit of 17 cultivars from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces was used for the investigation of fruit quality attributes, including fruit color, soluble sugars, organic acids, total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity, etc. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar, while citric acid was the main organic acid in bayberry fruit. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were positively correlated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant activity and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Five anthocyanidins, i.e., delphinidin-hexoside (Dp-Hex), cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (C-3-Gal), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C-3-Glu), pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pg-3-Glu) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (Pn-3-Glu), and seven flavonols compounds, i.e., myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (M-3-Rha), myricetin deoxyhexoside-gallate (M-DH-G), quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q-3-Gal), quercetin-3- O-glucoside (Q-3-Glu), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Q-3-Rha), kaempferol-3-O-galactoside (K-3-Gal) and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (K-3-Glu), were identified and characterized among the cultivars. The significant differences in phytochemical compositions among cultivars reflect the diversity in bayberry germplasm, and cultivars of good flavor and/or rich in various health-promoting phytochemicals are good candidates for future genetic breeding of bayberry fruit of high quality. In conclusion, our results may provide important information for further breeding or industrial utilization of different bayberry resources.

  4. Coordinated regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) fruit by a R2R3 MYB transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shan-Shan; Xu, Chang-Jie; Zhang, Wang-Shu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xian; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C; Chen, Kun-Song

    2010-03-01

    Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) is a fruit crop with cultivars producing fruit ranging from white (Shuijing, SJ) to red (Dongkui, DK) and dark red-purple (Biqi, BQ), as a result of different levels of anthocyanin accumulation. Genes encoding the anthocyanin biosynthesis enzymes chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and UDPglucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), as well as MrMYB1, a R2R3 MYB transcription factor homologous to known activators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, were isolated from ripe fruit of BQ. Differences in mRNA abundance of MrF3H, MrF3'H, MrDFR1, MrANS and MrUFGT were highly correlated with differential accumulation of anthocyanins between cultivars, suggesting coordinated regulation by transcription factors. The transcript level of MrMYB1 was strongly associated with the anthocyanin content in ripe fruit of the three cultivars, as well as different anthocyanin containing tissues of BQ fruit. Fruit bagging strongly inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in fruit as well as the expression of all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and MrMYB1. Overexpression of MrMYB1 stimulated both anthocyanin accumulation and activated an Arabidopsis-DFR promoter in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). MrMYB1d, an allele with a 1 bp deletion at nucleotide 30 of coding sequence, was observed in SJ and DK fruit, suggesting that a nonsense mutation of the MYB1 protein may be responsible for no or low expression of MYB1 in the white and red fruit. These results show that coordinated expression of multiple biosynthetic genes is involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Chinese bayberry fruit, and this is regulated by MrMYB1.

  5. The effect of red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) fiber on alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, P; Galbavý, S; Mariássyová, M

    2000-06-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with 5% and 15% cellulose or with 15% fiber isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) on the development of alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinoma was studied in male Wistar rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by a diet containing 0.3% of cholesterol and colon carcinoma was induced by treatment with dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg, 12 doses applied s.c. in one-week intervals). Fibrous matter isolated from red beet contained 89% fiber, of which 9% was in water soluble form. Animals were killed 14 weeks after the application of dimethylhydrazine (i.e. 26 weeks after starting on the diets). Red beet fiber diet (and not the increased cellulose intake) caused a reduction of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels (by 30 and 40%, respectively) and a significant increase in the fraction of cholesterol carried in HDL. This diet induced also a significant decrease (almost by 30%) of cholesterol content in aorta. Higher cellulose content in the diet and even more so the administration of red beet fiber caused a significant reduction of conjugated dienes content in plasma, erythrocytes and in liver. Also observed were increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes and in colon and activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in liver. The presence of both higher cellulose content and red beet fiber in the diet significantly reduced the incidence of precancerous lesions--aberrant crypt foci--in the colon. The diet containing red beet fiber did not affect significantly the incidence of colon tumours although the number of animals bearing tumours was reduced by 30%.

  6. Alder and the Golden Fleece: high diversity of Frankia and ectomycorrhizal fungi revealed from Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata roots close to a Tertiary and glacial refugium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Roy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent climatic history has strongly impacted plant populations, but little is known about its effect on microbes. Alders, which host few and specific symbionts, have high genetic diversity in glacial refugia. Here, we tested the prediction that communities of root symbionts survived in refugia with their host populations. We expected to detect endemic symbionts and a higher species richness in refugia as compared to recolonized areas. Methods We sampled ectomycorrhizal (EM root tips and the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia communities in eight sites colonized by Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata close to the Caucasus in Georgia. Three sites were located in the Colchis, one major Eurasian climatic refugia for Arcto-Tertiary flora and alders, and five sites were located in the recolonized zone. Endemic symbionts and plant ITS variants were detected by comparing sequences to published data from Europe and another Tertiary refugium, the Hyrcanian forest. Species richness and community structure were compared between sites from refugia and recolonized areas for each symbionts. Results For both symbionts, most MOTUs present in Georgia had been found previously elsewhere in Europe. Three endemic Frankia strains were detected in the Colchis vs two in the recolonized zone, and the five endemic EM fungi were detected only in the recolonized zone. Frankia species richness was higher in the Colchis while the contrary was observed for EM fungi. Moreover, the genetic diversity of one alder specialist Alnicola xanthophylla was particularly high in the recolonized zone. The EM communities occurring in the Colchis and the Hyrcanian forests shared closely related endemic species. Discussion The Colchis did not have the highest alpha diversity and more endemic species, suggesting that our hypothesis based on alder biogeography may not apply to alder’s symbionts. Our study in the Caucasus brings new clues to understand symbioses biogeography and

  7. Efecto del medio de soporte en la estabilidad biológica de dos cepas de Frankia aisladas de Alnus acuminata H. B. K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Rey

    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata H. B. K. es una especie arbórea que puede ser incorporada en sistemas silvopastoriles, ya que tiene la capacidad de crecer en suelos marginados y contribuir a la conservación de la biodiversidad y al mejoramiento del suelo; lo cual se relaciona con la incorporación de hojarasca, el efecto de sombra, la retención de humedad, el reciclaje de nutrientes y la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico, debido a su asociación simbiótica con el actinomiceto Frankia. La utilización de este como inoculante es una tecnología que requiere un profundo análisis de su comportamiento en condiciones controladas. Por otra parte, para la comercialización de los biofertilizantes es importante conservar su calidad el mayor tiempo posible, de lo cual depende la aceptación del producto en la cadena productiva. Por ello, se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de evaluar la estabilidad biológica de las cepas nativas de Frankia (Aan17 y Aac49 con diferentes proporciones sustrato:cepa, así como el efecto del alamacenamiento a 4 °C. Las cepas fueron tolerantes a los cambios del pH y al almacenamiento en condiciones de refrigeración. Se concluye que los inoculantes se deben almacenar a 4 °C durante 120 días, con una proporción de 80:20 (inoculante:sustrato en Aan17 y 60:40 en Aac49. En estos sustratos la proteína microbial se mantuvo por encima de 0,65 mg/mL en Aan17 y 0,7 mg/mL en Aac49.

  8. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  9. The Preventive Effect on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria rubra: Involvement of the Latex Proteins in the NO/cGMP/KATP Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylane Maria Nunes de Alencar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plumeria rubra (Apocynaceae is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, and tracheitis, among other infirmities. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective potential of a protein fraction isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra (PrLP against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and describe the underlying mechanisms. In a dose-dependent manner, the pretreatment with PrLP prevented ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice after single intravenous administration. The gastroprotective mechanism of PrLP was associated with the involvement of prostaglandins and balance of oxidant/antioxidant factors. Secondarily, the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway and activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents were also demonstrated as part of the mechanism. This study shows that proteins extracted from the latex of P. rubra prevent gastric lesions induced in experimental animals. Also, the results support the use of the plant in folk medicine.

  10. Circadian rhythms in diet and habitat use in red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra) and white-fronted brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Natalie

    2004-08-01

    Daily variation in niche use among vertebrates is attributed to a variety of factors, including thermoregulatory, reproductive, and nutritional requirements. Lemuriform primates exhibit many behavioral and physiological adaptations related to thermoregulation and sharp, seasonal reproduction, yet they have rarely been subjects of a quantitative analysis of circadian (or daily) rhythms in niche use. In this study, I document daily rhythms in diet and microhabitat use over an annual cycle in two sympatric, frugivorous lemurs, Varecia rubra and Eulemur fulvus albifrons. Data on diet, forest site, and forest height were recorded at 5-min time points on focal animals and divided into three time blocks for analysis (06:00-10:00 hr, 10:00-14:00 hr, and 14:00-18:00 hr). I employed multivariate tests of independence to examine daily rhythms in diet and microhabitat use according to sex, season, and reproductive stage. Throughout the day, V. rubra is frugivorous and dwells in the upper canopy, with notable departures (especially for females) during the hot seasons, gestation, and lactation. E. f. albifrons has heterogeneous daily rhythms of food choice and microhabitat use, particularly across seasons, and both sexes are equally variable. These daily rhythms in diet and microhabitat use appear related to thermoregulatory and nutritional requirements, seasonal food availability and circadian rhythms of plant (and possibly insect) palatability, predator avoidance tactics, and in the case of Varecia, to reproduction. Daily rhythms of food choice in V. rubra support two previously suggested hypotheses explaining why primates consume more nonfruit items late in the day, whereas those of E. f. albifrons are too variable to lend support to these hypotheses. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Characterization of bio-oils and bio-char obtained from the pyrolysis of a mixture of Lolium perenne, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Mustafa; Yürüm, Yuda; Yurum, Yuda

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the yield and chemical characterization of products obtained from the pyrolysis of a mixture of Lolium perenne, Festuca ovina, Festuca rubra and Poa pratensis grasses under an inert atmosphere at 600 degrees C with a heating rate of 50 degrees C/min was studied. Distribution of the products of pyrolysis grass sample was: moisture: 8 +/- 2%, total volatiles: 78 +/- 7%, char: 14 +/- 5%. Bio-oils were acidic and dark brown liquids and they were separated into oils, asphaltenes and ...

  12. Efek Sitotoksik Fraksi Etil Asetat Ekstrak Etanol Umbi Bit (Beta Vulgaris L.var Rubra L.) Terhadap Sel T47d Dan Uji Kandungan Kimianya

    OpenAIRE

    Susilowati, Sri; Putri, Iga Dewinta; Budiarti, Aqnes

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the prime cause of women death in various parts of the world. Many research to get breast cancer drug has been widely applied. The aims of this study were to determine the cytotoxic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of the beet root (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra L.) on T47D cell line which was the breast cancer cell and test their chemical compound. The extract was made by macerare method, and than it was fractionated by using ethyl acetate. Cyt...

  13. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  14. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  15. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  16. Screening the wetland plant species Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc and comparison with Eriophorum angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, David J.; Moran, Bridget M.; Otte, Marinus L.

    2005-01-01

    Several wetland plant species appear to have constitutive metal tolerance. In previous studies, populations from contaminated and non-contaminated sites of the wetland plants Typha latifolia, Phragmites australis, Glyceria fluitans and Eriophorum angustifolium were found to be tolerant to high concentrations of metals. This study screened three other species of wetland plants: Alisma plantago-aquatica, Carex rostrata and Phalaris arundinacea for innate tolerance to zinc. The degree of tolerance was compared to known zinc-tolerant E. angustifolium and Festuca rubra Merlin. It was found that A. plantago-aquatica and P. arundinacea did not posses innate tolerance to zinc, but that C. rostrata was able to tolerate elevated levels of zinc, at levels comparable to those tolerated by E. angustifolium and F. rubra Merlin. The findings support the theory that some wetland angiosperm species tend to be tolerant to exposure to high levels of metals, regardless of their origin. - Some wetland angiosperms are tolerant to high concentrations of metals, regardless of conditions in the plants' natural habitat

  17. Leaf anatomical changes in Populus trichocarpa, Quercus rubra, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Pinus ponderosa exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, L.M.; Bassman, J.H.; Edwards, G.E.; Robberecht, R.; Franceshi, V.R.

    1998-01-01

    Leaf anatomical characteristics are important in determining the degree of injury sustained when plants are exposed to natural and enhanced levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280–320 nm). The degree to which leaf anatomy can adapt to the increasing levels of UV-B radiation reaching the earth's surface is poorly understood in most tree species. We examined four tree species, representing a wide range of leaf anatomical characteristics, to determine responses of leaf area, specific leaf weight, and leaf tissue parameters after exposure to ambient and enhanced levels of UV-B radiation. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse with photosynthetically active radiation of 39 mol m −2 day −1 and under one of three daily irradiances of biologically effective UV-B radiation (UV-BBE) supplied for 10 h per day: (1) approximate ambient level received at Pullman, Washington on June 21 (1 x ); two times ambient (2 x ), or three times ambient (3 x ). We hypothesized the response of each species to UV-B radiation would be related to inherent anatomical differences. We found that the conifers responded anatomically to nearly an equal degree as the broad-leaved trees, but that different tissues were involved. Populus trichocarpa, an indeterminate broadleaf species, showed significantly thicker palisade parenchyma in recently mature leaves at the 3 x level and in older leaves under the 2 x level. In addition, individual leaf area was generally greater with increased UV-B irradiance. Quercus rubra, a semi-determinate broadleaf species, exhibited significantly thicker palisade parenchyma at the 2 x and 3 x levels as compared to controls. Psuedotsuga menziesii, an evergreen coniferous species with bifacially flattened needles, and Pinus ponderosa, an evergreen coniferous species with a complete hypodermis, showed no significant change in leaf area or specific leaf weight under enhanced UV-B radiation. Epidermal thickness was unchanged in P. menziesii. However, P. ponderosa

  18. Draft 1988 mission plan amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This draft 1988 amendment to the Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose is to inform the Congress of the DOE's plans for implementing the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (P.L. 100-203) for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. This document is being submitted in draft form to Federal agencies, states, previously affected Indian Tribes, affected units of local government, and the public. After the consideration of comments, this amendment will be revised as appropriate and submitted to the Congress. 39 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  19. 78 FR 36796 - Postal Product Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... notice that it has agreed to an amendment to the existing Express Mail Contract 13 (Amendment), which was... Amendment to Express Mail Contract 13, June 12, 2013 (Notice). The Postal Service asserts that the Amendment... adjustment factor. Id. In Order No. 1640, the Commission conditionally approved the contract's 3-year term on...

  20. Presence of understory shrubs constrains carbon gain in sunflecks by advance-regeneration seedlings: evidence from Quercus Rubra seedling grouwing in understory forest patches with or without evergreen shrubs present

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.T. Nilsen; T.T. Lei; S.W. Semones

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether dynamic photosynthesis of understory Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae) seedlings can acclimate to the altered pattern of sunflecks in forest patches with Rhododendron maximum L. (Ericaceae), an understory evergreen shrub. Maximum photosynthesis (A) and total CO2 accumulated during lightflecks was greatest for 400-s lightflecks, intermediate for 150-s...

  1. The effect of water extracts from leaves of Festuca rubra, F. ovina and F. Arundinacea on the initial growth and development of other grass species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Lipińska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effect of plants is one of the least known factors determining the stability of lawn swards. Leaves are a rich source of allelopathic substances. Washed out by rain or dew drops, or released during biomass decomposition, these substances can impact plants. In practice, cut sward is often left on the lawn surface and can have an allelopathic effect on regrowing plants. The effect of released allelochemicals depends on many factors, including their concentration. Hence, in order to maintain the high functional properties of the lawn, information is needed on the critical concentrations of allelochemicals inhibiting plant growth and development. Laboratory research was thus undertaken (on Petri dishes to evaluate the effect of various water extracts of leaves of selected lawn grass cultivars. The following cultivars were the donors: 'Areta', 'Nimba', 'Olivia' (Festuca rubra; 'Espro', 'Pintor' (F. ovina,and 'Asterix' (F. arundinacea, while the acceptors were: 'Niwa' (Agrostis capillaris, 'Asterix' (Festuca arundinacea, 'Espro' (F. ovina, 'Areta' (F. rubra, 'Stadion' (Lolium perenne, and 'Bila' (Poa pratensis – the species frequently sown in lawns. In the control treatments, distilled water was applied to the substrate. The experiment revealed that the effect of water extracts of leaves varied depending on their concentration and donor variety as well as the sensitivity of the acceptor (the test plant. In comparison with the control treatments, the strongest negative impact was caused by the cultivars 'Olivia' (F. rubraand 'Pintor' (F. ovina, followed by 'Asterix' (F. arundinacea. Among the acceptors, the greatest sensitivity to the presence of allelochemicals was shown by A. capillaris, and the smallest by F. arundinacea. .

  2. Evaluation of in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant characterizations of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae), Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae), and Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Afnan Sh; Ahmed, Qamaruddin; Saxena, Anil Kumar; Jamal, Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to regulate diabetes mellitus (DM). Antioxidants from plants are widely regarded in the prevention of diabetes. Fruits of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (Zingiberaceae) and Piper cubeba L. f. (Piperaceae) and flowers of Plumeria rubra L. (Apocynaceae) are traditionally used to cure DM in different countries. However, the role of these plants has been grossly under reported and is yet to receive proper scientific evaluation with respect to understand their traditional role in the management of diabetes especially as digestive enzymes inhibitors. Hence, methanol and aqueous extracts of the aforementioned plants were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition at 1 mg/mL and quantification of their antioxidant properties (DPPH, FRAP tests, total phenolic and total flavonoids contents). In vitro optimization studies for the extracts were also performed to enhance in vitro biological activities. The % inhibition of α-glucosidase by the aqueous extracts of the fruits of E. cardamomum, P. cubeba and flowers of P. rubra were 10.41 (0.03), 95.19 (0.01), and -2.92 (0.03), while the methanol extracts exhibited % inhibition 13.73 (0.02), 92.77 (0.01), and -0.98 (0.01), respectively. The % inhibition of α-amylase by the aqueous extracts were 82.99 (0.01), 64.35 (0.01), and 20.28 (0.02), while the methanol extracts displayed % inhibition 39.93 (0.01), 31.06 (0.02), and 39.40 (0.01), respectively. Aqueous extracts displayed good in vitro antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. Moreover, in vitro optimization experiments helped to increase the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of E. cardamomum. Our findings further justify the traditional claims of these plants as folk medicines to manage diabetes, however, through digestive enzymes inhibition effect.

  3. Efecto de la posición de los frutos en el Estrobilo y tamaño de los mismos, sobre el porcentaje de germinación en Alnus Acuminata H.B.K. (Betulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Peña María Cristina

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha observado en algunas especies que el tamaño de las semillas puede determinar el mayor o menor porcentaje de germinación de las mismas, especialmente si se trata de especies forestales.En este trabajo se evaluaron nueve tratamientos con el fin de verificar el efecto de la posición de los frutos (semillas en los estróbilos (basal, media y apical y el tamaño de los estróbilos de Alnus acuminaia (pequeño, mediano, grande sobre el porcentaje de germinación, en diferentes  intervalos de tiempo (0, 10 y 20 días de almacenamiento. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con los tratamientos mediano-basal (primera y tercera siembras y mediano-media (segunda siembra. Las semillas almacenadas por espacio de 10 y 20 días mostraron un incremento en el porcentaje de emergencia.

  4. Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Correa de Restrepo

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biological aspects of an isolated fungus of Alnus acuminata roots were studied. It bas been found Tbat between OOC and 4°C tbe fungi grows fast. This condition can result in a important factor in the ecophysiology of 'Aliso' populations, that grows in secondary forests at sub-paramo, After a review of the taxonomic literature, we placed it in the Phytium genus, but not in a particular described species. We assume that it is a new species. We modificated the microculture technique that was simpler and safer and them we made direct observations about tbe fungus growtb and development. As for now it is nominated as Phytiun near Mammillatum Meurs. Palabras Claves: Phytium, bongos, A/nus acuminata HBK., "Aliso".

  5. Clean Air Act amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozingo, C.; Hyre, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In November of 1990, in one of its last acts in the session, Congress passed the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The Clean Air Act (CAA) had remained virtually unchanged since the last CAA amendments in 1977. Based on the ineffectiveness and complete lack of coverage in some areas, the CAA has been modified and expanded. The 1990 amendments expand the act to cover additional problem areas and take different approaches to solving old problems. This paper highlights the major provisions of the 1990 amendments and discusses the possible impact on industry. Before going into the highlights of the amendments an explanation of the structure of the amendments and how they fit into the amended act is needed. The 1990 amendments consist of eleven titles, see Table One

  6. 76 FR 59890 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ..., 2011. John M. Allen, Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment Accordingly... Federal Airway V449 Is Amended to Read in Part MILTON, PA VORTAC MEGSS, PA FIX *3500 *GNSS MEA MEGSS, PA...

  7. 7 CFR 1212.87 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Miscellaneous § 1212.87 Amendments. Amendments to this...

  8. 18 CFR 740.12 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendments. 740.12 Section 740.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.12 Amendments. The Council may amend all or portions of these guidelines in...

  9. 36 CFR 901.7 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments. 901.7 Section 901.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION BYLAWS OF THE CORPORATION § 901.7 Amendments. These bylaws may be altered, amended, or repealed by the Board of Directors at...

  10. REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP) Amendment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jayne Bassett

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... HEAD OFFICE / SIÈGE : 150 Kent Street / 150, rue Kent PO Box / CP 8500 Ottawa ON Canada K1G 3H9. Phone / Tél. : +1 613 236 6163 Email / Courriel : info@idrc.ca / info@crdi.ca idrc.ca | crdi.ca. REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL (RFP). Amendment. RFP Title: Consultancy on Improving Development ...

  11. Automated Clustering of Similar Amendments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The Italian Senate is clogged by computer-generated amendments. This talk will describe a simple strategy to cluster them in an automated fashion, so that the appropriate Senate procedures can be used to get rid of them in one sweep.

  12. Amended Silicated for Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Butz; Thomas Broderick; Craig Turchi

    2006-12-31

    Amended Silicates{trademark}, a powdered, noncarbon mercury-control sorbent, was tested at Duke Energy's Miami Fort Station, Unit 6 during the first quarter of 2006. Unit 6 is a 175-MW boiler with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The plant burns run-of-the-river eastern bituminous coal with typical ash contents ranging from 8-15% and sulfur contents from 1.6-2.6% on an as-received basis. The performance of the Amended Silicates sorbent was compared with that for powdered activated carbon (PAC). The trial began with a period of baseline monitoring during which no sorbent was injected. Sampling during this and subsequent periods indicated mercury capture by the native fly ash was less than 10%. After the baseline period, Amended Silicates sorbent was injected at several different ratios, followed by a 30-day trial at a fixed injection ratio of 5-6 lb/MMACF. After this period, PAC was injected to provide a comparison. Approximately 40% mercury control was achieved for both the Amended Silicates sorbent and PAC at injection ratios of 5-6 lbs/MMACF. Higher injection ratios did not achieve significantly increased removal. Similar removal efficiencies have been reported for PAC injection trials at other plants with cold-side ESPs, most notably for plants using medium to high sulfur coal. Sorbent injection did not detrimentally impact plant operations and testing confirmed that the use of Amended Silicates sorbent does not degrade fly ash quality (unlike PAC). The cost for mercury control using either PAC or Amended Silicates sorbent was estimated to be equivalent if fly ash sales are not a consideration. However, if the plant did sell fly ash, the effective cost for mercury control could more than double if those sales were no longer possible, due to lost by-product sales and additional cost for waste disposal. Accordingly, the use of Amended Silicates sorbent could reduce the overall cost of mercury control by 50% or more versus PAC for locations where

  13. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987 in the Oraştie River basin (Central-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ioan VINTAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987, identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the mixed broadleaf-needleleaf forests of beech (Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, fir (Abies alba and spruce (Picea abies with Pulmonaria rubra belonging to the Orăştie river basin.The phytocoenoses of these forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  14. Occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis in the Red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra) and the Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodkowicz-Kowalska, Anna; Majewska, Anna C; Trzesowska, Ewa; Skrzypczak, Łukasz

    2012-01-01

    Encephalitozoon intestinalis is one of the most common microsporidial species found in humans worldwide but it has rarely been identified in animals. The presence of this pathogen has been detected in a few species of domestic, captive and wild mammals as well as in three species of birds. The aim of the present study was to examine fecal samples obtained from mammals housed in the Poznan Zoological Garden, Poland, for the presence of potentially human-infectious microsporidia. A total of 339 fresh fecal samples collected from 75 species of mammals belonging to 27 families and 8 orders were examined for the presence of microsporidian spores. Microsporidian spores were identified in 3 out of 339 (0.9%) examined fecal samples. All samples identified as positive by chromotrope 2R and calcofluor white M2R were also positive by the FISH assay. Using multiplex FISH in all 3 fecal samples, only spores of E. intestinalis were identified in 2 out of 14 Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and in one out of 17 Red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). To our knowledge this is the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis in Ring-tailed and Red ruffed lemurs. It should be mentioned that both lemur species are listed by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Although the lemurs were asymptomatically infected, the possibility of widespread infection or death of these animals remains in the event of an elevated stress or a decrease in their immunological functions.

  15. The Effects of Selected Sesquiterpenes from Myrica rubra Essential Oil on the Efficacy of Doxorubicin in Sensitive and Resistant Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ambrož

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available β-caryophyllene oxide (CAO, α-humulene (HUM, trans-nerolidol (NER and valencene (VAL are constituents of the essential oil of Myrica rubra (MEO, which has significant antiproliferative effect in various cancer cell lines. In the present study, we compared the antiproliferative effect of these sesquiterpenes alone and in combination with the cytostatic drug doxorubicin (DOX in cancer cell lines with different sensitivity to DOX. Two ovarian cancer cell lines (sensitive A2780 and partly resistant SKOV3 and two lymphoblast cancer cell lines (sensitive CCRF/CEM and completely resistant CEM/ADR were used. The observed effects varied among sesquiterpenes and also differed in individual cell lines, with only VAL being effective in all the cell lines. A strong synergism of DOX with NER was found in the A2780 cells, while DOX acted synergistically with HUM and CAO in the SKOV3 cells. In the CCRF/CEM cells, a synergism of DOX with CAO and NER was observed. In resistant CEM/ADR cells, sesquiterpenes did not increase DOX efficacy, although they significantly increased accumulation of DOX (up to 10-times and rhodamine-123 (substrate of efflux transporter ABCB1 within cancer cells. In conclusion, the tested sesquiterpenes were able to improve DOX efficacy in the sensitive and partly resistant cancer cells, but not in cells completely resistant to DOX.

  16. The Influence of Sesquiterpenes from Myrica rubra on the Antiproliferative and Pro-Oxidative Effects of Doxorubicin and Its Accumulation in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ambrož

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, β-caryophyllene oxide (CAO, α-humulene (HUM, trans-nerolidol (NER, and valencene (VAL are substantial components of the essential oil from Myrica rubra leaves which has exhibited significant antiproliferative effects in several intestinal cancer cell lines, with CaCo-2 cells being the most sensitive. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of these sesquiterpenes on the efficacy and toxicity of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX in CaCo-2 cancer cells and in primary culture of rat hepatocytes. Our results showed that HUM, NER, VAL and CAO inhibited proliferation of CaCo-2 cancer cells but they did not affect the viability of hepatocytes. CAO, NER and VAL synergistically potentiated the efficacy of DOX in cancer cells killing. All sesquiterpenes exhibited the ability to selectively increase DOX accumulation in cancer cells and did not affect DOX concentration in hepatocytes. Additionally, CAO and VAL were able to increase the pro-oxidative effect of DOX in CaCo-2 cells. Moreover, CAO mildly ameliorated DOX toxicity in hepatocytes. Based on all results, CAO seems to be the most promising compound for further testing.

  17. C-Glycosyl Flavonoids from Beta vulgaris Cicla and Betalains from Beta vulgaris rubra: Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antiinflammatory Activities-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, Paolino; Antonini, Elena; Frati, Alessandra; Scarpa, Emanuele-Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    The green beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and red beetroot (B. vulgaris var. rubra L.) contain phytochemicals that have beneficial effects on human health. Specifically, the green beet contains apigenin, vitexin, vitexin-2-O-xyloside and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside, while the red beetroot is a source of betaxanthins and betacyanins. These phytochemicals show considerable antioxidant activity, as well as antiinflammatory and antiproliferative activities. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside, in combination with betaxanthins and betacyanins, exerts antiproliferative activity in breast, liver, colon and bladder cancer cell lines, through the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. A significant body of evidence also points to the role of these phytochemicals in the downregulation of the pro-survival genes, baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 and catenin beta-1, as well as the genes controlling angiogenesis, hypoxia inducible factor 1A and vascular endothelial growth factor A. The multi-target action of these phytochemicals enhances their anticancer activity. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside, betaxanthins and betacyanins can be used in combination with conventional anticancer drugs to reduce their toxicity and overcome the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms that enable these dietary phytochemicals to block the proliferation of tumor cells and inhibit their pro-survival pathways. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Content of polyphenolic compounds in the Nigerian stimulants Cola nitida ssp. alba, Cola nitida ssp. rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl and their antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday Ene-Ojo; Pfundstein, Beate; Haubner, Roswitha; Spiegelhalder, Bertold; Bartsch, Helmut; Owen, Robert Wyn

    2007-11-28

    Varieties of kola nuts (Cola nitida alba, Cola nitida rubra A. Chev, and Cola acuminata Schott & Endl), a group of popular Nigerian and West African stimulants, were analyzed for their content of secondary plant metabolites. The three varieties of the kola nuts contained appreciable levels of (+)-catechin (27-37 g/kg), caffeine (18-24 g/kg), (-)-epicatechin (20-21 g/kg), procyanidin B 1 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-catechin] (15-19 g/kg), and procyanidin B2 [epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin] (7-10 g/kg). Antioxidant capacity of the extracts and purified metabolites was assessed by two HPLC-based and two colorimetric in vitro assays. Extracts of all varieties exhibited antioxidant capacity with IC 50 values in the range 1.70-2.83 and 2.74-4.08 mg/mL in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine HPLC-based assays, respectively. Utilization of HPLC-based assays designed to reflect in situ generation of free radicals (e.g., HO(*)), as opposed to general assays (DPPH, FRAP) in common use which do not, indicate that, of the major secondary plant metabolites present in kola nut extracts, caffeine is potentially the more effective cancer chemopreventive metabolite in terms of its antioxidant capacity.

  19. 1990 Amendments: The federal partner steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In October of 1990, Congress enacted a new set of amendments to the Clean Air Act. These amendments are longer and more complex than any previous environmental legislation. In enacting the 1990 Amendments, Congress did not evaluate the results of earlier efforts at air quality regulation. Rather, Congress accepted what it had created in 1970 and reinforced in 1977, and proceeded to build on that foundation. As a result, the 1990 Amendments create substantial new regulatory responsibilities, while leaving in place most of the pre-existing system of air quality control. The chapter highlights the key provisions of the 1990 Amendments, and discusses their relationship to the 1970 and 1977 Amendments to the Act. Included are changes in the requirements for the control of carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen oxides, particulates, mobile sources, air toxics and acid rain

  20. 78 FR 57472 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... September 17, 2013. John Duncan, Acting Director, Flight Standards Service. Adoption of the Amendment... VORTAC MILTON, PA VORTAC 3200 17500 MILTON, PA VORTAC MEGSS, PA FIX 3500 17500 MEGSS, PA FIX LAAYK, PA...--15000 Sec. 95.6449 VOR Federal Airway V449 Is Amended To Delete MILTON, PA VORTAC MEGSS, PA FIX 35 00...

  1. 77 FR 38477 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... MEA Sec. 95.6001 Victor Routes--U.S. Sec. 95.6016 VOR Federal Airway V16 is Amended to Delete TUCSON... NW 16500 Sec. 95.6366 VOR Federal Airway V366 is Amended to Read in Part HUGO, CO VOR/DME FALCON, CO...

  2. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such constitutional provisions serve to confine the power to amend the constitution within the prescribed legal requirements as well as help to control arbitrary changes to the constitution, which consequently promotes constitutionalism within the country. The FDRE Constitution has been amended twice within these twenty ...

  3. 77 FR 43867 - Negotiated Service Agreement Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    .... This information includes the price structure, underlying costs and assumptions, pricing formulas... & Priority Mail Contract 7; Attachment B--a certified statement required by 39 CFR 3015.5(c)(2); and... contract amendment and related financial information under seal. The amendment extends the contract's...

  4. 32 CFR 150.28 - Amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amendments. 150.28 Section 150.28 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.28 Amendments. Proposed...

  5. Evaluation of the grass mixture (Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp.) as Sb phyto-stabilizer in tailings and Sb-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Ruiz-Villalobos, Carlos E.; Labastida, Israel; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    Green house experiments were carried out to evaluate the growth and Sb assimilation of a grass assemblage: Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp, in tailings and Sb-rich soils. Tailings and soil samples were obtained at the Mexican historical mining zone of Zimapán, Central México. More than 6 tailings impoundments are located at the town outskirts and constitute a contamination source from windblown and waterborne deposit on soils, besides acid mine drainage. Four substrates were used in the experiments: 100% tailings, 20% tailings + 80% soil, 50% tailings + 50% soil , and a soil sample far from tailings as a background. Concentrations of Sb ranged from 310 mg/kg to 413 mg/kg in tailings. A pH of 7.43, 1.27% organic matter, and high concentrations of N, K and P indicated adequate conditions for plant growth. The grass assemblage was raised during 21 days as indicated by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 208 Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test. The highest Sb concentrations were measured in plants grown on tailings with 139 mg/kg in the aerial part and 883 mg/kg in roots. Concentrations of Sb decreased as the proportion of tailings diminished with 22.1 mg/kg in the aerial part and 10 mg/kg in roots corresponding to the plants grown in the 20 % tailings + 80% soil . Bioaccumulation (BAC) and bioconcentration factors (BF) of plants grown on tailings (BAC= 0.42, BCF=3.93) indicated their suitability as a phyto-stabilization option. The grass mixture may be thus applied to control windblown particulate tailings taking advantage to their tolerance to high Sb levels.

  6. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardiner, T.J.; Harrell, H.L.; Scherr, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The most significant change to federal air quality legislation since 1977 occurred on November 15, 1990, when the 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments were signed into law. The enactment of the 1990 CAA Amendments will have a substantial effect not only on the quality of air in the United States, but also on the way industry conducts business. The nearly 800 pages which comprise the 1990 CAA Amendments address issues ranging from control of air toxics and acid deposition, to requirements for the restructuring of existing permit programs. While the schedule for phasing in the provisions of the amendments covers more than 10 years, some of the greatest changes will occur in as little as three years. This paper reviews several of the principal provisions of the 1990 CAA Amendments and their potential impact on the gas processing industry

  7. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964) Täuber 1987 in the Oraştie River basin (Central-Western Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriu Ioan VINTAN; Petru BURESCU

    2013-01-01

    In the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964) Täuber 1987, identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the mixed broadleaf-needleleaf forests of beech (Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica), f...

  8. Biochar as a soil amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medyńska-Juraszek Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a carbonaceous product of biomass pyrolysis under limited oxygen conditions. Due to the very good sorption properties material is used as a soil amendment. In recent years, much attention has been paid to biochar as a potential tool improving soil properties and fertility. The most important benefits of its use in agriculture is a significant increase of sorption capacity, reduced nutrient leaching, as well as slow release of macro- and microelements essential for plant growth, liming effect, increased water holding capacity, improved biological properties, resulting in an increase in crop yields. The aim of the study is to summarize the knowledge about the impact of biochar on soil environment, as well as identify areas and directions for future research on biochar application in soils impacted by human activities

  9. Herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) from Curcuma longa, Alnus japonica, and Massa Medicata Fermentata inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and regulates obesity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong Sung; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Park, Sun Dong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2015-08-02

    Adipocyte lipid accumulation due to impaired fatty acid oxidation causes adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue increment, leading to obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity effects of the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)) composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata. The effects of GGH(4) and the individual components on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and body weight gain in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were examined using Oil red O staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative real-time PCR, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. GGH(4), individual components, and an active principle of Curcuma longa curcumin inhibited lipid accumulation and mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes (PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with control cells. Treatment with GGH(4), the individual components or curcmumin increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial (CPT-1, MCAD, and VLCAD) and peroxisomal (ACOX and thiolase) PPARα target genes. GGH(4) and the individual components also increased PPARα reporter gene expression compared with control cells. These effects were most prominent in GGH(4)-treated cells. However, the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on adipogenesis. An in vivo study showed that GGH(4) decreased body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and visceral adipocyte size with increasing mRNA levels of adipose tissue PPARα target genes in OLETF rats. These results demonstrate that GGH(4) has an antiobesity effects through the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation, and this process may be mediated in part through adipose PPARα activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 12948 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... INFORMATION: In order to update certain elements in 48 CFR parts 19, 42, and 52, this document makes editorial.... PART 42--CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES 42.203 [Amended] 0 3. Amend section 42.203 by... 52--SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 52.209-9 [Amended] 0 4. Amend 52.209-9 by removing...

  11. 77 FR 44065 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... update certain elements in 48 CFR parts 1, 16, 22, and 52, this document makes editorial changes to the...--TYPES OF CONTRACTS 16.301-3 [Amended] 0 3. Amend section 16.301-3 by removing from paragraph (a)(4...--APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS 22.1801 [Amended] 0 4. Amend section 22.1801 by-- 0 a...

  12. 10 CFR 60.45 - Amendment of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of license. 60.45 Section 60.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses License Issuance and Amendment § 60.45 Amendment of license. (a) An application for amendment of a license...

  13. Proposed Amendments to the Nuclear Liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Memorandum issued by the Swedish Ministry of Justice contains proposed amendments to the 1968 Nuclear Liability Act which can be divided into two categories. Those in the first category are required to enable Sweden to ratify the draft Protocols to amend the Paris Convention and the Brussels Supplementary Convention. The second category of amendments propose that the nuclear operator's liability be raised from the present sum of 50 million Kroner to 500 million Kroner, to be covered by insurance; it is also proposed that a State liability be introduced over and above the compensation available, the aggregate amount being limited to 300 million Kroner. State indemnification would apply to the Nordic countries. The Annexes to the Memorandum contain the English and French texts of the draft Protocols to amend both above-mentioned Conventions (NEA) [fr

  14. Compost-amended biofiltration swale evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    From May 2009 through June 2010, Herrera Environmental Consultants conducted hydrologic : and water quality monitoring of a compost-amended biofiltration swale and a standard (control) : biofiltration swale in the median of State Route 518 for the Wa...

  15. 78 FR 68699 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... routes for which a minimum or maximum en route authorized IFR altitude is prescribed. This regulatory... Federal Airway V70 is Amended to Read in Part U.S./MEXICO BORDER BROWNSVILLE, TX VORTAC.. *5000 *1600...

  16. Nitrous Oxide flux measurements under various amendments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset consists of measurements of soil nitrous oxide emissions from soils under three different amendments: glucose, cellulose, and manure. Data includes the...

  17. Pb speciation results in amended soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset shows the distribution of Pb phases resulting from various amendments to change Pb speciation. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  18. Immobilization of pentachlorophenol in soil using carbonaceous material amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Li Ruijuan; Zhang Shuzhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Fang Jing; Xiao Ke [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Khan, Shahamat U. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, MSN 3E2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    In this study, three pentachlorophenol (PCP) laboratory-spiked and one field-contaminated soil were amended with 2.0% char, humic acid (HA) and peat, respectively. The amended soils were aged for either 7 or 250 days. After amendment, CaCl{sub 2} extractability of PCP was significantly decreased. Desorption kinetics indicated that the proposed amendment could lead to a strong binding and slow desorption of PCP in soils. Amendment with char reduced the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of PCP most significantly for earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in all soils studied. The results of both physicochemical and biological tests suggested that amendment reduced PCP bioavailability quickly and enduringly, implying that carbonaceous material amendment, especially char amendment, was a potentially attractive in situ remediation method for sequestration of PCP in contaminated soil. - Carbonaceous material amendment was a potential in situ remediation method for pentachlorophenol contaminated soil.

  19. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE CAL A PLANTACIONES DE JAÚL (Alnus acuminata EN ANDISOLES DE LA CUENCA ALTA DEL RÍO VIRILLA, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Salazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el impacto de adicionar cal a plantaciones de jaúl (Alnus acuminata (H.B.K. O. Kuntze en Andisoles de la cuenca alta del río Virilla, Costa Rica, se realizó el presente trabajo en 2 localidades: 1 Finca Hospicio: Ubicada en la localidad de Vista de Mar, cantón de Goicoechea, a una altitud de 1542 msmn; el suelo se clasificó como Typic Udivitrands y la plantación se estableció en el 2002. 2 Finca Dorval: Ubicada en la localidad de Las Nubes, cantón de Vásquez de Coronado, a una altitud de 1925 msnm; el suelo se clasificó como Thaptic Udivitrands y la plantación se estableció en 1997. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron 0 (testigo, 750, 1500 y 2250 kg.ha-1 de carbonato de calcio y magnesio (Dolomita, 1500 kg.ha-1 de carbonato de calcio (Calcita y 1500 kg.ha-1 de sulfato de calcio (Yeso. Se midieron el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP a 1,3 m, la altura total de los árboles (m y se estimó el volumen (V mediante la formula: V(m3=2,71828¿10,0557+ln(d*2,0369+0,9277 18*ln(h propuesta por Segura et al. (2005, en la cual d es el DAP en cm y h es la altura total en m. Al comparar las mediciones del diámetro a la altura del pecho, incremento medio anual en diámetro (IMA-DAP, altura total, incremento medio anual en altura (IMA-ALT, volumen total e incremento en volumen total, por dosis y fuentes de cal aplicada, se observó que ningún tratamiento causó diferencias estadísticas, en estas variables en ninguna de las 2 fincas comparadas ni entre épocas de medición. La adición de fuentes y niveles de cal no afectó significativamente las variables diámetro, altura y volumen. La falta de respuesta a las diferentes enmiendas comparadas demuestra que el suelo proporcionó suficiente Ca, Mg y S para asegurar el crecimiento óptimo del jaúl. Tampoco se encontró que los suelos mostraran problemas de acidez de magnitud tal que afectaran negativamente el crecimiento del jaúl.

  20. Recobrimentos e períodos de armazenamento na conservação pós-colheita de estacas de cordiline (Cordyline rubra Hügel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mamoru Sakamoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil possui grande potencial exportador de flores e plantas ornamentais, e o emprego de técnicas simples de armazenamento poderia viabilizar o transporte por modais que não o aéreo, reduzindo custos, podendo prolongar a vida útil dos produtos. Este trabalho compara cinco tipos de recobrimento em estacas de Cordyline rubra Hügel (película amilácea, pasta de parafina no ápice, pasta de parafina no ápice e vermiculita umedecida na base, saco plástico ou sem recobrimento e diferentes períodos de armazenamento (30, 60, 90 ou 120 dias, a fim de reduzir sua atividade biológica, perda de água e ataque de patógenos. Foi escolhida esta espécie por ser muito apreciada como planta ornamental pela beleza de suas folhas e exportada na forma de estacas de diferentes tamanhos. O experimento foi conduzido nas dependências do Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo, no município de Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. Foram utilizadas 300 estacas com 30 cm de comprimento por 3 cm de diâmetro. Cada tratamento foi composto por 15 estacas pré-tratadas (tipos de recobrimento, submetidas a períodos de armazenamento (30, 60, 90 ou 120 dias sob refrigeração e temperatura ambiente, totalizando 60 estacas. Após o armazenamento, foram cortados 3 cm da base de cada estaca, em seguida, tratadas com ácido indolbutírico a 10.000 mg/L e colocadas em leito de enraizamento de areia grossa. Após 90 dias, foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: porcentagem de desenvolvimento, número e massa fresca e seca de brotos e raízes. Observou-se que os menores períodos de armazenamento proporcionam melhor desenvolvimento das estacas. Os tipos de recobrimento que melhor conservaram as estacas, em ordem decrescente de resultados, foram o saco plástico, parafina no ápice e vermiculita umedecida na base, parafina no ápice, película de amido e sem recobrimento. Conclui-se que o m

  1. Bentonite-amended soils special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the results of a two-phased special study to evaluate the viability of soil amended with a high percentage of bentonite as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. Phase I of the study was initiated in order to examine the feasibility of using bentonite-amended soils as a cover component on sideslopes and topslopes. The Phase I objectives were to test a variety of materials to determine if low hydraulic conductivities were achievable in materials exhibiting sufficient strength and to select suitable materials for further testing. Phase II objectives were to (1) optimize designs -- test materials with various percentages of bentonite added; (2) provide design recommendations; (3) address constructibility concerns; and (4) evaluate long-term performance with respect to desiccation effects on the amended materials

  2. Atomic Energy Amendment Act 1978, No. 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This Act amends certain Sections of the Atomic Energy Act 1953. The principal modifications concern the definitions of atomic energy, prescribed substances, the provision and supply of uranium in relation to the functions of the Atomic Energy Commission, compliance with the agreement with the IAEA on the application of safeguards under the Non-Proliferation Treaty as well as with any agreement with any other international organization or another country. The Act also amends the 1953 Act in respect of the control of prescribed substances and repeals the section concerning jurisdiction of courts. (NEA) [fr

  3. AFSC/REFM: Amendment 80 Economic Data Report Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Annual series of economic data collected for years 2008 and forward for the Amendment 80 Economic Data Report (EDR). Reporting is required of holders of Amendment 80...

  4. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    Amendment No. 7 to Allied-General Nuclear Services application for licensing of the Fuel Receiving and Storage Station consists of revised pages for: Amendment No. 7 to AG-L 105, ''Technical Description in Support of Application for FRSS Operation''; Amendment No. 1 to AG-L 105A, ''Early Operation of the Service Concentrator''; and Amendment No. 2 to AG-L 110, ''FRSS Summary Preoperational Report.''

  5. 78 FR 26243 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Easton, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...-0394; Airspace Docket No. 12-AEA-8] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Easton, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at Easton, PA, as the... (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Easton, PA (78 FR 5152) Docket No. FAA-2012-0394. Interested parties...

  6. 78 FR 48297 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-0359; Airspace Docket No. 13-AEA-7] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at Bedford, PA, as...) to amend Class E airspace at Bedford County Airport, Bedford, PA. (78 FR 32213). Interested parties...

  7. 76 FR 2799 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ...; Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-4] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Jet Route J-93 in California between...) to amend J-93, (75 FR 66344). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking...

  8. Changes in microbial and soil organic matter following amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The amendment of the soil with untreated OMW improved the soil carbon content (2.18 times higher) while the specific respiration remained very low. However, the amendment with treated OMW positively affects the soil specific respiration that increases from 6.1 in control soil to. 9.75 in soil amended with treated OMW.

  9. 77 FR 66067 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-1432; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-25] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Boone, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Boone, IA, area, creating additional...

  10. 77 FR 66069 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-1435; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-28] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Perry, IA... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Perry, IA, area, creating additional...

  11. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, amendment 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Amendment No. 10 provides the applicant's responses to questions raised by the AEC in letters dated November 6 and December 5, 1974. Amendment No. 3, dated February 1975, to the BNFP Separations Facility Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) is included. The amendment consists of revision pages for volumes 1 through 5 of the FSAR along with a deletion and insertion guide. (U.S.)

  12. 10 CFR 61.26 - Amendment of license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of license. 61.26 Section 61.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Licenses § 61.26 Amendment of license. (a) An application for amendment of a license must be filed in accordance...

  13. 75 FR 17852 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Altus, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Altus, OK AGENCY: Federal... rule published in the Federal Register December 29, 2009, amending Class E airspace in the Altus, OK... published in the Federal Register a final rule amending Class E airspace in the Altus, OK area (74 FR 68666...

  14. 19 CFR 145.24 - Amendment of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendment of entry. 145.24 Section 145.24 Customs... (CONTINUED) MAIL IMPORTATIONS Administrative Review of Mail Entries § 145.24 Amendment of entry. If the port director is satisfied that the objection is valid and timely, he shall amend the mail entry. If the duty...

  15. Amending America: Proposed Amendments to the United States Constitution, 1787 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This dataset provides information about more than 11,000 proposed Constitutional amendments introduced in the United States Congress from 1787 to 2014. This dataset...

  16. The Nineteenth Amendment: Reform or Revolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith; Brooks, Della Barr

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that, although many suffrage supporters anticipated a new political age after passage of the 19th Amendment, women have begun to realize their electoral potential only in recent years. Describes the role of women in politics and political opinion from the 1920s to the present. (CFR)

  17. Alternatives to crop residues for soil amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, J.M.; Unger, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    Metadata only record In semiarid agroecosystems, crop residues can provide important benefits of soil and water conservation, nutrient cycling, and improved subsequent crop yields. However, there are frequently multiple competing uses for residues, including animal forage, fuel, and construction material. This chapter discusses the various uses of crop residues and examines alternative soil amendments when crop residues cannot be left on the soil.

  18. 76 FR 46202 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... aircraft in flight over a specified route or any portion of that route, as well as the changeover points... Myers R-083. Sec. 95.6401 Hawaii VOR Federal Airway V1 Is Amended To Read in Part Kona, HI VORTAC * Reefs, HI FIX......... 5000 * 4100-MCA Reefs, HI FIX, SE BND Reefs, HI FIX MOANA, HI FIX * 2000 * 1300...

  19. 76 FR 72094 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... all aircraft in flight over a specified route or any portion of that route, as well as the changeover... Airway V23 is Amended to Read in Part Jessi, HI FIX *Fires, HI FIX 8000 *13000-MRA From To MEA MAA &95...

  20. 77 FR 65256 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... FIX DAIFE, IN FIX 18000 45000 DAIFE, IN FIX NOLNN, OH FIX 18000 45000 From To MEA Sec. 95.6001 VICTOR... FEDERAL AIRWAY V263 Is Amended To Read in Part HUGO, CO VOR/DME *LIMEX, CO FIX **10000 *10000--MRA **8500...

  1. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Program Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule amends the RFS2 regulations of 40 CFR Part 80 Subpart M to correct regulatory language that was inconsistent or that inadvertently misrepresented EPA’s intent as reflected in the preamble to the final RFS2 regulations.

  2. Organic amendment optimization for treatment of hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar cane cachasse was tested as an organic soil amendment at 0, 2, 4 and 9% (dry weight), for the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil (with an average initial concentration of 14,356 mg/Kg), which had been pre-treated by the incorporation of 4% (dry weight) calcium hydroxide according to the ...

  3. 29 CFR 102.17 - Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such complaint may be amended upon such terms as may be deemed just, prior to the hearing, by the... hearing; and after the case has been transferred to the Board pursuant to § 102.45, at any time prior to... to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Procedure Under Section 10 (a...

  4. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The amendment to the Regulations was published on 24 October 1991 (SOR/91-590,Canada Gazette Part II, Vol.125, No 23). It modifies the list of institutions exempted from paying cost recovery fees (licence fees) to the Atomic Energy Control Board. The exemptions now include educational and health care institutions as well as Departments. (NEA)

  5. 75 FR 82228 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Center, 6500 South MacArthur Blvd., Oklahoma City, OK 73169 (Mail Address: P.O. Box 25082 Oklahoma City... **1600--MOCA *Crowd, FL FIX Lakeland, FL VORTAC..... 2300 *5000--MRA *Orate, FL FIX Cross City, FL VORTAC... Sec. 95.6175 VOR Federal Airway V175 Is Amended To Read in Part Worthington, MN VOR/DME Redwood Falls...

  6. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  7. 77 FR 14269 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Read in Part NOME, AK VOR/DME HLBLY, AK FIX 18000 45000 GNSS REQUIRED HLBLY, AK FIX ANCHORAGE, AK VOR/DME 18000 45000 GNSS REQUIRED Sec. 95.4051 RNAV Route Q51 Is Amended to Read in Part KING SALMON, AK VORTAC SLIIM, AK FIX 18000 45000 GNSS REQUIRED SLIIM, AK FIX HLBLY, AK FIX 18000 45000 GNSS REQUIRED...

  8. 75 FR 67210 - IFR Altitudes; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... VORTAC. *4000--GNSS MEA WAUSAU R-005 UNUSABLE BYD 10 NM. GNSS REQUIRED BEYOND 10 NM. RHINELANDE R R-185 UNUSABLE BYD 10 NM. GNSS REQUIRED BEYOND 10 NM. Sec. 95.6133 VOR Federal Airway V133 is Amended To Read in... FIX PINEE, WV FIX *13000 *7000--MOCA *7000--GNSS MEA PINEE, WV FIX CHARLESTON, WV VORTAC... *7000...

  9. Effects of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengyu; Yan, Yang; Li, Na; Luo, Peiyu; Yang, Jinfeng

    2017-06-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the effect of different tillage systems and amendments on root properties. There were five treatments: maize continuous cropping, maize and peanuts rotation, peanuts continuous cropping, peanuts continuous cropping with low level of amendment and peanuts continuous cropping with high level of amendment. The results showed that maize continuous cropping increased total root length by 118.95%, projected area by 204.86%, projected area by 150.70%, total root volume by 20.66%, and average root diameter by184.53%. The amendments also improved root properties and the high level of amendment had much more better effect.

  10. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    2006-01-01

    Technically the Vienna Convention was revised by the adoption of the protocol to amend the instrument. and according to Article 19 of the protocol 'A State which is Party to this Protocol but not to the 1963 Vienna Convention shall be bound by the provisions of that Convention as amended by this Protocol in relation to other States Parties hereto, and failing an expression of a different intention by that State at the time of deposit of an instrument referred to in Article 20 shall be bound by the provisions of the 1963 Vienna Convention in relation to States which are only Parties thereto'. This solution has created a special situation, because after the entry into force of the protocol there will be living together or operating in practice 'two' Vienna Conventions, notably the convention's original text of 1963 and its new version as amended by the protocol. After the protocol has come into force, a state may only accede to the amended version, but in the inter se relations of the States Party to the 'old' Vienna Convention the provisions of that convention will remain in force until such time as they have acceded to the new protocol. This rather complicated situation is nevertheless understandable and is fully in accord with Article 40 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, which provides for the amendment of multilateral treaties. In 1989 the negotiations on the revision of the Vienna Convention had begun with the aim of strengthening the existing nuclear liability regime and of improving the situation of potential victims of nuclear accidents. The Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention serves those purposes; it also reflects a good compromise, since it is the outcome of a negotiation process in which experts from both nuclear and non-nuclear states, from Contacting Parties and non-Contracting Parties were very active. That affords some assurance that the compromise solution reached is acceptable to all States participating in the adoption of

  11. Le Premier Amendement : un mythe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude‑Jean Bertrand

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier, plein de verve, d’humeur et d’humour, pose, comme sait si bien le faire l’auteur, des questions profondes sous une apparence paradoxale. Il a été présenté lors d’un colloque sur le Premier amendement organisé à l’Université Lumière-Lyon 2 les 17 et 18 janvier 2003. Certaines communications ont été publiées dans le volume XXIV, n°1 (2003, « Le premier amendement : un modèle américain des libertés » (sous la direction de Vincent Michelot de la Revue Tocqueville.

  12. The amendment of the Labour Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Mervartová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amendment of the Labour Code, No. 365/2011 Coll., effective as from 1st January 2012, brings some of fundamental changes in labour law. The amendment regulates relation between the Labour Code and the Civil Code; and is also formulates principles of labour law relations newly. The basic period by fixed-term contract of employment is extended and also frequency its conclusion is limited. The length of trial period and the amount of redundancy payment are graduated. An earlier legislative regulation which an employee is temporarily assign to work for different employer has been returned. The number of hours by agreement to perform work is increased. The monetary compensation by competitive clause is reduced. The other changes are realised in part of collective labour law. The authoress of article notifies of the most important changes. She compares new changes of the Labour Code and former legal system and she also evaluates their advantages and disadvantages. The main objective of changes ensures labour law relations to be more flexible. And it should motivate creation of new jobs opening by employers. Amended provisions are aimed to reduction expenses of employers under the reform of the public finances. Also changes are expected in the Labour Code in connection with the further new Civil Code.

  13. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  14. Physico-chemical changes in dissolved organic matters in the rhizosphere of plants grown in soil amended with organic wastes: an in-situ investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djae, Tanalou; Bravin, Matthieu; Garnier, Cédric; Mayen, Jean-Fabien; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    In agricultural context, prerequisite condition to forecast trace metal phytodisponibility is to evaluate trace metal speciation in the rhizosphere solution, especially in soil amended with organic wastes. The most advanced trace metal speciation models (e.g. WHAM, NICA-DONNAN) take into account dissolved organic matter (DOM) reactivity toward trace metals. Generally, the scientific community uses, a fixed percentage of DOM reactivity, usually of 40 % to 80 %, to predict trace metal speciation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the binding capacity of DOM towards trace metals is much larger than expected. The aim of our study was to investigate the mechanisms supporting the variability in DOM reactivity by assessing the physico-chemical changes of DOM in the bulk-soil and rhizosphere in context of agricultural recycling of organic wastes. An in-situ experiment was conducted in Reunion Island (Indian Ocean). Two plant species, i.e. a graminaceous species the fescue (Festuca rubra) and a dicotyledonous species the tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), were grown on a soil where we applied two types of organic wastes (pig manure compost and poultry manure compost) at three rates and a mineral fertilizer. Following this experiment, the soil either adhering to the roots (i.e. rhizosphere) or not (i.e. bulk-soil) was sampled and the soil solution was recovered by chemical extraction. DOM concentration, total acidity and DOM fluorescence were measured. Root activities and organic wastes induced variations in the physico-chemical parameters of DOM. DOM concentration tended to increase in bulk-soil with increasing organic waste application rate. DOM concentrations measured in rhizosphere are significantly greater than those in the bulk-soil especially when organic wastes were applied to soil. Preliminary results allow us to observe a decrease in the density of carboxylic-like (pKa

  15. 75 FR 33167 - Technical Amendment Language Change From “Wholly” to “Fully”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... WORLD WAR II VETERANS Subpart J--[Amended] 0 14. The authority citation for subpart J of part 408....953 [Amended] 0 5. In Sec. 404.953, amend the paragraph heading, and the first, second, and fifth... ``fully favorable''. Sec. 404.966 [Amended] 0 6. In Sec. 404.966, amend the second sentence of paragraph...

  16. 76 FR 48908 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... amendment: The amendments approved the cyber security plan and associated implementation schedule, and..., 2011. Brief description of amendment: The amendment approved the cyber security plan and associated... amendment approved the Arkansas Nuclear One, Units 1 and 2 cyber security plan and associated implementation...

  17. Amendment of the calculation principles for incorporation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosske, D.; Dalheimer, A.; Dettmann, K.; Hartmann, M.; Karcher, K.; Koenig, K.; Scheler, R.

    2002-01-01

    The present status (January 2002) of the amendment of the calculation principles for incorporation monitoring is presented. This amendment follows very closely the former calculation principles. Only the text is adapted to the new Radiation Protection Ordinance, and to the amendments of the additional guidelines for incorporation monitoring. Moreover, the extensive annex of tables is revised, in the course of which the values were re-calculated by using the recent ICRP models which serve as a basis for the EU Directive. (orig.)

  18. NUSAR: N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report, Amendment 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G L

    1989-12-01

    The enclosed pages are Amendment 21 of the N Reactor Updated Safety Analysis Report (NUSAR). NUSAR, formerly UNI-M-90, was revised by 18 amendments that were issued by UNC Nuclear Industries, the contractor previously responsible for N Reactor operations. As of June 1987, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) acquired the operations and engineering contract for N Reactor and other facilities at Hanford. The document number for NUSAR then became WHC-SP-0297. The first revision was issued by WHC as Amendment 19, prepared originally by UNC. Summaries of each of the amendments are included in NUSAR Section 1.1.

  19. State Amends for Lawful Harm Doing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen Murphy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the justifications for offering amends to victims of lawfully caused harm and the nature of amends in such contexts. In particular, we examine instances in which a state actor commits a grave, but lawful, harm to another, exploring why and how the state ought to respond to victims of lawful harm. This aspect of harm doing is often overlooked, but directly addressing the lawful harm that states cause is a vital part of an appropriate state response to having caused grave, though lawful, harm. First, we explore some general reasons why making amends is a morally appropriate response to lawful harm doing. Second, having justified why states ought to respond to the lawful harm they create, we move to outline a set of appropriate responses. These responses are grounded in the empirical literature on amends and apology and satisfy a number of the moral reasons it may be appropriate for states to offer amends. We offer some specific suggestions for managing amends in the military and police settings, though the basic elements of our proposal might also help inform response to the wider spectrum of lawful harms imposed by the state.Este ensayo analiza las justificaciones para ofrecer una compensación a víctimas de daños legales y la naturaleza de las compensaciones en estos contextos. En particular, se exploran las instancias en las que un actor estatal comete un perjuicio grave, pero legal, analizando por qué y cómo debería responder el Estado a las víctimas de perjuicio legal. A menudo se obvia este aspecto de los perjuicios causados, pero abordar directamente el perjuicio legal provocado por el Estado es fundamental para que los Estados den una respuesta adecuada a los daños graves, aunque legales, causados. En primer lugar, se analizan razones generales por las que compensar es una respuesta moralmente apropiada a los daños legales causados. En segundo lugar, tras justificar que el Estado debería responder del perjuicio

  20. 78 FR 18590 - Organic Arsenicals; Amendments to Terminate Uses; Amendment to Existing Stocks Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... to Terminate Uses; Amendment to Existing Stocks Provisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... 2009 document were improperly finalized, and the existing stocks provisions for all remaining products... this document. In addition, this document clarifies that existing stocks of products already in the...

  1. Maintaining cultures of wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; H.A. Fay

    1985-01-01

    Phellinus weirii cultures were stored successfully for 10 years in small alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) disks at 2 °C. The six isolates tested appeared morphologically identical and after 10 years varied little in growth rate from those stored on malt agar slants. Long-term storage on alder disks reduces the time required for...

  2. Normal yield tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington; Floyd A. Johnson; George R. Staebler; William J. Lloyd

    1960-01-01

    Increasing interest in the management of red alder (Alnus rubra) has created a need for reliable yield information. Existing yield tables for red alder have been very useful as interim sources of information, but they are generally inadequate for current and prospective management needs. The advisory committee for the Station's Olympia...

  3. Spatial variation in population dynamics of Sitka mice in floodplain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Hanley; J.C. Barnard

    1999-01-01

    Population dynamics and demography of the Sitka mouse, Peromyscus keeni sitkensis, were studied by mark-recapture live-trapping over a 4-year period in four floodplain and upland forest habitats: old-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) floodplain; red alder (Alnus rubra) floodplain; beaver-pond...

  4. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1956-01-01

    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  5. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  6. Comparative effects of urea fertilizer and red alder in a site III, coast Douglas-fir plantation in the Washington Cascade Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Marshall Murray; Rick. Leon

    2005-01-01

    Five randomly assigned treatments were used to quantify effects of adding varying numbers of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) or nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of a 10-year-old conifer plantation at a medium quality site in the western Washington Cascade Range. Zero, 20, 40, and 80 alder trees per acre were retained along with about 300 conifers...

  7. Variation in damage from growing-season frosts among open-pollinated families of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Peeler; Dean S. DeBell

    1987-01-01

    Repeated growing-season frosts during late April and early May 1985 caused extensive damage to red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seedlings in a newly planted research trial in western Washington. About two-thirds of the seedlings were severely damaged (entire stem damaged or necrotic). Such damage varied by family, from 50 percent of seedlings in the...

  8. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...

  9. Character-marked furniture made from red alder harvested in southeast Alaska: product perspectives from consumers and retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Valerie Barber

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades. red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) has become an important Pacific Northwest hardwood in appearance-grade lumber markets, such as exports, furniture, and cabinets. However, red alder generally is a short-lived pioneer species, and small logs can result in proportionally large volumes of lower grade lumber containing numerous visual...

  10. Consumer preferences for kitchen cabinets made from red alder: a comparison to other hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is an abundant but commercially underutilized species despite having properties suitable for higher value products, including furniture and cabinetry. However, it laces the name recognition of mote traditional hardwoods. Our research measured the effect of this lack of familiarity on consumer preferences...

  11. Interactions among soil biology, nutrition, and performance of actinorhizal plant species in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.S. Rojas; D.A. Perry; C.Y. Li; L.M. Ganio

    2002-01-01

    The study examined the effect of Frankia, macronutrients, micronutrients, mycorrhizal fungi, and plant-growth-promoting fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. on total biomass, nodule weight, and nitrogen fixation of red aider (Alnus rubra) and snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus) under greenhouse conditions. The soil...

  12. Phylloplane bacteria increase the negative impact of food limitation on insect fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olson, Grant L.; Myers, Judith H.; Hemerik, Lia; Cory, Jenny S.

    2017-01-01

    1. When populations of herbivorous insects increase in density, they can alter the quantity or quality of their food. The impacts of diet-related stressors on insect fitness have been investigated singly, but not simultaneously. 2. Foliage quantity and quality of red alder, Alnus rubra, were

  13. Molecular speciation of phosphorus in organic amendments and amended soils using nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray absorption spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajibove, B.

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of phosphorus (P) in organic amendments is essential for environmentally sustainable fertilization of agricultural soils. The sequential chemical extraction (SCE) technique commonly used for P characterization does not provide any direct molecular information about P species. Studies were conducted to characterize P species in organic amendments and amended soils at a molecular level. The SCE was used to fractionate P in organic amendments including biosolids, hog, dairy and beef cattle manures, and poultry litter. The extracts were analyzed for total P and P species using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and solution 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The relative proportions of P species in intact organic amendments and residues after each extraction, and calcareous soils amended with organic amendments and monoammonium phosphate (MAP) were estimated using the synchrotron-based P 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The solution 31 P NMR provided a detailed characterization of organic P in the non-labile NaOH and HCl fractions of organic amendments, but was limited in characterizing the labile fractions of most of these organic amendments due to their proneness to alkaline hydrolysis. The XANES analysis, however, identified the actual chemical species constituting the labile P that was only characterized as inorganic P or orthophosphates by sequential extraction and solution 31 P NMR. In the amended Vertisolic and Chernozemic soils, XANES analysis estimated 'soluble and adsorbed P' as the dominant P species. For the Vertisolic soil, both the unamended and soil amended with biosolids and MAP contained hydroxyapatite (HAP). In addition, soil amended with biosolids, hog and dairy manures contained β-tricalcium phosphate (TRICAL), a more soluble CaP than HAP. TRICAL was found in all amended soils except in that amended with hog manure, while HAP was present

  14. The Hyde Amendment and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, J I

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed the constitutionality of the Hyde Amendment prohibiting federal funding for virtually all abortions for indigent women eligible for medical assistance. The Hyde Amendment represents a compromise on the politically sensitive issue of legality of all abortions. Despite the political controversy, however, real gains have been made since the Court decision legalizing abortion in 1973, in providing abortions services and lowering their costs. With the cutoff of Federal funds, however, most states will probably not support abortion services, thus rendering the poor and young especially vulnerable to the consequences of unwanted pregnancies. Barring the restoration of public funding, and noting that the cost of replacing it with private philanthropy is too high to be realistic, the author suggests some ways in which the cost of abortion services could be held down. Among these are setting up low cost clinic services in areas where no such services exist, thus alleviating substantial travel expenses for poor rural women; advertising the availability of such services and making other efforts to assure earlier, safer, less expensive procedures; encouraging clinics and hospitals to bill Medicaid for medical services related to (but not involved in) the abortion procedure; instituting outpatient abortion services in hospitals; and establishing satellite and mobile services by larger facilities to serve outlying areas.

  15. Directed Selection of Biochars for Amending Metal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment. World-wide the problem is even larger. Lime, organic matter, biosolids and other amendments have been used to decrease metal bioavailability in contaminated mine wastes and to promote the development of a mine waste stabilizing plant cover. The demonstrated properties of biochar make it a viable candidate as an amendment for remediating metal contaminated mine soils. In addition to sequestering potentially toxic metals, biochar can also be a source of plant nutrients, used to adjust soil pH, improve soil water holding characteristics, and increase soil carbon content. However, methods are needed for matching biochar beneficial properties with mine waste toxicities and soil health deficiencies. In this presentation we will report on a study in which we used mine soil from an abandoned Cu and Zn mine to develop a three-step procedure for identifying biochars that are most effective at reducing heavy metal bioavailability. Step 1: a slightly acidic extract of the mine spoil soil was produced, representing the potentially available metals, and used to identify metal removal properties of a library of 38 different biochars (e.g., made from a variety of feedstocks and pyrolysis or gasification conditions). Step 2: evaluation of how well these biochars retained (i.e., did not desorb) previously sorbed metals. Step 3: laboratory evalua

  16. The protocol amending the 1963 Vienna Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, V.

    1998-01-01

    In the first stage of the revision process, the only goal was to amend certain provisions of the Vienna Convention. Later, in what might be called the second stage, the question was seriously raised of establishing a new supplementary convention by which additional funds were to be provided by the international community of States. Most experts felt that the nuclear liability regime of the Vienna Convention, as amended, would really serve the interests of potential victims of nuclear incidents only if it were supported by an international supplementary fund providing additional compensation for nuclear damage to that provided by the operator. Thus, the Standing Committee started to consider the establishment, under the Vienna Convention, of a mechanism for mobilizing additional funds for compensation of nuclear damage. During the negotiations it was deemed necessary to establish a separate treaty for such a supplementary fund, and indeed, efforts were undertaken to draw up such an instrument concurrently with the revision of the Vienna Convention. (K.A.)

  17. 78 FR 70481 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... INFORMATION: In order to update certain elements in 48 CFR parts 31 and 52, this document makes editorial...--CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES 31.205-6 [Amended] 0 2. Amend section 31.205-6 by removing from...--SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 0 3. Revise section 52.202-1 to read as follows: 52.202-1...

  18. 77 FR 23370 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... update certain elements in 48 CFR parts 1 and 52, this document makes editorial changes to the FAR. List... representatives of the military departments, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Defense Contract Management Agency... CONTRACT CLAUSES 52.212-5 [Amended] 0 2. Amend section 52.212-5 by removing from paragraph (b)(7) ``(Jan...

  19. 76 FR 31416 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... update certain elements in 48 CFR parts 52 and 53, this document makes editorial changes to the Federal...). PART 52--SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 52.212-3 [Amended] 0 2. Amend section 52.212-3 by....301-1447 by revising the form to read as follows: 53.301-1447 Solicitation/Contract. BILLING CODE 6820...

  20. 77 FR 56743 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ... update certain elements in 48 CFR parts 7 and 15, this document makes editorial changes to the FAR. List..., Arlington, VA. 22202. Email: [email protected] . PART 15--CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 15.404-1 [Amended] 0 3. Amend section 15.404-1 by removing from paragraph (a)(7) ``http:// www.acq.osd.mil/dpap/cpf/contract...

  1. Coverage of the Nineteenth Amendment in Rural Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Lucinda D.

    A study was conducted to find out how the topics of the Nineteenth Amendment and women's suffrage were handled at the time by news publications in rural areas. Several components were used to carry out the objective: one was to investigate newspaper coverage of the amendment and in addition broaden that search to include women's suffrage; another…

  2. 75 FR 66344 - Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...-1022; Airspace Docket No. 10-AWP-4] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Route J-93; CA AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Jet Route J-93 in California between the Julian VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range Tactical... is necessary to realign Jet Route J-93 with the revised location of the Penasco VOR. The Proposal The...

  3. 45 CFR 2543.87 - Byrd anti-lobbying amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Byrd anti-lobbying amendment. 2543.87 Section 2543...-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Statutory Compliance § 2543.87 Byrd anti-lobbying amendment. Contractors who apply... disclose any lobbying with non-Federal funds that takes place in connection with obtaining any Federal...

  4. Influence of amendments on soil structure and soil loss under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macromolecule polymers are significant types of chemical amendments because of their special structure, useful functions and low cost. Macromolecule polymers as soil amendment provide new territory for studying China's agricultural practices and for soil and water conservation, because polymers have the ability to ...

  5. The Jurisdiction of the Regional Courts Amendment Act , 2008 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jurisdiction of the Regional Courts Amendment Act, 2008: Some implications for child law and divorce jurisdiction. J Sloth-Nielsen. Abstract. The promulgation of the Jurisdiction of the Regional Courts Amendment Act, 31 of 2008 (hereafter the JRCAA) in 62 large urban magisterial districts on 9 August 2010 (Women's ...

  6. 75 FR 9797 - Procedural Amendments to Commission Competitive Bidding Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 [WT Docket No. 10-18; DA 10-288] Procedural... INFORMATION: This is a summary of the Commission's Part 1 Procedural Amendments Order and Errata adopted February 24, 2010, and released on February 24, 2010. The complete text of the Part 1 Procedural Amendments...

  7. 33 CFR 104.415 - Amendment and audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affected by the vessel modifications. (4) Unless impracticable due to the size and nature of the company or... addressing any matters specified in the notice. The company owner or operator will have at least 60 days to submit its proposed amendments. Until amendments are approved, the company owner or operator shall ensure...

  8. 77 FR 15053 - Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... language unchanged. JSC will address when revising Appendix 22, Analysis of the Military Rules of Evidence...-Martial; Proposed Amendments AGENCY: Joint Service Committee on Military Justice (JSC), DoD. ACTION: Notice of response to public comments on proposed amendments to the Military Rules of Evidence (M.R.E...

  9. Soil organic amendments and mineral fertilizers: options for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil organic amendments and mineral fertilizers: options for sustainable lowland rice production in the forest agro-ecology of Ghana Rectification organique des sols ... Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana ... Organic amendments applied solely performed in the order: poultry manure > cattle manure > rice husk.

  10. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...-0433; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Rugby, ND. Decommissioning of the Rugby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Rugby Municipal Airport has made this action...

  11. 39 CFR 959.11 - Amendment of pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., are tried by express or implied consent of the parties, they shall be treated in all respects as if... PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.11 Amendment of pleadings. (a) Amendments proposed prior to the hearing... presented. (e) The presiding officer may, upon reasonable notice and upon such terms as are just, permit...

  12. 77 FR 76936 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, is the DoD Office of Inspector General.... PART 203--IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST 0 3. Section 203.1003 is... BUSINESS PROGRAMS 219.202-1 [Amended] 0 8. Section 219.202-1 is amended by removing ``PGI 205.207(d)(iii...

  13. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...-1430; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-23] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY: Federal... Class E airspace at Grinnell Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, by removing reference to the Grinnell NDB... Regional Airport, Grinnell, IA, and amends the geographic coordinates of the airport to coincide with the...

  14. 78 FR 18800 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ...-1433; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-26] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA AGENCY: Federal... Decorah, IA. Decommissioning of the Decorah non-directional beacon (NDB) at Decorah Municipal Airport has... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Decorah, IA, area...

  15. 77 FR 68682 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ...-1436; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-29] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA AGENCY: Federal... Guthrie, IA. Decommissioning of the Guthrie Center non-directional radio beacon (NDB) at Guthrie County... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Guthrie, IA, area, creating additional...

  16. 77 FR 4459 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...-0846; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-18] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA AGENCY: Federal... Greenfield, IA. Decommissioning of the Greenfield non-directional beacon (NDB) at Greenfield Municipal... rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for Greenfield, IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Greenfield...

  17. 78 FR 76053 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ...-0255; Airspace Docket No. 13-ACE-4] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Chariton, IA. Decommissioning of the Chariton non-directional beacon (NDB) at Chariton Municipal Airport... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Chariton, IA, area...

  18. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...-0830; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-16] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA AGENCY: Federal... Centerville, IA. Decommissioning of the Centerville non-directional beacon (NDB) and cancellation of the NDB... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace for the Centerville, IA, area...

  19. 76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ...] Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... amendments to the material control and accounting (MC&A) regulations. These regulations apply to NRC... ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully describe the accounting aspects that MC&A programs must include...

  20. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  1. Newspaper Advertising and the First Amendment: The Commercial Speech Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joseph H., III

    The purpose of this paper is to help identify newspaper advertisements which fall under the protection of the First Amendment. Although the Supreme Court declared in 1942 that advertisements which propose a purely commercial transaction were not protected by the First Amendment, in 1976 it decided that commercial expression, like other forms of…

  2. 32 CFR 635.13 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a military police record that is five or less years old, the installation Provost Marshal/Director... criminal investigation reports and military police reports. Access and amendment refusal authority is not... the MPR. (2) Requests to amend military police documents that are older than five years will be...

  3. Assessing the role of organic soil amendments in management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was higher in organically amended soils than the control, with the highest figures being recorded on chicken manure. This is a clear demonstration of the potential of organic amendments in triggering the natural mechanisms that regulate plant nematodes in the soil. Journal of Tropical Microbiology Vol.3 2004: 14-23 ...

  4. 75 FR 71450 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of a...

  5. 77 FR 37911 - Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-0001] Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an amendment to the notice of meeting of the...

  6. 9 CFR 205.209 - Amendment or continuation of EFS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment or continuation of EFS. 205.209 Section 205.209 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... OF FARM PRODUCTS Interpretive Opinions § 205.209 Amendment or continuation of EFS. (a) The “material...

  7. 78 FR 36545 - Amendment of an Experimental Use Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... has received the following amendment to the pending EUP: 89668- EUP-R. Submitter: Robert I. Rose, Ph.D., on behalf of James Mains, Ph.D., Mosquito Mate, Inc., 1122 Oak Hill Drive, Lexington, KY 40505- 3322... 89668-EUP-R. On May 22, 2013, the applicant submitted an amendment to that application for an EUP. The...

  8. 77 FR 53801 - Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition; Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Nexira; Filing of Food Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is amending the filing notice for a food additive petition filed by Nexira proposing that the food additive regulations be amended to provide for the expanded safe use of acacia gum (gum...

  9. 14 CFR 151.29 - Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... resolution or ordinance must, as appropriate under the local law— (1) Set forth the terms of the offer at... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures: Offer, amendment, and... § 151.29 Procedures: Offer, amendment, and acceptance. (a) Upon approving a project, the Administrator...

  10. 33 CFR 150.25 - Amending the operations manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amending the operations manual... (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS General § 150.25 Amending the operations manual. (a) Whenever the cognizant Captain of the Port (COTP) finds that the operations manual does not meet the...

  11. 10 CFR 60.51 - License amendment for permanent closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false License amendment for permanent closure. 60.51 Section 60.51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Permanent Closure § 60.51 License amendment for permanent closure. (a) DOE...

  12. 10 CFR 60.33 - Amendment of construction authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendment of construction authorization. 60.33 Section 60.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Licenses Construction Authorization § 60.33 Amendment of construction authorization...

  13. 76 FR 35966 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...-0070; Airspace Docket No. 10-ASO-43] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the... Island Airport, Cocoa, FL (75 FR 21266) Docket No. FAA-2011-0070. Interested parties were invited to...

  14. 77 FR 64430 - Federal Travel Regulation; Per Diem, Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Travel Regulation; Per Diem, Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy, General... days; extending agencies the authority to issue blanket actual expense approval for TDY travel during... amending the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by changing, updating, and clarifying various provisions...

  15. 75 FR 59094 - Federal Travel Regulation; Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ...; FTR Case 2010-305; Docket 2010-0017; Sequence 1] RIN 3090-AJ07 Federal Travel Regulation; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Federal Travel Regulation (FTR) by updating statutory...

  16. 75 FR 33682 - Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...-01] RIN 0694-AE93 Export Administration Regulations; Technical Amendments AGENCY: Bureau of Industry... Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) makes a technical amendment to the Export Administration... review of final decisions and orders issued in BIS export control administrative enforcement proceedings...

  17. 47 CFR 73.3522 - Amendment of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... letter will be issued affording the applicant an opportunity to correct the defect, omission or inconsistency. Amendments may be filed pursuant to the deficiency letter curing any defect, omission or... FM and reserved noncommercial educational television stations. Applications may be amended after...

  18. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-0269; Airspace Docket No. 13-ASW-3] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV...

  19. 77 FR 60382 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... financial products or services, (b) consumer behavior with respect to consumer financial products and... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... the Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, hereinto referred to...

  20. 15 CFR 923.83 - Mediation of amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mediation of amendments. 923.83... Programs § 923.83 Mediation of amendments. (a) Section 307(h)(2) of the Act provides for mediation of... management program. Accordingly mediation is available to states or federal agencies when a serious...

  1. 76 FR 20243 - Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Service (Corporation) by amending the National and Community Service Act of 1990 (NCSA) and the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973 (DVSA). The Serve America Act amended the DVSA by requiring the Corporation to... Flexibility Act As required by the Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980, 5 U.S.C. 605 (b), the Corporation...

  2. Do Minors Have First Amendment Rights in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmara, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Courts have held that minors have First Amendment rights and that those rights include the right to receive information. However, how does that apply in the school setting? The First Amendment prohibits governmental entities from unconstitutionally infringing rights of free speech. Students in public schools, therefore, do have rights under the…

  3. Fuzzy indicator approach: development of impact factor of soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil amendments have been shown to be useful for improving soil condition, but it is often difficult to make management decisions as to their usefulness. Utilization of Fuzzy Set Theory is a promising method for decision support associated with utilization of soil amendments. In this article a tool ...

  4. 45 CFR 1321.19 - Amendments to the State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendments to the State plan. 1321.19 Section 1321.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT... GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.19 Amendments to the...

  5. Proposed Federal Gun-Control Amendment. Student Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Gayle; Mertz, David

    1995-01-01

    Presents an outline for a student-run forum on a proposed federal gun control amendment. Procedures include mandatory reading assignments and researching the issue. Students role-play fictional representative characters and later facilitate discussions. Concludes with a vote on the amendment. (MJP)

  6. EFFECT OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH RICE HUSKS AND COW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF SOIL AMENDMENT WITH RICE HUSKS AND COW DUNG ON THE INCIDENCE AND SEVERITY OF PYTHIUM DAMPING-OFF OF “EGUSI” MELON ( Colocynthis Vulgaris (L) Kantz) IN THE SAVANNA AGROECOLOGIES ... Melon seedlings in the control without amendment collapsed 7 days after germination.

  7. 78 FR 69543 - Amendments to General Regulations of the Food and Drug Administration; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... authority citation is expressed in terms of the U.S. Code, the amendment is to insert ``332'' in the list of..., and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) (21 U.S.C. 332); Revised Sec. 1.1(c), ``General,'' by removing the terms... removing the terms ``package in Sec. 1.20 and of''. The preamble to the final rule explained that the...

  8. AMENDMENTS TO THE STAFF RULES AND REGULATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from : 1 January 2001 Scale of basic salaries and scale of basic stipends (Annex R A 1 and Annex R A 2 respectively). These scales include the correction approved in June 2001 of the discrepancy of 0.3% in the net salary adjustment on 1 January 2001. Family Allowance and Child Allowance (Annex R A 4). Reimbursement of education fees (Article R A 8.01) for the academic year 2000/2001, i.e. with effect from 1 September 2000. Periodic reviews of the financial conditions of members of the personel (Annex A1). 1 July 2001 Various drafting amendments adopted in order to ensure greater coherence between the texts, the procedures and actual practice. 1 September 2001 Implementation of the new career structure. Copies of these updates are available in the divisional secretariats.

  9. BUDGET AMENDMENT – CAUSE AND EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA ISPAS

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes both the causes and effects of budget amendment in Romania, taking into account the Fiscal Budget Responsibility Law. Reduction by 5% of the CSI payable by the employer from the 1st of October 2014 should be necessarily accompanied by a reform of the social security system, starting from the principle of equal treatment of taxpayers irrespective of their type of income and the elaboration and implementation of a medium-term strategy for financially rebalancing the social security budgets, especially the pensions' budget. Such a strategy should aim to increase the number of taxpayers, in particular by reducing "black" labor, and ensure a total transparency of budget expenditures as a whole in order to stimulate the growth of voluntary compliance to payment of taxes.

  10. The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Cichanowicz, J.E.; Platt, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on utilities are substantial, presenting a host of new technical challenges, introducing new business risks, changing costs of electric generation, creating new winners and losers, and calling for new organizational responses capable of dealing with the complexity and short time for decisions. The magnitude of costs and unknowns puts clean air compliance into a new league of energy issues, in which the decisions utilities must make are not simply technological or engineering economic choices, but rather are very complex business decisions with numerous stakeholders, pitfalls, and opportunities. This paper summarizes the key regulatory requirements of the CAAA, outlines compliance options and questions facing the utility industry, and addresses how utility strategic business decisions could be affected

  11. Second Ordinance amending the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance brings about the following changes: (1) Introduction of the concept of effective dose, reduction of limits for partial body dose, adoption of the radiotoxicity values of radionuclides as established by the EC Basis Standards; (2) introduction of a working-life-related dose limit of 400 mSv; (3) supplementing provisions for the protection of the population, particularly by the standard procedure for radioecological impact assessment and determination of dose factors; (4) supplementing provisions on the use of radioactive substances in medicine and medical research; (5) supplementing provisions on health physics monitoring; (6) provisions for improving the supervision and controls in the transport of radioactive substances; (7) definition of activities and their assignment to the provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance; (8) revision of the waste management provisions of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (HP) [de

  12. Amendments to excepted benefits. Final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This document contains final regulations that amend the regulations regarding excepted benefits under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, the Internal Revenue Code (the Code), and the Public Health Service Act. Excepted benefits are generally exempt from the health reform requirements that were added to those laws by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In addition, eligibility for excepted benefits does not preclude an individual from eligibility for a premium tax credit under section 36B of the Code if an individual chooses to enroll in coverage under a Qualified Health Plan through an Affordable Insurance Exchange. These regulations finalize some but not all of the proposed rules with minor modifications; additional guidance on limited wraparound coverage is forthcoming.

  13. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie; Zhong, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biochar amendment could evidently reduce methylmercury (MeHg) levels in rice grain. • Biochar could enhance microbial production of MeHg, probably by providing sulfate. • Biochar could immobilize MeHg in soil, and reduce MeHg availability to rice plants. • Biochar amendment increased grain biomass, leading to biodilution of MeHg in grain. - Abstract: There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1–4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49–92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35–79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment.

  14. Biochar amendment reduced methylmercury accumulation in rice plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Rui; Wang, Yongjie [School of Environment, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (China); Zhong, Huan, E-mail: zhonghuan@nju.edu.cn [School of Environment, Nanjing University, State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, People’s Republic of China (China); Environmental and Life Sciences Program (EnLS), Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Biochar amendment could evidently reduce methylmercury (MeHg) levels in rice grain. • Biochar could enhance microbial production of MeHg, probably by providing sulfate. • Biochar could immobilize MeHg in soil, and reduce MeHg availability to rice plants. • Biochar amendment increased grain biomass, leading to biodilution of MeHg in grain. - Abstract: There is growing concern about methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains and thus enhanced dietary exposure to MeHg in Asian countries. Here, we explored the possibility of reducing grain MeHg levels by biochar amendment, and the underlying mechanisms. Pot (i.e., rice cultivation in biochar amended soils) and batch experiments (i.e., incubation of amended soils under laboratory conditions) were carried out, to investigate MeHg dynamics (i.e., MeHg production, partitioning and phytoavailability in paddy soils, and MeHg uptake by rice) under biochar amendment (1–4% of soil mass). We demonstrate for the first time that biochar amendment could evidently reduce grain MeHg levels (49–92%). The declines could be attributed to the combined effects of: (1) increased soil MeHg concentrations, probably explained by the release of sulfate from biochar and thus enhanced microbial production of MeHg (e.g., by sulfate-reducing bacteria), (2) MeHg immobilization in soils, facilitated by the large surface areas and high organosulfur content of biochar, and (3) biodilution of MeHg in rice grains, due to the increased grain biomass under biochar amendment (35–79%). These observations together with mechanistic explanations improve understanding of MeHg dynamics in soil-rice systems, and support the possibility of reducing MeHg phytoaccumulation under biochar amendment.

  15. Enhanced Amendment Delivery to Overcome Subsurface Physical Remediation Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Truex, M. J.; Oostrom, M.; Szecsody, J. E.; Vermeul, V.; Li, X.

    2013-12-01

    Waste discharges can result in contamination of the unsaturated zone (vadose zone) and the water saturated zone (aquifer). To restore the environment, many in situ remediation technologies rely on delivery of remedial reagents (amendments) to the subsurface that treat or help remove contamination. However, through numerous remediation applications, the remediation industry has recognized that a major issue with in situ remediation is the difficulty in achieving an even spatial distribution of remedial amendments to the contamination zones in an aquifer or in the vadose zone. Poor amendment delivery leads to ineffective environmental restoration because some of the contaminants are not contacted by the amendment and, therefore, not treated or removed. This challenge often leads to a failure in environment restoration. Researches are being conducted to develop enhanced remediation amendment delivery approaches using shear thinning fluids (STFs) for aquifer and aqueous foams for vadose zone. STFs have properties that promote more uniform delivery of injected solutions so that amendments are able to reach low-permeability zones in an aquifer. These low-permeability zones are most difficult to reach with conventional delivery approaches, yet often contain the high contamination concentrations. Foam delivery is targeted for distribution of aqueous, gaseous amendments, and remedial nano-particles to the vadose zone. Foam transport in the vadose zone provides significant advantages for lateral distribution of amendments compared to aqueous-phase transport, improves uniformity of distribution compared to both aqueous- and gas-phase injection, and enables delivery of a broader range of remediation amendments than can be delivered in the gas phase.

  16. Clean air amendments put big burden on refinery planners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, R.C.; Smalley, G.A. Jr.; Norman, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 will not only require the production of reformulated gasoline but also have significant impact on other refinery-related construction. This must be considered when developing sound planning strategy. The three titles of the Clean Air Act Amendments that will have the greatest effect on refining are: Title I: Nonattainment; Title III: Air toxics; Title V: Permitting. To understand the ramifications of these amendments, it is necessary to review the interactions of new requirements with the permitting and construction schedule shown

  17. The Second Ordinance for Amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, D.

    1989-01-01

    This Second Ordinance for Amendment of the Radiation Protection Ordinance has modified the most important legal provisions supplementing the Atomic Energy Act. But looking closer at the revised version of the Ordinance, many an amendment turns out to be just a new facade on the old brickwork. The article critically reviews the most important amendments, stating that the main principles have remained untouched, and discussing the modification of limiting values, the definition of regulatory scopes, the new meaning of the term 'wastes containing nuclear fuel', and the regulatory scope of provisions governing radioactive substances and their medical applications. (orig./RST) [de

  18. Effect of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (LINNAEUS, 1753 GAERTNER, 1791 and elder (Sambucus nigra LINNAEUS, 1753 on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae LINNAEUS, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’INTOSH, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and elder Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage were investigated in 2008-2009. Both extracts reduced the number of cabbage aphids, although the Sambucus nigra extract proved to have a better effect. Differences were seen both in the numbers of winged aphids settling on plants and in the overall numbers of aphids on plants during the entire season. There were no significant differences in the degree of parasitization by Diaeretiella rapae in the three experimental combinations. Eight species of Syrphidae were found in the Brevicoryne brassicae colonies: Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria scripta, S. rueppelli, S. menthastri, Eupeodes corollae, Scaeva pyrastri, Scaeva selenitica and Syrphus vitripennis. The dominant species was Episyrphus balteatus. The largest numbers of syrphid larvae and pupae were collected from cabbage aphid colonies on the control plants. Smaller numbers were recorded on the plot where the cabbages were sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract. The results of this study indicate that botanical insecticides based on S. nigra have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for the cabbage aphid.

  19. 77 FR 14979 - Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... conformity SIPs, see EPA's ``Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation Plans... January 2009 guidance entitled, ``Guidance for Developing Transportation Conformity State Implementation... Transportation Conformity Rule Restructuring Amendments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION...

  20. Nigeria Personal Income Tax (Amendment) Act 2011: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amendment) Act 2011 as they affect personal income tax administration in the hands of tax authorities as well as employers, employees and individuals as it relates to compliance issues of payment, collection, and remittance of personal income ...

  1. Amendment to the petroleum tax law. [Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakschies, K.

    1981-03-01

    In the past, collapsing petroleum producing companies and petroleum tax stores have caused considerable losses in tax revenues. To secure tax revenues from mineral oil, legal provisions of the mineral oil tax law were decisively amended by the 17th decree which has been in force since February 1, 1980, and by the 1st amendment, in force since August 10, 1980. The author explains major new regulations on producing companies, the tax store, sufficient securities, duties and irregularities, tax allowances for traders and users - if DK and HEL are mixed, there is now a right to be refunded - adjustment of aquatic sports. The 17th law of September 12, 1980, to amend customs laws harmonizes the German Customs Law with those of the European Communities. The 1981 amendment to the tax law on mineral oil and liquor, in force since April 1, 1981, does not increase the existing tax on heating oil.

  2. 39 CFR 320.9 - Revocation or amendment of suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION OF THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 320.9 Revocation or amendment of suspensions. These suspensions... of operations (in dollar or volume terms, whichever is larger) lower than that antedating the...

  3. 24 CFR 266.20 - Effect of amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS General... to time. Amendments to the regulations will not adversely affect the interest of a lender under a...

  4. Use of flyash as environmental and agronomic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G Y; Dou, Z; Toth, J D; Ferguson, J

    2004-01-01

    Coal combustion power plant flyash materials have been reported as useful soil amendments with agronomic and environmental benefits. This paper reports the efficacy of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts, when amended with dairy, swine, and broiler litter manures, in reducing phosphorus (P) solubility and potential impact on water quality. At a rate of 400 g/kg, FBC reduced water soluble P by 60% for dairy and swine and 50% for broiler litter, as compared to un-treated control samples. Byproduct FGD had little effect when amended into dairy manure, but reduced water soluble P by nearly 80% when amended into swine and broiler manure at a rate of 250 g/kg. The amount of Ca added in the amendments together with pH of the mixture is the major contributing factor in soluble P reduction. Sequential extraction results showed that the flyash treatments shifted water soluble P into mainly bicarbonate extractable P. The latter is still considered available for crop uptake but less vulnerable for environmental losses. Coal combustion byproducts, when amended into manure and used properly, can provide a useful and viable option for improving nutrient management on animal farms.

  5. Amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Staff Rules and Regulations in force since 1 January 1996 are modified as follows as from 1 July 2005 : Article R II 4.07 of the Staff Regulations - Leave year (pages 25 & 26) The purpose of the amendment is to allow certain members of the personnel, on an exceptional basis in the context of LHC construction, to carry forward more than 30 days of annual leave into the following year. This possibility of additional carry-forward, which will be used sparingly, is governed by strict conditions : i.e. it must be with the consent of the member of the personnel concerned and subject to a specific, documented request by the hierarchy and a favourable medical opinion. In addition, the number of additional days of leave that can be carried forward must not exceed 10 per leave year, and all days of leave accumulated in this way must be used before 30 September 2009. Finally, this possibility will not be available to members of the personnel taking part in the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) as at 3...

  6. An Ecological Examination of North Carolina's Amendment One Vote to Ban Same Sex Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L. Davison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On May 8th, 2012, North Carolina voters passed a constitutional amendment that officially banned same sex marriage. Whereas statewide the amendment was supported by 61% of North Carolina voters, there was a 67% range in variance of support for the amendment among North Carolina counties. This paper examines the large variance regarding the state amendment vote, among North Carolina's 100 counties. Controlling for percent of county residents with a bachelor’s or greater degree had an enormous effect in diminished support for the amendment while age, race and urban demographics were weaker and capricious measures in understanding the county variance of the Amendment One vote.

  7. Legal issues in amending nuclear rules and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear rules and regulations are composed of a multitude of provisions, benchmarks, etc. of different origins and different levels of legal quality. The Safety Criteria and Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants published in the 'Bundesanzeiger' (Federal Gazette) by the competent federal ministry after consultation of the competent highest state authorities are of particular importance. The Safety Criteria were adopted by the States Committee for Atomic Energy on October 12, 1977 and published in the 'Bundesanzeiger'. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) intends to revise and amend the contents of the safety criteria and guidelines applying to nuclear power plants. The question underlying this article is this: In what legal way can such an 'amendment' be achieved in a permissible fashion? This leaves out of consideration the question of the contents and applicability of amended provisions, such as the question to what extent amended regulations can also be applied to the nuclear power plants already licensed and in operation, or whether the concept of finality and the constitutional ban on retroactive effect or other constitutional or paramount rules contain restrictions on the contents of such regulations. Solely the question of a permissible amending procedure is under study. (orig.)

  8. Effect of ageing on the availability of heavy metals in soils amended with compost and biochar: evaluation of changes in soil and amendment properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, A; Rigol, A; Vidal, M

    2016-10-01

    Remediation strategies using soil amendments should consider the time dependence of metal availability to identify amendments that can sustainably reduce available pollutant concentrations over time. Drying-wetting cycles were applied on amendments, soils and soil + amendment mixtures, to mimic ageing at field level and investigate its effect on extractable Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations from three contaminated soils. The amendments investigated were municipal waste organic compost and biochars. The amendments, soils and mixtures were characterised by their physicochemical properties at different ageing times. The amendments were also characterised in terms of sorption capacity for Cd and Cu. The sorption capacity and the physicochemical properties of the amendments remained constant over the period examined. When mixed with the soils, amendments, especially the compost, immediately reduced the extractable metals in the soils with low pH and acid neutralisation capacity, due to the increase in pH and buffering capacity of the mixtures. The amendments had a relatively minor impact on the metal availability concentrations for the soil with substantially high acid neutralisation capacity. The most important changes in extractable metal concentrations were observed at the beginning of the experiments, ageing having a minor effect on metal concentrations when compared with the initial effect of amendments.

  9. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 - Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, N.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    On November 15, 1991 the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 were signed into law. The Amendments include eleven titles. They are: Title I specifies the requirements for attainment and maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards; Title II provides for more stringent motor vehicle emission limits and cleaner vehicle fuels; Title III addresses the release of air toxics; Title IV creates an acid deposition control program; Title V imposes a new comprehensive operating permit system for stationary sources; Title VI provides for stratospheric ozone protection; Title VII imposes increased civil and criminal penalties and liability; Title VIII contains miscellaneous provisions. Title IX provides for air quality research projects; Title X directs the EPA to make ten percent of research funds available to disadvantaged businesses; and Title XI amends the Job Training Partnership Act

  10. Patient-initiated electronic health record amendment requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauer, David A; Preib, Rebecca; Zheng, Kai; Choi, Sung W

    2014-01-01

    Providing patients access to their medical records offers many potential benefits including identification and correction of errors. The process by which patients ask for changes to be made to their records is called an 'amendment request'. Little is known about the nature of such amendment requests and whether they result in modifications to the chart. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of all patient-initiated amendment requests that our institution received over a 7-year period. Recurring themes were identified along three analytic dimensions: (1) clinical/documentation area, (2) patient motivation for making the request, and (3) outcome of the request. The dataset consisted of 818 distinct requests submitted by 181 patients. The majority of these requests (n=636, 77.8%) were made to rectify incorrect information and 49.7% of all requests were ultimately approved. In 6.6% of the requests, patients wanted valid information removed from their record, 27.8% of which were approved. Among all of the patients requesting a copy of their chart, only a very small percentage (approximately 0.2%) submitted an amendment request. The low number of amendment requests may be due to inadequate awareness by patients about how to make changes to their records. To make this approach effective, it will be important to inform patients of their right to view and amend records and about the process for doing so. Increasing patient access to medical records could encourage patient participation in improving the accuracy of medical records; however, caution should be used. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Looking to the future: Implementation of the 1990 Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The foregoing chapters have shown that the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 contains numerous, complex and overlapping regulatory requirements. Over the next decade, EPA will be faced with implementation responsibilities that far surpass those that have been assigned to virtually any other administrative agencies. Implementation of the Clean Air Act will present unprecedented challenges not only to EPA, but to industry, to the public, and to the system of administrative law generally. This chapter summarizes issues that EPA, industry, and other will confront as implementation of the 1990 Amendments proceeds

  12. WTO approves TRIPS amendment on importing under compulsory licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Greg

    2006-04-01

    On 6 December 2005, the World Trade Organization (WTO) amended the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement to allow WTO member states to produce, under compulsory licences, lower-cost generic pharmaceutical products for export to countries that lack domestic production capacity to make such products. The amendment makes permanent the previous decision of 30 August 2003, which has not yet proven to be an effective mechanism to encourage the supply of more affordable medicines and other pharmaceutical products to countries in need.

  13. 78 FR 14909 - Amendment of Class B Airspace Description; Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ...-0079; Airspace Docket No. 13-AWA-1] RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Class B Airspace Description; Houston.... SUMMARY: This action amends the description of the Houston, TX, Class B airspace area by changing the... 14910

  14. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DOD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  15. The Berry Amendment: Requiring Defense Procurement to Come from Domestic Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grasso, Valerie B

    2008-01-01

    ...; these provisions later became the Berry Amendment. The Berry Amendment requires DoD to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home-grown products, notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

  16. 77 FR 47356 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Essential Fish Habitat Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...-XA500 North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Essential Fish Habitat Amendments AGENCY: National... Pacific Fishery Management Council submitted the following essential fish habitat (EFH) amendments to NMFS... locations; Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC) identification; research and information needs; and...

  17. 76 FR 40215 - 40th Anniversary of the 26th Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... 26th Amendment to the United States Constitution took effect, lowering the universal voting age in... dream a reality. Yet, once proposed in Congress in 1971, the 26th Amendment was ratified in the shortest...

  18. 75 FR 24993 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Early...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Early Site Permit, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... amendment request involves no significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in 10...

  19. 75 FR 63209 - Indiana Michigan Power Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... Power Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U.S. Nuclear... the amendment request involves no significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's...

  20. 75 FR 33653 - Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Company; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards; Consideration Determination, and Opportunity for a Hearing The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... the amendment request involves no significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's...

  1. 76 FR 4201 - Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 920 Kiwifruit Grown in California; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 920; Correction AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Correcting amendment. SUMMARY...

  2. 50 CFR 679.91 - Amendment 80 Program annual harvester privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) General. This section governs the formation and operation of Amendment 80 cooperatives. The regulations in... is eligible to receive CQ: (i) Each Amendment 80 cooperative must be formed as a partnership...

  3. 78 FR 60321 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    .... Nebraska Public Power District, Docket No. 50-298, Cooper Nuclear Station, Nemaha County, Nebraska Date of amendment request: February 12, 2013. Brief description of amendment: The amendment modified the Cooper... licensee from the requirement to perform an appendix J Type A test, containment integrated leakage rate...

  4. 78 FR 71675 - License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License amendment... Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, located in Windham County, VT. The proposed amendment would have... Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, located in Windham County, VT. The proposed amendment would have...

  5. 75 FR 20951 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Regarding Amateur Radio Service Communications During...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 97 Amendment of the Commission's Rules Regarding Amateur Radio Service Communications... amend the Commission's amateur radio service rules with respect to amateur radio operations during... Commission proposes to amend the rules to provide that, under certain limited conditions, amateur radio...

  6. 76 FR 42949 - Rules Implementing Amendments to the Investment Advisers Act of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... amendments, including amendments to the Commission's pay to play rule, that address a number of other changes... Commission's ``pay to play'' rule,\\10\\ to address a number of other changes to the Advisers Act made by the... Play'' Rule 2. Technical and Conforming Amendments a. Rules 203(b)(3)-1 and 203(b)(3)-2 b. Rule 204-2 c...

  7. 76 FR 58303 - Biweekly Notice; Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses Involving No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... supplies or change the ability of the plant to cope with station blackout events. Therefore, the proposed... Station, Unit 1, Ottawa County, Ohio Date of amendment request: May 20, 2011. Description of amendment request: The proposed amendment would modify the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1 (DBNPS...

  8. 50 CFR 679.93 - Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amendment 80 Program recordkeeping, permits, monitoring, and catch accounting. 679.93 Section 679.93 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Amendment 80 Program § 679.93 Amendment 80 Program...

  9. 76 FR 63320 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Agency Docket No. FEMA-4017-DR; Docket ID FEMA-2011-0001] Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a...: This notice amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico is hereby amended to include...

  10. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...-0099; Airspace Docket No. 12-ASO-11] Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Federal... Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES: Effective 0901...), amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  11. 77 FR 19455 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Programs 20 CFR Parts 718 and 725 Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits... Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal Miners' and Survivors... amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act (BLBA or Act) made by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care...

  12. 78 FR 60686 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ...-AA04 Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal... correcting the preamble to a final rule implementing amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act that appeared... the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal Miners' and Survivors...

  13. 78 FR 33017 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lexington, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lexington, OK...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Muldrow Army Heliport, Lexington, OK. Changes to... Federal Regulations (14 CFR), Part 71 by amending Class E airspace at Muldrow Army Heliport, Lexington, OK...

  14. 76 FR 12558 - Amendment to Special Use Airspace Restricted Areas R-2203, and R-2205; Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ...-0055; Airspace Docket No. 11-AAL-2] Amendment to Special Use Airspace Restricted Areas R-2203, and R... amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the using agency of Restricted Areas R-2203 A, B, & C; Eagle River, AK, and R-2205, Stuart Creek, AK. These changes reflect the U.S. Army's current organization in...

  15. 78 FR 50412 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Engine Pollution Control Standards; Amendments to Spark Ignition Marine Engine and Boat Regulations... Marine Engine and Boat Regulations (2008 Marine SI Amendments or 2008 Amendments). CARB requested EPA... outboard and personal watercraft engines and to enforce the first tier of regulations affecting inboard and...

  16. 76 FR 80735 - Corrections and Technical Amendments to 16 OSHA Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... 1926 Corrections and Technical Amendments to 16 OSHA Standards AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of corrections and technical amendments to standards. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting typographical errors in, and making non- substantive technical amendments to, 16 OSHA...

  17. Sugarcane boiler ash as an amendment for soilless growing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, research was conducted to investigate the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) as an amendment to soilless planting media for the production of vegetable seedlings. Typically, the eleven Louisiana sugarcane mills use a portion of the sugarcane bagasse for fuel, producing over 60,000 tons of S...

  18. 75 FR 67911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jeannette, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...-0052; Airspace Docket No. 10-AEA-19] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Jeannette, PA AGENCY: Federal... Jeannette, PA. Jeannette District Hospital will no longer be using the heliport therefore reference to the... E airspace area for Jeannette, PA serves both the Monsour Medical Center Heliport and the Jeannette...

  19. 78 FR 48296 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Factoryville, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...-0345; Airspace Docket No. 13-AEA-6] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Factoryville, PA AGENCY: Federal... Factoryville, PA, as the Lake Henry VORTAC has been decommissioned and new standard instrument approach..., Factoryville, PA, (78 FR, 32212). Interested parties were invited to participate in this rulemaking effort by...

  20. 78 FR 67225 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special nuclear material (SNM). The goal of this... the changes to the general performance objectives? F. Are sealed sources included in the general...

  1. Did that Dog Sniff Violate the Fourth Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Catherine; Middleton, Tiffany

    2012-01-01

    Is sniffing at the front door of a private home by a trained narcotics detection dog a Fourth Amendment search requiring probable cause? Is a "drug dog" somehow like a manmade technology, such as a thermal imaging device? These were a couple of the questions recently presented to the U.S. Supreme Court during arguments in "Florida v. Jardines."…

  2. Calcium soil amendment increases resistance of potato to blackleg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soft rot incidence in the progeny tubers was also significantly reduced by the calcium treatment. In addition, calcium amendment significantly reduced (P < 0.05) soft rot losses of tubers in storage. Calcium nitrate was effective in reducing blackleg and soft rot diseases in combination with either compound D or compound S.

  3. 78 FR 13768 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... update certain elements in 48 CFR parts 5, 7, 10, and 52, this document makes editorial changes to the...: Authority: 40 U.S.C. 121(c); 10 U.S.C. chapter 137; and 51 U.S.C. 20113. PART 5--PUBLICIZING CONTRACT... its place. PART 52--SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 0 5. Amend section 52.229-7 by...

  4. 78 FR 52431 - Amendments to ONRR's Service of Official Correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... of official correspondence on companies and reporting entities. II. Explanation of Amendments This... employees and agents designated as points of contact by each company and reporting entity from Forms ONRR... and an open exchange of ideas. We have developed this rule in a manner consistent with these...

  5. 78 FR 58322 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Institute Special Emphasis Panel, November 06, 2013, 06:30 p.m. to November 07, 2013, 04:00 p.m., Hilton... August 16, 2013, 78 FR 50065. The meeting notice is amended to change the location from the Hilton...

  6. 78 FR 7819 - Request to Amend a License to Import

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Reading Room (PERR) link http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm.html at the NRC Homepage. A request for a hearing... material] Name of applicant; date of application; date received; Material type Total quantity End use... Amend to: 1) Revise Mexico. December 28, 2012; January waste including total of (5) ``End Use'' to 2...

  7. 76 FR 79150 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Government and who have a need to access the information in the performance of their duties or activities; (6) The U.S. Department of Justice (``DOJ'') for its use in providing legal advice to the CFPB or in... remedy such harm; (2) Another Federal or state agency to: (a) permit a decision as to access, amendment...

  8. The Bible and Public Schools: A First Amendment Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN. Freedom Forum First Amendment Center.

    This First Amendment Guide promotes a model of religious fairness and respect. Public schools should protect the religious-liberty rights of students of all faiths or none. Curriculum should include study about religion as an important part of a complete education. The advice offered in this guide draws on shared vision and relies on recent…

  9. Lime-amended growing medium causes seedling growth distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Gale Thompson; David L. Wenny

    1990-01-01

    Although a commercial growing medium with incorporated agricultural lime had been successfully used for years, it caused growth distortion of coniferous and deciduous seedlings during 1988. Seedlings grown in the amended medium were stunted and chlorotic, often with disfigured needles and multiple tops. Seedlings grown in the same medium without incorporated lime grew...

  10. Counselor Educators' Gatekeeping Responsibilities and Students' First Amendment Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Neal; Block, Jason; Young, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In 2 recent legal cases, graduate counselor education students challenged the imposition of remediation plans as violating their First Amendment rights of freedom of speech and religion. With special emphasis on this recent litigation, the article examines the legal standards governing the authority of counselor educators at public colleges and…

  11. 5 CFR 1302.4 - Requests to amend records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requests to amend records. 1302.4 Section 1302.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES PRIVACY ACT...) The decision of the Office of Management and Budget whether to grant in whole, or deny any part of the...

  12. Changes in microbial and soil organic matter following amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The amendment of the soil with untreated OMW improved the soil carbon content (2.18 times higher) while the specific ... nitrifiers number , urease and ammonium oxidases activities. Key words: Olive mill wastewaters, soil, .... chloride and sulphate, coming from the treated or untreated OMW (Zanjari and Nejmeddine, 2001).

  13. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  14. Waste rock revegetation: Evaluation of nutrient and biological amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meikle, T.W.; Lu, S.; Barta, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Lack of salvaged topsoil for the reclamation of historical waste rock piles is a common problem in the arid Great Basin region. Utilization of amended waste rock as a growth media could reduce further disturbance resulting from topsoil harvest, minimize hauling costs, and potentially allow for the use of a higher quality material for plant growth. Getchell Gold Corporation initiated a study in 1995 to determine the suitability of waste rock substrates to support plant growth following application of nutrient and biological amendments. Three nutrient amendments and a biological seed treatment were evaluation for use in establishing vegetative cover on three distinct waste rock substrates. Completely randomized blocks were placed on the three substrates. Treatments included organic fertilizers (Biosol and Gro-Power), a mineral fertilizer (16-20-0), and Azospirillum bacterial inoculant, plus controls. The seed mix consisted of Agropyron riparium, Agropyron spicatum, Elymus cinereus, Poa secunda, and Sitanion hystrix. Canopy and ground cover were monitored for three growing seasons. Conclusions from the study are: (1) two of the three substrates supported plant growth following amendment with organic fertilizers; (2) organic fertilizers increased cover substantially over the mineral fertilizer; and (3) Azospirillum had no effect on canopy cover.

  15. 75 FR 65595 - Retired and Senior Volunteer Program Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... measurement requirements, as required by the Domestic Volunteer Service Act (DVSA), as amended by the Edward M..., competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local or tribal governments, or... competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or on the ability of United States-based...

  16. Academic Freedom and the First Amendment: Legal Entanglements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Louis III

    1990-01-01

    Examines how closely academic freedom and the First Amendment actually are related. Traces the development of academic freedom as a constitutional right from shortly before World War II to the present. Analyzes influences exerted by intramural speech, institutional or corporate academic freedom, and professional liability. (KEH)

  17. 77 FR 34210 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...-0503; Airspace Docket No. 11-ASO-19] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL AGENCY: Federal... Orlando, FL, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Orlando Executive... coordinates of Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando International Airport, and Kissimmee Municipal Airport...

  18. 48 CFR 15.206 - Amending the solicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and... protection (see 15.207(b) and 15.306(e)). (e) If, in the judgment of the contracting officer, based on market research or otherwise, an amendment proposed for issuance after offers have been received is so substantial...

  19. Organic amendments and nutrient leaching in soil columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lack of nutrient build up in reclaimed coal mine soils would therefore require additional inputs to maintain plant productivity and establishment of a healthy ecosystem. In a greenhouse experiment, reclaimed coal mine soil were amended with fresh and composted poultry manure at the rates based ...

  20. Environmental assessment for amendments to 10 CFR Part 835

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This proposed amendment will modify the scope of 10 CFR 835 to explicitly exclude the transportation of radioactive material conducted in conformance with the Department of Transportation regulations, certain activities conducted on foreign soil, add standards for area posting and sealed radioactive source control, and add a removable surface radioactivity value for tritium

  1. Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with calcium silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. Green; Amey S. Bailey; Scott W. Bailey; John J. Battles; John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Lucie C. Lepine; Gene E. Likens; Scott V. Ollinger; Paul G. Schaberg

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition during the 20th century caused widespread depletion of available soil calcium (Ca) throughout much of the industrialized world. To better understand how forest ecosystems respond to changes in a component of acidification stress, an 11.8-ha watershed was amended with wollastonite, a calcium silicate mineral, to restore available soil Ca to preindustrial...

  2. 76 FR 80230 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntington, WV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Approach Procedures have been developed at Tri- State/Milton J. Ferguson Field Airport. This action... publication of conforming amendments. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Fornito, Operations Support Group... new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for Tri-State/Milton J. Ferguson Field Airport...

  3. 75 FR 7428 - Amendments to Enforceable Consent Agreement Procedural Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Amendments to Enforceable Consent Agreement Procedural Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Manufacturers Association; several public meetings to discuss the procedures were held before the procedural... formally concluded, or have been terminated. EPA now proposes to revise the ECA procedural rule to increase...

  4. 75 FR 56472 - Amendments to Enforceable Consent Agreement Procedural Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... Amendments to Enforceable Consent Agreement Procedural Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... provide procedural safeguards equivalent to those that apply where testing is conducted by rule. B. What... comments indicated support for the ECA procedural changes, and had a few specific suggestions: Comment 1...

  5. 76 FR 27274 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...; facsimile 703-602-0350. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This final rule amends DFARS by adding language at 225... considerations when supporting contingency operations. The rule also adds language and a new subpart at 225.78... the geographic combatant commander, which may include support such as military exercises/training...

  6. 30 CFR 943.16 - Required program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....16 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TEXAS § 943.16 Required program amendments. Pursuant to 30 CFR 732.17(f)(1), Texas is required to submit to OSM by the specified date the...

  7. 30 CFR 904.26 - Required plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARKANSAS § 904.26 Required plan... proposed plan amendment by the date specified. (a)-(b) ...

  8. 77 FR 4228 - Technical Amendments and Corrections to DEA Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ..., 1308, 1309, 1310, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1316 [Docket No. DEA-356] Technical Amendments and Corrections to DEA Regulations AGENCY: Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Department of Justice. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule updates the Code of Federal Regulations pertaining to DEA by...

  9. 29 CFR 6.42 - Amendments to pleadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... scope of the original complaint and are tried by express or implied consent of the parties, they shall... Administrative Law Judge and upon such terms as he/she may approve. Such amendments shall be allowed when justice... such terms as are just, permit supplemental pleadings setting forth transactions, occurrences or events...

  10. 75 FR 23580 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...-1155; Airspace Docket No. 09-ACE-14] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA AGENCY: Federal... Mapleton, IA, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at James G. Whiting Memorial Field Airport, Mapleton, IA. The FAA is...

  11. 75 FR 37292 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ...-0085; Airspace Docket No. 10-ACE-1] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA AGENCY: Federal... Cherokee, IA. Decommissioning of the Pilot Rock non-directional beacon (NDB) at Cherokee County Regional Airport, Cherokee, IA has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument...

  12. 76 FR 73501 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ...-0845; Airspace Docket No. 11-ACE-19] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA AGENCY: Federal... Carroll, IA. Decommissioning of the Carroll non-directional beacon (NDB) at Arthur N. Neu Airport, Carroll, IA, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule...

  13. 75 FR 23581 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ...-1153; Airspace Docket No. 09-ACE-13] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA AGENCY: Federal... Emmetsburg, IA, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Emmetsburg Municipal Airport, Emmetsburg, IA. The FAA is taking...

  14. Texas Superintendents' Role in Student Fourth Amendment Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, Stacey

    This study analyzed the current student drug testing policies of Texas public school districts in the context of the Fourth Amendment rights of students. Court decisions on this issue conflict, and school administrators, attorneys, and other concerned parties may be interested in knowing school districts policies. Responses were received from 827…

  15. Biochar Soil Amendment Effects on Arsenic Availability to Mountain Brome ().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawn, Daniel G; Rigby, April C; Baker, Leslie L; Coleman, Mark D; Koch, Iris

    2015-07-01

    Biochar is a renewable energy byproduct that shows promise for remediating contaminated mine sites. A common contaminant at mine sites is arsenic (As). In this study, the effects of biochar amendments to a mine-contaminated soil on As concentrations in mountain brome ( Nees ex Steud.) were investigated. In the biochar-amended soil, mountain brome had greater root biomass and decreased root and shoot As concentrations. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy results showed that arsenate [As(V)] is the predominant species in both the nonamended and biochar-amended soils. Soil extraction tests that measure phosphate and arsenate availability to plants failed to accurately predict plant tissue As concentrations, suggesting the arsenate bioavailability behavior in the soils is distinct from phosphate. Results from this study indicate that biochar will be a beneficial amendment to As-contaminated mine sites for remediation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  16. Mineralization of Nitrogen in Hydromorphic Soils Amended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    of cumulative nitrogen released in the waste amended soil followed the order: sewage sludge>kitchen waste> poultry manure> oil palm waste> ... production of synthetic fertilizers, the cost and environmental problems associated with alternative disposal methods. Of the many problems associated with organic farming and ...

  17. 13 CFR 302.7 - Amendments and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amendments and changes. 302.7 Section 302.7 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... to Projects made without EDA's approval are made at the Recipient's risk of non-payment of costs...

  18. Pleurotus pulmonarius cultivation on amended palm press fibre waste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bola

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... straw, bagasse, cornstalks, waste cotton, banana stalks and leaves can be used for Pleurotus .... pulmonarius cultivated on sawdust, cassava peels and oil palm fibre (15 g) in the work of Onuoha et al. (2009) .... amended with oil palm effluent, fibre and N.P.K fertilizer. Chem. Mater. Res. 3: 52-55. Akinyele S ...

  19. 46 CFR 176.120 - Certificate of Inspection amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cognizant OCMI by the owner or managing operator of the vessel at any time there is a change in the... of the original. An amended Certificate of Inspection may be issued to authorize and record a change in the dimensions, gross tonnage, owner, managing operator, manning, persons permitted, route...

  20. 18 CFR 153.22 - Amendments and withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amendments and withdrawals. 153.22 Section 153.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... CONSTRUCT, OPERATE, OR MODIFY FACILITIES USED FOR THE EXPORT OR IMPORT OF NATURAL GAS Paper Media and Other...

  1. 75 FR 33099 - Amendment to Municipal Securities Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... has undertaken, in a written agreement or contract for the benefit of holders of the issuer's... of ten business days after the event's occurrence; amend the list of events for which a notice is to... provisions of the federal securities laws. DATES: Effective Date: August 9, 2010, except Part 241 will be...

  2. Effects of rock phosphate amended with poultry manure on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of rock phosphate (Sokoto and Ogun rock phosphates) amended with poultry manure on soil available phosphate (P) and yield of maize and cowpea grown sequentially was evaluated for four cropping seasons. The results obtained showed superiority of single super phosphate (SSP) application over either ...

  3. Influence of amendments on soil structure and soil loss under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... and improve water infiltration, delay runoff engenderation and decrease runnoff velocity and soil erosion yield. Finally, this study also ascertained optimal application quantities and the most effective sort in three amendments, which PPA is most effective at lowering surface runoff, reducing soil loss.

  4. Comparative effects of organic soil amendments and carbofuran on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of four organic soil amendments (cow dung, cocoa pod husk, poultry manure and wood ash) and carbofuran treatments on Meloidogyne incognita inducing root-knot disease of cacao seedlings. All soil treatments reduced the nematode population in soil and root of ...

  5. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Amendment No. 4 of the application for licensing the Barnwell Fuel Processing Plant is presented. Information is included on: the quantity and characteristics of nuclear fuel assemblies which can be received and stored; specifications limiting the outside washdown of contaminated casks received for unloading; and definition of environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  6. 78 FR 46795 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ...: In order to update certain elements in 48 CFR parts 2, 22, 29, and 52, this document makes editorial... cargo, as defined in 46 U.S.C. 40102(4)'' in its place. PART 22--APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT... place. PART 52--SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES 0 4. Amend section 52.209-6 by-- 0 a...

  7. 10 CFR 60.46 - Particular activities requiring license amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Particular activities requiring license amendment. 60.46 Section 60.46 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... or disposal of records required to be maintained under the provisions of this part. (5) Any...

  8. Calcium amendment may increase hydraulic efficiency and forest evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    2013-01-01

    Green et al. (1) report 2 y of increased evapotranspiration (ET; calculated as the difference between total precipitation and total runoff) and decreased water yield following watershed-scale amendment of soil with wollastonite (CaSiO3) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The...

  9. 76 FR 58715 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Wrightstown, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...-0623; Airspace Docket No. 11-AEA-15] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Wrightstown, NJ AGENCY: Federal... Class E airspace for the Wrightstown, NJ, area, by changing Allaire Airport to Monmouth Executive Airport, Belmar, NJ. This action also updates the airspace descriptions to be in concert with the FAAs...

  10. 76 FR 31822 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mosby, MO AGENCY: Federal... Mosby, MO. Decommissioning of the Mosby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Midwest National Air Center Airport, Mosby, MO, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument...

  11. 76 FR 55273 - Federal Travel Regulation; Per Diem, Miscellaneous Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Travel Regulation; Per Diem, Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General...) reimbursement on travel days; extending agencies the authority to issue blanket actual expense approval for TDY...; 0 b. By removing ``agency'' and adding ``agency's Travel Manager'' in its place whenever it appears...

  12. Efficacy of organic soil amendments on the population of meloidne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... period interactions on the tested parameters. However, 8 t/ha of poultry in manure (PM) with 6 weeks decomposition period (PM x 8t/ha x 6 wk) interaction recorded the most outstanding effect other interactions. Keywords: organic soil amendments, Meloidogyne incognita, okra. Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science Vol ...

  13. 78 FR 64223 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ..., November 07, 2013, 8:00 a.m. to November 07, 2013, 6:00 p.m., Bethesda North Marriott Hotel & Conference..., 2013, 78FR53154. The meeting notice is amended to change the meeting location to the Gaithersburg...

  14. 75 FR 44274 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ..., October 21, 2010, 8 a.m. to October 21, 2010, 5 p.m., Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, (Formerly Holiday Inn..., 2010, 75 FR 39547. This FRN amendment has been processed to change the location of this meeting from the Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda MD 20814 to the Legacy Hotel and...

  15. 75 FR 79009 - National Cancer Institute; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    .... This notice is amending the location of the meeting from the Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin... Therapeutics Program (NExT), January 6, 2011, 8:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m., Doubletree Hotel Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin...

  16. 40 CFR 152.44 - Application for amended registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for amended registration. 152.44 Section 152.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Registration Procedures § 152.44 Application...

  17. 75 FR 45610 - Liberty Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Liberty Gas Storage LLC; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on July 26, Liberty Gas Storage LLC (``Liberty''), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, CA 92101, filed in the above referenced... directed to William Rapp, Liberty Gas Storage, 101 Ash Street, San Diego, CA 92101, phone (619) 699-5050...

  18. Efficacy Of Solarization And Seaweeds Amendment In The Control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of soil solarization with or without seaweeds (Caulerpa prolifera and Ulva lactuca) amendment on the faba bean root rot caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. fabae was evaluated under field conditions. Soil temperature in solarized plots reached a maximum of 55, 53ºC at the two depths 5 and 10 cm respectively.

  19. 75 FR 65641 - Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Risk Communication Advisory Committee; Amendment of Notice AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee. This meeting was announced in the Federal Register...

  20. 78 FR 9311 - Hazard Communication; Corrections and Technical Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-H022K-2006-0062 (formerly Docket No. H022K)] RIN 1218-AC20 Hazard Communication... amended by the Hazard Communication Standard final rule, published in the Federal Register on March 26... inquiries: Frank Meilinger, Director, Office of Communications, OSHA, Room N-3647, U.S. Department of Labor...

  1. Mineralization of Nitrogen in Hydromorphic Soils Amended with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to 320.00 mg kg-1 for Mangrove soil (mangal acid sulphate soils). The order of cumulative nitrogen released in the waste amended soil followed the order: sewage sludge>kitchen waste> poultry manure> oil palm waste> cow manure. Total mineralized N indicated negative correlation with total organic N and C:N ratio ...

  2. 75 FR 27637 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Claremore, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ..., OK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Claremore, OK, adding additional controlled airspace to accommodate Area..., OK. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR...

  3. 78 FR 50323 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lexington, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lexington, OK AGENCY... airspace at Muldrow Army Heliport, Lexington, OK. Changes to military mission requirements require..., Lexington, OK (78 FR 33017) Docket No. FAA-2013-0272. Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  4. 76 FR 73502 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ardmore, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Ardmore, OK AGENCY: Federal... Ardmore, OK. Decommissioning of the Arbuckle non-directional beacon (NDB) and cancellation of the NDB Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at Ardmore Municipal Airport, Ardmore, OK, as well as the...

  5. 36 CFR 1150.48 - PER: Citation, answer, amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PER: Citation, answer...; Pleadings and Motions § 1150.48 PER: Citation, answer, amendment. (a) Unless otherwise specified, other..., the citation shall request PER when it appears to the Executive Director that immediate and...

  6. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ...-0894; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-14] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV AGENCY: Federal... Mercury, Desert Rock Airport, Mercury, NV. Decommissioning of the Mercury Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport has made this action necessary for the safety and management of Instrument...

  7. Effects of different organic amendments on seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A screen house study was carried out to assess the effects of three organic amendments (poultry droppings – pd, brewer's spent grain – bsg and wood shavings-ws) on the germination of four crops (Maize: Zea mays, Cowpea: Vigna sinensis, Okro: Abelmoschus esculentum and pepper: Capsicum annum), and on some ...

  8. Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt. The soil samples were polluted at four different levels (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) with crude oil and amended with organic supplement (decomposed Centrosem ...

  9. Impact of the 1978 ADEA Amendments on Employee Benefit Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamorsky, Jeffrey D.

    1978-01-01

    The impact on employee benefit plans of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act amendments that raised the mandatory retirement age is addressed through a discussion and analysis of legislative history, court decisions, Department of Labor regulations, wage-hour rulings, and opinion letters. (Author/JMD)

  10. 18 CFR 4.96 - Amendment of exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 4.96 Section 4.96 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT LICENSES, PERMITS, EXEMPTIONS, AND DETERMINATION OF PROJECT COSTS Exemption of Small Conduit Hydroelectric Facilities § 4.96 Amendment of exemption...

  11. 76 FR 44656 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Treasury. ACTION: Adoption of Privacy Act Systems of Records. SUMMARY: The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC), a bureau of the...

  12. Surplus? What surplus? Did the pension funds second amendment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Pension Funds Second Amendment Act, 2001 required funds to provide statutory minimum benefits for exiting members and pensioners. Any surplus arising at the statutory valuation following the promulgation of this Act was to be distributed—initially to former members and pensioners to top up their benefits to the ...

  13. 77 FR 67802 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... services, and consumer behavior with respect to such products or services. The CFPB will maintain control..., risks, and benefits of such products or services, and consumer behavior with respect to such products or... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer...

  14. 21 CFR 814.37 - PMA amendments and resubmitted PMA's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PMA amendments and resubmitted PMA's. 814.37 Section 814.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... heading and paragraph (b), effective Aug. 16, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is...

  15. 48 CFR 750.7106-2 - Amendments without consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... consideration. 750.7106-2 Section 750.7106-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7106-2 Amendments without consideration. (a) Where an... of performance, considerations of fairness may make appropriate some adjustment in the contract. ...

  16. Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. License application, FSAR, amendment 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-08-01

    FSAR Amendment No. 6 consists principally of revisions of the portions relating to: (1) facilities for the interim storage of solid waste, (2) handling of spent iodine scrubber solutions, and (3) the rise of N 2 O 4 as an oxidizer. (LK)

  17. 12 CFR 1403.7 - Request for amendment to record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1403.7 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.7... that the record be amended. Such a request shall be submitted to the Privacy Act Officer and shall... Privacy Act Officer shall acknowledge receipt of the request within 10 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays...

  18. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section 303 of the Enhanced Border Security and Visa... closely with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The Biometric Visa Program is a partner program to... under the Biometric Visa Program were also coordinated with the Department of Homeland Security to...

  19. Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of soil samples treated with 10% (v/w) Escravos light crude oil and amended with chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer revealed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts were depressed while the proliferation of crude oil degrading bacteria (CDB) in the soil was encouraged. The counts of CDB in oil free ...

  20. 77 FR 13329 - Pandemic Influenza Vaccines-Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Pandemic Influenza Vaccines... Secretary issued a declaration for pandemic influenza vaccines, which has been amended a number of times. The original pandemic influenza vaccine declaration was published on January 26, 2007,\\1\\ and was...

  1. 41 CFR 101-1.111 - Retention of FPMR amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Retention of FPMR amendments. 101-1.111 Section 101-1.111 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101...

  2. 45 CFR 613.4 - Amendment of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... amendment of records must be made in writing to the NSF Privacy Act Officer, National Science Foundation... be notified in writing of the reasons why the appeal was denied and advised of your right to seek judicial review of the decision. The letter will also notify you of your right to file with the Foundation...

  3. Nitrogen Transformations in Broiler Litter-Amended Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokoasse Kpomblekou-A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mineralization rates in ten surface soils amended with (200 μg N g−1 soil or without broiler litter were investigated. The soil-broiler litter mixture was incubated at 25±1∘C for 28 weeks. A nonlinear regression approach for N mineralization was used to estimate the readily mineralizable organic N pools (N0 and the first-order rate constant (k. The cumulative N mineralized in the nonamended soils did not exceed 80 mg N kg−1 soil. However, in Decatur soil amended with broiler litter 2, it exceeded 320 mg N kg−1 soil. The greatest calculated N0 of the native soils was observed in Sucarnoochee soil alone (123 mg NO3− kg−1 soil which when amended with broiler litter 1 reached 596 mg N kg−1 soil. The added broiler litter mineralized initially at a fast rate (k1 followed by a slow rate (k2 of the most resistant fraction. Half-life of organic N remaining in the soils alone varied from 33 to 75 weeks and from 43 to 15 weeks in the amended soils. When N0 was regressed against soil organic N (=0.782∗∗ and C (=0.884∗∗∗, positive linear relationships were obtained. The N0 pools increased with sand but decreased with silt and clay contents.

  4. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Program Amendments Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule amends the RFS2 regulations of 40 CFR Part 80 Subpart M to correct regulatory language that was inconsistent or that inadvertently misrepresented EPA’s intent as reflected in the preamble to the final RFS2 regulations.

  5. Student First Amendment Rights: Wisconsin School Board Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Gordon B.

    Issues in students' First Amendment rights are discussed in this paper, which is directed toward school board members. The "Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Schools" (1969) decision is discussed, in which the United States Supreme Court struck down the discipline imposed on students who wore black armbands during school hours to protest…

  6. Fertiliser credit and agroecological use of organic soil amendments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, household heads also preferentially joined credit groups. This was part of an agroecological soil fertility management strategy. Household heads appreciated the soil moisture retention properties of organic amendments, and applied them to compound farms to reduce risk to their household food supply in a ...

  7. 78 FR 8022 - Reorganization and Delegation of Authority; Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ....). Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 Executive Orders 12866 and 13563 direct agencies to assess all costs and... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards 29 CFR Parts 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406... Amendments AGENCY: Office of Labor-Management Standards, Department of Labor. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  8. Radiological Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002. Number 3 of 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Act amends the Radiological Protection Acts, 1991 and 1995, and provides for the making of grants out of funds provided by the legislature for remediation works for houses having certain levels of radon gas and for the administration by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland of such grants and to provide for related matters

  9. 15 CFR 325.7 - Amending the certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amending the certificate. 325.7 Section 325.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS EXPORT TRADE CERTIFICATES...

  10. 75 FR 2511 - Manual for Courts-Martial; Proposed Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... pornography under Article 134 in Part IV of the MCM. The JSC is satisfied the other proposed amendments are.... Recommended that the proposed `Child pornography' addition to Article 134, UCMJ, should be broadened to...--(Child pornography) a. Text. See paragraph 60. b. Elements. (1) Possessing, receiving, or viewing child...

  11. Biogenic coal-to-methane conversion efficiency decreases after repeated organic amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Katherine J.; Barnhart, Elliott P.; Fields, Matthew W.; Gerlach, Robin

    2018-01-01

    Addition of organic amendments to coal-containing systems can increase the rate and extent of biogenic methane production for 60–80 days before production slows or stops. Understanding the effect of repeated amendment additions on the rate and extent of enhanced coal-dependent methane production is important if biological coal-to-methane conversion is to be enhanced on a commercial scale. Microalgal biomass was added at a concentration of 0.1 g/L to microcosms with and without coal on days 0, 76, and 117. Rates of methane production were enhanced after the initial amendment but coal-containing treatments produced successively decreasing amounts of methane with each amendment. During the first amendment period, 113% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, whereas in the second and third amendment periods, 39% and 32% of carbon added as amendment was recovered as methane, respectively. Additionally, algae-amended coal treatments produced ∼38% more methane than unamended coal treatments and ∼180% more methane than amended coal-free treatments after one amendment. However, a second amendment addition resulted in only an ∼25% increase in methane production for coal versus noncoal treatments and a third amendment addition resulted in similar methane production in both coal and noncoal treatments. Successive amendment additions appeared to result in a shift from coal-to-methane conversion to amendment-to-methane conversion. The reported results indicate that a better understanding is needed of the potential impacts and efficiencies of repeated stimulation for enhanced coal-to-methane conversion.

  12. Interactions of diuron with dissolved organic matter from organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, Mathieu; Dousset, Sylvie; Hertkorn, Norbert; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Andreux, Francis

    2009-07-01

    Diuron is frequently detected in some drinking water reservoirs under the Burgundy vineyards, where organic amendments are applied. The environmental effect of these amendments on pesticide transport is ambiguous: on the one hand it could enhance their retention by increasing soil organic carbon content; on the other hand, dissolved organic matter (DOM) could facilitate their transport. Elutions were performed using columns packed with glass beads in order to investigate DOM-diuron interactions, and the possible co-transport of diuron and DOM. Four organic amendments (A, B, C and D) were tested; C and D were sampled at fresh (F) and mature (M) stages. An increase in diuron leaching was observed only for A and D(F) amendments (up to 16% compared to the DOM-free blank samples), suggesting a DOM effect on diuron transport. These results could be explained by the higher DOM leaching for A and D(F) compared to B, C(F), C(M) and D(M) increasing diuron-DOM interactions. These interactions seem to be related to the aromatic and aliphatic content of the DOM, determining formation of hydrogen and non-covalent bonds. The degree of organic matter maturity does not seem to have any effect with amendment C, while a reduction in diuron leaching is observed between D(F) and D(M). After equilibrium dialysis measurement of diuron-DOM complexes, it appeared that less than 3% of the diuron applied corresponded to complexes with a molecular weight >1000 Da. Complexes <1000 Da could also take part in this facilitated transport.

  13. Teaching about Big Money in Elections: To Amend or Not to Amend the U.S. Constitution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwick, James M. M.; Levy, Brett L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Last summer, California and Massachusetts became the sixth and seventh states--along with Hawaii, New Mexico, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Maryland--to send a resolution to the U.S. Congress calling for a constitutional amendment to (1) end the court's extension of personhood rights to corporations, and (2) enable the government to definitively…

  14. Coverage or Cover-up: A Comparison of Newspaper Coverage of the 19th Amendment and the Equal Rights Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda Lazier

    A study compared newspaper coverage of the women's suffrage movement in the 1920s with coverage of efforts to pass the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1970s and early 1980s, to see if the similar movements with different outcomes were treated similarly or differently by the press. A content analysis of relevant articles in the "New York…

  15. 75 FR 14478 - Executive Order 11423, as Amended; Notice of Receipt of Application To Amend the Presidential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Application To Amend the Presidential Permit for the Nogales-Mariposa International Border Crossing on the U.S... Transportation for the Nogales- Mariposa port of entry (Mariposa) at Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora... establish Mariposa as a border crossing for pedestrians. According to the application, approximately 45% of...

  16. Air pollution meteorology and the clean air act amendments of 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roffman, A.

    1977-01-01

    Although the 94th Congress did not finalize and adopt these amendments, it is important to evaluate the implications associated with them since, in all likelihood, these or very similar amendments will be adopted in the coming year. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate various aspects associated with the suggested Clean Air Act amendments and to put them in perspective from the view point of air pollution meteorology. In particular, this paper includes a discussion of: air pollution dispersion modeling and meteorological issues and their relationship to the suggested amendments and enforcement issues related to the suggested amendments through ambient air quality monitoring

  17. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  18. Quebec petroleum regulations to be amended this spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Y.A.; Meighen, M.

    1996-01-01

    Amendments proposed by the Government of Quebec with respect to petroleum products regulations were described. The amending regulation provides a list of works which will no longer require ministerial authorization such as the removal of petroleum equipment, the installation of spill prevention systems, electrical works and repair of fueling areas, loading and unloading zones. An owner will not be required to remove an unused underground petroleum storage tank if it can be shown that it is impervious according to prescribed pressure tests, and that the period during which the equipment has been unused does not exceed five years. The draft regulations also provide precautionary measures that have to be taken prior to abandoning a tank

  19. Tank waste remediation system retrieval authorization basis amendment task plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    This task plan is a documented agreement between Nuclear Safety and Licensing and the Process Development group within the Waste Feed Delivery organization. The purpose of this task plan is to identify the scope of work, tasks and deliverables, responsibilities, manpower, and schedules associated with an authorization basis amendment as a result of the Waste Feed Waste Delivery Program, Project W-211, and Project W-TBD

  20. Effects of Amendment of Agricultural Bye Products with Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agricultural by-products (sole and amended forms) produced higher values of soil pH, Ca, Mg and O.M compared to NPK fertilizer. The soil O.M, pH, Ca and Mg contents in NPK fertilizer treatment decreased with the number of cropping. Spent grain + poultry manure increased soil O.M (2.46%), Ca (0.57mmol/kg), ...

  1. Organ donation: new hope through the expected amendment in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, G M; Radünz, S; Becker, S; Thavarajah, S; Paul, A; Heuer, M

    2014-01-01

    The current organ donor shortage in Germany results in the death of 1000 patients on the transplant waiting list every year. In response, a recent amendment to the German Transplant Act aiming to increase donor rates was passed. Among a number of other measures, Germans are asked to decide whether they choose to donate organs or not in the event of a brain death or whether they would like to designate someone who should decide for them in this situation. The objective of this study was to collect and evaluate data on the public's attitude toward organ donation before the expected amendment. A survey on the subject of organ donation was conducted in 2011 among clients of a public pharmacy in a major city in the federal state North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Data regarding sex, age, health behavior, and attitude toward the amendment were collected and association organ donor card possession was analyzed. A total of 1485 questionnaires were evaluated. Of those surveyed, only 14.1% had an organ donor card. No statistically significant associations between sex (P value .3045), age (P value .1453) and the possession of a donor card were observed. We found that 72.5% of respondents stated that they appreciated the expected amendment, and in the case of implementation, the majority would obtain an organ donor card. The future success of transplantation medicine relies on an increase in the public's overall willingness to donate organs. Educating the public and ensuring transparency in transplantation medicine are vital to achieving higher donation rates. The new German transplantation act may be an important step to increase society's awareness and participation in organ donation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccesible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils (790-1300 mg Pb kg-1), one from a garden and one from a city lot in Cleveland, OH, were incubated in a bench scale experiment for 1 yr. Six phosphate amendments, including bone meal, fish bone, poultry litter, monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, and triple superphosphate, were added to containers at two application rates. Lead IVBA was assessed using USEPA Method 1340 and three modified versions of this method. Modifications included using solutions with pH 1.5 and 2.5 as well as using solutions with and without 0.4 mol L-1 glycine. Soil amendments were effective in reducing IVBA Pb in these soils as measured by pH 1.5 with glycine buffer. The greatest reductions in IVBA Pb, from 5 to 26%, were found using pH 2.5 extractions. Lead mineral results showed several soil amendments promoted Pb phosphate formation, an indicator of remediation success. A significant negative linear relationship between reduction in IVBA Pb and Pb-phosphate formation was found only for pH 2.5 without glycine extraction solution. A modified USEPA Method 1340 without glycine and using pH 2.5 has the potential to predict P soil treatment efficacy and reductions in bioavailable Pb. Developing mana

  3. POSSIBLE DIRECTIONS FOR AMENDMENTS OF CROATIAN COMPANY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Jakšić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to provide directions for some possible future amendments of domestic company law regulation. Intent of such amendments is to facilitate creation of a more competitive and understandable legal framework that will be equally attractive to both domestic and foreign investors. Establishment of such legal framework can contribute to the strengthening of economy and legal certainty as well as creation of a favourable investment environment. Contribution is divided into two distinct parts. First part provides suggestions relating to amendments in the field of company incorporation. For example, consideration is given to establishment of one stop shop service as well as online incorporation, introduction of the limited liability company without the minimal share capital requirement and other similar areas which can contribute to the simplification of company incorporation procedure (e.g. abolition of the founder’s statement of tax debt non-existence. Second part provides suggestions for amendments aimed at improvement of existing legal solutions and removal of ambiguities that undermine legal certainty which can result in non-uniform application in business dealings and judicial practice. For example, suggestions are given in regard to the clearance given to the management and supervisory board members of a private company limited by shares, decision making by shareholders through use of means that do not require them to be physically present at the general meeting of a private company limited by shares, fee approval to the members of the first supervisory board of a public company limited by shares, attendance of management board members at the supervisory board meetings and making counter-proposals by company shareholders before and during the general meeting of the company.

  4. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make...... regulations, conferred by the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 are fit for purpose; and to provide for related matters....

  5. Remediation of metal contaminated soil with mineral-amended composts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herwijnen, Rene van [University of Surrey, School of Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R. [Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Al-Tabbaa, Abir [University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Moffat, Andy J. [Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Johns, Mike L. [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Ouki, Sabeha K. [University of Surrey, School of Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.ouki@surrey.ac.uk

    2007-12-15

    This study examined the use of two composts derived from green waste and sewage sludge, amended with minerals (clinoptilolite or bentonite), for the remediation of metal-contaminated brownfield sites to transform them into greenspace. Soils contaminated with high or low levels of metals were mixed with the mineral-enhanced composts at different ratios and assessed by leaching tests, biomass production and metal accumulation of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The results showed that the green waste compost reduced the leaching of Cd and Zn up to 48% whereas the composted sewage sludge doubled the leachate concentration of Zn. However, the same soil amended with composted sewage sludge showed an efficient reduction in plant concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn by up to 80%. The results suggest that metal immobilisation and bioavailability are governed by the formation of complexes between the metals and organic matter. The amendment with minerals had only limited effects. - Composts can increase or decrease the bioavailability of metals in soil.

  6. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Amendments to Soil as Nematode Suppressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1986-01-01

    Inorganic fertilizers containing ammoniacal nitrogen or formulations releasing this form of N in the soil are most effective for suppressing nematode populations. Anhydrous ammonia has been shown to reduce soil populations of Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, Helicotylenchus dihystera, and Heterodera glycines. The rates required to obtain significant suppression of nematode populations are generally in excess of 150 kg N/ha. Urea also suppresses several nematode species, including Meloidogyne spp., when applied at rates above 300 kg N/ha. Additional available carbon must be provided with urea to permit soil microorganisms to metabolize excess N and avoid phytotoxic effects. There is a direct relation between the amount of "protein" N in organic amendments and their effectiveness as nematode population suppressants. Most nematicidal amendments are oil cakes, or animal excrements containing 2-7% (w:w) N; these materials are effective at rates of 4-10 t/ha. Organic soil amendments containing mucopolysaccharides (e.g., mycelial wastes, chitinous matter) are also effective nematode suppressants. PMID:19294153

  7. Evaluation of amendments used to prevent sodification of irrigated fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinck, Elizabeth; Frost, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Gypsum and S are applied to soils being irrigated with Na-HCO 3 dominated coalbed natural gas (CBNG) produced water to protect soil structure and fertility. Wyoming law requires beneficial use of produced water and irrigation with CBNG produced water in the semi-arid Powder River Basin is becoming more common. Strontium isotopes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the gypsum and S applications in preventing sodification of these irrigated soils. The isotope ratio of Sr on the cation exchange complex of irrigated soil falls between that of the gypsum amendment (0.7074) and that of local soil (0.712-0.713). Strontium isotopes indicate that, to a depth of 30 cm, as much as 50% of the Sr on the irrigated soil cation exchange sites originated from the applied gypsum amendment on a field irrigated for 3 a. This was also true to a depth of 5 cm on a field irrigated less than 1 a. Strontium isotope ratio measurements of vegetation illustrate plant utilization of Sr from gypsum amendments, thereby reinforcing the conclusions about the presence of Sr from gypsum on the soil's exchange sites. This Sr tracing technique may be useful in a wide variety of settings where monitoring soil health is necessary, especially in settings where poor quality water is used for irrigation: a more common occurrence as demand for fresh water increases.

  8. Lead Speciation and Bioavailability in Apatite-Amended Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk G. Scheckel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The in situ sequestration of lead (Pb in sediment with a phosphate amendment was investigated by Pb speciation and bioavailability. Sediment Pb in preamendment samples was identified as galena (PbS with trace amounts of absorbed Pb. Sediment exposed to atmospheric conditions underwent conversion to hydrocerussite and anglesite. Sediments mixed with apatite exhibited limited conversion to pyromorphite, the hypothesized end product. Conversion of PbS to pyromorphite is inhibited under reducing conditions, and pyromorphite formation appears limited to reaction with pore water Pb and PbS oxidation products. Porewater Pb values were decreased by 94% or more when sediment was amended with apatite. The acute toxicity of the sediment Pb was evaluated with Hyalella azteca and bioaccumulation of Pb with Lumbriculus variegatus. The growth of H. azteca may be mildly inhibited in contaminated sediment, with apatite-amended sediments exhibiting on average a higher growth weight by approximately 20%. The bioaccumulation of Pb in L. variegatus tissue decreased with increased phosphate loading in contaminated sediment. The study indicates limited effectiveness of apatite in sequestering Pb if present as PbS under reducing conditions, but sequestration of porewater Pb and stabilization of near-surface sediment may be a feasible and alternative approach to decreasing potential toxicity of Pb.

  9. Enhanced Remedial Amendment Delivery to Subsurface Using Shear Thinning Fluid and Aqueous Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Szecsody, James E.; Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Shen, Xin; Li, Xiqing

    2011-04-23

    A major issue with in situ subsurface remediation is the ability to achieve an even spatial distribution of remedial amendments to the contamination zones in an aquifer or vadose zone. Delivery of amendment to the aquifer using shear thinning fluid and to the vadose zone using aqueous foam has the potential to enhance the amendment distribution into desired locations and improve the remediation. 2-D saturated flow cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the enhanced sweeping, contaminant removal, and amendment persistence achieved by shear thinning fluid delivery. Bio-polymer xanthan gum solution was used as the shear thinning fluid. Unsaturated 1-D column and 2-D flow cell experiments were conducted to evaluate the mitigation of contaminant mobilization, amendment uniform distribution enhancement, and lateral delivery improvement by foam delivery. Surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate was used as the foaming agent. It was demonstrated that the shear thinning fluid injection enhanced the fluid sweeping over a heterogeneous system and increased the delivery of remedial amendment into low-permeability zones. The persistence of the amendment distributed into the low-perm zones by the shear thinning fluid was prolonged compared to that of amendment distributed by water injection. Foam delivery of amendment was shown to mitigate the mobilization of highly mobile contaminant from sediments under vadose zone conditions. Foam delivery also achieved more uniform amendment distribution in a heterogeneous unsaturated system, and demonstrated remarkable increasing in lateral distribution of the injected liquid compared to direct liquid injection.

  10. Alnus as a disturbing factor in pollen diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1959-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that percentages of pollen in a pollen diagram do not express the exact composition of forests in earlier times. This inaccuracy is due to several factors, for instance the different quantities of pollen produced by plants, the distance of transport etc. A pollen diagram

  11. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP’s bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects

  12. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Wang

    Full Text Available Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP's bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g(-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no

  13. Heavy metals and yield of cowpea cultivated under composted tannery sludge amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuna Carmo Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the phytoavailability of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Ni and Pb concentrations in leaves and grains, and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L grown in soil amended with composted tannery sludge (CTS for two consecutive years. The experiments were carried out in 2009 and 2010 in soil amended with CTS at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha-1. The CTS amendment rates applied were above 10 Mg ha-1, increased Cr concentrations in cowpea leaves. There were not increases in the heavy metals concentrations in cowpea grains after two years. In 2009, the application of CTS amendment did not promote increase in plant yield. However, in 2010, CTS amendment at 10 and 20 Mg ha-1 increased cowpea yield. The amendment of composted tannery sludge linearly increased linearly the concentration of Cr in the leaves of cowpea after two years. Composted tannery sludge promoted increases in cowpea yield.

  14. Amendment of the calculation principles for incorporation monitoring; Novellierung der Berechnungsgrundlage zur Inkorporationsueberwachung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosske, D.; Dalheimer, A.; Dettmann, K.; Hartmann, M.; Karcher, K.; Koenig, K.; Scheler, R. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz Oberschleissheim/Berlin (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The present status (January 2002) of the amendment of the calculation principles for incorporation monitoring is presented. This amendment follows very closely the former calculation principles. Only the text is adapted to the new Radiation Protection Ordinance, and to the amendments of the additional guidelines for incorporation monitoring. Moreover, the extensive annex of tables is revised, in the course of which the values were re-calculated by using the recent ICRP models which serve as a basis for the EU Directive. (orig.)

  15. Naval Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    contracts for items that are subject to Berry Amendment and Buy American Act review. Unrestricted GAO reports can be accessed over the Internet at...S T 1 2 , 2 0 1 5 Naval Personnel Can Improve Compliance With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act Report No. DODIG-2015-161 Mission...With the Berry Amendment and the Buy American Act Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether Naval personnel

  16. Характеристика водного обмена листьев Quercus robur L. и Quercus rubra L. в чистых и смешанных группах

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анастасия КРИВОРУЧКО

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of water metabolism of the leaves of English oak (Quercus robur L. and red oak (Quercus rubra L. in pure and mixed groups were examined. Twelve-year-old forest plantations of both species on an area of 1.6 ha were the object of study. It was found that in both pure and mixed groups the leaves of Q. robur are characterized by more intense transpiration than Q. rubra. The joint growth of these species, on the whole, leads to a more active evaporation of water by Q. robur leaves than in the single-species groups. The leaves of Q. rubra in two-species groups lose less or the same amount of water in the transpiration process as in the single-species groups. The leaves of Q. rubra having a higher water storage capacity in both variants are characterized by a more uniform and stable daily course of transpiration. As a result of the joint growth, the water deficit in the leaves of Q. rubra increased in July and September compared to the pure groups. The differences in the leaves of Q. robur between the two studied sites are unreliable. The obtained data indicate the absence of an explicit negative mutual influence between the species on the water metabolism indices of their leaves. Реферат. Изучены особенности водного обмена листьев дуба обыкновенного (Quercus robur L. и дуба красного (Quercus rubra L. в чистых и смешанных группах. Объектами исследования были 12-летние лесные культуры обоих видов, площадью 1,6 га. Установлено, что как в чистых, так и в смешанных группах листья Q. robur характеризуются более интенсивной транспирацией в сравнении с Q. rubra. Совместный рост этих видов приводит, в целом, к более

  17. The fetus as person: Possible legal consequences of the Hogan-Helms Amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilpel, H F

    1974-01-01

    This article enumerates the possible legal questions that would have to be faced should the Hogan-Helms amendment to the U.S. Constitution be passed. The purpose of the amendment is to make all abortions illegal; the fetus is defined as a human being "from the moment of conception." Beyond the problems of defing the "moment of conception" and of the amendment increasing the number of abortions performed illegally, dangerously, and expensively, the passing of the amendment would result in chaos in terms of constitutional law, criminal law, tort law, laws of property and inheritance, tax questions, immigration, and naturalization laws.

  18. 77 FR 33243 - Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating Licenses and Combined Licenses Involving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... expansion process, thermal expansion mismatch between the tube and tubesheet, and from the differential... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0125] Applications and Amendments to Facility Operating...

  19. Lead and zinc bioavailability to Eisenia fetida after phosphorus amendment to repository soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ownby, David R. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Galvan, Kari A. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu

    2005-07-15

    Four phosphorus forms were investigated as potential soil amendments to decrease the bioavailability of Pb and Zn in two repository soils to the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Treatments were evaluated by examining differences in bioaccumulation factors between amended and non-amended soils. Triple super phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased both Pb and Zn bioavailability in both soils. Rock phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased Zn bioavailability, but not Pb bioavailability in both repository soils. Monocalcium phosphate and tricalcium phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg did not significantly decrease Pb or Zn bioavailability to earthworms in either repository soil. In order to optimize phosphorus amendments, additional phosphorus (up to 15,000 mg P/kg) and lowered pH were used in a series of tests. The combination of lowering the pH below 6.0 and increasing phosphorus concentrations caused complete mortality in all triple super phosphate amended soils and partial mortality in the highest rock phosphate amended soils. Results indicate that triple super phosphate and rock phosphate are viable soil amendments, but care should be taken when optimizing amendment quantity and pH so that adverse environmental effects are not a by-product. - Phosphorus form and pH were controlling factors in the effectiveness of phosphorus amendment in decreasing Pb and Zn bioavailability.

  20. Lead and zinc bioavailability to Eisenia fetida after phosphorus amendment to repository soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ownby, David R.; Galvan, Kari A.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Four phosphorus forms were investigated as potential soil amendments to decrease the bioavailability of Pb and Zn in two repository soils to the earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Treatments were evaluated by examining differences in bioaccumulation factors between amended and non-amended soils. Triple super phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased both Pb and Zn bioavailability in both soils. Rock phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg decreased Zn bioavailability, but not Pb bioavailability in both repository soils. Monocalcium phosphate and tricalcium phosphate at 5000 mg P/kg did not significantly decrease Pb or Zn bioavailability to earthworms in either repository soil. In order to optimize phosphorus amendments, additional phosphorus (up to 15,000 mg P/kg) and lowered pH were used in a series of tests. The combination of lowering the pH below 6.0 and increasing phosphorus concentrations caused complete mortality in all triple super phosphate amended soils and partial mortality in the highest rock phosphate amended soils. Results indicate that triple super phosphate and rock phosphate are viable soil amendments, but care should be taken when optimizing amendment quantity and pH so that adverse environmental effects are not a by-product. - Phosphorus form and pH were controlling factors in the effectiveness of phosphorus amendment in decreasing Pb and Zn bioavailability