Sample records for alnus nepalensis betulaceae

  1. Influence of roadside pollution on the phylloplane microbial community of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae). (United States)

    Joshi, S R


    The North Eastern region of India is undergoing industrial development at a faster rate than expected. Roads form the main system of transportation and communication owing to the hilly topography of the region. Automobiles discharge a number of gaseous and trace metal contaminants. Human activities like stone grinding, road construction and sand milling also increase the atmospheric dust and heavy metal contaminant level. These contaminants get settled on leaf surfaces at roadsides and enter in contact with phylloplane microorganisms. This study compares microorganisms on leaf surfaces of alder (Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae)) on roadside and non-roadside environments. Two sites dominated by alder were selected. One at a busy road intersection on the National Highway no. 44 in Shillong with high traffic density (8 000-9 000 heavy vehicles/day), taken as the polluted site and the other one in a forest approximately 500 m away from the roadside considered as the unpolluted site. Analysis of phylloplane microorganisms, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur was carried out from leaves. The bacterial population was higher at the unpolluted site. Bacterial population showed a significant negative correlation with lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur. Similarly, fungal population was higher at the unpolluted site. A total of 29 fungal species were isolated from the phylloplane of A. nepalensis (polluted site 16 species; unpolluted site 28 species). Some fungal forms like Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Aureobasidium pollulans were dominant in the polluted site. Numbers of phylloplane fungi and bacteria were significantly reduced in the polluted site. The correlation coefficient indicated a detrimental effect of metals like lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur on the microbial community of leaf surfaces. The specificity of certain fungi to the unpolluted site may be attributed to their sensitivity to pollution. The predominance of Aureobasidium pollulans

  2. Diarylheptanoid compounds from Alnus nepalensis express in vitro and in vivo antifilarial activity. (United States)

    Yadav, Deepti; Kushwaha, Vikas; Saxena, Kirti; Verma, Richa; Murthy, P Kalpana; Gupta, Madan M


    A large number of medicinal plants remain to be explored for antifilarial compounds. In the present study a crude methanolic extract of leaves of Alnus nepalensis, chloroform- and n-butanol-partitioned fractions from the crude extract and 6 bioactivity-guided isolated compounds including two new diarylheptanoid from the fractions were assayed for microfilaricidal, macrofilaricidal and female worm sterilizing activity using the lymphatic filariid Brugia malayi in in vitro and in vivo systems. In vitro, the crude methanolic extract exerted better microfilaricidal (LC100: 15.63μg/ml, IC50: 6.00μg/ml) than macrofilaricidal (LC100: >250; IC50: 88μg/ml) activity whereas chloroform and n-butanol fractions were more macrofilaricidal (LC100: 125 and 31.25μg/ml; IC50: 13.14 and 11.84, respectively) than microfilaricidal (LC100: 250-500μg/ml, IC50: 44.16μg/ml). In addition, n-butanol fraction also caused 74% inhibition in MTT reduction potential of the adult worms. In vivo (doses: crude: 100-200mg/kg; fractions: 100mg/kg, i.p.×5 days) the chloroform fraction exerted >50% macrofilaricidal activity whereas methanolic extract and n-butanol fraction produced 38-40% macrofilaricidal action along with some female sterilizing efficacy. Of the 5 diarylheptanoid compounds isolated, alnus dimer, and (5S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-heptanone were found to show the most potent with both macrofilaricidal (LC100: 15.63μg/ml, IC50: 6.57-10.31μg/ml) and microfilaricidal (LC100: 31.25-62.5μg/ml, IC50: 11.05-22.10μg/ml) activity in vitro. These findings indicate that the active diarylheptanoid compounds may provide valuable lead for design and development of new antifilarial agent(s).

  3. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

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    Full Text Available Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixation and capability to restore fertility of degraded lands. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 60 days under controlled conditions to validate the carbon and nutrients mineralization potential of alder litter. Soil fertility indicators, i.e. soil organic carbon (SOC, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K were analyzed using standard procedures. Significant differences were observed in the soil properties after addition of litter. Nutrient composition of alder litter was found superior by providing significantly higher organic matter and helped in better nutrient cycling. Therefore, alder based land use system may be replicated in other degraded lands or areas for productivity enhancement which is important for sustaining biodiversity and soil fertility.

  4. Correlations between the ages of Alnus host species and the genetic diversity of associated endosymbiotic Frankia strains from nodules

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    DAI Yumei; ZHANG Chenggang; XIONG Zhi; ZHANG Zhongze


    Nodule samples were collected from four alder species: Alnus nepalensis, A. sibirica, A. tinctoria and A. mandshurica growing in different environments on Gaoligong Mountains,Yunnan Province of Southwest China and on Changbai Mountains, Jilin Province of Northeast China. PCR-RFLP analysis of the IGS between nifD and nifK genes was directly applied to uncultured Frankia strains in the nodules. A total of 21 restriction patterns were obtained. The Frankia population in the nodules of A. nepalensis had the highest genetic diversity among all four Frankia populations; by contrast, the population in the nodules of A. mandshurica had the lowest degree of divergence; the ones in the nodules of A. sibirica and A. tinctoria were intermediate. A dendrogram, which was constructed based on the genetic distance between the restriction patterns, indicated that Frankia strains from A. sibirica and A. tinctoria had a close genetic relationship. Frankia strains from A. nepalensis might be the ancestor of Frankia strains infecting other Alnus species. From these results and the inference of the ages of Alnus host species, it is deduced that there was a co-evolution between Alnus and its microsymbiont Frankia in China.

  5. Research on the Populations Variation of Alnus cremastogyne I. DNA Extracting and Protocol Optimum for PCR%桤木群体遗传分化研究I. DNA提取和PCR条件的建立

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    卓仁英; 孟现东; 陈益泰


    @@ 桤木(Alnus cremastogyne Burk)为桦木科(Betulaceae)植物,主要分布于四川盆地及其周边地区.桤木喜光、喜湿,根系发达,对土壤要求不严,适应性强,在长江中下游地区防护林建设中具有重要作用.

  6. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna

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    Anna Maria Mercuri


    Full Text Available Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change.

  7. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna) (United States)

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta


    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change. PMID:27929423

  8. Effects of forest road clearings on understory diversity beneath Alnus subcordata L. stands in Iran

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    Seyed A. Hosseini

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Darab Kola forest which is located east of Sari city. After confirming the identity of Alder trees (Alnus subcordata L., Betulaceae at the edge of forest roads, the cross section geometry was classified into without earth works and with earth works. Road clearing limits were divided into less than 10 metres and 10-15 metres. The understory density and canopy cover underneath Alder stands were measured in 20 micro plots. The diversity of woody and herbaceous plant species was calculated by the Simpson index. The results indicated that the canopy cover at the edge of cross sections without earth works was greater than that of sections with earth works at a probability level of 5%. In both classes, the percentage of Rubus hyrcanus L. canopy cover on filled slopes was more than that on cut slopes, whereas the percentage of canopy cover of this species and of bare soil was similar, as well as the biodiversity indices for both sides of cross sections without earth works.

  9. Italian alder (Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. - new species for Allochtonous dendroflora of Serbia

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    Bobinac Martin


    Full Text Available The foreign tree species, Alnus cordata/Loisel./Desf. (Italian alder, (Betulaceae/Loisel./Duby, not previously recorded in the dendroflora of Serbia, is described in this paper. Italian alder trees in an experimental plot in the area of Erdevik, aged 11 years, show good vitality and fast growth, and bear fruits since their 10th year. Tree heights are in range from 10.4 to 16.2 m, and diameters at the breast height range from14.6 to 34.9 cm. The morphological properties of leaves, fruiting organs (“cones” and male catkins are in concordance with the values in literature sources, although they show great variability. Since the time of plantation establishment, the absolute minimum air temperature in the nearby meteorological station of Sremska Mitrovica was -26.50C, so it can be assumed that the species is frost hardy. On the basis of the researched properties of Italian alder, it can be concluded that this species can be cultivated in Serbia as an ornamental in urban areas and as a fast growing species in forest plantations for biomass production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  10. New Diarylheptanoid from the Barks of Alnus japonica Steudel

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    A new diarylheptanoid glycoside, 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptane-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), together with nine known diarylheptanoids (2-10) were isolated from the fresh bark of Alnus japonica which is a species of the genus Alnus species, growing throughout Korea.

  11. Isolation, Nodulation and Characterization of Nodular Endophytes of Coriaria nepalensis

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    Using the micro-dissection method, 273 actinomycete isolates were obtained from root nodules of Coriaria nepalensis. Twenty four Frankia-like isolates were shown to nodulate the host plants through pot experiment. Phenotypic characterization of ten isolates demonstrated that they were of the typical morpbologieal and cultural characteristics of the genus Frankia. These strains were divided into physiological group A, B and A/B where the latter was an intermediate group between the A and B strains. It was evident that group B but not A strains were able to nodulate the host. However, one strain of the group A/B unexpectedly nodulated the host. The utilization of carbon and nitrogen source for the strains was similar to other Frankia. Some strains were of type Ⅲ cell wall ; others were of type Ⅱ. Whole cell sugar patterns were diverse. Besides the common non-diagnostic sugars, most strains were shown to contain xylose and galactose, some contain xylose, galactose and arabinose and few contain galactose or xylose only. The G+C mol % of strains were ranging from 69 to 74.

  12. Antihypertensive Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Passiflora nepalensis Wall

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    S S Patel


    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of an aqueous extract of the whole plant of Passiflora nepalensis wall (APN in renal hypertensive rats. Hypertension in experimental animals was induced by renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR. The blood pressure, pulse pressure and heart rate fell dose-dependently in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats after intravenous administration of 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg APN, suggesting that APN possesses antihypertensive, hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects. Renal IR significantly increased the levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances and reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 versus control in kidney, which was altered after intravenous administration of 160 and 320 mg/kg of APN, suggesting that APN protect kidney from IR injury (p<0.001 versus renal IR. Histological evaluation showed that renal IR increased, whereas APN decreased the focal glomerular necrosis, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, interstitial inflammatory infiltration, and congestion of blood vessels.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of high blood pressure because the modern synthetic medicines have side effects. A large proportion of the Indian population for their physical and psychological health needs depend on traditional system of medicine. Medicinal plants have become the focus of intense study in term of conservation as to whether their traditional uses are supported by actual pharmacological effects or merely based on folklore. Herbal medicines are free from side effects and less costly when compared to synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drugs with fewer side effects, which are affordable and more effective in the treatment of hypertension.

  13. Dormancy and the Influence of photoperiod and temperature on sexual maturity in Nicrophorus nepalensis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

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    Wenbe Hwang; Shiuh-Feng Shiao


    Carrion beetles (Nicrophorus spp.) use small vertebrate carcasses for food and reproduction. Their ecology and behaviors are highly affected by the availability of carcasses and the surrounding environmental conditions. Our results revealed that in subtropical Fushan, northern Taiwan, N. nepalensis was mainly active in spring (February to May), and could also be found in autumn (October and November); but there was no capture record in summer (June to September) and winter (December and January). A laboratory temperature tolerance study indicated that N. nepalensis adults become inactive at temperatures above 26°C, and had the highest mortality when the temperature was raised from 27℃ to 28℃. Furthermore, N. nepalensis became sexually mature at 20℃, depending on the photoperiod: the longer the day, the lower the percentage of sexually mature 2-week-old females after emergence. In another experiment, N. nepalensis virgins were paired under three possible conditions at Fushan. At 15℃ and 20℃, if carcasses were presented to the pairs within 3 days after emergence, all laid eggs in the second week after emergence. If carcasses were presented 1 week after emergence, most began to reproduce at 20℃ with 12.5 h of daylight. However, at 15℃ with 11 h of daylight, the carrion beetles hibernated first, and reproduced in the ninth week after emergence. At 25℃ with 14 h of daylight, carrion beetles did not bury the mouse carcasses, the females did not lay eggs, and the adult lifespan was only one-third of that at 20℃. This study revealed that both photoperiod and temperature influence the time needed to reach the sexual maturity of N. nepalensis; and also implied that the narrow temperature tolerance range and dormancy behavior of carrion beetles are highly regulated by those environmental factors.

  14. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology. (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi


    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit.

  15. Evaluation of enzyme treatment conditions on extraction of anthocyanins from Prunus nepalensis L. (United States)

    Swer, Tanya L; Chauhan, Komal; Paul, Prodyut K; Mukhim, C


    The study was designed to investigate the effect of enzyme assisted extraction of anthocyanins from Sohiong fruit (Prunus nepalensis) under varied time, temperature and treatment conditions. Highest anthocyanins yield was obtained by coupling enzymatic treatment along with solvent extraction simultaneously. Additionally, effect of enzyme type, enzyme concentration, reaction time and temperature were evaluated subsequently in following experiments. Cellulase treatment (10% E/S) for 180min at 4°C exhibited highest yield of 984.40±3.84mg C3G/100gdm which accounts to 14.61% higher yield when compared to conventional method (858.84±6.88mg C3G/100gdm). The study provides an economical alternative for commercial extraction of anthocyanins from Sohiong fruit which can be used as a colourant for various food and other products and owing to its antioxidizing properties can be effective for the prevention and treatment of diseases.

  16. Control of endophytic Frankia sporulation by Alnus nodule metabolites. (United States)

    Hay De-Bettignies, Anne-Emmanuelle; Boubakri, Hasna; Buonomo, Antoine; Rey, Marjolaine; Meiffren, Guillaume; Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Comte, Gilles; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude


    A unique case of microbial symbiont capable of dormancy within its living host cells has been reported in actinorhizal symbioses: some Frankia strains, named Sp+, are able to sporulate inside plant cells, contrarily to Sp- strains. The presence of metabolically slowed down bacterial structures in host cells alters our understanding of symbiosis based on reciprocal benefits between both partners, and its impact on the symbiotic processes remains unknown. The present work reports a metabolomic study of Sp+ and Sp- nodules (from Alnus glutinosa), in order to highlight variabilities associated with in-planta sporulation. A total of 21 amino acids (AA), 44 sugars and organic acids (SOA), and 213 secondary metabolites (M) were detected using UV and mass spectrometric-based profiling. Little change was observed in primary metabolites, suggesting that in-planta sporulation would not strongly affect the primary functionalities of the symbiosis. One secondary metabolite (M27) was detected only in Sp+ nodules. It was identified as Gentisic acid 5-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, previously reported as involved in plant defenses against microbial pathogens. This metabolite significantly increased Frankia in-vitro sporulation, unlike another metabolite significantly more abundant in Sp- nodules (M168 = (5R)-1,7-bis-(3,4-) dihydroxyphenyl)-heptane-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). All these results suggest that the plant could play an important role in Frankia ability to sporulate in-planta, and allow us to discuss a possible sanction emitted by the host against less cooperative Sp+ symbionts.

  17. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. strains CN3 , an atypical, non-infective (Nod-) ineffective (Fix-) isolate from Coriaria nepalensis

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    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten [University of New Hampshire; Beauchemin, Nicholas [University of New Hampshire; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Furnholm, Teal [University of New Hampshire; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gtari, Maher [University of New Hampshire; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nouioui, Imen [University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Santos, Catarina [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Sen, Arnab [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Sur, Saubashya [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tavares, Fernando [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Hazuki, Teshima [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thakur, Subarna [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Wall, Luis [University of Quilmes, Argentina; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tisa, Louis S. [University of New Hampshire


    We report here the genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain CN3, which was isolated from Coriaria nepalensis. This genome sequence is the first from the fourth lineage of Frankia, that are unable to re-infect actinorhizal plants. At 10 Mb, it represents the largest Frankia genome sequenced to date.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-Alnus symbioses

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    Blom, J.


    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules Frankia spp. live within the plant cells and o

  19. 光照条件对旱冬瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响%Effect of Light on Germination of Seed and Seedling Growth of Alnus nepalensis

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    苏文华; 张光飞; 庞慧仙; 张毅宁; 马骏; 王晋; 施荣林


    种子萌发及幼苗光合实验的结果表明,旱冬瓜种子具有需光萌发的特性,黑暗中即使种子处在适于萌发的温度和水分条件下,种子仍保持休眠状态,需接受光照刺激才能解除休眠而萌发,故播种育苗时种子不宜盖土.旱冬瓜幼苗生长的初期光补偿点为12 μmol/m2s,光饱和点为1 000 μmol/m2s,具有一定的耐阴能力,适宜在50 %遮荫条件下生长.随着月龄的增加,耐阴能力下降.6月龄苗光合补偿点上升到21 μmol/m2s,光饱和点超过2 000 μmol/m2s,只有在全光照的条件下才能生长良好,遮荫会降低幼苗高生长量和基径粗生长量.晴天,旱冬瓜幼苗光合作用存在"午睡现象",当植株处于缺水状态时,光合作用的"午睡现象"会更加强烈.表明旱冬瓜适宜种植在次生裸地或撂荒地,种植后应及时除草进行透光抚育.

  20. Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Mexican Alnus forests support the host co-migration hypothesis and continental-scale patterns in phylogeography. (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Higgins, Logan M; Angeles-Arguiz, Rodolfo


    To examine the geographic patterns in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal assemblages and determine how they may relate to host plant biogeography, we studied ECM assemblages associated with two Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and Alnus jorullensis) in montane Mexico and compared them with Alnus-associated ECM assemblages located elsewhere in the Americas. ECM root samples were collected from four sites in Mexico (two per host species), identified with ITS and LSU rRNA gene sequences, and assessed using both taxon- (richness, diversity, evenness indices) and sequence divergence-based (UniFrac clustering and significance) analyses. Only 23 ECM taxa were encountered. Clavulina, an ECM lineage never before reported with Alnus, contained the dominant taxon overall. ECM assemblage structure varied between hosts, but UniFrac significance tests indicated that both associated with similar ECM lineage diversity. There was a strikingly high sequence similarity among a diverse array of the ECM taxa in Mexico and those in Alnus forests in Argentina, the United States, and Europe. The Mexican and United States assemblages had greater overlap than those present in Argentina, supporting the host-ECM fungi co-migration hypothesis from a common north temperate origin. Our results indicate that Alnus-associated ECM assemblages have clear patterns in richness and composition across a wide range of geographic locations. Additional data from boreal western North America as well as the eastern United States and Canada will be particularly informative in further understanding the co-biogeographic patterns of Alnus and ECM fungi in the Americas.

  1. Don't camp beside the river: structure and dynamics of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata forests affected by river floods, northwestern Argentina No acampe junto al río: estructura y dinámica de bosques de aliso (Alnus acuminata del noroeste argentino afectados por crecientes de río

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    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae is a pioneer tree that dominates mountain riparian forests throughout the eastern Andes. Early studies associated these forests with particular microclimatic conditions along river beds, but they were later linked to the periodical disturbance regime of mountain rivers. To understand the dynamics of these forests, we analysed tree age and spatial arrangement in two plots along Potrero river and another plot along La Horqueta river, Tucumán Province, north west Argentina. Through intensive tree coring and age reconstruction we identified similar-aged tree cohorts with maximum age ranges of eight years. Tree mapping and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that tree cohorts were spatially clumped, and provided further evidence that coetaneous patches of A. acuminata arise from massive regeneration following catastrophic flooding events. We tested the association between cohort initiation dates and regional maximum river discharge records by means of a randomization procedure and found weak evidence that establishment occurs after devastating floods, which eliminate previous vegetation and create bare sites suitable for A. acuminata regeneration. Dates of tree floodscars sampled along Potrero river precede by one year the most recent cohort initiation date and provide further support of this association. Although previous studies found a positive correlation between El Niño events and mean annual precipitation in northwestern Argentina, we did not detect an association between El Niño and annual maximum stream flow for rivers in Tucumán Province. Therefore, factors driving devastating floods and A. acuminata stand initiation require further studyEl aliso (Alnus acuminata, Betulaceae es un árbol pionero que domina bosques riparios de montaña en los Andes orientales. Estudios iniciales atribuyeron la presencia de estos bosques a las típicas condiciones microclimáticas de cauces de ríos, pero luego

  2. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico. (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith


    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States.

  3. Evidence that some Frankia sp. strains are able to cross boundaries between Alnus and Elaeagnus host specificity groups. (United States)

    Bosco, M; Fernandez, M P; Simonet, P; Materassi, R; Normand, P


    Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to prove the existence of Frankia strains isolated from an Elaeagnus sp. that are able to cross the inoculation barriers and infect Alnus spp. also. Repeated cycles of inoculation, nodulation, and reisolation were performed under axenic conditions. Frankia wild-type strain UFI 13270257 and three of its coisolates did exhibit complete infectivity and effectiveness on Elaeagnus spp. and Hippophaë rhamnoides and variable infectivity on Alnus spp. Microscopical observation of host plant roots showed that these strains are able to infect Alnus spp. by penetrating deformed root hairs. Reisolates obtained from nodules induced on monoxenic Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, and Elaeagnus angustifolia resembled the parent strains in host infectivity range, in planta and in vitro morphophysiology, isoenzymes, and nif and rrn restriction fragment length polymorphisms, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates on both host plant genera. Alnus and Elaeagnus group-specific polymerase chain reaction DNA amplifications, DNA-DNA hybridizations, and partial gene sequences coding for 16S rRNA provided evidence for the genetic uniformity of wild-type strains and their inclusion into one and the same genomic species, clearly belonging to the Elaeagnus group of Frankia species.

  4. Modeling and simulation of xylitol production in bioreactor by Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 using unstructured and artificial neural network models. (United States)

    Pappu, J Sharon Mano; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N


    This study examines the use of unstructured kinetic model and artificial neural networks as predictive tools for xylitol production by Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 in bioreactor. An unstructured kinetic model was proposed in order to assess the influence of pH (4, 5 and 6), temperature (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient kLa (0.14h(-1), 0.28h(-1) and 0.56h(-1)) on growth and xylitol production. A feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to investigate the effect of process condition on xylitol production. ANN configuration of 6-10-3 layers was selected and trained with 339 experimental data points from bioreactor studies. Results showed that simulation and prediction accuracy of ANN was apparently higher when compared to unstructured mechanistic model under varying operational conditions. ANN was found to be an efficient data-driven tool to predict the optimal harvest time in xylitol production.

  5. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kennedy


    Full Text Available A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi.

  6. Temporal and spatiotemporal autocorrelation of daily concentrations of Alnus, Betula, and Corylus pollen in Poland. (United States)

    Nowosad, J; Stach, A; Kasprzyk, I; Grewling, Ł; Latałowa, M; Puc, M; Myszkowska, D; Weryszko-Chmielewska, E; Piotrowska-Weryszko, K; Chłopek, K; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, B; Uruska, A

    The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of temporal and space-time autocorrelation of pollen counts of Alnus, Betula, and Corylus in the air of eight cities in Poland. Daily average pollen concentrations were monitored over 8 years (2001-2005 and 2009-2011) using Hirst-designed volumetric spore traps. The spatial and temporal coherence of data was investigated using the autocorrelation and cross-correlation functions. The calculation and mathematical modelling of 61 correlograms were performed for up to 25 days back. The study revealed an association between temporal variations in Alnus, Betula, and Corylus pollen counts in Poland and three main groups of factors such as: (1) air mass exchange after the passage of a single weather front (30-40 % of pollen count variation); (2) long-lasting factors (50-60 %); and (3) random factors, including diurnal variations and measurements errors (10 %). These results can help to improve the quality of forecasting models.

  7. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  8. Susceptibility of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) seeds and seedlings to Phytophthora alni and other Phytophthora species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M. M.; Diez, J. J.


    Phytophthora alni is a highly destructive host specific pathogen to alders (Alnus spp.) spreading all over Europe. Recently this pathogen has been reported to cause diseases in common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in Spain. Seeds and seedlings of A. glutinosa were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to alder Phytophthora and other Phytophthora species. Isolates of P. alni ssp. alni, P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. nicotianae and P. palmivora were used in the experiments. Seeds and seedlings were inoculated with a zoospore suspension and uniform mycelial blocks of agar of the Phytophthora species. Susceptibility was calculated in terms of pathogen virulence on seed germination and seedling mortality 42 and 67 days after inoculation respectively. Seed germination and seedling mortality rates varied differently among the isolates used. Results implied that common alder and its seeds and seedlings are at risk to be infected by P. alni. In addition, other Phytophthora species are able to infect this kind of material showing their relative host non-specificity. This is one important finding concerning alder regeneration in infected areas, and the possibility of disease spread on this plant material. (Author) 42 refs.

  9. Leaf photosynthetic characteristics of seedlings of actinorhizal Alnus spp. and Elaeagnus spp. (United States)

    Côté, B; Carlson, R W; Dawson, J O


    Single leaf photosynthetic characteristics of Alnus glutinosa, A. incana, A. rubra, Elaeagnus angustifolia, and E. umbellata seedlings conditioned to ambient sunlight in a glasshouse were assessed. Light saturation occurred between 930 and 1400 μmol m(-2)s(-1) PAR for all species. Maximum rates of net photosynthesis (Pn) measured at 25°C ranged from 12.8 to 17.3 μmol CO2m(-2)s(-1) and rates of dark respiration ranged from 0.74 to 0.95 μmol CO2m(-2)s(-1). These values of leaf photosynthetic variables are typical of early to midsuccessional species. The rate of Pn measured at optimal temperature (20°C) and 530μmol m(-2)s(-1) PAR was significantly (pElaeagnus umbellata and to a lesser degree for E. angustifolia are genetic adaptations related to their crown architecture.

  10. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico. (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith


    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs.

  11. Forecasting model of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula pollen concentration levels using spatiotemporal correlation properties of pollen count. (United States)

    Nowosad, Jakub; Stach, Alfred; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elżbieta; Piotrowska-Weryszko, Krystyna; Puc, Małgorzata; Grewling, Łukasz; Pędziszewska, Anna; Uruska, Agnieszka; Myszkowska, Dorota; Chłopek, Kazimiera; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara

    The aim of the study was to create and evaluate models for predicting high levels of daily pollen concentration of Corylus, Alnus, and Betula using a spatiotemporal correlation of pollen count. For each taxon, a high pollen count level was established according to the first allergy symptoms during exposure. The dataset was divided into a training set and a test set, using a stratified random split. For each taxon and city, the model was built using a random forest method. Corylus models performed poorly. However, the study revealed the possibility of predicting with substantial accuracy the occurrence of days with high pollen concentrations of Alnus and Betula using past pollen count data from monitoring sites. These results can be used for building (1) simpler models, which require data only from aerobiological monitoring sites, and (2) combined meteorological and aerobiological models for predicting high levels of pollen concentration.

  12. Morphological variations of genus Alnus in Iran: assessment of five new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shayanmehr


    Full Text Available The genus Alnus has two species in old references of the flora of Iran in which two varieties and one subspecies have been recorded. However, recently, five new taxa have been described and recorded for the flora of Iran. In this study, the herbarium samples were obtained during a widespread sampling from 25 stands, ranged from the most eastern limit of alder dispersion in Golestan to the west of Talish, across the plains and highlands of Hyrcanian forests. After sampling, 28 leaf and female cone morphological traits belonging to 140 alder individuals were measured and analyzed. The results of discriminant analysis showed 11 most important traits in differentiation of the taxa such as leaf angle in apex, blade shape at the base, type of serration, villosity intensity, presence of hairs on the upper surface of leaf and cone shape. In this analysis, 84.3% of recognized individuals were correctly grouped in the related taxon. The maximum disagreement between predicted and recognized groups corresponded to allocation of A. subcordata varieties to villosa and visc versa. Generally, the morphological traits of the two new species including A. dolichocarpa and A. djavanshirii were very similar to that of A. subcordata var. subcordata. While, three sub-species of A. glutinosa were distinguished by the same traits. Finally, the use of DNA barcoding techniques is suggested in order to verify the presence of new taxa in Iran.

  13. Localization of the porous partition responsible for pressurized gas transport in Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. (United States)

    Buchel, H B; Grosse, W


    The pressurized gas transport which improves the oxygen supply of the roots of the wetland tree black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), is based on the existence of a thermo-osmotically active porous tissue partition in the lower part of the trunk with pore diameters in the range of, or smaller than, the mean free path length of the gas molecules (e.g., 70 nm for O(2) at 20 degrees C and 100 kPa). Anatomical studies have shown that only the cambial layer or the phellogen of the lenticels have intercellular spaces small enough to be responsible for thermo-osmotic activity. The final localization of the thermo-osmotically active partition and the determination of the pore sizes were done by diffusion and effusion experiments with basal trunk pieces of 3- to 4-year-old trees. The mean pore sizes of the intercellular system were not smaller than 100 nm in diameter in the cambial layer separating the bark from the wood, but 14 +/- 7 nm in diameter in the phellogen underlying the lenticels. Because of these small pores, the phellogen of the lenticels is the significant thermo-osmotically active partition for the transport of air to the root system in black alder.

  14. Seasonal changes in nodular nitrogenase activity of Alnus glutinosa and Elaeagnus angustifolia. (United States)

    Zitzer, S F; Dawson, J O


    Root nodule development, and seasonal patterns of nodular nitrogenase and hydrogenase activities were determined for 5- to 8-year old black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) interplanted with black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) on bottomland and upland sites in central Illinois, USA. Black alder produced nodules at both sites, but Russian olive did so only at the bottomland site. Nodular nitrogenase activity was detectable in both species over a 220-day period. Maximum, midday rates of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) of 15 to 20 micromoles C(2)H(4) per g dry nodule per hour were maintained by black alder for approximately 150 days at both the upland and bottomland sites. Near maximum rates of nodular nitrogenase activity were maintained for a similar period by Russian olive at the lowland site, although specific nitrogenase activity was approximately 25% lower than in black alder owing to a larger proportion of necrotic nodular tissue in Russian olive. In both species, nitrogenase activity increased exponentially with temperature between 10 degrees C and 20 to 25 degrees C. No net hydrogen evolution by nodules of either species was detected at any time during the assay period, indicating efficient hydrogenase systems were operating under the conditions of the field assay. Height of black walnut interplanted with nodulated black alder and Russian olive was greater than that of black walnut grown in pure stands.

  15. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand in Japan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hiroyuki Tobita; Shigeaki F Hasegawa; Kenichi Yazaki; Masabumi Komatsu; Mitsutoshi Kitao


    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 fixation to the nitrogen (N) economy in this alder stand, we also measured the phenology of the alder, the litterfall, the decomposition rate of the leaf litter, and N accumulation in the soil. The acetylene reduction activity per unit nodule mass (ARA) under field conditions appeared after bud break, peaked the maximum in midsummer after full expansion of the leaves, and disappeared after all leaves had fallen. There was no consistent correlation between ARA and tree size (dbh). The amount of N2 fixed in this alder stand was estimated at 56.4 kg ha−1 year−1 when a theoretical molar ratio of 3 was used to convert the amount of reduced acetylene to the amount of fixed N2. This amount of N2 fixation corresponded to the 66.4% of N in the leaf litter produced in a year. These results suggested that N2 fixation still contributed to the large portion of N economy in this alder stand.

  16. Annual pollen sums of alnus in Lublin and Roztocze in the years 2001-2007 against selected meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław M. Kaszewski


    Full Text Available Alder (Alnus Mill., as an anemophilous species, produces large quantities of easily dispersed pollen. Annual pollen sums recorded in south-eastern Poland (by the volumetric method - Lanzoni trap and in the area of the village of Guciów in the Central Roztocze region (pollen deposition in Tauber traps were compared. The height at which the respective trap sites were located as well as local and regional vegetation and the distance from the nearest alder communities differ in both cases, likewise, the climate of these two regions differ. The analysed pollen data series cover the years 1998-2007 in Roztocze and 2001-2007 in Lublin. Large differences have been noted in Alnus pollen deposition values between particular years. Among them, there were observed years of very high annual sums (2001, 2003, 2006, as well as years of very low pollen deposition values in both regions (2002, 2005, 2007. In the period in question, the mean value of annual Alnus pollen count for Lublin was 5372 alder pollen grains in m3 of air, and in Roztocze 1647 grains per cm2 of area. During the seven-year period of monitoring (2001-2007, very similar trends were noted with respect to airborne alder pollen concentrations at both trap sites. Pollen data have been analysed against meteorological factors affecting alder pollen production and deposition. These are total precipitation and mean monthly air temperature in June, July and August in the year preceding pollen emission and the same weather elements in January and February in the year of pollen emission. In Roztocze a statistically significant negative correlation has been found between Alnus pollen annual sums and total precipitation in August in the year preceding alder pollen emission and in February in the year of pollen emission. In both regions, the Spearman's correlation coefficient does not show any statistically significant values when comparing annual Alnus pollen sums with mean monthly temperatures of both

  17. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.


    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  18. Organic matter contribution to soil fertility improvement and maintenance in red Alder (Alnus rubra) silvopastoral systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie M. Mmolotsi; Zewge Teklehaimanot


    An investigation was conducted to quantify fine roots and roots nodules over the four seasons in forestry and agroforestry alder (Alnus rubra) stands in North Wales. Soil samples collected in each season were excavated at three sampling points (0.30 m, 0.57 m and 1.00 m distance from the base of each tree) from nine trees of the agroforestry and forestry plots. Result showed that the density of live fine root had significant differences in between seasons and treatments (P < 0.001). The mean weight density of live fine root over the four seasons in agroforestry and forestry was 0.27±0.01 kg·m-3 and 0.54±0.03 kg·m-3, respectively. Weight density of dead root in each system remained constant throughout the year. The mean weight density of dead root was also significantly different (P < 0.01) between forestry and agroforestry systems. Weight density of live and dead root nodule was both constant throughout the year and between the different sampling distances. The mean weight densities of live and dead root nodule over the four seasons were 0.09±0.03 kg·m-3 and 0.05±0.03 kg·m-3 in agroforestry and 0.08±0.02 kg·m-3 and 0.03±0.01 kg·m-3 in the forestry plots, respectively.

  19. Wood anatomical analysis of Alnus incana and Betula pendula injured by a debris-flow event. (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle


    Vessel chronologies in ring-porous species have been successfully employed in the past to extract the climate signal from tree rings. Environmental signals recorded in vessels of ring-porous species have also been used in previous studies to reconstruct discrete events of drought, flooding and insect defoliation. However, very little is known about the ability of diffuse-porous species to record environmental signals in their xylem cells. Moreover, time series of wood anatomical features have only rarely been used to reconstruct former geomorphic events. This study was therefore undertaken to characterize the wood anatomical response of diffuse-porous Alnus incana (L.) Moench and Betula pendula Roth to debris-flow-induced wounding. Tree microscopic response to wounding was assessed through the analysis of wood anatomical differences between injured rings formed in the debris-flow event year and uninjured rings formed in the previous year. The two ring types were examined close and opposite to the injury in order to determine whether wound effects on xylem cells decrease with increasing tangential distance from the injury. Image analysis was used to measure vessel parameters as well as fiber and parenchyma cell (FPC) parameters. The results of this study indicate that injured rings are characterized by smaller vessels as compared with uninjured rings. By contrast, FPC parameters were not found to significantly differ between injured and uninjured rings. Vessel and FPC parameters mainly remained constant with increasing tangential distance from the injury, except for a higher proportion of vessel lumen area opposite to the injury within A. incana. This study highlights the existence of anatomical tree-ring signatures-in the form of smaller vessels-related to past debris-flow activity and addresses a new methodological approach to date injuries inflicted on trees by geomorphic processes.

  20. Comparison of Plant Diversity and Stand Characteristics in Alnus subcordata C.A.Mey and Taxodium distichum (L. L.C. Rich

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    Masoud Tabari


    Full Text Available Stand characteristics and understory plant diversity were investigated in low-drained man-made stands of Alnus subcordata C.A.Mey and Taxodium distichum (L L.C. Rich. The trees were planted with distances of 3 × 3 m and 4 × 4 m in northern Iran. In these stands, herbaceous and woody species were counted in plots of 20 × 20 m. Then, indexes of richness, H/ diversity, J/ equitability and Jaccard similarity (JI, tree growths, cover crown percentage, and litter layer thickness of each stand were assessed following 17 years after planting. The results revealed that the greatest diameter at breast height (D.B.H and stem height were observed in Alnus 4 × 4 m. By contrast, crown cover percentage and litter thicknesses were greater in Taxodium stands. Species richness, H/ diversity and J/ equitability indexes, Jaccard similarity (JI of Alnus stands were greater than those of Taxodium stands. In reality, small and light canopy of Alnus is the main reason that the solar radiation can penetrate easily to forest ground and affect understory plant diversity. Alnus as a native tree species, due to greater growth attributes and higher diversity indices in their stands are proposed for plantations in such low-drained sites of northern Iran.

  1. Ecological and Biological Characteristics and Cutting Propagation of Hydrocotyle nepalensis Hook.%红马蹄草的生态生物学特征及其扦插繁殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁莲莲; 王少平; 张倩媚; 崔晓东; 钟文超; 黄小光; 雷泽湘; 任海


    为了解红马蹄草(Hydrocotyle nepalensis Hook.)的生态生物学特征,对其形态解剖特征及光合特性进行了研究。结果表明,红马蹄草叶片较薄,栅栏组织不发达,海绵组织与栅栏组织厚度之比较大;遮荫条件下叶片的净光合速率日变化呈单峰型,具有较低的光补偿点、光饱和点、叶绿素a/b以及较高的表观量子效率、总叶绿素含量、叶绿素b含量,这显示其耐荫特性,对弱光环境的适应能力和利用弱光的能力较强。同时,红马蹄草扦插繁殖迅速,成活率较高,以荫蔽潮湿的生长环境为佳。因此,红马蹄草适合生长在弱光环境中,因其具有较高的观赏价值,是一种值得大力推广的地被植物。%In order to understand the ecological and biological characteristics of Hydrocotyle nepalensis Hook., its morphological and photosynthetic features were studied. The results showed that leaf thickness was about 130.7μm with undeveloped palisade tissue, and the ratio of spongy tissue to palisade tissue was high. The diurnal net photosynthetic rate in leaves was a single peaked curve under shading condition. Meanwhile, H. nepalensis had low light saturation point, light compensation point, chlorophyll a/b and high apparent quantum yield, total chlorophyll content, chlorophyll b, which indicated its strong adaptive capacity and uitilization ability to weak light. The cutting propagation of H. nepalensis had high survival under moist and shady conditions. Therefore, H. nepalensis is suitable to be planted in low light environment. Because of its high ornamental value, this species is an excellent ground cover plant for gardening.

  2. Bioactivity-guided identification of antimicrobial metabolites in Alnus glutinosa bark and optimization of oregonin purification by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography. (United States)

    Abedini, Amin; Chollet, Sébastien; Angelis, Apostolis; Borie, Nicolas; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Reynaud, Romain; Gangloff, Sophie C; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Hubert, Jane


    Barks from conifers and broadleaved trees constitute abundant wastes generated from wood harvesting and logging activities. Extracts of such residues obtained from Alnus trees have been reported as interesting resources with potent antibacterial activities. The present study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of a crude methanol extract prepared from the bark of Alnus glutinosa against a panel of 22 bacteria and yeasts and to optimize a purification method enabling the high production of the most active substances. Fractionation of the crude extract was performed by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) using a three-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane, methyl-ter-butyl ether, acetonitrile and water. The major known compounds contained in the fractions produced by CPC were chemically profiled by (13)C NMR dereplication, resulting in the unambiguous identification of oregonin, hirsutanonol, betulinic acid, and alusenone 1a. The antibacterial evaluation of the fractions by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus revealed that oregonin, in addition to being the major metabolite of the crude extract (∼32% w/w), was the most active with an antibacterial inhibitory effect comparable to antibiotics. The purification of oregonin was optimized at the laboratory-scale by CPC. A single injection of 3.7g of crude extract resulted in a recovery of 72% (850mg) of the available oregonin at purity higher than 94%.

  3. Wild Edible Fruit of Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud), a Potential Source of Antioxidants, Ameliorates Iron Overload-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Liver Fibrosis in Mice. (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath


    The antioxidant and restoration potentials of hepatic injury by Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud), a wild fruit plant from the Northeastern region of India, were investigated. The fruit extract (PNME) exhibited excellent antioxidant and reducing properties and also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 = 30.92 ± 0.40 μg/ml). PNME demonstrated promising scavenging potency, as assessed by the scavenging of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Moreover, the extract revealed an exceptional iron chelation capacity with an IC50 of 25.64 ± 0.60 μg/ml. The extract induced significant improvement of hepatic injury and liver fibrosis against iron overload induced hepatotoxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was supported by different histopathological studies. The phytochemical constitutions and their identification by HPLC confirmed the presence of purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate, reserpine, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin and rutin. The identified compounds were investigated for their individual radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; some compounds exhibited excellent radical scavenging and iron chelation properties, but most were toxic towards normal cells (WI-38). On the other hand, crude PNME was found to be completely nontoxic to normal cells, suggesting its feasibility as a safe oral drug. The above study suggests that different phytochemicals in PNME contributed to its free radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; however, further studies are required to determine the pathway in which PNME acts to treat iron-overload diseases.

  4. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Arnab [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Beauchemin, Nicholas [University of New Hampshire; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Furnholm, Teal [University of New Hampshire; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten [University of New Hampshire; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gtari, Maher [University of New Hampshire; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nouioui, Imen [University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Santos, Catarina [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Sur, Saubashya [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tavares, Fernando [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thakur, Subarna [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Wall, Luis [University of Quilmes, Argentina; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wishart, Jessie [University of New Hampshire; Tisa, Louis S. [University of New Hampshire


    Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.

  5. A Soil Moisture-Heat Based Early Establishment Model of Riparian White Alder (Alnus rhombifolia) (United States)

    Jablkowski, P.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.


    Establishment of fluvially dispersed seeds on accreted gravel-sand bars is limited by water availability in streams. Past establishment models have used the stream/water table recession rate, and maximum root growth rate to determine the elevation limit of seedling establishment. This approach neglects the role of the saturated-unsaturated vadose zone in providing water to recently germinated seedlings, the physical processes that determine the soil moisture content, and the effect moisture deficit has on seedling root growth. This study combines a soil moisture-heat budget and a seedling root growth model that responds to soil moisture availability to find the elevation limit of establishment of white alder (Alnus rhombifolia) on vertically accreted bars along the south fork Eel River in the Angelo Coast Range Reserve, California. To establish successfully, seedling roots must maintain a connection with sufficient moisture to avoid water stress. This will depend on the elevation of the bar, the stream recession rate, the root growth rate, and the diurnal cycle of soil moisture. A one-dimensional moisture-heat budget of the top 15 centimeters of sediment was validated at two locations characterized by sand and clay-gravel textures respectively, using soil moisture and temperature measurements at 5, 10 and 15 cm, net radiation, air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and precipitation measured during spring-summer stream recession. Two patterns in soil water content were apparent: an average daily moisture decrease at each depth driven by stream/water table recession, and a diurnal pattern of isothermal liquid and vapour flux increasing soil water content in the upper 15 cm between 12:00 pm and 5:00 pm PDT. To determine seedling root growth rates, white alder seedlings were grown in growth chambers under a range of reduced matric potentials using polyethylene glycol. Root length measurements were made at 4 hour intervals and a quadratic equation was fit to the root

  6. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees. (United States)

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar


    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations.

  7. Wild Edible Fruit of Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud, a Potential Source of Antioxidants, Ameliorates Iron Overload-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

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    Dipankar Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and restoration potentials of hepatic injury by Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud, a wild fruit plant from the Northeastern region of India, were investigated. The fruit extract (PNME exhibited excellent antioxidant and reducing properties and also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical (IC50 = 30.92 ± 0.40 μg/ml. PNME demonstrated promising scavenging potency, as assessed by the scavenging of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Moreover, the extract revealed an exceptional iron chelation capacity with an IC50 of 25.64 ± 0.60 μg/ml. The extract induced significant improvement of hepatic injury and liver fibrosis against iron overload induced hepatotoxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was supported by different histopathological studies. The phytochemical constitutions and their identification by HPLC confirmed the presence of purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate, reserpine, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin and rutin. The identified compounds were investigated for their individual radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; some compounds exhibited excellent radical scavenging and iron chelation properties, but most were toxic towards normal cells (WI-38. On the other hand, crude PNME was found to be completely nontoxic to normal cells, suggesting its feasibility as a safe oral drug. The above study suggests that different phytochemicals in PNME contributed to its free radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; however, further studies are required to determine the pathway in which PNME acts to treat iron-overload diseases.

  8. Isolation of SSR markers for two related second-generation energy crop species, Miscanthus nepalensis and M.nudipes (Poaceae)%能源作物芒属双药芒组SSR引物的筛选及其评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洪峥; 李珊珊; 葛颂; 戴思兰; 陈文俐


    Miscanthus species have shown great potential as second-generation energy crops, especially when planted on marginal land. Within the genus, M. Nepalensis and M. Nudipes are much different from other species owing to the presence of only two anthers, and are thus treated as sect. Diandra Keng taxo-nomically. Distributed in the Himalaya and Hengduan Mountains, the two species exhibit a very high level of tolerance to cold and drought stresses. In order to scientifically develop these crop species, the first step would be to cany out a population-genetic investigation to elucidate the genetic basis of phenotypes such as tolerance-related and morphological characteristics. For this purpose, we need to select practical and high-resolution molecular markers. We sequenced six individuals of M. Nepalensis and M. Nudipes to validate the efficacious use of 42 previously-used SSR primer pairs. A total of 14 primer pairs were identified as applicable, of which 12 were from Miscanthus species, indicating that the amplification ratio within genus Miscanthus is 52.2% (12/23). Of the 14 primer pairs, 11 were polymorphic. Screening four natural populations of M nepalensis and M. Nudipes using the 14 SSR markers, we found that these primers had high power in detecting genetic diversity and population genetic structure in M. Nepalensis and M. Nudipes, and thus provide feasible genetic markers for population genetics studies and molecular breeding.%禾本科芒属植物具有在边际性土地(marginal land)上驯化成为高产能源作物的巨大潜力,其中尼泊尔芒(Miscanthus nepalensis)和双药芒(M.nudipes)两个双药芒组物种分布于喜马拉雅-黄断山地区,是具有耐寒及抗旱特性的优良种质资源.为了了解其遗传多样性和群体遗传结构,需要筛选出有效的分子标记.目前在适用于核心芒属植物群体遗传学分析的42对SSR引物中,有23对来自于核心芒属物种,19对来自玉米.我们利用来自双药芒组2

  9. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis. (United States)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie


    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  10. Footprint areas of pollen from alder (Alnus and birch (Betula in the UK (Worcester and Poland (Wrocław during 2005–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Ambelas Skjøth


    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed daily pollen concentrations of Alnus spp. and Betula spp. from Worcester, UK and Wrocław, Poland. We analyzed seasonality, annual pollen index and footprint areas for the observed pollen concentrations by using the trajectory model hybrid single particle Lagrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT. We examined 10 years of data during the period 2005–2014 and found substantial differences in the seasonality, pollen indices and footprint areas. For both genera, concentrations in Wrocław are in general much higher, the seasons are shorter and therefore more intense than in Worcester. The reasons appear to be related to the differences in overall climate between the two sites and more abundant sources in Poland than in England. The footprint areas suggest that the source of the pollen grains are mainly local trees but appear to be augmented by remote sources, in particular for Betula spp. but only to a small degree for Alnus spp. For Betula spp., both sites appear to get contributions from areas in Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium, while known Betula spp. rich regions in Russia, Belarus and Scandinavia had a very limited impact on the pollen concentrations in Worcester and Wrocław. Substantial and systematic variations in pollen indices are seen for Betula spp. in Wrocław with high values every second year while a similar pattern is not observed for Worcester. This pattern was not reproduced for Alnus spp.

  11. The black rot disease of Hedera nepalensis and its pathogen identification%中华常春藤黑腐病及其病原菌鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许凤仙; 胡小倩; 马杰; 楼晓明; 楼兵干


    中华常春藤是一种在我国南方广泛栽培的园艺植物.2009年秋,在杭州西湖风景区发现该植物发生黑腐病.该病害主要发生在9月至11月,植物感病后,首先在叶片边缘、叶柄基部和匍匐幼茎处发病,发病初期形成水渍状黑色病斑,叶柄感病后缢缩黑色坏死,在受侵害的叶片上出现较大的不规则形状的病斑,湿度大时,产生白色絮状菌丝,最后整根藤蔓枯死.田间发病中心明显,蔓延迅速,连片发病严重.采用组织分离法从病健交界处分离病原菌株,病原菌的形态学观察结果表明:分生孢子壁薄、无隔、纺锤形到窄椭圆形,大小为(18~25)μm×(4~5)μm,平均为19.3μm×4.7μm;子囊双层壁,每个子囊内含8个子囊孢子,子囊孢子单孢、无色透明、壁光滑,大小为(19~28)μm×(7~9)μm,平均为22.3μm×7.5 μm.病原菌株的Rdna ITS序列长度为557 bp.通过对病原菌形态学观察与核糖体DNA ITS序列分析,侵染中华常春藤的菌株被鉴定为葡萄座腔菌Botryosphaeria dothidea de Not,无性型为七叶树壳梭孢Fusicoccum aesculi Corda.致病性试验表明,中华常春藤是葡萄座腔菌的寄主.%Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis (Araliaceae) is an ornamental plant that is widely planted in gardens in southern China. Black rot were observed on H. nepalensis in autumn of 2009 in Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province. The disease was usually found to be common from September to November. Black water-soaked spots initially appeared in the edge of the leaves, on the base of leaf petioles and creeping young stems, followed by irregular large lesions in the infected leaves and black constriction in the infected petiole. During long wet periods, the surface of the infected plants showed white mycelium while the inside become soft and watery. At last the disease resulted in the whole vines death. The occurence of disease in fields had obvious center and spread rapidly, and showed contiguous serious disease

  12. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´


    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  13. Pre-logging Treatment of Invasive Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. Promotes Regeneration of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Lee


    Full Text Available Non-native glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. is invasive in forests of the northeastern USA but little is known of its effects on tree regeneration. We tested whether killing buckthorn stems before logging reduces its post-logging abundance and increases the density and height of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings. Three 0.4 ha plots were clearcut, three were thinned, and three were left as controls. Each plot had previously been divided into three subplots that received different buckthorn treatments during the two years before logging. Buckthorn treatments were (1 stems cut at base five times; (2 stems cut once then heat killed four times; (3 untreated control. Three years post-logging, buckthorn density and stem height were unaffected by logging but equally reduced by the two buckthorn treatments. Buckthorn reduction increased density and height of pine seedlings, and seedling height also increased with logging. In the fifth year post-logging, pine height growth and biomass were greater in clearcut than in thinned treatments, greater in areas of buckthorn removal and, within treated subplots, greater in areas with low buckthorn density than in thickets of recovering buckthorn. Thus, although buckthorn inhibited regenerating pine, pre-logging destruction of buckthorn stems reduced such competition for at least four years.

  14. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions. (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia


    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009-2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of airborne pollen varied greatly and were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions (p < 0.05). The flowering synchronization of hazel and alder pollination in Szczecin and Rzeszów varied over the study period. Hazel and alder trees flowered notably earlier in stands located in places that were exposed to sunlight (insolated) and sheltered from the wind. On the other hand, a delay in the timing of pollination was observed in quite sunny but very windy sites. In Rzeszów, maximum hazel pollen concentrations did not coincide with the period of full pollination (defined as between 25 % hazel and alder and 75 % of flowers open). Conversely, in Szczecin, the highest hazel pollen concentrations were recorded during phenophases of the full pollination period. The period when the highest alder pollen concentrations were recorded varied between sites, with Rzeszów recording the highest concentrations at the beginning of pollination and Szczecin recording alder pollen throughout the full pollination period. Substantial amounts of hazel and alder pollen grains were recorded in the air of Rzeszów (but not Szczecin) before the onset of the respective pollen seasons.

  15. Spatial and temporal controls on Alnus-derived nutrients and stream stoichiometry: Implications for aquatic ecosystem productivity (United States)

    Devotta, D.; Fraterrigo, J.; Walsh, P.; Hu, F.


    Predicting how nutrient fluxes that cross ecosystem boundaries will respond to future climate change is one of the greatest challenges for ecology in the 21st century. In southwestern (SW) Alaska, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and nitrogen (N)-fixation by alder (Alnus spp.) provide key nutrient subsidies to freshwater systems. The importance of alder-derived nutrients (ADN) to aquatic systems will increase as alder cover expands under climate warming and salmon harvesting reduces marine-derived nutrients. We investigate broad-scale spatial and temporal drivers of ADN and stream N:P in 26 streams in SW Alaska. Alder cover and watershed features were measured using satellite images and topographic maps in ArcGIS. Stream water samples were collected in each spring and summer from 2010-2013 and analyzed for dissolved N and total phosphorus (TP). We obtained annual growing season length (AGSL) and sum of growing degree days (GDD) data from weather stations. Elevation was inversely related to alder cover, stream N, and N:P (ρ=-0.802, -0.65, and -0.71 resp., pADN export. Higher P was associated with lower temperatures, possibly reflecting reduced P demand under low rates of metabolic activity. Structural equation modeling revealed significant causal relationships among elevation, alder cover, and stream N:P across multiple years (r2=0.94, X2=742.8, df=9, pADN fluxes and stream N:P than temporal variation in growing season conditions. Therefore, the aquatic productivity of streams at low elevations that receive large amounts of ADN will be most resilient to climate change.

  16. Frankia and Alnus rubra canopy roots: an assessment of genetic diversity, propagule availability, and effects on soil nitrogen. (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G; Schouboe, Jesse L; Rogers, Rachel H; Weber, Marjorie G; Nadkarni, Nalini M


    The ecological importance of microbial symbioses in terrestrial soils is widely recognized, but their role in soils that accumulate in forest canopies is almost entirely unknown. To address this gap, this study investigated the Frankia-Alnus rubra symbiosis in canopy and forest floor roots at Olympic National Park, WA, USA. Sixteen mature A. rubra trees were surveyed and Frankia genetic diversity in canopy and forest floor nodules was assessed with sequence-based nifH analyses. A seedling bioassay experiment was conducted to determine Frankia propagule availability in canopy and forest floor soils. Total soil nitrogen from both environments was also quantified. Nodules were present in the canopies of nine of the 16 trees sampled. Across the study area, Frankia canopy and forest floor assemblages were similar, with both habitats containing the same two genotypes. The composition of forest floor and canopy genotypes on the same tree was not always identical, however, suggesting that dispersal was not a strictly local phenomenon. Frankia seedling colonization was similar in canopy soils regardless of the presence of nodules as well as in forest floor soils, indicating that dispersal was not likely to be a major limiting factor. The total soil nitrogen of canopy soils was higher than that of forest floor soils, but the presence of Frankia nodules in canopy soils did not significantly alter soil nitrogen levels. Overall, this study indicates that the Frankia-A. rubra symbiosis is similar in canopy and forest floor environments. Because canopy roots are exposed to different environmental conditions within very small spatial areas and because those areas can be easily manipulated (e.g., fertilizer or watering treatments), they present microbial ecologists with a unique arena to examine root-microbe interactions.

  17. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T


    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  18. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica. (United States)

    Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A


    Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of

  19. A~simple model for predicting the global distribution of the N2 fixing host genus Alnus Mill.: impact of climate change on the global distribution in 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sakalli


    Full Text Available The importance of N2-fixing plants has increased in last decades. Alnus (alder is an important plant group because of its nitrogen fixation ability. Alders are generally distributed in humid locations of boreal, temperate and tropical climate zones, where the nitrogen fixation is an important nitrogen source for other plants. To model the nitrogen fixation by alder, data about the global distribution of alder is absolutely required. In this study a new method and model to predict the distribution of N2-fixing genus on global scale is presented. Three linear functions were defined for the determination of climate area of alder locations. The distribution model was improved with the aid of the soil units from FAO-Unesco Soil Database, and vegetation types from Schmithüsen's biogeographical atlas. The model (Alnus-Distribution-Model, ADM was also developed to predict the impact of climate change on alder distribution by using climate data of five relevant climate models (PCM, ECHam4, HadCM3, CSIRO2 and CGCM2, and four IPCC climate scenarios (i.e. A1FI, A2, B1 and B2 in 2100. The model covered basic approaches to understand the climate change effect on plant migration in the future.

  20. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Hyun [Department of Environment Landscape Architecture-Design, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Keuk-Soo [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan, E-mail: [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Taek, E-mail: [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endophytic Bacillus spp. have reduced the lead toxicity in Alnus firma plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria have sequestered the Pb molecules extracellularly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria have increased the growth rate of plants in the presence of Pb. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants.

  1. 尼泊尔菊三七的离体快繁技术研究%Study on Rapid Micropropagation Technique in Vitro of Medical Plant Gynura nepalensis DC.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高倩; 李娜; 贾景明


    目的 依据尼洎尔菊三七野生资源开发利用情况,以尼泊尔菊三七的茎段为外植体,建立其离体快繁体系.方法 通过正交设计法,添加不同浓度激素[6-苄氨基嘌呤(6-BA)和萘乙酸(NAA)]、无机元素和活性炭,建立包括丛生芽诱导、生根、壮苗以及移栽的离体快繁体系.结果 用75%乙醇和0.1%升汞对外植体消毒的时间分别为20 s,6 min;尼泊尔菊三七离体快繁的最佳增殖培养条件为Ms+萘乙酸0.5 mg/L+6一苄氨基嘌呤1.0 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+琼脂5.0 g/L,pH=6.0;壮苗生根的最佳培养条件是1/2 MS+萘乙酸0.5 mg/L+6-苄氨基嘌呤1.0 mg/L+蔗糖30 g/L+活性炭2.0 g/L+琼脂5.0 g/L,pH=6.O;移栽期间的最佳基质是腐殖土:木炭土=3:2.结论 成功建立尼泊尔菊三七离体快繁体系,为将来大规模生产奠定了基础.%Objective To establish the method of rapid micropropagation system according to the exploitative situation of Gynura nepalensis DC. Wild resources for getting the best culture conditions. Methods The orthogonal methods were used to determine the optimal concentration of different hormones (6 - BA and NAA) in the differentiation medium with different concentrations of inorganic elements and activated carbon to establish the rapid micropropagation system including multiple shoot clumps induction, rooting, strong seedling and transplanting. Results The sterilizing time of explants in 75% ethanol and 0. 1% mercuric chloride was 20 s and 6 min respectively. The best culture conditions for rapid micropropagation were MS media supplemented with 0. 5 mg/L NAA, 1. 0 mg/L 16 - BA, 30 g/L sucrose and 5.0 g/L agar. The pH value of media was adjusted to 6.0. The optimal media for rooting and strong seedling was as follows: 1/2 MS media supplemented with 0. 5 mg/L NAA, 1. 0 mg/L 6 - BA, 30 g/L sucrose, 2. 0 g/L activated carbon and 5. 0 g/L agar with pH adjusted to 6.0. The best substrates of transplanting were humus and charcoal soil (3 : 2

  2. Comparative Analysis on Growth Volumes between Alnus sp. and Cupressus torulosa Plantation Stand%川滇桤木与藏柏人工林分生长量对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵总; 张兆国; 唐兴联; 段学耘


    The growth volumes of Alnus sp. and Cupressus torulosa plantation stand have been surveyed in Dashan and Daliyuan of Yuxi city, and single factor variance and LSD test have been applied to compare the result. The final result reveals that there are striking differences between them, and the growth volume of Alnus sp is apparently higher than that of Cupressus torulosa in detail. This illustrates that Alnus sp. which has the characters of fast growth and strong adaptation can grow better than Cupressus torulosa under the condition of dry & barren soil and poor site situation.%对玉溪市大山和大栗园川滇桤木和藏柏人工林分进行生长量调查.应用单因素方差分析和LSD检验法进行比较,结果表明两者差异显著,川滇桤木生长量明显高于藏柏.说明川滇桤木在干旱瘠薄、土壤地力较差的立地条件下比藏柏生长好,具有生长迅速、适应性强的特点.

  3. Field performance of Alnus cordata Loisel (Italian alder) inoculated with Frankia and VA-mycorrhizal strains in mine-spoil afforestation plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumini, E.; Bosco, M.; Puppi, G.; Isopi, R.; Frattegiani, M.; Burseti, E.; Favili, F.


    Mixed stands of {ital Alnus cordata}, {ital Eleagnus} spp. and broad leaf timber trees have been successfully used for reclamation of mine spoils in surface mined areas of central Italy. Trials showed that the use of mycorrhizal planting stock may improve the establishment of plants on mine spoils. Alder seeds were sown in pots filled with peat moss and lignite mine spoils and Fungal strains {ital Glomus mosscae} and {ital G. fasciculatum} were inoculated into the pots. A Frankia strain isolated from {ital A. cordata} was also tested. Plants were then outplanted after measuring shoot height and collar diameter. The planting was done in mid-January among commercial trees ({ital Quercus robur}, {ital Fraxinus oxyphilla}, and {ital Prunus avium}). Plants became highly nodulated in the pots. Mycorrhizal infection was about 30% on inoculate plants but did not occur on uninoculated plants. Aboveground biomass at out-planting was significantly greater in the Frankia inoculated plants. There was generally more N in plant leaves in the inoculate plants than in the uninoculated ones. Plant survival in the field after one winter was 83% on average. One year after planting, the inoculated plants were significantly bigger as were the Frankia inoculated plants. The combination of Frankia and Glomus was very effective (contrary to other studies).

  4. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S


    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  5. Estimation of whole-tree and stand-level methane emissions from the stems of Alnus japonica in a cool-temperate forested peatland (United States)

    Terazawa, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kenji; Sakata, Tadashi; Nakamura, Takatoshi; Ishizuka, Shigehiro


    We measured methane (CH4) fluxes at the stem surfaces of canopy trees in a forested peatland of northern Japan to estimate: 1) the CH4 emission rates from the stems of individual trees and 2) the stem CH4 emission rates at the stand level. The study site was located ca. 1 km south of Lake Tofutsu, a brackish lake in eastern Hokkaido. An experimental plot was established in an area dominated by Alnus japonica trees. For seven A. japonica, the stem CH4 fluxes were measured using a static closed-chamber method. Three of the sample trees were used to estimate the whole-tree stem CH4 emissions. The CH4 flux was measured at six heights (0.15 - 5.15 m above the ground at 1 m intervals) on the stem of each tree, using a scaffold constructed beside the tree. The stand-level stem CH4 emissions were estimated from the CH4 fluxes measured 0.15 m above the ground; the relationship between stem height and CH4 flux and the relationship between diameter at breast height and whole-tree CH4 emissions were determined. Stem CH4 emission rates were highest at the lowest measurement position on the stem (height 0.15 m), and decreased with stem height for all measurements. Nevertheless, significant CH4 emissions were detected 5.15 m above the ground. The relationship between stem height and CH4 emissions fit a power function. The estimated CH4 emission rate from the stem surface of an individual tree was 1.91 ± 1.24 and 0.68 ± 0.18 mg tree-1 h-1 for late-August and mid-September, respectively. The estimated stem CH4 emissions at the stand level varied seasonally, with the highest rate of 556 mg ha-1 h-1 in September.

  6. N2 fixation and cycling in Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica woodland exposed to free air CO2 enrichment. (United States)

    Millett, Jonathan; Godbold, Douglas; Smith, Andrew R; Grant, Helen


    We measured the effect of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on atmospheric nitrogen (N(2)) fixation in the tree species Alnus glutinosa growing in monoculture or in mixture with the non-N(2)-fixing tree species Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. We addressed the hypotheses that (1) N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa will increase in response to increased atmospheric CO(2) concentrations, when growing in monoculture, (2) the impact of elevated CO(2) on N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa is the same in mixture and in monoculture and (3) the impacts of elevated CO(2) on N cycling will be evident by a decrease in leaf δ(15)N and by the soil-leaf enrichment factor (EF), and that these impacts will not differ between mixed and single species stands. Trees were grown in a forest plantation on former agricultural fields for four growing seasons, after which the trees were on average 3.8 m tall and canopy closure had occurred. Atmospheric CO(2) concentrations were maintained at either ambient or elevated (by 200 ppm) concentrations using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system. Leaf δ(15)N was measured and used to estimate the amount (N(dfa)) and proportion (%N(dfa)) of N derived from atmospheric fixation. On average, 62% of the N in A. glutinosa leaves was from fixation. The %N(dfa) and N(dfa) for A. glutinosa trees in monoculture did not increase under elevated CO(2), despite higher growth rates. However, N(2) fixation did increase for trees growing in mixture, despite the absence of significant growth stimulation. There was evidence that fixed N(2) was transferred from A. glutinosa to F. sylvatica and B. pendula, but no evidence that this affected their CO(2) response. The results of this study show that N(2) fixation in A. glutinosa may be higher in a future elevated CO(2) world, but that this effect will only occur where the trees are growing in mixed species stands.

  7. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus rubra amended with low and high metal content biosolids Crescimento e fixação de nitrogênio por Alnus rubra cultivado sob fertilização com biosólidos com altos e baixos teores de metais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke


    Full Text Available Forest application of biosolids offers a potential environmentally friendly alternative to landfilling. This two-year investigation was designed to analyze the effects of elevated soil metal concentration resulting from the land application of biosolids on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. High metal biosolids and a modern-day composted biosolid applied at high loading rates of 250, 500, and 1000 Mg ha-1, were used to represent a worst-case scenario for metal contamination. The high metal biosolids were obtained before the current regulations were formulated and had been lagooned prior to use in this study. Total cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in the high metal biosolids were 45, 958, and 2623 mg kg-1 respectively. These metal concentrations are above current regulatory limits in the US. The compost was made using biosolids that are currently produced and had Cd, Pb and Zn of 0.8, 20 and 160 mg kg-1 respectively. Trees were harvested and analyzed for rate of N fixation (as measured by acetylene reduction activity, biomass, and foliar metals. Soils were analyzed for available N, total carbon and N, pH and total Cd, Pb and Zn. Rates of N fixation were not affected by soil amendment. In year 2, shoot biomass of trees grown in both the compost and high metal amendments were higher than the control. Shoot biomass increased with increasing amount of compost amendments, but decreased with increasing amount of high metal amendments. There was no relationship between soil metal concentration and plant biomass. Foliar Cd and Pb were below detection for all trees and foliar Zn increased with increasing amount of both compost and high metal amendment, with concentrations of 249 mg kg-1 for trees grown in the compost amendment and 279 mg kg-1 for the high metal amendment. The results from this study indicate that the growth of A. rubra benefited from both types of biosolids used in the study

  8. The Analysis of the Growing Process of Choerospondias Axillaris,Alnus and Betula Luminifera%南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦生长发育进程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对腾冲县苏江林场于2012年春季在杉木采伐迹地上采用南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦与萌生杉木营造混交林,3年生时进行了调查并分析。结果表明:造林3年后3个树种的幼林保存率均达到92%,南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦阔叶树种的早期生长均表现了较强的速生性,各树种平均树高和胸径依次为南酸枣6.0m 和6.5cm ,桤木5.8m和6.2cm ;光皮桦4.8m和4.4cm。南酸枣更适宜作为腾冲杉木采伐迹地的更新树种,营造速生丰产的工业原料林。%A mixed forest w hich contains Choerospondias axillaris ,Alnus ,Betula luminifera and the coppice of Chinese fir was built on the cutover land of Chinese fir in Sujiang Forestry Centre in the spring of 2012 .The article conducts an investigation and analysis of the mixed forest after years .The results indicate that three years after the afforestation ,the preservation rate of the three species'young forest reaches 92% and the ear‐ly growth of the Choerospondias axillaris ,Alnus and Betula luminifera shows stronger fast -growing .The average height and DBH of Choerospondias axillaris is 6 .0m and 6 .5cm .That of Alnus 5 .8m and 6 .2cm and that of Betula luminifera is 4 .8m and 4 .4cm .Therefore ,Choerospondias axillaris is more suitable being the regenerated species on the Chinese fir cutover land in Tengchong ,which aims to create fast -growing and high yield industrial raw material forest .

  9. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus Rubra following fertiliztion with urea or biosolids Fixação de nitrogênio e crescimento de Alnus Rubra fertilização com uréia ou biosólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke


    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization of forests using biosolids offers a potentially environmentally friendly means to accelerate tree growth. This field study was designed to analyze the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N-fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. Anaerobically digested, class B biosolids and synthetic urea (46% N were applied at rates of 140, 280 and 560 kg ha-1 available N to a well-drained, sandy, glacial outwash soil in the Indianola series (mixed, mesic Dystric Xeropsamments. Plots were planted with A. rubra seedlings. At the end of each of two growing seasons trees were harvested and analyzed for the rate of N fixation (as acetylene reduction activity, biomass and foliar N. At year 1, there was no N fixation for trees grown with urea amendments, but control (17 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 and biosolids (26-45 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 trees were fixing N. At the end of year 2, all trees in all treatments were fixing N (7 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, 4-16 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, and 20-29 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 for control, urea and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with biosolids amendments were larger overall (year 1 shoot biomass 10 g, 5 g, and 23 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 shoot biomass 50 g, 51 g, and 190 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively with higher concentrations of foliar N for both years of the study (year 1 foliar N 26 g kg-1, 27 g kg-1, and 40 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 foliar N 17 g kg-1, 19 g kg-1, and 23 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with urea amendments appeared to use the urea N over Frankia supplied N, whereas the biosolids trees appeared to be able to use both N in biosolids and N from Frankia. The results from this study indicated that the greater growth of A. rubra may have been responsible for the observed higher N demand. Biosolids may have supplied other nutrients to the

  10. Determination of Quercetin and Isorhamnetin in the Medicinal Herb of Sarcopyramis Nepalensis Wall by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定风柜斗草中槲皮素和异鼠李素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艺华; 陈育青


    目的:建立闽南草药风柜斗草中槲皮素和异鼠李素含量测定的方法。方法:采用70%甲醇超声提取,HPLC-PDA分析方法测定。色谱条件为色谱柱Ultimate Column TMC18 4.6×150mm×5μm,流动相甲醇∶0.5%磷酸=55∶45,流速:1.0 mL/min,柱温:30℃,检测波长:370nm。结果:闽南草药风柜斗草中槲皮素在10~200μg/mL与峰面积的线性关系良好,回归方程为:Y=38409X-54808(r=0.9998),平均回收率为95.2%,RSD值为0.72%;异鼠李素在5~%Objective:To establish a method for determining the content of quercetin and isorhamnetin in the medicinal herb of Sarcopyramis nepalensis Wall.Methods:With absolute methanol solvent,ultrasonic extraction,UltimateTM C18(4.6*150mm,5μm) column,methanol:0.5%

  11. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances. (United States)

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe


    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization.

  12. 东北桤木叶表皮盾状腺毛的形态及其变化过程%The Morphology and Process Changes of Peltate Glandular hairs in Alnus mandshurica Leaf Epidermis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊义; 刘秀岩; 梁宇


    Using scanning electron microscopy techniques to observe the leaves surface of Alnus mandshurica and find it far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs. It made up of two-cells, four stem cells and 20~25 head-cells, with the accumulation of secretion material, cells rupture, finally disappear. Theree is no peltate glandu-lar hairs far axial epidermis, in young leawes only has stoma distribution. The cross section of A. mandshurica leaves showed it belongs to bifacial leaf, cells of far axial epidermis with peltate glandular hairs connect with leaf vein vascular tissue, the author consider this peltate glandular hairs shoule belong to " Peltate glandular hairs" , and suggest that the nouns of " Glandular scales" , " Peltate gland" , " Peltate scale" , " Peltate glandular hairs" should be normalized. The process of shields-glandular in A. mandshurica leaf epidermis and the component of se-cretion material need to be further studied.%利用电镜扫描技术,观察东北桤木叶片表面,发现其远轴面表皮上具有盾状腺毛.其由2个基细胞、4个柄细胞和20~25个头部细胞组成,随着分泌物质的积累,细胞逐渐破裂.幼叶远轴面表皮无盾状腺毛,仅有气孔分布.观察东北桤木叶片横切面,发现其为异面叶,远轴面表皮上的盾状腺毛细胞与叶脉维管组织相连.外文资料显示用于表述桤木属表皮上的盾状腺毛的名词较多,该毛状体应为"Peltate glandular hairs".同时建议对"Glan-dular scales"、"Peltate gland"、"Peltate scale"、"Peltate glandular hairs"等名词进行规范统一.另外有关东北桤木叶表皮上毛状体从原表皮细胞的发生过程及其分泌物的成份,需进一步研究.

  13. 不同林龄段桤柏混交林生态系统的水源涵养功能%Water conversation function of the mixed Alnus cremastogyne and Cupressus funebris stand ecosystem at different stand age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏飞; 朱波


    2005年对川中丘陵区的10、15、20和25 a的桤(Alnus cremastogyne)柏(Cupressus funebris)混交林和30 a纯柏林的水源涵养功能及其变化趋势进行研究.结果表明:1)凋落物的蓄积量、饱和持水量与最大持水量均以20 a的最大,30 a纯柏林的最低,凋落物的持水量与蓄积量、含水率有显著正相关关系;2)表层土壤密度在10~20 a间显著下降,20 a的最低(1.20 g/cm3),在20~30 a间显著增加;非毛管孔隙度和总孔隙度在10~20 a间显著增加,25和30 a时显著下降;毛管孔隙度在各林龄段间呈波动性变化;土壤最小持水量和毛管持水量在10~15 a间显著增加,20~30 a间相对稳定,最大持水量在10~20 a间显著增加,25和30 a的显著降低;3)桤柏混交林的综合水源涵养功能,15 a时达到最大值1 446.06 t/hm2,30 a时显著下降到1 331.60 t/hm2,各林龄段桤柏混交林根系土壤层的水源涵养能力占98%以上.认为应对25 a后的桤柏混交林及纯柏林进行结构调整,以提高桤柏混交林的水源涵养功能.

  14. Effect of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (LINNAEUS, 1753 GAERTNER, 1791 and elder (Sambucus nigra LINNAEUS, 1753 on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae LINNAEUS, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’INTOSH, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska Beata


    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and elder Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage were investigated in 2008-2009. Both extracts reduced the number of cabbage aphids, although the Sambucus nigra extract proved to have a better effect. Differences were seen both in the numbers of winged aphids settling on plants and in the overall numbers of aphids on plants during the entire season. There were no significant differences in the degree of parasitization by Diaeretiella rapae in the three experimental combinations. Eight species of Syrphidae were found in the Brevicoryne brassicae colonies: Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria scripta, S. rueppelli, S. menthastri, Eupeodes corollae, Scaeva pyrastri, Scaeva selenitica and Syrphus vitripennis. The dominant species was Episyrphus balteatus. The largest numbers of syrphid larvae and pupae were collected from cabbage aphid colonies on the control plants. Smaller numbers were recorded on the plot where the cabbages were sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract. The results of this study indicate that botanical insecticides based on S. nigra have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for the cabbage aphid.

  15. Fruit wall anatomical structure of the genus Betula section Lenta (Betulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Yatsenko


    Full Text Available The fruits of the Lentae are referred to lower syncarpous nuts. Unlike most birches, the three-lobed scales in section Lentae stay attached to the axis for a long time. The fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp (derivative of outer tissues of inferior ovary, the tissues of receptacular origin and the pericarp itself (mesocarp and the endocarp derivating from the ovary wall. The epicarp consists of two zones: epidermis and subepidermal zone. Two-four layers of larger sclerenchymatous cells represent the mesocarp. Several layers of parenchymatous cells, which are squeezed and partly obliterated by fruit maturity, compose endocarp. The morphogenetic type of fruit of the genus Betula section Lentae is the pyrenarium of the Olea-type.

  16. Hypervariable spacer regions are good sites for developing specific PCR-RFLP markers and PCR primers for screening actinorhizal symbionts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajani Varghese; Vineeta S Chauhan; Arvind K Misra


    While the ribosomal RNA like highly conserved genes are good molecular chronometers for establishing phylogenetic relationships, they can also be useful in securing the amplification of adjoining hyper-variable regions. These regions can then be used for developing specific PCR primers or PCR-RFL profiles to be used as molecular markers. We report here the use of ITS region of rrn operon of Frankia for developing PCR-RFL profiles capable of discriminating between closely related frankiae. We have also made use of the ITS1 region of the nuclear rrn operon of Alnus nepalensis (D Don) for designing a PCR primer for specific amplification of nuclear DNA of this tree.

  17. 澜沧江上游不同植被类型土壤微生物特征研究%The Study on Soil Microbial Characteristic under Different Types of Vegetation in Upstream of Lancang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仕艳; 原海红; 陆梅; 杨国仲; 向仕敏


    采用野外调查采样及室内实验分析的方法,选取原生植被旱冬瓜林地作为对照,对澜沧江上游山区不同植被类型云南松林、桉树纯林、生态混交林(桤木+圣诞树)土壤细菌、真菌、放线菌3大类微生物的数量及总量进行研究,结果表明:3大类微生物分布均表现为A层大于B层。不同植被类型土壤细菌和真菌数量变化趋势均为旱冬瓜林〉生态混交林〉桉树林〉云南松林,且A、B层消长趋势一致;不同植被类型A层土壤放线菌数量变化趋势为云南松林〉桉树林〉生态混交林〉旱冬瓜林,B层土壤放线菌数量变化趋势则为生态混交林〉云南松林〉桉树林〉旱冬瓜林;不同植%With the Alnus nepalensis forest as control,to investigate the quantity of soil microbe(bacteria,epiphyte and actinomyces) and microbial biomass of different vegetation types in upstream of Lancang River by the method of field sampling and laboratory analysis.The others vegetation types are Pinus yunnanensis,eucalyptus and eco-mixed forest(Alnus nepalensis+Acacia dealbata).The results indicated that the A layer of the quantity of bacteria,epiphyte and actinomyces were higher than the B layer.The order of the A layer the quantity of bacterial and epiphyte were Alnus nepalensis forest 〉eco-mixed forest〉eucalyptus〉Pinus yunnanensis.The B layer is same as the A layer.In the A layer,the order of the quantity of actinomyces was Pinus yunnanensis〉eucalyptus〉eco-mixed forest 〉Alnus nepalensis forest.In the B layer,the order of the quantity of actinomyces was eco-mixed forestPinus yunnanensiseucalyptusAlnus nepalensis forest.In the A layer,the order of soil microbial biomass is Alnus nepalensis fores eco-mixed forest〉eucalyptus〉Pinus yunnanensis.The order in B layer is same as that in A layer.

  18. Chemical composition of lipophilic extractives from grey alder (Alnus incana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskars Bikovens


    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the lipophilic extractives in the hexane extracts from grey alder bark, knotwood, and cones has been investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The efficiency of two extraction methods was compared. The highest amount of lipophilic extractives (about 9% of o.d. material was observed in grey alder cone, while the lowest (about 3% was found in knotwood. The three different morphological parts of alder showed significant differences not only in the content but also in composition of extractives, namely fatty acids, triglycerides, and triterpenes. The main identified compounds were triterpenoids (lupen-3-one, lupeol, betulone, betulinol, and betulinic acid in bark, and triglycerides in cones. The major group in knotwood was free fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid, 18:2.

  19. Alnus as a disturbing factor in pollen diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.


    It is commonly accepted that percentages of pollen in a pollen diagram do not express the exact composition of forests in earlier times. This inaccuracy is due to several factors, for instance the different quantities of pollen produced by plants, the distance of transport etc. A pollen diagram tell


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和丽萍; 王玉杰; 方向京; 孟广涛; 李贵祥


    ,available P,total K and available K were rich. The soil fertility of the different study area of vegetation types or recovery modes in combinations of different years were in the order as follows:Alnus nepalensis4-Cupressus terullsa 4- Quercus acutissima community (the vegetation communities restored in 2005) 〉 Alnus nepalensis 4- Cupressus terullsa 4- Quercus acutissima community (the vegetation communities restored in 2006)〉Alnus nepalensis 4- Cupressus terullsa community (the vegetation communities restored in 2007)〉The soil cover on the platform〉Alnus nepalensis 4-Cupressus terullsa community (the vegetation communities restored in 2005) 〉Alnus nepalensis 4- Cupressus terullsa 4- Cupressus lusitanica community (the vegetation communities restored in 2005).

  1. Coping with Pressures of Modernization by Traditional Farmers: a Strategy for Sustainable Rural Development in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIRO Chikamatsu; Jose Ireneu Furtad; SHEN Lixin; YAN Mei


    Traditional farming practices conform to sustainable rural livelihoods, while agricultural modernisation tends to undermine these practices through various perturbations. A case study in Tengchong County (western Yunnan, China) shows that transformation of traditional alder (Alnus nepalensis) and dry rice (upland rice) rotational farming to introduced Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)plantations leads to loealised water scarcity and soil fertility decline. While farmers are aware of ecological sustainability of traditional farming, they prefer Chinese fir forestry because it is less labour-intensive, has a high market value, and releases time for profitable off-farm work. Farmers adapt to economic liberalization by planting high value crops and trees. However,alternatives to make local agricultural production more profitable through competitive business strategies, cooperative approaches, innovations in intefor sustainable rural livelihoods have been overlooked largely due to poor information availability and lack of organisational framework.

  2. 220 Aerobiological Study of Anemophilous Pollens in the City of Toluca, Mexico (United States)

    Cid del Prado Izquierdo, Maria; Piedras-Gutierrez, Berenice; Del Olmo Tellez, Horacio; Cid del Prado, Osvaldo Zarco


    Background The pollen dispersal by wind is a natural event of great biological significance and an etiological factor in the genesis of allergic respiratory diseases. This is the first such study carried out in the city of Toluca, Mexico. Objective To present the data of collected pollen from September 2004 to September 2005. Methods The pollen was collected, using a Hirst type 7-day recording volumetric Spore Trap. According to the British Aerobiology Federation, we decided to read 12 sweeps in 24 hours in a transverse to have the mean pollen count. Standard equipment used for aerobiological sampling worldwide was used. Statistical analysis is a descriptive study using the SPSS Software. Results We found 14, 078.61 pollen grains, coming from 32 diferent pollinic types in the 12 Transverse traverses in the year analized. The 6 leading taxa, in order of abundance, were: Cupressaceae (49%), Oleaceae genus Fraxinus sp (17%), Betulaceae genus Alnus (14%), Pinaceae (11%), Gramineae (6%), Asteraceae or Compositae (3%). The most prevalent months regarding pollen counts were January and February 2005 in wich Cupressaceae and Oleaceae genus Fraxinus were accounted. Conclusions In aerobiological terms both Cupressaceae and Fraxinus seem to be a major risk for potential sensitized individuals due to its known allergenicity and its high atmospheric concentrations between late winter and early spring, followed by Alnus, Pinaceae, Gramineae, Asteraceae, Casuarinaceae, Schinus, Cheno/Amp and Moraceae. This is the first effort to create the Mexican Aerobiological Network (REMA), and further studies are needed to correlate clinical data.

  3. Biological Fireproof Barrier Construction and its Fireproof Performance in Tonghai%通海县生物防火隔离带营建及其防火性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Biological fireproof harrier dominated by Alnus nepalensis and Alnus ferdinamd tree species, which total of 21 , and 25 m wide, 36 km length were built in Hexi, Jiujie, Sijie Township from 2002 to 2005. The effect of fire prevention has been analyzed, results showed that barrier tree of biological fireproof grows rapidly, and have a good function of fire resistance, also, build biological fireproof barrier was economy and with mature technology which can be used wildly.%2002~2005年,在通海县河西、九街、四街镇人工营造以旱冬瓜、川滇桤木为主栽树种的生物防火隔离带,共计21条,宽25m,总长36km.对所营造防火林带的防火效果进行调查分析,结果认为,防火林带树木生长讯速,抗火、耐火性强,有较好的阻火、隔火、断火功能,且节约经费,营造技术较为成熟,可以推广应用.

  4. Evaluation and differentiation of the Betulaceae birch bark species and their bioactive triterpene content using analytical FT-vibrational spectroscopy and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîntă-Pînzaru Simona


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aiming to obtain the highest triterpene content in the extraction products, nine bark samples from the forest abundant flora of Apuseni Mountains, Romania were Raman spectroscopically evaluated. Three different natural extracts from Betula pendula Roth birch bark have been obtained and characterized using Fourier transform vibrational spectra. Results This study shows that principal components of the birch tree extract can be rapidly recognized and differentiated based on their vibrational fingerprint band shape and intensity. The vibrational spectroscopy results are supported by the GC-MS data. Based on IR and Raman analysis, one can conclude that all the extracts, independent on the solvent(s used, revealed dominant betulin species, followed by lupeol. Conclusions Since Raman measurements could also be performed on fresh plant material, we demonstrated the possibility to apply the present results for the prediction of the highest triterpene content in bark species, for the selection of harvesting time or individual genotypes directly in the field, with appropriate portable Raman equipment.

  5. Factors for converting hazelnut (Corylus avellana L) into black alder (Alnus glutinosa Yalt.) plantations. (United States)

    Durkaya, Ali; Durkaya, Birsen


    Hazelnut plantations, which are a major source of income for the villagers in the eastern Black sea region are notable to provide sufficient income to the villagers due to price fluctuations and sudden falls witnessed in recent years. Alternative investments in place of hazelnut cultivation are being investigated in order to prevent migration to urban areas and to increase the welfare of the rural population in the region. Black alder plantation investments have been assessed as one of the most essential alternative investment tools within the framework of the study Assessment was carried out by comparing expected possible net present values (NPV). Although value increase occurs 12-18 years later more income can be obtained through black alder than hazelnut plantation. In hazelnut plantations, the best NPV emerged in the lower zone. NPV was positive in the moderate zone but values were close to zero. In upper zone, positive NPV couldn't emerge. As a result, it was understood that black alder plantation investment is an effective alternative for hazelnut plantations.

  6. Síntomas de deficiencia de nutrimentos en aliso (alnus acuminata h.b.k.)


    Tovar G., Olga Constanza; Cogua S., Jorge Enrique


    Empleando la técnica de cultivos hidropónicos y utilizando la soluclón Hoagland se estableció la sintomatología causada por la deficiencia de los macronutrientes (nitrógeno, fósforo, azufre, potasio, magnesio, calcio, hierro) y micronutrientes en concentración 0.5 Molar teniendo como patrón la solución completa. La sintomatoloqía se ilustró mediante fotografías de la raíz, la planta y cortes transversales a nivel de tallo para cada una de las deficiencias.

  7. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas


    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  8. 云南切梢小蠹对云南松及20个非寄主树种叶的趋向行为研究%Study on Seeking Behavior of Tomicus yunnanensis to Leaves of Pinus yunnanensis and Some Other Non-host Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周希伟; 赵宁; 泽桑梓; 杨斌


    本项研究选取云南切梢小蠹寄主植物云南松的针叶和藏柏、樟树、滇青冈等20种非寄主树种的叶与云南松针叶混合物(质量比为1∶4),利用Y型嗅觉仪测定其趋向行为,测试云南切梢小蠹对纯云南松针叶、混合样及空气间的趋向行为选择的差异性.结果表明,以云南松针叶作参照,云南切梢小蠹对云南松+藏柏、云南松+缅桂、云南松+滇朴、云南松+旱冬瓜的趋向率较低,分别为32.3%、33.4%、32.3%、31.5%;以空气作参照,混合样趋向率由小到大依次为云南松+藏柏、云南松+缅桂、云南松+滇朴、云南松+旱冬瓜,分别为38%、39%、40%、42%,均小于50%;藏柏、缅桂、滇朴、旱冬瓜4个树种对云南切梢小蠹表现较强的趋避作用,可作为营建抗云南切梢小蠹虫危害的混交树种.%Adopting the "Y" type olfactometer,the leaf mixtures of Pinus yunnanensis with other 20 species of non-host trees were used to test the seeking behavior of Tomicus yunnanensis.The Tomicus yunnanensis behavior differences to leaves of Pinus yunnanensis,to leaf mixture of different tested tree species and to plain air which imitating the open plot in forest,were comparing studied.The experimental results showed that taking Pinus yunnanensis as the control,the seeking behavior ratio of Tomicus yunnanensis to the leaf mixtures of Pinus yunnanensis + Cupressus torulosa,Pinus yunnanensis +Michelia alba,Pinus yunnanensis + Celtis,Pinus yunnanensis +Alnus ne-palensis were 32.3%,33.4%,32.3% and 31.5% respectively.Taking the plain air as the control,the seeking behavior ratio of Tomicus yunnanensis to the leaf mixtures of Pinus yunnanensis + Cupressus torulosa,Pinus yunnanensis + Michelia alba,Pinus yunnanensis + Celtis kunmingensis,Pinus yunnanensis +Alnus nepalensis were 38 %,39 %,40 % and 42 % respectively.On the basis of this study,it was concluded that Cupressus torulosa,Michelia alba,Celtis kunmingensis

  9. Tent caterpillars are robust to variation in leaf phenology and quality in two thermal environments. (United States)

    Sarfraz, Rana M; Kharouba, Heather M; Myers, Judith H


    The synchrony between emergence of spring-active, insect herbivores and the budburst of their host plants could be affected by warming temperatures with influences on the availability and quality of foliage as it undergoes physical and chemical changes. This can affect the growth and survival of insects. Here, we used sun-exposed and shaded trees to determine whether the synchrony between egg hatch of western tent caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum pluviale Dyar (Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae) and budburst of its host red alder, Alnus rubra Bongard (Betulaceae)changes with different thermal environments (temperature and light together). To explore the potential outcome of a shift in phenological synchrony, we used laboratory assays of larval growth and survival to determine the effect of variation in young, youthful and mature leaves from sun-exposed and shaded trees. While the average higher temperature of sun-exposed trees advanced the timing of budburst and egg hatch, synchrony was not disrupted. Leaf quality had no significant influence on growth or survival in the laboratory for early instars reared as family groups. Later instar larvae, however, performed best on mature leaves from sun-exposed trees. The robust relationship between leaf and larval development of western tent caterpillars suggests that warming climates may not have a strong negative impact on their success through shifts in phenological synchrony, but might influence other aspects of leaf quality and larval condition.

  10. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands. (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert


    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  11. Effectiveness of sloping agricultural land technology on soil fertility status of mid-hills in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiran Lamichhane


    Hedgerows with intercropping systems were established at the ICIMOD test and demonstration site at Godawari to assess the effective-ness of Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) in reducing run-off water volume, controlling soil loss, increasing crop production, and improving soil fertility in the mid-hills of Nepal. Runoff water volume (1996-2002), soil loss (1996-2002) and maize yield (1995-2001), and soil fertility-related parameters were assessed on SALT models with three factors:the type of nitrogen-fixing plant, the farmers’ practice, and fertilizer use. Results showed a significant effect of Alnus nepalensis and/or Indigofera dosua on runoff water volume, soil loss, crop produc-tion, soil water retention, and soil nutrients (NPK). Farmers’ practice and fertilization did not play a significant role in reducing runoff water and soil loss. However, farmers’ practice significantly increased crop produc-tion. Therefore, integrating soil conservation approaches on SALT sys-tems enhances stable economic output to hills and mountain farmers.

  12. Regeneration dynamics of dominant tree species along an altitudinal gradient in moist temperate valley slopes of the Garhwal Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumeet Gairola; C.M.Sharma; S.K.Ghildiyal; Sarvesh Suyal


    The present study was undertaken in moist temperate forest of Mandal-Chopta area in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand,India.The aim of the present study was to understand the regeneration dynamics of the dominant tree species along an altitudinal gradient in naturally regenerating,restricted access forest.The overall regeneration status was fairly high in the study area.Most of the native canopy and undercanopy dominants had frequent reproduction and expanding populations,which suggests the stability of forest structure/composition and further expansion of dominant species.The overall regeneration of trees in the forest had a greater contribution of middle and understorey species.Because of infrequent reproduction and declining populations of some of the dominant native species viz.,Abies pindrow,Alnus nepalensis and Betula alnoides,structural/compositional changes in the future are expected in respective forests dominated by them.Abies pindrow and Taxus baccata need immediate attention by forest managers for their survival in the area.Seedlings were found to be more prone to competition from herb and shrubs than saplings.

  13. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik


    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  14. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)


    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  15. Environ: E00796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00796 Birch Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Kaempferol [CPD:C05903], Salicy...late, Tannin, Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] Betula pendula [TAX:3505] Betulaceae Birch leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Betulaceae (birch famly) E00796 Birch ...

  16. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin


    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  17. Plant Community and Ecological Environment in Truffle Producing Area of Miyi, Panzhihua, Sichuan%四川攀枝花米易县块菌产区植物群落及生态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小林; 柳成益; 唐平; 杨梅; 清源; 贾定洪; 郑林用


    调查了四川省攀枝花市米易县块菌产区的植物群落及生态环境情况.结果表明,米易县块菌产区的优势物种共有蕨类植物3科3属3种及种子植物29科52属64种,其中裸子植物2科3属3种,双子叶植物25科41属51种,单子叶植物4科11属13种,.该区域植物群落结构表现一定多样性,主要优势植物为云南松(Pinusyunnanensis)、云南油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana)、青冈(Cyclobalanopsis glauca)、桤木(Alnus cremastogyne)等乔木,马桑(Coriaria nepalensis)、杜鹃(Rhododendron simsii、南烛(Vaccinium bracteatum)、羊耳菊(Inula cappa)、紫茎泽兰(Ageratina adenophora)、地果(Ficus tikoua)等灌木及草本,蕨萁(Botrychium virginianum)、蕨(Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var.latiusculum)及翠云草(Selaginella uncinata)等蕨类植物.该区域块菌的寄主主要为栓皮栎(Quercus variabilis、青冈、云南松、槲栎(Quercus aliena、白栎(Quercus fabri)、厚皮香(Ternstroemia gymnanthera)及刺叶高山栎(Quercus spinosa等.影响样地分布的植物种类主要为云南油杉、青冈、小叶青冈(Cyclobalanopsis gracilis)、桤木、黄果悬钩子(Rubus xanthocarpus)、凉山悬钩子(Rubus fockeanus)、厚皮香、羊耳菊、紫茎泽兰、地果、蕨萁及蕨等植物;影响样地分布的主要生态因子依次为坡度、乔灌木盖度、郁闭度及植被盖度.

  18. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey) (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas


    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  19. Reproductive isolation between populations from Northern and Central Europe of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.; Gross, J.


    Allopatric populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica are known to feed upon either willow (Salicaceae) or birch (Betulaceae). This study aimed to elucidate the differentiation process of these allopatric populations. We investigated whether these allopatric populations specialized on diffe

  20. Host conservatism or host specialization? Patterns of fungal diversification are influenced by host specificity in Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) (United States)

    Species of Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae) are perithecial fungi that occur as endophytes, pathogens, and latent saprobes on leaf and stem tissue of plants in the Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Sapindaceae. In this study host plant patte...

  1. Study on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Four Varieties of Alnus formosana under Simulated Light Condition%4个台湾桤木无性系光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯岑; 陈建华; 吴际友; 廖德志; 程勇; 陈贵


    采用Licor-6400便携式光合作用测定系统,对T31、T52、T53、T59四个无性系光合特性进行研究,结果表明:(1)4个无性系有较中等的LCP(介于37~68 μmol/(m2·s)之间)和较高的LSP(>800 μmol/),其中LSP、LCP的大小排序分别为T59>T31>T53>T52,T53>T52>T31>T59.T59、T31强光利用效率及弱光利用效率都较强,与其生长特性相一致;(2)表观量子效率为0.0298~43.0495 mol/mol,与自然条件下一般植物的表观量子效率(0.03~0.05 mol/mol)基本一致;(3)影响台湾桤木无性系净光合速率的主要生理生态因子为Ci,PAR、Tr、Gs的影响次之,PAR对Pn起主要调节作用.

  2. Phthinia Winnertz (Diptera: Mycetophilidae): new species and records from the Neotropical and Oriental regions. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott J


    Three new species of Phthinia Winnertz are described; P. amorimi n. sp. (Chile), P. oliveirae n. sp. (Chile), and P. nepalensis n. sp. (Nepal). Based on male terminalia, P. amorimi shows greater affinity to species previously described from Brazil whereas P. oliveirae is more similar to other Chilean species. Phthinia nepalensis is the first species of the genus described from the Oriental region. Distribution records for other Neotropical species are also given.

  3. Temporal variation of the total nitrogen concentration in aereal organs of nitrogen fixing and non fixing riparian species


    Llinares, F.


    Changes in nitrogen concentration was determinated in samples of Alnus glutinosa, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Populus x canadiensis and Ailanthus altissima leaves, petioles and branches periodically during a year. Maximum nitrogen percentage was found in diazotrophic species (Alnus and Elaeagnus) and the nitrogen retranslocation form branches was higher (2.5 times) in no fixing species. Se estudian 10s cambios en la concentración de nitrógeno en Alnus glutinosa, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Populus...

  4. 滇东南半干热石漠化治理8个主要树种抗旱性研究%A Study on the Drought Resistance of Governance Trees in Semi-Arid Southern Subtropical Rocky Desertification Mountain of Southeast Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高洁; 李兴彪; 李乡旺; 陆素娟; 陈诗


    Eight tree species of the Governance trees were collected during raining season and dry season for the study in Semi-arid Southern Subtropical Rocky Desertification Mountain area in Jianshui County,Southeast Yunnan.The moisture condition of the sample trees was determined by PV technology.The drought-resistant physi-ological indexes and the contents,including malondialdehyde(MDA),free proline (Pro),ascorbic acid peroxi-dase(AsA POD),catalase (CAT)and superoxide disambiguation enzyme (SOD)activity and cell membrane per-meability,soluble sugar (SS),free amino acid (AA)in the plant cells of the 8 major tree species,were analyzed by physicochemical and principal component analysis methods.The calculation results of each principal component score and total score of each tree species with principal component analysis method showed that the drought resist-ance ability of 8 species:Fraxinus malacophylla >Cerasus cerasoides >Pistacia weinmannifolia >Leucaena leuco-cephala>Cupressus lusitanica>Pinus elliottii >Alnus nepalensis>Sophora viciifolia.It is suggested that Fraxinus malacophylla,Cerasus cerasoides and Pistacia weinmannifolia can be the best tree species for the forestation in southeastern Yunnan based on 4-year practice in the area.%以半干热石漠化治理云南省建水县8个主要树种为对象,分别于雨季和旱季进行采样,用PV技术对各个树种水分状况参数进行测定,用多种理化方法对植物细胞内的丙二醛(MDA )、游离脯氨酸(Pro)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(AsA-POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)和超氧化物歧酶(SOD)活性、细胞膜透性、可溶性糖(SS)、游离氨基酸(AA)的含量等8个抗旱生理指标进行测定。应用主成分分析方法对各树种进行综合评价,结果表明,8个树种的抗旱能力为白枪杆>冬樱>清香木>新银合欢>墨西哥柏>湿地松>旱冬瓜>苦刺花,在滇东南半干热石漠化山地治理可选用白枪杆

  5. Study on Plant Species Composition for Revegetatation at Zinc and Indium Mining Area%锌铟矿区植被结构优化造林模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常恩福; 侬时增; 刘永国; 李娅; 钱兴廷; 安康发; 周文华


    Silvicultural experiments including 10 species composition of 12 tested plant species were conducted in Zinc and indium mine waste accumulation site located in Dulong of Maguan county of Yunnan province from 2010 to 2013.Twelve tested plant species were Cupressus lusitanica,Alnus nepalensis,A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan,Ficus microcarpa vat.pusillifolia,Celtis kunmingensis,Pinus eltiottii,Buxus sinica,Ligustrum quihoui,Cajanus cajan,Neyraudia reynaudiana,Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne.Three years after field planting,the growth increments of 10 designed species composition were measured,and the soil nutritional status were analyzed as well.By considering the ecological status,site characteristics and the objectives of revegetation,four plant species with promising adaptability,afforestation survival rate and preserving rate were screened out,they were A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan,Cajanus cajan,A.nepalensis and Neyraudia reynaudiana.Combining A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan with Neyraudia reynaudiana or Cajanus cajan with Neyraudia reynaudiana,could speed up the positive succession,and form multilayer stand structure,with the survival rate over 95 % and preserving rate over 87 %.The average tree height and DBH of three years A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan were 4.79 m and 4.5 cm respectively,the average tree height and DBH of three years Cajanus cajan were 2.16 m and 2.8 cm respectively,the average height of Neyraudia reynaudiana was 2.18 m.The experimental results also indicated that at the initial stage of revegetation,choosing proper plant species and combining the species scientifically,the biodiversity could be maintained effectively,and the ideal community structure could be achieved,which therefore quite promising for the improve the soil fertility of the site.%2010 ~2013年在马关都龙曼家寨锌铟矿山采用墨西哥柏、旱冬瓜、川滇桤木、小叶榕、滇朴、湿地松、黄杨、小叶女桢、木豆、类芦、苇状羊茅、黑麦草12

  6. New floristic records in the Balkans: 17

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    , 103), Aspleniaceae (94), Asteraceae (5, 23, 26–31, 70, 74–76, 96, 124–127, 131–134), Betulaceae (109), Boraginaceae (32), Brassicaceae (24, 33–35, 71, 77, 135), Campanulaceae (36, 78, 79), Caryophyllaceae (6, 37–40, 72, 80, 114, 136, 137), Chenopodiaceae (7, 97, 128), Cupressaceae (108), Cyperaceae...

  7. Phylogeny and taxonomy of Ophiognomonia (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales), including twenty-five new species in this highly diverse genus (United States)

    Species of Ophiognomonia are leaf-inhabiting endophytes, pathogens, and saprobes that infect plants in the families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Malvaceae, Platanaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Sapindaceae. Based on extensive collecting, this species-rich genus is now known to hav...

  8. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in seven tropical earthworm species – a laboratory-based investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharjee; P S Chaudhuri


    Data on the reproductive biology of seven Indian species of earthworms, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perrier, Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Polypheretima elongata (Perrier), Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller), Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard), Dichogaster modiglianii (Rosa) and Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen are presented. The peregrine earthworms such as Perionyx excavatus, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster modiglianii, and Polypheretima elongata are considered to be continuous breeders with high fecundity. Native Lampito mauritii and Drawida nepalensis are semi-continuous and Eutyphoeus gammiei discrete breeders. There is a dramatic increase in cocoon production by most earthworm species of Tripura in the summer and monsoon with a corresponding peak during April and July. Cocoon production decreased or ceased during winter. Temperature affected the incubation period of cocoons. With increase in temperature, incubation period increased in the endogeic worms, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28–32°C under laboratory conditions. There was a significant ( < 0.05) positive correlation between number of hatchlings per cocoon and incubation period in Lampito mauritii. High rate of cocoon production, short development time with high hatching success, as well as continuous breeding strategies in the epigeic species Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii and the top soil endogeic species, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Drawida nepalensis and Lampito mauritii, indicate their possible usefulness in vermiculture. The giant anecic worm, Eutyphoeus gammiei, which has a very long cocoon development time, discrete breeding strategy and very low rate of cocoon production, is not a suitable species for vermiculture.

  9. Studies on the production of alcohol from woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, J.C.


    Samples of Pinus densiflora, P. rigida, Larix leptolepis, Alnus japonica, Castanea crenata and Populus euramericana (canadensis) were chemically analysed and optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis and alcohol fermentation established.

  10. Red Alder Basal Area, by Stream Reach, for the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Red alder (Alnus rubra) are a common component of forests in Western Oregon and Washington. This file provides an estimate of red alder basal area in western Oregon...

  11. Wood-destroying Basidiomycetes, found on the elder woods in the South Urals (Orenburg Oblast, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim A. Safonov


    Full Text Available The article shows the results of a study of wood-destroying basidiomycetes on two species of elder trees (Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incan, growing in the South Urals (Orenburg Oblast. The comparative analysis of basidiomycetes on two species of elder trees was conducted. The reasons for structural differences of these complexes are discussed. It is consumed that the reason lies in growth conditions of the trees.

  12. New records of eriophyoid mites from Iran (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) and a description of a new Brevulacus Manson species. (United States)

    Soika, Grażyna; Gol, Ali; Honarmand, Arash; Wozińska, Anna; Sadeghi, Hussein


    Four species of eriophyoid mites are recorded from Iran, of which three represent new records and the other is a new species. These species are: Brevulacus salicinus n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae), found on Salix sp. (Salicaceae); Aceria wallichianae Keifer, 1975 from Ulmus minor (Ulmaceae); Aceria granulata Carmona, 1972 from Verbascum spp. (Scrophulariaceae) and Tegnacus unicornutus Pye, 2012 from Carpinus betulus (Betulaceae). Each of these species are illustrated and provided with data regarding their distribution and host plants.

  13. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River (United States)


    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A


    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  15. 变应性鼻炎与昆明气传花粉及气象条件的关系%Relationship among allergic rhinitis, regional pollens and meteorological conditions in Kunming area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晟; 阮标; 余咏梅; 浦吉存


    Objective To evaluate the species,quantity and diffusionof allergenic pollens as well as the relationship among allergic rhinitis (AR),pollen species and meteorological conditions in Kunming area.Methods The exposure film was used to investigate the species of airborne pollen,the total number of these pollens during December 2009 to November 2010 by means of gravitational sedimentation,at the same time,AR patients were registered.The species of allergic pollen in Kunming area during the same period,and the statistic analysis was made with the meteorological elements,using the correlation analysis methods of Excel for data analysis.Results From December 2009 to November 2010,a total of 60 exposure films of pollen species was found,including 26 147 pollens.The annual airborne pollen showed two scattering peak,respectively:February to April and September to October;the number of advantage pollen was 17 species.The number of year-round drifting pollen was 13 species while 2 species showed two peaks on spring and autumn.There was another 26 new species added to the results of 2009-2010,compared with1987-1989,while the original 12 species were not seen.The drifting peak was the same.The number of allergen intradermal tests (AIT) positive AR patients was positively correlated with 16 pollen species,respectively,oleaceae,alnus nepalensis,walnut,palm,pigweed,fennel,Amaranthaceae,artemisia,rosa,Albizia julibrissin Durazz,gramineae,castor,Fraxinus L,populus,Morus alba L,hemp humulus,(r value were 0.689 7,0.550 1,0.742 1,0.755 2,0.771 2,0.663 3,0.556 1,0.568 3,0.659 8,0.607 4,0.834 7,0.664 3,0.745 9,0.634 7,0.718 3,0.777 2,all P < 0.05).The population of AIT positive AR patients was positively correlated with average temperature,average wind speed and other meteorological factors (r values were 0.552 0,0.883 5,both P < 0.05),and was negatively correlated with average relative humidity (r =-0.714 7,P <0.05).Conclusions Kunming had a large number of airborne pollen species

  16. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in seven tropical earthworm species - a laboratory-based investigation. (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gautam; Chaudhuri, P S


    Data on the reproductive biology of seven Indian species of earthworms, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perrier, Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Polypheretima elongata (Perrier), Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller), Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard), Dichogaster modiglianii (Rosa) and Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen are presented. The peregrine earthworms such as Perionyx excavatus, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster modiglianii, and Polypheretima elongata are considered to be continuous breeders with high fecundity. Native Lampito mauritii and Drawida nepalensis are semi-continuous and Eutyphoeus gammiei discrete breeders. There is a dramatic increase in cocoon production by most earthworm species of Tripura in the summer and monsoon with a corresponding peak during April and July. Cocoon production decreased or ceased during winter. Temperature affected the incubation period of cocoons. With increase in temperature, incubation period increased in the endogeic worms, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28-32 degrees C under laboratory conditions. There was a significant (P vermiculture. The giant anecic worm, Eutyphoeus gammiei, which has a very long cocoon development time, discrete breeding strategy and very low rate of cocoon production, is not a suitable species for vermiculture.

  17. Palynoflora of Wulaga dinosaur site in Jiayin (Zeya-Bureya Basin, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.S. Markevich; E.V. Bugdaeva; SUN Ge


    The palynological assemblage from Wulaga dinosaur site in Jiayin from southeastern Zeya-Bureya Basin was studied. The high content of pteridophytes spores is characteristic for this assemblage. The further characters are in decrease of abundance-tricolpate pollen, Ginkgocycadophytus, pollen of Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae (TCT), bisaccate pollen of Pinaceae, and triporate pollen. The bone-bearing burials of Wulaga dinosaur site formed under conditions of vast swampy river valley covered by ferns and taxodialeans. Tricolpate pollen, produced by plants, close to those of Platanaceae, Fagaceae, Betulaceae, and Juglandaceae, counts in favor of valley river open canopy forests.

  18. 绿萝等6种室内观赏植物对氨气净化作用分析%Analysis of A Purification Effect of Ammonia on Epipremnum Aureum and Other Indoor Ornamental Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪珊; 贾伟


    选取绿萝(Epipremnum aureum)、金边虎皮兰(Sansevieria trifasciata Lanrentii)、常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var.Sinensis)、豹纹竹芋(Maranta leuconeura)、金边吊兰(Phnom Penh Chlorophytum)、芦荟(Aloe vera var.Chinensis)六种植物,采用熏蒸方式,研究它们在.6 h熏蒸时间内,对氨气的净化效果.实验结果表明,6种植物对氨气均有净化作用,但不同植物净化效果有显著性差异.吸附氨气能力较强的为绿萝、常春藤;.中等的为豹纹竹芋、金边虎皮兰;.较弱的为金边吊兰、芦荟.%The research selectedsix kinds of plantssuch as Epipremnum aureum, Sansevieria trifasciata Lanrentii, Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis, Maranta leuconeura, Phnom Penh ChlorophytumandAloe vera var. Chinensis, and used fumigation to study the purifying effect to Ammonia of above plant within 6 h fumigation time. The results show that 6 kinds of plants all have purifying effect to Ammonia, but there are significant differences between different plants. The Epipremnum aureum and Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis has strong adsorption ability to Ammonia, medium for Maranta leuconeuraand Sansevieria trifasciata Lanrentii, and weaker for Phnom Penh Chlorophytum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis.

  19. Review of Oribotritia (Acari, Oribatida, Oribotritiidae) with a world checklist and description of a new species from China. (United States)

    Liu, Dong


    The oribatid mite genus Oribotritia Jacot, 1924 (Oribotritiidae) is reviewed. A new species of Oribotritia collected from litter in Hunchun, China, Oribotritia hunchunensis sp. nov., is described and figured. Four species, Oribotritia angusta Mahunka, 1982, Oribotritia asiatica Hammer, 1977, Oribotritia chichijimensis Aoki, 1980, Oribotritia gigas Bayoumi & Mahunka, 1979, are redescribed based on Chinese specimens. Oribotritia nepalensis Niedbała, 2000 is considered as a new junior subjective synonym of Oribotritia gigas Bayoumi & Mahunka, 1979. A comprehensive, fully annotated and referenced checklist of all known species and a key to known Chinese species of this genus are provided to facilitate to the further research.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    记述新栎盾蚧属Neoquernaspis Howell et Takagi,1981一新种,即细管新栎盾蚧N.leptosipha sp nov.和2种中国分布新纪录种,即石柯新栎盾蚧N beshearae Liu et Tippins,1988和尼泊尔新栎盾蚧N.nepalensis(Takagi,1977).并编制了该属中国已知种类检索表.新种模式标本和新纪录标本保存于西北农业大学昆虫博物馆.

  1. Water relations in millipedes from some alpine habitat types (Central Alps, Tyrol) (Diplopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Erwin; Eisenbeis, Gerhard


    Five species of millipedes, living cither in a mixed oak wood (alt. 670 m) (Enantiulus nanus, Mastigona mutabilis) or in an Alnus viridis community (alt. 2000 m) ( Leptoiulus saltuvagus, Haasea fonticulorum and Ochogona caroli) and the nival species Trimerophorella nivicomes are compared in respect

  2. Snohomish Estuary Wetlands Study Volume III. Classification and Mapping (United States)


    Jetty Island, 27 September, 1977, Scientific Name Common Name A0,11lsa millefolium Commn Yarrow 4goseris sp. Valse- dandelion Alnus rubra Red Alder... rooted intertidal vegetation which are alternately inundated and drained by tides. All salt marsh plants collected in the study area are listed in Table B

  3. From the forest to the sea and back again: Biogeochemistry in the Oregon Coast Range (United States)

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape can influence nutrient retention and loss at the watershed scale. A striking example of plant species influence is the role of N2-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) in the biogeochemistry of Pacific Northwest forests. A...

  4. 16S rRNA as molecular marker in ecology of Frankia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, D.


    The research described in this thesis focusses on the role of biotic factors encountered with the establishment of the symbiosis between black alder plants ( Alnus glutinosa ) and introduced Frankia strains. A selection of plant clones and Frankia strains that gave optimal nodulation and nitrogen f

  5. Arthropod fauna of rolled alder leaves in Washington State, United States of America (Insecta: Arachnida) (United States)

    Alders, Alnus spp., growing on the eastern slopes and foothills of the Cascade Range in Washington State, are often infested with shelter-making (primarily leafrolling) Lepidoptera in the families Tortricidae, Gracillariidae, and Choreutidae. Over a 5 year survey period, 5,172 rolled leaves were ex...

  6. Screening North American plant extracts in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent for Human African Trypanosomiasis (United States)

    Natural products extracts from 522 plants collected from different parts of the North America were screened in vitro against trypamastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei. The active extracts(150)with >90% inhibition at 20ug/mL concentrations from the plants namely, Alnus rubra, Hoita macrostachya, S...

  7. Chemotaxonomic Metabolite Profiling of 62 Indigenous Plant Species and Its Correlation with Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lee


    Full Text Available Chemotaxonomic metabolite profiling of 62 indigenous Korean plant species was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap (LTQ-IT mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis. In partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, the 62 species clustered depending on their phylogenetic family, in particular, Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae were distinguished from Rosaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae. Quinic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, quercetin derivatives, kaempferol, and kaempferol derivatives were identified as family-specific metabolites, and were found in relatively high concentrations in Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae. Fagaceae and Asteraceae were selected based on results of PLS-DA and bioactivities to determine the correlation between metabolic differences among plant families and bioactivities. Quinic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin derivatives, and kaempferol derivatives were found in higher concentrations in Fagaceae than in Asteraceae, and were positively correlated with antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. These results suggest that metabolite profiling was a useful tool for finding the different metabolic states of each plant family and understanding the correlation between metabolites and bioactivities in accordance with plant family.

  8. Predicting tree pollen season start dates using thermal conditions. (United States)

    Myszkowska, Dorota


    Thermal conditions at the beginning of the year determine the timing of pollen seasons of early flowering trees. The aims of this study were to quantify the relationship between the tree pollen season start dates and the thermal conditions just before the beginning of the season and to construct models predicting the start of the pollen season in a given year. The study was performed in Krakow (Southern Poland); the pollen data of Alnus, Corylus and Betula were obtained in 1991-2012 using a volumetric method. The relationship between the tree pollen season start, calculated by the cumulated pollen grain sum method, and a 5-day running means of maximum (for Alnus and Corylus) and mean (for Betula) daily temperature was found and used in the logistic regression models. The estimation of model parameters indicated their statistically significance for all studied taxa; the odds ratio was higher in models for Betula, comparing to Alnus and Corylus. The proposed model makes the accuracy of prediction in 83.58 % of cases for Alnus, in 84.29 % of cases for Corylus and in 90.41 % of cases for Betula. In years of model verification (2011 and 2012), the season start of Alnus and Corylus was predicted more precisely in 2011, while in case of Betula, the model predictions achieved 100 % of accuracy in both years. The correctness of prediction indicated that the data used for the model arrangement fitted the models well and stressed the high efficacy of model prediction estimated using the pollen data in 1991-2010.

  9. Bioprospecting traditional Pakistani medicinal plants for potent antioxidants. (United States)

    Inayatullah, Samia; Prenzler, Paul D; Obied, Hassan K; Rehman, Ata-Ur; Mirza, Bushra


    Antioxidant potential of four methanol extracts from three selected plant species, namely Salvia nubicola (Lamiaceae), Acer oblongifolium (Aceraceae) and Hedera nepalensis (Araliaceae) was measured using assays in aqueous and lipid systems. Antioxidant activities were investigated in aqueous systems by using DPPH radical-scavenging assay, ABTS radical-scavenging assay and DNA protection assay, while antioxidant activity in a lipid system was determined by using the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay. Additionally, the Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to measure total phenolic content. Methanol extracts of leaves and flowers of S. nubicola showed the highest Trolox equivalent (TE) values in the case of the DPPH assay, 2484±4.9mmol TE/g extract, as well as total phenolic content, 139±0.2mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract. Three fractions (A-C) of the methanol extract of S. nubicola leaves and flowers were produced by semi-preparative HPLC. Fraction B was found to be the most active in the DPPH radical-scavenging assay and had the highest total phenol content. HPLC-DAD and LC-MS revealed rosmarinic acid in S. nubicola extracts and chlorogenic acid and rutin in H. nepalensis extracts as the main phenolic antioxidants.

  10. Effect of A Nitrogen-Fixing Actinorhizal Shrub on Herbaceous Vegetation in A Mixed Conifer Forest of Central Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bargali


    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effect of a nitrogen-fixing shrub Coriaria nepalensis Wall on herb species composition, diversity and biomass. The effect was measured in terms of species richness, diversity and biomass of herb species in three sites varying in Coriaria density viz. site 1 (low Coriaria density; 20 ha-1, site-2 (medium Coriaria density; 120 ha-1 and site-3 (high Coriaria density 190 ha-1. Species richness was minimum at Site-1 (16 species, and maximum at site-2 (27 species. G. aparine dominated site-1 and Arthraxon sp dominated site-2 and 3. The individual herb density ranged between 0.40 - 42.40 m-2, and total herb density ranged between 138- 170.4 m-2 and was maximum at site-2. Value for species richness (27 and Shannon Index (3.72 was highest for medium Coriaria density site and lowest for low Coriaria density site. Simpson Index ranged between 0.11 and 0.14 and was lowest for site-2(medium Coriaria density indicating that at this the dominance was shared by many species. Along the gradient of Coriaria density, maximum biomass was recorded at site-3 with highest Coriaria density and lowest at site-2 with medium Coriaria density. This may be due to the symbiotic nitrogen fixing ability of Coriaria that improve the habitat quality. The facilitative effect of C. nepalensis in terms of soil amelioration and herb growth can be used to regenerate degraded forest ecosystems.

  11. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.


    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  12. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes;


    Reforestation of ex-arable land in temperate regions increases the area of potential habitat for forest plants. However, the herbaceous plant layer of these plantations contains fewer forest species than comparable plantations at continuously forested sites. One of the reasons for this might......-generation forest plantations on ex-arable land and re-planted clear-cuts on continuously forested land. There was no recruitment following the experimental sowing of six commonwoody species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Frangula alnus, Sambucus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus intermedia). Thus......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...

  13. Acidification Sources in Red Alder and Douglas-Fir Soils -- Importance of Nitrification


    Miegroet, Helga Van; Cole, D. W.


    Precipitation, throughfall, forest floor, and soil leachate samples were monitored continuously in 1981 and 1982 in a N-poor Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forest and a red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) forest growing adjacently on a glacial soil in western Washington. The purpose of the study was to quantify the relative importance of atmospheric vs. natural sources of H+ input to forest soil acidification, and to determine the role of N transformation processes in the overa...

  14. Direct-seeding of commercial trees on surface-mine spoil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, D.H.; Carpenter, S.B.; Wittwer, R.F.


    Two small-seeded species, Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) and three large seeded species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) were direct-seeded on three aspects on minesoil in eastern Kentucky. Treatments included four mulch applications--water-borne fiber mulch, hardwood bark, bark and manure, and composted municipal waste; and two fertilizer applications. Growth and survival were evaluated during two consecutive growing seasons.

  15. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence for Frankia sp. Strain EI5c, a Single-Spore Isolate of a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium, Isolated from the Root Nodules of Elaeagnus angustifolia. (United States)

    D'Angelo, Timothy; Oshone, Rediet; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S


    Frankia sp. strain EI5c is a member of Frankia lineage III, which is able to reinfect plants of the Eleagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Myricaceae, and Gymnostoma, as well as the genus Alnus Here, we report the 6.6-Mbp draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain EI5c with a G+C content of 72.14 % and 5,458 candidate protein-encoding genes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  17. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  18. Plant Resources, 13C-NMR Spectral Characteristic and Pharmacological Activities of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Ruan


    Full Text Available Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P. japonicas, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium. Aside from Araliaceae, DTT also distribute in other families, including Betulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Until now, about 136 species belonging to 46 families have been reported to contain DTT. In this article, the genus classifications of plant sources of the botanicals that contain DTT are reviewed, with particular focus on the NMR spectral features and pharmacological activities based on literature reports, which may be benefit for the development of new drugs or food additives.

  19. Plant Resources, (13)C-NMR Spectral Characteristic and Pharmacological Activities of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoids. (United States)

    Ruan, Jingya; Zheng, Chang; Qu, Lu; Liu, Yanxia; Han, Lifeng; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao


    Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT) widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P. japonicas, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium. Aside from Araliaceae, DTT also distribute in other families, including Betulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Until now, about 136 species belonging to 46 families have been reported to contain DTT. In this article, the genus classifications of plant sources of the botanicals that contain DTT are reviewed, with particular focus on the NMR spectral features and pharmacological activities based on literature reports, which may be benefit for the development of new drugs or food additives.

  20. Biogeography, host specificity, and molecular phylogeny of the basidiomycetous yeast Phaffia rhodozyma and its sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. (United States)

    Libkind, Diego; Ruffini, Alejandra; van Broock, Maria; Alves, Leonor; Sampaio, José Paulo


    Phaffia rhodozyma (sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is a basidiomycetous yeast that has been found in tree exudates in the Northern Hemisphere at high altitudes and latitudes. This yeast produces astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with biotechnological importance because it is used in aquaculture for fish pigmentation. We isolated X. dendrorhous from the Southern Hemisphere (Patagonia, Argentina), where it was associated with fruiting bodies of Cyttaria hariotii, an ascomycetous parasite of Nothofagus trees. We compared internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenies of P. rhodozyma and its tree host (Betulaceae, Corneaceae, Fagaceae, and Nothofagaceae) and found them to be generally concordant, suggesting that different yeast lineages colonize different trees and providing an explanation for the phylogenetic distance observed between the type strains of P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous. We hypothesize that the association of Xanthophyllomyces with Cyttaria derives from a previous association of the yeast with Nothofagus, and the sister relationship between Nothofagaceae and Betulaceae plus Fagaceae correlates with the phylogeny of X. dendrorhous strains originating from these three plant families. The two most basal strains of X. dendrorhous are those isolated from Cornus, an ancestral genus in the phylogenetic analysis of the host trees. Thus, we question previous conclusions that P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous represent different species since the polymorphisms detected in the ITS and intergenic spacer sequences can be attributed to intraspecific variation associated with host specificity. Our study provides a deeper understanding of Phaffia biogeography, ecology, and molecular phylogeny. Such knowledge is essential for the comprehension of many aspects of the biology of this organism and will facilitate the study of astaxanthin production within an evolutionary and ecological framework.

  1. Differential Host Plant-Associated Genetic Variation Between Sympatric Mite Species of the Genus Oligonychus (Acari: Tetranychidae). (United States)

    Guzman-Valencia, Stephanie; Santillán-Galicia, Ma Teresa; Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Vega-Muñoz, Ricardo


    Adaptation to different host plants can lead to host-associated differentiation (HAD). The mites Oligonychus perseae and Oligonychus punicae have a broad range of host plants, but, to date, records of them coexisting sympatrically had only been reported on avocado. However, our field observations showed both species coexisting on host plants other than avocado. The lack of previous records of these mites on the host plants studied here suggests only recent divergence to new host plant species. Previous studies showed that O. punicae had a limited migration capacity compared with O. perseae, suggesting that O. punicae is more likely to develop a close host plant relationship leading to HAD. Adults of both species were collected from trees hosting both mite species. Three genera of host plants considered were Persea, Salix, and Alnus; two species within one genus were Alnus jorullensis and Alnus acuminata; and three varieties within one species were Persea americana var. Fuerte, var. Hass, and var. Criollo, a noncommercial variety. Using sequence data from a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I, the phylogenetic relationships and genetic population structure of both mite species in relation to the host plant were determined. Oligonychus perseae populations showed a significant population structure in relation to host plant at the species and genus level, but there was no effect of variety. In contrast, host plant explained none of the genetic variation among O. punicae populations. The potential role of coexistence mechanisms in the contrasting genetic population structure of both mite species is discussed.

  2. Woody-biomass production in Michigan: species, genotype, and cultural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.O.


    A stepwise approach was adopted in 1978 for developing a comprehensive woody-biomass production system for Michigan. The program consisted of four phases: 1) identification of the most promising biomass species through trial plantings on abandoned agricultural fields and cleared forest stands, 2) preliminary yield comparisons of several species growing in existing experimental plantations, 3) species improvement using standard tree improvement techniques, and 4) development of cultural techniques designed to optimize woody-biomass yield from energy plantations. This dissertation summarizes results of research in each of these areas. Species recommendations for each of three climatic zones in Michigan are based on survival and growth of 23 species at nine oil-field sites after four growing seasons. Pinus sylvestris, P. banksiana, P. resinosa, P. nigra x P. densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Alnus glutinosa, and Picea abies are recommended for use in the Upper Peninsula; Pinus sylvestris, P. resinosa, P. nigra x P. densiflora, Larix leptolepis, Alnus glutinosa, Picea abies, and Quercus robur are recommended for use in the northern Lower Peninsula; and Pinus sylvestris, Alnus glutinosa, Larix leptolepis, Populus, Quercus robur, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, and Salix are recommended for use in the southern Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Yield predictor equations were developed and yields analyzed for 13 species. The best yielding species in the older plantations (14- 16-years old) were Pinus nigra x P. densiflora and Betula alleghaniensis. The best species in the group of younger plantations (five- to nine-years old) were a Populus hybrid mixture and Ailanthus altissima.

  3. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains. (United States)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Łukasz; Costantini, Antonella; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Arneborg, Nils; Cocolin, Luca; Jespersen, Lene


    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best growing species. A phytase coding gene of P. kudriavzevii (PHYPk) was identified and its expression was studied during growth by RT-qPCR. The expression level of PHYPk was significantly higher in phytate-medium, compared to phosphate-medium. In phytate-medium expression was seen in the lag phase. Significant differences in gene expression were detected among the strains as well as between the media. A correlation was found between the PHYPk expression and phytase extracellular activity.

  4. Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae new to tropical America, with eight new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Hansson


    Full Text Available The genus Achrysocharoides Girault is here reported for the first time from tropical America. Included are ten species, eight newly described: A. asperulus, A. callisetosus, A. cuspidatus, A. foveatus, A. infuscus, A. mediocarinatus, A. purpureus, A. sulcatus, and two already known: A. ecuadorensis (Hansson and A. gliricidiae (Hansson & Cave. All species are included in an identification key, diagnosed, described and illustrated. Only one of the species, A. gliricidiae, has a host record, an endoparasitoid in a leafmining Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera on Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae, thus conforming to the biology of extralimital Achrysocharoides species. The genus Kratoysma Bouček is here established as a junior synonym of Achrysocharoides, and the following species previously in Kratoysma are here recombined to Achrysocharoides: K. citri Bouček, K. ecuadorensis Hansson, K. gliricidiae Hansson & Cave, K. longifacies Hansson, K. nepalensis Hansson, Derostenus usticrus Erdös.

  5. Wetland vegetation in the North-eastern Sandy Highveld, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Burgoyne


    Full Text Available The wetland vegetation of the high mountain grasslands of Mpumalanga w as sampled by using stratification based on geology and land types. Floristic data were classified by TWINSPAN procedures and refined by using the Braun-Blanquet method. This resulted in the recognition of four major w etland plant communities w hich are subdiv ided into eleven minor plant communities. The major communities include the Phragmites australis Wetland occurring in relatively deep water, the  Miscanthus junceus Wetland from moist river banks and wet drainage lines, the  Eragrostis biflora-Stihurus allopecuroides Moist Grassland restricted to moist, poorly drained soils w ith a high water table, and Arundinella nepalensis Moist Grasslands on black vertic soils.

  6. 氨气胁迫下6种观赏植物的生理抗性比较研究%Physiological Resistance Study of Six Kinds of Ornamental Plants Under Ammonia Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪珊; 贾伟


    选取绿萝、金边虎皮兰、常春藤、豹纹竹芋、金边吊兰、芦荟6种家庭常用观赏植物,采用密闭熏气方式对其进行不同浓度下氨气胁迫试验,测定了6种植物的叶绿素含量、丙二醛含量及相对电导率。试验结果表明:在所测试的3种氨气浓度胁迫下,6种植物抗氨气污染能力由强到弱依次为绿萝、常春藤、豹纹竹芋、金边虎皮兰、金边吊兰、芦荟。%The research selected 6 species of plants such as Epipremnumaureum , Sansevieria trifasciata ,Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis ,Maranta leuconeura ,Chlorophytum comosum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis , and used airtight fumigation method to undergo ammonia stress with different concentrations. The leaf green content ,malondialdehyde content and the relative electrical conductivity were tested for the above plants. The results showed that under 1,2,4 mg/m3 ammonia concentration stress , the Epipremnum aureum and Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis had strongest ammonia pollution resistance , medium for Maranta leuconeura and Sansevieria trifasciataLanrentii , the weakest for Chlorophytum comosum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis .

  7. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Smith


    Full Text Available Through increases in net primary production (NPP, elevated CO2 is hypothesized to increase the amount of plant litter entering the soil. The fate of this extra carbon on the forest floor or in mineral soil is currently not clear. Moreover, increased rates of NPP can be maintained only if forests can escape nitrogen limitation. In a Free atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiment near Bangor, Wales, 4 ambient and 4 elevated [CO2] plots were planted with patches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica on a former arable field. After 4 years, biomass averaged for the 3 species was 5497 (se 270 g m−2 in ambient and 6450 (se 130 g m−2 in elevated [CO2] plots, a significant increase of 17% (P = 0.018. During that time, only a shallow L forest floor litter layer had formed due to intensive bioturbation. Total soil C and N contents increased irrespective of treatment and species as a result of afforestation. We could not detect an additional C sink in the soil, nor were soil C stabilization processes affected by elevated [CO2]. We observed a decrease of leaf N content in Betula and Alnus under elevated [CO2], while the soil C/N ratio decreased regardless of CO2 treatment. The ratio of N taken up from the soil and by N2-fixation in Alnus was not affected by elevated [CO2]. We infer that increased nitrogen use efficiency is the mechanism by which increased NPP is sustained under elevated [CO2] at this site.

  8. Saproxylic beetles of the Po plain woodlands, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stefanelli


    Although we didn’t find species listed in the Annexes of the EU Habitat Directive, some of the species found are locally threatened because of their rarity, local distribution, and strong linkage to old forests. Among these species there are the Bothrideridae Bothrideres bipunctatus, the Cerambycidae Prionus coriarius and Xylotrechus rusticus, the Dryophthoridae Dryophthorus corticalis, the Eucnemidae Nematodes filum (with only 1 individual captured in Alnus unmanged forest, the Histeridae Aeletes atomarius and Paromalus flavicornis, the Laemophloeidae Cryptolestes duplicatus, the Latridiidae Enicmus rugosus and Latridius hirtus, the Mycetophagidae Mycetophagus piceus, and the Zopheridae Colydium elongatum and Pycnomerus terebrans.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur


    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  10. Proyecto para el control del decaimiento del aliso en Bretocino (Zamora)


    Torres Sánchez, Esteban


    Desde 2007 se ha empezado a visualizar en el norte peninsular un progresivo decaimiento de los alisos (Alnus glutinosa), que en muchos casos derivan en su muerte. Es el caso que ocurre en el término municipal de Bretocino (Zamora, Castilla y León): unas alisedas llevan un progresivo decaimiento. Se ha identificado el patógeno Phytophthora alni como el principal causante de este decaimiento. El objetivo de este documento es diseñar un proyecto para combatir este decaimiento y conseguir recuper...

  11. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Raissi Ardali


    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  12. Airborne Pollen Grains in Zonguldak,Turkey,2001-2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayse KAPLAN


    The variation in airborne pollen concentration of the Zonguldak region, Turkey was studied for two consecutive years 2001-2002 using a Durham sampler. During this period, a total of 61 304 pollen grains belonging to 43 taxa were recorded. Of these 43 taxa, 26 belonged to arboreal and 17 to nonarboreal plants. The main pollen types were Pinaceae, Populus, Carpinus, Betula, Corylus, Fagus orientalis,Castanea sativa, Alnus glutinosa, Quercus, Cupressaceae, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae, representing 96.7% of the pollen spectrum. Pollen concentration reached the highest level in March.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Frankia sp. Strain FaC1 Genes Involved in Nitrogen Fixation


    Ligon, James M.; James P. Nakas


    Genomic DNA was isolated from Frankia sp. strain FaC1, an Alnus root nodule endophyte, and used to construct a genomic library in the cosmid vector pHC79. The genomic library was screened by in situ colony hybridization to identify clones of Frankia nitrogenase (nif) genes based on DNA sequence homology to structural nitrogenase genes from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several Frankia nif clones were isolated, and hybridization with individual structural nitrogenase gene fragments (nifH, nifD, and n...

  14. 低温环境中 T-2毒素降解菌的分离鉴定及特性研究%Isolation and Identification of T-2 Toxin Degradable Bacteria and Its Characteristic in Low Temperature Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鹏莉; 陈海燕; 王雅玲; 孙力军; 张春辉; 施琦; 徐德峰; 叶日英


    T-2 toxin degradable bacteria( TTDB)in low-temperature environment was Isolated and screened and found out its biochemical characteristics,and probed deeply into its microbiological and biochemical features of simi-lar and dissimilar points,to provide reference for biochemical judgment during the inspection with TTDB. Aiming at exposure of low concentration T-2 toxin standard sample to - 20 ℃ low temperature environment T-2 standard toxin of low concentration,LC-MS / MS was adopted to quantitatively analyze the residual amount of T-2 toxin,using NA and PDA media,and isolated five degradable bacteria,they were identified as Bacillus vallismortis,Pseudomonas geniculata,Staphylococcus nepalensis,Bacillus cereus,and Enterobacter cloacae according to 16S rDNA and their bio-chemical characteristics,all can degrate low concentration T-2 toxin in different degrees at - 20 ℃ ,among them B. cereus had the strongest degradation with the rate as high as 91% . They have many similarities in physicochemical property,all of them cannot utilize D-tagatose(dTAG),exhibited negative to ELLMAN. B. vallismortis Bp1234-7, P. geniculata Bp24-4,S. nepalensis Bp124-5 and E. cloacae Bp123-7 decompose D-glucose,while B. cereus Bp123-7 does not.%离筛选低温环境中 T-2毒素的降解菌并探明其生化特性,探究 T-2毒素降解微生物生化特性异同点,为 T-2毒素降解微生物的检验提供生化判断参考。针对暴露于-20℃低温环境中的低浓度 T-2毒素标准品,采用 LC-MS/ MS 定量分析 T-2毒素残留量,利用营养琼脂培养基(NA)和马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂培养基(PDA)共分离出5株降解菌,16S rDNA 结合生化鉴定结果为死谷芽胞杆菌(Bacillus vallismortis)、蜡状芽胞杆菌(Bacil-lus cereus)、阴沟肠杆菌( Enterobacter cloacae)、弯曲假单胞菌( Pseudomonas geniculata)和尼泊尔葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus nepalensis)。这些分离株在-20℃条件下对低浓度 T-2毒素均

  15. 四种室内观叶植物离体叶片吸收甲醛效果的研究%Formaldehyde Purification Effects of Four kinds of Indoor Foliage Plants Leaves in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春晓; 刘梦云; 张莉莉; 熊勉


    Four common indoor ornamental plants were selected as experiment materials: Aglaonema modestum, Scindapsus aureun , Chlorophytum comosum , Hedera nepalensis var .sinensis.Through artificial simulation environment , explore formaldehyde purification effects of indoor ornamental plants in three different formaldehyde concentrations .The results showed that all the four plant species had a pretty good absorption capacity of formaldehyde .By comparing the absorption rate of formaldehyde with three different concentrations in 36 hours, Aglaonema modestum was the best , reached 23.94mg/cm2 , followed by Chlorophytum comosum and Hedera nepalensis var .sinensi, Scindapsus aureum was the weakest , formaldehyde absorption amount is 4.72mg/cm2 .Analyzing experimental data with statistics software spss , the results showed that each plant in vitro leave has different absorptive capacity after different time , and different plants have different absorptive capacity .Analyzing the process of adsorption formaldehyde by Chlorophytum , found that the adsorptive process is first-order.%以万年青、常春藤、吊兰、绿萝4种植物为研究对象,通过人工模拟环境,在3种不同的甲醛浓度下探讨4种植物离体吸收甲醛的能力。结果表明,植物离体叶片对甲醛均有较好的吸收能力;综合考虑36 h内4种植物离体叶片对甲醛的吸收量,其中以万年青的吸收效果最好,达到23.94 mg/cm2,吊兰和常春藤次之,绿萝效果最差,为4.72 mg/cm2。应用SPSS对实验数据进行分析,结果说明不同的处理时间下,各个植物离体叶片对甲醛的吸收能力都不同,且对甲醛的吸收能力因植物种类的不同而不同。对吊兰吸附甲醛的过程进行动力学分析,发现该吸附过程属于一级动力学过程。

  16. Characterization of haemoglobin from Actinorhizal plants -- An in silico approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghati Bhattacharya; Arnab Sen; Subarna Thakur; Louis S Tisa


    Plant haemoglobins (Hbs), found in both symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants, are heme proteins and members of the globin superfamily. Hb genes of actinorhizal Fagales mostly belong to the non-symbiotic type of haemoglobin; however, along with the non-symbiotic Hb, Casuarina sp. posses a symbiotic one (symCgHb), which is expressed specifically in infected cells of nodules. A thorough sequence analysis of 26 plant Hb proteins, currently available in public domain, revealed a consensus motif of 29 amino acids. This motif is present in all the members of symbiotic class II Hbs including symCgHb and non-symbiotic Class II Hbs, but is totally absent in Class I symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs. Further, we constructed 3D structures of Hb proteins from Alnus and Casuarina through homology modelling and peeped into their structural properties. Structure-based studies revealed that the Casuarina symbiotic haemoglobin protein shows distinct stereochemical properties from that of the other Casuarina and Alnus Hb proteins. It also showed considerable structural similarities with leghemoglobin structure from yellow lupin (pdb id 1GDI). Therefore, sequence and structure analyses point to the fact that symCgHb protein shows significant resemblance to symbiotic haemoglobin found in legumes and may thus eventually play a similar role in shielding the nitrogenase from oxygen as seen in the case of leghemoglobin.

  17. Vegetation and Environment History for the Past 14000 yr BP from Dingnan, Jiangxi Province, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Richard Dodson; Shirene Hickson; Rachel Khoo; Xiao-Qiang Li; Jemina Toia; Wei-Jian Zhou


    A Late Pleistocene-Holocene pollen, phosphorus, and charcoal record was reconstructed from apeatland in southern Jiangxi Province in southern China. The area today has a mountainous and rolling landscape with villages, small towns, and agriculture dominated by rice paddies, vegetable, and fruit gardens, as well as areas of secondary forest and pine re-afforestation. The record opens before 14 300 yr BP, with Alnus woodland dominating the wetland areas and with an open Quercus woodland on the surrounding slopes.The forest area becomes more complex from approximately 12 800 yr BP and further from 9 000 yr BP. At approximately 6 000 yr BP, there is evidence of clearing and, by 4 500-4 000 yr BP, a complete collapse in the wetland Alnus and terrestrial forest as the low-lying areas are converted to rice production. For much of the record, the occurrence of fire around the site was low, although there is evidence of regional fires. Fire was used as a tool in clearing and then used in the annual cycles of stubble burning after rice harvest. Nutrient levels, as reflected by total phosphorus in the sediment, seem to be closely related to forest changes and high values in the surface layers probably result from land-management techniques associated with agriculture. Therefore, human impact greatly altered forest cover, fire frequency, and nutrient dynamics; this has been evident for approximately 6 000 yr BP and then intensifies towards the present day.

  18. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland. (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha


    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland.

  19. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of dominant plant species in Yungas forests, Argentina. (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta; Zak, Marcelo R; Bartoloni, Norberto


    In Argentina the Yungas forests are among the ecosystems most affected by human activity, with loss of biodiversity. To assess the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore numbers in these ecosystems, the roots of the most dominant native plants (one tree, Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous, Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub, Sambucus peruviana) were studied throughout the year from two sites of Yungas forests. Assessments of mycorrhizal colonization (percent root length, intraradical structures) were made by washing and staining the roots. Soil samples of each plant species were pooled and subsamples were obtained to determine AM spore numbers. The herbaceous species formed both Arum- and Paris-type morphologies, whereas the tree and the shrub species formed respectively single structural types of Arum- and Paris-type. AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers displayed variation in species, seasons and sites. D. indica showed the highest AM colonization, whereas the highest spore numbers was observed in the rhizosphere of A. acuminata. No correlation was observed between spore numbers and root length percentage colonized by AM fungi. Results of this study showed that Alnus acuminata is facultatively AM. The AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers varied in species depending on phenological, climatic and edaphic conditions.

  20. Late Glacial to Holocene paleoenvironmental change on the northwestern Pacific seaboard, Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) (United States)

    Pendea, Ionel Florin; Ponomareva, Vera; Bourgeois, Joanne; Zubrow, Ezra B. W.; Portnyagin, Maxim; Ponkratova, Irina; Harmsen, Hans; Korosec, Gregory


    We used a new sedimentary record from a small kettle wetland to reconstruct the Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation and fire history of the Krutoberegovo-Ust Kamchatsk region in eastern Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia). Pollen and charcoal data suggest that the Late Glacial landscape was dominated by a relatively fire-prone Larix forest-tundra during the Greenland Interstadial complex (GI 1) and a subarctic steppe during the Younger Dryas (GS1). The onset of the Holocene is marked by the reappearance of trees (mainly Alnus incana) within a fern and shrub dominated landscape. The Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) features shifting vegetational communities dominated by Alnus shrubs, diverse forb species, and locally abundant aquatic plants. The HTM is further defined by the first appearance of stone birch forests (Betula ermanii) - Kamchatka's most abundant modern tree species. The Late Holocene is marked by shifts in forest dynamics and forest-graminoid ratio and the appearance of new non-arboreal taxa such as bayberry (Myrica) and meadow rue (Filipendula). Kamchatka is one of Earth's most active volcanic regions. During the Late Glacial and Holocene, Kamchatka's volcanoes spread large quantities of tephra over the study region. Thirty-four tephra falls have been identified at the site. The events represented by most of these tephra falls have not left evidence of major impacts on the vegetation although some of the thicker tephras caused expansion of grasses (Poaceae) and, at least in one case, forest die-out and increased fire activity.

  1. Net degradation of methyl mercury in alder swamps. (United States)

    Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Tjerngren, Ida; Drott, Andreas; Björn, Erik; Skyllberg, Ulf


    Wetlands are generally considered to be sources of methyl mercury (MeHg) in northern temperate landscapes. However, a recent input-output mass balance study during 2007-2010 revealed a black alder (Alnus glutinosa) swamp in southern Sweden to be a consistent and significant MeHg sink, with a 30-60% loss of MeHg. The soil pool of MeHg varied substantially between years, but it always decreased with distance from the stream inlet to the swamp. The soil MeHg pool was significantly lower in the downstream as compared to the upstream half of the swamp (0.66 and 1.34 ng MeHg g⁻¹ SOC⁻¹ annual average⁻¹, respectively, one-way ANOVA, p = 0.0006). In 2008 a significant decrease of %MeHg in soil was paralleled by a significant increase in potential demethylation rate constant (k(d), p landscape planning, and suggest that restored or preserved Alnus swamps may be used to mitigate MeHg produced in northern temperate landscapes.

  2. A 14,000 year vegetation history of a hypermaritime island on the outer Pacific coast of Canada based on fossil pollen, spores and conifer stomata (United States)

    Lacourse, Terri; Delepine, J. Michelle; Hoffman, Elizabeth H.; Mathewes, Rolf W.


    Pollen and conifer stomata analyses of lake sediments from Hippa Island on the north coast of British Columbia were used to reconstruct the vegetation history of this small hypermaritime island. Between 14,000 and 13,230 cal yr BP, the island supported diverse herb-shrub communities dominated by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix. Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis stomata indicate that these conifers were present among the herb-shrub communities, likely as scattered individuals. Transition to open P. contorta woodland by 13,000 cal yr BP was followed by increases in Alnus viridis, Alnus rubra and P. sitchensis. After 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus-dominated communities were replaced by dense P. sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla forest with Lysichiton americanus and fern understory. Thuja plicata stomata indicate that this species was present by 8700 cal yr BP, but the pollen record suggests that its populations did not expand to dominate regional rainforests, along with Tsuga and Picea, until after 6600 cal yr BP. Conifer stomata indicate that species may be locally present for hundreds to thousands of years before pollen exceed thresholds routinely used to infer local species arrival. When combined, pollen and conifer stomata can provide a more accurate record of paleovegetation than either when used alone.

  3. Postglacial vegetation history of Orcas Island, northwestern Washington (United States)

    Leopold, Estella B.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Whitlock, Cathy; Nickmann, Rudy; Watts, William A.


    The revegetation of islands following retreat of Pleistocene glaciers is of great biogeographical interest. The San Juan Islands, Washington, feature regionally distinctive xerophytic plant communities, yet their vegetation history, as it relates to past climate and sea level, is poorly known. We describe a 13,700-year-old pollen record from Killebrew Lake Fen and compare the vegetation reconstruction with others from the region. The data suggest that the narrow channels surrounding Orcas Island were not a barrier to early postglacial immigration of plants. Between 13,700 and 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus, Tsuga, Picea, Alnus viridis, and possibly Juniperus maritima were present in a mosaic that supported Bison antiquus and Megalonyx. The rise of Alnus rubra-type pollen and Pteridium spores at ca. 12,000 cal yr BP suggests a warming trend and probably more fires. Temperate conifer taxa, including Cupressaceae, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga heterophylla, and Abies, increased after 11,000 cal yr BP and especially in the last 7000 cal yr BP. After 6000 cal yr BP, Pseudotsuga and Cupressaceae dominated the vegetation. The last 1500 yr were the wettest period of the record. Due to its rain shadow location, Orcas Island experienced drier conditions than on the mainland during most of the postglacial period.

  4. Diarylheptanoids suppress proliferation of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells through modulating shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway. (United States)

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Yu-Ih; Lee, So Yoon; Zhao, Hui-Yuan; Jeon, Raok; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha


    Pancreatic cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer, and it has the lowest 5-year survival rates. It is necessary to develop more potent anti-pancreatic cancer drugs to overcome the fast metastasis and resistance to surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and combinations of these. We have identified several diarylheptanoids as anti-pancreatic cancer agents from Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal) and Alnus japonica. These diarylheptanoids suppressed cell proliferation and induced the cell cycle arrest of pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1). Among them, the most potent compounds 1 and 7 inhibited the shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway and their target gene expression in PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, they suppressed the expression of the cell cycle associated genes that were rescued by the overexpression of exogenous FoxM1. Taken together, (E)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhept-4-en-3-one (1) from Alpinia officinarum (lesser galangal) and platyphyllenone (7) from Alnus japonica inhibit PANC-1 cell proliferation by suppressing the shh-Gli-FoxM1 pathway, and they can be potential candidates for anti-pancreatic cancer drug development.

  5. Micromonospora is a normal occupant of actinorhizal nodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lorena Carro; Petar Pujic; Martha E Trujillo; Phillipe Normand


    Actinorhizal plants have been found in eight genera belonging to three orders (Fagales, Rosales and Cucurbitales). These all bear root nodules inhabited by bacteria identified as the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia. These nodules all have a peripheral cortex with enlarged cells filled with Frankia hyphae and vesicles. Isolation in pure culture has been notoriously difficult, due in a large part to the growth of fast-growing contaminants where, it was later found, Frankia was slow-growing. Many of these contaminants, which were later found to be Micromonospora, were obtained from Casuarina and Coriaria. Our study was aimed at determining if Micromonospora were also present in other actinorhizal plants. Nodules from Alnus glutinosa, Alnus viridis, Coriaria myrtifolia, Elaeagnus x ebbingei, Hippophae rhamnoides, Myrica gale and Morella pensylvanica were tested and were all found to contain Micromonospora isolates. These were found to belong to mainly three species: Micromonospora lupini, Micromonospora coriariae and Micromonospora saelicesensis. Micromonospora isolates were found to inhibit some Frankia strains and to be innocuous to other strains.

  6. Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species. (United States)

    Rietveld, W J


    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine juglone sensitivity of 16 species (Trifolium incarnatum, Coronilla varia, Vicia villosa, Lespedeza stipulacea, L. cuneata, Acer ginnala, Caragana arbor-escens, Elaegnus angustifolia, E. umbellata, Lonicera maackii, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Alnus glutinosa, Pinus strobus, andP. sylvestris) being considered for mixed plantings withJugions nigra (black walnut). All species were sensitive to juglone, but seed germination and radicle elongation were less affected than shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation. Seed germination and radicle elongation were affected by juglone in 6 and 11 species, respectively, mainly by the higher concentrations (10(-3) M and 10(-4) M). Shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation of all species were affected by juglone; many species were sensitive to concentrations as low as 10(-6) M. Seedlings of all species were severely wilted and eventually killed by 10(-3) M juglone, and most were chlorotic and severely retarded by 10(-4) M juglone. Seedlings inhibited by 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M juglone did not showany visible signs of injury. Based on the effects on seedling shoot elongation and dry weight accumulation, the five species found to be most sensitive to juglone were:Lonicera maackii, Lespedeza cuneata, Trifolium incarnatum, Alnus glutinosa, and Elaeagnus umbellata.

  7. Alder, Nitrogen, and Lake Ecology: Terrestrial-Aquatic Linkages in the Postglacial History of Lone Spruce Pond, Southwestern Alaska (United States)

    Axford, Yarrow; Kaufman, Darrell S.


    Diatoms, combined with a multiproxy study of lake sediments (organic matter, N, δ15N, δ13C, biogenic silica, grain size, Cladocera and chironomids, Alnus pollen) from Lone Spruce Pond, Alaska detail the late-glacial to Holocene history of the lake and its response to regional climate and landscape change over the last 14.5 cal ka BP. We show that the immigration of alder (Alnus viridis) in the early Holocene marks the rise of available reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the lake as well as the establishment of a primarily planktonic diatom community. The later establishment of diatom Discostella stelligera is coupled to a rise of sedimentary δ15N, indicating diminished competition for this nutrient. This terrestrial-aquatic linkage demonstrates how profoundly vegetation may affect soil geochemistry, lake development, and lake ecology over millennial timescales. Furthermore, the response of the diatom community to strengthened stratification and N levels in the past confirms the sensitivity of planktonic diatom communities to changing thermal and nutrient regimes. These past ecosystem dynamics serve as an analogue for the nature of threshold-type ecological responses to current climate change and atmospheric nitrogen (Nr) deposition, but also for the larger changes we should anticipate under future climate, pollution, and vegetation succession scenarios in high-latitude and high-elevation regions. PMID:28076393

  8. Macrofungal Communities in Hyrcanian Forests, North of Iran: Relationships with Season and Forest Types

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    Maryam Karim


    Full Text Available The identification of macrofungal genera and species was carried out according to the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the specimens, as well as their characteristic responses to some chemical reagents. This study was conducted to identify the forest floor of macrofungal in Parrotia-Carpinetum and planted stands of Cupressus sempervirens and Alnus subcordata in North of Iran (Gorgan, Shast Kalate during 2010-2011. For this purpose, all macrofungal in the area (0.6 ha in separated stands, three plots were collected. Measurements were made from slide preparations stained with cotton blue- lacto- phenol contains 100 ml. Lacctophenol, 2ml 2% aqueous solution of cotton blue, by Olympus light microscope. The results show that 35 species were found which were classified into 21 genera from 16 families. Up to 54% of the species were classified into Parrotia-Carpinetum, 26% Alnus subcordata and 20% Cupressus sempervirens. In wet season 30 species of macrofungal and 13 species in dry season were collected. In spring season 12 species, one species in summer season, 23 species in fall season and 7 species in winter season were found.

  9. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus. (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L


    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  10. Depositional Environment of Mio-Pliocene Siwalik Sedimentary Strata from the Darjeeling Himalayan Foothills, India: A Palynological Approach.

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    Sandip More

    Full Text Available A rich and diverse palynoassemblage recovered from the Churanthi River section (26°53' 59.3" N, 88°34' 17.2" E, Darjeeling foothills Eastern Himalaya, has yielded 87 species assigned to 69 genera. The palynoassemblage is rich in angiosperm taxa (45.63% followed by gymnosperms (0.45%, pteridophytes (18.49% and fungal remains (23.88%. Based on their nearest living relatives, a wet evergreen to semi-evergreen forest under a humid tropical to sub-tropical environment during the Mio-Pliocene age has been suggested. A lot of angiosperms such as Palaeosantalaceaepites, Araliaceoipollenites, Malvacearampollis, Zonocostites, Neocouperipollis, Dicolpopollis, Palmidites, Palmaepollenites, isolated salt glands of mangrove plant leaves (Heliospermopsis and Mediaverrunites type of fungal spores, along with ichnofossils like Planolites, Palaeophycus, Skolithos, Rosselia, Ophiomorpha and Teichichnus associated with rippled mudstone-siltstone suggest an environment strongly influenced by brackish water. Primary sedimentary structures in the associated strata indicate strong wave agitation common in shallow marine setting. Some high elevation components (5.14% such as Alnipollenites, cf. Corylus (Betulaceae, Juglanspollenites, Engelhardtioipollenites (Juglandaceae, Quercoides, Cupuliferoidaepollenites, Lithocarpus, Castanopsis (Fagaceae, Abietineaepollenites (Pinaceae represent hinterland vegetation possibly transported to the prograding deltaic coastline by the rivers. Reworked palynotaxa (Striatopodocarpites sp., Striatites sp., Faunipollenites sp., Circumstriatites sp., Crescentipollenites sp., Cuneatisporites sp., Parasaccites sp., Scheuringipollenites sp., Rhizomaspora sp., Marsupipollenites sp., Lophotriletes sp. of Permian age have also been recorded in the palynoassemblage (11.55% indicating the abundance of Permian Gondwana strata in the source area.

  11. The Paxillus involutus (Boletales, Paxillaceae) complex in Europe: genetic diversity and morphological description of the new species Paxillus cuprinus, typification of P. involutus s.s., and synthesis of species boundaries. (United States)

    Jargeat, Patricia; Chaumeton, Jean-Paul; Navaud, Olivier; Vizzini, Alfredo; Gryta, Hervé


    Paxillus involutus is a model species for ecological or physiological studies of ectomycorrhizal agaricomycetes. Three to six groups or species linked to it have been ecologically and morphologically distinguished. Phylogenetic studies have revealed the existence of four species in Europe: Paxillus ammoniavirescens, Paxillus obscurisporus, P. involutus, and a fourth as yet not described species. We studied 47 collections from 24 French and Italian locations, supplemented with GenBank data, in order to genetically and taxonomically delineate these species. Phylogenetic analyses of three nuclear DNA regions (rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), tef1-α, and gpd) confirmed the four European species. Morphology, culture, and ecology features allowed us to delineate species boundaries and to describe the fourth species we named Paxillus cuprinus since it turns coppery with age. As there is no existing original herbarium specimen for P. involutus, one of our collections was chosen as the epitype. The low genetic diversity found in P. cuprinus correlates with stable morphological traits (basidiome colour, ovoid-amygdaliform spores with an apical constriction) and with ecological preferences (association with Betulaceae in open and temperate areas). In contrast, P. ammoniavirescens is characterized by a high genetic diversity and a high variation of its morphological and ecological features.

  12. Fossil nothofagaceous leaves from the Eocene of western Antarctica and their bearing on the origin, dispersal and systematics of Nothofagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; HaoMin


    Fossil leaves resembling Nothofagaceae have been investigated from the Eocene of western Antarctica and a new form genus Nothofagofolia is proposed for these kinds of fossils. Some new specimens belonging to this form genus are described. They were collected from the Fossil Hill locality of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, western Antarctica. Two new species, two new combinations and an unnamed species are reported. A number of published Nothofagus leaf fossils from the same locality are discussed and revised. As a result of these studies of Nothofagus leaf morphology, we conclude that (1) Nothofagus probably originated in high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the middle-late Late Cretaceous and diversified, dispersed gradually to the lower latitudes of the same hemisphere; (2) leaf morphological characters are significant for the systematics of the family Nothofagaceae, especially at the intrageneric level; and (3) extant species of Nothofagus known from southern temperate areas have more primitive leaf morphological characters and lower leaf ranks than those from tropical mountains as well as those of the Fagaceae and Betulaceae.

  13. Traditional Uses of Plants in the Tolfa–Cerite–Manziate Area (Central Italy

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    Paolo Maria Guarrera


    Full Text Available Traditional knowledge of local plant uses is rapidly fading away, especially in rural Mediterranean areas. We carried out ethnobotanical research in 2010-2011 in order to investigate the local knowledge of wild plants in the Tolfa–Cerite–Manziate area of Italy (Latium, district of Rome. We carried out a total of 45 semi-structured interviews with farmers, herders, and fishers. Here, a simple diachronic comparison is made between the current study and a previous one conducted in some of the villages of the study area to highlight potential losses of traditional knowledge of local plants. We documented a total of 102 plant species, belonging to 48 families, along with their uses (excluding food uses. We also reported some non-plant based remedies that were primarily used in veterinary medicine. Some plant uses, especially for making handicrafts, have not been reported previously (e.g., those of Celtis australis L. Cannabaceae, Betula pendula Roth Betulaceae. Many plant uses are no longer remembered in the area, which indicates a loss of local ethnobotanical knowledge.

  14. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians.

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    Ingrida Šaulienė

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT, which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05. Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008. Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians.

  15. Genetic Loci Associated with Allergic Sensitization in Lithuanians. (United States)

    Šaulienė, Ingrida; Greičiuvienė, Jūratė; Šukienė, Laura; Juškevičiūtė, Neringa; Benner, Christian; Zinkevičienė, Auksė; Ripatti, Samuli; Donner, Kati; Kainov, Denis


    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common and complex disease. It is associated with environmental as well as genetic factors. Three recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported altogether 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AR or allergic sensitization (AS) in Europeans and North Americans. Two follow up studies in Swedish and Chinese replicated 15 associations. In these studies individuals were selected based on the self-reported AR, or AR/AS diagnosed using blood IgE test or skin prick test (SPT), which were performed often without restriction to specific allergens. Here we performed third replication study in Lithuanians. We used SPT and carefully selected set of allergens prevalent in Lithuania, as well as Illumina Core Exome chip for SNP detection. We genotyped 270 SPT-positive individuals (137 Betulaceae -, 174 Poaceae-, 199 Artemisia-, 70 Helianthus-, 22 Alternaria-, 22 Cladosporium-, 140 mites-, 95 cat- and 97 dog dander-sensitive cases) and 162 SPT-negative controls. We found altogether 13 known SNPs associated with AS (p ≤0.05). Three SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to several allergens, and 10 SNPs were found in Lithuanians sensitive to a certain allergen. For the first time, SNP rs7775228:C was associated with patient sensitivity to dog allergens (F_A=0,269, F_U=0.180, P=0.008). Thus, careful assessment of AS allowed us to detect known genetic variants associated with AS/AR in relatively small cohort of Lithuanians.

  16. Pollen-related allergy in Europe. (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Spieksma, F T; Liccardi, G; Jäger, S; Russo, M; Kontou-Fili, K; Nikkels, H; Wüthrich, B; Bonini, S


    The increasing mobility of Europeans for business and leisure has led to a need for reliable information about exposure to seasonal airborne allergens during travel abroad. Over the last 10 years or so, aeropalynologic and allergologic studies have progressed to meet this need, and extensive international networks now provide regular pollen and hay-fever forecasts. Europe is a geographically complex continent with a widely diverse climate and a wide spectrum of vegetation. Consequently, pollen calendars differ from one area to another; however, on the whole, pollination starts in spring and ends in autumn. Grass pollen is by far the most frequent cause of pollinosis in Europe. In northern Europe, pollen from species of the family Betulaceae is a major cause of the disorder. In contrast, the mild winters and dry summers of Mediterranean areas favor the production of pollen types that are rarely found in central and northern areas of the continent (e.g., the genera Parietaria, Olea, and Cupressus). Clinical and aerobiologic studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (e.g., importation of plants for urban parklands) and greater international travel (e.g., the expansion of the ragweed genus Ambrosia in France, northern Italy, Austria, and Hungary). Studies on allergen-carrying paucimicronic or submicronic airborne particles, which penetrate deep into the lung, are having a relevant impact on our understanding of pollinosis and its distribution throughout Europe.

  17. Does mycorrhizal inoculation benefit plant survival, plant development and small-scale soil fixation? Results from a perennial eco-engineering field experiment in the Swiss Alps. (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Grimm, Maria; Graf, Frank; Baumhauer, Roland; Gärtner, Holger


    In mountain environments superficial slope failures on coarse grained, vegetation-free slopes are common processes and entail a certain risk for humans and socio-economic structures. Eco-engineering measures can be applied to mitigate slope instabilities. In this regard, limited plant survival and growth can be supported by mycorrhizal inoculation, which was successfully tested in laboratory studies. However, related studies on a field scale are lacking. Furthermore, mycorrhizae are known to enhance soil aggregation, which is linked to soil physics such as shear strength, and hence it is a useful indicator for near-surface soil/slope stability. The overall objective of our contribution was to test whether mycorrhizal inoculation can be used to promote eco-engineering measures in steep alpine environments based on a five-year field experiment. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal inoculation (i) enhances soil aggregation, (ii) stimulate plant survival and fine root development, (iii) effects plant performance, (iv) the stimulated root development in turn influences aggregate stability, and (v) that climatic variations play a major role in fine-root development. We established mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal treated eco-engineered research plots (hedge layers mainly consisting of Alnus spp. and Salix spp.) on a field experimental scale. The experimental site is in the eastern Swiss Alps at an erosion-prone slope where many environmental conditions can be seen as homogeneous. Soil aggregation, fine root development and plant survival was quantified at the end of four growing seasons (2010, '11, '12, '14). Additionally, growth properties of Alnus spp. and Salix spp. were measured and their biomass estimated. Meteorological conditions, soil temperature and soil water content were recorded. (i) The introduced eco-engineering measures enhanced aggregate stability significantly. In contrast to published greenhouse and laboratory studies, mycorrhizal inoculation delayed soil

  18. The Giant Pill-Millipedes of Nepal (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Zephroniidae). (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas


    The type of the only species of the order Sphaerotheriida with a record in Nepal, Kophosphaera excavata (Butler, 1874), originally described from Sikkim, is redescribed. The subspecies K. excavata mammifera Attems, 1936 from Sureil, Darjeeling, India, is elevated to species rank, K. mammifera stat. nov.. A species of unclear country of origin ('Himalaya'), Sphaeropoeus montanus Karsch, 1881, is briefly redescribed and transferred to the genus Zephronia, Z. montana (Karsch, 1881) n. comb.. Z. tumida Butler, 1882, an apparently widespread north Indian Zephronia species, is redescribed. Sphaerotheriida specimens collected during several expeditions to Nepal undertaken by Prof. J. Martens in the 1970s and 1980s were examined. The material contained 10 specimens (7 males, 3 females) from seven localities, including three undescribed species, Zephronia nepalensis n. sp., Kophosphaera shivapuri n. sp., and Kophosphaera martensi n. sp., as well as a specimen of Kophosphaera politissima Attems, 1935, type species of the genus and described previously from India. A key to all (now seven) species of Kophosphaera is presented. A brief diagnosis of the Kophosphaera excavata group is provided. While Zephronia seems to be restricted to the eastern part of Nepal, two endemic and two more widespread Kophosphaera species occur also in its central and mid-western part, representing the western-most records of the family Zephroniidae in Asia. The current distribution of the family in Nepal clearly indicates the Zephroniidae as a family adapted to tropical environments.

  19. Exploration on Common Three-dimensional Afforesting Mode in Main City Zone of Chongqing%重庆市主城区常见立体绿化模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友国; 庄华蓉


    以重庆市主城区常见立体绿化模式为例,介绍了重庆市常见立体绿化植物配置形式、立体绿化常见应用的藤蔓类植物,如常春藤、葡萄、紫藤、爬山虎等和中小灌木,如银合欢、南天竹等,并简要分析了重庆市主城区常见立体绿化植物观赏特性及绿化效果,以供园林从业者参考.%With common three-dimensional afforesting mode in main city zone of Chongqing as the example, common plant configuration forms, vines such as Hedera nepalensis K, Vitis vinifera, Wisteria sinensis Sweet, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and middle, undershrub such as Leucaena glauca, Nandina domestica were introduced. The ornamental characteristics and afforesting effect of common three-diamensional afforesting plants in main city zone of Chongqing were analyzed briefly.

  20. Microbiological changes and biodiversity of cultivable indigenous bacteria in Sanbao larger yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), a Chinese salted and fermented seafood. (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Yan; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Jiajia; Dai, Zhiyuan


    Sanbao large yellow croaker is a kind of Chinese salted and fermented seafood processed by adding 50% of salt and fermenting at high temperature [around 30 °C] over 20 d. To get a comprehensive understanding of cultivable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the chemical and microbial properties of this product, were detected initially, followed by identification of bacteria recovered from different fermentation periods using PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In total, 105 indigenous isolates were recovered with 3 different medium and majority of the isolates picked up from both MRS and MSA medium were finally clustered into the genus of Staphylococcus (S.). Among the 90 Staphylococci, S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. nepalensis were the most prevailing cultivable species recovered throughout the whole production process (70 isolates, 77.8%), while 5 other species, namely, S. aureus, S. vitulinus, S. sciuri, S. equorum, and S. succinus formed a minor fraction (20 isolates, 22.2%) of the Staphylococcus communities. Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Bacillus constituted trivial populations in the initial period of the fermentation and then gave the way to the Staphylococcus immediately. High salt concentration used during the processing is like to have a pronounced influence on the microbial populations involved. Data obtained in this work could be referred in control and optimization of the fermentation process and selecting suitable strains for aquatic product fermentation.

  1. Insect Adhesion Secretions: Similarities and Dissimilarities in Hydrocarbon Profiles of Tarsi and Corresponding Tibiae. (United States)

    Gerhardt, Heike; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael


    Spatially controlled in vivo sampling by contact solid phase microextraction with a non-coated silica fiber combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was utilized for hydrocarbon profiling in tarsal adhesion secretions of four insect species (Nicrophorus vespilloides, Nicrophorus nepalensis, Sagra femorata, and Gromphadorhina portentosa) by using distinct adhesion systems, viz. hairy or smooth tarsi. For comparison, corresponding samples from tibiae, representing the general cuticular hydrocarbon profile, were analyzed to enable the statistical inference of active molecular adhesion principles in tarsal secretions possibly contributed by specific hydrocarbons. n-Alkanes, monomethyl and dimethyl alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes, and one aldehyde were detected. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analyses) gave insights into distinctive molecular features among the various insect species and between tarsus and tibia samples. In general, corresponding hydrocarbon profiles in tarsus and tibia samples largely resembled each other, both qualitatively and in relative abundances as well. However, several specific hydrocarbons showed significantly different relative abundances between corresponding tarsus and tibia samples, thus indicating that such differences of specific hydrocarbons in the complex mixtures might constitute a delicate mechanism for fine-tuning the reversible attachment performances in tarsal adhesive fluids that are composed of substances originating from the same pool as cuticular hydrocarbons. Caused by melting point depression, the multicomponent tarsal adhesion secretion, made up of straight chain alkanes, methyl alkanes, and alkenes will have a semi-solid, grease-like consistency, which might provide the basis for a good reversible attachment performance.

  2. Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species

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    Imen Nouioui


    Full Text Available Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase, dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator, and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere.

  3. [Relationships between light and physiological characters of five climbing plants]. (United States)

    Huang, Chenglin; Fu, Songling; Liang, Shuyun; Ji, Yifan


    Studies on the photosynthetic and respiratory rates, light utilization efficiencies and light compensations of five climbing plants showed that the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rates presented double peak, the first peak was between 10:00 to 12:00, and the second was between 14:00 to 16:00. The phenomenon of "noon break" was obvious. The diurnal variations of respiration rates also presented double peak, the first peak was between 11:00 to 13:00, and the second was between 14:00 to 17:00. The light compensation point of Hedera nepatensis, H. helix, Parthenocissus tricuspidata, P. quinuefolia and Wisteria sinensis was 5.73, 5.07, 9.96, 6.40 and 18.93 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1), respectively, and the light utilization efficiency of W. sinensis was higher under strong light, P. quinuefolia was the second, but that of H. helix was higher under weak light. The results showed that Wisteria sinensis was a typical heliophytic plant, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and P. quinuefolia were neuter plants, and Hedera nepalensis and H. helix were typical sciophytic plants.

  4. Variation in Total Polyphenolics Contents of Aerial Parts of Potentilla Species and Their Anticariogenic Activity

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    Michał Tomczyk


    Full Text Available The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 ± 2.0 mg/g dw, proanthocyanidins (4.6 ± 0.2 mg/g dw and phenolic acids (16.4 ± 0.8 mg/g dw, as well as flavonoids (7.0 ± 1.1 mg/g dw, calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble α-(1→3-, α-(1→6-linked glucan (mutan and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25–25 and 50–100 µg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products.

  5. Functional Diversity of Genes for the Biosynthesis of Paeoniflorin and Its Derivatives in Paeonia

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    Luqi Huang


    Full Text Available The Paeonia root, with or without bark, are considered vital traditional Chinese medicine materials; the examples are those of Bai Shao, Chi Shao, and Dan Pi. In this study, we examine 24 genes and their expressions involved in the biosynthesis of paeoniflorin and its derivatives, which are active compounds of the Paeonia root, in Paeonia lactiflora and P. suffruticosa, as well as other related plants, Punica granatum, Rhus radicans, and Coriaria nepalensis. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that these genes have functional diversity, and analysis of the transcriptional level shows paeoniflorin and gallic acid biosynthesis-related genes exhibit different transcription profiles in flowers, carpels, bark-free roots, and bark of P. lactiflora. The correlation analysis of gene expression and active compound contents support the idea that hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase and phosphomevalonate kinase in the mevalonate pathway and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase/shikimate dehydrogenase in shikimate biosynthesis are potentially closely related to the accumulation of paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin. Coupling gene diversity with chemical analysis, we show that paeoniflorin and its derived aromatic amino acids are predominant in bark.

  6. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

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    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.


    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI


    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  8. Study on Vegetation Root Strength of Pioneer Plants for Forest Areas in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin; LIANG Da-qing; YE Xu-rong


    Forest plant roots may restrain the occurrence of shallow landslides for forest land and pioneer tree species can also reduce runoff and soil erosion;thus they are useful practical ecological materials for landslide control and erosion control.In this study,two important pioneer plant species;Formosan Alder (Alnus formosana Makino) and Roxburgh Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.Var.roxburghi i(DC.) Rehd.) were selected at landslide areas under vegetation treatments for soil and water conservation.In order to obtain the root strength model for the factors affecting pulling resistance and root tensile strength,experimental materials were tested and the data were analyzed using regression techniques.These models could be used to provide the index of slope stability and to quantify the root-strength using non-destructive methods.

  9. Soil microfungi in two post-mining chronosequences with different vegetation types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakova, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. Soil Biology


    Soil microfungi were studied in the Sokolov (Czech Republic) post-mining dumps afforested with Alnus glutinosa and in the Lusatian (Germany) post-mining dumps afforested with Pinus sylvestris or P. nigra. Microfungi were isolated using the soil dilution plate method. Soil microfungi communities of two chronosequences were compared by species composition, frequency of species occurrence, and colony forming units of fungi (CFU-counts). Differences in species occurrence were determined. More species of entomopathogenic microfungi were found from the Sokolov post-mining area in comparison with the Cottbus post-mining area. Absidia glauca, A. cylindrospora, Penicillium glabrum, and P. janthinellum were the most frequently isolated species from the Cottbus post-mining area, while A. glauca, Geomyces pannorum, and Trichoderma koningii predominated at the Sokolov post-mining area.

  10. Dendroflora of the historical park in Rzepiszew (Łódź province

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    Paulina Kałczak


    Full Text Available The historical, manor park in Rzepiszew was established in the 19th century in the English landscape style. The park and manor have a long and rich history and deserve to be protected. The inventory of dendroflora showed that within the park boundaries grow more thana thousand of arborescent plants deriving from 35 species and 17 families. They are mostly common, native woody plant species, associated with deciduous forests (Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, Acer pseudoplatanus. The most valuable are the magnificent trees. Among all the trees inventoried, 123 splendid trees were found, among which 8 are monuments of nature legally protected and 33 trees with circumferences that exceed minimal values to be protected. Valuable and well-preserved elements of the park are Aesculus hippocastanum and Carpinus betulus alleys. Currently, the park in Rzepiszew is subjected to a gradual naturalization and loses its primary, spatial arrangement, therefore this object requires reassessment.

  11. AcEST: DK962661 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4.3 sp|O04867|GLNA1_ALNGL Glutamine synthetase OS=Alnus glutinosa GN... 31 5.6 sp|Q7T0P6|DFI8B_XENLA expressed in FDCP 8 homolog... 31 5.6 sp|Q6DDJ3|DFI8A_XENLA expressed in FDCP 8 homolog... 31 5.6 sp|Q6DJB3|DEFI8_XENTR Differentially expressed in FDCP 8 homolog......MKLLQMNAKW------GRCPGKATP 99 E LLQ + KW G PG P Sbjct: 129 EQEYTLLQKDVKWPLGWPVGGYPGPQGP 156 >sp|Q7T0P6|DFI8B_XENLA Differential

  12. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes


    be differences in recruitment. The present study addresses post-dispersal seed predation, mainly of woody plants, as the factor limiting the recolonization of young oak plantations in southern Sweden. Our objectives were to investigate differences in dispersal and post-dispersal seed predation between first......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...... plantations on ex-arable land. There was a high seed predation of Crataegus monogyna, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus on ex-arable land, while that of Frangula alnus and Sambucus racemosa was not associated with site placement and land-use history. Seed predation is probably a more important factor...

  13. [Construction of Frankia genomic libraries and isolation of clones homologous to nodulation genes from Rhizobium leguminosarum]. (United States)

    Cui, Y H; Qin, M; Wang, Y L; Ding, J; Ma, Q S


    High molecular genomic DNAs were isolated by using the lysozyme plus achromopeptidase system from Frankia strains At4, Ccol and Hr16, the root nodule endophytes of Alnus, Casuarina and Hippophae respectively, and used to construct genomic libraries in pLAFR1, a broad host range cosmid vector within many gram-negative hosts. The genomic libraries were screened by in situ colony hybridization to identify clones homologous to common nodulation genes of Rhizobium leguminosarum, based on the sequence homology of EcoRI-digested Frankia total DNA to nodABC from Rhizobium meliloti. Several clones showing relatively strong hybridization were found, the recombinant plasmid was isolated, and their homology with Rhizobium nodulation genes was confirmed by spot hybridization. Further work on these positive clones is now underway.

  14. Maximum sustainable xylem sap tensions in Rhododendron and other species. (United States)

    Crombie, D S; Milburn, J A; Hipkins, M F


    The acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Rhododendron ponticum L.) and three species of herbs (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Plantago major L. and Ricinus communis L.). The results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions of 1.6-3 MPa. Two of the herbs, Lycopersicum and Ricinus, cavitated extensively at sap tensions below 1 MPa. Additional evidence is presented that clicks, detected by acoustic amplification, are caused by cavitation of sap in the xylem conduits. A rapid method is suggested for the determination of sap tensions in cavitating leaves and which is suitable for surveys of the critical sap tension in a large number of species.

  15. Direct-seeding of commercial trees on surface-mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tackett, E.M.; Graves, D.H.


    Three large-seeded tree species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and one small-seeded species Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), were spot-seeded and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) was broadcast-seeded on eastern Kentucky surface mine spoil. Treatments included four mulches-hydromulch, shredded bark, shredded bark and poultry manure, and Real Earth (composted municipal waste and sewage sludge), two fertilizer treatments and two rates of grass/legume ground cover seed sown in competition with the tree species. Germination, growth and survival were evaluated after the first growing season. All three oak species germinated and grew well while both small-seeded species failed to become established from seed. Germination was affected by aspect, mulching, fertilizing and competition. Spoil moisture appeared to be indirectly responsible for most of the responses. The variables tested had little effect on the first years growth of the species tested.

  16. The forest melliferous flora in the vicinity of Blace, Serbia

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    Perišić Snežana


    Full Text Available Melliferous plant species in the forests near Blace (South Serbia were investigated in order to estimate the significance, contribution, quality and ecological characteristics of representatives of the apiflora as potential nectar and pollen sources, the elements of bee pasturage. The significance of melliferous plants was determined on the basis of nectar and pollen production intensity, as well as by following blooming periods. According to adaptations to moisture, light, and temperature, melliferous species can be relegated to eight groups and six subgroups. Out of the total number of melliferous species in the investigated area (223, the forest apiflora accounted for 82 species (36,77%. The species with highest nectar and/or pollen production are: Alnus glutinosa, Corylus avellana, Paulownia tomentosa, Picea abies, Prunus tenella, Robinia pseudoacacia, species of the genera Salix, Tilia, and Campanula, Atropa bella-donna, Calamintha officinalis, Glechoma hederacea, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salvia glutinosa and Valeriana officinalis.

  17. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  18. Comparison of planted soil infiltration systems for treatment of log yard runoff. (United States)

    Hedmark, Asa; Scholz, Miklas; Aronsson, Par; Elowson, Torbjorn


    Treatment of log yard runoff is required to avoid contamination of receiving watercourses. The research aim was to assess if infiltration of log yard runoff through planted soil systems is successful and if different plant species affect the treatment performance at a field-scale experimental site in Sweden (2005 to 2007). Contaminated runoff from the log yard of a sawmill was infiltrated through soil planted with Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gärtner (common alder), Salix schwerinii X viminalis (willow variety "Gudrun"), Lolium perenne (L.) (rye grass), and Phalaris arundinacea (L.) (reed canary grass). The study concluded that there were no treatment differences when comparing the four different plants with each other, and there also were no differences between the tree and the grass species. Furthermore, the infiltration treatment was effective in reducing total organic carbon (55%) and total phosphorus (45%) concentrations in the runoff, even when the loads on the infiltration system increased from year to year.

  19. Local and generalized height-diameter models with random parameters for mixed, uneven-aged forests in Northwestern Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacramento Corral-Rivas


    Full Text Available Background We used mixed models with random components to develop height-diameter (h-d functions for mixed, uneven-aged stands in northwestern Durango (Mexico, considering the breast height diameter (d and stand variables as predictors. Methods The data were obtained from 44 permanent plots used to monitor stand growth under forest management in the study area. Results The generalized Bertalanffy-Richards model performed better than the other generalized models in predicting the total height of the species under study. For the genera Pinus and Quercus, the models were successfully calibrated by measuring the height of a subsample of three randomly selected trees close to the mean d, whereas for species of the genera Cupressus, Arbutus and Alnus, three trees were also selected, but they are specifically the maximum, minimum and mean d trees. Conclusions The presented equations represent a new tool for the evaluation and management of natural forest in the region.

  20. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

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    Bandana Devi


    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  1. un estudio en el Parque Nacional La Malinche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Wong González


    Full Text Available Estudios sobre peligro y combate de incendios forestales consideran la interacción entre los factores meteorológicos y las características de los combustibles. Por ello, se analizó la humedad de los combustibles muertos sobre el suelo, la cual depende de su diámetro y de la humedad relativa principalmente. Se analizaron combustibles de 0.6 a 2.5 y de 2.6 a 7.5 cm de diámetro en las comunidades donde predominan especies de los géneros: Quercus, Alnus, Abies y Pinus del Parque Nacional Malinche, Tlaxcala, México. Los resultados demuestran: a que la humedad de los combustibles varió de acuerdo con las condiciones atmosféricas en los diferentes sitios y horarios, b que los combustibles con mayor diámetro tuvieron una menor relación entre la superficie de exposición al medio y su volumen (120 m2/m3 y que los de menor diámetro la relación aumentó (235 m2/m3, teniendo estos últimos una mayor probabilidad de incendiarse. Durante la temporada de incendios en los meses de febrero, marzo y abril, la humedad de los combustibles en Alnus jorullensis y Pinus montezumae fue mayor a 25% que es aquella que impide la combustión, conocida como humedad de extinción. En Quercus crassipes, Pinus hartwegii y Abies religiosa-Pinus teocote, la humedad de los combustibles fue menor a 25% por lo que fueron las comunidades más vulnerables a incendios.

  2. Spatial analysis of plant detritus processing in a Mediterranean River type: the case of the River Tirso Basin, Sardinia, Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The river continuum concept represents the most general framework addressing the spatial variation of both structure and function inriver ecosystems.In the Mediterranean ecoregion, summer drought events and dams constitute the main sources of local disturbance to thestructure and functioning of river ecosystems occurring in the river basin.In this study, we analysed patterns of spatial variation of detritusprocessing in a 7th order river of the Mediterranean ecoregion( River Tirso, Sardinia-Italy) and in three 4th order sub-basins which wereexposed to different summer drought pressures.The study was carried out on Phragmites australis and Alnas glutinosa leaf detritus at 31 fieldsites in seasonal field experiment Detritus processing rates were higher for Alnus glutinosa than for Phragmites australis plant detritus.Processing rates of Alnus glutinosa leaves varied among seasons and study sites from 0.006d-1 to 0.189 d- 1 and those of Phragmites australisleaves ranged from 0.0008 d- 1 to 0.102 d- 1 , with the lowest values occurring at sites exposed to summer drought.Seasons and sites accountedfor a significant proportion of such variability.Alder detritus decay rates generally decreased with increasing stream order, while reed detritusdecay rates generally increased on the same spatial gradient.Summer drought events affected these spatial patterns of variation by influencingsignificantly the decay rates of both plant detritus.The comparisons among and within sub-basins showed strong negative influence of summerdrought on detritus processing rates.Similarly, in the entire River Tirso basin decay rates were always lower at disturbed than at undisturbedsites for each stream order; decay rates of reed detritus remained lower at those sites even after the end of the disturbance events, while alderdecay rates recovered rapidly from the summer drought perturbations.The different recovery of the processing rates of the two leaves could alsoexplain the different patterns of

  3. Estudio paleobotánico del afloramiento vallesiense (Neógeno del barranco de Salanca (la Cerdaña, Lérida, España. Aspectos paleoecológicos

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    Barrón, Eduardo


    Full Text Available An integral palaeobotanical study (macro- and microflora has been done of the Salanca ravine outcrop. This place is located in the región of la Cerdaña (Lérida province, Spain, which constitutes an Upper Miocene lacustrine basin from Eastern Pyrenees. The sediments of the Salanca ravine outcrop consist of diatomites and grey mudstones. They have been interpreted as being deposited in distal lacustrine zones. In a palynological study, 79 taxa have been identified. They belong to the divisions Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. The recorded assemblages allow us to reconstruct the vegetation of la Cerdaña during the Vallesian, though the problem of overrepresented taxa exists. The macrofloristic study has revealed the presence of 36 taxa through foliar remanís and winged seeds. The recorded assemblage presents plant remains of the divisions Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. The best represented remains are leaves of dicotyledonous angiosperms because of their wind transport. The high percentage of angiosperm foliar remains in the sediments of the Salanca ravine outcrop revealed calm water conditions in the neogene lake. The palaeoclimatology deduced from the palynological study and the physiognomic study of macroflora indicates that températe conditions existed in which mixed mesophitíc forest developed where the families Pinaceae, Betulaceae and Fagaceae dominated.Se realiza un estudio paleobotánico (macro- y microflora del afloramiento del barranco de Salanca (comarca de la Cerdaña, Pirineos orientales, Lérida, España. En esta zona durante el Mioceno Superior se desarrolló una cuenca lacustre. Los materiales del barranco de Salanca son fundamentalmente diatomitas y "mudstones" de color gris, que se depositaron en zonas lacustres distales. Tras el estudio palinológico, se han identificado 79 táxones pertenecientes a las divisiones Pteridophyta, Pinophyta y Magnoliophyta. Las asociaciones registradas nos permiten reconstruir la

  4. Bighorn Basin Coring Project: Palynofloral changes and taphonomy through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA (United States)

    Harrington, G.; Jardine, P.


    The early Palaeogene hyperthermals provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the biotic responses to rapid and transient global warming events. As part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), we have analyzed 182 sporomorph (pollen and spore) samples from three newly cored sites in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Two sites, Basin Substation (121 samples) and Polecat Bench (41 samples), contain the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ETM1), and one early Eocene site, Gilmore Hill (20 samples), contains the ELMO (ETM2) event. We have focused initially on the Basin Substation section, because it is more organic rich, has demonstrated higher sporomorph recovery potential than the other two sites, and is the main focus of complementary geochemical analyses. Below 90 m core depth sporomorph concentrations are typically 1000 - 10 000 grains/gram, but between 90 and 60 m these decline to gymnosperms Cupressacites hiatipites (cypress, Cupressaceae) and bisaccate pollen (Pinaceae and/or Podocarpaceae), and the angiosperm taxa Polyatriopollenites vermontensis (wingnut or wheel wingnut, Juglandaceae), Caryapollenites spp. (hickory, Juglandaceae), and Alnipollenites spp. (alder, Betulaceae). However, samples are heterogeneous in terms of the dominant taxon, with different taxa having the highest relative abundance in different samples. In the upper part of the core, the assemblage is similar to that in the lower part, but with a more consistent dominance of gymnosperm taxa, and with the addition of Eocene marker taxa Intratriporopollenites instructus (linden, Tilioideae) and Celtis spp. (hackberry, Cannabaceae). These both have their first appearance at 56.14 m in the core, just above the zone of low sporomorph recovery. These results point to (a) a decrease in sporomorph preservation that is linked to environmental change during the PETM event, and (b) repeated reorganizations of plant relative abundances prior to the PETM. Current research is focusing on the

  5. Chemical Constituents from the Branches of Carpinus turczaninowii with Antioxidative Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Ha Na; Kim, Jung Mi; Bu, Hee Jung; Lee, Nam Ho [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)


    Eight compounds were identified in ethanol extracts prepared from the branches of C. turczaninowii. The compounds, besides 5 and 6, were isolated for the first time from this woody plant. Pyracrenic acid (4) and quercitrin (8) showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activities with SC{sub 50} values of 55.2 and 62.4 μM, respectively, where ascorbic acid (SC{sub 50} 43.5 μM) was used as a positive control. Compounds 4, 5, 6 and 8 showed strong activities in ABTS{sup +} radical scavenging assay, with SC{sub 50} values of 34.1, 42.1, 45.8 and 29.6 μM, respectively. These activities are comparable in potency to ascorbic acid (SC{sub 50} 31.6 μM). Based on these results, C. turczaninowii extracts are expected to be useful antioxidative agents, potentially applicable in food or cosmetic industries, based on the results of further studies. Korean hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii is a deciduous woody plant belonging to the family Betulaceae. This flora is endemic to Korea, and can reach a height of 15 m. In the autumn, the fallen leaves of C. turczaninowii display a beautiful orange-red color and the tree is commonly used for bonsai in Korea. The wood is very hard, dense and fine textured, and has been used for making agricultural tools and furniture. Previous chemical investigation on this plant indicated only the existence of flavonoids such as naringenin and quercetin glycosides from the leaves. We have recently reported the isolation diarylheptanoids possessing anti-inflammatory activities from the ethanol extract of C. turczaninowii.

  6. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

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    Mekala Sundaram

    Full Text Available The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%, and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%. A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is

  7. Clinical relevance of [i]Corylus[/i] pollen in Poznań, western Poland

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    Łukasz Grewling


    Full Text Available Background. In Central Europe, hazel ([i]Corylus[/i] sp. pollen is considered to be an important aeroallergen in early spring. Objective. This study examines hazel pollen levels in Poznań, western Poland, and the clinical relevance of this aeroallergen in the city. Methods. [i]Corylus[/i] pollen data (1996–2010 were obtained by volumetric spore trap located near the centre of Poznań. Clinical data (2006–2010, i.e. skin prick test (SPT and allergen-specific IgE measurements (asIgE, were supplied by the Allergy Diseases Diagnostic Centre in Poznań. Results. Mean diurnal hazel pollen concentrations peaked around 14:00–16:00 when mean bi-hourly pollen concentrations were ~60 P m-3. Onset of the hazel pollen season varied up to 87 days annually, and was significantly (r=–0.647; p<0.01 related to mean maximum temperature during late December. SPT data revealed that ~11% of allergy patients had positive skin reactions to [i]Corylus[/i] pollen allergens, and most of these (94.4% reacted to pollen allergens from other members of the Betulaceae family – alder or birch. Of those sensitized, 53% suffered from atopic dermatitis. Of patients examined for serum asIgE, 26.0% had asIgE measurements in classes 5 and 6. Conclusions. Hazel pollen has a detrimental effect on the allergic population of Poznań, with more than half of those sensitised to hazel pollen allergens showing symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Hazel pollen concentrations reach levels recognized as being able to induce allergy symptoms, especially in the afternoon and early evening when many people are returning home from work. The cross-reactivity with other members of the Fagales order also increases the allergenic potential of hazel pollen.

  8. Phylogeny of Panax using chloroplast trnC-trnD intergenic region and the utility of trnC-trnD in interspecific studies of plants. (United States)

    Lee, Chunghee; Wen, Jun


    Sequences of the chloroplast trnC-trnD region and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained for all species of Panax L. (the ginseng plant genus, Araliaceae) to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. The trnC-trnD phylogeny is congruent with the ITS phylogeny for the diploid taxa of Panax. This study is the first use of the trnC-trnD sequence data for phylogenetic analysis at the interspecific level. We evaluated this DNA region for its phylogenetic utility at the lower taxonomic level for flowering plants. The trnC-trnD region includes the trnC-petN intergenic spacer, the petN gene, the petN-psbM intergenic spacer, the psbM gene, and the psbM-trnD intergenic spacer. The petN and psbM genes are small, 90 and 104-114 bp across angiosperms, respectively, and have conserved sequences. We have designed universal amplification and sequencing primers within these two genes. Using these primers, we have successfully amplified the entire trnC-trnD region for a diversity of flowering plant groups, including Aralia L. (Araliaceae), Calycanthus L. (Calycanthaceae), Corylus L. (Betulaceae), Hamamelis L. (Hamamelidaceae), Hydrocotyle L. (Apiaceae), Illigera Blume (Hernandiaceae), Nelumbo Adans. (Nelumbonaceae), Nolana L. ex L.f. (Solanaceae), Prunus L. (Rosaceae), and Staphylea L. (Staphyleaceae). In Panax, the trnC-trnD region provides a similar number of informative phylogenetic characters as the ITS regions and a slightly higher number of informative characters than the chloroplast ndhF gene. We thus demonstrate the utility of the trnC-trnD region for lower-level phylogenetic studies in flowering plants.

  9. First Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene basal Sparnacian facies of Europe: fauna, flora, paleoenvironment and (biostratigraphy.

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    Thierry Smith

    Full Text Available The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM is correlated with the first occurrences of earliest modern mammals in the Northern Hemisphere. The latest Paleocene Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, that has yielded rodents and carnivorans, is the only exception to this rule. However, until now no pre-PETM localities have yielded modern mammals in Europe or Asia. We report the first Clarkforkian equivalent Land Mammal Age in the latest Paleocene deposits of the basal Sparnacian facies at Rivecourt, in the north-central part of the Paris Basin. The new terrestrial vertebrate and macroflora assemblages are analyzed through a multidisciplinary study including sedimentologic, stratigraphic, isotopic, and palynological aspects in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and to evaluate biochronologic and paleogeographic implications. The mammals are moderately diverse and not abundant, contrary to turtles and champsosaurs. The macroflora is exceptional in preservation and diversity with numerous angiosperms represented by flowers, fruits, seeds and wood preserved as lignite material, revealing an abundance of Arecaceae, Betulaceae, Icacinaceae, Menispermaceae, Vitaceae and probably Cornaceae. Results indicate a Late Paleocene age based on carbon isotope data, palynology and vertebrate occurrences such as the choristoderan Champsosaurus, the arctocyonid Arctocyon, and the plesiadapid Plesiadapis tricuspidens. However, several mammal species compare better with the earliest Eocene. Among these, the particular louisinid Teilhardimys musculus, also recorded from the latest Paleocene of the Spanish Pyrenees, suggests a younger age than the typical MP6 reference level. Nevertheless, the most important aspect of the Rivecourt fauna is the presence of dental remains of a rodent and a "miacid" carnivoran, attesting to the presence of two modern mammalian orders in the latest Paleocene of Europe. Interestingly, these two groups are also the only modern

  10. Tree diversity and economic importance of forest trees of Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir

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    Sajad Ali Lone


    Full Text Available Aim The paper throws light on diversity of trees of forests of Kashmir of Jammu And Kashmir State. Methodology: Present study is based on the extensive and intensive field surveys made during 2007-2008. Various forest areas were visited for the identification of tree species and their economic importance. Various forest areas were visited for the identification of tree species and their economic importance. The areas including Drang Tangmerg, Gulmarg, Dachigam, Lolab and Karanah valley. Information on the utilization of trees for curing common ailments was obtained from people of the above forest areas. Conversation regarding the economic importance of plants was especially done with the elderly men, hakims and tribals. Repeated queries were made to get the data verified and confirmed. The plant specimens were dried using the standard herbarium techniques. The specimens were identified using Hooker method. Wherever necessary, comparisons were made with herbarium specimens in the herbarium of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Survey Results: Botanical names, English/common/local/Vernacular names, family, fruiting and flowering period, distribution and uses (wherever known of 53 species belonging to 33 genera and 21 families are provided. Conclusion: Present study has revealed the occurrence of 53 species belonging to 33 genera under 21 families. The most dominant family as per the number of genera is Pinaceae family followed by Betulaceae. And the most dominant genera is Prunus which is having 6 species. The study reveals that there are 10 gymnosperms and 43 angiosperms in the forests of Kashmir. The present work gives a detailed account of economic importance of forest trees of Kashmir. The work shows the relevance of plants to the problems of health care, food, agriculture improvements, conservation of genetic resources and to economic welfare of the tribal is emphasized. The work should rightly be applied to the natural and direct

  11. Biological Characteristics of Frankia Isolated from Different Actinorhizal Plants%不同宿主植物根瘤Frankia及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    19 strains were isolated from the root nodules of actinorhizal plants Casuarina, Myrica, Elaeagnus and Alnus by squashing, and their morphological, physiological and cross-infection characteristics were studied. The results showed that all the isolates had a typical Frankia morphology with filamentous hyphae, sporangia and vesicle. The reproducrive torulose hyphae were observed in some isolates (FCc64, FCe33 and FMr43). Most of the Frankia isolates were characterized in that their cell walls were type Ⅲ and the physiological groups belonged to B. Furthermore, it is deduced that these strains all had nitrogenase activity for their growth in the nitrogen-free medium. They were also found growing well in liquid media BAP, JA and S. Tween-80 and casein were the optimum carbon and nitrogen sources. However, some obvious differences in morphological and cultural characteristics occurred among the strains isolated from different actinorhizal plants. Most of the isolates from Casuarina had thick hyphae and few sporangia, and formed Lichee's meat white flocculent granular precipitate in the BAP liquid medium, while most of the isolates from Myrica rubra had thin hyphae and many sporangia, and formed rosiness granular precipitate. The morphological characteristics of the isolates from Alnus and Elaeagnus were similar to the isolates from Casuarina in the same medium, but the isolates from Alnus had thin hyphae while the isolates from Elaeagnus had thick hyphae. The Frankia isolates were divided into two host-specific groups, according to back inoculation experiment and cross-infection of pure culture with seedlings of Casuarina cunninghamiana, C. equisetifolia, C. glauca, Myrica rubra, Alnus cremastogym and Elaeagnus angustifolia. The strains of group Ⅰ which were all isolated from Casuarina could not only infect Casuarina, but also Myrica, Elaeagnus and Alnus, and those of group Ⅱ from Myrica, Elaeagnus and Alnus had the ability to infect the unoriginal host plants

  12. 铅锌矿区污染土壤的植物淋洗剂筛选研究%Screening of Phyto-eluents for Contaminated Soil in Pb-Zn Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雅茹; 张世熔; 陈月; 王贵胤; 李婷


    Soil washing is a frequently used soil remediation technique. The key to this technique is washing agents. The objective of this study is to screen eco-friendly washing agents—phyto-eluents. We collected 14 plant species, ground the aboveground biomass to powders (﹤2 mm), and made washing agents using distilled water. Then the washing efficiencies of Pb and Zn by these washing agents were exam-ined under different concentrations, pH and contact time. At 25℃and 200 r·min-1 rotational oscillation, the washing efficiencies of Pb by these agents showed either continuous increases or initial increase and then decreases as the agent concentrations increased, whereas those of Zn displayed gradual increases or slight changes with the agent concentrations. Increasing pH apparently reduced the removal efficiencies of two metals. The effect of contacting time on the removal efficiencies of two metals showed gradual increase, slight changes or decline pat-terns. Among these 14 plants, Coriaria nepalensis proved to have a better removal efficiency, with the removal efficiencies of Pb and Zn be-ing 23.78%and 77.03%, respectively, at 5%eluent, pH 4.0 and a reaction time of 8 h. Therefore, C. nepalensis could be used as an envi-ronmental-friendly eluent for Pb-Zn contaminated soils.%高效绿色淋洗剂的筛选是土壤淋洗技术开发的重要内容之一。本文以汉源某铅锌矿区污染土壤为对象,将14种植物地上部分风干研磨过2 mm筛后蒸馏水浸提24 h,采用振荡淋洗的方法研究浸提液在不同浓度、pH和作用时间下对铅锌复合污染土壤中铅和锌的提取效果。结果表明,在25℃、200 r·min-1恒温振荡条件下,14种植物淋洗剂对土壤铅锌的淋洗效率不同(P﹤0.05):随着淋洗剂浓度的增加,其对土壤铅的淋洗率呈逐渐增加和先增后减两种变化趋势,对土壤锌的淋洗率则呈逐渐增加和变化趋势不明显;淋洗率随着pH增加总体降低;14种

  13. Restoration potential of pioneer plants growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in Lanping, southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Dongmei; DUAN Changqun


    This study focused on the restoration potential of ten pioneer plants (Artemisia roxburghiana, Artemisia tangutica, Carex inanis,Cyperaceae hebecarpus, Plantago depresa, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Potentilla saundesiana, Coriaria sinica, Oxyria sinensis, andMiscanthus nepalensis) during the early phase of Pb-Zn mine tailings phytostabilization, in Lanping, China. The concentrations ofheavy metals (Pb, Zn, and Cu) and soil fertility (the available N, P, K, and organic matter) in the rhizosphere of these species have been compared. The results showed a general improvement in the rhizosphere soil properties of pioneer plants. Of the ten species, theconcentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the rhizosphere of A. Roxburghiana have the greatest reduction of 56.23%, 83.00%, and 84.36%,respectively, compared to the bulk soil. The best improvement in soil fertility was found in the rhizosphere of P. Saundesiana, with anincrease of 241.83%, 170.76%, 49.09%, and 81.60%, respectively, in the available N, E K, and organic matter. Metals accumulated bythe plants have been mainly distributed in the root tissues, and only small amounts transferred m the aboveground tissues. The highestcontents of Pb and Zn have been recorded in C. Hebecarpus with 57.84 and 87.92 mg/kg dry weight (dw), respectively. The maximumCu content was observed in C. Inanis with 1.19 mg/kg dw. Overall, pioneer plants will be ideal species for the phytostabilization of minetailings, but the potential use varies in different pioneer plant species. Among these ten species, A. Roxburghiana has been identified tobe the most suitable for phytostabilization programs, due to its greatest improvement on physicai-chemical properties in the rhizospheresoil.

  14. Adaptive changes in the plasticity of body melanisation in generalist, cold and warm adapted Drosophila species%不同气候适应类型果蝇体色黑化可塑性的适应性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi PARKASH; Seema RAMNIWAS; Chanderkala LAMBHOD; Babita KAJLA


    变温昆虫果蝇Drosophila深受热选择(即遗传效应)或表型诱导效应(即可塑性)的影响.表型可塑性是不同生物进行适应的有效方法,但是它在不同的果蝇种中较少受到关注.我们分析了不同发育温度范围和地理分布的果蝇的黑化反应模式.嗜凤梨果蝇D.ananassae和蒲桃果蝇D.jambulina对低温敏感,这些物种可在18 ~ 32℃下饲育.相反,D.nepalensis为耐冷且对热敏感的物种,可在12 ~ 25℃下饲育.世界广为分布的黑腹果蝇D.melanogaster的温度范围宽(13~31℃),该物种前3个腹节和后3个腹节的黑化反应模式未见明显差异.D.nepalensis的全部6个腹节(第2~7节)均具有高度的可塑性.不过,黑腹果蝇D.melanogaster只有后3个腹节具有可塑性.相反,热带物种嗜凤梨果蝇D.ananassae的所有腹节均不具有可塑性.世界广为分布的黑腹果蝇,即使来自冷得多的气候环境,其体色也不加深,与D.nepalensis中观察到的体色接近.本研究的目的旨在认识引起体色的形态多样性的过程以及果蝇对不同地理区域的适应性.最后,将体色黑化与物种系统发育谱系的比较表明,在不同的演化谱系中不断发生遗传多态性或表型可塑性两种不同模式的适应.%Ectothermic drosophilids are profoundly affected by thermal selection (i.e.,genetic effects) or through induced effects on phenotype (i.e.,plasticity).Phenotypic plasticity is a powerful means of adaptation in diverse organisms but has received less attention for different drosophilids. We analyzed reaction norms of melanisation in Drosophila species which differ in developmental thermal range and geographical distribution.D.ananassae and D.jambulina are cold sensitive,and these species can be cultured between 18 to 32℃.By contrast,D.nepalensis is cold-tolerant and heat-sensitive species which can be raised between 12 and 25℃.The cosmopolitan species D. melanogaster has a broader thermal range ( 13


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    松任市水下森林于1998年发现,位于日本中部北陆地区松任市Hama sogo和Kurabe附近手取河现代冲积扇2-3km外的20-30 m水下,呈树桩、树根或直立的树干保存.这一发现证明在早全新世当地有森林发育,森林的主要成分有Alnus,Quercus,Morus,Fraxinus.14C年代为距今8 000-10 000a.孢粉分析显示沼泽植物,如Alnus,Salix,Cryptomeria,Gramineae,Numphaceae丰富,Lepidobalanus,Castanea,Fraxinus常见,而Fagus cf. crenata,Pinus少见.硅藻表明其在森林发育时期当地为淡水或小湖泊.因此,当时森林生长在古手取河冲积扇边缘的沼泽地区,寒温带的Sasa-Fagetum crenate群丛(Association)的Alnus japonica群落(Community)广泛分布,推测年均温比现代要低几度.水下森林的形成时间和冰期后气候变暖所引起的海平面上升相一致,推测可能由于海水水位上升,古手取河洪水从上游冲下的碎屑物掩埋了当时的森林形成了现在的水下森林.因为日本海沿岸的洋流冲刷而使得这些化石森林显露出来.当前的水下森林和Nyuzen水下森林是目前世界上已知仅有的两处大陆架上的水下森林.%The Matto submerged forest was found in spring of 1998 as stumps, roots and erect trunks from the continentalshelf at depth between 20 and 30 m, and in 2 to 3 km off the recent marginal area of the Tedori-gawa alluvial fan at Hama-sogoand Kurabe, Matto City, the Hokuriku region, Central Japan. This discovery proves the development of ancient forest in theearly Holocene. Main tree remnants of the forest are Alnus, Quercus (Lepidobalanus), Morus and Fraxinus, the most commonlypreserved genera. These trees had grown on the now submerged seaward margin of the old Tedori-gawa alluvial fan. An age ofthe submerged forest determined by the C-14 method is about 10 000 to 8 000 years B.P. According to pollen analyses, suchmarshy plants as Alnus, Salix, Cryptomeria, Gramineae and Nymphaceae are abundant, Lepidobalanus, Castanea

  16. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park (United States)

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.


    Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of

  17. Leaf litter as a possible food source for chironomids (Diptera in Brazilian and Portuguese headwater streams Detritos foliares como possível fonte de alimento para Chironomidae (Diptera em riachos de cabeceira brasileiros e portugueses

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    Marcos Callisto


    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the potential use of leaf detritus by chironomid larvae. Field and laboratory experiments were performed using leaves and chironomid species collected in Portugal and Brazil. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were done using microbial conditioned senescent leaves of Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn, Neriumoleander L., Protium heptaphilum (Aubl. March, Protium brasiliense (Spreng Engl., Myrcia guyanensis(Aubl. DC and Miconia chartacea Triana. Laboratory experiments were performed using specimens collected from leaf litter in local streams. Whenever possible, after the experiments, chironomids were allowed to emerge as adults and identified. In Portugal the following taxa were identified: Micropsectra apposita (Walker, 1856, Polypedilum albicorne (Meigen, 1838,Eukiefferiella claripennis Lundbeck (1898, Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus atripes Rempel (1937 and Ablabesmyia Johannsen (1905 (Diptera, Chironomidae. Consumption rates ranged from 0.15 ± 0.10 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Micropsectra apposita feeding on Alnus glutinosa up to 0.85 ± 0.33 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Polypedilum albicorne feeding on Miconia chartacea. In Brazil, the following taxa were identified from leaves: Phaenopsectra sp., Chironomus spp. and Polypedilum sp. and maximum consumption rates reached 0.47 ± 0.28 (AFDM of leaf (Chironomus Meigen (1803 feeding on Protium heptaphilum. Feeding experiments with laboratory cultured specimens, revealed that some chironomids were unable to feed on decomposing leaves (e.g., C. xanthus Rempel (1939 on P.brasiliensis and M.guyanensis. Our results suggest that some stream chironomids (not typical shredders can use leaf litter of riparian vegetation as a complementary food source.O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial uso de detritos foliares por larvas de Chironomidae. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em laboratório utilizando folhas e larvas de Chironomidae

  18. Atypical coastal environmental change during Copper Age - Bronze Age transition (Rio de Moinhos, NW Portugal) - preliminary results (United States)

    Granja, Helena; Danielsen, Randi


    The research is part of an ongoing project of geo-archaeology from Rio de Moinhos beach (Esposende, NW Portugal), where an extensive area of dark sedimentary outcrops and a large amount of ceramic remains from a Roman shipwreck are present. The dark sedimentary deposit, presenting tree stumps and roots in life position, partially covers a rocky platform that extends seawards. Over the platform, that presents many pits of sea urchins (infralittoral environment) as well as salt pans (supratidal environment), a marine rusty conglomerate is present in some places. Several hand gauge cores were extracted in the sedimentary deposit whose maximum depth do not exceed 50cm. Samples from cores and outcrops were analysed for grain size, mineralogical composition, pollen and diatom content and radiocarbon dated. This work concerns sediment size analysis, dating and pollen. Tree stumps and roots of Alnus glutinosa dated 6310-6220 cal BP are in the base of the sedimentary sequence that presents a gradual passage from very fine sands to clayey silts, all of them organic and very poorly sorted. Pollen analysis revealed an initial wetland habitat containing Alnus, inundated ca 5645-5585 cal BP due to rising sea level at the time. A brackish lagoon formed at the site presumably protected by a clastic barrier seaward. Similar formations of lagoons are detected all along the Portuguese coast, typically disappearing with time due to sand infilling. In this case, however, the brackish lagoon turned into a fresh water lake ca 4485-4440 cal BP. This may have been a natural development caused by permanent closing of the clastic barrier but human interference cannot be excluded as anthropic activity was detected since formation of the lagoon. The lake seems to have filled in with sand at some point in time subsequent to ca 3750-3725 cal BP, the date of the top lake sediment. However, shipwreck vestiges from the Roman Period presently dispersed over the lake sediment, suggests a later date

  19. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record (United States)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.


    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP

  20. Deciduous shrub growth and the greening of the Arctic in West Siberia (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.


    Salix lanata and Alnus fruticosa are common and widespread shrub species in the low arctic tundra zone of West Siberia. They often occur in similar local habitats with the live portions of genets up to 100 years old. We have recently established that growth rings of S. lanata provide an excellent proxy for summer temperature. In that study our data were derived from shrubs growing on organic soils near the arctic coast of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), west of the Ural Mountains. East of the Urals, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), climate is more continental and sandy soils provide a relatively nutrient-poor substrate for plant growth. By sampling two different species side by side on the Yamal Peninsula, we shed light on the relationship between deciduous shrubs and growing season temperatures in the last half century or so, a period of pronounced regional warming. We discern differences in the climate signal within a single species (S. lanata) as well as between it and a neighboring species with a strongly overlapping ecological amplitude (A. fruticosa). July is the main month for temperature correlation in Alnus, whereas Salix responds to June-July-August temperatures in both regions. The high correlations of shrub growth with summer temperature (r > 0.7 over the period 1956-2004) strongly suggest a link between increased shrub growth and recent decadal warming in both regions (~2°C). Both species showed significant correlation with the regional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), although it was somewhat lower in YNAO compared to NAO, probably due to the relative land cover (10% vs. 20%, respectively) of erect shrubs in both areas, which affects their overall contribution to the NDVI. In both regions Salix lanata biomass peaks in the second half of July. Hand-held leaf area index data from Yamal indicate a significant difference between loamy/clayey and sandy sites. We hypothesized that this same variation would be evident at the

  1. Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the west-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the basin of Mexico (United States)

    Watts, W.A.; Bradbury, J.P.


    A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco basin indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco basin was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco basin with

  2. Effect of Post-Heat Treatment on Dimensional Stability of Compressed Wood%后期热处理对压缩木尺寸稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈太安; 蒋明; 王昌命; 高力勇


    The timber of Pinus armandii and Alnus cremastogyne was experimented to evaluate the dimensional stability by taking thickness swelling ( TS) as the major evaluation index after the compressed wood was individually treated under 170℃ and 210℃ for 2 h with the heated air or conductive oil heat transfer media. The results showed that both of the moisture-uptake and water-uptake of the compressed wood could be reduced by post heat-treating, so the dimensional stability of the compressed wood was improved. The conductive oil treatment had better effect than that of the hot air, while the treatment effect under 210℃ was better than that of under 170℃. The best technological condition was conductive oil treatment under 210℃, which could reduce moisture uptake TS index by 50% while reduce TS value after 24 h water uptake by 85%. The results also showed that the effect of heat treatment varied with tree species, The heat treatment effect on Pinus armandii wood was better than that of on Alnus cremastogyne wood.%以华山松和西南桤木为研究试材,以热空气和导热油为加热介质,在温度为170℃和210℃时分别对2种压缩木进行2 h的热处理,以厚度膨胀率为主要指标评价其尺寸稳定性.结果表明:后期热处理可以降低压缩木吸湿率和吸水率,改善压缩木的尺寸稳定性,油浴处理的效果优于热空气处理,210℃处理效果优于170℃;在所有工艺条件中,以210℃油浴处理效果最佳,可使吸湿厚度膨胀率下降50%左右,使24h吸水厚度膨胀率减小85%左右;热处理对树种具有一定的选择性,对西南桤木的效果略优于华山松.

  3. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya


    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  4. Changes of soil carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes in relation to land use/cover management. (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Moghimian, Negar; Bayranvand, Mohammad; Alberti, Giorgio


    Conversions of land use/cover are associated with changes in soil properties and biogeochemical cycling, with implications for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and trace gas fluxes. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the significance of different land uses (Alnus subcordata plantation, Taxodium distichum plantation, agriculture, and deforested areas) on soil features and on the dynamics of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at local scale, this study was carried out in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Sixteen samples per land use, from the top 10 cm of soil, were taken, from which bulk density, texture, water content, pH, organic C, total N, microbial biomass of C and N, and earthworm density/biomass were determined. In addition, the seasonal changes in the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored over a year. Our results indicated that the different land uses were different in terms of soil properties and GHG fluxes. Even though the amount of the GHG varied widely during the year, the highest CO2 and CH4 fluxes (0.32 mg CO2 m(-2) day(-1) and 0.11 mg CH4 m(-2) day(-1), respectively) were recorded in the deforested areas. N2O flux was higher in Alnus plantation (0.18 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) and deforested areas (0.17 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) than at agriculture site (0.05 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) and Taxodium plantation (0.03 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)). This study demonstrated strong impacts of land use change on soil-atmosphere trace gas exchanges and provides useful observational constraints for top-down and bottom-up biogeochemistry models.

  5. Prevalence of pollinosis in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis in the South of Mexico City 2007-2013. (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel


    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de la polinosis se ha duplicado en las últimas dos décadas. Diversos estudios sugieren que incluso 50% de los adultos residentes del Distrito Federal pueden tener datos de alergia respiratoria y que los pólenes de árboles, pastos y malezas constituyen una causa frecuente. Conocer la prevalencia de sus familias y cruces antigénicos permite ofrecer diagnósticos y tratamientos adecuados. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia de sensibilización a pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas en adultos con alergia respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal en el periodo de enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2013. Material y método: estudio transversal, observacional y retrospectivo efectuado con pacientes que acudieron al servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital de Especialidades Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI de la Ciudad de México, de 2007 a 2013, con diagnóstico de rinitis, asma y conjuntivitis alérgica. Analizamos los resultados de las pruebas cutáneas para pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas de los pacientes. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se incluyeron 672 pacientes, 70% hombres, la edad promedio fue de 34 ± 16 años. En relación con su ocupación 31% eran estudiantes, 48% trabajadores y 21% amas de casa. El 53% tenía rinitis alérgica, 47% asma y 40.5% tenía ambos padecimientos. Se encontró prevalencia de sensibilización a malezas de 56%, a árboles de 33% y a gramíneas de 11%. Conclusiones: la sensibilización a malezas constituye en México la primera causa de polinosis respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal, el polen del amaranto fue el más prevalente en esta zona. La sensibilización a los árboles es la segunda causa de polinosis, con predominio de las familias Betulaceae, Fagaceae y Oleacea. La sensibilización a gramíneas constituye la tercera causa de polinosis respiratoria. Las más frecuentes son la

  6. Resilient terrestrial ecosystems at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (Invited) (United States)

    Wing, S.


    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of global warming lasting ~200 ka that began ~56 Ma. Global temperature rose 5-8 °C in association with the emission of thousands of Pg of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. PETM rocks and fossils are extensively exposed in the SE Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where the event is represented by ~40 m of fluvial rocks. Fossil plants demonstrate a rapid and nearly complete turnover in floral composition that also suggests a change in the structure of vegetation. Floras collected from the last ~50 ka of the Paleocene are composed of Platanaceae (sycamores), Betulaceae (birches), Fagaceae (oaks), Lauraceae (laurels), Juglandaceae (walnuts), Cercidiphyllaceae (katsura), Taxodiaceae (dawn redwood), and Arecaceae (palms), among others. Many of these families are most diverse and abundant today in temperate to subtropical, mid-latitude forests. During the body of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the PETM fossil floras have a completely different composition. All of the latest Paleocene plant types are absent, except for palms, and instead the floras are dominated by Fabaceae (bean family). Other taxa include Sapindaceae (soapberry), Annonaceae (paw-paw), and Hernandiaceae. Where living relatives are known, they live in dry tropical forests of Central and South America. This floral composition is maintained through the ~30 m of section representing the ~110 ka-long body of the CIE, the same interval characterized by dwarfed mammalian faunas. During the recovery phase of the CIE most of the latest Paleocene plants returned to the area of study, although some new taxa appeared, apparently coming in from Europe or Asia. The distinctive PETM floral types are not seen after the recovery phase of the CIE. Change in floral composition during the PETM apparently represents regional extirpations of populations of plants that preferred warm, mesic conditions, and northward range extensions of plants that

  7. Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanxing Wang


    Full Text Available This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg, Zn (100.56 mg/kg, Cd (0.28 mg/kg, Pb (28.75 mg/kg, Cr (36.82 mg/kg, Co (10.24 mg/kg, Ni (32.44 mg/kg and As (21.43 mg/kg, while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg, Zn (31.47 mg/kg, Cd (0.05 mg/kg, Pb (2.06 mg/kg, Cr (14.16 mg/kg, Co (0.55 mg/kg, Ni (4.03 mg/kg and As (1.33 mg/kg. The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA results indicate that: (1 the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2 the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3 the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4 the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5 when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

  8. Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. (United States)

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan


    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

  9. Current Understanding of Molecular Systematics of Cordyceps%虫草属分子系统学研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋毅; 姚一建


    近年来的分子系统学研究结果表明,麦角菌目(Clavicipitales)与肉座菌目(Hypocreales)以及虫草属[Cordyceps(Fr.)Link]与麦角菌科(Clavicipitaceae)内的有关种属关系密切,但虫草属为一多系群,其中只有新虫草亚属的种类形成单系群.虫草属种类的进化与寄主有一定的关系,有关研究显示它们在亲缘关系相差很大的寄主之间多次转移.多个独立的ITS序列研究表明,阔孢虫草(Cordyceps crassispora M.Zang et al.)、甘肃虫草葺(Cordyceps gansuensis K.Y.Zhang et al.)、多轴虫草(Cordyceps multiaxialis M.Zang & Kinjo)、尼泊尔虫草(Cordyceps nepalensis M.Zang & Kinjo)与冬虫夏草[Cordyceps sinensis(Berk.)Sacc.]为同一物种;RAPD和ITS序列分析还显示不同地理分布的冬虫夏草存在明显的遗传分化.分子生物学方法在确定有性型与无性型的关系上已经为多种虫草菌提供了有力的证据.本文主要对虫草属分子系统学研究现状进行了综述,同时就分子生物学研究中的取样问题、一些分子方法的适用范围以及有性型与无性型的关系等问题进行了讨论.

  10. Effect of human disturbance on the structure and regeneration of forests in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angel Rolando Endara Agramont; Sergio Franco Maass; Gabino Nava Bemal; Juan Ignacio Valdez Hemández; Todd S.Fredericksen


    Sample plots were established in the principal forest types in the the Nevado de Toluca National Park,Mexico including those dominated by Pinus hartwegii,Abies religiosa,Quercus laurina and Alnus jorullensis.The vertical structure was defined by three strata in the coniferous forests and two strata in the broadleaved forests.Timber harvesting in Abies religiosa and Quercus laurina forests and fires generated by humans in Pinus hartwegii forests impeded the recruitment of saplings.Mature trees were also heavily impacted by logging in Pinus hartwegii forests.On the contrary,Alnusjorullensis forests were increasing due to the disturbance of Pinus and Quercus forests,as well abandoned crop lands within the park.A combination of logging,uncontrolled fire,and grazing appears to be compromising the recruitment of important tree species in this national park.These factors,together with human settlements,have also increased the proportion of early successional species.Changes in forest structure from human disturbance indicate a need to control these activities if conservation goals are not to be compromised.

  11. Headwater streams and forest management: does ecoregional context influence logging effects on benthic communities? (United States)

    Medhurst, R. Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S.; Binckley, Chris; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion


    Effects of forest management on stream communities have been widely documented, but the role that climate plays in the disturbance outcomes is not understood. In order to determine whether the effect of disturbance from forest management on headwater stream communities varies by climate, we evaluated benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 24 headwater streams that differed in forest management (logged-roaded vs. unlogged-unroaded, hereafter logged and unlogged) within two ecological sub-regions (wet versus dry) within the eastern Cascade Range, Washington, USA. In both ecoregions, total macroinvertebrate density was highest at logged sites (P = 0.001) with gathering-collectors and shredders dominating. Total taxonomic richness and diversity did not differ between ecoregions or forest management types. Shredder densities were positively correlated with total deciduous and Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) riparian cover. Further, differences in shredder density between logged and unlogged sites were greater in the wet ecoregion (logging × ecoregion interaction; P = 0.006) suggesting that differences in post-logging forest succession between ecoregions were responsible for differences in shredder abundance. Headwater stream benthic community structure was influenced by logging and regional differences in climate. Future development of ecoregional classification models at the subbasin scale, and use of functional metrics in addition to structural metrics, may allow for more accurate assessments of anthropogenic disturbances in mountainous regions where mosaics of localized differences in climate are common.

  12. The combined effects of water level reduction and an increase in ammonia concentration on organic matter processing by key freshwater shredders in alluvial wetlands. (United States)

    Dehedin, Arnaud; Maazouzi, Chafik; Puijalon, Sara; Marmonier, Pierre; Piscart, Christophe


    In a global change context, the intensity and the frequency of drastic low flow periods or drought events will most likely increase to a substantial extent over the coming decades, leading to a modification in the abiotic characteristics of wetlands. This change in environmental parameters may induce severe shifts in plant and animal communities and the functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we experimentally estimated the effect of drought and the accumulation of ammonia (NH3 ) on the feeding activities of three generalist macroinvertebrates (i.e. Gammarus pulex, Gammarus roeselii and Asellus aquaticus) on three types of organic matter: leaves of Berula erecta growing in submerged conditions, leaves of the same species growing in emerged conditions and dead leaves of Alnus glutinosa. We observed a modification in the biomechanical and stoichiometric characteristics of the plants as a result of the emersion of the aquatic plants. This shift produced a substantial decrease in organic matter recycling by invertebrates and in their associated physiological ability (i.e. the energy stores of the animals) to face conditions associated with environmental change. Moreover, the accumulation of NH3 amplified the negative effect of emersion. This snowball effect on invertebrates may profoundly modify the functioning of ecosystems, particularly in terms of organic matter production/degradation and carbon mineralization.

  13. Do climate and soil influence phenotypic variability in leaf litter, microbial decomposition and shredder consumption? (United States)

    Graça, M A S; Poquet, J M


    We tested the hypothesis that water stress and soil nutrient availability drive leaf-litter quality for decomposers and detritivores by relating chemical and physical leaf-litter properties and decomposability of Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur, sampled together with edaphic parameters, across wide European climatic gradients. By regressing principal components analysis of leaf traits [N, P, condensed tannins, lignin, specific leaf area (SLA)] against environmental and soil parameters, we found that: (1) In Q. robur the condensed tannin and lignin contents increased and SLA decreased with precipitation, annual range of temperature, and soil N content, whereas leaf P increased with soil P and temperature; (2) In A. glutinosa leaves N, P, and SLA decreased and condensed tannins increased with temperature, annual range of temperature, and decreasing soil P. On the other hand, leaf P and condensed tannins increased and SLA decreased with minimum annual precipitation and towards sites with low temperature. We selected contrasting leaves in terms of quality to test decomposition and invertebrate consumption. There were intraspecific differences in microbial decomposition rates (field, Q. robur) and consumption by shredders (laboratory, A. glutinosa). We conclude that decomposition rates across ecosystems could be partially governed by climate and soil properties, affecting litter quality and therefore decomposers and detritivores. Under scenarios of global warming and increased nutrients, these results suggest we can expect species-specific changes in leaf-litter properties most likely resulting in slow decomposition with increased variance in temperatures and accelerated decomposition with P increase.

  14. Energy conservation and use of renewable energies in the bio-industries 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, F.


    The proceedings are presented of the Second International Seminar on Energy Conservation and the Use of Renewable Energies in the Bio-industries. Of 106 papers presented, the following 5 are of particular forestry interest: Brewbaker, J.L.; MacDicken, K.; Beldt, R. van den. Tropical nitrogen-fixing fuelwood trees. 108-119 (Refs. 15). Farnham, R.S.; Garton, S.; Louis, K.A.; Read, P.E. Propagating and establishing bioenergy plantations. 274-283 (Refs. 14). Salix and Alnus spp. in the marginal wetlands of northern Minnesota, USA. Kio, P.R.O. Factors and policies affecting forest resources use and conservation in Africa. 425-432 (Refs. 9), including discussion of the causes and consequences of deforestation. Plumptre, R.A.; Sandells, A. Construction, performance and economics of simple solar timber drying kilns. 577-586 (Refs. 11). Yermanos, D.M. Jojoba - outlook for maximizing oil production. 738-748 (Refs. 1). It describes experiments on seed and oil yields of Simmondsia chinensis in California.

  15. The pollen season dynamics and the relationship among some season parameters (start, end, annual total, season phases) in Kraków, Poland, 1991-2008. (United States)

    Myszkowska, D; Jenner, B; Stępalska, D; Czarnobilska, E


    The dynamics of 15 taxa pollen seasons in Kraków, in 1991-2008 was monitored using a Burkard volumetric spore trap of the Hirst design. The highest daily pollen concentrations were achieved in the first half of May, and they were caused mainly by Betula and Pinus pollen. The second period of the high concentrations took place from the middle of July to the end of August (mainly Urtica pollen). Tree pollen seasons were shorter (18-24 days) in comparison with the most herbaceous pollen seasons (73-89 days), except at Artemisia and Ambrosia seasons (30 and 24 days, respectively). The season phases (percentyles) of the spring and late-summer taxa were the most variable in the consecutive years. The highest annual sums were noted for Urtica, Poaceae (herbaceous pollen seasons) and for Betula, Pinus, Alnus (tree pollen seasons), and the highest variability of annual totals was stated for Urtica, Populus, Fraxinus and the lowest for Ambrosia, Corylus, Poaceae. For the plants that pollinate in the middle of the pollen season (Quercus, Pinus and Rumex), the date of the season start seems not to be related to the season end, while for late pollen seasons, especially for Ambrosia and Artemisia, the statistically negative correlation between the start and the end season dates was found. Additionally, for the most studied taxa, the increase in annual pollen totals was observed. The presented results could be useful for the allergological practice and general botanical knowledge.

  16. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova


    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  17. Forest structure and woody plant species composition after a wildfire in beech forests in the north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Ali Omidi; Daniel C Dey


    Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forest covers about 565,000 ha of land in Guilan province,north of Iran and forms a major carbon pool.It is an important economic,soil protection and recreation resource.We studied long-term effects of fire on the structure and composition 37 years after fire occurrence in these forests.To do this research,we selected 85 ha burned and 85 ha unbumed beech forests).The results indicated that the fire had not changed the overall uneven-aged structure,but it changed forest composition from pure stands to mixed stands that now include species such as Carpinus betulus,Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata.The density of trees and regeneration was significantly increased,while the density of shrubs significantly decreased.The main reasons for increased tree regeneration were attributed to (1) reduction of litter depth,and (2) increase in available light from opening of the canopy and reduction in shrub competition.It is apparent that the forest is on a path to return to its natural state before the fire after 37 years.

  18. Vegetation aspects in the Lapus Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica MARIAN


    Full Text Available Vegetation aspects in the Lăpuş Valey vegetation. The Lăpuş Valey belong the Maramureş county. It’s situated in North of Transilvania and his territory covers few geomorphological units like: Rodna Mountains, the Maramureş Mountains, the Gutâi Mountains. The longest river wich crossed the county is Lăpuş. The climat is formed under the influence of dominantly western and north-western atmospheric flow and sheltered by the nerby mountains. The Lăpuş Mountins far from having impressing heights, are very fragmentated, with deep valleys and steep slopes, the river Lăpuş forming true quays. Near the Lăpuş Valey the peaks are covered with forest consist in special in beech forests with a few oak trees and small meadows of Nardus stricta and Agrostis stolonifera. Near the river they are also low forest edificated by Salix alba and Alnus glutinosa.

  19. 秦岭地区15 ka BP以来的植被与环境%The vegetational and environmental history in Qinling Mountain since 15 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵先贵; 肖玲


    通过对秦岭海拔2 200 m一山间盆地沼泽沉积剖面的花粉分析和14C年代测定,结合对该区植被与表土花粉的研究,认为秦岭的暗针叶林带15 ka BP以来植被和环境经历了4个发展阶段:(1) 约15 450~6 760 a BP,植被为冷杉(Abies)-云杉(Picea)林,气候寒冷潮湿;(2) 约6 760~2 940 a BP,沉积物中花粉稀少,以冷杉、云杉、桦(Betula)、栎(Quercus)为主,出现了喜暖型植物桤木(Alnus),气候暖湿;(3) 2 940~40 a BP,植被为冷杉林,气候冷湿;(4) 0~40 a BP,植被为桦、栎、榛(Corylus)、桤木、铁杉(Tsuga)和小片状分布的冷杉,松(Pinus)的数量极少,气候向暖干方向发展,这是近期人为活动干扰的结果.

  20. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S; Lozhkin, A V; Brown, T A


    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicates no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.

  1. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  2. Structure and Composition of Old-Growth and Unmanaged Second-Growth Riparian Forests at Redwood National Park, USA

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    Christopher R. Keyes


    Full Text Available Restoration of second-growth riparian stands has become an important issue for managers of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl. forest reserves. Identifying differences between old-growth and second-growth forest vegetation is a necessary step in evaluating restoration needs and targets. The objective of this study was to characterize and contrast vegetation structure and composition in old-growth and unmanaged second-growth riparian forests in adjacent, geomorphologically similar watersheds at Redwood National Park. In the old-growth, redwood was the dominant overstory species in terms of stem density, basal area, and importance values. Second-growth was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco, and redwood. Understory species were similar in both forests, with several key differences: Oxalis oregana Nutt. and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests.

  3. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India. (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati


    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  4. Woodcock singing-ground counts and habitat changes in the northeastern United States (United States)

    Dwyer, T.J.; McAuley, D.G.; Derleth, E.L.


    Aerial photography from the late 1960's and the late 1970's was used to study habitat changes along 78 American woodcock (Scolopax minor) singing-ground routes in 9 northeastern states. The most noticeable changes were declines in the amount of abandoned field, cropland, shrubland, and field/pasture. The amount of land in the urban/industrial type increased 33.4% from the late 1960's to the late 1970's. We examined relationships between the woodcock call-count index and habitat variables using multiple-regression techniques. The abundance of calling male woodcock was positively correlated with the amount of abandoned field and alder (Alnus sp.) and negatively correlated with the amount of urban/industrial type. However, only the change in the urban/industrial type was significantly (P < 0.05) related to the change in the call-count index. Urban/industrial area increased, whereas the call-count index declined on average in our sample of routes by 1.4 birds/route (40.5%).

  5. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

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    Józef Mitka


    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  6. Botanical Characteristics of Polish Honeys from Natura 2000 Habitats

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    Wróblewska Anna


    Full Text Available Eighteen samples of honeys which were harvested over several beekeeping seasons from apiaries located in the area of the “Kózki” Nature Reserve (central-eastern Poland were the subject of the present study. The “Kózki” Nature Reserve is included in the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 program. A microscopic analysis of the pollen sediment in the honeys showed the presence of 61 pollen types from 32 botanical families in the investigated material. There were represented by nectariferous (72.1% and nonnectariferous plants (27.9% and both entomophilous and anemophilous ones. The total number of pollen taxa in individual samples ranged from 13 to 37. The main sources of nectar from trees and shrubs were: Frangula alnus, Prunus, Robinia pseudacacia, Rubus, Salix, Tilia. The main sources of nectar from herbaceous plants were: Anthriscus, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Centaurea cyanus, Taraxacum, and Trifolium repens. Four unifloral honeys (three fruit tree honeys and one lime honey and fourteen multifloral honeys, with a significant percentage of pollen from several nectariferous plant taxa, were distinguished in the studied material.

  7. 5种木制玩具原料林树种在云和的早期生长表现%Early Growth of 5 Tree Species for Wooden Toy in Yunhe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建灵; 吴涛; 卢刚; 王永标


    自2005年开始在云和镇开展枫香(Liquidambar formosana)、木荷(Schima superba)、南酸枣(Choerospondias axillaris)、江南桤木(Alnus trabeculosa)、马褂木(Liriodendron chinense)5种木制玩具原料树种造林试验,结果表明:5种速生阔叶树种造林当年的成活率均在95%以上,最高的为枫香,达98.5%,5年后各树种的保存率均超过92%,最高的枫香为97.2%;5个树种的5年生树高总生长量最大的为江南桤木,达7.6 m,其余依次为南酸枣、枫香、木荷、马褂木;5年生胸径生长量也是江南桤木最大达6.7 cm,其余依次为南酸枣、枫香、木荷、马褂木.

  8. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere (United States)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  9. Taiwanese Native Plants Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity after Ultraviolet B Irradiation

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    Yueh-Lun Lee


    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have long been used as a source of therapeutic agents. They are thought to be important anti-aging ingredients in prophylactic medicines. The aim of this study was to screen extracts from Taiwanese plant materials for phenolic contents and measure the corresponding matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity. We extracted biological ingredients from eight plants native to Taiwan (Alnus formosana, Diospyros discolor, Eriobotrya deflex, Machilus japonica, Pyrrosia polydactylis, Pyrus taiwanensis, Vitis adstricta, Vitis thunbergii. Total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. MMP-9 activities were measured by gelatin zymography. The extracted yields of plants ranged from 3.7 % to 16.9 %. The total phenolic contents ranged from 25.4 to 36.8 mg GAE/g dry material. All of these extracts (except Vitis adstricta Hance were shown to inhibit MMP-9 activity of WS-1 cell after ultraviolet B irradiation. These findings suggest that total phenolic content may influence MMP-9 activity and that some of the plants with higher phenolic content exhibited various biological activities that could serve as potent inhibitors of the ageing process in the skin. This property might be useful in the production of cosmetics.

  10. Perspectives on allelopathy in mexican traditional agroecosystems: A case study in tlaxcala. (United States)

    Anaya, A L; Ramos, L; Cruz, R; Hernández, J G; Nava, V


    Agroecosystems in Tlaxcala, Mexico, are surrounded by trees and water channels and have a great variety of cultivated and noncultivated plants. The main results of a study carried out on a traditional agroecosystem in Santa Inés, Tlaxcala are presented. Some ecological aspects of polycultures, plant covers (dry leaves ofAlnus firmifolia, Berula erecta, andJuncus sp.), and the allelopathic potential of crops and noncultivated plants (fresh and dry material) were analyzed. The main plants (trees, shrubs, and herbs) present in the agroecosystem were identified. The total number of weeds in plots where plant covers were added was reduced. The number of nodules ofRhizobium phaseoli and the production of bean and squash increased with plant covers. Corn, beans, and squash showed a clear allelopathic effect, as well asChenopodium murale, Tradescantia crassifolia, Melilotus indicus, andAmaranthus hybridus, among other weeds. The contribution of allelopathy in studies of traditional agroecosystems is of great importance for the management of species in space and time. Allelopathy can be the basis of biological control of pests and weeds and of the discovery of new useful substances.

  11. Depositional environments of the Hart coal zone (Paleocene), Willow Bunch Coalfield, southern Saskatchewan, Canada from petrographic, palynological, paleobotanical, mineral and trace element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Beaton, A.P.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Vigrass, L.W. (University of Regina, SK (Canada). Energy Research Unit)


    Coal petrology, palynology, paleobotany and mineralogy of the Hart coal indicate deposition under wet, warm-temperate to subtropical climatic conditions in low-lying backswamps with fluvial channels and locally ponded areas. The coal is dominated by mixed xylitic/attrital lithotypes and by huminite macerals with secondary inertinite macerals and minor liptinite macerals. Good correlation exists between lithotypes and maceral composition. Local and vertical variations in proportions of huminites and inertinites reflect frequent fluctuations in water levels, periodic flooding, desiccation and burning of the peat. Swamps were dominated by {ital Glyptostrobus-Taxodium} forest with {ital Betula-Myrica-Alnus} communities and, locally {ital Laevigatosporites}, which are the dominant contributors to the xylite-rich lithotypes. Attrital lithotypes with abundant {ital Pandanus}, {ital Typha} and {ital Azolla} are consistent with wetter areas of a fluvial environment, including ponds and channels. Trace elements Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, U, Se, V, W, K and Th, typically associated with syngenetic minerals kaolinite, calcite and quartz, may have a volcanic source. High concentrations of Na, Ba and Ca found in organic complexes are of secondary origin and probably originate in deep source brines rather than marine surface waters. 55 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. The Phytophthora species assemblage and diversity in riparian alder ecosystems of western Oregon, USA. (United States)

    Sims, Laura Lee; Sutton, Wendy; Reeser, Paul; Hansen, Everett M


    Phytophthora species were systematically sampled, isolated, identified and compared for presence in streams, soil and roots of alder (Alnus species) dominated riparian ecosystems in western Oregon. We describe the species assemblage and evaluate Phytophthora diversity associated with alder. We recovered 1250 isolates of 20 Phytophthora species. Only three species were recovered from all substrates (streams, soil, alder roots): P. gonapodyides, the informally described "P. taxon Pgchlamydo", and P. siskiyouensis. P. alni ssp. uniformis along with five other species not previously recovered in Oregon forests are included in the assemblage: P.citricola s.l., P. gregata, P. gallica, P. nicotianae and P. parsiana. Phytophthora species diversity was greatest in downstream riparian locations. There was no significant difference in species diversity comparing soil and unwashed roots (the rhizosphere) to stream water. There was a difference between the predominating species from the rhizosphere compared to stream water. The most numerous species was the informally described "P. taxon Oaksoil", which was mainly recovered from, and most predominant in, stream water. The most common species from riparian forest soils and alder root systems was P. gonapodyides.

  13. Season and light affect constitutive defenses of understory shrub species against folivorous insects (United States)

    Karolewski, Piotr; Giertych, Marian J.; Żmuda, Michał; Jagodziński, Andrzej M.; Oleksyn, Jacek


    Understory shrubs contribute to overall species diversity, providing habitat and forage for animals, influence soil chemistry and forest microclimate. However, very little is known about the chemical defense of various shrub species against folivorous insects. Using six shrub species, we tested how seasonal changes and light conditions affect their constitutive defense to insect damage. We monitored leaf perforation, concentrations of total phenols, condensed tannins, nitrogen (N), and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC). Leaf damage caused by insects was low in Sambucus nigra, Cornus sanguinea, and Frangula alnus, intermediate in Corylus avellana and Prunus serotina, and high in Prunus padus. Leaves of all the species, when growing in high light conditions, had high concentrations of defense metabolites. Except for C. avellana, leaves of the other shrub species growing in full sun were less injured than those in shade. This may be due to higher concentrations of defense metabolites and lower concentrations of nitrogen. Similar patterns of the effects of light on metabolites studied and N were observed for leaves with varying location within the crown of individual shrubs (from the top of the south direction to the bottom of the north), as for leaves from shrubs growing in full sun and shrubs in the shade of canopy trees. A probable cause of the greater damage of more sunlit leaves of C. avellana was the fact that they were herbivorized mostly by Altica brevicollis, a specialist insect that prefers plant tissues with a high TNC level and is not very sensitive to a high level of phenolic compounds.

  14. Colour Changes Evaluation of Freshly Cut Alder Veneers Under the Influence of Indoor Sunlight

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    Emilia Adela SALCA


    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental study concerning the colour changes occurred on the surfaces ofblack alder veneers (Alnus glutinosa, obtained from a freshly cut (not treated log, after their exposure tosunlight and darkness, for 1 and 3 months, under indoor conditions.A Chroma Meter Konika Minolta CR-410 device was used for colour measurement.The colorimetric coordinates were recorded before and after the exposure, according to ISO 7724-2.The results highlight a significant decrease of colour lightness, right after the first month of sunlight exposure.The a* and b* colour coordinates showed an increasing tendency with increasing exposure time, whichsignifies a colour darkening under sunlight radiation that penetrates the window glass. Colour differenceswere noticed right after the first month of sunlight exposure, while under darkness conditions, a relativecolour constancy was noticed, the colour changes being less pronounced, but yet perceptible by the humaneye.The study results complete the colorimetric database of veneers used in furniture industry, but theyalso contribute to the rehabilitation of black alder as a wood species with a real potential of use in furnitureindustry.

  15. Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary (United States)

    Náfrádi, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sümegi, Pál


    The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

  16. Characterisation of tree root penetration in bedrock and its impact on slope stability (United States)

    Zhun, Mao; Selli, Lavinia; Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico


    The anchorage effect of tree root penetration in bedrock against shallow landslides has uniquely been discussed in conceptual models, but seldom been measured and characterised in fieldsite. Using both the ARBORADIX™ and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) techniques, we aims at (i) mapping the spatial distribution of tree roots penetrating in bedrock in situ, (ii) estimating their contributions to slope stabilization and (iii) comparing the two detection methods. The experimental site is located on Pomezzana (Lu), Tuscany Apennine, Italy, where a great shallow landslide occurred in 1996 following periods of intense precipitation events. On aslope of45°, the studied forest has a density of 1800 trees/ha, mainly composed of black alder Alnus glutinosa L. (95%). Root mapping was conducted in two plots close to each other: one within an intact zone with no landslide damage; the other within a restored zone since the landslide. In each plot, two repetitions were conducted in dense tree clusters and in gaps, respectively. Preliminary results showed that the density and spatial distribution of roots penetrating into bedrock were significantly associated to the site chronology (intact vs restored), stand density and tree positions. Thicker roots had much higher probability of penetrating into rocks. Each of detection methods showed it advantages and drawbacks. This study, highlighting the importance of the mechanical role of thick roots in slope stabilization, may significantly improve our understanding in the use of vegetation in ecological engineering.

  17. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni


    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  18. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska (United States)

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, Jody L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.


    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  19. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.


    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  20. Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study. (United States)

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, Richard G; Hui, Cang; Gessner, Mark O; Pérez, Javier; Alexandrou, Markos A; Graça, Manuel A S; Cardinale, Bradley J; Albariño, Ricardo J; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Barmuta, Leon A; Boulton, Andrew J; Bruder, Andreas; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Death, Russell G; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C; Ferreira, Verónica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie; Iwata, Tomoya; Jinggut, Tajang; Mathooko, Jude; Mathuriau, Catherine; M'Erimba, Charles; Moretti, Marcelo S; Pringle, Catherine M; Ramírez, Alonso; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Rincon, José; Yule, Catherine M


    Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and other environmental factors on breakdown rates. We conducted an experiment in 24 streams encompassing latitudes from 47.8° N to 42.8° S, using litter mixtures of local species differing in quality and phylogenetic diversity (PD), and alder (Alnus glutinosa) to control for variation in litter traits. Our models revealed that breakdown of alder was driven by climate, with some influence of pH, whereas variation in breakdown of litter mixtures was explained mainly by litter quality and PD. Effects of litter quality and PD and stream pH were more positive at higher temperatures, indicating that different mechanisms may operate at different latitudes. These results reflect global variability caused by multiple factors, but unexplained variance points to the need for expanded global-scale comparisons.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia-Adela SALCA


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a case study applied to the milling process of solid wood specimens made of black alder wood (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn. with a view to find the optimal cutting schedule when two main criteria, such as the minimum power consumption and the best surface quality are fulfilled.The experimental work was performed with black alder wood originating from mature trees from the Buzau Valley region in Romania. All samples were processed on their longitudinal edges by straight milling with a milling cutter having glued straight plates on the vertical milling machine under different cutting schedules. An electronic device connected to the machine engine and an acquisition board were used to record and compute the power consumption during milling. Roughness measurements of the samples were performed by employing an optical profilometer. All data were processed using the regression method and variance analysis. The study revealed that best results are to be obtained in terms of cutting power and surface quality when processing with low feed speeds and light cutting depths.

  2. 滇东南岩溶山地3种人工林群落林下植物群落学特征比较%Ecological Characteristics of Understory Plants of Three Artificial Forests in Karst Mountain Area of Southeast Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李品荣; 曾觉民; 毕波; 陈强; 常恩福; 尹艾萍


    通过样地法比较了川滇桤木(Alnus ferdinandi-coburgii)、墨西哥柏(Cupressus lusitanica)、银荆(Acacia de albata)3个人工林群落林下植物和次生灌丛的群落学特征.结果发现,3个群落都以高位芽植物为主,其次为地面芽植物;在高位芽植物中又都以小高位芽植物比例较高;其叶型谱以中型叶为主.生活型谱和叶型谱都与滇中亚热带常绿阔叶林的群落相似.从3种人工林的群落学特征看,以川滇桤木林的水热条件最好;川滇桤木林的物种多样性最高,说明川滇桤木林林下植物种类成分复杂,生境优越,群落破坏后恢复能力最强,最有利于向顶极演替发展.

  3. Bacterial-induced calcium oscillations are common to nitrogen-fixing associations of nodulating legumes and nonlegumes. (United States)

    Granqvist, Emma; Sun, Jongho; Op den Camp, Rik; Pujic, Petar; Hill, Lionel; Normand, Philippe; Morris, Richard J; Downie, J Allan; Geurts, Rene; Oldroyd, Giles E D


    Plants that form root-nodule symbioses are within a monophyletic 'nitrogen-fixing' clade and associated signalling processes are shared with the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Central to symbiotic signalling are nuclear-associated oscillations in calcium ions (Ca(2+) ), occurring in the root hairs of several legume species in response to the rhizobial Nod factor signal. In this study we expanded the species analysed for activation of Ca(2+) oscillations, including nonleguminous species within the nitrogen-fixing clade. We showed that Ca(2+) oscillations are a common feature of legumes in their association with rhizobia, while Cercis, a non-nodulating legume, does not show Ca(2+) oscillations in response to Nod factors from Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234. Parasponia andersonii, a nonlegume that can associate with rhizobia, showed Nod factor-induced calcium oscillations to S. fredii NGR234 Nod factors, but its non-nodulating sister species, Trema tomentosa, did not. Also within the nitrogen-fixing clade are actinorhizal species that associate with Frankia bacteria and we showed that Alnus glutinosa induces Ca(2+) oscillations in root hairs in response to exudates from Frankia alni, but not to S. fredii NGR234 Nod factors. We conclude that the ability to mount Ca(2+) oscillations in response to symbiotic bacteria is a common feature of nodulating species within the nitrogen-fixing clade.

  4. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del


    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  5. The advancing timberline on Mt. Fuji: natural recovery or climate change? (United States)

    Sakio, Hitoshi; Masuzawa, Takehiro


    The alpine timberline on Mt. Fuji (central Japan) is at 2,400-2,500 m above sea level. Over a 21-year period (1978-1999), we tracked changes in this vegetation boundary on a transect at a site impacted by the 1707 volcanic eruption. The timberline advanced rapidly upwards during this time period. Dominant tree species at the timberline (Alnus maximowiczii, Salix reinii, and Larix kaempferi) colonized sites that were initially largely free of vegetation at higher altitudes. Seedlings of L. kaempferi were particularly abundant at the border of advancing vegetation. According to tree age, we found that this was the first canopy species in the colonized areas. L. kaempferi is drought resistant, and this probably contributes to its establishment capability in the high-altitude climate. Most seedlings of Abies veitchii invaded patches of herbs and shrubs. These vegetation patches in the upper kampfzone provide important shelter for seedlings of invading tree species. We predict that the upward advance of the alpine timberline is a recovery process following the volcanic eruption, and that climate change may accelerate this advance.

  6. Transport of Greenhouse Gases in Trees (United States)

    Kutschera, E.; Khalil, A. K.; Shearer, M.; Rosenstiel, T.


    Emissions of greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured in cultivated and natural regions, quantifying overall emissions for croplands, wetlands, and forests. However, segregation between soil and plant emissions is less clear, and the dynamics behind each respective emission type differs. Better defined plant transport mechanisms will yield more accurate determination of greenhouse gas flux, contributing to a comprehensive theory quantifying greenhouse gas emissions globally. While the mechanisms of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice have not been fully identified, for trees these mechanisms are virtually unknown. CH4 and N2O emissions from several species of tree (Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa, Thuja plicata, Fraxinus latifolia) native to the Pacific Northwest have been measured. To identify mechanisms of gas transport, correlation of emissions and stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis has been tested. A synthesis between plant physiological data and emissions is sought to elucidate the role plant physiology plays in the production and transport of CH4 and N2O. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER64515.

  7. Biological Durability of Oil Heat Treated Alder Wood

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    Robert Lacić


    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary results of the biological durability of oil heat treated (OHT alder wood (Alnus glutinosa against pure cultures of rot fungi (Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor in lab conditions. The modification was performed by heating of specimens immersed in soya oil. There were four heating regimes of different duration (6 and 10 hours at final temperature of 180 and 200 ºC. The increase in mass (MI caused by modification and mass loss of wood caused by fungal decay (ML were determined. In addition, the natural durability of alder wood was determined and compared to the natural durability of beech wood as the reference wood species. After modification of alder wood at 200 °C, MI was lower than after treatment at 180 °C. MI was also lower after 10 hours of treatment than after 6 hours of treatment. The results showed significantly increased biological durability of modified alder wood against both tested fungi. The effect of OHT on increasing the biological durability of alder wood was higher against the fungus P. placenta. It seems that the fungus T. versicolor favours the remained oil after modification causing higher mass loss. The results showed that alder wood, thermally modified in soya oil by testing regimens, is not suitable for applications in use classes 3-5.

  8. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.


    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  9. Effects of herbaceous vegetation on the survival and growth of hardwood tree seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, E.W.


    First year survival and growth of several hardwood tree species planted with herbaceous vegetation on recently mined areas where soil, lime, and fertilizers were used at five locations throughout the bituminous coal region of Pennsylvania is discussed. In one study begun in 1978, five tree species (Robinia pseudacaia, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera, Populus robusta, and Juglans nigra) were planted in vegetated and non-vegetated plots. Survival was good for all species except Populus robusta, which failed due to poor quality stock. Height growth of Robinia pseudoacacia was good, all other species were poor. In another study in 1978, herbaceous competition was evaluated using three grass-legume mixtures (Lotus corniculatus L. with either Festuca arundinacea L., Eragrostis curvula L.), seeded at two rates, and using two herbicides on an area with a previously established cover. No significant differences occurred between herbaceous covers in survival and first year height growth of the two species (Robinia pseudoacacia and Quercus rubra) used. In a third study begun in 1979, eight tree species (the five already mentioned plus Alnus gluthosa, Acer saccharum, and Fraxinus americana) were planted in non-seeded plots and in plots seeded with two different mixtures (Festuca arundinacea L. with either Lotus corniculatus or Cornilla varia L.). Early survival was good for all species.

  10. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan


    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  11. Diminished exoproteome of Frankia spp. in culture and symbiosis. (United States)

    Mastronunzio, J E; Huang, Y; Benson, D R


    Frankia species are the most geographically widespread gram-positive plant symbionts, carrying out N(2) fixation in root nodules of trees and woody shrubs called actinorhizal plants. Taking advantage of the sequencing of three Frankia genomes, proteomics techniques were used to investigate the population of extracellular proteins (the exoproteome) from Frankia, some of which potentially mediate host-microbe interactions. Initial two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of culture supernatants indicated that cytoplasmic proteins appeared in supernatants as cells aged, likely because older hyphae lyse in this slow-growing filamentous actinomycete. Using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to identify peptides, 38 proteins were identified in the culture supernatant of Frankia sp. strain CcI3, but only three had predicted export signal peptides. In symbiotic cells, 42 signal peptide-containing proteins were detected from strain CcI3 in Casuarina cunninghamiana and Casuarina glauca root nodules, while 73 and 53 putative secreted proteins containing signal peptides were identified from Frankia strains in field-collected root nodules of Alnus incana and Elaeagnus angustifolia, respectively. Solute-binding proteins were the most commonly identified secreted proteins in symbiosis, particularly those predicted to bind branched-chain amino acids and peptides. These direct proteomics results complement a previous bioinformatics study that predicted few secreted hydrolytic enzymes in the Frankia proteome and provide direct evidence that the symbiosis succeeds partly, if not largely, because of a benign relationship.

  12. Quantitative evaluation by attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the chemical composition of decayed wood preserved in waterlogged conditions. (United States)

    Pizzo, Benedetto; Pecoraro, Elisa; Alves, Ana; Macchioni, Nicola; Rodrigues, José Carlos


    This paper reports on the assessment of lignin and holocellulose by means of ATR-FTIR analysis and multivariate PLS regression. The analysis was conducted on 59 samples coming from different excavations where wood had been preserved in waterlogged conditions. A range of results from different wood species (Alnus sp.p., Cupressus sempervirens, Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus sp.p., Quercus sp.p., Ulmus sp.p.), states of preservation, waterlogged environments, and burial times are presented. A calibration model was selected after comparing different reference data (samples extracted and not-extracted, and ash-rich and ash-free bases of calculation for the calibration values), and two different post-acquisition spectroscopic manipulations (both in terms of normalisation procedures and of spectral ranges used for the calibration). Results showed that the best models were different depending on which considered component (lignin or holocellulose) was measured and to which data set (softwood or hardwood) the samples belonged. It is shown that the predictive ability of the models is affected by high ash content (too contaminated samples had to be excluded in order to attain good results, because of excessive overlapping of bands related to the inorganic fraction) but not by the preliminary extraction of sample. Furthermore, the stability of best models is also demonstrated and a procedure of external validation carried out on an external set of samples confirmed the general validity of the identified models.

  13. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) (United States)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina


    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  14. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean


    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  15. Mixed, short rotation culture of red alder and black cottonwood: growth, coppicing, nitrogen fixation, and allelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman, P.; Stettler, R.F.


    Alnus rubra seedlings were grown in a 1:1 mixture at a spacing of 1.2 x 1.2 m with 28 Populus clones (25 clones pf P. trichocarpa, 2 of P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa, and one P. deltoides x P. nigra) in a study established in W. Washington in March 1979. Trees were harvested at 4 yr old. At harvest, average heights were: pure Populus, 10.2 m; Populus in the mixed stand 11.0 m; and alder 8.4 m. Most Populus sprouted satisfactorily after harvest (6.6 shoots/plant when pure, 7.6 shoots/plant in the mixture), but alder sprouted poorly (3.6 shoots/plant). Above-ground biomass at harvest was 15.9 t/ha p.a. for the mixture and 16.7 t/ha p.a. for pure Populus, although the mixture had been more productive at 2 yr. Nitrogenase activity (nitrogen fixation as measured by acetylene reduction) of alder declines in the 4th season; competition was the most important factor influencing this decline. Soil N content had no effect on fixation. A pot study showed that ground Populus leaf and litter material inhibited the growth of red alder seedlings, although soil collected from Populus plots had no effect. Results indicated that allelopathy is probably a minor factor under field conditions, at most, and that growing mixed stands may, on balance, be beneficial. 20 references.

  16. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord


    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Sarıyıldız


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of tree species, crown type, seasons and distance from the stem on soil pH. The soil samples (depth of 0-15 and >15 cm were collected from under pine (Pinus sylvestris L., spruce (Picea orientalis L. and alder (Alnus glutinosa L. trees in November 2002, March and June 2003 at distance of 30, 90, 180 and 270 cm from the stem. Highest pH was found under alder trees, whereas lowest pH was found under pine trees. There was a decrease in soil pH from Autumn to Summer for all species. In Autumn and Spring, pine and spruce showed an increase in soil pH from the stem to the distance of 180 cm. After that they showed a decrease, whereas in Summer, they didn’t show any changes with the distances. Alder, however, didn’t show any significant changes between the distances in any season. It was found that the differences in soil pH between species, seasons and the distances from the stem were significantly affected by the changes in pH of organic layer. In conclusion, the results in the present study indicate that tree species, seasons and the distance from the stem are all important factors influencing soil pH, and should be considered together in future studies.

  18. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.


    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  19. Characteristic of Soil Hydro-Physical Properties and Water Dynamics under Different Vegetation Restoration Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zelong; GONG Yuanbo; HU Tingxing


    By combining the observation of the soil profile at field and the chemical and physical analysis in laboratory, a study on the hydro-physical properties of soil in six different vegetation types and the dynamics of water content after rain was conducted in Wanchanggou, Guangyuan City to find out the vegetation types with effective water-conservation functions in order to serve the ecological restoration in the low hill heavy rain area upper the Jialing River. Results showed that:the hydro-physical properties of soil in the mixed Alnus cremastogyne and Cupressua Leyland forest (AcCl) were best. But in the depth of 0-20 cm. The properties of soil in the abandoned cropland (Fm) was better than that in the AcCl. The soil bulk densities varied significantly between the layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in all the six vegetation types except that in the Robinia pseudoacacia shrub forest (RpⅡ), and the changes of the maximum and the capillary moisture capacity between layers were significant only in the Fm and in the AcCl. Of these stands, the AcCl had the shortest water-absorbing period and the strongest moisture changes in the upper layer (0-15 cm). In the same stand, the deeper the soil layer, the slighter the soil moisture varied, and the longer the soil moisture accumulating process lasted.

  20. Naturalistic Engineering for risk prevention in two slopes in southern Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Argüello


    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/11/01 - Accepted: 2013/12/12Naturalistic engineering is a technical-scientific modern science cobining civil, environmental and geotechnical engineerings. It studies and uses building materials, plants, organic and synthetic materials for holding slopes. San Luis de Chillogallo and El Recreo are located in the South of Quito, where two projects for erosion control, containment and environmental recovery, have been implemented. These are pilot interventions that allow applying strategies and capabilities of estimation and reduction of risks from disasters. To implement the works, the ground was shifted, the organic and inorganic matter was wiped out, and unstable parts of the slope were removed, reshaping the slope through land exclusion and relocation. Subsequently, depending on the shape of each slope, specific techniques where designed and implemented. Double Wall Crib and Latin Triangular Branching techniques were used in San Luis de Chillogallo. Live Grating and Latino Triangular Branching techniques were used in El Recreo. Plants such as: Alder, Alnus glutinosa; paper tree, Polylepis sp.; chilca, Baccharis latifolia; lechero Euphorbia lactiflua and Tilo, Tilia platyphyllos; have been used in these projects. These plants are fast growing species and they have adapted successfully on the two slopes intervened.

  1. The skin prick test – European standards

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    Heinzerling Lucie


    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  2. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains. (United States)

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude


    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains.

  3. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne,Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Goksel OLGUN; Mehmet AYBEKE; Perihan ERKAN; Hulusi MALYER


    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp.,Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp.,Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp.,Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of pollen from non-arboreal plants in the last months of the year.

  4. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdemBICAKCI; GokselOLGUN; MehmetAYBEKE; PerihanERKAN; HulusiMALYER


    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp., Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of oollen from non-arboreal olants in the last months of the vear.

  5. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report. [Sycamore, sweet gum, alder, and locust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.


    Two biomass plantations, one in the Coastal Plain, the other in the Piedmont province of Georgia, have been established. Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Flnus glutinosa and Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in pure and mixed plots. Differences in the growth at the end of the first growing season were attributed mostly to weed competition in the Coastal Plain. Robinia grew remarkably well in the Piedmont, averaging more than 2.2 m tall in irrigated plots. A fungus tentatively identified as belonging to the genus Botryosphaeria is causing heavy Alnus mortality in the Coastal Plain. Progress in the genetic improvement phase of the project included a collection of Platanus seedlots from throughout Georgia to identify promising provenances and the production of Liquidambar and Robinia plantlets in tissue culture. Differences in the calorific content of young sprout material from nine hardwood species (unit oven dry weight basis) were found to be small. Other studies dealt with the effects of different harvesting cycles on the size and carbohydrate contents of sycamore rootstocks.

  6. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.


    The objective of the project is to increase biomass yields from coppice forests by admixing tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Robinia pseudoacacia and others) to plantations of Platanus occidentalis and Liquidambar styraciflua. Yield increases due to intensive cultivation, especially fertilization and irrigation, will be documented. A genetic improvement program of promising candidate species both through the identification of superior genotypes and mass cloning with tissue culture is also included. Three plantings have been established successfully to screen candidate species on various sites and to test the effects of weed control, fertilization and irrigation on short rotation forests. Two plantations in Georgia are in their 2nd and 3rd growing seasons while one in South Carolina is in its 1st growing season. A two acre plantation has been established to test development of geographic seed source material for sycamore. A nursery is in operation to develop seedling production methods for new species and to grow and maintain genetic material. Mass cloning of selected material by tissue culture techniques has produced material for testing in outplantings.

  7. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain) (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.


    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  8. Planting woody crops on dredged contaminated sediment provides both positive and negative effects in terms of remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Riby, Philip [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury (New Zealand); Shutes, Brian [Urban Pollution Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Middlesex University, Hendon, London NW4 4BT (United Kingdom); Sparke, Shaun [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Scholz, Miklas [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom)


    There is currently a requirement for studies focusing on the long-term sustainability of phytoremediation technologies. Trace element uptake by Salix, Populus and Alnus species planted in dredged contaminated canal sediment and concentrations in sediment and pore waters were investigated, eight years after a phytoremediation trial was initiated in NW England. Soil biological activity was also measured using invertebrate and microbial assays to determine soil quality improvements. Zinc was the dominant trace metal in foliage and woody stems, and the most mobile trace element in sediment pore water ({approx}14 mg l{sup -1}). Biological activity had improved; earthworm numbers had increased from 5 to 24, and the QBS index (an index of microarthropod groups in soil) had increased from 70 to 88. It is concluded that biological conditions had improved and natural processes appear to be enhancing soil quality, but there remains a potential risk of trace element transfer to the wider environment. - Highlights: > Trees provide positive and negative effects for remediation of dredged sediment. > Biological conditions had improved and natural processes enhance soil quality. > Zinc was the dominant trace metal in foliage and sediment pore waters. > Metal contaminants remain a problem in relation to their wider environmental fate. > A sustainable environment appears to be forming as a result of natural attenuation. - Soil biological quality improves in a woody crop stand eight years after a phytoremediation trial.

  9. [Carbon storage and its allocation in mixed alder-cypress plantations at different age stages]. (United States)

    Wu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Bo; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Guo


    The 10-, 15-, 20- and 25-year-old mixed alder (Alnus cremastogyne)-cypress (Cupressus funebris) plantations and the 30-year-old pure cypress plantation succeeded from mixed alder-cypress plantation in the hilly area of central Sichuan Basin were chosen as test objects to study the dynamic changes and allocation patterns of their carbon storage. The results showed that the vegetation carbon storage in mixed alder-cypress plantations increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, and reached 52.40 t x hm(-2) at the age stage of 30-year. The vegetation carbon storage of arbor layer at each age stage was more than 85.59% of the total, and the soil carbon storage within 0-40 cm layer increased significantly (P 0.05). The carbon storage of the mixed alder-cypress plantations increased significantly from the age stage of 10- to 15-year, with the maximum (118.13 t x hm(-2)) at the age stage of 15-year, but declined from the age stage of 15- to 25-year while increased slightly from the age stage of 25- to 30-year. The proportion of vegetation carbon storage increased continually from the age stage of 10- to 30-year, whereas that of soil carbon storage was in adverse. Comparing with other types of plantations in China, mixed alder-cypress plantation had a lower storage of carbon.

  10. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola) (United States)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan


    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  11. Evaluation of cambial electrical resistance for the appraisal of tree vitality on reclaimed coal lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Plamping; Martin Haigh; Michael J. Cullis; Rhian E. Jenkins [Earthwatch Europe, Oxford (United Kingdom)


    Cambium electrical resistance (CER) is explored as a rapid-assessment method of measuring of forest vitality and disease damage. A five year study in a 10-year-old mixed plantation of Alder (Alnus glutinosa, L.) and Oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.) created for the reclamation of surface-coal mined land in South Wales found a negative correlation between CER and tree maturity and no correlation between CER and fertiliser treatment levels. However, it detected strong significant correlations between CER and both a tree vitality index and diameter breast height (DBH) after five years. In fact, CER shows very strong and significant negative correlations with DBH recorded in 2007 and 2002, while tree vitality correlates more strongly with DBH than CER. Partial correlation of the data finds that when these data are controlled for the effect of DBH-the correlation between CER and vitality is no longer significant, while partial correlations between vitality and DBH in both 2002 and 2007-controlled for CER-remain highly significant. The conclusion is that while CER may act as a useful measure and predictor of tree vitality-DBH is better.

  12. Research on symbiotic relationship between different legume forages and economic young trees in Karst region%石漠化地区不同豆科牧草品种与经济幼林共生性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段新慧; 周自玮


    对不同牧草品种与石漠化典型地区主要造林树种的共生关系进行了研究.结果表明,豆科紫花苜蓿Medicago sativa与墨西哥柏Cupressus lusianica、苦刺Acacia mearnsii,红三叶Trifolium pratense与川滇桤木Alnus ferdinandi-coburgii在前3年共生性良好,紫花苜蓿不适于重度放牧,只能刈割饲喂.大百脉根Lotus uliginosus与花椒Zanthoxylum bungeanum在第1年可以共生,以后双方形成竞争,牧草的生长影响了花椒树的生长,共生性差.任豆Zenia insignis、黑荆Acacia mearnsii、海法白三叶T.pratense cv.haifa生性良好,是石漠化典型地区林草配置的优化组合.林草结合最大的优点是在经济林木成材前就可在植树地间获取经济效益,植树地的产出至少提前了3年.

  13. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Asgari F, Reif A, Abedi R. 2012. Effect of plantations on plant species diversity in the Darabkola, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 72-78. In this study, the effect of plantations on plant species diversity was investigated in Darabkola, Mazandaran province, north of Iran. To conduct the study, a natural mixed forest, a broad–leaved plantation (Alnus subcordata-Acer velutinum and a coniferous plantation (Cupressus sempervirens var. horizontalis-Pinus brutia were selected. 35 sampling plots were taken in systematic random method in each area. Data analysis was carried out using Simpson, Hill's N2, Shannon-Wiener and Mc Arthur's N1 diversity indices, Smith and Wilson evenness index and species richness. Results revealed that there were 32 plant species in natural forest and 30 plant species were found in each plantation. Rosaceae and Lamiaceae were the main families in the studied areas. Diversity and evenness indices of all vegetation layers had the most values in the natural forest. Richness of woody plants had the highest value in the natural forest, while herbaceous richness was the highest in coniferous plantation. Mc Arthur's N1 had the highest value among diversity indices and followed by Hill's N2, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson indices, respectively. In addition, results showed that there were significant differences among diversity, evenness and richness indices in all vegetation layers in the three studied areas.

  14. Relationship between the composition and tannin content in winter food for roe deer at Zhanhe forest farm of Lesser Xingan Mountains%小兴安岭沾河林区狍冬季食物组分及其与单宁含量关系的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何欢; 张玮琪; 刘蕊; 张明海


    We collected 227 fecal samples of roe deer ( Capreolus pygargus ) and 28 plant species in January and February of 2010 and 2011, in Zhanhe forestry farm, Lesser Xingan Mountains of China. Then we analyzed the compositions of winter food for roe deer population using direct field observation ( DFO) and microscopic analysis of feces ( MAF) . Results showed that:1 ) The diversity ( 2. 458 ) and the evenness indices ( 0. 784 ) of food composition by DFO in 2010 were higher than those by MAF with diversity (1. 737) and the evenness index (0. 579). The diversity (2. 230) by MAF in 2011 was higher than that by DFO ( 1. 414 ); however, the evenness index ( 0. 645 ) by MAF was lower than that by DFO (0. 698). The results of food composition from the DFO and MAF revealed that Betulaceae and Salicaceae are the major food sources for ore deer population which accounted for 76%-89% of all. 2 ) We compared the results of food composition from the two methods by regressional analysis, and found that with MAF the compositions of Betulaceae and Ulmaceae in both 2010 and 2011 , Malvaceae and Rosaceae in 2010 were overestimated;however, Salicaceae, Poaceae, Polygonaceae in both two years as well as Rosaceae in 2010 and Malvaceae in 2011 were underestimated. There were significant differences in results between by DFO and MAF; however, DFO and MAF cannot be replaced by each other. 3 ) There was no significant correlation between tannins and the composition of food for roe deer. This might be because feeding behavior of roe deer is not affected by tannins in plants or this study only measured the content of total tannins but not deciding ellagitannins.%2010年1—2月和2011年1—2月,在黑龙江大沾河国家级自然保护区收集了227份狍的粪便样本和28种植物样本。采用野外观察和粪便显微分析2种方法对狍的食性进行研究。结果表明:1)2010年通过野外观察得到的食物组分的多样性(2.458)和均匀度(0.784)均高于粪

  15. Effect of Dominant Plant Species and Ecological Environment on Truffle Distribution in Yanbian County, Sichuan Province, China%四川盐边县块菌产区优势植物及生态环境对块菌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小林; 柳成益; 唐平; 杨梅; 贾定洪; 郑林用


    Multivariate regression tree (MRT)methodology was used to systematically analyze the effect of dominant plant species and environmental factors on the occurrence of truffles in the Yanbian region of Sichuan Province.A total of 58 seed plant species belonging to 47 genera from 29 families,and four kinds of fern belonging to four genera from four families were identified.The dominant tree species were Pinus yunnanensis,Keteleeria evelyniana,Cyclobalanopsis glauca and Pistacia weinmannifolia,while Coriaria nepalensis,Rhododendron simsii and Rapanea neriifolia were the dominant shrub species. Ageratina adenophora,Eupatorium odoratum and Bidens pilosa were the dominant herbaceous species.The main truffle hosts in the region were P.yunnanensis,K.evelyniana,C.glauca and P.weinmannifolia.MRT revealed that Pteris cretica var.nervosa,A.adenophora,P.yunnanensis,B.pilosa,Juglans regia and P. weinmannifolia were the main plant species affecting the occurrence of tuffles,with P.cretica var. nervosa,A.adenophora and B.pilosa exercising a negative impact and P.yunnanensis,K.evelyniana and P.weinmannifolia a positive effect.Our data also indicated that canopy density,slope,elevation,average tree height and diameter,and average shrub height were the main factors impacting on truffle occurrence. Within our investigation range, truffle occurrence increased with increasing canopy density, elevation, average shrub height and average tree diameter,and decreased with decreasing slope and tree height.%抽样调查了四川省盐边县块菌产区的植物群落优势物种、块菌生态环境情况,用多元回归树方法系统分析了优势物种和生态环境因子对块菌发生的影响。结果表明,盐边县块菌产区的优势物种共有种子植物58种,隶属29科47属,蕨类植物4科4属,该区域植物群落结构不是十分复杂,但呈现出一定多样性,主要优势乔木为云南松(Pinus yunnanensis)、云南油杉(Keteleeria evelyniana

  16. Registro polínico arbóreo en la atmósfera de la ciudad de San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina- agosto a noviembre 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena García


    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar la caracterización aerobiológica de la ciudad de San Miguel de Tucumán (26º 50'S, 65º 15'W durante el período de primavera agosto - noviembre 2006. El muestreo se realizó con un captador volumétrico tipo Hirst (modelo Burkard. Se identificaron 30 tipos polínicos que aportaron un total de 3290 granos durante ese período. El 75,41% del polen captado correspondió a polen proveniente de especies arbustivas y arbóreas (PA mayoritariamente exóticas cultivadas en la ciudad y al de especies nativas las cuales se hallan en las laderas orientales de las sierras de San Javier. La máxima concentración se registró en el mes de septiembre con 1178 granos y estuvo dada principalmente por el aporte de 19 tipos polínicos arbóreos siendo Broussonetia (65, 79% el más abundante. En menores proporciones se registraron Morus (9, 24%, Alnus (7, 51%, Celtis (6, 50%, Fraxinus (2, 29%, Platanus (1, 90% y Juglans (0, 73%. El análisis intradiurno muestra un marcado incremento en horas nocturnas que se inicia a partir de la hora 20:00, se acentúa a las horas 22:00 y 2:00 hasta alcanzar el máximo a las 8:00, siendo el valor mínimo a la hora 14. En este período el aporte polínico principal corresponde a taxa arbóreos y arbustivos los cuales presentan altos niveles de concentración en un corto período de tiempo.Arboreal pollen record in the atmosphere of San Miguel de Tucumán city, Argentina- august to november 2006. The aim of this study was to make the aerobiological characterization of San Miguel de Tucumán city (26º 50'S, 65º 15'W during the spring period august to november 2006. The sampling was performed with a Hirst type volumetric collector (Burkard model. Thirty pollen types were identified, providing a total of 3290 grains in the period. The 75,41% of pollen caught corresponded to pollen from shrub and tree species (PA, mainly exotic ones cultivated in the city and the native species growing on

  17. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

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    Marisol Medina Sierra


    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N (40 kg ha-1, fósforo (P (30 mg kg-1 suelo y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Multibiplot. Las variables respuesta correspondieron a la biomasa seca aérea y sus contenidos de N, P, Calcio (Ca y cenizas (cen. Se encontró que los tratamientos de P y N y las cepas nativas de Frankia spp. (UdeA902, UdeA904 y CUNMS502 combinados con hongos micorrizógenos (UdeA1905 y Glomus fistulosum respectivamente, favorecieron el rendimiento y contenido de N del aliso. La aplicación de B en algunos casos mejoró el rendimiento y en otros lo afectó negativamente; pero potenció la respuesta de algunas inoculaciones especialmente cuando estuvo presente G. fistulosum aún en el caso de estar acompañado de la cepa de Frankia (CUNMS502. Esta cepa, que presentó bajo rendimiento en otros tratamientos, se vio favorecida notablemente con la adición de B. La inoculación dual es efectiva para favorecer el manejo forestal del aliso siempre y cuando se haga la selección adecuada de las cepas, lo cual puede además condicionar la respuesta a algunos nutrientes como en el caso del B.Abstract. It was evaluated the response of alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth to the dual inoculation of strains of Frankia spp. and endomycorrhizal fungi with two levels of boron (B (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg-1 soil and the application of nitrogen (N (40 kg ha-1, phosphorus (P (30 mg kg-1 soil and a control without inoculation or chemical elements. The experimental design was completely randomized; it was composed kg-1of 41 treatments and 20 replications. The statistical analysis consisted

  18. Caracterización Física, Química y Mineralógica de Suelos con Vocación Forestal Protectora Región Andina Central Colombiana / Physical Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Soils with a Protective Forest Vocation, Central Andean Region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyder Echeverri Tafur


    Full Text Available Resumen. En la Reserva Forestal Protectora Bosques de la CHEC, ubicada sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera central colombiana, municipios de Manizales y Villamaría, departamento de Caldas, se hizo la caracterización física, química y mineralógica de dos perfiles de suelos, descritos sobre dos laderas, con un manejo actual correspondiente a una plantación de aliso (Alnus acuminata y un bosque secundario. Los resultados permitieron establecer,desde el punto de vista físico, el dominio de clase textural areno francosa en la plantación de aliso y franco arenoso en el bosque secundario. Químicamente el suelo del perfil plantado con aliso, presentó valores de pH más bajos, mayor saturación de acidez intercambiable y menor saturación de bases en comparación con el perfil del bosque secundario. En ambos perfiles, el análisis óptico con microscopio petrográfico, permitió observar que los feldespatos, del grupo de las plagioclasas y el vidrio volcánico, se destacan como minerales abundantes en la fracción arena; mientras que en la fracción arcilla, el material no cristalino, seconsidera mineral predominante, seguido de la cristobalita y los feldespatos, según la metodología de difracción de rayos X. Se concluye que la vocación de uso forestal protector, bajo el cual se encuentran sometidos ambos suelos, es el más adecuado, teniendo en cuenta que las limitaciones químicas, dificultan el establecimiento de sistemas de producción agropecuaria. / Abstract. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of two soil profiles on two slopes, with a management currently corresponding to an Andean alder plantation (Alnus acuminata and a secondary forest, was carried out at the Protective Forest Reserve of the CHEC. This reserve is located on the western slope of the Central Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes, in the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaria, Caldas Department. The results

  19. 中亚热带主要树种凋落叶在杉木人工林中分解及氮磷释放过程%Decomposition and nitrogen-and phosphorus release of leaf litters from main tree species in a mid-subtropical forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲米财; 王清奎; 高洪; 于小军


    By using the standard litter-bag method,an experiment was conducted to study the decomposition rate and the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) release processes of leaf litters derived from Pinus massoniana,Alnus cremastogyne,Schima superba,and Cycloblanopsis glauca in a 21-year Cunninghamia lanceolata forest.By the end of the experiment (13 months incubation),C.glauca litter had the highest decomposition rate,with 33.5% of mass loss,followed by A.cremastogyne and S.superba,and P.massoniana had the lowest decomposition rate,with 29.9% of mass loss.The time for 50% and 95% of the mass loss of the litters from the four tree species ranged from 21 to 26 months and from 94 to 112 months,respectively.During the decomposition,the N concentration in A.cremastogyne litter decreased,whereas that in the other tree species litters increased.The P concentration in the litters decreased rapidly at the first three months of decomposition,and then varied insignificantly.During litter decomposition,the ratio of carbon (C) to N decreased,while the ratio of C to P increased.C.glauca,A.cremastogyne,and S.superba litters had net N release,but P.massoniana litter had N sequestration.In terms of P,the litters from the four tree species had net release during decaying.Among the four tree species,A.cremastogyne was more appropriate to be mixed planted with C.lanceolata.%采用分解网袋法研究了马尾松(Pinus massoniana)、桤木(Alnus cremastogyne)、木荷(Schima superba)、青冈(Cycloblanopsis glauca)等树种凋落叶在21年生杉木人工林内的分解速率和养分释放过程.经过13个月的分解实验,4种供试凋落叶以青冈分解最快,质量失重率为33.5%,其次为桤木和木荷,马尾松分解最慢,其质量失重率仅为29.9%.4种凋落叶分解50%和95%所需要的时间分别为21~26个月和94 ~112个月.在凋落叶分解过程中,除桤木凋落叶中氮含量下降外,其他3种凋落叶的氮含量均增加,但凋落叶的C/N均

  20. Proposal of a type strain for Frankia alni (Woronin 1866) Von Tubeuf 1895, emended description of Frankia alni, and recognition of Frankia casuarinae sp. nov. and Frankia elaeagni sp. nov. (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Schumann, Peter; Rohde, Manfred; Goodfellow, Michael; Fernandez, Maria P; Normand, Philippe; Tisa, Louis S; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Gtari, Maher


    Before the establishment of pure cultures, the species Frankia alni, 'Frankia casuarinae' and 'Frankia elaeagni' were proposed to encompass all causal agents of the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of dicotyledonous plants from the genera Alnus, Casuarina or Elaeagnus. The sole Frankia species with a validly published name, the type species F. alni, was described by Woronin (1866) as present in the root of alder. Until now no type strain has been designated for F. alni, even though the absence of a type strain has seriously inhibited the application of modern taxonomic methods to the genus Frankia. Thus, we propose that strain ACN14aT, isolated in pure culture from Alnus viridis ssp. crispa with morphological properties matching the original description of F. alni, be recognized as the type strain of this species according to Rule 18f of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. We compared ACN14aT to two strains, CcI3T and BMG5.12T, isolated from Casuarina cunninghamiana and Elaeagnus angustifolia, respectively, based on chemotaxonomy, phenotype microarray data and molecular data retrieved from genome sequences. All three tested strains grew as branched hyphae, produced vesicles and multilocular sporangia containing non-motile spores and metabolized short fatty acids, TCA-cycle intermediates and carbohydrates. Chemotaxonomically, the three strains were indistinguishable with respect to phospholipids (phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol, glycophospholipids and phosphatidylglycerol) and cell-sugar composition (glucose, mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galactose and xylose, with the latter two being diagnostic for the genus). The major fatty acids identified in all three strains were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1ω8c, C15 : 0, C17 : 0 and C16 : 0. ACN14aT and BMG5.12T also shared C15 : 1ω6c, while C18 : 1ω9c was found to be unique to BMG5.12T. The major menaquinones identified in all three novel type strains were MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and

  1. Landscape structure and ecological function of protection forests in Guansi river watershed%官司河流域防护林景观结构及生态功能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊华; 龚固堂; 朱志芳; 慕长龙


    利用2005年度的IKONOS4卫片解译数据和2007年度小班调查资料,结合样地调查资料以及四川省林业科学研究院森林生态效益定位站(四川绵阳新桥)径流场的有关数据,对绵阳官司河流域的防护林体系景观结构及生态功能进行了分析.结果表明:该区域防护林景观中,以松柏混交林(Mixed Alnus-Cupressus forest)面积最大,占27.37%,其次是马尾松纯林(Pinusmassoniana forest),占25.41%.栎柏混交林(Mixed Quercus-Cupressus forest)最少,只占0.96%0纯林面积明显大于混交林,前者比后者大45.31%.栎柏混交林、松柏栎混交林(Mixed Pinus-Cupressus-Quercus forest)最大斑块指数(LPI)、边缘密度(ED)和斑块密度(PD)较小,分布较为破碎.而马尾松纯林、松柏混交林和柏木纯林(Cupressus forest)分布较为集中.桤柏混交林(Mixed Alnus-Cupressus forest)和松柏混交林的散布与并列指数(IJI)较大,其空间关系较为复杂.栎柏混交林、柏木纯林的聚集度(AI)较小,斑块分散度大,连接性较差;而桤柏混交林、松柏混交林的分散度较大,连接性较好.桤柏混交林、松柏混交林的形状指数(LSI)较小,形状分布较规则,而马尾松纯林、柏木纯林的形状指数较大,形状较复杂.从不同景观类型林下灌草层的生物多样性指数可知,松柏混交林、栎柏混交林的灌草多样性指数均较大,而马尾松纯林、柏木纯林则较小.从保持水土功能来看:桤柏混交林、松柏混交林的水土保持效果优于柏木纯林、马尾松纯林,桤柏混交林的水土保持效果优于松柏混交林.因此,对长江防护林进行空间结构调整,应多采用混交林模式,针阔混交林代替针针混交,乔灌草结合,调整合理的密度,使防护林景观的生态功能更好地发挥.

  2. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington (United States)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Fradkin, Steven C.


    Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake. Natural abundance ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) measured in plant tissue growing in nearshore areas of the lake indicate that the major source of nitrogen used by these primary producing plants is derived mainly from atmospherically fixed nitrogen in an undeveloped forested ecosystem. Exceptions to this pattern occurred in the Barnes Point area where elevated δ15N ratios indicate that effluent from septic systems also contribute nitrogen to filamentous-periphytic algae growing in the littoral zone of that area. Near the Lyre River outlet of Lake Crescent, the δ15N of filamentous-periphytic algae growing in close proximity to the spawning areas of a unique species of trout show little evidence of elevated δ15N indicating that nitrogen from on-site septic systems is not a substantial source of nitrogen for these plants. The δ15N data corroborate estimates that nitrogen input to Lake Crescent from septic sources is comparatively small relative to input from motor vehicle exhaust and vegetative sources in undeveloped forests, including litterfall, pollen, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees (Alnus rubra). Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources.

  3. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.


    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  4. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India. An overview. (United States)

    Singh, Anand B; Kumar, Pawan


    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30 % of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centres in the country. Predominant airborne pollen are Holoptelea, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Putanjiva, Cassia, Quercus, Cocos, Pinus, Cedrus, Ailanthus, Cheno/Amaranth, Cyperus, Argemone, Xanthium, Parthenium and others. Clinical and immunological evaluations have revealed allergenically important texa - some of them for the first time. Allergenically important pollen are Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Morus, Mallotus, Alnus, Querecus, Cedrus, Argemone, Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Holoptelea, Brassica, Cocos, Cannabis, Parthenium, Cassia and grasses. Further cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen from commonly growing weeds in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis - all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO(2) and SO(2)) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes their allergenic potency. Immunotherapy with recombinant proteins

  5. Quaternary forest and climate history of Hokkaido, Japan, from marine sediments (United States)

    Igarashi, Yaeko

    Pollen data from Quaternary marine sediments deposited in central Hokkaido, northern Japan provide insight into northeast Asian vegetation and climatic changes over the last few million years. During the Early Pleistocene, coniferous forest, dominated by Picea and Cryptomeria japonica, and taiga composed of Larix and Picea developed under cool/wet and cold/dry climates, respectively. Strong climatic contrasts are inferred from Late Pleistocene interglacial and glacial pollen assemblages which precede the last glacial cycle. In the former, cool temperate broad-leaf forest, mainly composed of Fagus, reflects a warmer and wetter climate than now. In the latter, taiga similar to that now found in northern Sakhalin apparently flourished in Hokkaido. The composition of pollen assemblages correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 5, changed from cool temperate forest of Quercus, Ulmus and Juglans (Substage 5e), to Picea-Larix taiga (Substage 5d), cool temperate forest of Quercus and Ulmus (Substage 5c) and Picea-Abies forest (Substage 5b). Compared with present conditions, climate during Stage 5 in northern Japan apparently fluctuated from warmer/wetter to colder/drier. Taiga composed of Picea, Pinus and Larix indicating colder/dry conditions during Stage 4, was replaced by Picea-Abies forest and Picea-Larix taiga in Stage 3, suggesting relatively cool and cold/dry environments. Taiga and mixed forest with taiga and cool temperate components characterize Stage 2. Holocene forests with Juglans-Betula and Quercus-Juglans were succeeded by Picea and Abies during the early Holocene warm interval ˜7000 BP. Subsequently, Quercus-Ulmus and Abies-Alnus assemblages reflect climatic deterioration. 'Pan-mixed' forest has been developed in Hokkaido since 2000 BP.

  6. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants in cold biomes (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Körner, Christian


    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem’s capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  7. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N₂-fixing plants in cold biomes. (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D; Reed, Sasha C; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Körner, Christian


    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem's capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  8. Can We Use Tree Rings of Black Alder to Reconstruct Lake Levels? A Case Study for the Mecklenburg Lake District, Northeastern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst van der Maaten

    Full Text Available In this study, we explore the potential to reconstruct lake-level (and groundwater fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies of black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. for three study lakes in the Mecklenburg Lake District, northeastern Germany. As gauging records for lakes in this region are generally short, long-term reconstructions of lake-level fluctuations could provide valuable information on past hydrological conditions, which, in turn, are useful to assess dynamics of climate and landscape evolution. We selected black alder as our study species as alder typically thrives as riparian vegetation along lakeshores. For the study lakes, we tested whether a regional signal in lake-level fluctuations and in the growth of alder exists that could be used for long-term regional hydrological reconstructions, but found that local (i.e. site-specific signals in lake level and tree-ring chronologies prevailed. Hence, we built lake/groundwater-level reconstruction models for the three study lakes individually. Two sets of models were considered based on (1 local tree-ring series of black alder, and (2 site-specific Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Indices (SPEI. Although the SPEI-based models performed statistically well, we critically reflect on the reliability of these reconstructions, as SPEI cannot account for human influence. Tree-ring based reconstruction models, on the other hand, performed poor. Combined, our results suggest that, for our study area, long-term regional reconstructions of lake-level fluctuations that consider both recent and ancient (e.g., archaeological wood of black alder seem extremely challenging, if not impossible.

  9. A Late Holocene environmental history of a bat guano deposit from Romania: an isotopic, pollen and microcharcoal study (United States)

    Forray, Ferenc L.; Onac, Bogdan P.; Tanţău, Ioan; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Tămaş, Tudor; Coroiu, Ioan; Giurgiu, Alexandra M.


    A 1.5-m-long core from a bat guano deposit in Zidită Cave (western Romania) has provided a 900-year record of environmental change. Shifts in δ13C values of bulk guano (between -22.6 and -27.5‰) combined with guano-sourced pollen and microcharcoal information show significant changes in the structure of vegetation and plant biomass. Cave guano δ13C values reflect the dietary preferences of bats which are controlled by local vegetation dynamics, which in turn depend on local climatic conditions. Neither δ13C values nor pollen association in guano changed strikingly over the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA) transition. Instead, an overall decreasing trend of δ13C values between ca. AD 1200 and 1870-1900 defines the duration of LIA. A shift toward cooler and wetter conditions at ca. AD 1500 noticed in the pollen record by an increase in Fagus sylvatica and Alnus and the decrease of Carpinus betulus, may indicate the first major change at the beginning of the LIA. Evidence for two major cold spells occurring around AD 1500 and ca. AD 1870 comes from both δ13C and pollen record. In between these events, the cave region experienced a warmer and drier climate but colder and wetter than the MWP, favouring the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia simultaneously with the decrease of F. sylvatica and Poaceae. Human impact in the studied area is mainly related to agriculture, grazing and deforestation. The effects are most pronounced after AD 1845 when the pollen of cereals increases and Zea is recorded (AD 1845). Higher percentages of microcharcoal particles in the guano sequence are generally correlated with agricultural activities like land cleaning via controlled fires.

  10. Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography. (United States)

    Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank


    Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and topography on forage growth are instructive, and consequently warrant

  11. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s. (United States)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E


    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental

  12. Modeling the flow resistance of woody vegetation using physically based properties of the foliage and stem (United States)

    Västilä, Kaisa; Järvelä, Juha


    Both the foliage and stem essentially influence the flow resistance of woody plants, but their different biomechanical properties complicate the parameterization of foliated vegetation for modeling. This paper investigates whether modeling of flow resistance caused by natural woody vegetation can be improved using explicit description of both the foliage and stem. For this purpose, we directly measured the drag forces of Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Salix viminalis, and Salix x rubens twigs in a laboratory flume at four foliation levels, parameterized with the leaf-area-to-stem-area ratio AL/AS. The species differed in the foliage drag but had approximately equal stem drag. For the foliated twigs, increasing AL/AS was found to increase the reconfiguration and the share of the foliage drag to the total drag. The experiments provided new insight into the factors governing the flow resistance of natural woody vegetation and allowed us to develop a model for estimating the vegetative friction factor using the linear superposition of the foliage and stem drag. The model is novel in that the foliage and stem are separately described with physically based parameters: drag coefficients, reconfiguration parameters, and leaf area and frontal-projected stem area per ground area. The model could satisfactorily predict the flow resistance of twig to sapling-sized specimens of the investigated species at velocities of 0.05-1 m/s. As a further benefit, the model allows exploring the variability in drag and reconfiguration associated with differing abundance of the foliage in relation to the stem.

  13. Environmental change controls postglacial forest dynamics through interspecific differences in life-history traits. (United States)

    Lacourse, Terri


    A key goal of functional ecology is identifying relationships between species traits and environmental conditions. Here, the nature and significance of these relationships to community composition on long ecological timescales is investigated using paleoecological and paleoenvironmental data from coastal British Columbia, Canada. RLQ and fourth-corner analyses, two three-table statistical techniques, are used to link traits of the region's dominant woody plants to environmental conditions over the last 15 000 calendar years (cal yr) through a fossil pollen record derived from lake sediments. Both RLQ and fourth-corner analyses revealed highly significant correlations between plant traits and temporal changes in environmental conditions. Axis 1 of the RLQ explained 92% of the total covariance between plant species traits and paleoenvironmental variables and was correlated most strongly with temperature and relative growth rate. In general, climate change during the cold period following deglaciation favored species such as Alnus sinuata and Pinus contorta that exhibit a "fast" life-history strategy (e.g., high relative growth rate, short life span, low shade tolerance), whereas the relative climatic stability of the last 8000 cal yr favored species such as Tsuga heterophylla that exhibit a "slow" life-history strategy (e.g., low relative growth rate, long life span, high shade tolerance). Fourth-corner analyses revealed significant correlations between all paleoenvironmental variables (i.e., temperature, precipitation, summer insolation, vegetation density) and most plant traits (relative growth rate, minimum seed-bearing age, seed mass, height, life span, and shade, drought, and waterlogging tolerances). The strongest correlation was between paleotemperature and height, reflecting the positive effect of temperature on plant growth and development and the overarching competitive advantage that height confers. This research demonstrates that environmental conditions

  14. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  15. Landscape patterns of overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes in a cool-temperate forest watershed in northern Hokkaido,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; Hideaki SHIBATA


    Within a forested watershed at the Uryu Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University in northern Hokkaido, overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes were measured at different landscape zones over two years. The wetland zone covered with Picea glehnii pure stand. The riparian zone was deciduous broad-leaved stand dominated by Alnus hirsuta and Salix spp., while the mixture of deciduous broadleaf and evergreen conifer dominated by Betula platyphylla, Quercus crispula and Abies sachalinensis distributed on the upland zone.Annual litterfall averaged 1444, 5122, and 4123 kg·hm-2·a-1 in the wetland, riparian and upland zones, respectively. Litterfall production peaked in September-ctober,and foliage litter contributed the greatest amount (73.4%-87.6 %) of the annual total litterfall. Concentrations of nutrients analyzed in foliage litter of the dominant species showed a similar seasonal variation over the year except for N in P. Glehnii and A. Hirsuta. The nutrient fluxes for all elements analyzed were greatest on riparian zone and lowest in wetland zone. Nutrient fluxes via lit terfall followed the decreasing sequence: N (11-129 kg·hm-2·a-1) > Ca (9-69) > K (5-20) > Mg (3-15) > P (0.4-4.7) for all stands. Significant differences were found in litterfall production and nutrient fluxes among the different landscape components. There existed significantdif ferences in soil chemistry between the different landscape zones. The consistently low soil C:N ratios at the riparian zone might be due to the higher-quality litter inputs (largely N-fixing alder).

  16. Disentangling natural and anthropogenic signals in lacustrine records: An example from the Ilan Plain, NE Taiwan (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Huh, Chih-An; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Löwemark, Ludvig; Lin, Shu-Fen; Liao, Wen-Hsuan; Yang, Tien-Nan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Lee, Meng-Yang; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lee, Teh-Quei


    The impact of human activities has been increasing to a degree where humans now outcompete many natural processes. When interpreting environmental and climatic changes recorded in natural archives on historical time scales, it is therefore important to be able to disentangle the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic processes. Lake Meihua on the Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan offers a particularly suitable opportunity to test how human activities known from historical records can be recorded in lacustrine sediment. For this purpose, three cores from Lake Meihua have been studied by a multiproxy approach, providing the first decadal-resolution lacustrine records covering the past 150 years in Taiwan. Profiles of excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu from two short cores (MHL-09-01 and MHL-11-02) allowed a precise chronology to be established. The presence of a yellow, earthy layer with lower levels of organic material coincide with the record of land development associated with the construction of the San-Chin-Gong Temple during AD 1970-1982. Furthermore, in the lower part of the cores, the upwards increasing trend of inc/coh, TOC, TOC/TN, and grain size, coupled with the palynological data (increase of Alnus, Mallotus, Trema and herbs) from the nearby core MHL-5A with radiocarbon chronology, suggest that the area surrounding the lake has been significantly affected by agricultural activities since the arrival of Chinese settlers around AD 1874. In sum, this study demonstrates that this suite of lacustrine sediments in northeastern Taiwan has recorded human activities in agreement with historical documents, and that different human activities will leave distinct sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological signatures in the sedimentary archives. Therefore, multiproxy reconstructions are important to capture the complex nature of human-environmental interactions. A better understanding of the weathering and erosion response to human activities can

  17. Present-day palynomorph deposits in an estuarine context: The case of the Loire Estuary (United States)

    Ganne, A.; Leroyer, C.; Penaud, A.; Mojtahid, M.


    Estuaries are dynamic systems that collect terrestrial, aerial, fluvial, and marine inputs, including organic microfossils, which, when fossilized and observed on palynological slides, are also referred to as palynomorphs (pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs including dinoflagellate cysts or dinocysts). To understand these organic microfossil deposit arrangements across the Loire estuary, palynomorph counts were undertaken in 31 surface sediments collected across longitudinal and perpendicular transects of the Loire active riverbed, from the upper inner estuary to the river mouth. Main results suggest a large homogeneity of the pollen content throughout the entire upstream-downstream transect, with a dominance of arboreal taxa (Pinus, Quercus, Alnus) and Poaceae. Also, perpendicular transects across the channel show a great similarity between the muddy surface layers and the underlying consolidated clay layers. This is probably due to: i) homogeneity of the landscape at a regional scale (large catchment area of the Loire River), and ii) complex hydrodynamic processes involving strong mixing of the palynological signal. Furthermore, despite scarce woodlands in the regional landscape, arboreal pollen (especially Pinus and Quercus) represents > 60% of the total pollen percentages. This could be explained by several factors: i) generally higher arboreal pollen production and dispersion as compared to herbaceous taxa, ii) distant inputs from marine areas downstream and/or forested regions far upstream, and iii) differential selection or inheritance from underlying sediments. Differentiation between the outer and inner estuarine environments was furthermore possible using a ratio of terrestrial versus marine palynological indicators. Among the dinocyst assemblages (marine realm), the euryhaline species Lingulodinium machaerophorum predominates; this taxon being very sensitive to strong water column stratification. Also, total dinocyst concentration increased upstream

  18. Tree species diversity interacts with elevated CO2 to induce a greater root system response. (United States)

    Smith, Andrew R; Lukac, Martin; Bambrick, Michael; Miglietta, Franco; Godbold, Douglas L


    As a consequence of land-use change and the burning of fossil fuels, atmospheric concentrations of CO2 are increasing and altering the dynamics of the carbon cycle in forest ecosystems. In a number of studies using single tree species, fine root biomass has been shown to be strongly increased by elevated CO2 . However, natural forests are often intimate mixtures of a number of co-occurring species. To investigate the interaction between tree mixture and elevated CO2 , Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica were planted in areas of single species and a three species polyculture in a free-air CO2 enrichment study (BangorFACE). The trees were exposed to ambient or elevated CO2 (580 μmol mol(-1) ) for 4 years. Fine and coarse root biomass, together with fine root turnover and fine root morphological characteristics were measured. Fine root biomass and morphology responded differentially to the elevated CO2 at different soil depths in the three species when grown in monocultures. In polyculture, a greater response to elevated CO2 was observed in coarse roots to a depth of 20 cm, and fine root area index to a depth of 30 cm. Total fine root biomass was positively affected by elevated CO2 at the end of the experiment, but not by species diversity. Our data suggest that existing biogeochemical cycling models parameterized with data from species grown in monoculture may be underestimating the belowground response to global change.

  19. Interactions of elevated CO{sub 2} and drought stress in gas exchange and water-use efficiency in three temperate deciduous tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, N.; Maruyama, K.; Huang, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology


    The effect of CO{sub 2} increase on gas exchange and water-use efficiency (WUE) in three temperate deciduous species (Fagus crenata, Ginkgo biloba and Alnus firma) under gradually-developing drought-stress was assessed. Seedlings were grown within transparent open-top cabinets and maintained for 4 months at mean CO{sub 2} concentrations of either 350(ambient; C-350) or 700{mu}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated; C-700) and combined with five water regimes (leaf water potential, Psi{sub w}, higher than -0.3 (well-watered), -0.5 and -0.8 (moderate drought), -1.0 and fewer than -1.2 MPa (serious drought-stress)). Increase in CO{sub 2} concentration induced a 60% average increase in net photosynthetic rate (P-N) under well-watered conditions. The effect of C-700 became more pronounced with drought stress established, with an 80% average increase in P-N at Psi{sub w}, as low as -0.8 MPa; leaf conductance to water vapour transfer (g{sub s}) and transpiration rate (E), however, were significantly decreased. Consequently, WUE increased under drought, through drought stress affected potential E sooner than potential P-N. The interaction of CO{sub 2} x drought stress on WUE was significant in that P-N was stimulated while E in C-700 enriched plants resembled that of C-350 plants under drought. Hence if a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration occurs by the mid 21st century, then greater P-N in F. crenata, G. biloba and A. firma may be expected and the drought susceptibility of these species will be substantially enhanced.

  20. Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghai, N.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Jorstad, R.B. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)


    The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Effects of elevated CO2 on litter chemistry and subsequent invertebrate detritivore feeding responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Dray

    Full Text Available Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder or Betula pendula (silver birch trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm or elevated (ambient +200 ppm CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment ('choice', or (ii one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone ('no-choice'. Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species' responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing-a key ecosystem function-under atmospheric change.

  2. Relationships between airborne pollen grains, wind direction and land cover using GIS and circular statistics. (United States)

    Maya-Manzano, J M; Sadyś, M; Tormo-Molina, R; Fernández-Rodríguez, S; Oteros, J; Silva-Palacios, I; Gonzalo-Garijo, A


    Airborne bio-aerosol content (mainly pollen and spores) depends on the surrounding vegetation and weather conditions, particularly wind direction. In order to understand this issue, maps of the main land cover in influence areas of 10km in radius surrounding pollen traps were created. Atmospheric content of the most abundant 14 pollen types was analysed in relation to the predominant wind directions measured in three localities of SW of Iberian Peninsula, from March 2011 to March 2014. Three Hirst type traps were used for aerobiological monitoring. The surface area for each land cover category was calculated and wind direction analysis was approached by using circular statistics. This method could be helpful for estimating the potential risk of exposure to various pollen types. Thus, the main land cover was different for each monitoring location, being irrigated crops, pastures and hardwood forests the main categories among 11 types described. Comparison of the pollen content with the predominant winds and land cover shows that the atmospheric pollen concentration is related to some source areas identified in the inventory. The study found that some pollen types (e.g. Plantago, Fraxinus-Phillyrea, Alnus) come from local sources but other pollen types (e.g. Quercus) are mostly coming from longer distances. As main conclusions, airborne particle concentrations can be effectively split by addressing wind with circular statistics. By combining circular statistics and GIS method with aerobiological data, we have created a useful tool for understanding pollen origin. Some pollen loads can be explained by immediate surrounding landscape and observed wind patterns for most of the time. However, other factors like medium or long-distance transport or even pollen trap location within a city, may occasionally affect the pollen load recorded using an air sampler.

  3. Foliage chemistry and the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae on broad-leaved trees in southern Ontario. (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E


    This study addresses the influence of foliage chemistry on the distribution of Lepidoptera larvae across species of trees. I used ordination and analysis of principal coordinates to describe the partitioning of the larvae of 24 species of Lepidoptera over 23 species of host trees taking into account 13 chemical properties of the foliage. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) revealed two significant axes linking the two datasets. The first constrained axis (r(2)=0.83) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing amounts of hemicellulose, polyphenols, and potassium per cm(2) leaf area. The second constrained axis (r(2)=0.68) was associated with increasing amounts of soluble carbohydrates and decreasing magnesium. Variation in nitrogen and phosphorus, which are major factors in larval nutrition, were not associated with turnover of Lepidoptera species between species of host tree. Of the total variance in the positions of tree species on the first four constrained CAP axes, 44% was correlated with positions determined by foliage chemistry, 32% on the first two constrained axes. Within the space described by the first two canonical axes, congeneric species of tree clustered together, with the exception that Acer negundo was removed from other species of Acer, which grouped in a tight cluster with species in the order Fagales, as well as with Tilia and Ulmus. Alnus and Prunus also grouped together. No species of tree with a negative score on constrained axis 2 exhibited high Lepidoptera species richness, but the average number of individuals per collection tended to be high. These tree species also contain triterpenes in their leaves and harbored disproportionately more tent- and web-making species of Lepidoptera. These analyses show that patterns of distribution across host tree species within an assemblage of Lepidoptera species can be understood, at least in part, in terms of the qualities of the resources upon which

  4. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield. (United States)

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John


    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  5. Biomass energy in organic farming - the potential role of short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Dalgaard, Tommy [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), Dept. of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Kristensen, Erik Steen [Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark)


    One of the aims of organic farming is to 'reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum'. So far, however, only very little progress has been made to introduce renewable energy in organic farming. This paper presents energy balances of Danish organic farming compared with energy balances of conventional farming. In general, the conversion to organic farming leads to a lower energy use (approximately 10% per unit of product). But the production of energy in organic farming is very low compared with the extensive utilisation of straw from conventional farming in Denmark (energy content of straw used for energy production was equivalent to 18% of total energy input in Danish agriculture in 1996). Biomass is a key energy carrier with a good potential for on-farm development. Apart from utilising farm manure and crop residues for biogas production, the production of nutrient efficient short rotation coppice (SRC) is an option in organic farming. Alder (Alnus spp.) is an interesting crop due to its symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia, which has the ability to fix up to 185 kg/ha nitrogen (N{sub 2}) from the air. Yields obtained at different European sites are presented and the R and D needed to implement energy cropping in organic farming is discussed. Possible win-win solutions for SRC production in organic farming that may facilitate its implementation are; the protection of ground water quality in intensively farmed areas, utilisation of wastewater for irrigation, or combination with outdoor animal husbandry such as pigs or poultry. (Author)

  6. La comunidad de Furcraea parmentieri, una especie amenazada, en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Almeida-Leñero


    Full Text Available Se estudió la fl ora y vegetación de la comunidad deFurcraea parmentieri(Roezl ex Ortigies Garcia-Mend. (F. bedinghausii especie amenazada y endémica de México (NOM-059-ECOL-2001, en el volcán Pelado, al S de la Ciudad de México. Se realizaron 25 levantamientos siguiendo la escuela fitosociológica Zurich-Montpellier, a los que se calculó el índice de similitud de Jaccard.Furcraea parmentierise asocia conMuhlenbergia macrouraformando una comunidad azonal, entre los 3 020 y 3 330 m, sobre suelos rocosos y claros del bosque dePinus-Alnus. Se diferenciaron tres subcomunidades:Furcraea parmentieri-Trisetum virletii, Furcraea parmentieri-Aegopogon cenchroides y Furcraea parmentieri-Solanum cervantesii. Se registraron en total 87 especies agrupadas en 63 géneros y 27 familias, siendo las más abundantes Asteraceae y Poaceae. Las condiciones ambientales propicias para el establecimiento deFurcraea parmentierison altitudes entre 3 020 a 3 100 m, en exposición N, suelos ácidos con pH 6.0 y pendientes de 36° a 45º. El mayor problema para la conservación de la especie en el área son las quemas repetidas que empobrecen el suelo y destruyen los bulbilos, causando la disminución de las poblaciones. La conservación deF. parmentieries importante porque además de ser una especie amenazada y endémica, estabiliza suelos en zonas severamente degradadas.

  7. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard


    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  8. Nature of fly ash amendments differently influences oxidative stress alleviation in four forest tree species and metal trace element phytostabilization in aged contaminated soil: A long-term field experiment. (United States)

    Labidi, Sonia; Firmin, Stéphane; Verdin, Anthony; Bidar, Géraldine; Laruelle, Frédéric; Douay, Francis; Shirali, Pirouz; Fontaine, Joël; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa


    Aided phytostabilization using coal fly ashes (CFAs) is an interesting technique to clean-up polluted soils and valorizing industrial wastes. In this context, our work aims to study the effect of two CFAs: silico-aluminous (CFA1) and sulfo-calcic (CFA2) ones, 10 years after their addition, on the phytostabilization of a highly Cd (cadmium), Pb (lead) and Zn (zinc) contaminated agricultural soil, with four forest tree species: Robinia pseudoacacia, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Salix alba. To assess the effect of CFAs on trees, leaf fatty acid composition, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized and reduced glutathione contents ratio (GSSG: GSH), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), Peroxidase (PO) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were examined. Our results showed that CFA amendments decreased the CaCl2-extractable fraction of Cd and Zn from the soil. However, no significant effect was observed on metal trace element (MTE) concentrations in leaves. Fatty acid percentages were only affected by the addition of sulfo-calcic CFA. The most affected species were A. glutinosa and R. pseudoacacia in which C16:0, C18:0 and C18:2 percentages increased significantly whereas the C18:3 decreased. The addition of sulfo-calcic CFA induced the antioxidant systems response in tree leaves. An increase of SOD and POD activities in leaves of trees planted on the CFA2-amended plot was recorded. Conversely, silico-aluminous CFA generated a reduction of lipid and DNA oxidation associated with the absence or low induction of anti-oxidative processes. Our study evidenced oxidative stress alleviation in tree leaves due to CFA amendments. MTE mobility in contaminated soil and their accumulation in leaves differed with the nature of CFA amendments and the selected tree species.

  9. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrut, Bertrand [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); and others


    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  10. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change? (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien


    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possible combinations of three functionally different macro-detritivores (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, isopod Oniscus asellus, and millipede Julus scandinavius). Our results show that these macro-detritivores stimulated decomposition, especially of the high-quality A. incana litter and that the macro-detritivores tested differed in their decomposition-stimulating effects, with earthworms having the largest influence. Decomposition processes increased with increasing number of macro-detritivore species, and positive net diveristy effects occurred in several macro-detritivore treatments. However, after correction for macro-detritivore biomass, all interspecific differences in macro-detritivore effects, as well as the positive effects of species number on subarctic litter decomposition disappeared. The net diversity effects also appeared to be driven by variation in biomass, with a possible exception of net diversity effects in mass loss. Based on these results, we conclude that the expected climate change-induced range expansion of macro-detritivores into subarctic regions is likely to result in accelerated decomposition rates. Our results also indicate that the magnitude of macro-detritivore effects on subarctic decomposition will mainly depend on macro-detritivore biomass, rather than on macro-detritivore species number or identity.

  11. [Frequency of sensitization to aeroallergens in patients with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis]. (United States)

    Cortés-Morales, Guillermina; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aida; Arroyo-Cruz, Mariana Esther; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo


    Antecedentes: la conjuntivitis alérgica es una enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta directamente a la conjuntiva, la patogénesis de la conjuntivitis alérgica es predominantemente una reacción de hipersensibilidad tipo I mediada por IgE. Se relaciona principalmente con la sensibilización a aeroalergenos extra e intradomiciliarios. En términos clínicos se clasifica como estacional o perenne. El cuadro clínico consiste en prurito ocular, hiperemia conjuntival, epífora y fotofobia. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de sensibilización a aeroalergenos en pacientes con conjuntivitis alérgica estacional o perenne que acuden al Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital General de México. Material y método: estudio transversal y descriptivo efectuado en pacientes con conjuntivitis alérgica estacional o perenne. Previo consentimiento informado, se realizó la historia clínica completa, así como estudios de laboratorio y pruebas cutáneas a aeroalergenos; se determinó la frecuencia de sensibilización a aeroalergenos. Resultados: se encontró con mayor frecuencia la sensibilización a pólenes de Quercus, Alnus y Fraxinus, seguidos de Dermatophagoides spp. Predominó el género femenino entre la segunda y cuarta décadas de la vida. Conclusiones: la conjuntivitis alérgica es una enfermedad frecuente asociada con rinitis alérgica. Los alergenos asociados con mayor frecuencia en este estudio fueron los pólenes y ácaros del polvo doméstico.

  12. Living part on soil bioengineering structures in Appennino Tosco-emiliano (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico; Dani, Andrea


    From analisys headed up in soil bioengineered areas in different parts of Tuscany, the suitest root systems in slope stabilization turn out to be those spreading from seed-born plants, while adventitious roots from cuttings are often absent in the part more distant from the neck, and in some cases are insufficient to grant life support just in case of minor stress conditions. Genus Alnus shows it's adaptation capability to restore initial restoration steps and to create renovation prerequisites for other species through ammending litter production and symbiosis for nitrogen fixation with Frankia genus bacteria; other similar symbiosis (with Rhizobium and fungi) are carried out by Robinia pseudacacia. Soil fecundity increase is confirmed by the following entrance of more demanding species, as Ostrya carpinifolia and Acer pseudoplatanus at the tree level, Urtica dioica and Rubus Ulmifolius (nitrophilouses) at grass level. In the project phase it ought to imagine a well-structured implant, including rooted plants, cuttings and posibly a seed mix of colonising species aiming to form a germplasm on the structure itself in order to sprout whenever the local conditions allow it. Verifying that many after developed species came from ornithocore dissemination (Ficus carica, Pinus spp., Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra), lead to toughts about bedding out bird-attracting species on structures in order to realise a faster (and maybe more complex) succession development. This higher velocity could grant in a shorter period the production of a root mass spread in a more disomogeneous and complex pattern than that deriving from cuttings disposed in the traditional way; such a variability could allow a better interaction with other biological factors in the soil (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, ...) that are important for the plant nutrient cicle (Ohsowski et al., 2012) and then the constituion of an articulate, long-term system.

  13. Variation in Frankia populations of the Elaeagnus host infection group in nodules of six host plant species after inoculation with soil. (United States)

    Mirza, Babur S; Welsh, Allana; Rasul, Ghulam; Rieder, Julie P; Paschke, Mark W; Hahn, Dittmar


    The potential role of host plant species in the selection of symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing Frankia strains belonging to the Elaeagnus host infection group was assessed in bioassays with two Morella, three Elaeagnus, and one Shepherdia species as capture plants, inoculated with soil slurries made with soil collected from a mixed pine/grassland area in central Wisconsin, USA. Comparative sequence analysis of nifH gene fragments amplified from homogenates of at least 20 individual lobes of root nodules harvested from capture plants of each species confirmed the more promiscuous character of Morella cerifera and Morella pensylvanica that formed nodules with frankiae of the Alnus and the Elaeagnus host infection groups, while frankiae in nodules formed on Elaeagnus umbellata, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Elaeagnus commutata, and Shepherdia argentea generally belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group. Diversity of frankiae of the Elaeagnus host infection groups was larger in nodules on both Morella species than in nodules formed on the other plant species. None of the plants, however, captured the entire diversity of nodule-forming frankiae. The distribution of clusters of Frankia populations and their abundance in nodules was unique for each of the plant species, with only one cluster being ubiquitous and most abundant while the remaining clusters were only present in nodules of one (six clusters) or two (two clusters) host plant species. These results demonstrate large effects of the host plant species in the selection of Frankia strains from soil for potential nodule formation and thus the significant effect of the choice of capture plant species in bioassays on diversity estimates in soil.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Orsomando


    Full Text Available The municipal territory of Sellano, extended for about 86 sq Km, is located in Umbria (Italy, in the central and eastern part of the region, bordering Marches. It is characterized, from a forestal point of view, for the high value of the index of woodiness -more than 60%-, in comparison with 40% of Umbria. The forestal biodiversity is constituted by 7 deciduous natural formations (characterized by Quercus pubescens, Ostrya carpinifolia, Quercus cerris -belonging to the endemic association Carici sylvaticae-Quercetum cerridis, rich in orchids- Quercus cerris and Quercus pubescens, Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Salix alba and one artificial formation (Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis reforestations. These woods (high forests or coppices with standards, in good state of conservation, surrounded by grasslands and anthropic areas with human settlements, fields and craft zones, characterize 11 environmental-landscape units in comparison with the 42 units of Umbrian landscapes: high hill slopes with Quercus pubescens or Ostrya carpinifolia woods, sometimes alternated to small Bromus erectus pastures, of secondary origin; mountain slopes with Fagus sylvatica woods and small Bromus erectus pastures, of secondary origin; cliffs with chasmophytic formations; high-hill and submountain slopes, with slight inclination, covered by fersiallitic paleosoils, with mesophilous Quercus cerris woods (Carpinion betuli and Castanea sativa woods of anthropic origin; High hills with Ostrya carpinifolia or Quercus pubescens woods, sometimes alternated to small Brachypodium rupestre pastures, of secondary origin; River valley bottoms with meso-igrophilous Salix alba or Alnus glutinosa woods; tops and slopes with Bromus erectus, Sesleria nitida or Cynosurus cristatus pastures, of secondary origin; forestal plantations (conifer reforestations, agricultural areas of hills with yearly cultivations; urban rural centres of slopes and mounds; cultivated lands of alluvial

  15. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Agricultural and Forestial Waste in Spawn Production of Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavana


    Full Text Available Spawn quality plays an important role in successful production of medicinal mushrooms. In this study, firstly, to determine the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of G. lucidum, four basal media, including seeds of wheat, barley, millet and Abies sp. wood chip were studied separately at 25±1˚C and 29±1˚C. In the second section, in order to achieve suitable the mycelia growth, barley, wheat and millet seeds were mixed with different ratios of agriculture waste including wheat bran (10, 20 and 30% dry weight and millet peel (20, 40 and 60% dry weight and also Abies sp wood chips (20, 30, 50 and 60% dry weight as forestial waste. In the final section, several forestial waste including sawdusts (Platanus orientalis, Acer sp, Robinia peseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fagus orientals, Alnus subcordata and Populas alba were used as medium for spawn production. In the first experiment, a higher mycelia growth rate (8.92 mm/day was obtained by applying wheat seed at 29±1˚C. In the second experiment, the results showed that higher mycelia growth rate was obtained by using wheat with 10% wheat bran (9.66 mm/day. In the final section of spawn production, R. peseudoacacia sawdust (C/N=25.84 was generated higher growth rate (9.36 mm/day. Also, using supplements containing nitrogen (N such as sawdust and bran, encourage mycelium growth and with increasing C/N ratios more than 61.3 decreased growth rate due to reduce N amount.

  16. Natural Forest Landscape Pattern Characteristics of Tengchong County%腾冲县天然林景观格局特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒相才; 王天灿; 黄维金; 龚成朝


    Based on the survey of forest resources planning and design , use ArcMap 10, Fragstats 4.1, DPS 14.1, Excelland other software , select commonly used landscape indices , landscape pattern features of natural forest was analyzed , the results showed that:①Landscape pattern characteristics of natural for-est in Tengchong County was more complicated with high heterogeneity , complex shape , high degree of aggregation , a more balanced distribution of plaque;②Area ratio of each forest type was in descending order of oak forest>Other broadleaf forest>Yunnan pine>conifer>Alnus forest>hardwood forest>Bamboo>fir forest>soft broadleaf forest >Huashan pine>hemlock , forest area of oak forest and other broad-leaved accounted for 61.51%, was the main component of natural landscapes;forest area of Yun-nan pine , mixed conifer and Alnus accounted for 32.04%, was an important part of natural landscape;forest area of hardwood forest , bamboo forest, fir forest, softwood forest, Huashan pine, hemlock accoun-ted for only 6.45%, the area was mall , but played a special role in the natural landscape;③Factor a-nalysis results showed that comprehensive evaluation from the aspects of stability , complexity , high heter-ogeneity , low fragmentation , strong anti-interference ability and others , scores from high to low followed by oak forest >broadleaf forest >Yunnan pine >hardwood forest >mixed conifer >Alnus forest >Bamboo>fir forest>hemlock>Huashan pine>softwood forest;④Cluster analysis results showed that the natural forests could be divided into four categories , the first category was oak forest and other broad-leaved forest with a low degree of fragmentation , complex shape , high heterogeneity , strong anti-interfer-ence ability;the second category was Yunnan pine , mixed conifer and Alnus forest with high heterogene-ous, broken and complex shape , high anti-interference ability; the third category is hardwood forest , bamboo , hemlock and fir forests with the average

  17. Younger Dryas To Mid-Holocene Environmental History Of The Lowlands Of NW Transylvania, Romania (United States)

    Feurdean, A.; Mosbrugger, V.; Onac, B. P.; Polyak, V.; Veres, D.


    Pollen, micro-charcoal and total carbon analyses on sediments from the Turbuta profile located in the Transylvanian Basin (NW Romania) reveal information on previously unknown Younger Dryas to mid-Holocene environmental changes. The chronostratigraphy relies on AMS 14C measurements on organic matter and U/Th TIMS datings of snail shells. Results indicate the presence of Pinus and Betula open woodlands with small populations of Picea, Ulmus, Alnus and Salix before 12,000 cal yr BP, correlates well with the environmental developments expected for Younger Dryas stadial. A fairly abrupt replacement of Pinus and Betula by Ulmus dominated woodlands at ca. 11,900 cal. yr BP, likely represents competition effects of vegetation driven by climate warming at the onset of the Holocene. By 11,000 cal yr BP, the woodlands were increasingly diverse and dense with the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia, the establishment of Corylus, and the decline of upland herbaceous and shrubs taxa. The marked expansion of Quercus accompanied by Tilia between 10,500 and 8,000 cal yr BP could be the result of low effective moisture associated with both low elevation of the site and with regional change towards a drier climate. At 10,000 cal. yr BP Corylus spread across the region, and by 8,000 cal yr BP it replaced Quercus as a dominant forest constituent, with only little representation of Picea abies. Carpinus became established around 5,500 cal yr BP, but it was only a minor constituent in local woodlands until ca. 5,000 cal yr BP. Results from this study also indicate that the woodlands in the lowlands of Turbuta were never closed.

  18. Vegetation Restoration of Hillside Fields after Conversion of Farmland to Forests%坡耕地退耕还林后的植被恢复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万雪琴; 胡庭兴; 张健; 李贤伟; 宫渊波


    Public welfare forest is the most important model of vegetation restoration in the Conversion of farmland to forests in Sichuan Province. It can well represent and reflect the characteristics and laws of vegetation restoration in hillside fields. Therefore an Alnus crenmstogyne forest community developed via converting hillside fields to forest, was investigated by contrast with a weed community on abandoned hillside fields. The results indicated that: 1) In Sichuan Basin and surrounding regions of it, vegetations restored so rapid that the average DBH (diameter at breast height), tree height of A. cremastogyne tree crown density, ground vegetation coverage respectively reached 5.2 cm, 6.1 m, 0.7 and 100 percent for 3 years and after converting hillside fields to forest. 2 ) With vegetation restoring, community gradually developed mosaic spatial pattern and vertical stratification, simultaneously distribution of plant population changed from regular to clumped, and spatial heterogeneity of community increased. 3) Community biodiversity remarkably increased in the process of vegetation restoration in hillside fields. During the period, species richness of both commnuities changed from 20 to 39, Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 4. 205 and 5.021 respectively, while Pielou equitability index dropped little. 4) Plant species frequently and dramatically altered, which mainly showed that therophytes declined rapidly from 16 to 10, while perennial ones dramatically increased from 2 to 26, and 8 of them are phanerophytes. 5 ) The pathway of community development approximately was from annual herbs to shrubs + perennial herbs to trees + shrubs and herbs + perennial herbs, finally to natural mixed forests, such driving force was mainly from interspecific competition.

  19. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India- ARIA Asia Pacific Workshop report. (United States)

    Singh, Anand B; Shahi, Shipra


    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30% of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken by us to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centers in the country. Allergenically important airborne pollen identified by clinico-immunologic evaluation are Alnus, Amaranthus, Argemone, Brassica, Cannabis, Cassia, Cedrus, Chenopodium, Cocos, Holoptelia, Mallotus, Morus, Parthenium, Prosopis juliflora, Quercus, Ricinus communis, and grasses such as Cenchrus, Cynodon, Imperata, Pennisetum etc. Cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen a commonly growing weed/shrub in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis--all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae but geographically distantly located. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer while pollen of Holoptelia integrifolia from India cross reacts with pollen of Parietaria judaica from Mediterranean Europe, both of which are members of family Urticaceae. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO2 and SO2) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes its allergenic potency.

  20. Vegetation changes and timberline fluctuations in the Central Alps as indicators of holocene climatic oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, L.; Tinner, W. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)


    Pollen and plant-macrofossil data are presented for two lakes near the timberline in the Italian (Lago Basso, 2250 m) and Swiss Central Alps (Gouille Rion, 2343 m). The reforestation at both sites started at 9700-9500 BP with Pinus cembra, Larix decidua, and Betula. The timberline reached its highest elevation between 8700 and 5000 BP and retreated after 5000 BP, due to a mid-Holocene climatic change and increasing human impact since about 3500 BP (Bronze Age). The expansion of Picea abies at Lago Basso between ca. 7500 and 6200 BP was probably favored by cold phases accompanied by increased oceanicity, whereas in the area of Gouille Rion, where spruce expanded rather late (between 4500 and 3500 BP), human influence equality might have been important. The mass expansion of Alnus viridis between ca. 5000 and 3500 BP probably can be related to both climatic change and human activity at timberline. During the early and middle Holocene a series of timberline fluctuations is recorded as declines in pollen and macrofossil concentrations of the major tree species, and as increases in nonarboreal pollen in the pollen percentage diagram of Gouille Rion. Most of the periods of low timberline can be correlated by radiocarbon dating the climatic changes in the Alps as indicated by glacier advances in combination with palynological records, solifluction, and dendroclimatical data. Lago Basso and Gouille Rion are the only sites in the Alps showing complete palaeobotanical records of cold phases between 10,000 and 2000 BP with very good time control. The altitudinal range of the Holocene treeline fluctuations caused by climate most likely was not more than 100 to 150 m. A possible correlation of a cold period at ca. 7500-6500 BP (Misox oscillation) in the Alps is made with paleoecological data from North American and Scandinavia and a climate signal in the GRIP ice core from central Greenland 8200 yr ago (ca. 7400 yr uncal. BP).

  1. Effect on tumor necrosis factor-α production and antioxidant ability of black alder, as factors related to its anti-inflammatory properties. (United States)

    Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores


    Alders exhibit several uses in different areas and also offer some nutritional and medicinal values. The bark and leaves from black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn] are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory processes and other health disorders. This study assessed if an extract of A. glutinosa stem bark exhibits some biological properties linked to improving the inflammatory state, which could partly justify its ethnopharmacological use. Therefore, various aspects of antioxidant activity as well as the effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production were evaluated. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of terpenes, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones (by high-performance thin-layer chromatography). The betulinic acid content in the extract, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (validated method), was 0.72±0.027%. In addition, high amounts for total phenols as well as flavonoids were determined. The extract exhibited a 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity similar to that of ascorbic acid and had a significant effect on superoxide anion scavenging, superior to that of ascorbic acid. It was also able to protect HeLa cells from induced oxidative stress. In the TNF-α assay, levels of this citokine were depressed by the extract in HL-60 cells. To test the effect of the extract on cell proliferation, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed. According to the results, the antioxidant properties displayed by the extract of A. glutinosa stem bark, together with the effect on TNF-α levels, suggest that these activities, linked to a successful reduction in inflammatory processes, may support, in part, its ethnopharmacological use.

  2. Biology of the blind geobiont scarab beetle genus Chaetonyx Schaum, 1862 (Scarabaeidae: Orphninae with new distribution records of Ch. robustus Schaum, 1862 from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Life cycle of the orphnine scarab beetles genus Chaetonyx was recorded for the first time based on the multiyear observations on the populations of its type species, Ch. robustus Schaum, 1862, in riverside habitats at Zemen Gorge region, South-Western Bulgaria. Our observations showed that this geobiont species is common in alluvial soils near Struma River, where it forms large colonies. At the Zemen Gorge, its preferable habitats are sparse riverside forests of Alnus glutinosa L. and Populus nigra L. neighboring grass communities. Larvae, adults and pupae were found up to 50 cm deep with most specimens inhabiting the upper soil layer from 0 to 20 cm deep. The highest recorded density was 89 adults and 581 larvae per 0.25 m2. Oviposition, hatching of the eggs, pupation and emergence of the new adults occur during the summer. Eggs have been found in surface soil layer in July and August, the pupae – mainly in July and August. Larvae of different instars were found in soil during all months of the study period. Adults from the new generation first occur in the beginning of August. In August, September and October adults from different generations can be found together. The main part of the adults seems to die after the reproduction period, and the common lifespan of adults seems to be about a year only. The life cycle of Ch. robustus in investigated habitat seems to be perennial and includes two years as larval stage and one as adult. Tropical Orphninae occupy a number of ecological niches but lack colonial geobiont specialists similar to Chaetonyx.

  3. An 11 000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history at Beaver Lake, Oregon, central Willamette Valley (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Worona, Marc A.


    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis were used to reconstruct an 11??000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history from Beaver Lake, Oregon, the first complete Holocene paleoecological record from the floor of the Willamette Valley. In the early Holocene (ca 11??000-7500 calendar years before present [cal??yr??BP]), warmer, drier summers than at present led to the establishment of xeric woodland of Quercus, Corylus, and Pseudotsuga near the site. Disturbances (i.e., floods, fires) were common at this time and as a result Alnus rubra grew nearby. High fire frequency occurred in the early Holocene from ca 11??200-9300??cal??yr??BP. Riparian forest and wet prairie developed in the middle Holocene (ca 7500??cal??yr??BP), likely the result of a decrease in the frequency of flooding and a shift to effectively cooler, wetter conditions than before. The vegetation at Beaver Lake remained generally unchanged into the late Holocene (from 4000??cal??yr??BP to present), with the exception of land clearance associated with Euro-American settlement of the valley (ca 160??cal??yr BP). Middle-to-late Holocene increases in fire frequency, coupled with abrupt shifts in fire-episode magnitude and charcoal composition, likely indicate the influence anthropogenic burning near the site. The paleoecological record from Beaver Lake, and in particular the general increase in fire frequency over the last 8500??years, differs significantly from other low-elevation sites in the Pacific Northwest, which suggests that local controls (e.g., shifts in vegetation structure, intensification of human land-use), rather than regional climatic controls, more strongly influenced its environmental history. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Clavulina-Membranomyces is the most important lineage within the highly diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community of Abies religiosa. (United States)

    Argüelles-Moyao, Andrés; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Márquez-Valdelamar, Laura Margarita; Arellano-Torres, Elsa


    Abies religiosa is an endemic conifer of Mexico, where its monodominant forests are the winter refuge of the monarch butterfly. Due to climate change, it has been estimated that by 2090, A. religiosa populations will decline by 96.5 %. To achieve success, reforestation programs should consider its ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We used ITS nrDNA sequences to identify the ECM fungi associated with A. religiosa and, based on its abundance and frequency, determined the diversity and community structure in a pure A. religiosa forest near Mexico City. Using sequence metadata, we inferred the species geographic distribution and host preferences. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the Clavulinaceae (the most important family). The ECM community held 83 species, among which the richest genera were Inocybe (21 species), Tomentella (10 species), and Russula (8 species). Besides its low species richness, the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage was the most dominant family. Clavulina cf. cinerea and Membranomyces sp. exhibited the highest relative abundance and relative frequency values. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Clavulinaceae genotypes in three different clades: one within Membranomyces and two within Clavulina. A meta-analysis showed that the majority of the ECM fungi (45.78 %) associated with A. religiosa in Mexico have also been sequenced from North America and are shared by Pinaceae and Fagaceae. In contrast, because they have not been sequenced previously, 32.2 % of the species have a restricted distribution. Here, we highlight the emerging pattern that the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage is dominant in several ECM communities in the Neotropics, including Aldinia and Dicymbe legume tropical forests in the Guyana Shield, the Alnus acuminata subtropical communities, and the A. religiosa temperate forests in Mexico.

  5. Monitoring of a landslide stabilized with bioengineering techniques in 1997, northern Tuscany. Vegetation development analysis and state of preservation of wood (United States)

    Errico, Alessandro; Giambastiani, Yamuna; Guastini, Enrico; Dani, Andrea


    In 1996 a large landslide occurred in the chestnut grove nearby Pomezzana, a small town situated in the mountains of northern Tuscany, Italy. No damages were registered to population nor infrastructures, but the residual risks deriving from the effects of the event needed to be solved by means of a stabilization of the ground and reforestation. The choice has been found among bioengineering techniques, which perfectly fit in the ecosystem, landscape and the economic budgets of mountain engineering. A complex project has been implemented, using several different typologies of wooden structures, combined with rooted plants, wooden cuttings and grass seeding on the slopes. The most of the stabilization effect was assigned to the cribwalls, construct using local chestnut wood. Works ended in 1997. In 2013, 16 years later, a monitoring on the vegetation development and the state of preservation of the wood in cribwalls has been conducted. On vegetation, it has been surveyed the composition of species, diameter and height. Moreover, by means of a GPS device, the position of every plant has been registered and transcribed on GIS softwares for elaboration. The conservation of wood in cribwalls has been checked using a Resistograph, drilling each structure in three areas (at the two ends and roughly in the middle) and testing every order. The root systems of two plants have been excavated to calculate the RAR value for different depths, in order to quantify the contribution of roots in land stabilization. The soil has been also analyzed to determine structure, texture and geotechnical properties. Combining these data with the topographic survey conducted by the designers of the work, it has been possible to calculate the Safety Factor for landslide triggering using the model Slip4ex. The results show a good preservation rate of wooden structures, combined with a high contribution of roots in stabilization. The registered tree species (mainly Alnus glutinosa) were almost all

  6. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Angel [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Prieto, Maria, E-mail: [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Yadira [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Aragon, Gregorio [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain)


    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for 'shade-adapted lichens', while the richness of 'heliophytic lichens' increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tropical montane forest disturbance drastically reduced macrolichen diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species loss was most severe for the 'shade-adapted lichens' because high radiation is harmful to them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In secondary forests lichen diversity of native forests was not regenerated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protection of remnants of primary tropical forest might help to preserve a diverse community of epiphytic macrolichens.

  7. The effect of saprophagous macrofauna on litter decomposition (United States)

    Frouz, Jan


    Previous experiments show that feeding of the larvae of Bibionidae on lef litter cause short term increase of respiration but in long term the decomposition of bibio feces is slower than decomposition of litter from which feces were produced. To understand why excrements of decompose more slowly than leaf litter, we fed Bibio marci larvae the litter of tree species differing in litter quality (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and then measured respiration induced by litter and excrements. We also measured respiration induced by the same litter artificially modified to mimic faunal effects; the litter was modified by grinding, grinding with alkalinization to pH 11, grinding with coating by kaolinite, and grinding with both alkalinization and coating. Decomposition of excrements tended to be slower for willow and was significantly slower for oak and alder than for the corresponding litter. With oak, decomposition was slower for all artificially modified litter than for non-modified litter. The reduction in the decomposition was similar for excrements and for alder and willow litter that was ground, coated, and alkalinized. In alder, a similar reduction was found in ground and alkalinized litter. 13C NMR indicated that gut passage increases aliphatic components and decreases polysaccharides. Pyrolysis indicated that gut passage increases the ratio of guaiacyl to hydroxymethyl derivatives in lignin. Our findings indicate that the decreased decomposition rate of excrements might result from the removal of easily available polysaccharides, the increase in aliphatic components, an increase in the resistant components of lignin, the accumulation of microbial cell walls, and the binding of nitrogen into complexes with aromatic components. Several of these mechanisms are supported or determined by litter alkalinization during gut passage.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柏年; 丛培允; 阎德飞; 解三平


    today. By comparing the cuticular characteristic of C.subcordata with that of its NLR, C.cordata, we concluded that the Neogene climate in western Yunnan was warm and humid, belonging to tropical zone to subtropical zone or warm temperate zone. In addition, the same feature exsists in C.subcordata and B. mioluminifera, whose epidermic cells are all arrayed as rotundity. This maybe is the characteristic of Betulaceae, or the phenomenon due to excess of veinlet in plant leave. It is expected to be proved in the future. From this brief review, the leaf of C.subcordata may be taken as a bio-indicator of palaeoatmospheric CO2 concentration.%重点描述云南腾冲晚第三纪两种被子植物化石Betula mioluminifera Hu et Chaney, Carpinus subcordata Nathorst的角质层构造,并分析它们的现存最近亲缘种B.luminifera Winkler和C.cordata B1. var. mollis Cheng et Chen的表皮特征.实验分析证明:化石叶片的气孔参数可以推测地质历史时期大气CO2的浓度,并进而分析古环境的变化.C.subcordata Nathorst叶片能作为大气CO2浓度的生物指标.

  9. Global atmospheric change and herbivory: Effects of elevated levels of UV-B radiation, atmospheric CO{sub 2} and temperature on boreal woody plants and their herbivores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veteli, T.


    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280- 320 nm), atmospheric CO{sub 2}, temperature and soil nitrogen level on the growth and chemical quality of boreal deciduous woody plants and on performance of the herbivorous insects feeding on them. Eggs and larvae of Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) were subjected to elevated UV-B radiation in the laboratory. Two willow species, Salix phylicifolia L. (Salicaceae) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., were grown in an UV-B irradiation field where the responses of both plants and their herbivorous insects were monitored. S. myrsinifolia, Betula pendula Ehrh. (Betulaceae) and B. pubescens Roth. were subjected to elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature and different fertilisation levels in closed-top climatic chambers. To assess the indirect effects of the different treatments, the leaves of experimental willows and birches were fed to larvae of Phratora vitellinae (L.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and adults of Agellastica alni L. in the laboratory. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly decreased the survival and performance of eggs and larvae of O. brumata. It also increased concentrations of some flavonoids and phenolic acids in S. myrsinifolia and S. phylicifolia, while the low-UV-B- absorbing phenolics, e. g. condensed tannins, gallic acid derivatives and salicylates, either decreased or remained unaffected. Both the height growth and biomass of one S. phylicifolia clone was sensitive to elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Abundance of adults and larvae of a willow- feeding leaf beetle, P. vitellinae, was increased under elevated UV-B; but this did not lead to increased leaf damage on the host plants. There were no significant differences in performance of the larvae feeding on differentially treated willow leaves, but adult A. alni preferred UV-B-treated leaves to ambient control leaves. Elevated CO{sub 2} and temperature significantly increased the height growth

  10. 活性炭和植物吸收对室内空气甲醛净化的影响%Effect of the Activated Carbon and Plants Uptake on the Formaldehyde Cleaning in Indoor Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖秋实; 李苑; 杨宇婷; 张艳北; 史春玲; 秦红梅; 文静; 江长胜


    The indoor air pollution in urban resident is very serious, formaldehyde has become one of the most important indoor air pollutants in China. In this study, ivy (Scinda psusaureu), green dill (Hedera nepalensis van. Sinensis) and activated carbon were selected as the research objects, and the author used the closed chamber technique to study the absorption capacity of plants and chemicals on formaldehyde. The results showed that green dill, ivy and activated carbon were all good for indoor formaldehyde purification. 1 day later, the purifying efficiency decreased in the order as follows: ivy+activated carbon (formaldehyde cleaning rate was 38.27%)>ivy (34.31%)>green dill+activated carbon (32.20%)>green dill (5.61%)>activated carbon (3.73%). 10 days later, the purifying efficiency decreased in the order as follows: ivy+activated carbon (69.91%)>green dill+activated carbon (64.28%)>ivy (60.44%)>activated carbon (57.50%) >green dill (24.99%). Combining the plants and activated carbon had the better efficiency of formaldehyde cleaning rate than using plants or activated carbon singly, and long time had better effect than short time.%城市住宅的室内空气污染十分严重,甲醛已经成为中国目前室内空气中的首要污染物.以绿萝、常春藤与活性炭为研究对象,采用密闭箱法进行净化甲醛能力的研究.结果表明,绿萝、常春藤与活性炭均对室内空气中甲醛具有良好的净化作用,24 h后的甲醛净化能力大小依次为:常春藤+活性炭(甲醛去除率38.27%)>常春藤(34.31%)>绿萝+活性炭(32.20%)>绿萝(5.61%)>活性炭(3.73%);10天后的净化效果排序为:常春藤+活性炭(69.91%)>绿萝+活性炭(64.28%)>常春藤(60.44%)>活性炭(57.50%)>绿萝(24.99%).植物与活性炭联合作用对甲醛净化效果比单一用植物或活性炭效果好,而且长期作用比短期作用效果好.

  11. Investigation on the Situation of Dongchuan District Barren Hills Afforestation of Kunming City%昆明市东川区荒山绿化情况调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海帆; 王军; 温钦舒; 张芮婕; 保云莹; 张颖


    The terrain fluctuations in Dongchuan District of Kunming City is larger.Steep terrain,fragile ecological environment,low rainfall and high evaporation,coupled with the debris flow activities are frequent,resulting that forest coverage rate in Dongchuan is very low.This topic investigated the present situation of barren hill afforestution in Dongchuan District from January to June in 2016.Survey results showed thatin the region,the main planting tree species at an altitude of 1 600 meters below were Leucaena leucocephala,Cupressus torulosa,Leucaena leucocephala,Cupressus torulosa,Celtis yunnanensis,Melia azedarach,among which Leucaena leucocephala had become of pioneer tree species in dry and hot river valley of Dongchuan. The main planting tree species at elevation of 1 600~2 500 meters area were Cupressus torulosa,Sabina chinensis,A lnus nepalensis,Celtis yunnanensis,Huashan pine tree species.The area at an altitude of 2 500 meters above mainly planted Sabina,acute tip of A bies georgei,P.densata etc. Through the investigation and study,aimed at problems existing in barren hills afforestation in Dongchuan,countermeasures were put forward in order to provide certain theoretical basis for the sustainable development of forestry in Dongchuan.%昆明市东川区地形起伏较大,地形陡峻,生态环境脆弱,降雨量小,且蒸发量大,加之泥石流活动频繁,导致东川森林覆盖率极低。本课题于2016年1-6月对东川区荒山绿化种植情况进行了全面系统的调查。结果表明:区域内目前海拔1600 m以下主要种植树种为新银合欢、藏柏、新银合欢、藏柏、滇朴、苦楝等,其中新银合欢已成为东川干热河谷造林的先锋树种;海拔1600~2500 m地区主要种植树种为藏柏、圆柏、旱冬瓜、滇朴、华山松等树种;海拔2500 m以上地区主要种植圆柏、急尖长苞冷杉、高山松等树种。通过调查研究,对东川现阶段荒山绿化种植所存在的

  12. Effect of LaCl3 on Resistance and Absorptive Capacity to Formaldehyde of Indoor Ornamental Plants under Formaldehyde Stress%LaCl3对甲醛胁迫下4种室内观赏植物抗性及吸收能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫生荣; 花海蓉; 杨春和; 张跃群


    目的 检测稀土生物调节剂LaCl3对甲醛胁迫下4种室内观赏植物降醛能力的影响,筛选出LaCl3提升降醛能力最明显的观赏植物。方法 采用熏蒸法考察检测稀土生物调节剂LaCl3对甲醛胁迫下室内观赏植物抗性的影响,并研究其甲醛抗性的生理生化机制。结果 分别喷施适宜剂量LaCl3后,4种室内观赏植物单位叶面各吸收甲醛 能力均有所增强,提升效率分别为:常春藤15.16%、吊兰4.72%、绿萝19.75%、虎尾兰7.68%;甲醛胁迫下,绿萝叶绿素含量降低了39.87%,质膜透性和MDA累积量分别增加了8.17%、56.92%,POD活性升高了11.32%;经LaCl3预处理后, 较甲醛胁迫组,绿萝叶绿素含量降幅与质膜透性、MDA浓度增幅均变小,而POD活性增幅变大。结论 喷施LaCl3对绿萝降醛能力的提高效率最大。%[Objective] This study aimed to determine the effect of rare earth biological regulator LaCl3 on the absorptive capacity to formaldehyde of four indoor ornamental plants, and to screen out the plant whose absorptive capacity to formaldehyde can be increased most greatly by LaCl3. [Method] Effect of LaCl3 on absorptive capacity to formaldehyde of four indoor ornamental plants was studied through fumigating in laboratory. Simultaneously, the indoor ornamental plant, which could significantly en- hance the degradation capacity of formaldehyde, was screened out to study the physiological and biochemical mechanisms of formaldehyde resistance. [Result] The ability to absorb formaldehyde of four indoor ornamental plants was enhanced by dif- ferent ranges after spraying with LaCl3 at suitable concentrations. The ability to ab- sorb formaldehyde of Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, Chlorophytum comosum, Scindapsus aureun and Sansevieria trifasciata increased by 15.16%, 4.72%, 19.75% and 7.68%, respectively. In the four indoor ornamental plants, the capacity of S. au- reun to absorb formaldehyde was greatly

  13. A survey of the spider family Nesticidae (Arachnida, Araneae) in Asia and Madagascar, with the description of forty-three new species (United States)

    Lin, Yucheng; Ballarin, Francesco; Li, Shuqiang


    ♀), Pseudonesticus dafangensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pseudonesticus miao sp. n. (♂♀), Pseudonesticus spinosus sp. n. (♂♀), Pseudonesticus wumengensis sp. n. (♀), Pseudonesticus ziyunensis sp. n. (♂♀). Nesticella inthanoni (Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980), syn. n. is synonymised with Nesticella mollicula (Thorell, 1898); Nesticella taiwan Tso & Yoshida, 2000, syn. n. is synonymised with Nesticella odonta (Chen, 1984). The female of Nesticella connectens Wunderlich, 1995, so far unknown, is described and recorded from Thailand. Nesticidae are reported from Madagascar for the first time. Nesticella nepalensis (Hubert, 1973) is recorded for the first time from China. Types of Nesticella odonta (Chen, 1984), Nesticella songi Chen & Zhu, 2004 and Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 are re-examined and photographed. The entire genus Nesticella is reviewed, and four species groups are recognised. DNA barcodes of the new species are obtained to confirm their correct identifications. PMID:27895525

  14. 兰坪铅锌尾矿区土壤与自然发生的5种植物的研究%Study on lead-zinc tailings soil and five plants occurring naturally in lead-zinc mining tailings in Lanping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪福俊; 孙浩; 陈玲; 王金华; 熊智


    By investigation and analysis of the soil and the vegetation occurring naturally in lead-zinc mining tailings of Lanping, it is found that the soil of lead-zinc mining tailings is seriously polluted by cadmium,which is 350 times of the background level of soil in Yunnan Province, and then followed by Pb, Zn. The contents of heavy metals have been decreasing with the time of piling up, and there is obviously higher content in center of mining tailing than in the edge. There are many plant populations occuring naturally in mining tailings,among them, five populations are dominant and widespread, the others distribute occasionally in the edge of mining tailings. The five prevalent plants are characterized by relatively strong heavy metals tolerance and accumulation capability in filed, Cyperus microiria have the strongest capacity of accumulation for Cd, Pb. However, the amount of heavy metal accumulation in plant does not approach the hyperaccumulation plant definition. Both Coriaria nepalensis and Elaeagnus pungens have higher capability tolerating heavy metal than the others. These two actinorhizal plants are candidates of pioneer plants for bioremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, due to their symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Frankia.%对兰坪铅锌尾矿区的土壤和自然发生植物的调查分析发现:该尾矿区土壤污染以Cd最为严重,是云南土壤背景值的350倍,其次是以Pb、Zn为主.尾矿区重金属含量随堆积时间而减少,尾矿边缘重金属含量明显低于中心.尾矿区自然发生多种植物类群,绝大多数植物类群零星发生,仅有5种植物为优势类群.5种优势植物对铅锌富集和耐性研究表明,这5种植物对重金属具有较强的耐性与富集能力,虽然莎草对cd、Pb的富集能力最强,但5种植物的富集量均未达到超积累植物所规定的临界含量.研究表明,放线菌根植物马桑与胡颓子的耐性都高于其他3种植物,它们能与Frankia菌共

  15. Taxonomic synopsis of the subtribe Physoderina (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini, with species revisions of eight genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Shi


    (Oberthür, 1883, comb. n. from Physodera; Diamella arrowi (Jedlička, 1935a, comb. n. from Allocota; Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873, comb. n. from Taicona; Dasiosoma bellum (Habu, 1979a, comb. n. from Teradaia; Dasiosoma indicum (Kirschenhofer, 2011, comb. n. from Dianella; Dasiosoma maindroni (Tian & Deuve, 2001, comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1873, comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Orionella discoidalis (Bates, 1892, comb. n. from Anchista; Orionella kathmanduensis (Kirschenhofer, 1994, comb. n. from Lachnoderma. Five names are newly placed as junior synonyms: Paraphaea eurydera (Chaudoir, 1877, junior synonym of Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825; Anchista glabra Chaudoir, 1877, and Anchista nepalensis Kirschenhofer, 1994, junior synonyms of Anchista fenestrata (Schmidt-Göbel, 1846; Allocota caerulea Andrewes, 1933, junior synonym of Allocota viridipennis Motschulsky, 1859; Allocota perroti (Jedlička, 1963, junior synonym of Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873. One new replacement name is proposed: Dasiosoma basilewskyi, nom. n. for Dasiosoma hirsutum Basilewsky, 1949 (secondary junior homonym of Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1892. One species is downgraded to subspecies rank: Anchista fenestrata subpubescens Chaudoir, 1877, new rank.

  16. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks. (United States)

    Swanson, David K


    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  17. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Swanson

    Full Text Available We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7 with deep summer thaw (>80 cm and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large

  18. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl


    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  19. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City (United States)

    Ríos, B.; Torres-Jardón, R.; Ramírez-Arriaga, E.; Martínez-Bernal, A.; Rosas, I.


    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  20. 黎平县退耕还林地草本层物种组成与多样性%Studies on Species Composition and Diversity of Forestland Converted from Cropland in Liping County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王引乾; 孙保平; 赵岩; 周湘山; 钟晓娟


    摘 要:对黎平县不同配置模式退耕还林地草本层进行了物种组成及多样性调查,采用Shannon-Wiener物种多样性指数、Pielou均匀度指数和Margalef丰富度指数对比分析林下物种的多样性变化规律,结果表明,芭茅(Miscanthus floridulus)和野菊花(Flos Chrysanthenmi Indici)为研究区各类型退耕还林地常见的优势种;箬叶竹(Indocalamus longianritus)、节节草(Equisetum ramosissimum)、紫背天葵(Begonia fimbristipula)和黄连(Coptis chinensis)只在特定林下占优势地位;母猪藤(Herba Cayratica Jeponicae)、海金沙(Lygodium japon icum)、鱼腥草(Houttuynia cordata Thunb.)、狗尾草(Setaria viridis)常作为伴生种促进林下物种多样性和生物量的积累.杉木作为优势乔木树种,对于林下物种多样性具有显著促进作用,桤木+香椿和麻栎+桤木的混交模式对于促进物种多样性占有优势.%A survey of species composition and diversity of herb layer in different configuration modes of converting farmland to forestland in Iiping county was carried out. The results showed that Miscanthus floridulus and Flos Chrysanthenmi Indici were the dominant species in almost all types of forestland converted from cropland. Indocalamus hngianritus, Equisetum ramosissimum, Begonia fimbristipula, Coptis chinensis had the advantage only under some specific forest species, which indicated these herbaceous species had sensitivity of the understory habitat. Besides, as the companion species, Herba Cayratica Jeponicae, Lygodium japonicum, Houttuynia cordtUa Thunb., Setaria viridis, usually increase in species diversity and biomass accumulation. There was also an advantage of promoting species diversity for the pattern of Alnus cremastogyne + Toona sinensis/Quercus + Alniis crenwstogyne.

  1. N-fixing trees in wetland restoration plantings: effects on nitrogensupply and soil microbial communities. (United States)

    Chen, XuePing; Yang, JunNa; Zhu, XiE; Liang, Xia; Lei, YanRu; He, ChiQuan


    To investigate the impact of an exotic Frankia nodulated tree (Alnus trabeculosa) on soil nitrogen content, soil microbial composition, and the abundance of N turnover-related functional microorganism community, we compared the community structure and abundance of key functional genes (nifH, bacterial/archaeal amoA, and nosZ) in the rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere of monoculture of Phragmites australis and A.trabeculosa-P.australis mixed communities by MiSeq Illumina sequencing and real-time PCR, respectively. The introduction of Frankia nodulated tree to recover degraded wetland was effective in the accumulation of soil organic carbon and nitrogen, which was the key factor to impact on the bacterial community composition revealed by canonical correspondence analysis. Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant bacterial phylums while seven rare phyla appeared the most phylogenetically different among the investigated soil of two vegetations, including Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria, OD1, OP11, TM6, TM7, and GN02. The gene copy numbers of nifH were ranged from 2.28 × 10(8) to 2.96 × 10(9) copies g(-1) dry soil in the wetland, and which were significantly higher in soil samples from P. australis than that from A.trabeculosa. While the abundance of nosZ in both rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils of A.trabeculosa-P.australis mixed communities was significantly lower compared with P.australis monoculture. The potential nitrification (PNA) (0.15-0.41 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil d(-1)) in the rhizosphere of A. trabeculosa was significantly higher than that of P. australis, and the soil denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) (0.42-0.90 nmol N2O-N g(-1) dry soil h(-1)) was lower in the mixed community compared with monoculture of P. australis. The introduced planting of Frankia nodulated tree effectively accumulated soil organic carbon and nitrogen and reduce the relative abundance and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and denitrification bacteria.

  2. Using combined measurements for comparison of light induction of stomatal conductance, electron transport rate and CO2 fixation in woody and fern species adapted to different light regimes. (United States)

    Wong, Shau-Lian; Chen, Chung-Wei; Huang, Hsien-Wen; Weng, Jen-Hsien


    We aimed to understand the relation of photosynthetic rate (A) with g(s) and electron transport rate (ETR) in species of great taxonomic range and light adaptation capability during photosynthetic light induction. We studied three woody species (Alnus formosana, Ardisia crenata and Ardisia cornudentata) and four fern species (Pyrrosia lingus, Asplenium antiquum, Diplazium donianum and Archangiopteris somai) with different light adaptation capabilities. Pot-grown materials received 100 and/or 10% sunlight according to their light adaptation capabilities. At least 4 months after light acclimation, CO(2) and H(2)O exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously by equipment in the laboratory. In plants adapted or acclimated to low light, dark-adapted leaves exposed to 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) for 30 min showed low gross photosynthetic rate (P(g)) and short time required to reach 90% of maximum P(g) (). At the initiation of illumination, two broad-leaved understory shrubs and the four ferns, especially ferns adapted to heavy shade, showed higher stomatal conductance (g(s)) than pioneer tree species; materials with higher g(s) had short at both 500 and 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF. With 500 or 2000 µmol m(-2) s(-1) PPF, the g(s) for the three woody species increased from 2 to 30 min after the start of illumination, but little change in the g(s) of the four ferns. Thus, P(g) and g(s) were not correlated for all material measured at the same PPF and induction time. However, P(g) was positively correlated with ETR, even though CO(2) assimilation may be influenced by stomatal, biochemical and photoinhibitory limitations. In addition, was closely related to time required to reach 90% maximal ETR for all materials and with two levels of PPF combined. Thus, ETR is a good indicator for estimating the light induction of photosynthetic rate of species, across a wide taxonomic range and light adaptation and acclimation

  3. Analysis on Spatial Structure of Keteleeria evelyniana Mixed Forest in Central Area of Yunnan Province%滇中地区滇油杉混交林空间结构分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦红; 李小英; 左政; 师静


    The stand spatial structure of Keteleeria evelyniana mixed forests in central part of Yunnan Province was studied by means of three parameters including the aggregation index, tree species diversity mingling degree and the tree neighborhood comparison ratio. The results showed that the stand spatial distribution pattern for more than three nearest neighbor trees was uniform. The average species diversity mingling degree of the stands was 0. 232 2, indicating the low mixing degree. The mingling degree of deciduous tree species was higher than the coniferous tree species, while zero mixing was obvious to the Keteleeria evelyniana tree species. The average tree neighborhood comparison ratio was 0. 52, indicating less variation and the stands were comparatively steady, and there was medium level competition among the trees. The distribution of the neighborhood comparison ratio of Keteleeria evelyniana was even, while there was strong differentiation among the associated tree species, The study showed that Pinus armandii and Alnus cremastogyne were the predominant tree species in the stands.%利用聚集指数、树种多样性混交度、大小比数等3个林分空间结构参数对滇中地区滇油杉混交林空间结构进行分析,结果表明:林木空间分布格局表现出以最近邻木3株及以上为均匀分布;林分树种多样性混交度为0.232 2,混交程度较低,以弱度混交为主,阔叶树种混交程度高于针叶树,滇油杉零度混交明显;林木大小比数平均为0.52,变动小较为稳定,竞争处于中庸状态,滇油杉大小比数分布较均匀,其他组成树种分化程度差异较大,华山松和旱冬瓜处于竞争优势.

  4. Soil aggregation and slope stability related to soil density, root length, and mycorrhiza (United States)

    Graf, Frank; Frei, Martin


    Eco-engineering measures combine the use of living plants and inert mechanical constructions to protect slopes against erosion and shallow mass movement. Whereas in geotechnical engineering several performance standards and guidelines for structural safety and serviceability of construction exist, there is a lack of comparable tools in the field of ecological restoration. Various indicators have been proposed, including the fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution, microbiological parameters, and soil aggregate stability. We present results of an soil aggregate stability investigation and compare them with literature data of the angle of internal friction ?' which is conventionally used in slope stability analysis and soil failure calculation. Aggregate stability tests were performed with samples of differently treated moraine, including soil at low (~15.5 kN/m³) and high (~19.0 kN/m³) dry unit weight, soil planted with Alnus incana (White Alder) as well as the combination of soil planted with alder and inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Melanogaster variegatus s.l. After a 20 weeks growth period in a greenhouse, a total of 100 samples was tested and evaluated. Positive correlations were found between the soil aggregate stability and the three variables dry unit weight, root length per soil volume, and degree of mycorrhization. Based on robust statistics it turned out that dry unit weight and mycorrhization degree were strongest correlated with soil aggregate stability. Compared to the non-inoculated control plants, mycorrhized White Alder produced significantly more roots and higher soil aggregate stability. Furthermore, the combined biological effect of plant roots and mycorrhizal mycelia on aggregate stability on soil with low density (~15.5 kN/m³) was comparable to the compaction effect of the pure soil from 15.5 to ~19.0 kN/m³. Literature data on the effect of vegetation on the angle of internal friction ?' of the same moraine showed

  5. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  6. Leaf litter decomposition of four different deciduous tree species - resource stoichiometry, nutrient release and microbial community composition (United States)

    Leitner, S.; Keiblinger, K. M.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, S.


    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the role of microbial communities for ecosystem processes like litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. For example, fungi are thought to be key players during litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems because they are able to degrade recalcitrant compounds like lignin and also dominate the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose, whereas bacteria seem to play an important role for lignin decomposition especially under anaerobic conditions. However, our knowledge about the contribution of bacteria and fungi to decomposition is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to elucidate how the microbial decomposer community is affected by resource stoichiometry and how changes in community composition affect litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. To this end, we collected leaf litter of four deciduous tree species (beech (Fagus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and ash tree (Fraxinus)) at four different seasons (winter, spring, summer and autumn) in an Austrian forest (Schottenwald, 48°14'N16°15'E; MAT=9°C; soil type: dystric cambiosol; soil C:N=16) in 2010. We determined litter nutrient content (micro- and macronutrients) and extractable nutrients and assessed the microbial community by PFLA analysis to test the following hypotheses: (i) tree species affects microbial community composition, (ii) microbial community composition changes over the course of the year, and (iii) narrow litter C:nutrient ratios favour nutrient release. Our data show that litter of different tree species varied in their stoichiometry, with C:N ratios between 16 (alder) and 46 (beech) and C:P ratios between 309 (ash) and 1234 (alder). Tree species had a significant impact on microbial community composition: highest amounts of actinomycetes and protozoa were observed for alder, while arbuscular mycorrhizae were lowest for oak. Bacteria were favoured by litter with narrow C:N shortly after litterfall. During litter decomposition

  7. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil) (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina


    currently growing along the Andean fluvial system on altitudes between c. 2000 up to c. 4800 m. Alnus is an important Andean forest taxa since Pliocene. In summary, the Neogene palynological record of the Amazon Fan strongly reflects and confirms the influence of the uplift of the Andes and its transcontinental character from late Miocene onwards.

  8. Plant-Arthropod Associations from the Lower Miocene of the Most Basin in Northern Bohemia(Czech Republic):A Preliminary Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub PROKOP; Torsten WAPPLER; Stanislav KNOR; Zlatko KVA(C)EK


    Terrestrial plants and insects currently account for the majority of the Earth's biodiversity,and approximately half of insect species are herbivores.Thus,insects and plants share ancient associations that date back more than 400 Myr.However,investigations of their past interactions are at the preliminary stages in Western Europe.Herein,we present the first results of our study of various feeding damage based on a dataset of nearly 3500 examined plant specimens from the Lower Miocene of the Lagerstatte Bilina Mine in the Most Basin,Czech Republic.This site provides a unique view of the Neogcue freshwater ecosystems.It has long been studied by scientists working in different branches of sedimentology,paleobotany,and paleozoology.The fossils are preserved in three characteristic horizons overlaying the coal seam(Clayey Superseam Horizon,Delta Sandy Horizon,and Lake Clayey Horizon),reflecting paleoenvironmental changes in a short time period of development.The trace fossils are classified as functional feeding groups or"guilds",without searching for a direct cause or a recent analog host relation.Approximately 23% of specimens of dicotyledonous plant leaves were found to be damaged and associated with some leaf"morphotypes".Deciduous plant-host taxa,and those with a chartaceons texture typical of riparian habitats,were frequently damaged,such as Populus,recorded with two species Populus zaddachii and Populus populina(57.9% and 31% herbivory levels,respectively),followed by Acer,Alnus,and Carya,averaging almost 30% of damaged leaves/leaflets.There has been evidence of 60 damage types(DT)representing all functional feeding groups recorded at the Bilina Mine,including 12 types of leaf mines and 16 galltype DT.In total,Lower Miocene of the Lagerstatte Bilina Mine exhibits a high level of external foliage feeding types(23.7%),and a low level of more specialized DT,such as galls(4.3%)and leaf mines(<1%).A broader comparison based on DT of the main sedimentary environments

  9. Study on the Armillaria mellea Cultured Wood of Eight Kinds of Trees in Tengchong country of Yunnan Province%云南省腾冲县八种树材用于培养蜜环菌栽培菌棒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋颖; 李立屯


    The aim is searching for more tree species to culture Armillaria mellea.The inoculated time,inoculation rate,growth rate of Armillaria mellea and the properties of tree were observed through the culture of Armillaria mellea in the eight tree species.The result showed that the inoculated time was shortest,inoculation rate was high and the growth rate of Armillaria mellea was faster in Fagus sylvatica and Tamarindus indica Linn; the comprehensive case was good in Craibiodendron yunnanensis W.W.Smith,Ternstroemia gymnanthera(Wight et Arn.),Alnus cremastogyne Burk and Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don.The conclusion was that the six tree species are suitable meterials for culture of Armillaria mellea except Exochorda racemosa and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.%目的:合理利用当地林木资源,寻找更多适合天麻蜜环菌栽培生长的树材;方法:通过前期的三级种培养筛选试验之后,有目的性地选取云南腾冲县八种当地常见树种制成菌棒,每种菌棒种1 m2,三个重复,培养蜜环菌栽培种,观察不同树材的接菌速度、接菌率、蜜环菌菌索生长速度以及树材特性;结果:欧洲山毛榉和酸角树接菌速度快,接菌率高,菌索生长速度也较快;金叶子、厚皮香、桤木、西南桦的综合情况也较好;结论:实验结果证明,八种树材中除了白杜娟和南烛综合情况不理想之外,其他六种树材都适合作为培养蜜环菌的菌材,其中豆科、山茶科和杜鹃花科属于以前没有用于生产过蜜环菌栽培种的的树种。

  10. Linking Watershed Nitrogen Sources with Nitrogen Dynamics in Rivers of Western Oregon, USA (United States)

    Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Goodwin, K. E.


    We constructed contemporary nitrogen (N) budgets for 25 river basins in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon, USA, to improve the understanding of how recent trends in human-driven N loading have influenced riverine N dynamics in the region. Nearly 20% of WRB stream length is currently in fair or poor condition because of high N concentrations. Additionally, nitrate contamination of drinking water affects at least 8,000 people in the WRB. We hypothesized that 1) the majority of N inputs in the WRB would originate from agricultural activities in lowland portions of watersheds, 2) annual riverine N yield (kg/ha/yr) would correspond to annual per area watershed N inputs, and 3) riverine N yields would be seasonal and highest during winter due to the region's Mediterranean climate. We calculated average annual N inputs for each study basin by summing newly available datasets describing spatially explicit N inputs of synthetic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, crop biological N2 fixation, biological N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), livestock manure, and point sources for the period 1996 - 2007. Annual and seasonal riverine N exports were estimated with the USGS model LOADEST calibrated to N concentration data collected during the study period. We estimated that two-thirds of total N input to the WRB study basins in the 2000s came from synthetic fertilizer application. Nearly all fertilizer application occurred on the lowlands near watershed mouths. We found a wide range of riverine N yields from the study basins, ranging from one to 70 kg N/ha/yr. Across the study basins, N export was more strongly correlated to fertilizer application rates than to percent of agricultural area in the watershed. Low watershed N yields reflected a high proportion of watershed area in the forested Cascade Mountain Range, which received low N inputs mainly from atmospheric deposition. N yields from study basins were strongly seasonal, with at least 50%, and

  11. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timme H Donders

    Full Text Available Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values, and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1, as well as in the growing season (T, are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001] in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001. The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural

  12. Holocene rapid climatic changes in the Okhotsk Sea and Amur watershed based on pollen analysis (United States)

    Kokfelt, U.; Tiedemann, R.; Nuernberg, D.; Biebow, N.; Kozdon, R.; Lembke, L.; Kaiser, A.


    Recent investigations in the Sea of Okhotsk reveal high resolution records of rapid past climatic and vegetation pattern changes within this marginal sea and the adjacent Amur river drainage basin. The watershed of the Amur undergoes exteme seasonal as well as longer term climatic changes. A humid SE-Asia monsoon regime in summer is contrasted by cold, dry continental climate of Siberia in wintertime. Thus this region is crucial for our understanding of complex changes and shifts of athmospheric systems in the subarctic Far East and western North Pacific region. Gravity core LV28-4-4 was recovered from the continental margin off NE Sakhalin. Our age model consists of 16 AMS radiocarbon control points from planktic foraminifera and benthic shell fragments fit together by ninth order polynomial regressions. According to this, sedimentation rates exceed 100cm/kyr. Thus to date our investigations gain a temporal resolution of 200-600 years between discrete samples. We use analysis of terrestrial pollen and freshwater algae as proxies for vegetation changes in the Amur catchment area and the adjacent Siberian hinterland. Within this 930 cm long sequence, four pollen zones were distinguished: Pollen zone I (12,600-11,800 years BP), which comprises the Younger Dryas event, was dominated by non-arboreale taxa such as grasses (gramineae) and sedges (cyperaceae). The following pollen zone II (11,800-8,500 years BP) was in general dominated by birch (Betula) and elder (Alnus). The rise of spruce-dominated taiga (Picea jezoensis and P. glehnii) is clearly seen to the end of this zone and shows the preboreal warming. The oldest part of the pollen zone II has distinctly high values of birch and spruce and very low values of gramineae and cyperaceae suggesting a period of intense warming. Pollenzone III (8,500-3,600 years BP) is dominated by darkneedled taiga components and increased oak (Quercus) values and reflects the Holocene climatic optimum. The latest pollen zone IV

  13. Streamflow and Soil Moisture of Agroforestry and Grass Watersheds in Hilly Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang-Cai; TIAN Guang-Long; SHU Dong-Cai; LIN San-Yi; LIU Shu-Zhen


    A study was conducted in a hilly area of Sichuan Province,Southwestern China, to compare the streamflow and soil moisture in two upland watersheds with different land use patterns. One was an agroforestry watershed, which consisted mainly of trees with alder (Alnus cremastogyne Burkill) and cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl.) planted in belts or strips with a coverage of about 46%, and the other was a grassland primarily composed of lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) C. E. Hubb.), filamentary clematis (Clematis filamentosa Dunn) and common eulaliopsis (Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C. E. Hubb) with a coverage of about 44%. Streamflow measurement with a hydrograph established at the watershed outlet showed that the average annual streamflow per 100 mm rainfall from 1983 to 1992 was 0.36 and 1.08 L s-1 km-2 for the agroforestry watershed and the grass watershed, respectively. This showed that the streamflow of the agroforestry watershed was reduced by 67% when compared to that of the grass watershed. The peak average monthly streamflow in the agroforestry watershed was over 5 times lower than that of the grass watershed and lagged by one month. In addition, the peak streamflow during a typical rainfall event of 38.3 mm in August 1986 was 37% lower in the agroforestry watershed than in the grass watershed. Results of the moisture contents of the soil samples from 3 slope locations (upper, middle and lower slopes) indicated that the agroforestry watershed maintained generally higher soil moisture contents than the grass watershed within 0-20 and 20-80 cm soil depths for the upper slope, especially for the period from May through July. For the other (middle and lower) slopes, soil moisture contents within 20-80 cm depth in the agroforestry watershed was generally lower than those in the grass watershed, particularly in September, revealing that water consumption by trees took place mainly below the plow layer. Therefore, agroforestry land use types might

  14. Effects of tree species richness and composition on moose winter browsing damage and foraging selectivity: an experimental study. (United States)

    Milligan, Harriet T; Koricheva, Julia


    The optimal foraging theory, the nutrient balance hypothesis, and the plant association theories predict that foraging decisions and resulting tree damage by large mammalian browsers may be influenced by the species richness and species composition of forest stands. This may lead to either associational susceptibility (increased damage on a focal plant in a mixed stand) or associational resistance (reduced damage in a mixed stand). Better understanding of the mechanisms and the relative importance of tree species richness and composition effects on foraging by mammalian browsers is needed to support sustainable management of forests and mammal populations. However, existing knowledge of forest diversity effects on foraging by large mammalian browsers comes largely from observational studies while experimental evidence is limited. We analysed winter browsing by moose (Alces alces L.) in a long-term, large-scale experiment in Finland, which represents a tree species richness gradient from monocultures to 2-, 3- and 5-species mixtures composed of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.). The intensity of browsing per plot increased with tree species richness while browsing selectivity decreased with tree species being targeted more equally in species-rich mixtures. Tree species composition of a plot was also an important determinant of intensity of browsing. The greatest browsing occurred in plots containing preferred species (pine and birch) while intermediate preference species (larch and alder) experienced associational susceptibility when growing with pine and birch compared with their monocultures or mixtures without pine and birch. In contrast, we found no evidence of associational resistance; the presence of a least preferred species (spruce) in a mixture had no significant effect on moose browsing on other tree species. We

  15. Climate signal detected in sub-fossil and living oak trees data. An analysis of signal frequency components (United States)

    Constantin, Nechita; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Maria, Radoane; Ionel, Popa; Nicoae, Radoane


    This study is focused on analysis the frequency components of the signal detected in living and sub-fossil tree ring series from different time periods. The investigation is oriented to analyze signal frequency components (low and high) of the two categories of trees. The interpretation technique of tree ring width is the instrument most often used to elaborate past climatic reconstructions. The annual resolution, but also, the high capacity of trees to accumulate climatic information are attributes which confer to palaeo-environmental reconstructions the biggest credibility. The main objective of the study refers to the evaluation of climatic signal characteristics, both present day climate and palaeo-climate (last 7000 years BP). Modern dendrochronological methods were applied on 350 samples of sub-fossil trees and 400 living trees. The subfossil trunks were sampled from different fluvial environments (Siret, Suceava, Moldova). Their age was determined using radiocarbon, varying from under 100 years to almost 7000 years BP. The subfossil tree species investigated were Quercus, Alnus, Ulmus. Considering living trees, these were identified on eastern part of Romania, in different actual physico-geographical conditions. The studied living tree species consisted in Quercus species (robur and petraea). Each site was investigated regarding stress factors of the sampled tree. The working methods were applied to the total wood series, both late and early, to detect intra-annual level climate information. Each series has been tested to separate individual trees with climatic signal of other trees with different signals (noises determined by competition between individuals or site stress, or anthropic impact). Comparing dendrochronological series (sub-fossil and living trees) we want to identify what significant causes determined the difference in the signal frequencies. Especially, the human interventions registered in the last 2 centuries will be evaluated by these

  16. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia? (United States)

    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan


    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  17. High-resolution study of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in the Southern Carpathian Mountains (United States)

    Magyari, E.; Jakab, G.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.


    The Retezat Massif of the S Carpathian Mountains abounds in glacial lakes, mainly above 1900 m a.s.l., just above the present day tree limit formed by Picea abies and Pinus cembra in the northern slopes. For the reconstruction of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in this mountain, two lakes were selected: Taul dintre Brazi (1740 m a.s.l.) and Lake Gales (1990 m a.s.l.). Sediments obtained from these lakes extend back to the Late Glacial, and so provide us an exceptional opportunity to study 1) when trees were first established locally around the lower lake following glacial retreat and 2) what tree and shrub species were present and replaced each other in the Late Glacial and early postglacial forests in response to the high-amplitude climatic fluctuation, and in case of the Early Holocene, the high-amplitude climatic amelioration. Pollen, conifer stomata and plant macrofossils were studied from both lake sediments at approximately 100 years resolution. Sediment chronologies were based on multiple AMS radiocarbon dates. Preliminary results from this study show that Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies and Betula nana appeared very early during the lateglacial interstadial, ca. 14,500 cal yr BP followed by Larix decidua around 14,200 cal yr BP. Pinus cembra gained dominance in the Latglacial interstadial forest and survived locally during the Younger Dryas reversal unlike Picea abies. Another important result was the reconstruction of the Early Holocene forest composition around the lower lake that proved much more species rich than the present-day forest; Picea abies grew together with Larix decidua, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Alnus viridis, Juniperus, Betula nana and Betula pubescens during the Early Holocene, furthermore the stomatal record suggested that conifer species were evenly distributed around the lake. In light of our data, the position of the Early Holocene tree line reached 1990 m a.s.l. by ca. 10,700 cal yr BP (i

  18. Ecological Resilience and Resistance in the Hyper Diverse Forests on the Eastern Andean Flank (Mera, Ecuador) (United States)

    Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.


    Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate

  19. Screening of Plants with N Fixation Efficiency and High N Concentration in Leaf Litter of Shanghai%上海地区落叶含氮量丰富的高效固氮树种选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振; 张京伟; 张德顺


    In order to analyze the N exporting ratio of leaves, the relationship between N fixation efficiency and leaf N concentration of different N-fixing trees, N fixation efficiency and leaf N concentration of 29 N-fixing trees were screened in this experiment. The results showed that the trees with high-N-fixation efficiency usually had high-N-concentration in leaves, and there was significant correlation (correlative coefficient was 0.888**) between them. δ15N values ofAlnus traboculosa, Elaeagnus pungens, Elaeagnus pungens 'Maculata',Mucuna sempervirens, Wisteria sinensis, Genista tinctoria, Albizia julibrissin and Myrica rubra were between -0.632‰ and 1.313‰, and the N concentration values of their leaf litter were between 1.288% and 1.628‰. So they all had high capability of N fixation and were preferable plants for soil fertility enhancement.%对29种固氮树种的固氮效率与叶片含氮量进行测定,分析了两者的关系及叶片氮输出率的大小.以此为据,筛选具有较强固氮能力、落叶含氮量较高的树种.结果表明:大多数固氮能力强的树种鲜叶含氮量较高,两者的相关系数为0.888**,达到极显著水平;江南桤木、胡颓子、花叶胡颓子、常春油麻藤、紫藤、染料木、合欢、杨梅8种树种N自然丰度值介于-0.632%~1.313%,落叶含氮量介于1.288%~1.628%,是筛选出的较好的落叶肥田植物.

  20. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner


    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg-1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg-1, Nd 25 mgṡkg-1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg-1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg-1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree

  1. Improving the Flash Flood Frequency Analysis using dendrogeomorphological evidences in the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Spanish Central System) (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Bodoque, J. M.


    The flash flood frequency analysis in mountainous catchments presents specific scientific challenges. One of the challenges is the relevant gradient in precipitation intensity with altitude. Another challenge is the lack of information from rainfall or discharge gauge stations or from documentary sources. Dendrogeomorphology studies the response in the wood growth pattern and the botanical signs on the trees affected by geomorphological processes. With regard to the flood frequency, the dendrogeomorphological evidences bring forward valuable infomation about single past events (with annual or even seasonal precision) and their occurrence periodicity. The main macro-evidence that we can find in the tree trunk is a stem scar originated by a wound in the bark of the tree. When the tree grows, this wound remains reflected in the tree ring sequence. The best way to analyze the tree ring sequence is by using a complete section of the trunk, this couldn't be possible unless the tree is cut down. Due to the unfeasibility of cutting down the trees, in Dendrogeomorphology is enough to obtain an increment core, using a Pressler borer. Nevertheless, this study has been based on complete stem sections analysis facilitated for the felling works in the riverine vegetation in the Arenal River, carried out by the Tagus River Water Authority. These felling works have allowed us to obtain sections and to analyze the stump of the tree in situ. On this way, 100 samples of Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus angustifolia located by the river along the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Ávila, northern slopes of the Gredos Mountain Range in the Spanish Central System) have been analyzed. This village is known for its historical problems of flood during extreme events. A meticulous fieldwork has been carried out. Every sample was analyzed locating its geomorphological position, the distance to the riverbed and the height of the stump in which the evidences were observed. Using a

  2. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.


    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  3. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City. (United States)

    Ríos, B; Torres-Jardón, R; Ramírez-Arriaga, E; Martínez-Bernal, A; Rosas, I


    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  4. Bank erosion and large wood recruitment along a gravel bed river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Picco


    Full Text Available Riverine environments can be very dynamic and complex systems, particularly because of the interaction between active channel and riparian land during flood events of different magnitude. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to large wood (LW, focusing on its role and impact along riverine systems and fluvial landscapes. This research aims to analyze the characteristics of LW recruitment as a consequence of a flood event along a reach of a gravel-bed river. The study was conducted on a 3 km-long reach located in the middle course of the Piave River (north-eastern Italian Alps. A 20 m-wide buffer zone was considered along the floodplains and islands. Every standing tree in this buffer with diameter ≥0.10 m was measured manually (diameter breast height; height, whereas shrubs were not considered. The most common species in the study area are: Populus sp., Salix sp., Alnus sp., Carpinus sp., Fraxinus sp., Pinus sylvestris and Robinia pseudoacacia. An over bankfull flood (Q=1329 m3s–1; recurrence interval=6 years in November 2014 caused erosions along the floodplain (15,565.5 m2, pioneer islands (25.2 m2 and building islands (2085.6 m2, recruiting 690 trees. Four of these trees were recruited from the pioneer islands (0.16 tree m–2, 79 from building islands (0.04 tree m–2 and 607 from floodplains (0.04 tree m–2. Accurate dendrometric measurements were used to define the input volume of LW from the floodplains (86.25 m3, pioneer islands (0.14 m3 and building islands (6.62 m3. The maximum distance traveled by LW recruited from the floodplain, pioneer and building islands was 8927, 1021 and 3727 m, respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant relationship between the displacement and LW characteristics considered (diameter, length, volume, density. These results demonstrate that the recruitment and subsequent transport of LW is a complex mechanism that requires further study. To better characterize these mechanisms

  5. Allelopathic research of subtropical vegetation in Taiwan : III. Allelopathic exclusion of understory byLeucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. (United States)

    Chou, C H; Kuo, Y L


    Leucaena leucocephala plantations in Kaoshu, southern Taiwan, exhibit, after several years of growth, a unique pattern of weed exclusion beneathLeucaena canopy. The pattern has been observed in manyLeucaena plantations in Taiwan and is particularly pronounced in the area where a substantial amount ofLeucaena litter has accumulated on the ground. Field data showed that the phenomenon was primarily not due to physical competition involving light, soil moisture, pH, and nutrients. Instead, aqueous extracts ofLeucaena fresh leaves, litter, soil, and seed exudate showed significantly phytotoxic effects on many test species, including rice, lettuce,Acacia confusa, Alnus formosana, Casuarina glauca, Liquidambar formosana, andMimosa pudica. However, the extracts were not toxic to the growth ofLeucaena seedlings. The decomposing leaves ofLeucaena also suppressed the growth of the aforementioned plants grown in pots but did not inhibit that ofLeucaena plants. By means of paper and thin-layer chromatography, UV-visible spectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography, 10 phytotoxins were identified. They included mimosine, quercetin, and gallic, protocatechuic,p-hydroxybenzoic,p-hydroxyphenylacetic, vanillic, ferulic, caffeic, andp-coumaric acids. The mature leaves ofLeucaena possess about 5% dry weight of mimosine, the amount varying with varieties. The seed germination and radicle growth of lettuce, rice, and rye grass were significantly inhibited by aqueous mimosine solution at a concentration of 20 ppm, while that of the forest species mentioned was suppressed by the mimosine solution at 50 ppm or above. However, the growth ofMiscanthus floridulus andPinus taiwanensis was not suppressed by the mimosine solution at 200 ppm. The seedlings ofAgeratum conzoides died in mimosine solution at 50 ppm within seven days and wilted at 300 ppm within three days. It was concluded that the exclusion of understory plants was evidently due to the allelopathic effect of

  6. Effects of light regimes on photosynthetic characteristics and antioxidant system in seedlings of two alder species%不同光强对两种桤木幼苗光合特性和抗氧化系统的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘柿良; 马明东; 潘远智; 魏刘利; 何成相; 杨开茂


    通过搭建荫棚设置3种不同的光强,模拟森林幼苗生长的旷地(砍伐迹地)、林窗和林下光照环境(分别为100%、56.2%和12.5%的全光照),比较研究了外来种台湾桤木(Alnus formosana)和乡土种桤木(A.cremastogyne)幼苗的叶形态、光合能力、热耗散和抗氧化酶的活性,探讨了两树种幼苗对光强的适应及光保护策略.结果表明:在3种光强下,一定光强范围内随着光强的增加,两种桤木幼苗的比叶重(LMA)、类胡萝卜素(Cars)、类胡萝卜素/叶绿素(Cars/Chl)和抗氧化酶(超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX))活性升高,最大净光合速率(Pmax)、光饱和点(LSP)、光补偿点(LCP)和非光化学猝灭系数(NPQ)具有升高的趋势;Chl含量和瞬时光能利用效率(LUE)降低;净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)、气孔限制值(Ls)升高,胞间CO2浓度(Ci)降低,推测Pn降低的主要因素是非气孔限制,表明两种桤木幼苗均能适应不同的生长光强.生长在相同光强下,桤木幼苗光抑制现象比台湾桤木幼苗严重,台湾桤木幼苗对光强适应能力较强.随着光照强度的增加,台湾桤木幼苗NPQ增加不显著,热耗散较少,相同光强下Pmax和抗氧化酶活性显著高于桤木幼苗,而桤木幼苗随着光强的增加热耗散显著,表明在光抑制时,台湾桤木幼苗主要是通过提高Pmax利用光能和抗氧化酶系统进行保护性调节,桤木幼苗则通过天线系统非辐射耗散将过剩的光能以热能的形式消耗掉.%Aims Our objective was to investigate the effects of different light intensities on leaf morphology, photosyn-thetic capacity, heat dissipation and antioxidant enzyme activities in seedlings of Alnus formosana and A. cremas-togyne from a hilly region near Lingyan Mountain in northwestern Sichuan Province in China. We also discuss photosynthetic acclimation and photoprotection strategies in seedlings of the two

  7. NaCl胁迫对5个引自北美的树种叶肉细胞超微结构的影响%Effect of NaCl stress on ultrastructure of mesophyll cells of five tree species introduced from North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝明灼; 马健; 梁有旺; 谭鹏鹏; 彭方仁


    为明确美国白蜡(Fraxinus americana L.)、茶条槭(Aceginnala Maxim.)、红桤木(Alnus rubra Bong.)、水紫树(Nyssa aquatica L.)和美国皂荚(Gleditsia triacanthos L.)5个引自北美的树种的耐盐性,采用水培方法、利用透射电镜技术对0(对照)、4和8 g·L-1 NaCl胁迫处理后5个树种1年生苗叶肉细胞超微结构的变化进行了观察和比较.观察结果表明:正常条件(0g·L-1NaCl)下,5个树种叶肉细胞在叶绿体形态、嗜锇颗粒数量等方面略有差异,但均未发生质壁分离现象.经NaCl胁迫处理后,5个树种叶肉细胞中的叶绿体和细胞核受到不同程度的损伤,表现为叶绿体膜消失,类囊体片层结构肿胀,叶绿体降解,嗜锇颗粒增大或增多,细胞核的核膜消失、核染色质凝聚;且随NaCl质量浓度的提高,损伤程度均逐渐加剧.4和8g·L-1NaC1胁迫条件下,美国皂荚、茶条槭和水紫树的叶肉细胞发生质壁分离现象,而红桤木、美国白蜡和水紫树的叶肉细胞内出现环状片层.根据观察结果,推测红桤木和美国白蜡对NaCl胁迫的耐性较强,美国皂荚和茶条槭也有一定的耐性,而水紫树的耐性最弱.%In order to definite the salt tolerance of five tree species introduced from North America, such as Fraxinus americana L., Acer ginnala Maxim., Alnus rubra Bong., Nyssa aquatica L. And Gleditsia triacanthos L., using water culture method, the ultrastructure of mesophyll cells of one-year-old seedlings of them after treated with 0( CK) , 4 and 8 g ? L-1 NaCl was observed and compared by TEM technique. The observation results show that under normal condition (0 g ? L-1 NaCl) , mesophyll cell of five tree species has slight difference in chloroplast morphology and osmiophilic granule number, and so on, but no occurrence of plasmolysis. Generally, chloroplasts and cell nuclei of mesophyll cells of five tree species are injured at different degrees after stressed by NaCl, it is presented as

  8. Effects of Freezing Rain and Snow Disaster on the Plant Diversity in the Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%雨雪冰冻灾害干扰对亚热带常绿阔叶林植物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘足根; 袁小兰; 钟梁; 李铭书


    2008年雨雪冰冻灾害后,在崇义县选取了4块亚热带常绿阔叶林作为固定样地,分别记为P1,P2,P3和P4,连续5年监测了雨雪冰冻灾害对其植物多样性的影响。结果表明:雨雪冰冻灾害后的5年内,样地内的马尾松、拟赤杨和桤木消失了,增加了杜英;每块样地重要值排第一的树种在雨雪冰冻灾害后,其重要值都减小了,这些树种主要有槠树、栲树和木荷。雨雪冰冻灾害后,乔木层植物丰富度指数P 1和P3样地增大, P4样地减小, P2样地变化较小;植物多样性指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地变化较小,P4样地减小;植物均匀度指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地基本未变,P4样地变化较小。林下植物种类数增加了黄瑞木、猕猴桃、白背叶等植物,而黄杨、野甘菊、苦竹等植物消失了,铁芒萁和茅草数量增加较多。从2011年开始,林内郁闭度恢复到了灾害前水平。%After freezing rain and snow disaster in 2008,four fixed sample plots (P1、P2、P3 and P4) were selected to measure the effects on the plant diversity of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved for-est in Chongyi County from 2008 to 2012.The result showed that Pinus massoniana,Alniphyllum fortunei and Alnus cremastogyne disappeared,and Elaeocarpus decipiens appeared.The important value of tree species which ranked the first before freezing rain and snow disaster was reduced.These tree species in-cluded Oachestnut,castanopsis fargesii,and Schima superba.The important value of Choerospondias axil-laris increased within five years after the freezing rain and snow disaster.P1 and P2 increased,P4 re-duced,P3 changed little for the Margalef index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 changed lit-tle,P4 reduced for the Shannon-wiener index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 basically un-changed,P4 reduced for the Pielou index of the arbor layer.The species kinds and the species number increased

  9. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi


    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the 3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, pgrass were significantly higher than Platanus soil. The soils from Pine, Birch, Penduculate Oak, forest trails and planted grass were majorly severely water repellent, while Platanus soils were mostly strong water repellent. Soil water repellency of Pine soils had a significant negative correlation with pH (-0.52, ppH (-0.88, ppH, EC and SOM. Acknowledgments POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; Fuegored; RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES

  10. Acid test of joint technical and biological measures in slope stabilisation - Impact analysis of the heavy rainstorm event in August 2005 (United States)

    Graf, F.; Böll, A.


    transport. The development of the biological measures that consisted of cuttings of Salix purpurea and rooted plantlets of Alnus incana combined with a conventional seed mixture (hydro-seeding) was most satisfactory. The natural re-establishment of Salix appendiculata - rarely used in eco-engineering due to the low vegetative reproduction - reveals the underestimated potential of this species. The rainstorm left hardly any destructive marks neither on the vegetation nor on the soil surface. Root excavations in the field and laboratory investigations confirm a high rooting degree. Furthermore, plant association analysis yielded in considerable diversity and a species composition close to natural succession stages. The stability of the "Schwandrübi" was not affected during the heavy rainstorm although some of the sections between the technical structures were too steep compared to the proposed tolerable inclination. A new approach based on the experience of the "Schwandrübi-project" offers the first time to explain this phenomenon with biological effects on soil stability. Previously conducted laboratory experiments were validated with field based investigations conducted in 2006 and confirmed the higher soil stability due to mycorrhizal fungi and better rooting; in terms of an increase of the angle of internal friction Φ' of up to 5˚ . The concept of joint technical and biological measures applied has proven suitable to protect the ski resort above and the subjacent villages. There is evidence that the eco-engineering approach of WSL shapes up as a successful strategy in the long-term, although the complex interactions of the processes that control soil stability do not adjust within 25 years to a steady-state.

  11. Population Characteristics of Mistletoe (Viscum coloratum) in Wandashan Mountain%完达山地区槲寄生(Viscum coloratum)种群特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长宝; 徐增奇; 岳仁杰


    Population characteristics of mistletoe in seven types of host trees of six communities in Laopinggang forest farm were studied from April to November 2012.Results showed that:As a whole,the ultimate distribution pattern of mistletoe was determined by the host trees.However,the distribution pattern of mistletoe on individual host trees was aggregated.In terms of quantitative characteristics,the numbers of mistletoe in host trees was Populus davidiana > Betula platyphylla > Alnus sibirica > B.dahurica > Tilia amurensis var.tricuspidata =Acer tegmentosum >A.mono,and the mean number of fruit in a mistletoe was P.davidiana > B.platyphylla > A.sibirica > A.tegmentosum > T.amurensis var.tricuspidata > A.mono > B.dahurica.Red fruit and yellow fruit mistletoe were found on the same host species and the ratio of these two types was one to one.Genetically,the seeds of mistletoe showed excess propagation and their dispersal process had a close relationship with Bombycilla garrulus.Among these seeds,82% were found on fallen leaves,15% on shrubs and 3% on the trunk of host trees.It was concluded that the distribution pattern of host trees,composition and development degree of communities,living habit of seed dispersers and reproductive strategy of mistletoe itself played major roles in the development of the population.%于2012年4-11月对老平岗林场6个群落中7种寄主上的槲寄生(Viscum coloratum)种群进行了研究,结果表明:以寄主为单位,槲寄生的最终分布格局取决于寄主的格局;而在每个寄主上则呈聚集性分布.从数量上看,寄生强度为:山杨>白桦>辽东桤木>黑桦>紫椴=青楷槭>色木槭;各寄主上单株槲寄生平均结果量为:山杨>白桦>辽东桤木>青楷槭>紫椴>色木槭>黑桦;红黄两种果实型植株的比例近于1∶1.从遗传上看,槲寄生表现出过量繁殖特征;其种子传播与太平鸟存在密切联系,

  12. Soil Humus and Aggregate Carbon and Nitrogen in Slope Farmland with Different De-farming Patterns in Southern Sichuan Province%川南坡地不同退耕模式对土壤腐殖质及团聚体碳和氮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景燕; 龚伟; 胡庭兴


    通过对川南坡地进行退耕试验,研究坡地退耕成慈竹林、杂交竹林、桤木+慈竹林和弃耕地对土壤腐殖质及团聚体碳和氮的影响。结果表明,坡地退耕5年后土壤腐殖质(胡敏酸、富里酸和胡敏素)、活性腐殖质(活性胡敏酸和活性富里酸)及团聚体碳和氮含量、胡敏酸与富里酸比值和胡敏酸E4/E6值,以及可浸提腐殖质(胡敏酸和富里酸)、活性腐殖质及〉0.25mm各粒径团聚体碳和氮分配比例均增加,并呈现出慈竹林〉杂交竹林〉桤木+慈竹林〉弃耕地〉农耕地的变化规律。土壤团聚体有机碳(氮)含量及其分配比例随土壤团聚体粒径的增加呈现出"V"形变化,其最小值分别出现在2~1mm和0.5~0.25mm粒径。说明川南坡地退耕对增加土壤腐殖质及团聚体碳和氮含量、改善土壤肥力状况和促进土壤碳固定具有重要的作用和意义。%The contents of soil humus(including humic acid,fulvic acid and humin),labile humus(including labile humic acid and fulvic acid) and aggregate carbon and nitrogen fractions were studied under slope farmland(CK) and its four de-farming patterns,including Neosinocalamus affinis plantation(NAP),Bambusa pervariabilis×Dendrocalamopsis oldhami plantation(BDP),Alnus crenastogyne+Neosinocalamus affinis plantation(ANP) and abandoned farmland(AFL).After 5 years' de-farming,all de-farming patterns of slope farmland showed higher contents of humic acid carbon(CHA) and nitrogen(NHA),fulvic acid carbon(CFA) and nitrogen(NFA),humin carbon(CHM) and nitrogen(NHM),labile humic acid carbon(CLHA) and nitrogen(NLHA),labile fulvic acid carbon(CLFA) and nitrogen(NLFA) and aggregate carbon and nitrogen,CHA/CFA ratio,E4/E6 ratio of humic acid,and higher proportions of CHA,CFA,CLHA,CLFA and 0.25 mm particle-sized aggregate carbon in total organic carbon and of NHA,NFA,NLHA,NLFA and 0

  13. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992. (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A


    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  14. 喀斯特山地不同景观树种光合色素含量研究——以贵阳市郊区为例%Study on the Photosynthetic Pigment Content of Landscape Plants in Karst Mountain Area: Taking Suburb of Guiyang City as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆兵; 魏媛; 胡刚; 杨萍


    通过探讨不同景观树种的光合色素含量,为喀斯特山地筛选抗逆性强、观赏价值高的景观树种提供理论依据,并促进其生态恢复与景观建设.以喀斯特山地16种景观树种为材料,采用丙酮-乙醇提取法测定了其叶片的光合色素含量.结果表明,16种景观树种叶片的叶绿素a含量、叶绿素b含量、叶绿素a含量+叶绿素b含量、叶绿素a含量与叶绿素b含量比值、类胡萝卜素含量都存在着一定的差异,反映出各树种具有不同的光合生理适应特性.其中无患子、桤木、桂花及乐昌含笑4种景观树种对喀斯特生境的适应性最强,是贵阳市郊区脆弱的喀斯特山地植被恢复的首选景观树种;红叶乌柏、重阳木、飞蛾槭、深山含笑、红花木棉、黄心夜合、鹅掌楸、白玉兰8种景观树种对喀斯特生境的适应性次之,也可选择其作为喀斯特山地植被恢复的景观树种.%The photosynthetic pigment content of different landscape plants was analyzed to provide theoretical basis for training and screening landscape trees with strong resistance and high ornamental value in Karst mountain area as well as promote the ecological restoration and landscape construction. The method of acetone and ethanol extraction measure was adopted to detect the photosynthetic pigments content in the leaves of 16 kinds of landscape species in Karst mountain area. The result showed the contents of Chlorophyll (Chl)a, Chlh, Chl a + Chlb, Chl a/Chl b and Carotenoids of 16 landscape trees were different, reflecting different photosynlhelic physiological adaptation features of each species. Sapindus muhorossi Gaertn., Al-nus cremastogyne Burk., Osmanthus fragrans Lour., and Michelia chapensis Dandy were more adaptable to the Karst habitats, thus were the preferred landscape species for vegetation restoration of fragile Karst mountain area in Guiyang suburb. Eight kinds of landscape species, Sapium discolor (Champ, ex

  15. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon


    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  16. population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dravecký Miroslav


    Full Text Available V rokoch 2011 – 2014 sa realizoval monitoring hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina v ôsmich chránených vtáčích územiach na Slovensku. U 149 hniezdnych párov z celkových 272 úspešných hniezdení počas 4 hniezdnych sezón vyletelo 277 mláďat. Priemerná reprodukčná úspešnosť predstavovala 0,51 juv./prítomný pár, 0,69 juv./hniezdiaci pár a 1,37 juv./100 km2. V uvedenom období bolo okolo hniezd orlov krikľavých ustanovených celkom 151 ochranných zón, ktoré zabezpečili ochranu 119 hniezdnych teritórií, čo predstavuje cca 17 % hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého na Slovensku. Testovaním účinnosti ochranných zón sa zistilo, že v hniezdach s vyhlásenou ochrannou zónou je vyššia pravdepodobnosť úspešného odchovania mláďat v porovnaní s hniezdami bez takejto zóny. Pravdepodobnosť, že hniezdenie bude úspešné v hniezdach hniezdiacich párov bez ochrannej zóny bola 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 37.4–59.0%, v hniezdach s ochrannou zónou 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%. Medzi 5 najčastejšie využívaných hniezdnych stromov na hniezdenie A. pomarina na Slovensku patrí Picea abies 61× (28,4%, Pinus sylvestris 45× (20,9%, Quercus sp. 36× (16,7%, Fagus sylvatica 25× (11,6% a Abies alba 18× (8,4%. Medzi zriedkavejšie druhy hniezdnych stromov patrí Larix decidua 12× (5,6% a Alnus glutinosa 3× (1,4%, ďalších 11 druhov hniezdnych stromov nedosiahli 1 %. Najvyšší počet hniezdnych stromov (n = 215, tj. 34 hniezd (15,8% sa nachádzal v intervale nadmorskej výšky 401 – 450 m a 29 hniezd (13,5% v intervale 351 – 400 m n. m. Ostatné výškové pásma boli pod hranicou 10%. 54% zistených hniezd (116 hniezd sa nachádza vo výškovom pásme 301 – 600 m n. m., 71 hniezd (33% v pásme 600 – 900 m n. m. Najnižšie situované hniezdo bolo v nadmorskej výške 150 m a najvyššie 950 m, priemer bol 595,01 m. Najvyšší počet hniezd (n = 209 bol na strome

  17. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz


    coatings, rather indicates that it developed over a longer time-span and/or warmer climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started developing during the Eemian. Steblich et al. (2009) reconstructed for the period 16.7-14.45 ka BP steppe with Betula (and minor proportions of Larix, Alnus, Picea and Salix). We assume a similar environment for the time of the deposition of the pyroclastics (18.9 ka BP) in the toe slope profile. The character of the steppe was probably more open at this time, but the presence of at least few scattered trees over the steppe is evidenced by a charred tree trunk that was found in the profile. During Holocene, vegetation consisted mainly of deciduous forest, until anthropogenic influence increased from around 1850 AD on. Reference: Steblich, M., Mingram, J., Han, J., Liu, Y. (2009): Late Pleistocene spread of (cool-)temperate forests in Northeast China and climate changes synchronous with the North Atlantic region. Global and Planetary Change, 65, 56-70.

  18. Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records from the Chatanika River valley near Fairbanks (Alaska) (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kienast, Frank; Bobrov, Anatoly; Fuchs, Margret; Sierralta, Melanie; Herzschuh, Ulrike


    ice and sediments of unit C. Pollen data show that spruce forests and wetlands dominated the area. The macrofossil remains of Picea, Larix, and Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia also prove the existence of boreal coniferous forests during the mid-Wisconsin interstadial, which were replaced by treeless tundra-steppe vegetation during the late Wisconsin stadial. Unit C is discordantly overlain by the 2-m-thick late Holocene deposits of unit D. The pollen record of unit D indicates boreal forest vegetation similar to the modern one. The permafrost record from the Vault Creek tunnel reflects more than 90 ka of periglacial landscape dynamics triggered by fluvial and eolian accumulation, and formation of ice-wedge polygons and post-depositional deformation by slope processes. The record represents a typical Wisconsin valley-bottom facies in Central Alaska.

  19. Natural drying methods to promote fuel quality enhancement of small energywood stems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.; Erkkilae, A; Mola-Yudego, B. (and others)


    broad-leaved trees, (Petula pubescens), alder (Alnus incana) and sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) dry faster than pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodge pole pine (Pinus contorta). The results showed that debarking using, e.g. a harvester head, can be quite demanding due to different characteristics of tree species and diameters. The debarking device should be designed so that it could be switched on only when needed. This would ensure that the harvester head could be used to harvest normal timber and also energy wood. In conclusion, the drying season is essential to decrease the moisture content particularly in Finland and Scotland. The results show that the moisture content can be decreased by 15-20% in several months using only solar and wind power if more bark than normal is removed and the piles are covered. (orig.)

  20. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.


    .) influenced by flash flood events were sampled using an increment borer. For each tree sampled, additional information were recorded including the geographical position (GPS measure), the geomorphological situation based on a detailed geomorphological map, the social position within neighbouring trees, a description of the external disturbances and information on tree diameter, tree height and the position of the cores extracted. 265 cores were collected. In the laboratory, the 265 samples were analyzed using the standard methods: surface preparation, counting of tree rings as well as measuring of ring widths using a digital LINTAB positioning table and TSAP 4.6 software. Increment curves of the disturbed trees were then crossdated with a reference chronology in order to correct faulty tree-ring series derived from disturbed samples and to determine initiation of abrupt growth suppression or release. The age of the trees in this field site is between 50 and 100 years old. In the field most of the trees were tilted (93 %) and showed exposed roots (64 %). In the laboratory, growth suppressions were detected in 165 samples. Based on the number of trees showing disturbances, the intensity of the disturbance and the spatial distribution of the trees in the field, seven well represented events were dated for the last 50 years: 2005, 2000, 1996, 1976, 1973, 1966 and 1963. The second field site was a reach of 2 km length along the Arenal River, where the stream is channelized. Here stumps from previously felled trees could be analyzed directly in the field. 100 Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Fraxinus angustifolia (Vahl.) cross sections were investigated in order to date internal wounds. Different carpenter tools, sanding paper and magnifying glasses were used to count tree rings and to date the wounds in the field. In addition to the dating in the field, 22 cross sections were sampled and analyzed in the laboratory using the standard methods. The age of the trees ranges between 30

  1. Effects of different vegetation types on the shear strength of root-permeated soils (United States)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.


    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely studied in recent decades. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the underlying processes that occur prior to triggering superficial failures in root-permeated soil. Thus, appropriate quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is crucial in order to be able to evaluate the stability of a vegetated slope. Direct shear testing is widely employed to determine the shearing response of root-permeated soil. However, mechanical aspects of direct shear apparatuses may affect the shear strength parameters derived, which often remains unnoticed and hampers direct comparison between different studies. A robust Inclinable Large-scale Direct Shear Apparatus (ILDSA), with dimensions of 500x500x400 mm, was built in order to shear root-permeated soil specimens and to analyse the influence of the machine setup on the results, too. Two different sets of planted specimens were prepared using moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland: a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a second set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria. Direct shear tests were conducted on specimens planted with the different vegetation types, at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min up to a maximum horizontal displacement of 190 mm, and under three different applied normal stresses: 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa. Artificial rainfall was applied at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) prior to shearing. Tensiometers had been installed close to the shear surface and were monitored continuously to obtain the matric suction during the saturation process. Suctions were reduced as close to 0 kPa as possible, in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy period of rainfall. The analyses of the above

  2. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sytnik


    ,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of Apodemus genus in the Gran Paradiso National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Debernardi


    >Contributo alla conoscenza del genere Apodemus nel Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso Fra il 1992 e il 2001, sono stati effettuati nel Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso trappolaggi microteriologici, secondo tecniche di Cattura-Marcatura-Ricattura. Sulla base di un campione di dati raccolti in agosto, al genere Apodemus vanno ascritti 25,9% degli esemplari catturati negli alneti (Alnus viridis, 20,9% nei boschi di latifoglie, 12,1% negli ambienti aperti e 3,1% nei boschi di conifere. Da ulteriori trappolaggi, condotti in autunno e inverno nei villaggi del Parco, risulta comune la presenza di Apodemus negli edifici. Cinquantadue esemplari sono stati sacrificati e attribuiti con analisi elettroforetica e/o biomolecolare ad A. alpicola (N=14, A. flavicollis (N=21 e A. sylvaticus (N=17. Gli stessi esemplari sono stati analizzati dal punto di vista morfologico-biometrico esterno e craniologico, accertando la validità per l'area di studio del metodo di determinazione proposto da Reutter et al. Ciò ha consentito di determinare ulteriori esemplari dell'area, prevalentemente rinvenuti all'interno di bottiglie abbandonate nell'ambiente. A. flavicollis (rilevata dalla quota minore dell'area, m 750, fino a 2123 m denota massimi di presenza nei boschi di latifoglie. A. alpicola (rilevata fra 1580 e 2423 m è più abbondante sopra i 1750 m, in alneti e ambienti aperti caratterizzati da un mosaico di elementi rocciosi, vegetazione erbacea e legnoso-bassa. Tutti gli esemplari catturati all'interno di edifici sono risultati riferibili ad A. sylvaticus, ma la specie (complessivamente rilevata fra 750 e 1960 m è stata rinvenuta negli ambienti naturali assai raramente. L'analisi di resti alimentari di Strix aluco e Aegolius funereus raccolti nell'area durante il periodo riproduttivo dei due Strigidi evidenzia un contributo di Apodemus pari al 13,7% delle prede e al 9

  4. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake [Dept. of Forest Soi ls, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Hyvoenen, Riitta [Dept. of Eco logy, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)


    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m{sup 2} respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m{sup 2}. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m{sup 2}), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m{sup 2}), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m{sup 2}). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr). At the

  5. بررسی مقاومت به چسبندگی رنگ‌های شفاف رایج در صنایع مبلمان بر روی گونه‌های چوبی راش، ملج، توسکا و نوئل

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد غفرانی


    Full Text Available در این تحقیق، مقاومت به چسبندگی (آزمون خراش- نوارچسب Cross-Cut رنگ‌های شفاف سیلر- کیلر و سیلر- نیم پلی‌استر، و با توجه به درصدرطوبت، در گونه­های چوبی­راش (Fagus orientalis، ملج (Ulmus smontana، توسکا (Alnus glutinosa و نوئل (Picea  glauca مورد مطالعه قرارگرفت. تخته‌هایی به ابعاد 12×110×550 میلی­متر از قسمت برون چوب و از تخته مماسی تهیه شدند و به مدت یک ماه با رعایت اصول روش­های چوب خشک کنی در هوای آزاد قرار گرفتند. سپس برای متعادل‌سازی رطوبت، به طور مجزا برای رسیدن به رطوبت 8، 12 و 15% در سه اتاق کلیما قرار داده شدند. تمامی سطوح نمونه­ها با استفاده از پیستوله رنگ­کاری شدند و آزمون­های­ مقاومت به خراش بر روی آن­ها انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار مقاومت به خراش، با درصد از دست دادن چسبندگی 4/10%، مربوط به رنگ سیلر- نیم پلی‌استر استفاده شده بر روی گونه­ی چوبی ملج با رطوبت 8% و کمترین مقدار مقاومت به خراش با درصد از دست دادن چسبندگی 6/53%، مربوط به رنگ سیلر- کیلر استفاده شده بر روی گونه­ی چوبی نوئل با رطوبت 15% بوده‌است.

  6. Browning boreal forests of western North America (United States)

    Verbyla, David


    's boreal forest Remote Sens. 2 2729-47 Riordan B, Verbyla D and McGuire A D 2006 Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950-2002 remotely sensed images J. Geophys. Res. 111 G04002 Ruess R W, McFarland J M, Trummer L M and Rohrs-Richey J K 2009 Disease-mediated declines in N-fixation inputs by Alnus tenuifolia to early-successional floodplains in interior and south-central Alaska Ecosystems 12 489-502 Stafford J M, Wendler G and Curtis J 2000 Temperature and precipitation of Alaska: 50 year trend analysis Theor. Appl. Climatology 67 33-44 Stow D, Peterson A, Hope A, Engstrom R and Coulter L 2007 Greenness trends of Arctic tundra vegetation in the 1990s: comparison of two NDVI data sets from NOAA AVHRR systems Int. J. Remote Sens. 28 4807-22 van Mantgem P J et al 2009 Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States Science 323 521-4 Walsh, J E, Chapman W L, Romanovsky V, Christensen J H and Stendel M 2008 Global climate model performance over Alaska and Greenland J. Clim. 21 6156-74 Wendler G and Shulski M 2009 A century of climate change for Fairbanks, Alaska Arctic 62 295-300 Zhang K, Kimball J S, Hogg E H, Zhao M, Oechel W C, Cassano J J and Running S W 2008 Satellite-based model detection of recent climate-driven changes in northern high-latitude vegetation productivity J. Geophys. Res. 113 G03033