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Sample records for alnus nepalensis betulaceae

  1. Influence of roadside pollution on the phylloplane microbial community of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S R

    2008-09-01

    The North Eastern region of India is undergoing industrial development at a faster rate than expected. Roads form the main system of transportation and communication owing to the hilly topography of the region. Automobiles discharge a number of gaseous and trace metal contaminants. Human activities like stone grinding, road construction and sand milling also increase the atmospheric dust and heavy metal contaminant level. These contaminants get settled on leaf surfaces at roadsides and enter in contact with phylloplane microorganisms. This study compares microorganisms on leaf surfaces of alder (Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae)) on roadside and non-roadside environments. Two sites dominated by alder were selected. One at a busy road intersection on the National Highway no. 44 in Shillong with high traffic density (8 000-9 000 heavy vehicles/day), taken as the polluted site and the other one in a forest approximately 500 m away from the roadside considered as the unpolluted site. Analysis of phylloplane microorganisms, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur was carried out from leaves. The bacterial population was higher at the unpolluted site. Bacterial population showed a significant negative correlation with lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur. Similarly, fungal population was higher at the unpolluted site. A total of 29 fungal species were isolated from the phylloplane of A. nepalensis (polluted site 16 species; unpolluted site 28 species). Some fungal forms like Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Aureobasidium pollulans were dominant in the polluted site. Numbers of phylloplane fungi and bacteria were significantly reduced in the polluted site. The correlation coefficient indicated a detrimental effect of metals like lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur on the microbial community of leaf surfaces. The specificity of certain fungi to the unpolluted site may be attributed to their sensitivity to pollution. The predominance of Aureobasidium pollulans

  2. Micorrizas arbusculares en plantines de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae inoculados con Glomus intraradices (Glomaceae Arbuscular mycorrhizas in Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae seedlings inoculated with Glomus intraradices (Glomaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Becerra

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se cita y describe por primera vez la asociación de Alnus acuminata Kunth «aliso del cerro» con el hongo formador de micorrizas arbusculares (MA Glomus intraradices Schenk & Smith. En un bioensayo en invernadero, se inocularon plantines de A. acuminata con fragmentos radicales de Medicago sativa L. colonizados por G. intraradices . Se describe la colonización MA y el tipo anatómico Arum . Se establece la funcionalidad de la simbiosis por la presencia de arbúsculos en las células corticales de la raíz.This work described for the first time the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM development in A. acuminata Kunth «andean alder» with G. intraradices Schenk & Smith. Seedlings of A. acuminata were inoculated with root fragments of Medicago sativa L. colonized by G. intraradices in a greenhouse. The Arum -type and AM colonization are described in A. acuminata seedlings. The presence of arbuscules in A. acuminata cortical cells define a functional symbiosis.

  3. Diarylheptanoids Rich Fraction of Alnus nepalensis Attenuates Malaria Pathogenesis: In-vitro and In-vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Archana; Yadav, Deepti; Mohanty, Shilpa; Cheema, Harveer Singh; Gupta, Madan M; Darokar, Mahendra P; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2016-06-01

    Diarylheptanoids from Alnus nepalensis leaves have been reported for promising activity against filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, and this has prompted us to investigate its anti-malarial and safety profile using in-vitro and in-vivo bioassays. A. nepalensis leaf extracts were tested in-vitro against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum NF54 by measuring the parasite specific lactate dehydrogenase activity. Among all, the chloroform extract (ANC) has shown promising anti-plasmodial activity (IC50 8.06 ± 0.26 µg/mL). HPLC analysis of ANC showed the presence of diarylheptanoids. Efficacy and safety of ANC were further validated in in-vivo system using Plasmodium berghei-induced malaria model and acute oral toxicity in mice. Malaria was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of P. berghei infected red blood cells to the female Balb/c mice. ANC was administered orally at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg/day following Peter's 4 day suppression test. Oral administration of ANC showed significant reduction of parasitaemia and increase in mean survival time. It also attributed to inhibition of the parasite induced pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as afford to significant increase in the blood glucose and haemoglobin level when compared with vehicle-treated infected mice. In-vivo safety evaluation study revealed that ANC is non-toxic at higher concentration. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26969854

  4. Hongos micorrícico arbusculares presentes en bosques de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae) de la Yunga Argentina Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Yungas forests of Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae) Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Becerra; Marta Cabello

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo se citan 22 especies de Hongos Micorrícico Arbusculares (HMA) presentes en la rizosfera de plantas pertenecientes a las familias Betulaceae, Fabaceae, Oxalidaceae, Rosaceae y Caprifoliaceae de la Yunga Argentina. Se dan a conocer como nuevas citas específicas para el país a Pacispora chimonobambusae (Wu & Liu) Sieverd. & Oehl ex Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler y Glomus lacteum Rose & Trappe. Se amplía la distribución para el país de Acaulospora denticulata Sieverding & Toro, A. ex...

  5. Hongos micorrícico arbusculares presentes en bosques de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae de la Yunga Argentina Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Yungas forests of Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Becerra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se citan 22 especies de Hongos Micorrícico Arbusculares (HMA presentes en la rizosfera de plantas pertenecientes a las familias Betulaceae, Fabaceae, Oxalidaceae, Rosaceae y Caprifoliaceae de la Yunga Argentina. Se dan a conocer como nuevas citas específicas para el país a Pacispora chimonobambusae (Wu & Liu Sieverd. & Oehl ex Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler y Glomus lacteum Rose & Trappe. Se amplía la distribución para el país de Acaulospora denticulata Sieverding & Toro, A. excavata Ingleby & Walker, A. laevis Gerdemann & Trappe, A. mellea Spain & Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, Ambispora leptoticha Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Glomus claroideum Schenck & Smith, G. clarum Nicolson & Schenck, G. fuegianum (Speg. Trappe & Gerdemann, G. geosporum (Nicolson & Gerdemann Walker y G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, Scutellospora biornata Spain, Sieverding & Toro y S. dipapillosa (Walker & Koske Walker & Sanders.In this study 22 species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF are cited for the rhizosphere of Betulaceae, Fabaceae, Oxalidaceae, Rosaceae and Caprifoliaceae families of the Argentinian Yunga. Pacispora chimonobambusae (Wu & Liu Sieverd. & Oehl ex Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler and Glomus lacteum Rose & Trappe are new registers for Argentina. The distribution area of Acaulospora denticulata Sieverding & Toro, A. excavata Ingleby & Walker, A. laevis Gerdemann & Trappe, A. mellea Spain& Schenck, A. rehmii Sieverding & Toro, A. scrobiculata Trappe, A. spinosa Walker & Trappe, Ambispora leptoticha Walker, Vestberg & Schüßler, Entrophospora infrequens (Hall Ames & Schneider, Glomus claroideum Schenck & Smith, G. clarum Nicolson & Schenck, G. fuegianum (Speg. Trappe & Gerdemann, G. geosporum (Nicolson & Gerdemann Walker, G. intraradices Schenck & Smith, Scutellospora biornata Spain, Sieverding & Toro and S. dipapillosa

  6. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixation and capability to restore fertility of degraded lands. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 60 days under controlled conditions to validate the carbon and nutrients mineralization potential of alder litter. Soil fertility indicators, i.e. soil organic carbon (SOC, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K were analyzed using standard procedures. Significant differences were observed in the soil properties after addition of litter. Nutrient composition of alder litter was found superior by providing significantly higher organic matter and helped in better nutrient cycling. Therefore, alder based land use system may be replicated in other degraded lands or areas for productivity enhancement which is important for sustaining biodiversity and soil fertility.

  7. 滇西南旱冬瓜天然林的林分特征研究%Study on Stand Characteristics of Alnus nepalensis Natural Forest in Southwest Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 陈宏伟; 杨斌; 史富强; 陈绍安; 李江; 孟梦; 冯弦; 刘际梅

    2012-01-01

    为探讨速生乡土树种旱冬瓜生长特性,对滇西南864株旱冬瓜优良植株生长情况进行调查及统计分析,并选择宁洱县松山自然保护区旱冬瓜天然林开展群落调查.结果表明,旱冬瓜优良资源主要分布于阴坡及半阴、半阳坡,其生活习性偏向于阴性,25°以下的平缓坡面适宜旱冬瓜植株的自然生长;旱冬瓜占优势的自然群落具有乔木层、灌木层、草本层和层间附生植物,群落植物种类丰富,区系成分复杂,主要以热带和温带成分组成为主,其中热带分布属占绝对优势,并呈现出一定的过渡性特征.%In order to find out the growth and stand characteristics of Alnus nepalensis, a fast-growing indigenous species of Yunnan, based on the investigation data of 864 individuals during earlier stage superior tree selection work, the natural Alnus nepalensis communities located at Songshan Nature Reserve of Ning' er county were surveyed. The results indicated that the excellent resources of Alnus nepalensis were mainly distributed at shady slopes and semi-shady slopes, with the life habit of prefer shade, gentle slope under 25?was suitable for the natural growth of Alnus nepalensis. As far as the Alnus nepalensis natural community was concerned, the structure could be divided into tree layer, shrub layer, herbaceous layer and epiphytes between layers, the species composition was quite rich, and the floristic components were complicated, with the tropical and temperate especially the tropical elements as the dominant part, showed the transitional characteristics to some extend.

  8. Efecto de la posición de los frutos en el estrobilo y tamaño de los mismos, sobre el porcentaje de germinación en alnus acuminata h.b.k. (betulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Peña, María Cristina; Orozco de A., Martha

    2012-01-01

    Se ha observado en algunas especies que el tamaño de las semillas puede determinar el mayor o menor porcentaje de germinación de las mismas, especialmente si se trata de especies forestales.En este trabajo se evaluaron nueve tratamientos con el fin de verificar el efecto de la posición de los frutos (semillas) en los estróbilos (basal, media y apical) y el tamaño de los estróbilos de Alnus acuminaia (pequeño, mediano, grande) sobre el porcentaje de germinación, en diferentes  intervalos de ti...

  9. AN EFFECTIVE WAY TO IMPROVE SOIL FERTILITY IN TRADITIONAL AGROFORESTRY: PLANTING ALNUS NEPALENSIS%传统农业生态系统中桤木改良土壤效应研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苏梅; 龙春林; 刀志灵

    2006-01-01

    桤木(Alnus nepalensis)是一种重要的非豆科固氮植物,广泛分布于喜马拉雅山脉东部地区.在东南亚地区的传统农业生态系统中,多用桤木作为休耕树种,或将其与农作物间作.桤木根瘤固氮量随季节和年龄而变化,在桤木-小豆蔻(Elettaria cardamomum)系统中15年达到高峰(155 kg·hm-2);桤木通过共生固氮对系统产生的氮增加量在纯桤木林中7年达到高峰(117 kg·hm-2).桤木与农作物间作可显著提高农作物的产量,桤木-小豆蔻立地上小豆蔻的经济产量是在森林-小豆蔻立地上的2.2倍.桤木休闲地的休闲效果明显好于自然休闲地,其地上部分生物量在休闲6年后是自然休闲地的4倍,N蓄积量是自然休闲地的3倍,P、K蓄积量是自然休闲地的2倍.桤木根系特征似乎最适合混农林系统,其细根生物量(FRB)集中于土壤剖面上层10 cm范围内,在此范围内,FRB在"树+农作物"间作条件下比在"只有树"条件下高5%;在两种立地条件下,60%以上的细根都分布于树干周围0.5 m内,大部分木质根(直径>0.5 mm)都分布于土壤上层0~10 cm处,长度都不超过1 m.桤木可加速系统的养分循环.桤木凋落物降解速率比非固氮植物快,并且与其它植物凋落物混合后的降解速率与自身凋落物降解速率一样快.在传统刀耕火种系统中,用桤木替代自然林休闲在3~6年内即可恢复土壤肥力,改善土壤理化性质,显著缩短休闲周期.该文综述了近30年来桤木在传统农业生态系统中改良土壤效应的研究成果,以提高人们对桤木的生态作用的重视程度,使人们更好地将桤木利用到农业生态系统中,达到发展山区农业和保护生态环境双赢的目的.

  10. Betulaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1955-01-01

    Monoecious, mostly deciduous shrubs or trees with perular buds. Pith triangular in section. Innovations often resiniferous. Leaves simple, (in Mal. spp.) spiral, penninerved, crenate or dentate, rarely entire, mostly with domatia in the nerveaxils beneath, in bud mostly folded along the midrib and p

  11. Honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae), leaf damage on Alnus species in Uganda: a blessing or curse in agroforestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeko, P; Edwards-Jones, G; Day, R K

    2002-10-01

    It is a dictum that Apis mellifera Linnaeus is innocuous in agricultural ecosystems. This study provides the first record of A. mellifera as a significant defoliator of Alnus species. Careful field observations coupled with microscopic examination provided convincing evidence implicating A. mellifera as the cause of leaf perforation on Alnus species in Uganda. Apis mellifera was observed foraging selectively on young Alnus leaves and buds in search of a sticky substance, apparently propolis. In so doing, the bee created wounds that enlarged and caused tattering of Alnus leaves as they matured. Biological surveys indicated that the damage was prevalent and occurred widely, particularly on Alnus acuminata Kunth in Uganda. Incidence of the Apis mellifera damage on Alnus acuminata peaked in the dry season, with up to 90% of leaves emerging per shoot per month damaged, and was lowest in the wet months during peak leaf emergence. Apis mellifera leaf damage was consistently higher on Alnus acuminata than A. nepalensis D. Don., on saplings than mature trees, and on sun exposed than shaded leaves. The activity of honeybees may be detrimental to the productivity of Alnus, yet the substance for which the insect forages on Alnus is a resource with potential economic importance. PMID:12241565

  12. Correlations between the ages of Alnus host species and the genetic diversity of associated endosymbiotic Frankia strains from nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yumei; ZHANG Chenggang; XIONG Zhi; ZHANG Zhongze

    2005-01-01

    Nodule samples were collected from four alder species: Alnus nepalensis, A. sibirica, A. tinctoria and A. mandshurica growing in different environments on Gaoligong Mountains,Yunnan Province of Southwest China and on Changbai Mountains, Jilin Province of Northeast China. PCR-RFLP analysis of the IGS between nifD and nifK genes was directly applied to uncultured Frankia strains in the nodules. A total of 21 restriction patterns were obtained. The Frankia population in the nodules of A. nepalensis had the highest genetic diversity among all four Frankia populations; by contrast, the population in the nodules of A. mandshurica had the lowest degree of divergence; the ones in the nodules of A. sibirica and A. tinctoria were intermediate. A dendrogram, which was constructed based on the genetic distance between the restriction patterns, indicated that Frankia strains from A. sibirica and A. tinctoria had a close genetic relationship. Frankia strains from A. nepalensis might be the ancestor of Frankia strains infecting other Alnus species. From these results and the inference of the ages of Alnus host species, it is deduced that there was a co-evolution between Alnus and its microsymbiont Frankia in China.

  13. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S.

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  14. Actividad antiinflamatoria de d-amirona y 4, 7-dimetoxiapigenina aislados de alnus acuminata

    OpenAIRE

    Salama, Ahmed; Avendaño, Inés Yamile

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo determinó el efecto antiinflamatorio de d-amirona (olean-13(18)-en-3-ona) y 4',7-dimetoxiapigenina (5-hidroxi-4¢,7-dimetoxiflavona), aislados de Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae), por el método del edema plantar en ratas hembra, en dosis de 30, 60 y 100 mg/kg y de 30, 60 y 80 mg/kg respectivamente. Ambas sustancias mostraron una actividad antiinflamatoria significativa. El efecto más alto de d-amirona se presentó a la primera hora en las tres dosis ensayadas comparable con el e...

  15. Don't camp beside the river: structure and dynamics of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata) forests affected by river floods, northwestern Argentina No acampe junto al río: estructura y dinámica de bosques de aliso (Alnus acuminata) del noroeste argentino afectados por crecientes de río

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás A Easdale; SEBASTIÁN SABATÉ; ALFREDO GRAU

    2005-01-01

    Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae) is a pioneer tree that dominates mountain riparian forests throughout the eastern Andes. Early studies associated these forests with particular microclimatic conditions along river beds, but they were later linked to the periodical disturbance regime of mountain rivers. To understand the dynamics of these forests, we analysed tree age and spatial arrangement in two plots along Potrero river and another plot along La Horqueta river, Tucumán Province, north west Arg...

  16. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain AvcI1, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa Grown in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain AvcI1, isolated from root nodules of Alnus viridis subsp. crispa, is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which is able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.7-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.41% and 6,470 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26722013

  17. Research on the Populations Variation of Alnus cremastogyne I. DNA Extracting and Protocol Optimum for PCR%桤木群体遗传分化研究I. DNA提取和PCR条件的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓仁英; 孟现东; 陈益泰

    2003-01-01

    @@ 桤木(Alnus cremastogyne Burk)为桦木科(Betulaceae)植物,主要分布于四川盆地及其周边地区.桤木喜光、喜湿,根系发达,对土壤要求不严,适应性强,在长江中下游地区防护林建设中具有重要作用.

  18. Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G; Sharma, E; Sharma, R; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years. PMID:12096738

  19. Isolation, Nodulation and Characterization of Nodular Endophytes of Coriaria nepalensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the micro-dissection method, 273 actinomycete isolates were obtained from root nodules of Coriaria nepalensis. Twenty four Frankia-like isolates were shown to nodulate the host plants through pot experiment. Phenotypic characterization of ten isolates demonstrated that they were of the typical morpbologieal and cultural characteristics of the genus Frankia. These strains were divided into physiological group A, B and A/B where the latter was an intermediate group between the A and B strains. It was evident that group B but not A strains were able to nodulate the host. However, one strain of the group A/B unexpectedly nodulated the host. The utilization of carbon and nitrogen source for the strains was similar to other Frankia. Some strains were of type Ⅲ cell wall ; others were of type Ⅱ. Whole cell sugar patterns were diverse. Besides the common non-diagnostic sugars, most strains were shown to contain xylose and galactose, some contain xylose, galactose and arabinose and few contain galactose or xylose only. The G+C mol % of strains were ranging from 69 to 74.

  20. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins from Hydrocotyle nepalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui-Jing; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Zi, Cheng-Ting; Gao, Wei; Dong, Fa-Wu; Yang, Liu; Li, Jin-Yu; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2016-04-01

    Five new oleanane-type triterpene saponins including steganogenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), steganogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), steganogenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), chichipegenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (4) and chichipegenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), along with four known oleanane-type triterpenes and triterpene saponins (6-9) were isolated from EtOH extract of the whole plant of Hydrocotyle nepalensis. To the best of our knowledge, oleanane-type triterpenes possessing skeleton with 17, 22-seco-backbone (1-3) are not common in natural products. Compound 8 was isolated as a new natural product. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods and chemical evidence. Moreover, the cytotoxic activity of all the isolates against five selected human cancer cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480) was evaluated and the results indicated that compounds 6 and 7 show stronger cytotoxic activity. PMID:26851174

  1. New Diarylheptanoid from the Barks of Alnus japonica Steudel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new diarylheptanoid glycoside, 1,7-bis-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxyheptane-3-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (1), together with nine known diarylheptanoids (2-10) were isolated from the fresh bark of Alnus japonica which is a species of the genus Alnus species, growing throughout Korea.

  2. Antihypertensive Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Passiflora nepalensis Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Patel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study was designed to investigate the antihypertensive effect of an aqueous extract of the whole plant of Passiflora nepalensis wall (APN in renal hypertensive rats. Hypertension in experimental animals was induced by renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR. The blood pressure, pulse pressure and heart rate fell dose-dependently in renal hypertensive and normotensive rats after intravenous administration of 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg APN, suggesting that APN possesses antihypertensive, hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects. Renal IR significantly increased the levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances and reduced the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 versus control in kidney, which was altered after intravenous administration of 160 and 320 mg/kg of APN, suggesting that APN protect kidney from IR injury (p<0.001 versus renal IR. Histological evaluation showed that renal IR increased, whereas APN decreased the focal glomerular necrosis, degeneration of tubular epithelium, necrosis in tubular epithelium, interstitial inflammatory infiltration, and congestion of blood vessels.   Industrial relevance: Herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of high blood pressure because the modern synthetic medicines have side effects. A large proportion of the Indian population for their physical and psychological health needs depend on traditional system of medicine. Medicinal plants have become the focus of intense study in term of conservation as to whether their traditional uses are supported by actual pharmacological effects or merely based on folklore. Herbal medicines are free from side effects and less costly when compared to synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drugs with fewer side effects, which are affordable and more effective in the treatment of hypertension.

  3. Development and Characterization of EST-SSR Markers in Ostryopsis (Betulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Bing Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A set of expressed sequence tag (EST microsatellite markers were developed and characterized using next-generation sequencing technology for the Chinese genus Ostryopsis (Betulaceae. Methods and Results: A total of 38 high-quality simple sequence repeat (SSR primers were identified, of which 15 could be successfully amplified. Subsequently, we selected 80 individuals to represent the three species of the genus to evaluate the efficacy of these markers for examining genetic diversity of each species in the future. We found that the number of alleles per locus ranged from one to nine, with an average of 3.8. The expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity per locus varied from 0 to 0.829 and from 0 to 1, respectively, with their respective mean values as 0.483 and 0.416. Conclusions: These EST-SSR markers will be useful for evaluating the range-wide genetic diversity of each species and examining genetic divergence and gene flow between the three species.

  4. Penggunaan Ekstrak Buah Barberry (Berberis Nepalensis (DC.) Spreng.) Sebagai Pewarna Dalam Sediaan Lipstik

    OpenAIRE

    Sinurat, Novalina

    2013-01-01

    Barberry fruits (Berberis nepalensis (DC.) Spreng.) is one of millions biological resources which has a potention to be used as a natural colorant, because it has an attractive color. Barberry reddish purple color caused by anthocyanin pigment which can be used as a natural colorant. Natural colorant can be used to avoid a synthetic colorant that possible dangerous our health. The aim of this study was to make lipstick formula using natural colorant from barberry fruits extract. Barberr...

  5. Hedera nepalensis K. Koch: A Novel Source of Natural Cancer Chemopreventive and Anticancerous Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Kondrytuk, Tamara P; Haq, Ihsan-ul; Ullah, Nazif; Pezzuto, John M; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-03-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are often used for both the prevention and the treatment of local diseases. Taking into consideration the medicinal importance of Hedera nepalensis within local Pakistani traditions, the present study was undertaken to analyze the in vitro cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic properties of the plant. The in vitro cancer chemopreventive testing was performed using nitrite assay, NFκB assay, aromatase assay, and quinone reductase 1 (QR1) assay. The cytotoxic potential was evaluated on three cancer-cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results of cancer chemopreventive assays show that n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of tested plant have promising cancer chemopreventive potential. Lupeol isolated from n-hexane as well as ethyl acetate fraction showed lowest IC50 (0.20 ± 1.9 μM) in NFκB assay. Crude extract and its fractions inhibited the growth of three cancer cell lines by more than 60%, IC50 value of lupeol varied from 2.32 to 10.2 μM. HPLC-DAD-based quantification of lupeol in different plant tissues demonstrated that leaves of H. nepalensis are a rich source of lupeol (0.196 mg/100 mg dry weight). Our data have shown that H. nepalensis harbors cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic agents. PMID:26692176

  6. Biocontrol of Postharvest Anthracnose of Mango Fruit with Debaryomyces Nepalensis and Effects on Storage Quality and Postharvest Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Wan, Bin; Feng, Shuhan; Shao, Yuanzhi

    2015-11-01

    Anthracnose is presently recognized as one of the most important postharvest disease of mango worldwide. To control the disease, chemical fungicides for a long time was widely used among fruit farmers, but recently found that pathogen had developed increasingly resistance to it. With people's growing desire of healthy and green food, finding new and environmentally friendly biological control approach was very necessary. In this paper, we provided a kind of new antagonistic yeast which enriched the strain resources and the efficacy of Debaryomyces nepalensis against postharvest anthracnose of mango fruit and the influence on quality parameters were investigated. The results showed that the decay incidence and lesion diameter of postharvest anthracnose of mango treated by D. nepalensis were significantly reduced compared with the control fruit stored at 25 °C for 30 d or at 15 °C for 40 d, and the higher concentration of D. nepalensis was, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol was. Study also found that 1 h was the best treatment duration and antagonistic yeast inoculated earlier had good biocontrol effect on anthracnose. Meanwhile, treatment by D. nepalensis could significantly reduce postharvest anthracnose of mango, delay the decrease in firmness, TSS, TA, and ascorbic acid value, and do not impair surface color during postharvest storage. Moreover, the increase in MDA (malondialdehyde) content and increase in cell membrane permeability of fruit treated by D. nepalensis was highly inhibited. The results suggested D. nepalensis treatment could not only maintain storage quality of mango fruit, but also decrease the decay incidence to anthracnose disease. All these results indicated that D. nepalensis has great potential for development of commercial formulations to control postharvest pathogens of mango fruit.

  7. Multi response optimization for enhanced xylitol production by Debaryomyces nepalensis in bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Pappu, J. Sharon Mano; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the optimization of different process variables—pH (4–6), aeration rate (200–550 rpm) and agitation rate (0.6–1.8 vvm) were investigated using rotating simplex method and uniform design method to enhance xylitol production from xylose by D. nepalensis in a batch stirred tank bioreactor. Maximum xylitol productivity (0.576 g L−1 h−1) was obtained at pH 4.0, agitation 300 rpm and aeration 1.5 vvm by rotating simplex method. Individual optimum values of pH, agitation and aeration ...

  8. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain CN3, an atypical, noninfective (Nod-) ineffective (Fix-) isolate from Coriaria nepalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sen, Arnab; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain CN3, which was isolated from Coriaria nepalensis. This genome sequence is the first from the fourth lineage of Frankia, strains of which are unable to reinfect actinorhizal plants. At 10 Mb, it represents the largest Frankia genome sequenced to date. PMID:23516212

  9. Allometric models for estimating biomass and carbon in Alnus acuminata

    OpenAIRE

    William Fonseca; Laura Ruíz; Marylin Rojas; Federico Allice

    2013-01-01

    In order to quantify the climate change mitigation potential of forest plantations, information on total biomass and its growth rate is required. Depending on the method used, the study of the biomass behavior can be a complex and expensive activity. The main objective of this research was to develop allometric models to estimate biomass for different tree components (leaves, branches, stem and root) and total tree biomass in Alnus acuminata (Kunth) in Costa Rica. Additionally, models were de...

  10. Holocene changes of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata) in highland Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chengyu; Bush, Mark B.; Chepstow-Lusty, Alex J.

    2004-10-01

    Fossil pollen records from the high Andes of Ecuador and northern Peru show that Alnus increased in abundance at most sites following warming associated with the onset of the Holocene. The peak of Alnus pollen abundance occurred between 9000 and 5000 yr BP. However, between 6500 and 4500 yr BP, the abundance of Alnus pollen declined markedly in all of the available records, including sites both within and above its modern distribution range. Even though the beginning of this decline may have been time-transgressive, the greatest reduction of Alnus abundance is consistent between sites, occurring at ca. 4500 yr BP. This synchrony suggests that one or more factors affected Alnus populations across the whole region. A cooler climate, droughts and anthropogenic activity are discussed as possible causes on such a large spatial scale. A scenario is suggested in which the early-mid Holocene increase in Alnus populations was curtailed by droughts, and then further impacted by major regional cooling from ca. 5000 yr BP onwards. Human agricultural activities in this wetter interval may also have delayed Alnus recovery. A resurgence of Alnus populations at 2000-1000 yr BP may have been a response to regional warming coupled with human land management practices. Copyright

  11. Evaluation of Alnus species and hybrids. [For biomass energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.B. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (US). Dept. of Forestry); Burgess, D. (Petawawa National Forestry Inst., Chalk River, Ontario (CA))

    1990-01-01

    Trials of a common set of seed lots representing 39 parents and five species of Alnus have been started in four countries: Belgium, Canada, the UK, and the US. Initial results indicate that cold hardiness is a problem in using A. acuminata but that sufficiently hardy A. rubra sources are available. A. glutinosa had the best growth in the nursery, and A. cordata had the best survival under severe moisture-stress conditions. A summary also is given of a workshop on alder improvement that further demonstrates the potential for developing the genus for biomass energy production. (author).

  12. Allometric models for estimating biomass and carbon in Alnus acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fonseca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify the climate change mitigation potential of forest plantations, information on total biomass and its growth rate is required. Depending on the method used, the study of the biomass behavior can be a complex and expensive activity. The main objective of this research was to develop allometric models to estimate biomass for different tree components (leaves, branches, stem and root and total tree biomass in Alnus acuminata (Kunth in Costa Rica. Additionally, models were developed to estimate biomass and carbon in trees per hectare and for total plant biomass per hectare (trees + herbaceous vegetation + necromass. To construct the tree models, 41 sampling plots were evaluated in seven sites from which 47 trees with a diametric from 4.5 to 44.5 cm were selected to be harvested. In the selected models for the stem, root and total tree biomass, a r 2 >93.87 % was accomplished, while the r 2aj for leaves and branches was 88 %. For the biomass and carbon models for total trees and total plant biomass per hectare the r2 was >99 %. Average biomass expansion factor was 1.22 for aboveground and 1.43 for total biomass (when the root was included. The carbon fraction in plant biomass varied between 32.9 and 46.7 % and the percentage of soil carbon was 3 %.

  13. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. strains CN3 , an atypical, non-infective (Nod-) ineffective (Fix-) isolate from Coriaria nepalensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten [University of New Hampshire; Beauchemin, Nicholas [University of New Hampshire; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Furnholm, Teal [University of New Hampshire; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gtari, Maher [University of New Hampshire; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nouioui, Imen [University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Santos, Catarina [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Sen, Arnab [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Sur, Saubashya [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tavares, Fernando [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Hazuki, Teshima [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thakur, Subarna [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Wall, Luis [University of Quilmes, Argentina; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tisa, Louis S. [University of New Hampshire

    2013-01-01

    We report here the genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain CN3, which was isolated from Coriaria nepalensis. This genome sequence is the first from the fourth lineage of Frankia, that are unable to re-infect actinorhizal plants. At 10 Mb, it represents the largest Frankia genome sequenced to date.

  14. Validation of Two Names Betula jiulungensis (Betulaceae) and Rubia ovatifolia (Rubiaceae)%九龙桦(桦木科)与卵叶茜草(茜草科)名称的合格发表

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林祁

    2007-01-01

    由于同时指定两号标本为模式,桦木科(Betulaceae)的九龙桦(Betula jiulungensis Hu exP.C.Li)和茜草科(Rubiaceae)的卵叶茜草(Rubia ovatifolia Z.Y.Zhang)是不合格发表的名称.现通过分别指定主模式,对九龙桦和卵叶茜草的名称作合格发表.

  15. 光照条件对旱冬瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响%Effect of Light on Germination of Seed and Seedling Growth of Alnus nepalensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文华; 张光飞; 庞慧仙; 张毅宁; 马骏; 王晋; 施荣林

    2003-01-01

    种子萌发及幼苗光合实验的结果表明,旱冬瓜种子具有需光萌发的特性,黑暗中即使种子处在适于萌发的温度和水分条件下,种子仍保持休眠状态,需接受光照刺激才能解除休眠而萌发,故播种育苗时种子不宜盖土.旱冬瓜幼苗生长的初期光补偿点为12 μmol/m2s,光饱和点为1 000 μmol/m2s,具有一定的耐阴能力,适宜在50 %遮荫条件下生长.随着月龄的增加,耐阴能力下降.6月龄苗光合补偿点上升到21 μmol/m2s,光饱和点超过2 000 μmol/m2s,只有在全光照的条件下才能生长良好,遮荫会降低幼苗高生长量和基径粗生长量.晴天,旱冬瓜幼苗光合作用存在"午睡现象",当植株处于缺水状态时,光合作用的"午睡现象"会更加强烈.表明旱冬瓜适宜种植在次生裸地或撂荒地,种植后应及时除草进行透光抚育.

  16. Ineffective Frankia strains in wet stands of Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn. in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, D.J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Van Dijk, C.

    1997-01-01

    Nodulation experiments using Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn. (black alder) seedlings as hosts and soil suspensions as inoculants were made to determine the presence and relative amounts of ineffective (non-nitrogen fixing but infectious) Frankia strains in 10 waterlogged soils of natural alder stands in

  17. Phylogenetic characterization of ineffective Frankia in Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. nodules from wetland soil inoculants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, D.J.; Van Dijk, C.; Zoetendal, E.G.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    1997-01-01

    Ineffective Frankia endophytes were retrieved from various wet soils by using Alnus glutinosa clones as trapping plants. No pure cultures could be isolated from these ineffective nodules. Therefore, the phylogenetic position of these endophytes was determined by sequence analysis of cloned PCR produ

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Mexican Alnus forests support the host co-migration hypothesis and continental-scale patterns in phylogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter G; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Higgins, Logan M; Angeles-Arguiz, Rodolfo

    2011-08-01

    To examine the geographic patterns in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal assemblages and determine how they may relate to host plant biogeography, we studied ECM assemblages associated with two Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and Alnus jorullensis) in montane Mexico and compared them with Alnus-associated ECM assemblages located elsewhere in the Americas. ECM root samples were collected from four sites in Mexico (two per host species), identified with ITS and LSU rRNA gene sequences, and assessed using both taxon- (richness, diversity, evenness indices) and sequence divergence-based (UniFrac clustering and significance) analyses. Only 23 ECM taxa were encountered. Clavulina, an ECM lineage never before reported with Alnus, contained the dominant taxon overall. ECM assemblage structure varied between hosts, but UniFrac significance tests indicated that both associated with similar ECM lineage diversity. There was a strikingly high sequence similarity among a diverse array of the ECM taxa in Mexico and those in Alnus forests in Argentina, the United States, and Europe. The Mexican and United States assemblages had greater overlap than those present in Argentina, supporting the host-ECM fungi co-migration hypothesis from a common north temperate origin. Our results indicate that Alnus-associated ECM assemblages have clear patterns in richness and composition across a wide range of geographic locations. Additional data from boreal western North America as well as the eastern United States and Canada will be particularly informative in further understanding the co-biogeographic patterns of Alnus and ECM fungi in the Americas. PMID:21331794

  19. Don't camp beside the river: structure and dynamics of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata forests affected by river floods, northwestern Argentina No acampe junto al río: estructura y dinámica de bosques de aliso (Alnus acuminata del noroeste argentino afectados por crecientes de río

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMÁS A EASDALE

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata (Betulaceae is a pioneer tree that dominates mountain riparian forests throughout the eastern Andes. Early studies associated these forests with particular microclimatic conditions along river beds, but they were later linked to the periodical disturbance regime of mountain rivers. To understand the dynamics of these forests, we analysed tree age and spatial arrangement in two plots along Potrero river and another plot along La Horqueta river, Tucumán Province, north west Argentina. Through intensive tree coring and age reconstruction we identified similar-aged tree cohorts with maximum age ranges of eight years. Tree mapping and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation analysis showed that tree cohorts were spatially clumped, and provided further evidence that coetaneous patches of A. acuminata arise from massive regeneration following catastrophic flooding events. We tested the association between cohort initiation dates and regional maximum river discharge records by means of a randomization procedure and found weak evidence that establishment occurs after devastating floods, which eliminate previous vegetation and create bare sites suitable for A. acuminata regeneration. Dates of tree floodscars sampled along Potrero river precede by one year the most recent cohort initiation date and provide further support of this association. Although previous studies found a positive correlation between El Niño events and mean annual precipitation in northwestern Argentina, we did not detect an association between El Niño and annual maximum stream flow for rivers in Tucumán Province. Therefore, factors driving devastating floods and A. acuminata stand initiation require further studyEl aliso (Alnus acuminata, Betulaceae es un árbol pionero que domina bosques riparios de montaña en los Andes orientales. Estudios iniciales atribuyeron la presencia de estos bosques a las típicas condiciones microclimáticas de cauces de ríos, pero luego

  20. Greenhouse seedlings of Alnus showed low host intrageneric specificity and a strong preference for some Tomentella ectomycorrhizal associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhra, Eduardo; Pastor, Nicolás; Becerra, Alejandra; Sarrionandia Areitio, Estibaliz; Geml, József

    2015-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal associates of Alnus are relatively few in comparison with those associated with other tree hosts. The composition of ECM assemblages associated with Alnus seems to change very little across the Northern Hemisphere. However, Alnus-associated ECM assemblages from the Western United States, Mexico, and Argentina tend to differ from those in eastern North America and Europe, presumably due to their different biogeographic histories. Alnus glutinosa is a northern European species subjected to diverse environmental conditions. To address intrageneric host preference within two distantly related Alnus species (Alnus acuminata and A. glutinosa), we tested the ECM colonization on seedlings of both species inoculated with natural soil from A. acuminata forests. Two tomentelloid ECM fungi from A. acuminata natural soils were determined from the anatomotyping and molecular analysis. Both species colonized A. glutinosa seedlings and presented similar relative abundances. Additional soil sequence data from A. acuminata sites suggest that a variety of tomentelloid taxa occur, including several unidentified Tomentella lineages. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences from various locations do not reflect associations of taxa based on their biogeographic origin, and clades are in general constituted by sequences from diverse regions, including South America, Mexico, USA, and Europe. Results illustrate the probable role of specific tomentelloid fungi in the early colonization of seedlings in A. acuminata forests as well as their importance in the structure of the ECM propagule community at the sites. PMID:25370884

  1. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. PMID:24895428

  2. 常春藤离体快繁技术%In vitro rapid propagation of Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张存旭; 杨锋利; 袁秀平

    2005-01-01

    以常春藤Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis茎段为外植体,研究了培养基、植物生长调节物质和移栽基质对常春藤离体快繁的影响.结果表明:起始和增殖培养中高盐质量浓度的MS培养基好于低盐培养基WPM和B5.增殖培养时,在培养基中同时添加2.0 mg·L-16-BA和1.0 mg·L-1GA3为佳,增殖系数可达到4.以1/2 MS为基本培养基,虽然不添加任何生长调节物质亦能获得高生根率,但附加0.10 mg·L-1NAA能更好地促进根系发育.移栽基质选用腐质土,成活率可达80%以上.用自来水代替蒸馏水,白砂糖代替蔗糖,对常春藤试管苗的增殖和生长无显著影响,可降低培养成本.表6参9

  3. Alnus subcordata C.A.M. Cambium Cells Dynamics Along Transport Corridors in Hyrcanian Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Parsakhoo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, we considered transport corridors and sampling aspects to be the major indicators of ecological effects on Alder (Alnus subcordata cambium cells dynamics. Approach: Thus, 240 cores were taken from forest-facing and road-facing trunk of Alder trees along Amre, Neka and Darab Kola transport corridors in hyrcanian Forests of Iran. Results showed that the roads corridor had significant effects on Alnus subcordata annual rings (p = 0.04 and bark growth (pResults: In Darab Kola and Neka the bark thickness in road-facing aspect was significantly (pConclusion: Cambium cells dynamic diagram in production of annual rings indicated that the Alnus subcordata at commence of growth had been produced wide rings but in continuance the rings width reduced. This reduction was obviously for road-facing cores. Soil compaction, drainage structures, natural hazards and etc caused the thinner rings to be produced by cambium cells in road-facing aspect.

  4. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rezaei-Taleshi SA. 2014. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas. Biodiversitas 15: 37-45. Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  5. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain ACN1ag, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus glutinosa

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S.

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain ACN1ag is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which are able to re-infect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.5-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.35% and 5,687 candidate protein-encoding genes.

  6. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence of Frankia sp. Strain ACN1ag, a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium Isolated from the Root Nodules of Alnus glutinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Erik; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strain ACN1(ag) is a member of Frankia lineage Ia, which are able to re-infect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report a 7.5-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G+C content of 72.35% and 5,687 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:26679592

  7. Missing checkerboards? An absence of competitive signal in Alnus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kennedy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies suggest that interspecific competition plays a key role in determining the structure of ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal communities. Despite this growing consensus, there has been limited study of ECM fungal community dynamics in abiotically stressful environments, which are often dominated by positive rather than antagonistic interactions. In this study, we examined the ECM fungal communities associated with the host genus Alnus, which live in soils high in both nitrate and acidity. The nature of ECM fungal species interactions (i.e., antagonistic, neutral, or positive was assessed using taxon co-occurrence and DNA sequence abundance correlational analyses. ECM fungal communities were sampled from root tips or mesh in-growth bags in three monodominant A. rubra plots at a site in Oregon, USA and identified using Illumina-based amplification of the ITS1 gene region. We found a total of 175 ECM fungal taxa; 16 of which were closely related to known Alnus-associated ECM fungi. Contrary to previous studies of ECM fungal communities, taxon co-occurrence analyses on both the total and Alnus-associated ECM datasets indicated that the ECM fungal communities in this system were not structured by interspecific competition. Instead, the co-occurrence patterns were consistent with either random assembly or significant positive interactions. Pair-wise correlational analyses were also more consistent with neutral or positive interactions. Taken together, our results suggest that interspecific competition does not appear to determine the structure of all ECM fungal communities and that abiotic conditions may be important in determining the specific type of interaction occurring among ECM fungi.

  8. Isolation and study of leaf proteins from trees. [Betula pendula, Polulus tremula, and Alnus incana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruvere, V.A.; Alksne, A.Ya.; Galvans, U.I.; Polis, O.R.

    1978-01-01

    The crude protein content of fresh leaves of (a) Betula pendula, (b) Polulus tremula and (c) Alnus incana, 10-15 years old was 18-23% of DM. Some l7 amino acids were found in analyses of purfied protein powder extracted for (a) and (b), the most abundant being glutamic acid, leucine, aspartic acid, phenylanaline and lysine. The 11 essential amino acids for pig and poultry rations constituted 60% of the total amino acids weight; the powder is equal in quality to traditional protein feeds.

  9. Informe preliminar sobre aspectos de la biología del aliso (alnus acuminata h.b.k.)

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés de Granada, Emira; Orozco de Amézquita, Martha; Correa de Restrepo, Martha; Cogua Suárez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Las especies del género Alnus se consideran de gran Importancia porque la raíz se asocia simblóticamente con Actinomycetes, formando nódulos fijadores de nitrógeno atmosférico, siendo este el principal mecanismo para la Incorporación de nitrógeno reducido en suelos pobres (Burns y Hardy, 1975; Torrey, 1976; Normand y Lalonde, 1982). En colombia el Aliso (Alnus acumlnata H.B.K.), se encuentra ampliamente distribuido y se ha Iniciado su utilizAción en proyectos de reforestación (Cáceres y Oyola...

  10. A comparative study on plant diversity in alder (Alnus subcordata stands of natural and plantation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEYED ALIAKBAR REZAEI TALESHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diversity index is the useful criteria for evaluating sustainability of forest ecosystems. Current study carried out in Alder (Alnus subcordata C.A. Meyer stands that located in north forests of Iran. The aim of the study is express the plant diversity indices and positive role of the trees both natural and plantation forms. Data of Alder trees and associated species were recorded in sample plots which lay down in study area randomly. The abundance, density, percentage of frequency of each species was calculated by standard methods. The results of analysis revealed that, 47 species (21 trees and shrubs species and 26 herbaceous species were abundant in 80 sample plots both in natural and plantations Alder stands. Whilst the results showed that the number of species in natural area (44 species was more than plantation stands (37 species. Comparison of species distribution in different physiographical situation showed that some species such as Alnus subcordata, Parrotia persica, Rubus hyrcanus and Prunus sp. recorded in spread rang of physiographic variables as elevation, slopes and aspects. The biodiversity criteria as Shannon H’ and Simpsons D and 1/D indexes showed that they were more in natural stands than plantation areas.

  11. Susceptibility of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) seeds and seedlings to Phytophthora alni and other Phytophthora species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M. M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Phytophthora alni is a highly destructive host specific pathogen to alders (Alnus spp.) spreading all over Europe. Recently this pathogen has been reported to cause diseases in common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in Spain. Seeds and seedlings of A. glutinosa were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to alder Phytophthora and other Phytophthora species. Isolates of P. alni ssp. alni, P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. nicotianae and P. palmivora were used in the experiments. Seeds and seedlings were inoculated with a zoospore suspension and uniform mycelial blocks of agar of the Phytophthora species. Susceptibility was calculated in terms of pathogen virulence on seed germination and seedling mortality 42 and 67 days after inoculation respectively. Seed germination and seedling mortality rates varied differently among the isolates used. Results implied that common alder and its seeds and seedlings are at risk to be infected by P. alni. In addition, other Phytophthora species are able to infect this kind of material showing their relative host non-specificity. This is one important finding concerning alder regeneration in infected areas, and the possibility of disease spread on this plant material. (Author) 42 refs.

  12. Colletotrichum Species on Hedera nepalensis in Southwest China%西南地区常春藤炭疽病病原鉴定1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨友联; 刘作易

    2013-01-01

    To explore the species on Hedera nepalensis associated with anthracnose in Guizhou, Sichuan, and Yunnan, China, the anthracnose pathogens on the plant have been isolated by using single-spore isolation method. Based on morphological studies and ITS phylogenetic analysis, the phytopathogen was identified as Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke.%为弄清引起云南、贵州和四川3省常春藤炭疽病的病原菌种类,采用单胞分离法对引起3省炭疽病的常春藤病原进行了分离。通过显微形态特征和ITS分子系统学研究表明,常春藤炭疽病病原为常春藤炭疽菌(Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke)。

  13. Photosynthetic Characteristics of Hedera nepalensis var.sinednsis Rehd.in Autumn%常春藤秋季光合日变化特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤扬; 刘香坤; 刘梅; 许斌; 汤军; 李远远; 王钰清

    2012-01-01

    Diumal photoeynthetic characteristics of three-year-old ivy (Hedera nepalensis var. Sinednsis Rehd.) was determined by a Li-6400 photosynthesis system. The result showed that the ivy net photosynthetic rale presented a two-peak pattern curve, and "midday depression" phenomenon was not significant. The peak of net photosynthetic rate emerged at 8:00 am, and the sub-peak emerged at 11:00 am. The maximum net photosynthetic rate was 4.943 3 μmol/(m1·s). There was a positive relation between the net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate and slomatal conductance, while a negative relation between the net photosynthetic rate and intracellular CO2 concentration. The photosynthetic characters of diurnal variation indicted that ivy was a typical shade-tolerant plant; and it showed a strong adaptability to the light.%采用Li-6400光合测定系统,以三年生常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var.sinednsis Rehd.)为研究对象,测定其秋季光合特性日变化.结果表明,常春藤净光合速率日变化呈双峰曲线,“午休”现象并不明显,净光合速率最高峰出现在8:00,次峰出现在11:00,日最大净光合速率为4.943 3 μmol/(m2·s).净光合速率与蒸腾速率、气孔导度呈正相关,与胞间CO2浓度呈负相关.常春藤的光合日变化特性表明其为典型的耐阴植物,对光照的适应性较强.

  14. Constituyentes antifungicos en nódulos radicales de alnus acuminata h.b.k.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Suarez, Margot; Garcés de Granada, Emira; Orozco de Amezquita, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Alnus acuminata. H.B.K. es una especie nativa de importancia económica que se caracteriza por tener nódulos radicalesfijadores de nitrógeno. La composición química de los nódulos no se ha establecido; sin embargo, se ha observado que actúa sobre la microflora del suelo. Con el fin de establecer la composición química de las fracciones obtenidas, se.realizaron extracciones a partir de nódulos de Aliso. Los compuestosaislados 'fueron: xilosa y ribosa; además se caracterizaron un ácido carboxíli...

  15. Ectomycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Alejandra; Pritsch, Karin; Arrigo, Nilda; Palma, Martha; Bartoloni, Norberto

    2005-01-01

    Colonisation ectomycorrhizienne d'Alnus acuminata Kunth au nord-ouest de l'Argentine en relation avec la saison et quelques paramètres du sol. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer, au cours de deux différentes saisons (août et printemps), les modèles de colonisation de l'aulne andin dans deux forêts naturelles en relation avec quelques paramètres de sol. Les paramètres de sol étudiés étaient la capacité au champ, le pH, la conductivité électrique, le P disponible, le N total et la matièr...

  16. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs. PMID:25619188

  17. Ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes and Gyrodon monticola with Alnus acuminata from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra; Nouhra, Eduardo; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; McKay, Donaraye

    2005-01-01

    Field ectomycorrhizas of Cortinarius helodes Moser, Matheny & Daniele (sp. nov) and Gyrodon monticola Sing. on Alnus acuminata Kunth (Andean alder, aliso del cerro) are described based on morphological and anatomical features. Ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath fruitbodies of C. helodes and G. monticola from two homogeneous A. acuminata forest sites located in Tucuman and Catamarca Provinces in Argentina. C. helodes ectomycorrhizas showed a thick white to beige mantle exuding a milky juice when injured, were bluish toward the apex, and had hyphal strands in the mantle. G. monticola ectomycorrhizas showed some conspicuous features like highly differentiated rhizomorphs, inflated brown cells on the mantle surface, and hyaline and brown emanating hyphae with dolipores. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer provided a distinctive profile for each of the collections of fruitbodies and the mycorrhizal morphotypes. PMID:14648309

  18. Description and identification of Alnus acuminata ectomycorrhizae from Argentinean alder stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsch, Karin; Becerra, Alejandra; Põlme, Sergei; Tedersoo, Leho; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the morphological and anatomical features of five unidentified ectomycorrhizal types of Alnus acuminata and to complement their identification based on ITS-rDNA sequence analysis. The combined approach of morphotyping and sequence analysis based on ITS sequence comparison with sequences contained in GenBank and the UNITE database let us assign three of the five field-collected ectomycorrhiza morphotypes to the tomentella-thelephora lineage that closely matched European and North American species. The sequencing results within Tomentella point toward alder specific clades within T. sublilacina, T. ellisii and T. stuposa sensu lato. The two other EcM morphotypes matched Lactarius omphaliiformis and a Russula sp. Better focused, concomitant fruit body surveys are needed for accurate identification of South American ectomycorrhizal fungi because of the evidence of cryptic speciation in both agaricoid and resupinate mycobionts. PMID:20943556

  19. 不同基质对花叶常春藤扦插生根的影响%Effect of Several Matrices on Cutting Rootage of Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪娟; 张雪平; 卢崇姣

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective]The research aimed to study the effects of several matrices on cutting rootage of Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis. [ Method]5 different kinds of cutting matrix formulation were designed to breed H. nepalensis var. sinensis root cuttings. Test formulation was measured at different matrix bulk density, moisture content and ventilation conditions,and the root length,root thickness,root weight, the content of chlorophyll and root activity and other data were determined too. [ Result ] The results showed that perlite + vermiculite + peat ( 1:1:1 ) was the optimal medium of H. nepalensis var. sinensis cutting propagation. [Conclusion]This research could provide scientific references for the cottage and reproduce study of H. nepalensis var. sinensis.%[目的]研究不同基质培养对花叶常春藤扦插生根的影响效应.[方法]设计5种不同的扦插基质配方时花叶常春藤进行扦插生根培养,测量不同基质配方下的容重、含水量和通气状况,以及插穗的根长、根粗、根重、叶绿体色素的含量、根系活力等数据.[结果]珍珠岩+蛭石+泥炭(1:1:1)的扦插基质对花叶常春藤的生根效应最好.[结论]该研究可为花叶常春藤的扦插繁殖研究提供一定理论参考.

  20. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009–2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman’s rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of...

  1. Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and phosphorus forms in ancient and post-agricultural black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.] woodlands

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Orczewska; Anna Piotrowska; Joanna Lemanowicz

    2012-01-01

    Black alder, an N-fixing tree is considered to accelerate the availability of phosphorus in soils due to the increased production of phosphatase enzymes, which are responsible for the P release from the litter. Acid phosphatase activity plays a pivotal role in organic P mineralization in forest soils and in making P available to plants. In order to check whether Alnus glutinosa stimulates acid phosphomonoesterase (PHACID) activity, we compared enzyme activities, total P concentration (PTOT), ...

  2. Succession on subalpine placer mine spoil: Effects of revegetation with Alnus viridis, Alaska, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, R.V.

    2005-01-01

    Alnus viridis seedlings were planted on placer mine spoil in an Alaskan subalpine watershed to bypass a seedling establishment bottleneck for A. viridis, and to evaluate the interaction between A. viridis and the dominant riparian woody plants, Salix alaxensis and Populus balsamifera. The study area was divided into 11 replicate blocks, each on a homogeneous recontoured spoil pile. Blocks were divided into two 0.01 ha plots, and treatments without (control) and with 84 planted A. viridis seedlings were randomly assigned to plots. After 10 years, the Alnus treatment had a dense stand of A. viridis 1-2 m tall, while the control had fewer, smaller seedlings. Compared to the control, planted A. viridis had a neutral effect on S. alaxensis and inhibited P. balsamifera at the seedling establishment stage, but facilitated the growth of established plants of both species, with many plants overtopping the A. viridis canopy. Compared to the control, S. alaxensis plants in the Alnus treatment had higher levels of foliar N and ??15N values closer to those of A. viridis, indicating the importance of N fixation by A. viridis. Planting A. viridis accelerated the rate of succession by stimulating growth of woody dominants. ?? 2005 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  3. Study on Degradation Abilities of Chlorophytum comosum and Hedera nepalensis on Indoor Formaldehyde Pollution%吊兰和常春藤对室内甲醛污染降解能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳瀛; 邵勤龙; 张佳慧; 俞璟凤

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study on degradation abilities of Chlorophytum comosum and Hedera nepalensis on indoor formaldehyde pollution.[Method] By simulating indoor formaldehyde pollution environment in laboratory,Chlorophytum comosum and Hedera nepalensis were selected to conduct test on formaldehyde removal.[Result] Both Chlorophytum comosum and Hedera nepalensis had different purifying abilities on formaldehyde.Configuration effect of Chlorophytum comosum and Hedera nepalensis was significantly better than Chlorophytum comosum.Degradation ability of Chlorophytum comosum on formaldehyde was stronger than Hedera nepalensis.At horizontal configuration from southeast to northwest and vertical configuration from lower layer to upper and middle layers,chlorophyll content all presented rise tendency.[Conclusion] Screening and optimal configuration of the potted plants could provide scientific basis for effectively preventing and controlling indoor long-term pollution and really improving indoor environmental quality.%[目的]研究吊兰和常春藤对室内甲醛污染的降解能力.[方法]通过实验室模拟室内甲醛污染环境,选用吊兰和常春藤盆栽植物进行去除甲醛的试验研究.[结果]吊兰和常春藤均具有不同程度净化甲醛的能力.吊兰和常春藤同时配置效果明显优于吊兰,而吊兰对甲醛的降解要强于常春藤.从东南到西北不同水平配置和由下层到上、中层的不同垂直配置的植物叶片叶绿素含量均呈上升趋势.[结论]盆栽植物的筛选和优化组合配置可为有效防治室内长期污染、真正改善室内环境质量提供科学依据.

  4. Annual pollen sums of alnus in Lublin and Roztocze in the years 2001-2007 against selected meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław M. Kaszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alder (Alnus Mill., as an anemophilous species, produces large quantities of easily dispersed pollen. Annual pollen sums recorded in south-eastern Poland (by the volumetric method - Lanzoni trap and in the area of the village of Guciów in the Central Roztocze region (pollen deposition in Tauber traps were compared. The height at which the respective trap sites were located as well as local and regional vegetation and the distance from the nearest alder communities differ in both cases, likewise, the climate of these two regions differ. The analysed pollen data series cover the years 1998-2007 in Roztocze and 2001-2007 in Lublin. Large differences have been noted in Alnus pollen deposition values between particular years. Among them, there were observed years of very high annual sums (2001, 2003, 2006, as well as years of very low pollen deposition values in both regions (2002, 2005, 2007. In the period in question, the mean value of annual Alnus pollen count for Lublin was 5372 alder pollen grains in m3 of air, and in Roztocze 1647 grains per cm2 of area. During the seven-year period of monitoring (2001-2007, very similar trends were noted with respect to airborne alder pollen concentrations at both trap sites. Pollen data have been analysed against meteorological factors affecting alder pollen production and deposition. These are total precipitation and mean monthly air temperature in June, July and August in the year preceding pollen emission and the same weather elements in January and February in the year of pollen emission. In Roztocze a statistically significant negative correlation has been found between Alnus pollen annual sums and total precipitation in August in the year preceding alder pollen emission and in February in the year of pollen emission. In both regions, the Spearman's correlation coefficient does not show any statistically significant values when comparing annual Alnus pollen sums with mean monthly temperatures of both

  5. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand in Japan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hiroyuki Tobita; Shigeaki F Hasegawa; Kenichi Yazaki; Masabumi Komatsu; Mitsutoshi Kitao

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 fixation to the nitrogen (N) economy in this alder stand, we also measured the phenology of the alder, the litterfall, the decomposition rate of the leaf litter, and N accumulation in the soil. The acetylene reduction activity per unit nodule mass (ARA) under field conditions appeared after bud break, peaked the maximum in midsummer after full expansion of the leaves, and disappeared after all leaves had fallen. There was no consistent correlation between ARA and tree size (dbh). The amount of N2 fixed in this alder stand was estimated at 56.4 kg ha−1 year−1 when a theoretical molar ratio of 3 was used to convert the amount of reduced acetylene to the amount of fixed N2. This amount of N2 fixation corresponded to the 66.4% of N in the leaf litter produced in a year. These results suggested that N2 fixation still contributed to the large portion of N economy in this alder stand.

  6. Morphological variations of genus Alnus in Iran: assessment of five new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shayanmehr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alnus has two species in old references of the flora of Iran in which two varieties and one subspecies have been recorded. However, recently, five new taxa have been described and recorded for the flora of Iran. In this study, the herbarium samples were obtained during a widespread sampling from 25 stands, ranged from the most eastern limit of alder dispersion in Golestan to the west of Talish, across the plains and highlands of Hyrcanian forests. After sampling, 28 leaf and female cone morphological traits belonging to 140 alder individuals were measured and analyzed. The results of discriminant analysis showed 11 most important traits in differentiation of the taxa such as leaf angle in apex, blade shape at the base, type of serration, villosity intensity, presence of hairs on the upper surface of leaf and cone shape. In this analysis, 84.3% of recognized individuals were correctly grouped in the related taxon. The maximum disagreement between predicted and recognized groups corresponded to allocation of A. subcordata varieties to villosa and visc versa. Generally, the morphological traits of the two new species including A. dolichocarpa and A. djavanshirii were very similar to that of A. subcordata var. subcordata. While, three sub-species of A. glutinosa were distinguished by the same traits. Finally, the use of DNA barcoding techniques is suggested in order to verify the presence of new taxa in Iran.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata from Calilegua National Park (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra; Zak, Marcelo R; Horton, Thomas R; Micolini, Jorge

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of ectomycorrhizas (ECM) and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) colonization associated with Alnus acuminata (Andean alder), in relation to soil parameters (electrical conductivity, field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, available P, organic matter, and total N) at two different seasons (autumn and spring). The study was conducted in natural forests of A. acuminata situated in Calilegua National Park (Jujuy, Argentina). Nine ECM morphotypes were found on A. acuminata roots. The ECM colonization was affected by seasonality and associated positively with field H(2)O holding capacity, pH, and total N and negatively associated with organic matter. Two morphotypes (Russula alnijorullensis and Tomentella sp. 3) showed significant differences between seasons. Positive and negative correlations were found between five morphotypes (Alnirhiza silkacea, Lactarius omphaliformis, Tomentella sp. 1, Tomentella sp. 3, and Lactarius sp.) and soil parameters (total N, pH, and P). A significant negative correlation was found between field H(2)O holding capacity and organic matter with AM colonization. Results of this study provide evidence that ECM and AM colonization of A. acuminata can be affected by some soil chemical edaphic parameters and indicate that some ECM morphotypes are sensitive to changes in seasonality and soil parameters. PMID:16034621

  8. Wild Edible Fruit of Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud), a Potential Source of Antioxidants, Ameliorates Iron Overload-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and restoration potentials of hepatic injury by Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud), a wild fruit plant from the Northeastern region of India, were investigated. The fruit extract (PNME) exhibited excellent antioxidant and reducing properties and also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 = 30.92 ± 0.40 μg/ml). PNME demonstrated promising scavenging potency, as assessed by the scavenging of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Moreover, the extract revealed an exceptional iron chelation capacity with an IC50 of 25.64 ± 0.60 μg/ml. The extract induced significant improvement of hepatic injury and liver fibrosis against iron overload induced hepatotoxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was supported by different histopathological studies. The phytochemical constitutions and their identification by HPLC confirmed the presence of purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate, reserpine, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin and rutin. The identified compounds were investigated for their individual radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; some compounds exhibited excellent radical scavenging and iron chelation properties, but most were toxic towards normal cells (WI-38). On the other hand, crude PNME was found to be completely nontoxic to normal cells, suggesting its feasibility as a safe oral drug. The above study suggests that different phytochemicals in PNME contributed to its free radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; however, further studies are required to determine the pathway in which PNME acts to treat iron-overload diseases.

  9. Analysis of effective component and antimicrobial effect of Hedera nepalensis%三角风化学成分分析与抗菌效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宇龙; 刘湘新; 唐小武; 徐康辉

    2007-01-01

    三角风(Hedera nepalensis K.koch var.sinensis(Tobl)Rehd),又名常春藤、土鼓藤、紫风藤、上树蜈蚣、爬墙虎、钻天风,为五加科多年生常绿藤本植物,广泛分布于我国华中、华南、西南等地。三角风全株都可以入药,临床上常用于风湿、关节肿痛、跌打损伤、疮黄肿毒等症。但三角风含有哪些抑菌成分、对哪些病原菌有作用、效果如何,目前尚末见详细报道。本研究旨在探讨三角风乙醇提取物和生物碱提取物的体外抗菌效果,为进一步开发天然抗菌药物提供理论依据。

  10. Comparison of Plant Diversity and Stand Characteristics in Alnus subcordata C.A.Mey and Taxodium distichum (L. L.C. Rich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Tabari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand characteristics and understory plant diversity were investigated in low-drained man-made stands of Alnus subcordata C.A.Mey and Taxodium distichum (L L.C. Rich. The trees were planted with distances of 3 × 3 m and 4 × 4 m in northern Iran. In these stands, herbaceous and woody species were counted in plots of 20 × 20 m. Then, indexes of richness, H/ diversity, J/ equitability and Jaccard similarity (JI, tree growths, cover crown percentage, and litter layer thickness of each stand were assessed following 17 years after planting. The results revealed that the greatest diameter at breast height (D.B.H and stem height were observed in Alnus 4 × 4 m. By contrast, crown cover percentage and litter thicknesses were greater in Taxodium stands. Species richness, H/ diversity and J/ equitability indexes, Jaccard similarity (JI of Alnus stands were greater than those of Taxodium stands. In reality, small and light canopy of Alnus is the main reason that the solar radiation can penetrate easily to forest ground and affect understory plant diversity. Alnus as a native tree species, due to greater growth attributes and higher diversity indices in their stands are proposed for plantations in such low-drained sites of northern Iran.

  11. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  12. Organic matter contribution to soil fertility improvement and maintenance in red Alder (Alnus rubra) silvopastoral systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie M. Mmolotsi; Zewge Teklehaimanot

    2008-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to quantify fine roots and roots nodules over the four seasons in forestry and agroforestry alder (Alnus rubra) stands in North Wales. Soil samples collected in each season were excavated at three sampling points (0.30 m, 0.57 m and 1.00 m distance from the base of each tree) from nine trees of the agroforestry and forestry plots. Result showed that the density of live fine root had significant differences in between seasons and treatments (P < 0.001). The mean weight density of live fine root over the four seasons in agroforestry and forestry was 0.27±0.01 kg·m-3 and 0.54±0.03 kg·m-3, respectively. Weight density of dead root in each system remained constant throughout the year. The mean weight density of dead root was also significantly different (P < 0.01) between forestry and agroforestry systems. Weight density of live and dead root nodule was both constant throughout the year and between the different sampling distances. The mean weight densities of live and dead root nodule over the four seasons were 0.09±0.03 kg·m-3 and 0.05±0.03 kg·m-3 in agroforestry and 0.08±0.02 kg·m-3 and 0.03±0.01 kg·m-3 in the forestry plots, respectively.

  13. Wild Edible Fruit of Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud, a Potential Source of Antioxidants, Ameliorates Iron Overload-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Liver Fibrosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Chaudhuri

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and restoration potentials of hepatic injury by Prunus nepalensis Ser. (Steud, a wild fruit plant from the Northeastern region of India, were investigated. The fruit extract (PNME exhibited excellent antioxidant and reducing properties and also scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical (IC50 = 30.92 ± 0.40 μg/ml. PNME demonstrated promising scavenging potency, as assessed by the scavenging of different reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Moreover, the extract revealed an exceptional iron chelation capacity with an IC50 of 25.64 ± 0.60 μg/ml. The extract induced significant improvement of hepatic injury and liver fibrosis against iron overload induced hepatotoxicity in mice in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was supported by different histopathological studies. The phytochemical constitutions and their identification by HPLC confirmed the presence of purpurin, tannic acid, methyl gallate, reserpine, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin and rutin. The identified compounds were investigated for their individual radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; some compounds exhibited excellent radical scavenging and iron chelation properties, but most were toxic towards normal cells (WI-38. On the other hand, crude PNME was found to be completely nontoxic to normal cells, suggesting its feasibility as a safe oral drug. The above study suggests that different phytochemicals in PNME contributed to its free radical scavenging and iron chelation activity; however, further studies are required to determine the pathway in which PNME acts to treat iron-overload diseases.

  14. Bioactivity-guided identification of antimicrobial metabolites in Alnus glutinosa bark and optimization of oregonin purification by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Amin; Chollet, Sébastien; Angelis, Apostolis; Borie, Nicolas; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Reynaud, Romain; Gangloff, Sophie C; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Hubert, Jane

    2016-09-01

    Barks from conifers and broadleaved trees constitute abundant wastes generated from wood harvesting and logging activities. Extracts of such residues obtained from Alnus trees have been reported as interesting resources with potent antibacterial activities. The present study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of a crude methanol extract prepared from the bark of Alnus glutinosa against a panel of 22 bacteria and yeasts and to optimize a purification method enabling the high production of the most active substances. Fractionation of the crude extract was performed by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) using a three-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane, methyl-ter-butyl ether, acetonitrile and water. The major known compounds contained in the fractions produced by CPC were chemically profiled by (13)C NMR dereplication, resulting in the unambiguous identification of oregonin, hirsutanonol, betulinic acid, and alusenone 1a. The antibacterial evaluation of the fractions by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus revealed that oregonin, in addition to being the major metabolite of the crude extract (∼32% w/w), was the most active with an antibacterial inhibitory effect comparable to antibiotics. The purification of oregonin was optimized at the laboratory-scale by CPC. A single injection of 3.7g of crude extract resulted in a recovery of 72% (850mg) of the available oregonin at purity higher than 94%.

  15. Bioactivity-guided identification of antimicrobial metabolites in Alnus glutinosa bark and optimization of oregonin purification by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Amin; Chollet, Sébastien; Angelis, Apostolis; Borie, Nicolas; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Reynaud, Romain; Gangloff, Sophie C; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Hubert, Jane

    2016-09-01

    Barks from conifers and broadleaved trees constitute abundant wastes generated from wood harvesting and logging activities. Extracts of such residues obtained from Alnus trees have been reported as interesting resources with potent antibacterial activities. The present study aims to determine the antimicrobial activity of a crude methanol extract prepared from the bark of Alnus glutinosa against a panel of 22 bacteria and yeasts and to optimize a purification method enabling the high production of the most active substances. Fractionation of the crude extract was performed by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) using a three-phase solvent system composed of n-heptane, methyl-ter-butyl ether, acetonitrile and water. The major known compounds contained in the fractions produced by CPC were chemically profiled by (13)C NMR dereplication, resulting in the unambiguous identification of oregonin, hirsutanonol, betulinic acid, and alusenone 1a. The antibacterial evaluation of the fractions by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus revealed that oregonin, in addition to being the major metabolite of the crude extract (∼32% w/w), was the most active with an antibacterial inhibitory effect comparable to antibiotics. The purification of oregonin was optimized at the laboratory-scale by CPC. A single injection of 3.7g of crude extract resulted in a recovery of 72% (850mg) of the available oregonin at purity higher than 94%. PMID:27428455

  16. Nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activities in young Alnus glutinosa, relationship and effect of light-dark treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relations between in vivo nitrogenase (N-2-ase; EC 1.18.6.1) and nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) activities were studied in young nodulated Alnus glutinosa (L. ) Gaertn. Positive correlations linked N-2-ase activity, constitutive (non-inducible by nitrate) leaf NR activity and plant growth. Light/dark treatments applied to the whole shoot or, separately, to the upper and lower part of shoot led to the finding that(a) the constitutive leaf NR activity depended on direct illumination of the leaf and did not appear subordinate to the N-2-ase activity; (b) the N-2-ase activity was much more efficiently supported by the illumination of the upper (young) leaves than by that of the lower (mature) leaves; (c) the maintenance of nitrate-inducible root NR activity required leaf illumination. The variations of both N-2-ase and root NR activities in response to light/dark treatments emphasize the importance of the photosynthesis for the reduction of dinitrogen and nitrate in nodulated roots of Alnus glutinosa

  17. Draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Arnab; Beauchemin, Nicholas; Bruce, David; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Deshpande, Shweta; Detter, Chris; Furnholm, Teal; Ghodbhane-Gtari, Faten; Goodwin, Lynne; Gtari, Maher; Han, Cliff; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Land, Miriam L; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Nouioui, Imen; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Santos, Catarina L; Sur, Saubashya; Szeto, Ernest; Tavares, Fernando; Teshima, Hazuki; Thakur, Subarna; Wall, Luis; Woyke, Tanja; Wishart, Jessie; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-01-01

    Members of the actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida. PMID:23516220

  18. Draft Genome sequence of Frankia sp. Strain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from the root nodule of Alnus nitida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Arnab [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Beauchemin, Nicholas [University of New Hampshire; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chain, Patrick S. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Chen, Amy [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Furnholm, Teal [University of New Hampshire; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten [University of New Hampshire; Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Gtari, Maher [University of New Hampshire; Han, James [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Huntemann, Marcel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Markowitz, Victor [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nouioui, Imen [University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunisia; Pagani, Ioanna [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Santos, Catarina [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Sur, Saubashya [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Szeto, Ernest [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tavares, Fernando [Instiuto Celular e Aplicada, Portugal; Teshima, Hazuki [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Thakur, Subarna [University of North Bengal, Siliguri, India; Wall, Luis [University of Quilmes, Argentina; Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wishart, Jessie [University of New Hampshire; Tisa, Louis S. [University of New Hampshire

    2013-01-01

    Members of actinomycete genus Frankia form a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with 8 different families of actinorhizal plants. We report a high-quality draft genome sequence for Frankia sp. stain QA3, a nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nitida.

  19. Ectomycorrhizae between Alnus acuminata H.B.K. and Naucoria escharoides (Fr.:Fr.) Kummer from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra; Daniele, Graciela; Domínguez, Laura; Nouhra, Eduardo; Horton, Tom

    2002-04-01

    Field ectomycorrhizae of Naucoria escharoides on Alnus acuminata ("andean alder", "aliso del cerro") are described in detail for the first time. Naturally occurring ectomycorrhizal roots were sampled beneath sporocarps of N. escharoides. The samples were taken from four natural forest plots at two homogeneous A. acuminata sites (Tucumán and Catamarca Provinces, Argentina). The ectomycorrhizae were characterized morphologically and compared by means of PCR/RFLP analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear rDNA. The most important morphological features of the ectomycorrhizae are a white to pale yellow mantle, simple to monopodial branches, hyaline emanating hyphae, abundant hyphal bundles emerging more or less perpendicularly from a plectenchymatous mantle, and an acute or rounded apex with or without a mantle. N. escharoides fruitbodies have white basal mycelium with emanating hyphae similar to those of andean alder ectomycorrhizae. The RFLP profiles of sporocarps and mycorrhizae were the same. PMID:12035728

  20. Dendrocronología de Alnus acuminata en el bosque reservado de San Pedro de Saño, Huancayo

    OpenAIRE

    Edilson Requena Rojas

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de Alnus acuminata para su uso posterior en estudios dendroclimatológicos. Se analizó una cronología de ancho de anillos para un bosque de A. acuminata en San Pedro de Saño y se relacionó el crecimiento de los árboles con los registros instrumentales de temperatura media, máxima y mínima, precipitación y horas sol de las estaciones meteorológicas de Huayao (12° 02´ 18.1¨ S - 75° 19´22.2¨ O) y Santa Ana (12° 00´ 15¨ S - 75° 13´ 15¨ O). La cronología de an...

  1. Anatomical and molecular characterization of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis, Russula alnijorullensis and Cortinarius tucumanensis ectomycorrhizae on Alnus acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra; Beenken, Ludwig; Pritsch, Karin; Daniele, Graciela; Schloter, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizae (ECM) of Lactarius aff. omphaliformis Romagn., Russula alnijorullensis (Sing.) Sing. and Cortinarius tucumanensis Mos. on Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth) were characterized and identified. The identification of the fungal symbionts was achieved by morpho-anatomical observations of mycorrhizae and by comparison of ITS-RFLP patterns obtained from ECM and fruitbodies. L. aff omphaliformis ECM differed in some morphological details such as ramification and mantle type from ECM of the same species on A. glutinosa. L. aff omphaliformis ECM show an orange to ochre mantle containing latex cells, which stain with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. R. alnijorullensis ECM represent a typical Russula-type-ECM, light yellow to pinkish, the outer mantle being composed of triangular latex-filled cells staining with sulpho-vanillin, emanating hyphae without clamps. C. tucumanensis ECM exhibit a white (silvery) to yellowish brown mantle covered with soil particles, emanating hyphae with clamps. PMID:16596956

  2. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations.

  3. Long-term vegetation dynamics and land-use history: Providing a baseline for conservation strategies in protected Alnus glutinosa swamp woodlands

    OpenAIRE

    Natlandsmyr, Brith; Hjelle, Kari Loe

    2016-01-01

    Alnus glutinosa (alder) swamp woodlands are in danger of disappearing in Europe and, in Norway, several habitats with alder are threatened. Knowledge about the dynamics of alder swamp woodlands is crucial for the conservation and management of this vegetation. Our studied site, Rambjøra, in western Norway encompasses the Rambjøra Landscape Protected Area. We combined information from three sources—recent alder swamp woodland ecology, vegetation history, and agricultural history—to reveal the ...

  4. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  5. Preliminary assessment of growth and survival of green alder (Alnus viridis), a potential biological stabilizer on fly ash disposal sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcin Pietrzykowski; Wojciech Krzaklewski; Bartłomiej Wos´

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary assessment of seedling survival and growth of green alder (Alnus viridis (Chaix) DC. in Lam. & DC.) planted on fly ash disposal sites. This kind of post-industrial site is extremely hard to biologically stabilize without top-soiling. The experiment started with surface preparation using NPK start-up mineral fertilizer at 60–36–36 kg ha-1 followed by initial stabil-ization through hydro-seeding with biosolids (sewage sludge 4 Mg ha-1 dry mass) and a mixture of grasses (Dactylis glomerata L. and Lolium multiflorum Lam.) (200 kg ha-1). Subsequently, three-years-old green alder seedlings were planted in plots on two substrate variants:the control (directly on combustion waste) and plots with 3 dm3 lignite culm from a nearby mine introduced into the planting pit. Five years of preliminary monitoring show good survival seedling rates and growth parameters (height (h), average increase in height (△h), number of shoots (Lo) and leaf nitrogen supply in the fly ash disposal habitat. Treatment of the site with a combination of lignite culm in planting pits and preliminary surface preparation by hydro-seeding and mineral fertilization had the most positive effect on green alder seedling parameters. The results indicate that it is possible and beneficial to use green alder for biological stabilization on fly ash disposal sites.

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters Colonización micorrícico arbuscular de Alnus acuminata Kunth en el noroeste argentino en relación a la estacionalidad y a los parámetros edáficos

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Gabriela Becerra; Nilda Marta Arrigo; Norberto Bartoloni; Laura Susana Domínguez; María Noelia Cofré

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth at two natural forests in relation to soil parameters at two different seasons (autumn and spring). The soil parameters studied were field capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, available P, total N and organic matter. The percentage of AM colonization was estimated and correlated to soil properties and to two different seasons. The results indicate that the percentage of...

  7. Spatial and temporal controls on Alnus-derived nutrients and stream stoichiometry: Implications for aquatic ecosystem productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devotta, D.; Fraterrigo, J.; Walsh, P.; Hu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting how nutrient fluxes that cross ecosystem boundaries will respond to future climate change is one of the greatest challenges for ecology in the 21st century. In southwestern (SW) Alaska, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) and nitrogen (N)-fixation by alder (Alnus spp.) provide key nutrient subsidies to freshwater systems. The importance of alder-derived nutrients (ADN) to aquatic systems will increase as alder cover expands under climate warming and salmon harvesting reduces marine-derived nutrients. We investigate broad-scale spatial and temporal drivers of ADN and stream N:P in 26 streams in SW Alaska. Alder cover and watershed features were measured using satellite images and topographic maps in ArcGIS. Stream water samples were collected in each spring and summer from 2010-2013 and analyzed for dissolved N and total phosphorus (TP). We obtained annual growing season length (AGSL) and sum of growing degree days (GDD) data from weather stations. Elevation was inversely related to alder cover, stream N, and N:P (ρ=-0.802, -0.65, and -0.71 resp., pADN export. Higher P was associated with lower temperatures, possibly reflecting reduced P demand under low rates of metabolic activity. Structural equation modeling revealed significant causal relationships among elevation, alder cover, and stream N:P across multiple years (r2=0.94, X2=742.8, df=9, pADN fluxes and stream N:P than temporal variation in growing season conditions. Therefore, the aquatic productivity of streams at low elevations that receive large amounts of ADN will be most resilient to climate change.

  8. The patterns of Corylus and Alnus pollen seasons and pollination periods in two Polish cities located in different climatic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puc, Małgorzata; Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares phenological observations of Corylus (hazel) and Alnus (alder) flowering with airborne pollen counts of these taxa recorded using volumetric spore traps (2009-2011). The work was carried out in the Polish cities of Szczecin and Rzeszów that are located in different climatic regions. Correlations between pollen concentrations and meteorological data were investigated using Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The timings of hazel and alder pollination and the occurrence of airborne pollen varied greatly and were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions (p pollination in Szczecin and Rzeszów varied over the study period. Hazel and alder trees flowered notably earlier in stands located in places that were exposed to sunlight (insolated) and sheltered from the wind. On the other hand, a delay in the timing of pollination was observed in quite sunny but very windy sites. In Rzeszów, maximum hazel pollen concentrations did not coincide with the period of full pollination (defined as between 25 % hazel and alder and 75 % of flowers open). Conversely, in Szczecin, the highest hazel pollen concentrations were recorded during phenophases of the full pollination period. The period when the highest alder pollen concentrations were recorded varied between sites, with Rzeszów recording the highest concentrations at the beginning of pollination and Szczecin recording alder pollen throughout the full pollination period. Substantial amounts of hazel and alder pollen grains were recorded in the air of Rzeszów (but not Szczecin) before the onset of the respective pollen seasons. PMID:24098067

  9. A~simple model for predicting the global distribution of the N2 fixing host genus Alnus Mill.: impact of climate change on the global distribution in 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sakalli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of N2-fixing plants has increased in last decades. Alnus (alder is an important plant group because of its nitrogen fixation ability. Alders are generally distributed in humid locations of boreal, temperate and tropical climate zones, where the nitrogen fixation is an important nitrogen source for other plants. To model the nitrogen fixation by alder, data about the global distribution of alder is absolutely required. In this study a new method and model to predict the distribution of N2-fixing genus on global scale is presented. Three linear functions were defined for the determination of climate area of alder locations. The distribution model was improved with the aid of the soil units from FAO-Unesco Soil Database, and vegetation types from Schmithüsen's biogeographical atlas. The model (Alnus-Distribution-Model, ADM was also developed to predict the impact of climate change on alder distribution by using climate data of five relevant climate models (PCM, ECHam4, HadCM3, CSIRO2 and CGCM2, and four IPCC climate scenarios (i.e. A1FI, A2, B1 and B2 in 2100. The model covered basic approaches to understand the climate change effect on plant migration in the future.

  10. Dendrocronología de Alnus acuminata en el bosque reservado de San Pedro de Saño, Huancayo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Requena Rojas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo evaluamos el potencial de Alnus acuminata para su uso posterior en estudios dendroclimatológicos. Se analizó una cronología de ancho de anillos para un bosque de A. acuminata en San Pedro de Saño y se relacionó el crecimiento de los árboles con los registros instrumentales de temperatura media, máxima y mínima, precipitación y horas sol de las estaciones meteorológicas de Huayao (12° 02´ 18.1¨ S - 75° 19´22.2¨ O y Santa Ana (12° 00´ 15¨ S - 75° 13´ 15¨ O. La cronología de ancho de anillos está compuesta por 33 series de 22 árboles y cubre el período 1968-2013. El crecimiento de los árboles estuvo relacionado negativamente con la temperatura mínima mensual del mes de abril del año corriente. Se observó una relación positiva y significativa entre la cronología de crecimiento y la precipitación de la estación de Santa Ana para los meses de marzo del año previo y diciembre del año actual de crecimiento. Las horas sol mensuales de abril del año corriente tienen una correlación significativa con el crecimiento radial. Existe influencia de las precipitaciones del verano previo y primavera del año corriente favoreciendo el crecimiento del árbol. El árbol entra en dormancia, posiblemente por las bajas temperaturas de otoño. El amplio rango de distribución y la utilización histórica de su madera en construcciones en el pasado, abre la posibilidad de extender temporalmente los registros dendrocronológicos, en los Andes centrales de Perú.

  11. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  12. Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Orlando; Rodríguez Esperanza; Correa de Restrepo Marina

    1990-01-01

    Se estudio la biología de un hongo aislado de la parte externa de nódulos de raíces de aliso (Alnus acumi"ata HB K), el cual presento un alto poder de germinación a bajas temperaturas (entre QOC y 4QC), condición que le confiere gran agresividad para colonizar el suelo, de tal forma que se constituye en un factor importante en la ecofisiología de las poblaciones de aliso que crecen en los bosques secundarios del sub-paramo. A partir de cultivos puros se hicieron estudios para su iden...

  13. Pérdida de peso seco en hojarasca de Alnus acuminata en la provincia de Tucumán (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo G. Aceñolaza; Gallardo, Juan F.

    1993-01-01

    Se estudió la dinámica de descomposición de hojas de Alnus acuminata H.B.K. spp acuminata en tres bosques de esta especie de distintas edades (5-10, 20-25 y 40-45 años) situados en el cerro de San Javier (Tucumán, Rep. Argentina), durante el período abril/'91 a abril/'93, siguiendo la metodología de las "litter bags". Se realizó una regresión entre los valores de porcentaje de materia seca remanente y el tiempo, ajustándose la curva de descom posición a un modelo expon...

  14. Procesos morfológicos en la iniciación y desarrollo de nódulos en aliso (alnus acuminata h.b.k)

    OpenAIRE

    Niño, Luz Marina; Pérez, Rosalia; Orozco de Amezquita, Martha; Garcés de Granada, Emira

    2011-01-01

    La especie nativa Alnus ecuminata H.B.K. (Aliso) establece una relación simbiótica en las raíces con un Actinomycetedel género Frankia. De esta asociación resulta la formación de nódulos que tienen capacidad para fijar nitrógeno atmosférico y mejorar la disponibilidad de este elementoen los suelos. Para evaluar y analizar los cambios morfológicos originados por el establecimiento de la asociación, se inocularon con nódulos macerados plántulas de. Aliso sembradas en medio estéril. Periódicamen...

  15. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Myung, Hyun [Department of Environment Landscape Architecture-Design, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Keuk-Soo [Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan, E-mail: kannan@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Taek, E-mail: btoh@jbnu.ac.kr [Division of Biotechnology, Advanced Institute of Environmental and Bioscience, College of Environmental and Bioresource Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Iksan 570-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endophytic Bacillus spp. have reduced the lead toxicity in Alnus firma plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria have sequestered the Pb molecules extracellularly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria have increased the growth rate of plants in the presence of Pb. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants.

  16. Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Orlando

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudio la biología de un hongo aislado de la parte externa de nódulos de raíces de aliso (Alnus acumi"ata HB K, el cual presento un alto poder de germinación a bajas temperaturas (entre QOC y 4QC, condición que le confiere gran agresividad para colonizar el suelo, de tal forma que se constituye en un factor importante en la ecofisiología de las poblaciones de aliso que crecen en los bosques secundarios del sub-paramo. A partir de cultivos puros se hicieron estudios para su identificación.

    Some biological aspects of an isolated fungus of Alnus acuminata roots were studied. It bas been found Tbat between OOC and 4°C tbe fungi grows fast. This condition can result in a important factor in the ecophysiology of 'Aliso' populations, that grows in secondary forests at sub-paramo, After a review of the taxonomic literature, we placed it in the Phytium genus, but not in a particular described species. We assume that it is a new species. We modificated the microculture technique that was simpler and safer and them we made direct observations about tbe fungus growtb and development. As for now it is nominated as Phytiun near Mammillatum Meurs. Palabras Claves: Phytium, bongos, A/nus acuminata HBK., "Aliso".

  17. Intraspecific and interspecific genetic variation of Gongylonema pulchrum and two rodent Gongylonema spp. (G. aegypti and G. neoplasticum), with the proposal of G. nepalensis n. sp. for the isolate in water buffaloes from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setsuda, Aogu; Da, Nengtai; Hasegawa, Hideo; Behnke, Jerzy M; Rana, Hari Bahadur; Dhakal, Ishwari Prasad; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    The gullet worm (Gongylonema pulchrum) has been recorded from a variety of mammals worldwide. In an earlier study, we demonstrated two separate transmission cycles in cattle (Bos taurus) and wild mammals in Japan based on nucleotide sequences of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) region of mitochondrial DNA of multiple isolates of different origins. Our earlier study additionally demonstrated two major cox-1 haplotypes of G. pulchrum prevalent in cattle in Japan. In the present study, we collected G. pulchrum from cattle and goats (Capra hircus) in Alashan League, Inner Mongolia, China; Gongylonema aegypti from spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt; and Gongylonema neoplasticum from a black rat (Rattus rattus) in Okinawa Island, Japan, to analyze their genetic relationships with G. pulchrum in Japan. The gullet worms from Alashan League had almost identical rDNA nucleotide sequences and two cox-1 haplotypes as seen in G. pulchrum from the cattle in Japan. The two rodent Gongylonema spp. had distinct rDNA nucleotide sequences compared with those of G. pulchrum; only the 18S and 5.8S rDNA sequences showed high identities at 97.2-98.7%, while the remaining sequences were less than 75% identical. The 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA sequences of the two rodent Gongylonema spp. showed nucleotide identities of 99.8% (1811/1814), 100% (158/158), and 98.9% (3550/3590), respectively. The cox-1 regions showed 91.6% (338/369)-92.1% (340/369) identities, with completely identical amino acid sequences. The genetic diversities of three distinct Gongylonema spp. and their possible intraspecific genetic variation may allow us to resolve the taxonomic position of Gongylonema spp. which display few obvious morphological differences from their congeners. Consequently, the Gongylonema isolate from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Nepal reported in our previous study is concluded to be a new species, and Gongylonema nepalensis n

  18. Antifeedant and Toxicity Effects of Some Plant Extracts on Thaumetopoae solitaria Frey. (Lep.: Thaumetopoeidae)

    OpenAIRE

    ERTÜRK, Ömer

    2006-01-01

    The insecticidal and antifeedant activity of extracts derived from different plants of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae), Viscum album L. (Loranthaceae), Sambucus nigra L. (Caprifoliaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Diospyros kaki L. (Ebenaceae), Artemisia absinthum L. (Compositae), Alnus glutiosa Goertn. (Betulaceae), Origanum vulgare L., (Labiatae), Hypericum androsaemum L. (Hypericaceae) and Ocimum basilicum L. (Labiatae) are reported. The 95% ethanol extracts of plants ...

  19. LYMANTRIA DISPAR L. (LEP: LYMANTRIDAE) ‘NIN LARVA GELİŞMESİ ÜZERİNE BAZI BİTKİ ÖZÜTLERİNİN ANTİFEEDANT (İŞTAH KESİCİ) VE TOKSİK ETKİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    ERTÜRK, Ömer; ŞEKEROĞLU, Vedat; ÜNAL, Hasan Umut; ARSLAN, hamit Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L., Family (Labiatae), Buxus sempervirens L., Familya (Buxaceae),Sambucus nigra L., Familya (Caprifoliaceae), Aesculus hippocastanum L, Familya (Hippocastanaceae), Hypericum perforatum L., Familya (Compositae), Viscum album L., Familya ( Loranthaceae), Diospyros kaki L., Familya (Ebenaceae), Ocimum basilicum L., Familya (Labiatae), Alnus glutinosa Goertn, Familya (Betulaceae) ve Achilea biebersteinii Willd., Familya (Compositae), bitkilerinden kaynaklanan insekdisit etki...

  20. The influence of weather conditions on the course of pollen seasons of alder (Alnus spp., hazel (Corylus spp. and birch (Betula spp. in Lublin (2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The start and rate of florescence of Alnus, Corylus and Betula are dependent on meteorological conditions. In the present paper we have analysed the effect of mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative air humidity and precipitation on the onset of the pollen season as well as on its length and annual count of pollen grains in alder, hazel and birch. The measurement of pollen fall was done by the gravimetric methods with the use of Durham sampler. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the determined characteristics of the pollen season and weather conditions. In the six-year research period 2001-2006 it was observed that low temperatures in January produced a delayed start of the pollen season in alder, hazel and birch. The beginning of flowering in these taxa was also influenced by thermal conditions prevailing directly before the season (ca. 10 days. The pollen season of the trees in question tended to be prolonged alongside with the increase in relative air humidity, but it was shortened due to higher temperatures. The volume of alder and hazel pollen release increased together with the rise in relative air humidity and precipitation. The annual counts of birch pollen increased along with rising temperature and decreasing relative air humidity and precipitation in the season.

  1. Field performance of Alnus cordata Loisel (Italian alder) inoculated with Frankia and VA-mycorrhizal strains in mine-spoil afforestation plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumini, E.; Bosco, M.; Puppi, G.; Isopi, R.; Frattegiani, M.; Burseti, E.; Favili, F.

    1994-05-01

    Mixed stands of {ital Alnus cordata}, {ital Eleagnus} spp. and broad leaf timber trees have been successfully used for reclamation of mine spoils in surface mined areas of central Italy. Trials showed that the use of mycorrhizal planting stock may improve the establishment of plants on mine spoils. Alder seeds were sown in pots filled with peat moss and lignite mine spoils and Fungal strains {ital Glomus mosscae} and {ital G. fasciculatum} were inoculated into the pots. A Frankia strain isolated from {ital A. cordata} was also tested. Plants were then outplanted after measuring shoot height and collar diameter. The planting was done in mid-January among commercial trees ({ital Quercus robur}, {ital Fraxinus oxyphilla}, and {ital Prunus avium}). Plants became highly nodulated in the pots. Mycorrhizal infection was about 30% on inoculate plants but did not occur on uninoculated plants. Aboveground biomass at out-planting was significantly greater in the Frankia inoculated plants. There was generally more N in plant leaves in the inoculate plants than in the uninoculated ones. Plant survival in the field after one winter was 83% on average. One year after planting, the inoculated plants were significantly bigger as were the Frankia inoculated plants. The combination of Frankia and Glomus was very effective (contrary to other studies).

  2. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  3. Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género phytium aislado del "aliso", alnus acuminata hbk

    OpenAIRE

    Correa de Restrepo, Marina; Cabrera, Orlando; Rodríguez, Esperanza

    2011-01-01

    Some biological aspects of an isolated fungus of Alnus acuminata roots were studied. It bas been found Tbat between OOC and 4°C tbe fungi grows fast. This condition can result in a important factor in the ecophysiology of 'Aliso' populations, that grows in secondary forests at sub-paramo, After a review of the taxonomic literature, we placed it in the Phytium genus, but not in a particular described species. We assume that it is a new species. We modificated the microculture technique that wa...

  4. Leaf Longevity and Defense Characteristics in Trees of Betulaceae

    OpenAIRE

    KOIKE, TAKAYOSHI; Matsuki, Sawako; Choi, Dongsu; Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2006-01-01

    Proceedings : IUFRO Kanazawa 2003 "Forest Insect Population Dynamics and Host Influences"., Scedule:14-19 September 2003, Vemue: Kanazawa Citymonde Hotel, Kanazawa, Japan, Joint metting of IUFRO working groups : 7.01.02 Tree resistance to Insects | 7.03.06 Integrated management of forset defoloating insects | 7.03.07 Population dynamics of forest insects, Sponsored by: IUFRO-J | Ishikawa Prefecture | Kanazawa City | 21st-COE Program of Kanazawa University, Editors: Kamata, Naoto | Liebhold, N...

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth in northwestern Argentina in relation to season and soil parameters Colonización micorrícico arbuscular de Alnus acuminata Kunth en el noroeste argentino en relación a la estacionalidad y a los parámetros edáficos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Gabriela Becerra

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM colonization of Alnus acuminata Kunth at two natural forests in relation to soil parameters at two different seasons (autumn and spring. The soil parameters studied were field capacity, pH, electrical conductivity, available P, total N and organic matter. The percentage of AM colonization was estimated and correlated to soil properties and to two different seasons. The results indicate that the percentage of AM colonization varied among soil types and was higher in spring than autumn. A significant positive correlation was found between AM colonization and electrical conductivity, organic matter and total Nitrogen. Results of this study provide evidence that AM colonization of A. acuminata can be affected by some soil parameters and seasonality.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el patrón de colonización micorrícico arbuscular (MA de Alnus acuminata Kunth en dos bosques del Noroeste Argentino, en relación a los parámetros edáficos y en dos estaciones del año (otoño y primavera. Los parámetros edáficos estudiados fueron: capacidad de campo, pH, conductividad eléctrica, fósforo disponible, N total y materia orgánica. Se cuantificó el porcentaje de colonización MA y se lo correlacionó con las variables estudiadas (parámetros edáficos y estaciones. Los resultados indican que el porcentaje de colonización MA varió entre los dos tipos de suelo y las estaciones, siendo mayor en primavera. Se observó correlación positiva significativa entre el porcentaje de colonización MA y la conductividad eléctrica, materia orgánica y N total. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la colonización MA de A. acuminata puede ser afectada por algunos parámetros edáficos y la estacionalidad.

  6. The Analysis of the Growing Process of Choerospondias Axillaris,Alnus and Betula Luminifera%南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦生长发育进程研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文鸿

    2015-01-01

    对腾冲县苏江林场于2012年春季在杉木采伐迹地上采用南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦与萌生杉木营造混交林,3年生时进行了调查并分析。结果表明:造林3年后3个树种的幼林保存率均达到92%,南酸枣、桤木、光皮桦阔叶树种的早期生长均表现了较强的速生性,各树种平均树高和胸径依次为南酸枣6.0m 和6.5cm ,桤木5.8m和6.2cm ;光皮桦4.8m和4.4cm。南酸枣更适宜作为腾冲杉木采伐迹地的更新树种,营造速生丰产的工业原料林。%A mixed forest w hich contains Choerospondias axillaris ,Alnus ,Betula luminifera and the coppice of Chinese fir was built on the cutover land of Chinese fir in Sujiang Forestry Centre in the spring of 2012 .The article conducts an investigation and analysis of the mixed forest after years .The results indicate that three years after the afforestation ,the preservation rate of the three species'young forest reaches 92% and the ear‐ly growth of the Choerospondias axillaris ,Alnus and Betula luminifera shows stronger fast -growing .The average height and DBH of Choerospondias axillaris is 6 .0m and 6 .5cm .That of Alnus 5 .8m and 6 .2cm and that of Betula luminifera is 4 .8m and 4 .4cm .Therefore ,Choerospondias axillaris is more suitable being the regenerated species on the Chinese fir cutover land in Tengchong ,which aims to create fast -growing and high yield industrial raw material forest .

  7. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus rubra amended with low and high metal content biosolids Crescimento e fixação de nitrogênio por Alnus rubra cultivado sob fertilização com biosólidos com altos e baixos teores de metais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest application of biosolids offers a potential environmentally friendly alternative to landfilling. This two-year investigation was designed to analyze the effects of elevated soil metal concentration resulting from the land application of biosolids on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. High metal biosolids and a modern-day composted biosolid applied at high loading rates of 250, 500, and 1000 Mg ha-1, were used to represent a worst-case scenario for metal contamination. The high metal biosolids were obtained before the current regulations were formulated and had been lagooned prior to use in this study. Total cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn in the high metal biosolids were 45, 958, and 2623 mg kg-1 respectively. These metal concentrations are above current regulatory limits in the US. The compost was made using biosolids that are currently produced and had Cd, Pb and Zn of 0.8, 20 and 160 mg kg-1 respectively. Trees were harvested and analyzed for rate of N fixation (as measured by acetylene reduction activity, biomass, and foliar metals. Soils were analyzed for available N, total carbon and N, pH and total Cd, Pb and Zn. Rates of N fixation were not affected by soil amendment. In year 2, shoot biomass of trees grown in both the compost and high metal amendments were higher than the control. Shoot biomass increased with increasing amount of compost amendments, but decreased with increasing amount of high metal amendments. There was no relationship between soil metal concentration and plant biomass. Foliar Cd and Pb were below detection for all trees and foliar Zn increased with increasing amount of both compost and high metal amendment, with concentrations of 249 mg kg-1 for trees grown in the compost amendment and 279 mg kg-1 for the high metal amendment. The results from this study indicate that the growth of A. rubra benefited from both types of biosolids used in the study

  8. Differentiation of Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida famata by rRNA gene intergenic spacer fingerprinting and reassessment of phylogenetic relationships among D. hansenii, C. famata, D. fabryi, C. flareri (=D. subglobosus) and D. prosopidis: description of D. vietnamensis sp. nov. closely related to D. nepalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huu-Vang; Gaillardin, Claude; Neuvéglise, Cécile

    2009-06-01

    The intergenic spacer rDNA amplification and AluI fingerprinting (IGSAF) method detected four distinct groups among 170 Debaryomyces hansenii strains: D. hansenii var. hansenii; Candida famata var. famata; D. hansenii var. fabryi and C. famata var. flareri. IGS sequence comparison of representative strains showed that D. hansenii var. hansenii and C. famata var. famata belonged to one species, whereas D. hansenii var. fabryi and C. famata var. flareri belonged to two different ones. This confirmed the following three species recently reinstated: D. hansenii (=C. famata), Debaryomyces fabryi and Debaryomyces subglobosus (=Candida flareri). Accordingly, growth at 37 degrees C may no longer be used to differentiate D. hansenii from D. fabryi. Riboflavin production is more specific for D. fabryi and D. subglobosus strains. IGSAF identified all the other 17 species of the genus Debaryomyces, six of them sharing with D. hansenii an rRNA gene unit harbouring two 5S rRNA genes. The phylogenetic tree established with IGS sequences was congruent with the one based on ACT1, GPD1 and COX2 sequences depicting a distinct D. hansenii clade close to the D. subglobosus, Debaryomyces prosopidis and D. fabryi clade. Description of Debaryomyces vietnamensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10535(T), MUCL 51648(T)), closely related to Debaryomyces nepalensis is given. PMID:19385997

  9. Determination of Quercetin and Isorhamnetin in the Medicinal Herb of Sarcopyramis Nepalensis Wall by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定风柜斗草中槲皮素和异鼠李素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林艺华; 陈育青

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立闽南草药风柜斗草中槲皮素和异鼠李素含量测定的方法。方法:采用70%甲醇超声提取,HPLC-PDA分析方法测定。色谱条件为色谱柱Ultimate Column TMC18 4.6×150mm×5μm,流动相甲醇∶0.5%磷酸=55∶45,流速:1.0 mL/min,柱温:30℃,检测波长:370nm。结果:闽南草药风柜斗草中槲皮素在10~200μg/mL与峰面积的线性关系良好,回归方程为:Y=38409X-54808(r=0.9998),平均回收率为95.2%,RSD值为0.72%;异鼠李素在5~%Objective:To establish a method for determining the content of quercetin and isorhamnetin in the medicinal herb of Sarcopyramis nepalensis Wall.Methods:With absolute methanol solvent,ultrasonic extraction,UltimateTM C18(4.6*150mm,5μm) column,methanol:0.5%

  10. Variation of Fruiting Quantity and Nut and Seed Characters of Alnus cremastogyne Clones%桤木不同无性系结实量与种实性状变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明皋; 陈建华; 吴际友; 程勇

    2008-01-01

    桤木(Alnus cremoastogyne)为桦木科(Betulaceae)桤木属落叶乔木,高达40m,胸径达150cm,原产四川省(郑万钧,1985;中国树木志编委会,1987)。桤木属植物为世界性分布的植物,在欧洲、美洲、非洲、亚洲均有分布,共有40余种。我国桤木属植物有11个种,其中桤木是最重要的一个特有种(王军辉等,2000)。桤木是喜光、喜温、喜湿润的浅根性树种,

  11. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus Rubra following fertiliztion with urea or biosolids Fixação de nitrogênio e crescimento de Alnus Rubra fertilização com uréia ou biosólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization of forests using biosolids offers a potentially environmentally friendly means to accelerate tree growth. This field study was designed to analyze the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N-fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. Anaerobically digested, class B biosolids and synthetic urea (46% N were applied at rates of 140, 280 and 560 kg ha-1 available N to a well-drained, sandy, glacial outwash soil in the Indianola series (mixed, mesic Dystric Xeropsamments. Plots were planted with A. rubra seedlings. At the end of each of two growing seasons trees were harvested and analyzed for the rate of N fixation (as acetylene reduction activity, biomass and foliar N. At year 1, there was no N fixation for trees grown with urea amendments, but control (17 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 and biosolids (26-45 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 trees were fixing N. At the end of year 2, all trees in all treatments were fixing N (7 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, 4-16 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, and 20-29 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 for control, urea and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with biosolids amendments were larger overall (year 1 shoot biomass 10 g, 5 g, and 23 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 shoot biomass 50 g, 51 g, and 190 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively with higher concentrations of foliar N for both years of the study (year 1 foliar N 26 g kg-1, 27 g kg-1, and 40 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 foliar N 17 g kg-1, 19 g kg-1, and 23 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with urea amendments appeared to use the urea N over Frankia supplied N, whereas the biosolids trees appeared to be able to use both N in biosolids and N from Frankia. The results from this study indicated that the greater growth of A. rubra may have been responsible for the observed higher N demand. Biosolids may have supplied other nutrients to the

  12. Dynamics of greenhouse gases emission and its impact factors by fire disturbance from Alnus sibirica forested wetland in Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Northeast China%火干扰对小兴安岭毛赤杨沼泽温室气体排放动态影响及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾韩; 牟长城; 张博文

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are important sources and sinks of greenhouse gases. Fire disturbance plays an important role in wetland ecosystems, it commonly is a important carbon sink of the land ecosystems, the Lesser xing'an Mountains of China' s northeast is the frequent area of the fire disturbance as well as a major distribution area of China's wetlands. Fire-related disturbance in forests are more frequent in mid-to high latitudes than elsewhere. In the present study, Alnus sibirica wetland, were studied to reveal the emission variation of CH4, CO2, and N2O under fire disturbance during the growing season. The study area is located in the Lesser Xing' an Mountains. We used a static opaque chamber and gas chromatography methods, and we monitored related environmental factors. The results were as follows; disturbance by fire increased air and soil temperature by 2. 5-5.0℃ , and lowered the water table by an average of 0. 24-6. 36 cm. Burning increased CH4 emissions from Alnus sibirica wetlands by 485. 2. Burning decreased the CO2 and N2O emissions by 45. 5% and 24.8% respectively from Alnus sibirica wetland. Burning also changed the Alnus sibirica wetland CO2 and N2O flux patterns in the growing season, but no marked variations were detected in the Alnus sibirica wetland CH4. Burning changed the Alnus sibirica wetland green-house gas flux patterns in the growing season. The CH4 emissions and the seasonal change pattern were affected by fire disturbance. Before and after the fire disturbance, CH4 emission flux remained unchanged during the growing season. The CH4 was absorbed weakly by the wetland soil( M0,M1) in spring and emitted in summer and autumn. The CH4 emission flux in summer was less than that in autumn, the CO2 and N2O emission fluxes had changed. At the unburned site, the CO2 flux had a seasonal variation where summer flux > spring > autumn; under fire disturbance, the CO2 flux in summer > autumn> spring. The N2O flux varied in the order of spring > autumn > summer

  13. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization.

  14. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization. PMID:26595095

  15. Effect on Different Seed Covering Methods and Density on the Seedling Growth for Alnus Cremastogyne Bark%桤木种子不同覆盖方式和密度对播种苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴善群

    2013-01-01

    在田间苗圃采用全光播种育苗方式进行桤木种子不同覆盖方式、不同密度的对比试验,结果表明:不同覆盖方式对种子发芽率的影响极为显著,以谷皮+塑料小拱棚的发芽率最高,达51.5%;不同苗木密度对苗木质量的影响极为显著,以株行距8 cm×8 cm最为适宜,合格苗产量最高,达89.40万株/hm2。%The contrast tests of different covering methods and different density of Alnus cremastogyne Bark seeds were carried out using all-optical sowing method ,the results showed that ,different covering methods had significant effects on the germination rate of seeds ,the germination rate of the bran+plastic small arch shed was highest ,up to 51.5%.Effects of different seedling wood density on seedling quality were extremely significantly , the spacing 8 cm×8 cm was most appropriate,the yield of qualified seedling was the highest,up to 894 000 line/hm2.

  16. Study on Water Holding Capacity of Litter of Four Typical Vegetation Types in South Section of Gaoligongshan Mountain%高黎贡山南段4种典型植被类型枯落物层持水性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟广涛; 文毅; 柴勇; 袁春明; 艾怀森; 蔺汝涛; 李品荣; 李贵祥

    2012-01-01

    The water holding capacities of litters of four typical vegelations in south section of Gaoligongshan mountain were studied through field delermination,indoor experiments and analysis.The study results were as follows; 1 ) The thickness of litter was in the order of natural broadleaved forest > Alnus nepalensis forest > Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation > secondary broadleaved forest; among which,the thickness of undecomposed litter was in the order of Alnus nepalensis forest > natural broadleaved forest > Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation > secondary broadleaved forest; the thickness of semi-decomposed litter was in the order of natural broadleaved forest > Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation > Alnus nepalensis forest > secondary broadleaved forest.The total storage of litter was in the order of natural broadleaved forest > secondary broadleaved forest > Alnus nepalensis forest > Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation,among which,the storage of undecomposed litter was in the order of secondary broadleaved forest > natural broadleaved forest > Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation > Alnus nepalensis forest,the storage of semi-decomposed litter was in the order of natural broadleaved forest > Alnus nepalensis forest > secondary broadleaved forest > Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation.2) The maximum water holding capacity of un-decomposed litter and semi-decomposed litter was in the order of natural broadleaved forest > Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation > Alnus nepalensis forest > secondary broadleaved forest.3) The speed of water holding of un-decomposed litter and semi - decomposed litter was in the order of natural broadleaved forest > Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation >Alnus nepalensis forest > secondary broadleaved forest.In conclusion,the water holding capacity of natural broadleaved forest was the best among these four vegetations.%采用野外测定与室内实验分析相结合的方法,对高黎贡山南段4种典型植被类型枯落物层持水性能进行

  17. Performance of an Age Series of Alnus–Cardamom Plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: Productivity, Energetics and Efficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, G.; SHARMA, E.; Sharma, R.; Singh, K. K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus–cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2‐fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non‐N2‐fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary produc...

  18. Performance of an Age Series of Alnus–Cardamom Plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: Nutrient Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    G. Sharma; Sharma, R.; SHARMA, E.; SINGH, K. K.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrient cycling, nutrient use efficiency and nitrogen fixation in an age series of Alnus–cardamom plantations were studied in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the nutrient dynamics of mixtures of N2‐fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non‐N2‐fixing (large cardamom) plants was assessed. Foliar nutrient concentrations of Alnus decreased with advancing age groups of plantations and showed an inverse relationship with stand age. Annual N fixation inc...

  19. How can effect the synergy of climate change, soil units and vegetation groups the potential global distribution of plants up to 2300: a modelling study for prediction of potential global distribution and migration of the N2 fixing species Alnus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sakalli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant migration is a well known adaptation strategy of plant groups or species with evidence from historical to present observation and monitoring studies. Importance of N2-fixing plants has increased in last decades. Alnus (alder is an important plant group because of its nitrogen fixation ability. Alders are generally distributed in humid locations of boreal, temperate and tropical climate zones, where the nitrogen fixation is an important nitrogen source for other plants. To model the nitrogen fixation by alder, data about the global distribution of alder is absolutely required. In this study a new method and model are presented to predict the distribution of N2-fixing genus on global scale and its migration in the future by using climate change scenarios. Three linear functions were defined for the determination of climate niche of alders. The distribution and migration model (Alnus-Distribution-Model (ADM was improved with the aid of the soil units from FAO-Unesco Soil Database, and vegetation types from Schmithüsen's biogeographical atlas. The model was also developed to predict the impact of climate change on alder distribution by using climate data from experiments performed by the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4 including the representative concentration pathways (RCPs mitigation scenarios, and extensions of the scenarios beyond 2100 to 2300. The model covered basic approaches to understand the combine effect of climate, soil and vegetation on plant distribution and migration in the current time and future.

  20. How can effect the synergy of climate change, soil units and vegetation groups the potential global distribution of plants up to 2300: a modelling study for prediction of potential global distribution and migration of the N2 fixing species Alnus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalli, A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant migration is a well known adaptation strategy of plant groups or species with evidence from historical to present observation and monitoring studies. Importance of N2-fixing plants has increased in last decades. Alnus (alder) is an important plant group because of its nitrogen fixation ability. Alders are generally distributed in humid locations of boreal, temperate and tropical climate zones, where the nitrogen fixation is an important nitrogen source for other plants. To model the nitrogen fixation by alder, data about the global distribution of alder is absolutely required. In this study a new method and model are presented to predict the distribution of N2-fixing genus on global scale and its migration in the future by using climate change scenarios. Three linear functions were defined for the determination of climate niche of alders. The distribution and migration model (Alnus-Distribution-Model (ADM)) was improved with the aid of the soil units from FAO-Unesco Soil Database, and vegetation types from Schmithüsen's biogeographical atlas. The model was also developed to predict the impact of climate change on alder distribution by using climate data from experiments performed by the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) including the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) mitigation scenarios, and extensions of the scenarios beyond 2100 to 2300. The model covered basic approaches to understand the combine effect of climate, soil and vegetation on plant distribution and migration in the current time and future.

  1. The semi-hardwood tender branch cutting technique of Alnus trabeculosa Hand. -Mazz. in the growth period%江南桤木半木质化嫩枝扦插技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巫建新; 史云光; 郑凯; 李文骅; 张荣根; 黄源; 蒋鹏

    2011-01-01

    The experiment on the growth regulators, substrates and roughness of cuttings which affect the rooting of the semi - hardwood tender branch cutting of Alnus trabeculosa Hand. - Mazz. in the growth period showed that there were obvious difference of rooting rate and root growth with different IBA densities, types and proportions of substrates, and roughness of cuttings. The survival rate of 45 d could reach above 92. 3% , when the 0. 7 -0. 8 cm roughness cutting woods were treated by 800 mg/L IBA for one minute and then cut into the composite base material which was comprised of sand, rice chaff ash, pearlite at the ratio of 1: 1: 1 (V: V: V) from June to August.%对影响江南桤木半木质化嫩枝扦插生根效果的植物生长调节剂、扦插基质、插穗粗度等凶子进行了试验研究。结果表明,在全光照自动间歇喷雾条件下,江南桤木插条生根率及根系生长等指标因植物生长调节剂IBA的质量浓度、基质的种类及配比组合和插穗的粗度的不同有明显差异。在生长旺盛夏季的6月至8月,选择0.7~0.8em粗度插条,使用800mg/LIBA浸泡处理1min后,扦插于泥炭土:砻糠灰:珍珠岩体积比为1:1:1的混合基质中,45d成活率可达92.3%。

  2. Fruit wall anatomical structure of the genus Betula section Lenta (Betulaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Yatsenko; Igor O. Yatsenko

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of the Lentae are referred to lower syncarpous nuts. Unlike most birches, the three-lobed scales in section Lentae stay attached to the axis for a long time. The fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp (derivative of outer tissues of inferior ovary, the tissues of receptacular origin) and the pericarp itself (mesocarp and the endocarp derivating from the ovary wall). The epicarp consists of two zones: epidermis and subepidermal zone. Two-four layers of larger sclerenchymatous cel...

  3. Hypervariable spacer regions are good sites for developing specific PCR-RFLP markers and PCR primers for screening actinorhizal symbionts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajani Varghese; Vineeta S Chauhan; Arvind K Misra

    2003-06-01

    While the ribosomal RNA like highly conserved genes are good molecular chronometers for establishing phylogenetic relationships, they can also be useful in securing the amplification of adjoining hyper-variable regions. These regions can then be used for developing specific PCR primers or PCR-RFL profiles to be used as molecular markers. We report here the use of ITS region of rrn operon of Frankia for developing PCR-RFL profiles capable of discriminating between closely related frankiae. We have also made use of the ITS1 region of the nuclear rrn operon of Alnus nepalensis (D Don) for designing a PCR primer for specific amplification of nuclear DNA of this tree.

  4. 澜沧江上游不同植被类型土壤微生物特征研究%The Study on Soil Microbial Characteristic under Different Types of Vegetation in Upstream of Lancang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仕艳; 原海红; 陆梅; 杨国仲; 向仕敏

    2011-01-01

    采用野外调查采样及室内实验分析的方法,选取原生植被旱冬瓜林地作为对照,对澜沧江上游山区不同植被类型云南松林、桉树纯林、生态混交林(桤木+圣诞树)土壤细菌、真菌、放线菌3大类微生物的数量及总量进行研究,结果表明:3大类微生物分布均表现为A层大于B层。不同植被类型土壤细菌和真菌数量变化趋势均为旱冬瓜林〉生态混交林〉桉树林〉云南松林,且A、B层消长趋势一致;不同植被类型A层土壤放线菌数量变化趋势为云南松林〉桉树林〉生态混交林〉旱冬瓜林,B层土壤放线菌数量变化趋势则为生态混交林〉云南松林〉桉树林〉旱冬瓜林;不同植%With the Alnus nepalensis forest as control,to investigate the quantity of soil microbe(bacteria,epiphyte and actinomyces) and microbial biomass of different vegetation types in upstream of Lancang River by the method of field sampling and laboratory analysis.The others vegetation types are Pinus yunnanensis,eucalyptus and eco-mixed forest(Alnus nepalensis+Acacia dealbata).The results indicated that the A layer of the quantity of bacteria,epiphyte and actinomyces were higher than the B layer.The order of the A layer the quantity of bacterial and epiphyte were Alnus nepalensis forest 〉eco-mixed forest〉eucalyptus〉Pinus yunnanensis.The B layer is same as the A layer.In the A layer,the order of the quantity of actinomyces was Pinus yunnanensis〉eucalyptus〉eco-mixed forest 〉Alnus nepalensis forest.In the B layer,the order of the quantity of actinomyces was eco-mixed forestPinus yunnanensiseucalyptusAlnus nepalensis forest.In the A layer,the order of soil microbial biomass is Alnus nepalensis fores eco-mixed forest〉eucalyptus〉Pinus yunnanensis.The order in B layer is same as that in A layer.

  5. Coping with Pressures of Modernization by Traditional Farmers: a Strategy for Sustainable Rural Development in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIRO Chikamatsu; Jose Ireneu Furtad; SHEN Lixin; YAN Mei

    2007-01-01

    Traditional farming practices conform to sustainable rural livelihoods, while agricultural modernisation tends to undermine these practices through various perturbations. A case study in Tengchong County (western Yunnan, China) shows that transformation of traditional alder (Alnus nepalensis) and dry rice (upland rice) rotational farming to introduced Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.)plantations leads to loealised water scarcity and soil fertility decline. While farmers are aware of ecological sustainability of traditional farming, they prefer Chinese fir forestry because it is less labour-intensive, has a high market value, and releases time for profitable off-farm work. Farmers adapt to economic liberalization by planting high value crops and trees. However,alternatives to make local agricultural production more profitable through competitive business strategies, cooperative approaches, innovations in intefor sustainable rural livelihoods have been overlooked largely due to poor information availability and lack of organisational framework.

  6. [Composition and carbon storage of woody debris in moist evergreen broad-leaved forest and its secondary forests in Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Provinve].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Pan; Liu, Wen-Yao; Yang, Guo-Ping; Ma, Wen-Zhang; Li, Da-Wen

    2007-10-01

    This paper studied the composition and carbon storage of woody debris in the primary moist evergreen broad-leaved forest and its main secondary forests (regenerated Lithocarpus forest, Populus bonatii forest, and Alnus nepalensis forest) in Ailao Moutains of Yunnan Province. The results showed that in the primary forest, the carbon storage of woody debris amounted to 36.56 t x hm(-2). Castanopsis wattii, Lithocarpus xylocarpus and L. chintungensis were the main contributors, and most of them were the logs with larger diameter and at intermediate stage of decay. The unique environment of richer precipitation, higher humidity and lower temperature in the study area, and the decay-resistance of hardwood were favorable to the accumulation of woody debris. The three secondary forests had a carbon storage of 1.2-5.0 t x hm(-2), which decreased in the order of regenerated Lithocaropus forest > P. bonatii forest > A. nepalensis forest, showing a tendency of increasing carbon storage with succession course. PMID:18163291

  7. Biological Fireproof Barrier Construction and its Fireproof Performance in Tonghai%通海县生物防火隔离带营建及其防火性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉新

    2012-01-01

    Biological fireproof harrier dominated by Alnus nepalensis and Alnus ferdinamd tree species, which total of 21 , and 25 m wide, 36 km length were built in Hexi, Jiujie, Sijie Township from 2002 to 2005. The effect of fire prevention has been analyzed, results showed that barrier tree of biological fireproof grows rapidly, and have a good function of fire resistance, also, build biological fireproof barrier was economy and with mature technology which can be used wildly.%2002~2005年,在通海县河西、九街、四街镇人工营造以旱冬瓜、川滇桤木为主栽树种的生物防火隔离带,共计21条,宽25m,总长36km.对所营造防火林带的防火效果进行调查分析,结果认为,防火林带树木生长讯速,抗火、耐火性强,有较好的阻火、隔火、断火功能,且节约经费,营造技术较为成熟,可以推广应用.

  8. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  9. Cost and profitability of biofuel chipping in Alnus incana stands in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizaras, Stasys; Sadauskiene, Liana; Mizaraite, Diana (Department of Forest Resources, Economics and Policy, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Inst. of Forestry, Girionys, (Lithuania)), e-mail: l.sadauskiene@mi.lt

    2011-07-01

    The demand for forest fuels is increasing in Lithuania. One biofuel source could be grey alder stands, which are currently underused. This study examines the economic feasibility of producing chips from grey alder stands. The research was performed on three grey alder stands. Three chip production technologies were analysed: chips from logging residues, stemwood chips and whole-tree chips. Work time expenditures and costs were assessed for each mode of chip production. When raw material for chips are sold at the roadside, their production from logging residues is usually not profitable. Profitability of whole-tree raw material for chips depends on forwarding distance. Production of raw material for chips from stemwood is profitable. When chips are sold at the heating plant, production is profitable if the chips are made from stemwood and whole trees. Production of chips from logging residues can be profitable if forwarding distances are short. If it is desired to promote the use of grey alder stands for fuel, the problem of the competing profitability of this raw material for chip production should be solved by instituting subsidies or increasing its price

  10. Síntomas de deficiencia de nutrimentos en aliso (alnus acuminata h.b.k.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar G., Olga Constanza; Cogua S., Jorge Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Empleando la técnica de cultivos hidropónicos y utilizando la soluclón Hoagland se estableció la sintomatología causada por la deficiencia de los macronutrientes (nitrógeno, fósforo, azufre, potasio, magnesio, calcio, hierro) y micronutrientes en concentración 0.5 Molar teniendo como patrón la solución completa. La sintomatoloqía se ilustró mediante fotografías de la raíz, la planta y cortes transversales a nivel de tallo para cada una de las deficiencias.

  11. Tent caterpillars are robust to variation in leaf phenology and quality in two thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Rana M; Kharouba, Heather M; Myers, Judith H

    2013-10-01

    The synchrony between emergence of spring-active, insect herbivores and the budburst of their host plants could be affected by warming temperatures with influences on the availability and quality of foliage as it undergoes physical and chemical changes. This can affect the growth and survival of insects. Here, we used sun-exposed and shaded trees to determine whether the synchrony between egg hatch of western tent caterpillar, Malacosoma californicum pluviale Dyar (Lepidoptera:Lasiocampidae) and budburst of its host red alder, Alnus rubra Bongard (Betulaceae)changes with different thermal environments (temperature and light together). To explore the potential outcome of a shift in phenological synchrony, we used laboratory assays of larval growth and survival to determine the effect of variation in young, youthful and mature leaves from sun-exposed and shaded trees. While the average higher temperature of sun-exposed trees advanced the timing of budburst and egg hatch, synchrony was not disrupted. Leaf quality had no significant influence on growth or survival in the laboratory for early instars reared as family groups. Later instar larvae, however, performed best on mature leaves from sun-exposed trees. The robust relationship between leaf and larval development of western tent caterpillars suggests that warming climates may not have a strong negative impact on their success through shifts in phenological synchrony, but might influence other aspects of leaf quality and larval condition.

  12. 中华常春藤繁殖技术研究%Studies on propagation technique of Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉武

    2002-01-01

    本文报道中华常春藤繁殖试验研究结果.种子繁殖于4月中旬以腐殖土+河沙为播种基质可获得78.50%~93.50%的发芽率;扦插繁殖于7~8月份采用顶部枝条作插穗,以肥泥+河沙为基质进行扦插可获得87.50%~97.50%的生根率.

  13. Effectiveness of sloping agricultural land technology on soil fertility status of mid-hills in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiran Lamichhane

    2013-01-01

    Hedgerows with intercropping systems were established at the ICIMOD test and demonstration site at Godawari to assess the effective-ness of Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT) in reducing run-off water volume, controlling soil loss, increasing crop production, and improving soil fertility in the mid-hills of Nepal. Runoff water volume (1996-2002), soil loss (1996-2002) and maize yield (1995-2001), and soil fertility-related parameters were assessed on SALT models with three factors:the type of nitrogen-fixing plant, the farmers’ practice, and fertilizer use. Results showed a significant effect of Alnus nepalensis and/or Indigofera dosua on runoff water volume, soil loss, crop produc-tion, soil water retention, and soil nutrients (NPK). Farmers’ practice and fertilization did not play a significant role in reducing runoff water and soil loss. However, farmers’ practice significantly increased crop produc-tion. Therefore, integrating soil conservation approaches on SALT sys-tems enhances stable economic output to hills and mountain farmers.

  14. Regeneration dynamics of dominant tree species along an altitudinal gradient in moist temperate valley slopes of the Garhwal Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumeet Gairola; C.M.Sharma; S.K.Ghildiyal; Sarvesh Suyal

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in moist temperate forest of Mandal-Chopta area in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand,India.The aim of the present study was to understand the regeneration dynamics of the dominant tree species along an altitudinal gradient in naturally regenerating,restricted access forest.The overall regeneration status was fairly high in the study area.Most of the native canopy and undercanopy dominants had frequent reproduction and expanding populations,which suggests the stability of forest structure/composition and further expansion of dominant species.The overall regeneration of trees in the forest had a greater contribution of middle and understorey species.Because of infrequent reproduction and declining populations of some of the dominant native species viz.,Abies pindrow,Alnus nepalensis and Betula alnoides,structural/compositional changes in the future are expected in respective forests dominated by them.Abies pindrow and Taxus baccata need immediate attention by forest managers for their survival in the area.Seedlings were found to be more prone to competition from herb and shrubs than saplings.

  15. Physiological effects of moisture stress, moisture stress conditioning, and leaf area manipulations on black alder seedlings (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, John T.

    1987-01-01

    This project consisted of three studies, two of which examined the effects of moisture deficits and moisture stress conditioning of black alder seedlings and the third examined the effects of shoot manipulations on the physiology of black alder seedlings and the nitrogenase activity of the seedlings' root nodules. Endophyte strain was found to be nonsignificant in response to moisture deficit and moisture-stress conditioning (MSC). Using regression analysis MSC ...

  16. 辽东桤木的结构植物学特性%Structural Botany Characteristics of Alnus sibirica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊义; 秦佳梅; 刘杨; 陆静梅

    2006-01-01

    采用光镜和电镜技术系统地研究了辽东桤木根、茎、叶结构,探讨了作为北方优良造林树种的辽东桤木速生、抗寒、耐旱的结构植物学特性.结果表明:辽东桤木当年形成的实生苗根部、茎顶端部次生生长旺盛,次生结构完整,明显表现出抗寒性特征;叶片主脉明显,机械组织发达,角质膜较厚,叶肉栅栏组织和海绵组织分化明显,表现出光合能力强,耐旱性强的特性;辽东桤木根、茎次生木质部均为散孔材,根部具有发达的枝丛状类型根瘤,这些特性为其速生生长奠定了基础.

  17. Stem Photosynthesis not Pressurized Ventilation is Responsible for Light-enhanced Oxygen Supply to Submerged Roots of Alder (Alnus glutinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, William (Canadian painter, civil engineer, photographer, 1822-1914); ARMSTRONG, JEAN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Claims that submerged roots of alder and other wetland trees are aerated by pressurized gas flow generated in the stem by a light-induced thermo-osmosis have seemed inconsistent with root anatomy. Our aim was to seek a verification using physical root–stem models, stem segments with or without artificial roots, and rooted saplings.

  18. Responses of Alnus glutinosa to anaerobic conditions--mechanisms and rate of oxygen flux into the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittert, K; Wötzel, J; Sattelmacher, B

    2006-03-01

    Upon exposure to waterlogged growing conditions two-year-old alder trees reduced total root mass. Roots were concentrated in the uppermost soil horizon, and only few coarse roots penetrated into deeper soil layers. Root porosity was only slightly affected and did not exceed 8 % in fine roots. Porosity of coarse roots was higher (27 %) but unaffected by growing conditions. The stem base area covered by lenticels increased strongly and so did the cross section diameter of the stem base. The latter showed a highly significant correlation with O (2) transport into the roots, measured by a Clark type oxygen electrode. Exposure of the lower 5 cm of the stem base, where lenticels were concentrated, to pure N (2) led to a cessation of O (2) transport, confirming that lenticels were the major site of air entry into the stem. In alder plants grown under waterlogged conditions, temperature had a pronounced effect on O (2) gas exchange of the root system. The temperature compensation point, i.e., the temperature where O (2) transport equals O (2) consumption by respiration, was 10.5 degrees C for the entire root system, when measured in a range of 0.15 - 0.20 mmol dissolved O (2) L (-1), which is typical for an open water surface equilibrated with air. O (2) net flow was inversely related to O (2) concentration in the rooting media, indicating that higher root and microbial respiration induced higher net fluxes of O (2) into the root system. With 0.04 mmol dissolved O (2) L (-1) nutrient solution, the temperature compensation point increased to 20 degrees C. Measurement of O (2) gradients in the rhizosphere of agar-embedded roots using O (2) microelectrodes showed a preference for O (2) release in the tip region of coarse roots. Increasing stem temperature over air temperature by 5 degrees C stimulated O (2) flux into the roots as suggested by the model of thermo-osmotic gas transport. However determination of stem and air temperature in a natural alder swamp in northern Germany revealed that within the experimental period of almost one year, temperature gradients required for thermo-osmotic gas transport were very seldom. From this it is concluded that under natural conditions in northern Germany, oxygen diffusion along the stem into the root system is driven by O (2) concentration gradients rather than by thermo-osmosis. PMID:16547866

  19. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  20. Miocene fossil plants from Bukpyeong Formation of Bukpyeong Basin in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea and their palaeoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Hyun Joo; Uemura, Kazuhiko; Kim, Kyungsik

    2016-04-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary basins are distributed along the eastern coast of Korean Peninsula. The northernmost Bukpyeong Basin is located in Donghae City, Gangwon-do Province, Korea. The Bukpyeong Basin consists of Bukpyeong Formation and Dogyeongri Conglomerate in ascending order. The geologic age of Bukpyeong Formation has been suggested as from Early Miocene to Pliocene, In particular, Lee & Jacobs (2010) suggested the age of the Bukpyeong Formation as late Early Miocene to early Middle Miocene based on the fossils of rodent teeth. Sedimentary environment has been thought as mainly fresh water lake and/or swamp partly influenced by marine water. Lately, new outcrops of Bukpyeong Formation were exposed during the road construction and abundant fossil plants were yielded from the newly exposed outcrops. As a result of palaeobotanical studies 47 genera of 23 families have been found. This fossil plant assemblage is composed of gymnosperms and dicotyledons. Gymnosperms were Pinaceae (e.g., Pinus, Tsuga), Sciadopityaceae (e.g., Sciadopitys) and Cupressaceae with well-preserved Metasequoia cones. Dicotyledons were deciduous trees such as Betulaceae (e.g., Alnus, Carpinus) and Sapindaceae (e.g., Acer, Aesculus, Sapindus), and evergreen trees such as evergreen Fagaceae (e.g., Castanopsis, Cyclobalanopsis, Pasania) and Lauraceae (e.g., Cinnamomum, Machilus). In addition, fresh water plants such as Hemitrapa (Lytraceae) and Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae) were also found. The fossil plant assemblage of the Bukpyeong Formation supported the freshwater environment implied by previous studies. It can be suggested that the palaeoflora of Bukpyeong Formation was oak-laurel forest with broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous trees accompanying commonly by conifers of Pinaceae and Cupressaceae under warm-temperate climate.

  1. Environ: E00796 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00796 Birch Medicinal herb Quercetin [CPD:C00389], Kaempferol [CPD:C05903], Salicy...late, Tannin, Ascorbate [CPD:C00072] Betula pendula [TAX:3505] Betulaceae Birch leaves Medicinal herbs [BR:br08322] Dicot plants: rosids Betulaceae (birch famly) E00796 Birch ...

  2. UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS分析中华常春藤中的化学成分%Analysis on chemical constituents in Hedera nepalensis by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林军; 谢彦云; 李志锋; 李伟; 何明珍; 吴蓓; 冯育林; 杨世林

    2016-01-01

    目的 利用超高效液相色谱-飞行时间质谱联用技术(UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS),对中华常春藤Hedera nepalensis茎叶中的化学成分进行分析和鉴定.方法 采用Welch C18色谱柱(100 mm×2.1mm,1.7 μm),以0.1%甲酸水溶液(A)和乙腈(B)为流动相进行梯度洗脱,体积流量0.3 mL/min,柱温40℃,进样量5μL.质谱采用电喷雾(ESI)离子源,在正负离子模式下采集数据,使用质谱分析软件中的目标化合物筛查法,通过保留时间、精确相对分子质量和二级质谱裂解碎片鉴定监测到的化学成分.结果 在优化的液质联用条件下,结合Scifinder数据库、对照品和相关文献鉴定了43个化合物,包括三萜皂苷、黄酮苷类、苯丙素类和核苷类化合物.结论 UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS方法能快捷、准确、较全面地鉴定中华常春藤中的化学成分,为中华常春藤化学成分的进一步提取分离和药效物质基础的研究提供科学依据.

  3. Productivity of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) plantations on reclaimed oil-shale mining detritus and mineral soils in relation to rhizosphere conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research was carried out in three black alder plantations in Estonia in 1998-2002. The above-ground productivity and the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus use in a plantation in reclaimed opencast oil-shale mining area at Sirgala were analyzed and compared with two plantations growing on fertile mineral soils. The results indicate that black alder is a very promising tree species for the recultivation of exhausted oil-shale opencast mines

  4. 模拟酸雨对台湾桤木光合特性的影响%Effects of simulated acid rain on photosynthesis of Alnus formosana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桂芬; 吴承祯; 洪伟; 林晗; 洪滔; 林勇明; 陈灿; 李键

    2012-01-01

    By simulated acid rain experiment, the effects of acid rain in different intensity stress (pH 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5) on photosynthesis of Alnm formosana were investigated. It showed that the lower the acidity of acid rain, the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and stomata] conductance in A. formosana leaves were generally observed in upward trend. When the pH value is 2.5, the net photosynthetic rate reached a minimum, decreased by 28.6% to the control CK; when the pH value is 4.5, its net pho- tosynthetic rate increased by I0.2% compared with the control; when the pH value is 2.5, transpiration rate reached a minimum, decreased by 59.5% to the control; and when the pH being 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, their net photosynthetic rates were decreased by 57.4%, 53.1%, 50.1% and 34.7% compared with the control, respectively. With the persistence of stress time by acid rain, the net photosynthetic rate of the A. formosana leaves showed a trend which first increased and then decreased, the transpiration rate generally increased firstly and then decreased, the stomata] conductance decreased at first and then rose, the intercellular carbon di- oxide concentration generally reduced to a minimum in September and then increased, the stomatai limitation generally increased firstly and then decreased, the water use efficiency decreased at first and then increased.%通过模拟酸雨实验,研究酸雨胁迫(pH2.5、3.0、35、4.0、4.5)对台湾桤木光合作用的影响。结果表明,随着酸雨酸度的降低,台湾桤木叶片的净光合速率、蒸腾速率和气孔导度呈上升趋势。pH2.5时,叶片的净光合速率达最低点,比对照(CK)降低28.6%;pH4.5时,叶片的净光合速率比CK高10.2%;pH2.5时,叶片的蒸腾速率达最低点,比cK降低59.5%,而pH3.0、3.5、4.0、4.5分别比CK降低57.4%、53.1%、50.1%和34.7%。随着酸雨胁迫时间的持续,台湾桤木叶片净光合速率先降低后升高,蒸腾速率先升高后降低,气孔导度先降低后升高;胞间CO2浓度前期降低,9月达最低,其后又升高;气孔限制值先升高后降低,水分利用效率先降低后升高。

  5. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  6. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  7. 兰州盆地早第三纪植物及古气候意义%Early Tertiary fossil plants and paleoclimate of Lanzhou Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿宝印; 陶君容; 颉光普

    2001-01-01

    化石采自甘肃省兰州盆地咸水河组底部, 经研究认为有29种, 归属20属12科。它们是:樟科Lauraceae (Daphnogene), 木通科Lardizabalaceae (Akebia), 小檗科Berberidaceae (Berberis), 榆科Ulmaceae (Planera, Ulmus, Zelkova),桦木科Betulaceae (Alnus,Carpinus),杨梅科 Myricaceae(Myrica),杨柳科Salicaceae (Populus,Salix),紫金牛科Myrsinaceae(Ardisia),蔷薇科Rosaceae (Prunus, Sorbus, Sorbaria, Spiraea),豆科 Leguminosae (Gleditsia, Sophora),漆树科 Anacardiaceae (Rhus),忍冬科Caprifoliaceae(Viburnum)等。经植物区系组成与叶相分析显示, 该植物区系的大多数成员是落叶阔叶乔、灌木, 少数为常绿灌木。其中特殊的分子是Rhus turcomanica Korov. ex Vassilvesk, 该成分是早第三纪中、晚期的标志化石植物。另一化石植物Sorbaria callicomifolia Kornilova 曾出现在中亚的早渐新世, 最晚至早中新世。同一层位采集的孢粉样分析结果显示:该组合仅约20种, 种类相对贫乏, 并以被子植物的花粉占优势。其中出现裸子植物的麻黄粉, 被子植物的白刺粉及蒿粉等, 这几个类型均指示沉积时期经历干旱气候。综合植物大化石及孢粉分析研究, 均出现一些指示气候为亚热带干旱或周期性干旱气候的特点, 并据Rhus turcomanica出现的最晚记录, 推测咸水河组底部的地质时代大约是早渐新世晚期。%Fossil plants from the lower part of Xianshuihe Formation in the Lanzhou Basin, Gansu Province were studied. The flora contains 29 species, representing 20 genera and 12 families, which include Lauraceae (Daphnogene), Lardizabalaceae (Akebia), Berberidaceae (Berberis), Ulmaceae (Planera, Ulmus, Zelkova), Betulaceae (Alnus,Carpinus), Myricaceae(Myrica), Salicaceae (Populus,Salix), Myrsinaceae(Ardisia), Rosaceae (Prunus, Sorbus, Sorbaria, Spiraea), Leguminosae (Gleditsia, Sophora), Anacardiaceae (Rhus), Caprifoliaceae(Viburnum). An analysis of the floristic elements and their

  8. 常春油麻藤、中华常春藤和扶芳藤的光合特性比较分析%Comparative analysis on photosynthetic characteristics and shade tolerance between Mucuna sempervirens ,Hedera nepalensis var. sinensi and Euonymus fortunei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柯; 王小德

    2008-01-01

    采用LI-6400光合测定仪对盆栽的常春油麻藤(Mucuna sempervirens)、中华常春藤(Hedera nepalensisvar.sinensi)和扶芳藤(Euonymusfortunei)进行光响应曲线、温度响应曲线和相对湿度响应曲线的测定.对比分析3种藤本植物的光补偿点(LCP)、光饱和点(LSP)、最大净光合速率(Pn)、最大表现量子效率(AQYmax)等光合特性指标,并研究分析光强、温度和相对湿度对3种藤本光合特性的影响.结果表明,常春油麻藤对有效光能辐射的利用范围最大,其次是扶芳藤,再次为中华常春藤,3种藤本植物的最适温度均在26~30℃,且对高湿环境条件的适应性均比较强.

  9. Study on Plant Species Composition for Revegetatation at Zinc and Indium Mining Area%锌铟矿区植被结构优化造林模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常恩福; 侬时增; 刘永国; 李娅; 钱兴廷; 安康发; 周文华

    2013-01-01

    Silvicultural experiments including 10 species composition of 12 tested plant species were conducted in Zinc and indium mine waste accumulation site located in Dulong of Maguan county of Yunnan province from 2010 to 2013.Twelve tested plant species were Cupressus lusitanica,Alnus nepalensis,A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan,Ficus microcarpa vat.pusillifolia,Celtis kunmingensis,Pinus eltiottii,Buxus sinica,Ligustrum quihoui,Cajanus cajan,Neyraudia reynaudiana,Festuca arundinacea and Lolium perenne.Three years after field planting,the growth increments of 10 designed species composition were measured,and the soil nutritional status were analyzed as well.By considering the ecological status,site characteristics and the objectives of revegetation,four plant species with promising adaptability,afforestation survival rate and preserving rate were screened out,they were A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan,Cajanus cajan,A.nepalensis and Neyraudia reynaudiana.Combining A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan with Neyraudia reynaudiana or Cajanus cajan with Neyraudia reynaudiana,could speed up the positive succession,and form multilayer stand structure,with the survival rate over 95 % and preserving rate over 87 %.The average tree height and DBH of three years A.cremastogyne cv.yanshan were 4.79 m and 4.5 cm respectively,the average tree height and DBH of three years Cajanus cajan were 2.16 m and 2.8 cm respectively,the average height of Neyraudia reynaudiana was 2.18 m.The experimental results also indicated that at the initial stage of revegetation,choosing proper plant species and combining the species scientifically,the biodiversity could be maintained effectively,and the ideal community structure could be achieved,which therefore quite promising for the improve the soil fertility of the site.%2010 ~2013年在马关都龙曼家寨锌铟矿山采用墨西哥柏、旱冬瓜、川滇桤木、小叶榕、滇朴、湿地松、黄杨、小叶女桢、木豆、类芦、苇状羊茅、黑麦草12

  10. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in seven tropical earthworm species – a laboratory-based investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharjee; P S Chaudhuri

    2002-06-01

    Data on the reproductive biology of seven Indian species of earthworms, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perrier, Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Polypheretima elongata (Perrier), Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller), Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard), Dichogaster modiglianii (Rosa) and Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen are presented. The peregrine earthworms such as Perionyx excavatus, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster modiglianii, and Polypheretima elongata are considered to be continuous breeders with high fecundity. Native Lampito mauritii and Drawida nepalensis are semi-continuous and Eutyphoeus gammiei discrete breeders. There is a dramatic increase in cocoon production by most earthworm species of Tripura in the summer and monsoon with a corresponding peak during April and July. Cocoon production decreased or ceased during winter. Temperature affected the incubation period of cocoons. With increase in temperature, incubation period increased in the endogeic worms, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28–32°C under laboratory conditions. There was a significant ( < 0.05) positive correlation between number of hatchlings per cocoon and incubation period in Lampito mauritii. High rate of cocoon production, short development time with high hatching success, as well as continuous breeding strategies in the epigeic species Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii and the top soil endogeic species, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Drawida nepalensis and Lampito mauritii, indicate their possible usefulness in vermiculture. The giant anecic worm, Eutyphoeus gammiei, which has a very long cocoon development time, discrete breeding strategy and very low rate of cocoon production, is not a suitable species for vermiculture.

  11. Genetic diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with four Alnus species in Changbai Mountains: A nested PCR-RFLP analysis%长白山四种赤杨丛枝菌根真菌侵染多样性的巢式PCR-RFLP分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董甜; 张惠文; 张粤; 何兴元

    2006-01-01

    采集中国吉林长白山不同海拔的4种赤杨根须样本,利用巢式PCR-RFLP方法检测丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)对样品的侵染情况,PCR结果经限制性内切酶分析. 结果表明,赤杨根内AMF存在丰富的基因多样性.AMF的侵染有从宿主混乱性向宿主专一性发展的趋势.东北赤杨AMF的宿主专一性水平最强,球囊霉属已成为东北赤杨的优势侵染类群;其余3种赤杨的AMF则出现宿主混乱现象.宿主因素比海拔因素对AMF侵染有更重要的影响.

  12. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Mekala Sundaram; Willoughby, Janna R; Nathanael I Lichti; Michael A Steele; Swihart, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or c...

  13. Permanent Draft Genome Sequences for Two Variants of Frankia sp. Strain CpI1, the First Frankia Strain Isolated from Root Nodules of Comptonia peregrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Frankia stains CpI1-S and CpI1-P are members of Frankia lineage Ia that are able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report two 7.6-Mbp draft genome sequences with 6,396 and 6,373 candidate protein-coding genes for CpI1-S and CpI1-P, respectively. PMID:26769948

  14. Permanent Draft Genome Sequences for Two Variants of Frankia sp. Strain CpI1, the First Frankia Strain Isolated from Root Nodules of Comptonia peregrina

    OpenAIRE

    Oshone, Rediet; Hurst, Sheldon G.; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S.

    2016-01-01

    Frankia stains CpI1-S and CpI1-P are members of Frankia lineage Ia that are able to reinfect plants of the Betulaceae and Myricaceae families. Here, we report two 7.6-Mbp draft genome sequences with 6,396 and 6,373 candidate protein-coding genes for CpI1-S and CpI1-P, respectively.

  15. Red Alder Basal Area, by Stream Reach, for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Red alder (Alnus rubra) are a common component of forests in Western Oregon and Washington. This file provides an estimate of red alder basal area in western Oregon...

  16. Tree species and pruning regime affect crop yield on bench terraces in SW Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Siriri, D; Ong, C. K.; Wilson, J.; Boffa, J.M.; Black, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Integration of trees on farms may exert complementary or competitive effects on crop yield. This four year study examined novel systems in which Alnus acuminata (alnus), Calliandra calothyrsus (calliandra), Sesbania sesban (sesbania) or a mixture of all three were grown on the degraded upper part of bench terraces in Uganda; beans or maize were grown on the more fertile lower terrace during the short and long rains. Three pruning treatments (shoot, root or shoot+root pruning) were applied t...

  17. 高黎贡山自然保护区东坡垂直带蚂蚁群落研究%Study on the Ant Communities of the Vertical Band on East Slope of the Gaoligongshan Mountains Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐正会; 蒋兴成; 陈志强; 吴定敏

    2001-01-01

    Ant communities and their species diversity of the vertical band on east slope of the Gaoligongshan Mountains Nature Reserve are studied. The ant communities of the vertical band have obvious regularity on east slope of the nature reserve. Along with the altitude increasing, the number of dominant species of ant communities commonly decreases, but the percentage of dominant species increases. The quantity of species and individual density decrease with the altitude increasing. Along with altitude increasing, predominant index generally increases, but species diversity index and evenness index decrease. Some exceptions are also observed. The exceptional high predominant index and extraordinary low dominant species quantity, species diversity index and evenness index found in the Pinus yunnanensis forest at north section are related to the condition of the vegetation being a pure forest, however the extremely high species quantity and individual density of the forest are due to the marginal effect. The exceptional high predominant index and specially low dominant species quantity, individual density and species diversity index in the monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest at middle-south section are caused by fragmentation of the vegetation. In contrast, the comparatively lower percentage of dominant species and predominant index, and the relatively higher species diversity index and evenness index in the upper portion of the mountain at middle-north and middle-south sections are related to the vegetation keeping a virgin forest state. Similarity coefficients between ant communities of the vertical band at all the 4 sections on east slope of the nature reserve are almost all in the range of 0~0.25 which representing an extremely dissimilar level. Only the similarity coefficient between ant communities of the Alnus nepalensis forest and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest reaches the range of 0.25~0.50 which being a moderate dissimilar level.%研究了高黎贡山

  18. Intraspecific and Interspecific Competition of Pinus yunnanensis Natural Forest%云南松天然林的种内和种间竞争

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小波; 刘万德; 苏建荣; 李帅锋; 郎学东

    2016-01-01

    .[Result]The intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of P.yunnanensis ac-counted for 80.1 6% and 1 9.84% in the total competition intensity,respectively,indicating that the competitive trees of P.yunnanensis natural forest were mainly come from intraspecific competition.The order of the intraspecific and interspecific competition intensity of the main accompanying species at the community level was:intraspecific >Viburnum cylindricum >P.armandii >Lyonia ovalifolia >Rhododendron decorum >Quercus aliena >Rhododendron delavayi >Alnus nepalensis.[Conclusion]There was a significantly negative correlation between the competition in-dex of P.yunnanensis with the whole forest,accompanying species,intraspecific and the DBH of the objective trees,and nearly conformed to power function (CI =AD -B).The larger the DBH of the objective trees,the smaller the competitive trees in P.yunnanensis natural forest.The results predicted by the model is that when the DBH of P.yunnanensis is larger than 20 cm,the competitions will be less in intensity.The medium and young forests of P. yunnanensis with DBH below 20 cm should be the focus of tending and management.

  19. 浙江地产药材地龙藤基原考证与鉴定研究%Textual Research and Identification of Dilongteng Origin on Native Medicnal Materalse in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Native medicinal materials of Dilongteng in Zhejiang province were studied.Methods: We investigated the classification, resources, distribution and medicinal function of Native medicinal materials of Dilongteng. Results:4 species of Native medicinal materials is similar in plant morphology. i.e. It is Ficus pumila Linn, Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz., Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd. and Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. Conclusion:Origin of Dilongteng is Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd.%  目的:为了促进浙江地产药材研究,更好地利用本地资源。方法:利用历史典籍、地方志,考证和识别地龙藤的名称、起源、分布和用药;同时通过实地考察、利用防谈、调查编目、传统医药文化研究和定量评估。结果:地龙藤最为相似的种类有4种。即:桑科Moraceae薜荔Ficus pumila Linn;卫矛科Celastraceae扶芳藤Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz.;五加科Araliaceae中华常春藤Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd.;夹竹桃科Apocynaceae络石藤Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem.。结论:地龙藤为五加科Araliaceae中华常春藤Hederae nepalensis K. Koch. var. sinensis (Tobl.) Re⁃hd.,理由是该植物从产地、生长习性和性味功效与原文献记载最为接近。

  20. Palynoflora of Wulaga dinosaur site in Jiayin (Zeya-Bureya Basin, China)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.S. Markevich; E.V. Bugdaeva; SUN Ge

    2009-01-01

    The palynological assemblage from Wulaga dinosaur site in Jiayin from southeastern Zeya-Bureya Basin was studied. The high content of pteridophytes spores is characteristic for this assemblage. The further characters are in decrease of abundance-tricolpate pollen, Ginkgocycadophytus, pollen of Taxodiaceae, Cupressaceae and Taxaceae (TCT), bisaccate pollen of Pinaceae, and triporate pollen. The bone-bearing burials of Wulaga dinosaur site formed under conditions of vast swampy river valley covered by ferns and taxodialeans. Tricolpate pollen, produced by plants, close to those of Platanaceae, Fagaceae, Betulaceae, and Juglandaceae, counts in favor of valley river open canopy forests.

  1. Ecosystem carbon balance of temperate forests differing in elevation and nitrogen availability

    OpenAIRE

    Caprez, Riccarda

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis addressed the carbon (C) balance of temperate deciduous forests across natural gradients of temperature and nitrogen (N) availability, the major drivers of net primary production (NPP) and the soil C balance. A mean annual temperature difference of 6 K across a 1200 m change in elevation from the Swiss Plateau to the Central Swiss Alps, and the presence or absence of the N2-fixing tree species Alnus glutinosa or Alnus incana within each elevation, offered the framework (1) to ...

  2. Chemotaxonomic Metabolite Profiling of 62 Indigenous Plant Species and Its Correlation with Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sarah; Oh, Dong-Gu; Lee, Sunmin; Kim, Ga Ryun; Lee, Jong Seok; Son, Youn Kyoung; Bae, Chang-Hwan; Yeo, Joohong; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxonomic metabolite profiling of 62 indigenous Korean plant species was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap (LTQ-IT) mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis. In partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the 62 species clustered depending on their phylogenetic family, in particular, Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae were distinguished from Rosaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae. Quinic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, quercetin derivatives, kaempferol, and kaempferol derivatives were identified as family-specific metabolites, and were found in relatively high concentrations in Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae. Fagaceae and Asteraceae were selected based on results of PLS-DA and bioactivities to determine the correlation between metabolic differences among plant families and bioactivities. Quinic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin derivatives, and kaempferol derivatives were found in higher concentrations in Fagaceae than in Asteraceae, and were positively correlated with antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. These results suggest that metabolite profiling was a useful tool for finding the different metabolic states of each plant family and understanding the correlation between metabolites and bioactivities in accordance with plant family. PMID:26540030

  3. Chemotaxonomic Metabolite Profiling of 62 Indigenous Plant Species and Its Correlation with Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxonomic metabolite profiling of 62 indigenous Korean plant species was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap (LTQ-IT mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis. In partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, the 62 species clustered depending on their phylogenetic family, in particular, Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae were distinguished from Rosaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae. Quinic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, quercetin derivatives, kaempferol, and kaempferol derivatives were identified as family-specific metabolites, and were found in relatively high concentrations in Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae. Fagaceae and Asteraceae were selected based on results of PLS-DA and bioactivities to determine the correlation between metabolic differences among plant families and bioactivities. Quinic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin derivatives, and kaempferol derivatives were found in higher concentrations in Fagaceae than in Asteraceae, and were positively correlated with antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. These results suggest that metabolite profiling was a useful tool for finding the different metabolic states of each plant family and understanding the correlation between metabolites and bioactivities in accordance with plant family.

  4. 绿萝等6种室内观赏植物对氨气净化作用分析%Analysis of A Purification Effect of Ammonia on Epipremnum Aureum and Other Indoor Ornamental Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪珊; 贾伟

    2015-01-01

    选取绿萝(Epipremnum aureum)、金边虎皮兰(Sansevieria trifasciata Lanrentii)、常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var.Sinensis)、豹纹竹芋(Maranta leuconeura)、金边吊兰(Phnom Penh Chlorophytum)、芦荟(Aloe vera var.Chinensis)六种植物,采用熏蒸方式,研究它们在.6 h熏蒸时间内,对氨气的净化效果.实验结果表明,6种植物对氨气均有净化作用,但不同植物净化效果有显著性差异.吸附氨气能力较强的为绿萝、常春藤;.中等的为豹纹竹芋、金边虎皮兰;.较弱的为金边吊兰、芦荟.%The research selectedsix kinds of plantssuch as Epipremnum aureum, Sansevieria trifasciata Lanrentii, Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis, Maranta leuconeura, Phnom Penh ChlorophytumandAloe vera var. Chinensis, and used fumigation to study the purifying effect to Ammonia of above plant within 6 h fumigation time. The results show that 6 kinds of plants all have purifying effect to Ammonia, but there are significant differences between different plants. The Epipremnum aureum and Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis has strong adsorption ability to Ammonia, medium for Maranta leuconeuraand Sansevieria trifasciata Lanrentii, and weaker for Phnom Penh Chlorophytum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis.

  5. 16S rRNA as molecular marker in ecology of Frankia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focusses on the role of biotic factors encountered with the establishment of the symbiosis between black alder plants ( Alnus glutinosa ) and introduced Frankia strains. A selection of plant clones and Frankia strains that gave optimal nodulation and nitrogen f

  6. Water relations in millipedes from some alpine habitat types (Central Alps, Tyrol) (Diplopoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Erwin; Eisenbeis, Gerhard

    1985-01-01

    Five species of millipedes, living cither in a mixed oak wood (alt. 670 m) (Enantiulus nanus, Mastigona mutabilis) or in an Alnus viridis community (alt. 2000 m) ( Leptoiulus saltuvagus, Haasea fonticulorum and Ochogona caroli) and the nival species Trimerophorella nivicomes are compared in respect

  7. From the forest to the sea and back again: Biogeochemistry in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape can influence nutrient retention and loss at the watershed scale. A striking example of plant species influence is the role of N2-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) in the biogeochemistry of Pacific Northwest forests. A...

  8. Plant species first recognised as naturalised for New South Wales over the period 2000–2001

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, John R.; Conn, Barry J.; Lepschi, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    Information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of 40 species of naturalised or naturalising plants newly recorded for New South Wales during the period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2001. These species are: Abrus precatorius subsp. precatorius, Acacia pulchella var. pulchella, Agave vivipara, Alnus glutinosa, Berberis thunbergii, Bryophyllum daigremontianum x Bryophyllum delagoense, Callisia fragrans, Celtis sinensis, Chamaesyce ophthalmica, Cotoneaster ?horizontalis, Cupressus ariz...

  9. DIRECT-SEEDING OF COMMERCIAL TREES ON SURFACE-MINE SPOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two small-seeded species, Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) and three large seeded species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) were direct-seeded on three aspects on minesoil in easte...

  10. Confused identity: subgenera of Pseudoeudesis Binaghi belong in two tribes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałoszyński, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Afroeudesis Franz and Oreoeudesis Franz, Afrotropical subgenera of Pseudoeudesis Binaghi (Scydmaenini), are elevated to the genus rank and transferred to Cyrtoscydmini. The East Palaearctic genus Nanoscydmus Jałoszyński is reduced to a subgenus of Afroeudesis stat. n., resulting in Afroeudesis (Nanoscydmus) baoshanus (Jałoszyński), comb. n. and Afroeudesis (Nanoscydmus) nepalensis (Jałoszyński), comb. n. Morphological structures of the type species of Afroeudesis and Oreoeudesis are illustrated and described in detail, and the following species are redescribed: Afroeudesis (s. str.) basilewskyi Franz (Tanzania), Oreoeudesis lindneri Franz (Tanzania), Oreoeudesis aberdarensis Franz (Kenya) and Oreoeudesis camerunensis Franz (Cameroon).

  11. Variation in Total Polyphenolics Contents of Aerial Parts of Potentilla Species and Their Anticariogenic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Tomczyk; Małgorzata Pleszczyńska; Adrian Wiater

    2010-01-01

    The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca) were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 ± 2.0 mg/g dw), proanthocyanidins (4.6 ± 0.2 mg/g dw) and phenolic acids (16.4 ± 0.8 mg/g dw), as well as flavonoids (7.0 ± 1.1 mg/...

  12. 垂直绿化珍品——常春藤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑芳

    2007-01-01

    常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis),又名爬树藤,五加科常春藤属。花小,白绿色,微香,花期秋季。多年生常绿藤本观叶植物。全是木质茎,茎长可达20多米,多分枝,茎上有气生根。其园艺品种达100多种以上。常见栽培的多数为斑叶品种。

  13. 海南植物增补(Ⅷ)%Some newly recorded plants from Hainan Island of China (Ⅷ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦新生; 严岳鸿; 陈红锋; 邢福武

    2004-01-01

    报道了海南岛5种新记录植物,包括紫果槭Acer cordatum Pax、常春藤Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis (Tobl.) Rehd.、华南龙胆Gentiana loureirii (G.Don) Griseb.、假臭草Eupatorium catarium Veldk.以及假向日葵Tithonia diversifolia A.Gray.引用的标本全部存放在中国科学院华南植物研究所标本馆(IBSC).

  14. A NEW SPECIES AND TWO NEW RECORD SPECIES OF THE GENUS NEOQUERNASPIS FROM CHINA ( HOMOPTERA: COCCOIDEA: DIASPIDIDAE)%中国新栎盾蚧属一新种及二新纪录种(同翅目:蚧总科:盾蚧科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾涛

    2001-01-01

    记述新栎盾蚧属Neoquernaspis Howell et Takagi,1981一新种,即细管新栎盾蚧N.leptosipha sp nov.和2种中国分布新纪录种,即石柯新栎盾蚧N beshearae Liu et Tippins,1988和尼泊尔新栎盾蚧N.nepalensis(Takagi,1977).并编制了该属中国已知种类检索表.新种模式标本和新纪录标本保存于西北农业大学昆虫博物馆.

  15. Effect of A Nitrogen-Fixing Actinorhizal Shrub on Herbaceous Vegetation in A Mixed Conifer Forest of Central Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bargali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effect of a nitrogen-fixing shrub Coriaria nepalensis Wall on herb species composition, diversity and biomass. The effect was measured in terms of species richness, diversity and biomass of herb species in three sites varying in Coriaria density viz. site 1 (low Coriaria density; 20 ha-1, site-2 (medium Coriaria density; 120 ha-1 and site-3 (high Coriaria density 190 ha-1. Species richness was minimum at Site-1 (16 species, and maximum at site-2 (27 species. G. aparine dominated site-1 and Arthraxon sp dominated site-2 and 3. The individual herb density ranged between 0.40 - 42.40 m-2, and total herb density ranged between 138- 170.4 m-2 and was maximum at site-2. Value for species richness (27 and Shannon Index (3.72 was highest for medium Coriaria density site and lowest for low Coriaria density site. Simpson Index ranged between 0.11 and 0.14 and was lowest for site-2(medium Coriaria density indicating that at this the dominance was shared by many species. Along the gradient of Coriaria density, maximum biomass was recorded at site-3 with highest Coriaria density and lowest at site-2 with medium Coriaria density. This may be due to the symbiotic nitrogen fixing ability of Coriaria that improve the habitat quality. The facilitative effect of C. nepalensis in terms of soil amelioration and herb growth can be used to regenerate degraded forest ecosystems.

  16. Plant Resources, (13)C-NMR Spectral Characteristic and Pharmacological Activities of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jingya; Zheng, Chang; Qu, Lu; Liu, Yanxia; Han, Lifeng; Yu, Haiyang; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT) widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P. japonicas, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium. Aside from Araliaceae, DTT also distribute in other families, including Betulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Until now, about 136 species belonging to 46 families have been reported to contain DTT. In this article, the genus classifications of plant sources of the botanicals that contain DTT are reviewed, with particular focus on the NMR spectral features and pharmacological activities based on literature reports, which may be benefit for the development of new drugs or food additives. PMID:27529202

  17. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  18. Estimación de biomasa y carbono en dos especies de bosque mesófilo de montaña Biomass and carbon assessment in two tree species in a cloudy forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Acosta Mireles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available La generación de ecuaciones alométricas es importante para determinar la biomasa y el carbono en las especies arbóreas. Esta información es útil en los estudios de cambio climático. En el presente estudio se generaron ecuaciones alométricas para dos especies de importancia ecológica en el bosque mesófilo de montaña: Clethra mexicana DC y Alnus arguta (Schltdl Spach. Las ecuaciones que se determinaron son de la forma Y= bXk; donde: Y= contenido de biomasa o de carbono (kg; y X= diámetro normal (DN en centímetros. Para estimar los valores b y k del modelo para cada especie, se realizó un muestreo de quince árboles de Clethra mexicana y 22 de Alnus arguta. En Clethra mexicana el mayor porcentaje de biomasa 45.2 % se encontró en el fuste incluido el tocón, mientras que en las ramas y el follaje estaba 36.3% y 18.6%, respectivamente. Con la biomasa y el DN de los árboles se determinaron los parámetros b y k del modelo propuesto (B= 0.4632 DN1.8168, R²= 0.946. Para Alnus arguta el mayor porcentaje de biomasa (60.6%, se encontró en el fuste incluido el tocón, mientras que en las ramas y el follaje presentó 27.4 y 12%, respectivamente. Al igual que el caso anterior con la biomasa y el DN, se obtuvieron los parámetros b y k del modelo propuesto (B= 0.1649 DN2.2755, R²= 0.968. Después de analizar el contenido de carbono en las muestra de cada especie, se ajustaron las ecuaciones para Clethra mexicana C= 22.49DN1.8168, con R²= 0.946, mientras que para Alnus arguta C= 0.0809DN2.2782 con R²= 0.968.The generation of allometric equations is important to determine biomass and carbon in tree species. This information is useful in climate change studies. In this paper, allometric equations were generated for two species of ecological importance in the cloud forest: Clethra mexicana DC and Alnus arguta (Schltdl Spach. Equations determined are of the form Y= bXk; where: Y= biomass or carbon content (kg; and X= normal diameter (ND in

  19. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes;

    2010-01-01

    Reforestation of ex-arable land in temperate regions increases the area of potential habitat for forest plants. However, the herbaceous plant layer of these plantations contains fewer forest species than comparable plantations at continuously forested sites. One of the reasons for this might......-generation forest plantations on ex-arable land and re-planted clear-cuts on continuously forested land. There was no recruitment following the experimental sowing of six commonwoody species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Frangula alnus, Sambucus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus intermedia). Thus......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...

  20. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  1. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF LEAF GALLS FROM WESTERN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta IANOVICI; Adina MATICA; Mădălina SCURTU

    2010-01-01

    The present study contains the results of our research on the galls makers that attack the woody species in the urban environment. The presence of a gall-forming arthropods within leaves has been observed on 8 species: Juglans regia, Prunus domestica, Malus domestica, Tilia tomentosa, Alnus glutinosa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Ribes rubrum and Vitis vinifera. We identified a number of 10 gall-forming species. These species belong to 8 different genera, from 5 families and 4 orders. Levels of in...

  2. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna P Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass equations was fitted simultaneously with a constrained seemingly unrelated regression. Additionally, a linear model that predicts total aboveground biomass as a function of DB...

  3. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  4. Effect on Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Production and Antioxidant Ability of Black Alder, as Factors Related to Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Alders exhibit several uses in different areas and also offer some nutritional and medicinal values. The bark and leaves from black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn] are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory processes and other health disorders. This study assessed if an extract of A. glutinosa stem bark exhibits some biological properties linked to improving the inflammatory state, which could partly justify its ethnopharmacological use. Therefore, various aspects of anti...

  5. Permanent Draft Genome Sequence for Frankia sp. Strain EI5c, a Single-Spore Isolate of a Nitrogen-Fixing Actinobacterium, Isolated from the Root Nodules of Elaeagnus angustifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Timothy; Oshone, Rediet; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Thomas, W Kelley; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Frankia sp. strain EI5c is a member of Frankia lineage III, which is able to reinfect plants of the Eleagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Myricaceae, and Gymnostoma, as well as the genus Alnus Here, we report the 6.6-Mbp draft genome sequence of Frankia sp. strain EI5c with a G+C content of 72.14 % and 5,458 candidate protein-encoding genes. PMID:27389275

  6. A laboratory study on feeding plasticity of the shredder Sericostoma vittatum Rambur (Sericostomatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Emerson; Graça, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Since litter input and availability of leaves in many streams is highly seasonal in Portugal, we investigated whether Sericostoma vittatum, a typical shredder, was able to grow using alternative food sources. To test this hypothesis we fed S. vittatum with Alnus glutinosa (alder, CPOM, coarse particulate organic matter), leaf powder from A. glutinosa and Acacia dealbata and FPOM (fine particulate organic matter) from a 5th and a >6th order river, the macrophyte Myriophyllum aquat...

  7. Colour Changes Evaluation of Freshly Cut Alder Veneers Under the Influence of Indoor Sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Adela SALCA

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an experimental study concerning the colour changes occurred on the surfaces ofblack alder veneers (Alnus glutinosa), obtained from a freshly cut (not treated) log, after their exposure tosunlight and darkness, for 1 and 3 months, under indoor conditions.A Chroma Meter Konika Minolta CR-410 device was used for colour measurement.The colorimetric coordinates were recorded before and after the exposure, according to ISO 7724-2.The results highlight a significant decrease of c...

  8. Nursery Production of Selected Actinorhizal Species

    OpenAIRE

    Beddes, Taun D.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable landscaping includes utilization of plants requiring few inputs. We chose four species showing potential for use in arid landscapes: Purshia mexicana, Shepherdia argentea, Shepherdia rotundifolia, and Alnus maritima. We sowed seeds of S. rotundifolia, S. argentea and P. mexicana in three substrates with various water-holding properties due to differing amounts of organic matter (OM). S. rotundifolia germination was maximized in a calcined clay (66.2%) containing no OM and had ...

  9. Direct-seeding of commercial trees on surface-mine spoil. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, D.H.; Carpenter, S.B.; Wittwer, R.F.

    1980-04-01

    Two small-seeded species, Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) and three large seeded species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) were direct-seeded on three aspects on minesoil in eastern Kentucky. Treatments included four mulch applications--water-borne fiber mulch, hardwood bark, bark and manure, and composted municipal waste; and two fertilizer applications. Growth and survival were evaluated during two consecutive growing seasons.

  10. Factors Affecting Anion Movement and Retention in Four Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    D. W. Johnson; Cole, D. W.; Van Miegroet, Helga; Horng, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Three hypotheses concerning the movement and retention of anions in forest soils were tested in a series of laboratory and field studies on two Tennessee Ultisols with mixed deciduous forest cover and two Washington Inceptisols, one with deciduous (red alder Alnus rubra Bong.) and one with coniferous [Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] forest cover. The first hypothesis, that sulfate and phosphate retention was related to adsorption to free Fe and Al oxides, which were in turn...

  11. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  12. THE COMMUNITY OF FURCRAEA PARMENTIERI, A THREATENED SPECIE, CENTRAL MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Almeida-Leñero; Ana María Mondragón; Beatriz Ludlow-Wiechers; Verónica Aguilar-Zamora

    2014-01-01

    The fl ora and vegetation of Furcraea par- mentieri (Roezl ex Ortigies) Garcia-Mend. ( F. bedinghausii ) community was studied on the Pelado volcano, at the S area of Mexico City. Following Zurich-Montpellier criteria, 25 phytosociological plots were done, and the Jaccard index of similarity was calcula- ted. Furcraea parmentieri is associated with Muhlenbergia macroura to form an azonal community between 3 020 and 3 300 m, on rocky soils and gaps of Pinus - Alnus forest. Three subcommunities...

  13. Fusarium Head Blight Control and Prevention of Mycotoxin Contamination in Wheat with Botanicals and Tannic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer; Tomke Musa; Fabienne Schwab; Eveline Jenny; Bucheli, Thomas D.; Felix E. Wettstein; Susanne Vogelgsang

    2014-01-01

    Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC) or 1% of tannic acid (TA), inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG) by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA) showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety “Apogee” was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr) and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the ...

  14. Flora survey on extensive meadows of selected area near Kobilje

    OpenAIRE

    Lainšček, Tadej

    2016-01-01

    Between the years 2009 and 2013, we mapped 273 different taxons on 70 polygones in extensively used grasslands near Kobilje village in Prekmurje. Amongs those taxons, there are 43 nature conservation important species: Achillea ptarmica, Alnus glutinosa, Alopecurus aequalis, Alopecurus pratensis, Carex acutiformis, C. appropinquata, C. canescens, C. tomentosa, C. umbrosa, C. vesicaria, Cerastium glutinosum, Clematis recta, Convallaria majalis, Dianthus carthusianorum, D. deltoides, D. superbu...

  15. 16S rRNA as molecular marker in ecology of Frankia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focusses on the role of biotic factors encountered with the establishment of the symbiosis between black alder plants ( Alnus glutinosa ) and introduced Frankia strains. A selection of plant clones and Frankia strains that gave optimal nodulation and nitrogen fixation in forestry was made. For this reason nodulation tests with increasing complexity were set up. An attempt was made to investigate whether introduced strains behaved differently on plants gro...

  16. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield

    OpenAIRE

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I.; Ong, Chin K.; Deans, J. Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-01-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing below-ground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. This study investigates its effects on growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (HB & K), Casuarina equisetifolia (L), Grevillea robusta (A. Cunn. ex R. Br), Maesopsis eminii (Engl.), and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most spec...

  17. Species richness and indices of abundance of medium-sized mammals in andean forest and reforestations with andean alder: a preliminary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Francisco; SÁNCHEZ-PALOMINO, PEDRO; CADENA, ALBERTO

    2013-01-01

    We studied the species richness and two indices of abundance of medium-sizedmammals in areas with Andean forest and Andean alder (Alnus acuminata)reforestations in a reserve at the Central Andes of Colombia. Since reforested areashave a less complex habitat structure and lower plant diversity than native forests, wepredicted that they have lower richness of mammals than areas with Andean forest.We obtained the indices of abundance from direct contacts in transects and from theuse of track sta...

  18. Silvicultural contributions to the reforestation with native species in the tropical mountain rainforest region of South Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre Mendoza, Nikolay

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the potential of five native species (Alnus acuminata, Heliocarpus americanus, Cedrela montana, Juglans neotropica, Tabebuia chrysantha) for the reforestation in South Ecuador in comparison to the exotics Pinus patula and Eucapyptus saligna. The experiment considered planting sites of three successional levels after pasture abandonment, three levels of treatments of the ground vegetation, and pure and mixed species plots. The results report the performance of the seedli...

  19. Achrysocharoides Girault (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae new to tropical America, with eight new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Hansson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Achrysocharoides Girault is here reported for the first time from tropical America. Included are ten species, eight newly described: A. asperulus, A. callisetosus, A. cuspidatus, A. foveatus, A. infuscus, A. mediocarinatus, A. purpureus, A. sulcatus, and two already known: A. ecuadorensis (Hansson and A. gliricidiae (Hansson & Cave. All species are included in an identification key, diagnosed, described and illustrated. Only one of the species, A. gliricidiae, has a host record, an endoparasitoid in a leafmining Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera on Gliricidia sepium (Fabaceae, thus conforming to the biology of extralimital Achrysocharoides species. The genus Kratoysma Bouček is here established as a junior synonym of Achrysocharoides, and the following species previously in Kratoysma are here recombined to Achrysocharoides: K. citri Bouček, K. ecuadorensis Hansson, K. gliricidiae Hansson & Cave, K. longifacies Hansson, K. nepalensis Hansson, Derostenus usticrus Erdös.

  20. Vegetational ecotype of the Gyirong Basin in Tibet, China and its response in stable carbon isotopes of mammaltooth enamel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Tao; LI Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of modern herbaceous plants in the Gyirong Basin (Tibet, China) indicates that although C3 plants are dominant, C4 plants rarely comprise of the vegetation in the area at 4000 m above sea level. The C4 plants discovered in the Gyirong Basin are Salsola nepalensis of Chenopodiaceae and Pennisetum flaccidum of Gramineae, affirming that C4 plants affected by high solar gain can be distributed at high altitude, which supports the opinion that some C4 plants can exist in areas of high elevation. Carbon isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel from the Gyirong Basin indicates that carbon isotopes of structural carbonate in biogenic apatite at high altitude still keep a stable enrichment relationship with those of plants in their diet. Carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are therefore an accurate proxy for vegetation ecotypes and should reflect climatic and environmental features.

  1. Lichen metabolites. 1. Inhibitory action against leukotriene B4 biosynthesis by a non-redox mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K C; Müller, K

    1999-06-01

    Of several lichen metabolites isolated from Parmelia nepalensis and Parmelia tinctorum, the didepsides atranorin (4) and diffractaic acid (5), as well as (+)-protolichesterinic acid (7), inhibited LTB4 biosynthesis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Ethyl hematommate (3) and (+)-usnic acid (1) were only weak inhibitors, while methyl beta-orcinolcarboxylate (2) and gyrophoric acid (6) were inactive at concentrations up to 60 microM. Redox properties of the compounds were evaluated in terms of inhibition of nonenzymatic lipid peroxidation in model membranes, reactivity against the stable free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and deoxyribose degradation as a measure of hydroxyl-radical generation. The results revealed that lichen metabolites neither acted as antioxidants against the peroxidation process in model membranes nor did they scavenge or produce free radicals, suggesting that the inhibitory effects on LTB4 biosynthesis was due to specific enzyme interaction rather than a nonspecific redox mechanism. PMID:10395494

  2. Lichen metabolites. 2. Antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of gyrophoric, usnic, and diffractaic acid on human keratinocyte growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K C; Müller, K

    1999-06-01

    The sensitivity of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT to several lichen metabolites isolated from Parmelia nepalensis and Parmelia tinctorum was evaluated. The tridepside gyrophoric acid (6), the dibenzofuran derivative (+)-usnic acid (1), and the didepside diffractaic acid (5) were potent antiproliferative agents and inhibited cell growth, with IC50 values of 1.7, 2.1, and 2.6 microM, respectively. Methyl beta-orcinolcarboxylate (2), ethyl hematommate (3), the didepside atranorin (4), and (+)-protolichesterinic acid (7) did not influence keratinocyte growth at concentrations of 5 microM. Keratinocytes were further tested for their susceptibility to the action of the potent antiproliferative agents on plasma membrane integrity. The release of lactate dehydrogenase activity into the culture medium was unchanged as compared to controls, documenting that the activity of gyrophoric acid (6), (+)-usnic acid (1), and diffractaic acid (5) was due to cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effects. PMID:10395495

  3. 氨气胁迫下6种观赏植物的生理抗性比较研究%Physiological Resistance Study of Six Kinds of Ornamental Plants Under Ammonia Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔洪珊; 贾伟

    2016-01-01

    选取绿萝、金边虎皮兰、常春藤、豹纹竹芋、金边吊兰、芦荟6种家庭常用观赏植物,采用密闭熏气方式对其进行不同浓度下氨气胁迫试验,测定了6种植物的叶绿素含量、丙二醛含量及相对电导率。试验结果表明:在所测试的3种氨气浓度胁迫下,6种植物抗氨气污染能力由强到弱依次为绿萝、常春藤、豹纹竹芋、金边虎皮兰、金边吊兰、芦荟。%The research selected 6 species of plants such as Epipremnumaureum , Sansevieria trifasciata ,Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis ,Maranta leuconeura ,Chlorophytum comosum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis , and used airtight fumigation method to undergo ammonia stress with different concentrations. The leaf green content ,malondialdehyde content and the relative electrical conductivity were tested for the above plants. The results showed that under 1,2,4 mg/m3 ammonia concentration stress , the Epipremnum aureum and Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis had strongest ammonia pollution resistance , medium for Maranta leuconeura and Sansevieria trifasciataLanrentii , the weakest for Chlorophytum comosum and Aloe vera var. Chinensis .

  4. Effects of Salt-isolation Treatments on Photosynthesis Characteristics of Two Herbaceous Ground Cover Plants in Coastal Saline-Alkaline Land%滨海盐碱地隔盐改良对两种草本地被的光合特性影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷寒冰; 马利静; 秦俊

    2012-01-01

    在上海崇明岛瀛东村研究碎石铺设盐碱土改良措施对土壤EC值的影响,以及土壤盐分变化对紫鸭趾草(Setcreasea purpurea B.K.Boom)和中华常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis)两种植物光合特性的影响.结果表明:实施土壤改良措施后,不同处理间EC值差异逐渐显著.土壤EC值的变化对紫鸭趾草的净光合速率和蒸腾速率影响不大,而对中华常春藤影响显著.在光响应曲线和参数比较中,采用非直角双曲线模型模拟,光响应曲线的变化趋势基本一致;在同等光合有效辐射(PFD)时Pn值表现为4cm铺设厚度>2 cm铺设厚度>0 cm铺设厚度.随着土壤盐分浓度降低,紫鸭趾草和中华常春藤的最大净光合速率(Amax)、表观量子效率(AQY)、光饱和点(LSP)和光补偿点(LCP)均逐渐升高.紫鸭趾草的光合作用对土壤盐分具有较强的适应性,并对强光保持了很强的利用能力,但对弱光的调节作用不显著,而中华常春藤适应性较弱,对强光的利用能力较低,但对弱光利用能力强.总之,两种植物的光合适应性均受到土壤盐分的影响,紫鸭趾草比中华常春藤适应性更强.在盐碱地植物应用中从光合特性考虑,紫鸭趾草更适应当地土壤,但通过碎石铺设盐碱土改良技术,降低土壤盐分浓度后,亦可提高植物对光环境的适应性.%The effect of amelioration methods of stone paving on soil EC value had been studied in Yingdong Village on Shanghai Chongming Island, which also affected photosynthetic characteristics of Setcreaseapurpurea B.K.Boom and Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis. Iy this study, we used stone paving measure to reduce soil salinity and EC values.The different treatments showed significant difference. The influence of soil EC value changes on the net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of Setcreasea purpurea B.K.Boom was not distinguished as opposed to Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis. The light response curves and

  5. Effects of Formaldehyde and Weak Light Stress on Growth and Nutrition of Hedera spp.%甲醛及弱光胁迫对常春藤生长和营养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永福; 彭声静; 任禛; 牛燕芬; 董翠莲; 王定康

    2016-01-01

    以中华常春藤和洋常春藤盆栽苗为参试材料,通过在密闭玻璃容器中设置甲醛、弱光、甲醛+弱光和对照4个处理,测定相关的形态及营养指标,探究甲醛和弱光处理对常春藤植株生长情况及营养物质积累状况的影响,揭示2种常春藤对甲醛和弱光胁迫的适应性和调节机制。结果表明:甲醛或弱光胁迫使2种常春藤的叶长、叶宽、茎长、茎粗、根长、生物量减小,叶形指数增大;甲醛胁迫使根冠比增大,弱光、双重胁迫使根冠比减小。甲醛胁迫下2种常春藤的根、茎、叶中可溶性糖含量下降,淀粉含量上升;2种常春藤根中总碳和脯氨酸含量及碳氮比上升,蛋白质和磷含量下降,叶中总碳、蛋白质和总氮含量均下降,中华常春藤根中和2种常春藤叶中的碳氮比显著上升。弱光、双重胁迫下,2种常春藤茎、叶中可溶性糖含量降低,淀粉含量上升,根中淀粉含量降低,中华常春藤叶中蛋白质和总氮含量下降,碳氮比上升,根中脯氨酸含量上升;双重胁迫下2种常春藤根、茎中脯氨酸含量均显著上升。中华常春藤的各项指标在弱光下表现较为稳定,而洋常春藤各项指标在甲醛胁迫下表现较为稳定,甲醛胁迫下洋常春藤的生长状况良好。%In this paper,took the potted seedlings of Hedera nepalensis and H.helix as the experimental materi-als,set four treatments of formaldehyde,weak light,formaldehyde+weak light and control in airtight glass contain-ers,and measured some morphological and nutritive index,to investigate the effects of formaldehyde and weak light stress on the growth and nutrition of two species of Hedera spp.,and then reveal the adaptability and regulatory mechanisms.The results showed that under formaldehyde or weak light stress,leaf length,leaf width,stem length, stem diameter,root length and biomass of the two species of Hedera spp

  6. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through increases in net primary production (NPP, elevated CO2 is hypothesized to increase the amount of plant litter entering the soil. The fate of this extra carbon on the forest floor or in mineral soil is currently not clear. Moreover, increased rates of NPP can be maintained only if forests can escape nitrogen limitation. In a Free atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiment near Bangor, Wales, 4 ambient and 4 elevated [CO2] plots were planted with patches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica on a former arable field. After 4 years, biomass averaged for the 3 species was 5497 (se 270 g m−2 in ambient and 6450 (se 130 g m−2 in elevated [CO2] plots, a significant increase of 17% (P = 0.018. During that time, only a shallow L forest floor litter layer had formed due to intensive bioturbation. Total soil C and N contents increased irrespective of treatment and species as a result of afforestation. We could not detect an additional C sink in the soil, nor were soil C stabilization processes affected by elevated [CO2]. We observed a decrease of leaf N content in Betula and Alnus under elevated [CO2], while the soil C/N ratio decreased regardless of CO2 treatment. The ratio of N taken up from the soil and by N2-fixation in Alnus was not affected by elevated [CO2]. We infer that increased nitrogen use efficiency is the mechanism by which increased NPP is sustained under elevated [CO2] at this site.

  7. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF LEAF GALLS FROM WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study contains the results of our research on the galls makers that attack the woody species in the urban environment. The presence of a gall-forming arthropods within leaves has been observed on 8 species: Juglans regia, Prunus domestica, Malus domestica, Tilia tomentosa, Alnus glutinosa, Aesculus hippocastanum, Ribes rubrum and Vitis vinifera. We identified a number of 10 gall-forming species. These species belong to 8 different genera, from 5 families and 4 orders. Levels of infestation with Cameraria ohridella are high.

  8. Evaluación de combustibles y su disponibilidad en incendios forestales: un estudio en el Parque Nacional La Malinche

    OpenAIRE

    Julio César Wong González; María de Lourdes Villers Ruiz

    2007-01-01

    Estudios sobre peligro y combate de incendios forestales consideran la interacción entre los factores meteorológicos y las características de los combustibles. Por ello, se analizó la humedad de los combustibles muertos sobre el suelo, la cual depende de su diámetro y de la humedad relativa principalmente. Se analizaron combustibles de 0.6 a 2.5 y de 2.6 a 7.5 cm de diámetro en las comunidades donde predominan especies de los géneros: Quercus, Alnus, Abies y Pinus del Parque Nacio...

  9. Investigation on Effect of Wood species and Particle Size on water absorption property of composite made of sawdust and Polypropylene

    OpenAIRE

    DOROSTKAR, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the effect of wood species & particle size water absorption property of composite made of four species of Fir (Abies alba) and Beech (Fagus orientalis L.), Poplar (Populus alba) and Alder (Alnus glutinosa) sawdust and Polypropylene (PP) were investigated. Wood plastic composite (WPC) were made with 30% PP in a batch process at 185˚C in batch process at 185 ˚C temperatures, at two particle sizes of 40 mesh and 80 mesh. Maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) was used as a c...

  10. Indice botánico

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Achiote: 91, 94, 198 Aguaje: 156 Aji: 59, 74, 171 Alamo: 171 Algodón: 94, 110, 124 Aliso: 52 Alnus acuminata: ver aliso Aloes: 171 Altramuce: 44 Arachis hypogaea: ver maní Arracacha esculenta: 69 Arveja: 74 Asaí: ver palmera Bactris gasipaes: 141 Balsa palo de: 180 Befaría ledifolia: 64 Bertholetia excelsa: 154 Bixa orellana: ver achiote Bombax: 178 Bombonax: ver palmera Barbasco: 199 Cabeza de negro: ver Humiro Cacao: 194, 217 Café: 175, 179, 217 Camote: 62, 69, 74, 97, 182, 192 Caña de azúc...

  11. Saproxylic beetles of the Po plain woodlands, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stefanelli

    2014-07-01

    Although we didn’t find species listed in the Annexes of the EU Habitat Directive, some of the species found are locally threatened because of their rarity, local distribution, and strong linkage to old forests. Among these species there are the Bothrideridae Bothrideres bipunctatus, the Cerambycidae Prionus coriarius and Xylotrechus rusticus, the Dryophthoridae Dryophthorus corticalis, the Eucnemidae Nematodes filum (with only 1 individual captured in Alnus unmanged forest, the Histeridae Aeletes atomarius and Paromalus flavicornis, the Laemophloeidae Cryptolestes duplicatus, the Latridiidae Enicmus rugosus and Latridius hirtus, the Mycetophagidae Mycetophagus piceus, and the Zopheridae Colydium elongatum and Pycnomerus terebrans.

  12. Inhibition of the growth of Alexandrium tamarense by algicidal substances in Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye; Zhang, Xin-Lian; Qi, Yu-Zao

    2009-10-01

    The wood sawdust from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) exhibited stronger inhibition on the growth of Alexandrium tamarense than those from alder (Alnus cremastogyne), pine (Pinus massoniana), birch (Betula alnoides) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum). The water extract, acetone-water extract and essential oil from fir sawdust were all shown to inhibit the growth of A. tamarense. The inhibition of fir essential oil was the strongest among all the above wood sources while the half effective concentration was only 0.65 mg/L. These results suggested that the fir essential oil may play an important role in the algicidal effect of Chinese fir. PMID:19634014

  13. Caracterización física, química y mineralógica de suelos con vocación forestal protectora región andina central colombiana / physical chemical and mineralogical characterization of soils with a protective forest vocation, central andean region of colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Leyder Echeverri Tafur; Jaime Vicente Estévez Varón; Juan Guillermo Bedoya Patiño

    2014-01-01

    Resumen. En la Reserva Forestal Protectora Bosques de la CHEC, ubicada sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera central colombiana, municipios de Manizales y Villamaría, departamento de Caldas, se hizo la caracterización física, química y mineralógica de dos perfiles de suelos, descritos sobre dos laderas, con un manejo actual correspondiente a una plantación de aliso (Alnus acuminata) y un bosque secundario. Los resultados permitieron establecer,desde el punto de vista físico, el domin...

  14. PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMIŞOARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  15. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Seppä, H.; H. J. B. Birks; Giesecke, T.; D. Hammarlund; Alenius, T.; Antonsson, K.; Bjune, A.E.; Heikkilä, M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Ojala, A. E. K.; Telford, R J; Veski, S.

    2007-01-01

    A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitat...

  16. Adaptación de once especies arboreas de los bosques altoandinos a condiciones contrastantes de luz

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Hurtado, Flavio Humberto

    1998-01-01

    Se evaluó la capacidad de adaptación de plantas jóvenes de 11 especies arbóreas de los bosques altoandinos a condiciones contrastantes de iluminación, para lo cual se sometieron grupos de 10 plantas por especie a cada uno de 5 tratamientos lumínicos durante 23 semanas: 3%, 10%,33%,52% Y 100% de la iluminación relativa existente a campo abierto. En 8 de las 11 especies se estudiaron las respuestas fotosintéticas a la radiación fotosintétícamente activa (RFA), son ellas Alnus acuminata RE. K. (...

  17. Comparación de fertilización exponencial y constante en plántulas de cinco especies forestales nativas de bosques Andinos de Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez López, Paula Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Dada la importancia de mejorar las técnicas para producir material vegetal de alta calidad que permita plantar especies forestales nativas, Se estableció un experimento para evaluar el efecto individual y combinado de la dosis y la forma de fertilización (constante y exponencial) de fertilización en vivero sobre la nutrición y el crecimiento de plantas de cinco especies aliso (Alnus acuminata), quimulá (Citharexylum subflavescens),roble (Quercus humboldtii), cedro negro (Juglas neotropica) y...

  18. Morphological, molecular and ecological aspects of the South American hypogeous fungus Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouhra, Eduardo R; Dominguez, Laura S; Becerra, Alejandra G; Trappe, James M

    2005-01-01

    Field studies in Argentina's Yunga District revealed Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov., a hypogeous fungus associated with Alnus acuminata ssp. acuminata. Morphological and molecular studies based on amplification and sequencing of the nuclear LSU rDNA gene showed its unique identity within Alpova. Related genera included in the analyses were Boletus edulis, Rhizopogon spp., Suillus luteus and Truncocolumella citrina. Additional observations of animal diggings around the sites and microscopic examination of fecal pellets of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus novemcinctus) indicate A. austroalnicola is consumed and its spores dispersed by animals. PMID:16392248

  19. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  20. Fossil nothofagaceous leaves from the Eocene of western Antarctica and their bearing on the origin, dispersal and systematics of Nothofagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Fossil leaves resembling Nothofagaceae have been investigated from the Eocene of western Antarctica and a new form genus Nothofagofolia is proposed for these kinds of fossils. Some new specimens belonging to this form genus are described. They were collected from the Fossil Hill locality of Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, western Antarctica. Two new species, two new combinations and an unnamed species are reported. A number of published Nothofagus leaf fossils from the same locality are discussed and revised. As a result of these studies of Nothofagus leaf morphology, we conclude that (1) Nothofagus probably originated in high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the middle-late Late Cretaceous and diversified, dispersed gradually to the lower latitudes of the same hemisphere; (2) leaf morphological characters are significant for the systematics of the family Nothofagaceae, especially at the intrageneric level; and (3) extant species of Nothofagus known from southern temperate areas have more primitive leaf morphological characters and lower leaf ranks than those from tropical mountains as well as those of the Fagaceae and Betulaceae.

  1. The Paxillus involutus (Boletales, Paxillaceae) complex in Europe: genetic diversity and morphological description of the new species Paxillus cuprinus, typification of P. involutus s.s., and synthesis of species boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargeat, Patricia; Chaumeton, Jean-Paul; Navaud, Olivier; Vizzini, Alfredo; Gryta, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Paxillus involutus is a model species for ecological or physiological studies of ectomycorrhizal agaricomycetes. Three to six groups or species linked to it have been ecologically and morphologically distinguished. Phylogenetic studies have revealed the existence of four species in Europe: Paxillus ammoniavirescens, Paxillus obscurisporus, P. involutus, and a fourth as yet not described species. We studied 47 collections from 24 French and Italian locations, supplemented with GenBank data, in order to genetically and taxonomically delineate these species. Phylogenetic analyses of three nuclear DNA regions (rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), tef1-α, and gpd) confirmed the four European species. Morphology, culture, and ecology features allowed us to delineate species boundaries and to describe the fourth species we named Paxillus cuprinus since it turns coppery with age. As there is no existing original herbarium specimen for P. involutus, one of our collections was chosen as the epitype. The low genetic diversity found in P. cuprinus correlates with stable morphological traits (basidiome colour, ovoid-amygdaliform spores with an apical constriction) and with ecological preferences (association with Betulaceae in open and temperate areas). In contrast, P. ammoniavirescens is characterized by a high genetic diversity and a high variation of its morphological and ecological features. PMID:24433674

  2. Pollen-related allergy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Spieksma, F T; Liccardi, G; Jäger, S; Russo, M; Kontou-Fili, K; Nikkels, H; Wüthrich, B; Bonini, S

    1998-06-01

    The increasing mobility of Europeans for business and leisure has led to a need for reliable information about exposure to seasonal airborne allergens during travel abroad. Over the last 10 years or so, aeropalynologic and allergologic studies have progressed to meet this need, and extensive international networks now provide regular pollen and hay-fever forecasts. Europe is a geographically complex continent with a widely diverse climate and a wide spectrum of vegetation. Consequently, pollen calendars differ from one area to another; however, on the whole, pollination starts in spring and ends in autumn. Grass pollen is by far the most frequent cause of pollinosis in Europe. In northern Europe, pollen from species of the family Betulaceae is a major cause of the disorder. In contrast, the mild winters and dry summers of Mediterranean areas favor the production of pollen types that are rarely found in central and northern areas of the continent (e.g., the genera Parietaria, Olea, and Cupressus). Clinical and aerobiologic studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (e.g., importation of plants for urban parklands) and greater international travel (e.g., the expansion of the ragweed genus Ambrosia in France, northern Italy, Austria, and Hungary). Studies on allergen-carrying paucimicronic or submicronic airborne particles, which penetrate deep into the lung, are having a relevant impact on our understanding of pollinosis and its distribution throughout Europe. PMID:9689338

  3. Changes in floral diversities, floral turnover rates, and climates in Campanian and Maastrichtian time, North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred-and-ten angiosperm pollen taxa have been found in upper Campanian to Masstrichtian rocks of the Colville River region, North Slope of Alaska. These are the highest paleolatitude Campanian and Maastrichtian floras known from North America. Total angiosperm pollen diversity rose during the Campanian and declined toward the end of the Maastrichtian. However, anemophilous porate pollen of the Betulaceae-Myricaceae-Ulmaceae complex increased gradually in diversity during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian and into the Paleocene. Turnover of angiosperm taxa was active throughout most of late Campanian and Maastrichtian time; rapid turnover affected mainly the taxa of zoophilous herbs, representing an bundant but ecologically subordinate element of the vegetation. Last appearances of pollen taxa during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian probably represented mainly extinctions rather than emigrations; end- Cretaceous angiosperm extinctions in the North American Arctic began well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event. The last appearances in the late Maastrichtian took place in bursts; they appear to represent stepwise rather than gradual events, which may indicate the existence of pulses of climatic change particularly in late Maastrichtian time. ?? 1989.

  4. Depositional Environment of Mio-Pliocene Siwalik Sedimentary Strata from the Darjeeling Himalayan Foothills, India: A Palynological Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Sandip; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Taral, Suchana; Chakraborty, Tapan; Bera, Subir

    2016-01-01

    A rich and diverse palynoassemblage recovered from the Churanthi River section (26°53' 59.3" N, 88°34' 17.2" E), Darjeeling foothills Eastern Himalaya, has yielded 87 species assigned to 69 genera. The palynoassemblage is rich in angiosperm taxa (45.63%) followed by gymnosperms (0.45%), pteridophytes (18.49%) and fungal remains (23.88%). Based on their nearest living relatives, a wet evergreen to semi-evergreen forest under a humid tropical to sub-tropical environment during the Mio-Pliocene age has been suggested. A lot of angiosperms such as Palaeosantalaceaepites, Araliaceoipollenites, Malvacearampollis, Zonocostites, Neocouperipollis, Dicolpopollis, Palmidites, Palmaepollenites, isolated salt glands of mangrove plant leaves (Heliospermopsis) and Mediaverrunites type of fungal spores, along with ichnofossils like Planolites, Palaeophycus, Skolithos, Rosselia, Ophiomorpha and Teichichnus associated with rippled mudstone-siltstone suggest an environment strongly influenced by brackish water. Primary sedimentary structures in the associated strata indicate strong wave agitation common in shallow marine setting. Some high elevation components (5.14%) such as Alnipollenites, cf. Corylus (Betulaceae), Juglanspollenites, Engelhardtioipollenites (Juglandaceae), Quercoides, Cupuliferoidaepollenites, Lithocarpus, Castanopsis (Fagaceae), Abietineaepollenites (Pinaceae) represent hinterland vegetation possibly transported to the prograding deltaic coastline by the rivers. Reworked palynotaxa (Striatopodocarpites sp., Striatites sp., Faunipollenites sp., Circumstriatites sp., Crescentipollenites sp., Cuneatisporites sp., Parasaccites sp., Scheuringipollenites sp., Rhizomaspora sp., Marsupipollenites sp., Lophotriletes sp.) of Permian age have also been recorded in the palynoassemblage (11.55%) indicating the abundance of Permian Gondwana strata in the source area. PMID:26930664

  5. 低温环境中 T-2毒素降解菌的分离鉴定及特性研究%Isolation and Identification of T-2 Toxin Degradable Bacteria and Its Characteristic in Low Temperature Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鹏莉; 陈海燕; 王雅玲; 孙力军; 张春辉; 施琦; 徐德峰; 叶日英

    2015-01-01

    T-2 toxin degradable bacteria( TTDB)in low-temperature environment was Isolated and screened and found out its biochemical characteristics,and probed deeply into its microbiological and biochemical features of simi-lar and dissimilar points,to provide reference for biochemical judgment during the inspection with TTDB. Aiming at exposure of low concentration T-2 toxin standard sample to - 20 ℃ low temperature environment T-2 standard toxin of low concentration,LC-MS / MS was adopted to quantitatively analyze the residual amount of T-2 toxin,using NA and PDA media,and isolated five degradable bacteria,they were identified as Bacillus vallismortis,Pseudomonas geniculata,Staphylococcus nepalensis,Bacillus cereus,and Enterobacter cloacae according to 16S rDNA and their bio-chemical characteristics,all can degrate low concentration T-2 toxin in different degrees at - 20 ℃ ,among them B. cereus had the strongest degradation with the rate as high as 91% . They have many similarities in physicochemical property,all of them cannot utilize D-tagatose(dTAG),exhibited negative to ELLMAN. B. vallismortis Bp1234-7, P. geniculata Bp24-4,S. nepalensis Bp124-5 and E. cloacae Bp123-7 decompose D-glucose,while B. cereus Bp123-7 does not.%离筛选低温环境中 T-2毒素的降解菌并探明其生化特性,探究 T-2毒素降解微生物生化特性异同点,为 T-2毒素降解微生物的检验提供生化判断参考。针对暴露于-20℃低温环境中的低浓度 T-2毒素标准品,采用 LC-MS/ MS 定量分析 T-2毒素残留量,利用营养琼脂培养基(NA)和马铃薯葡萄糖琼脂培养基(PDA)共分离出5株降解菌,16S rDNA 结合生化鉴定结果为死谷芽胞杆菌(Bacillus vallismortis)、蜡状芽胞杆菌(Bacil-lus cereus)、阴沟肠杆菌( Enterobacter cloacae)、弯曲假单胞菌( Pseudomonas geniculata)和尼泊尔葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus nepalensis)。这些分离株在-20℃条件下对低浓度 T-2毒素均

  6. Characterization of haemoglobin from actinorhizal plants--an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanghati; Sen, Arnab; Thakur, Subarna; Tisa, Louis S

    2013-11-01

    Plant haemoglobins (Hbs), found in both symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants, are heme proteins and members of the globin superfamily. Hb genes of actinorhizal Fagales mostly belong to the non-symbiotic type of haemoglobin; however, along with the non-symbiotic Hb, Casuarina sp. posses a symbiotic one (symCgHb), which is expressed specifically in infected cells of nodules. A thorough sequence analysis of 26 plant Hb proteins, currently available in public domain, revealed a consensus motif of 29 amino acids. This motif is present in all the members of symbiotic class II Hbs including symCgHb and non-symbiotic Class II Hbs, but is totally absent in Class I symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs. Further, we constructed 3D structures of Hb proteins from Alnus and Casuarina through homology modelling and peeped into their structural properties. Structure-based studies revealed that the Casuarina symbiotic haemoglobin protein shows distinct stereochemical properties from that of the other Casuarina and Alnus Hb proteins. It also showed considerable structural similarities with leghemoglobin structure from yellow lupin (pdb id 1GDI). Therefore, sequence and structure analyses point to the fact that symCgHb protein shows significant resemblance to symbiotic haemoglobin found in legumes and may thus eventually play a similar role in shielding the nitrogenase from oxygen as seen in the case of leghemoglobin. PMID:24287657

  7. Micromonospora is a normal occupant of actinorhizal nodules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lorena Carro; Petar Pujic; Martha E Trujillo; Phillipe Normand

    2013-11-01

    Actinorhizal plants have been found in eight genera belonging to three orders (Fagales, Rosales and Cucurbitales). These all bear root nodules inhabited by bacteria identified as the nitrogen-fixing actinobacterium Frankia. These nodules all have a peripheral cortex with enlarged cells filled with Frankia hyphae and vesicles. Isolation in pure culture has been notoriously difficult, due in a large part to the growth of fast-growing contaminants where, it was later found, Frankia was slow-growing. Many of these contaminants, which were later found to be Micromonospora, were obtained from Casuarina and Coriaria. Our study was aimed at determining if Micromonospora were also present in other actinorhizal plants. Nodules from Alnus glutinosa, Alnus viridis, Coriaria myrtifolia, Elaeagnus x ebbingei, Hippophae rhamnoides, Myrica gale and Morella pensylvanica were tested and were all found to contain Micromonospora isolates. These were found to belong to mainly three species: Micromonospora lupini, Micromonospora coriariae and Micromonospora saelicesensis. Micromonospora isolates were found to inhibit some Frankia strains and to be innocuous to other strains.

  8. Overall Benefit Evaluation on Six Management Models of Green for Grain' Forestry Engineering in Southwest Hubei Province%鄂西南退耕还林6种经营模式综合效益评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴代坤; 戴应金; 李双龙; 韩梅

    2011-01-01

    对鄂西南退耕还林中的厚朴+箬竹、密植茶园、杉木+毛竹、杉木+桤木、香椿纯林、日本落叶松纯林6种经营模式,用层次分析法进行生态效益、经济效益、社会效益3大指标的综合评价.结果表明:综合效益由高至低排序为厚朴+箬竹模式>密植茶园模式>杉木+毛竹模式>杉木+桤木模式>香椿纯林模式>日本落叶松纯林模式.%A comprehensive evaluation was made by AHP methodology on the ecological, economic and social benefits of six forest management models that were summarized from the ' Green for Grain' Forestry Engineering carried out in the southwest part of Hubei Province, i. e. , Mangnolia officinalis + Indocalamus tessellatus, dense tea plantation, Cuninghamia lanceolata + Phyllestachys pubescens, Cunninghamia lanceolata + Alnus glutinosa,pure Toona sinensis plantation, and the pure Larix kaempferi plantation. The results showed that the comprehensive benefits of the six models were ranked in the order as Mangnolia officinalis + Indocalamus tessellates > dense tea plantation > Cuninghamia lanceolata + Phyllestachys pubescens > Cuninghamia lanceolata + Alnus glutinosa > pure Toona sinensis plantation > pure Larix kaempferi plantation.

  9. Paleoecology of late-glacial terrestrial deposits with in situ conifers from the submerged continental shelf of western canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Terri; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Fedje, Daryl W.

    2003-09-01

    Extensive portions of the continental shelf off the coast of British Columbia were subaerially exposed during Late Wisconsinan deglaciation due to lowering of relative sea level by as much as 150 m. Paleoecological analyses were conducted at two sites on the emergent continental shelf where terrestrial surfaces with in situ conifers are preserved. The woody plant remains confirm that, during the latest period of subaerial exposure, terrestrial vegetation was established on the continental shelf. Microscopic identification of fossil wood, and analyses of pollen and plant macrofossils from the associated paleosols and overlying shallow pond sediments indicate that productive Pinus contorta-dominated communities with abundant Alnus crispa and ferns grew on the shelf adjacent to and on the Queen Charlotte Islands around 12,200 14C yr B.P. Dwarf shrubs including Salix and Empetrum, and herbaceous plants such as Heracleum lanatum and Hippuris vulgaris, were also important components of the shelf vegetation. Near northern Vancouver Island, mixed coniferous forests dominated by Pinus contorta with Picea, Tsuga spp., Alnus spp., and ferns occupied the shelf at 10,500 14C yr B.P.

  10. Characterization of haemoglobin from Actinorhizal plants -- An in silico approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghati Bhattacharya; Arnab Sen; Subarna Thakur; Louis S Tisa

    2013-11-01

    Plant haemoglobins (Hbs), found in both symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants, are heme proteins and members of the globin superfamily. Hb genes of actinorhizal Fagales mostly belong to the non-symbiotic type of haemoglobin; however, along with the non-symbiotic Hb, Casuarina sp. posses a symbiotic one (symCgHb), which is expressed specifically in infected cells of nodules. A thorough sequence analysis of 26 plant Hb proteins, currently available in public domain, revealed a consensus motif of 29 amino acids. This motif is present in all the members of symbiotic class II Hbs including symCgHb and non-symbiotic Class II Hbs, but is totally absent in Class I symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs. Further, we constructed 3D structures of Hb proteins from Alnus and Casuarina through homology modelling and peeped into their structural properties. Structure-based studies revealed that the Casuarina symbiotic haemoglobin protein shows distinct stereochemical properties from that of the other Casuarina and Alnus Hb proteins. It also showed considerable structural similarities with leghemoglobin structure from yellow lupin (pdb id 1GDI). Therefore, sequence and structure analyses point to the fact that symCgHb protein shows significant resemblance to symbiotic haemoglobin found in legumes and may thus eventually play a similar role in shielding the nitrogenase from oxygen as seen in the case of leghemoglobin.

  11. Pollen calendar of Lublin, 1995-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of pollen fall were carried out in Lublin in 1995 - 2000 years by the gravimetric method. The modified Durham sampler was applied, located at 9 m above ground level. On the base of results 6 year observations - the pollen calendar for Lublin was prepared. The following 15 plant taxa were taken under consideration: Alnus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Populus, Fraxinus, Betula, Quercus, Pinaceae, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urtica, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia and Ambrosia. The anemophilous plants' pollen season in Lublin began in half of February and lasted till half of September. First appeared pollen grains of decidous tress' and shrubs, then the coniferous. High values of pollen fall of these plants were noted till the end of May. Start of grass pollen season was recorded from the half of May, and at the latter part of this month, also other herbaceous plants. The highest concentrations of pollen were found in April and May when trees and shrubs pollinated. The highest annual totals were marked for plants of the following taxa: Betula, Poaceae, Pinaceae, Alnus, Urtica.

  12. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland.

  13. Postglacial vegetation history of Orcas Island, northwestern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Estella B.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Whitlock, Cathy; Nickmann, Rudy; Watts, William A.

    2016-05-01

    The revegetation of islands following retreat of Pleistocene glaciers is of great biogeographical interest. The San Juan Islands, Washington, feature regionally distinctive xerophytic plant communities, yet their vegetation history, as it relates to past climate and sea level, is poorly known. We describe a 13,700-year-old pollen record from Killebrew Lake Fen and compare the vegetation reconstruction with others from the region. The data suggest that the narrow channels surrounding Orcas Island were not a barrier to early postglacial immigration of plants. Between 13,700 and 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus, Tsuga, Picea, Alnus viridis, and possibly Juniperus maritima were present in a mosaic that supported Bison antiquus and Megalonyx. The rise of Alnus rubra-type pollen and Pteridium spores at ca. 12,000 cal yr BP suggests a warming trend and probably more fires. Temperate conifer taxa, including Cupressaceae, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga heterophylla, and Abies, increased after 11,000 cal yr BP and especially in the last 7000 cal yr BP. After 6000 cal yr BP, Pseudotsuga and Cupressaceae dominated the vegetation. The last 1500 yr were the wettest period of the record. Due to its rain shadow location, Orcas Island experienced drier conditions than on the mainland during most of the postglacial period.

  14. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    Full Text Available Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native versus L. sempervirens (native and Frangula alnus (non-native versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native, over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  15. Vegetation and Environment History for the Past 14000 yr BP from Dingnan, Jiangxi Province, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Richard Dodson; Shirene Hickson; Rachel Khoo; Xiao-Qiang Li; Jemina Toia; Wei-Jian Zhou

    2006-01-01

    A Late Pleistocene-Holocene pollen, phosphorus, and charcoal record was reconstructed from apeatland in southern Jiangxi Province in southern China. The area today has a mountainous and rolling landscape with villages, small towns, and agriculture dominated by rice paddies, vegetable, and fruit gardens, as well as areas of secondary forest and pine re-afforestation. The record opens before 14 300 yr BP, with Alnus woodland dominating the wetland areas and with an open Quercus woodland on the surrounding slopes.The forest area becomes more complex from approximately 12 800 yr BP and further from 9 000 yr BP. At approximately 6 000 yr BP, there is evidence of clearing and, by 4 500-4 000 yr BP, a complete collapse in the wetland Alnus and terrestrial forest as the low-lying areas are converted to rice production. For much of the record, the occurrence of fire around the site was low, although there is evidence of regional fires. Fire was used as a tool in clearing and then used in the annual cycles of stubble burning after rice harvest. Nutrient levels, as reflected by total phosphorus in the sediment, seem to be closely related to forest changes and high values in the surface layers probably result from land-management techniques associated with agriculture. Therefore, human impact greatly altered forest cover, fire frequency, and nutrient dynamics; this has been evident for approximately 6 000 yr BP and then intensifies towards the present day.

  16. Arbuscular mycorrhizae of dominant plant species in Yungas forests, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta; Zak, Marcelo R; Bartoloni, Norberto

    2009-01-01

    In Argentina the Yungas forests are among the ecosystems most affected by human activity, with loss of biodiversity. To assess the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore numbers in these ecosystems, the roots of the most dominant native plants (one tree, Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous, Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub, Sambucus peruviana) were studied throughout the year from two sites of Yungas forests. Assessments of mycorrhizal colonization (percent root length, intraradical structures) were made by washing and staining the roots. Soil samples of each plant species were pooled and subsamples were obtained to determine AM spore numbers. The herbaceous species formed both Arum- and Paris-type morphologies, whereas the tree and the shrub species formed respectively single structural types of Arum- and Paris-type. AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers displayed variation in species, seasons and sites. D. indica showed the highest AM colonization, whereas the highest spore numbers was observed in the rhizosphere of A. acuminata. No correlation was observed between spore numbers and root length percentage colonized by AM fungi. Results of this study showed that Alnus acuminata is facultatively AM. The AM colonization, intraradical fungi structures and AMF spore numbers varied in species depending on phenological, climatic and edaphic conditions. PMID:19750940

  17. Performance of ectomycorrhizal alders exposed to specific Canadian oil sands tailing stressors under in vivo bipartite symbiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Nadeau, Martin; Gagné, André; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Bélanger, Pier-Anne; Fortin, J André; Roy, Sébastien; Greer, Charles W; Khasa, Damase P

    2016-07-01

    Canadian oil sands tailings are predominately sodic residues contaminated by hydrocarbons such as naphthenic acids. These conditions are harsh for plant development. In this study, we evaluated the effect of inoculating roots of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa and Alnus incana ssp. rugosa with ectomycorrhizal fungi in the presence of tailings compounds. Seedlings were inoculated with 7 different strains of Paxillus involutus and Alpova diplophloeus and were grown under different treatments of NaCl, Na2SO4, and naphthenic acids in a growth chamber. Afterwards, seedling survival, height, dry biomass, leaf necrosis, and root mycorrhization rate were measured. Paxillus involutus Mai was the most successful strain in enhancing alder survival, health, and growth. Seedlings inoculated with this strain displayed a 25% increase in survival rate, 2-fold greater biomass, and 2-fold less leaf necrosis compared with controls. Contrary to our expectations, A. diplophloeus was not as effective as P. involutus in improving seedling fitness, likely because it did not form ectomycorrhizae on roots of either alder species. High intraspecific variation characterized strains of P. involutus in their ability to stimulate alder height and growth and to minimize leaf necrosis. We conclude that in vivo selection under bipartite symbiotic conditions is essential to select effective strains that will be of use for the revegetation and reclamation of derelict lands. PMID:27170470

  18. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  19. 四种室内观叶植物离体叶片吸收甲醛效果的研究%Formaldehyde Purification Effects of Four kinds of Indoor Foliage Plants Leaves in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春晓; 刘梦云; 张莉莉; 熊勉

    2015-01-01

    Four common indoor ornamental plants were selected as experiment materials: Aglaonema modestum, Scindapsus aureun , Chlorophytum comosum , Hedera nepalensis var .sinensis.Through artificial simulation environment , explore formaldehyde purification effects of indoor ornamental plants in three different formaldehyde concentrations .The results showed that all the four plant species had a pretty good absorption capacity of formaldehyde .By comparing the absorption rate of formaldehyde with three different concentrations in 36 hours, Aglaonema modestum was the best , reached 23.94mg/cm2 , followed by Chlorophytum comosum and Hedera nepalensis var .sinensi, Scindapsus aureum was the weakest , formaldehyde absorption amount is 4.72mg/cm2 .Analyzing experimental data with statistics software spss , the results showed that each plant in vitro leave has different absorptive capacity after different time , and different plants have different absorptive capacity .Analyzing the process of adsorption formaldehyde by Chlorophytum , found that the adsorptive process is first-order.%以万年青、常春藤、吊兰、绿萝4种植物为研究对象,通过人工模拟环境,在3种不同的甲醛浓度下探讨4种植物离体吸收甲醛的能力。结果表明,植物离体叶片对甲醛均有较好的吸收能力;综合考虑36 h内4种植物离体叶片对甲醛的吸收量,其中以万年青的吸收效果最好,达到23.94 mg/cm2,吊兰和常春藤次之,绿萝效果最差,为4.72 mg/cm2。应用SPSS对实验数据进行分析,结果说明不同的处理时间下,各个植物离体叶片对甲醛的吸收能力都不同,且对甲醛的吸收能力因植物种类的不同而不同。对吊兰吸附甲醛的过程进行动力学分析,发现该吸附过程属于一级动力学过程。

  20. 5种藤本植物的抗寒性研究初探%Preliminary study on cold resistance of five different lianas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项延军; 李新芝; 王小德

    2011-01-01

    为研究藤本植物在低温胁迫下植株的生理、生化变化,对中华常春藤(Hedera nepalensis)、南蛇藤(Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb.)、藤本月季(Rosah ybrida ClimbingRoses)、云南黄馨(Jasminum mesnyi Hance)、扶芳藤(Euonymus ortunei)5种藤本植物在不同低温处理下植物叶片的细胞膜透性、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性和可溶性蛋白质含量进行测定.结果表明:随着温度的降低,胁迫时间的延长,5种植物的叶片细胞膜透性增加,SOD活性增大,可溶性蛋白质含量呈上升趋势;试验表明,这3种变化指标可用于5种植物叶片的抗寒性测定;在这5种植物中,扶芳藤较抗寒,云南黄馨、藤本月季、中华常春藤抗寒性居中,南蛇藤抗寒性最差.%To improve the use of lianas in urban river landscape, physico-chemical changes in five different lianas, such as Hedera nepalensis, Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. , Rosahybrida ClimbingRoses, Jasminum mesnyi Hance, Euonymus fortunei were analyzed during low temperature stress. Membrane permeability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and soluble protein contents in leaves of these five plants were measured at different temperatures. The results showed that membrane permeability, SOD activity and soluble protein contents all increased as the temperature lowered and the time prolonged, which indicated that the three factors could be used as the indexes to leaf cold resistance of the five plants. Among the five plants, E. Fortunei showed the highest cold resistance, while C. Orbiculatus showed the lowest cold resistance than the others.

  1. Does mycorrhizal inoculation benefit plant survival, plant development and small-scale soil fixation? Results from a perennial eco-engineering field experiment in the Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Alexander; Grimm, Maria; Graf, Frank; Baumhauer, Roland; Gärtner, Holger

    2015-04-01

    In mountain environments superficial slope failures on coarse grained, vegetation-free slopes are common processes and entail a certain risk for humans and socio-economic structures. Eco-engineering measures can be applied to mitigate slope instabilities. In this regard, limited plant survival and growth can be supported by mycorrhizal inoculation, which was successfully tested in laboratory studies. However, related studies on a field scale are lacking. Furthermore, mycorrhizae are known to enhance soil aggregation, which is linked to soil physics such as shear strength, and hence it is a useful indicator for near-surface soil/slope stability. The overall objective of our contribution was to test whether mycorrhizal inoculation can be used to promote eco-engineering measures in steep alpine environments based on a five-year field experiment. We hypothesized that mycorrhizal inoculation (i) enhances soil aggregation, (ii) stimulate plant survival and fine root development, (iii) effects plant performance, (iv) the stimulated root development in turn influences aggregate stability, and (v) that climatic variations play a major role in fine-root development. We established mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal treated eco-engineered research plots (hedge layers mainly consisting of Alnus spp. and Salix spp.) on a field experimental scale. The experimental site is in the eastern Swiss Alps at an erosion-prone slope where many environmental conditions can be seen as homogeneous. Soil aggregation, fine root development and plant survival was quantified at the end of four growing seasons (2010, '11, '12, '14). Additionally, growth properties of Alnus spp. and Salix spp. were measured and their biomass estimated. Meteorological conditions, soil temperature and soil water content were recorded. (i) The introduced eco-engineering measures enhanced aggregate stability significantly. In contrast to published greenhouse and laboratory studies, mycorrhizal inoculation delayed soil

  2. Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Nouioui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase, dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator, and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere.

  3. New records of reptiles and amphibians from Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. Wangyal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen new species of anurans that include six dicroglossids (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis, Fejervarya pierrei, F. teraiensis and F. nepalensis, from Samdrup Jongkhar, Nanorana conaensis and N. pleskei from Haa, three megophryids (Xenophrys major and X. glandulosa from Trashiyangtse, and X. minor from Mongar and four ranids (Amolops mantzorum from Trashiyangtse, Hylarana taipehensis and Sylvirana leptoglossa from Samdrup Jongkhar and S. cf. guentheri from Mongar and one testudine a geoemydid (Melanochelys trijuga from Sarpang, one sauria an anguid (Ophisaurus gracilis from Zhemgang and two colubrids (Amphiesma platyceps and Dinodon gammiei both from Paro are reported for the first time from Bhutan. Discussions have been restricted to their presence and the distribution in and outside Bhutan. As such, this paper provides the geographic locations, morphometric measurements (in some cases, time when they were seen in their habitat and information on who have collected the data of the species reported. The quality of the data is highly variable being collected opportunistically by various individuals from various places over the last six years.

  4. The Giant Pill-Millipedes of Nepal (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Zephroniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The type of the only species of the order Sphaerotheriida with a record in Nepal, Kophosphaera excavata (Butler, 1874), originally described from Sikkim, is redescribed. The subspecies K. excavata mammifera Attems, 1936 from Sureil, Darjeeling, India, is elevated to species rank, K. mammifera stat. nov.. A species of unclear country of origin ('Himalaya'), Sphaeropoeus montanus Karsch, 1881, is briefly redescribed and transferred to the genus Zephronia, Z. montana (Karsch, 1881) n. comb.. Z. tumida Butler, 1882, an apparently widespread north Indian Zephronia species, is redescribed. Sphaerotheriida specimens collected during several expeditions to Nepal undertaken by Prof. J. Martens in the 1970s and 1980s were examined. The material contained 10 specimens (7 males, 3 females) from seven localities, including three undescribed species, Zephronia nepalensis n. sp., Kophosphaera shivapuri n. sp., and Kophosphaera martensi n. sp., as well as a specimen of Kophosphaera politissima Attems, 1935, type species of the genus and described previously from India. A key to all (now seven) species of Kophosphaera is presented. A brief diagnosis of the Kophosphaera excavata group is provided. While Zephronia seems to be restricted to the eastern part of Nepal, two endemic and two more widespread Kophosphaera species occur also in its central and mid-western part, representing the western-most records of the family Zephroniidae in Asia. The current distribution of the family in Nepal clearly indicates the Zephroniidae as a family adapted to tropical environments.

  5. Exploration on Common Three-dimensional Afforesting Mode in Main City Zone of Chongqing%重庆市主城区常见立体绿化模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王友国; 庄华蓉

    2011-01-01

    以重庆市主城区常见立体绿化模式为例,介绍了重庆市常见立体绿化植物配置形式、立体绿化常见应用的藤蔓类植物,如常春藤、葡萄、紫藤、爬山虎等和中小灌木,如银合欢、南天竹等,并简要分析了重庆市主城区常见立体绿化植物观赏特性及绿化效果,以供园林从业者参考.%With common three-dimensional afforesting mode in main city zone of Chongqing as the example, common plant configuration forms, vines such as Hedera nepalensis K, Vitis vinifera, Wisteria sinensis Sweet, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and middle, undershrub such as Leucaena glauca, Nandina domestica were introduced. The ornamental characteristics and afforesting effect of common three-diamensional afforesting plants in main city zone of Chongqing were analyzed briefly.

  6. 常春藤质膜透性和内源激素与抗寒性关系初探%Preliminary Study on the Relations between Membrane Permeability, Endogenous Hormones and Cold Resistance of Ivy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈漫

    2005-01-01

    以栽培在露地和温室的常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis)为材料,测定了其叶片低温半致死温度以及在越冬过程中内源激素的变化.结果表明,不同栽培条件下的常春藤抗寒能力和耐受低温极限有所不同.露地栽培的常春藤具有较强的抗寒性,其脱落酸水平显著高于温室栽培的常春藤,赤霉素水平则低于温室栽培的常春藤.越冬过程中常春藤叶片内源激素的变化尤其是激素间的平衡与抗寒能力关系密切.

  7. 不同温度条件下常春藤叶片磷脂变化的比较分析%The Comparisons and the Analyses of Changes in Phospholipids from Leaf of Ivy Growing in Different Temperature Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈漫

    2003-01-01

    以栽培在露地和温室的常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis)为材料,运用荧光偏振、薄层层析扫描、气相色谱等技术测定叶片磷脂流动性、磷脂及其脂肪酸组成配比.结果表明,与温室栽培相比,露地栽培的常春藤具有较高的不饱和磷脂和不饱和脂肪酸含量.在低温胁迫下,磷脂酰胆碱(PC)的不饱和脂肪酸水平是影响膜脂流动性的主要因素.通过对不同温度条件下生长的常春藤的磷脂流动性、磷脂和脂肪酸组成的差异性分析,从膜脂组成与结构的角度探讨了常绿阔叶植物的抗寒机理.

  8. Research on Five Breed Adjective Roots and Dark Roots of Liana Plants Adaptability of Water Hydroponic and Physiological Characteristics%五种藤蔓植物显根与暗根水培适应性及根系生理特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁梅; 林萍

    2009-01-01

    以常春藤(Hedera nepalensis)、白花紫露草(Tradescantia flaminensis)、鲸鱼花(Gloxinia sylvatica)、蔓长春花(Vinca major)、吊竹梅(Tradescantia zebrina)5种藤蔓植物为材料,对5种植物在显根与暗根水培中的形态、生理指标进行测定与分析.结果表明:5种藤蔓植物根系活力在暗根水培中较显根水培中强,暗根水培下pH小于显根水培下的,且较显根水培稳定.采用水插法获得水培苗适用于根系观赏,采用洗根法获得的植株在暗根水培条件下生长较好.

  9. Functional Diversity of Genes for the Biosynthesis of Paeoniflorin and Its Derivatives in Paeonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqi Huang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Paeonia root, with or without bark, are considered vital traditional Chinese medicine materials; the examples are those of Bai Shao, Chi Shao, and Dan Pi. In this study, we examine 24 genes and their expressions involved in the biosynthesis of paeoniflorin and its derivatives, which are active compounds of the Paeonia root, in Paeonia lactiflora and P. suffruticosa, as well as other related plants, Punica granatum, Rhus radicans, and Coriaria nepalensis. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that these genes have functional diversity, and analysis of the transcriptional level shows paeoniflorin and gallic acid biosynthesis-related genes exhibit different transcription profiles in flowers, carpels, bark-free roots, and bark of P. lactiflora. The correlation analysis of gene expression and active compound contents support the idea that hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase and phosphomevalonate kinase in the mevalonate pathway and 3-dehydroquinate dehydratase/shikimate dehydrogenase in shikimate biosynthesis are potentially closely related to the accumulation of paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin. Coupling gene diversity with chemical analysis, we show that paeoniflorin and its derived aromatic amino acids are predominant in bark.

  10. The food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos (Mammalia: Carnivora: Ursidae in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan C. Rathore

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We documented the food habits of the Himalayan Brown Bear Ursus arctos in Kugti Wildlife Sanctuary, Himachal Pradesh, India, between 2002 and 2004 using scat analysis (n=222, direct observation (n=57, and feeding sign observations (n=57.  We concluded that Himalayan Brown Bears lead a predominantly herbivorous life style as plant matter occurred more frequently in scats (79% than animal matter (21%.  During summer, monsoon and fall, the frequency occurrence of plant matter was 72.2%, 77% and 91% respectively.  During early summer, brown bears foraged primarily on green vegetation such as Rumex nepalensis followed by Chaerophyllum reflexum.  Based on direct feeding observations, brown bears were observed to be feeding on 29 species of plants including agricultural crops and one fungi, Morchella esculenta.  The overuse by livestock, decline in local herbs and excessive extraction of high altitudinal medicinal plants in this habitat may pose a threat to the fragmented brown bear population. 

  11. Microbiological changes and biodiversity of cultivable indigenous bacteria in Sanbao larger yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), a Chinese salted and fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Yan; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Jiajia; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2015-04-01

    Sanbao large yellow croaker is a kind of Chinese salted and fermented seafood processed by adding 50% of salt and fermenting at high temperature [around 30 °C] over 20 d. To get a comprehensive understanding of cultivable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the chemical and microbial properties of this product, were detected initially, followed by identification of bacteria recovered from different fermentation periods using PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In total, 105 indigenous isolates were recovered with 3 different medium and majority of the isolates picked up from both MRS and MSA medium were finally clustered into the genus of Staphylococcus (S.). Among the 90 Staphylococci, S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. nepalensis were the most prevailing cultivable species recovered throughout the whole production process (70 isolates, 77.8%), while 5 other species, namely, S. aureus, S. vitulinus, S. sciuri, S. equorum, and S. succinus formed a minor fraction (20 isolates, 22.2%) of the Staphylococcus communities. Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Bacillus constituted trivial populations in the initial period of the fermentation and then gave the way to the Staphylococcus immediately. High salt concentration used during the processing is like to have a pronounced influence on the microbial populations involved. Data obtained in this work could be referred in control and optimization of the fermentation process and selecting suitable strains for aquatic product fermentation.

  12. Variation in Total Polyphenolics Contents of Aerial Parts of Potentilla Species and Their Anticariogenic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 ± 2.0 mg/g dw, proanthocyanidins (4.6 ± 0.2 mg/g dw and phenolic acids (16.4 ± 0.8 mg/g dw, as well as flavonoids (7.0 ± 1.1 mg/g dw, calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble α-(1→3-, α-(1→6-linked glucan (mutan and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25–25 and 50–100 µg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products.

  13. Phytotoxicity of volatile oil from Eucalyptus citriodora against some weedy species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, N; Batish, D R; Singh, H P; Kohli, R K

    2007-01-01

    A study was undertaken to explore the phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. against some weeds viz. Bidens pilosa, Amaranthus viridis, Rumex nepalensis, and Leucaena leucocephala in order to assess its herbicidal activity. Dose-response studies conducted under laboratory conditions revealed that eucalypt oils (in concentration ranging from 0.0012 to 0.06%) greatly suppress the germination and seedling height of test weeds. At 0.06% eucalypt oil concentration, none of the seed of test weeds germinated. Among the weed species tested, A. viridis was found to be the most sensitive and its germination was completed inhibited even at 0.03%. Not only the germination and seedling growth, even the chlorophyll content and respiratory activity in leaves of emerged seedlings were severely affected. In A. viridis chlorophyll content and respiratory activity were reduced by over 51% and 71%, respectively, even at a very low concentration of 0.06%. These results indicated an adverse effect of eucalypt oils on the photosynthetic and energy metabolism of the test weeds. A strong negative correlation was observed between the observed effect and the concentration of eucalypt oil. Based on the study, it can be concluded that oil from E. citriodora possess strong inhibitory potential against weeds that could be exploited for weed management. PMID:17717987

  14. Variation in total polyphenolics contents of aerial parts of Potentilla species and their anticariogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Wiater, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    The aerial parts of selected Potentilla species (P. anserina, P. argentea, P. erecta, P. fruticosa, P. grandiflora, P. nepalensis, P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. crantzii and P. thuringiaca) were investigated in order to determine their contents of polyphenolic compounds. The results showed that P. fruticosa has relatively high concentrations of tannins (167.3 +/- 2.0 mg/g dw), proanthocyanidins (4.6 +/- 0.2 mg/g dw) and phenolic acids (16.4 +/- 0.8 mg/g dw), as well as flavonoids (7.0 +/- 1.1 mg/g dw), calculated as quercetin. Furthermore, we investigated the in vitro inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from these species against cariogenic Streptococcus spp. strains. It was found that the tested samples moderately inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, all the preparations exhibited inhibitory effects on water-insoluble alpha-(1-->3)-, alpha-(1-->6)-linked glucan (mutan) and artificial dental plaque formation. The extract from P. fruticosa showed the highest anti-biofilm activities, with minimum mutan and biofilm inhibition concentrations of 6.25-25 and 50-100 microg/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the studied Potentilla species could be a potential plant material for extracting biologically active compounds, and could become a useful supplement for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products. PMID:20657382

  15. Microbiological changes and biodiversity of cultivable indigenous bacteria in Sanbao larger yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), a Chinese salted and fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Yan; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Jiajia; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2015-04-01

    Sanbao large yellow croaker is a kind of Chinese salted and fermented seafood processed by adding 50% of salt and fermenting at high temperature [around 30 °C] over 20 d. To get a comprehensive understanding of cultivable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the chemical and microbial properties of this product, were detected initially, followed by identification of bacteria recovered from different fermentation periods using PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In total, 105 indigenous isolates were recovered with 3 different medium and majority of the isolates picked up from both MRS and MSA medium were finally clustered into the genus of Staphylococcus (S.). Among the 90 Staphylococci, S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. nepalensis were the most prevailing cultivable species recovered throughout the whole production process (70 isolates, 77.8%), while 5 other species, namely, S. aureus, S. vitulinus, S. sciuri, S. equorum, and S. succinus formed a minor fraction (20 isolates, 22.2%) of the Staphylococcus communities. Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Bacillus constituted trivial populations in the initial period of the fermentation and then gave the way to the Staphylococcus immediately. High salt concentration used during the processing is like to have a pronounced influence on the microbial populations involved. Data obtained in this work could be referred in control and optimization of the fermentation process and selecting suitable strains for aquatic product fermentation. PMID:25874648

  16. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas

  17. A tree species inventory over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Geels, C.; Hvidberg, M.; Hertel, O.; Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Christensen, J. H.; Moseholm, L.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric transport models are used in studies of atmospheric chemistry as well as aerobiology. Atmospheric transport models in general needs accurate emissions inventories, which includes biogenic emissions such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and pollen. Trees are important VOC and pollen sources and a needed requirement is specie distribution which takes into account important species such as Betula and Alnus. We present here a detailed tree species inventory covering Europe, parts of Africa and parts of Asia. Forest inventories have been obtained for each European country, parts of Asia and parts of Africa. The national inventories vary with respect to number of species as well as the number of sub-regions each nation is divided into. The inventories are therefore harmonised within a GIS system and afterwards gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model: 50 km x 50 km. The inventory is designed to be used with existing land-use data, which separates forest cover into broad leaved, mixed and conifer forests. This will be exemplified by using two different remote sensing products with different grid resolution such as GLC2000 and CLC2000 in selected areas. The final inventory includes 16 conifer species and 23 broadleaved species that are important for biogenic VOCs or pollen emission calculations. For example: Oak (Quercus), poplar (Populus), pines (Pinus), spruce (Picea), birch (Betula) and alder (Alnus). 774 regions with forest inventories are included, mainly on sub-national level. The coverage of each specie ranges from national to European scale, where the latter includes VOC and allergy relevant species such as Quercus, Alnus and Betula. The inventory is gridded to the model grid defined by the EMEP model, which is also the basis for many emissions inventories throughout Europe. The inventory is therefore prepared for easy implementation into atmospheric transport models by providing an extension to already applied land use data such as the

  18. 青木川自然保护区川金丝猴食性的季节性变化%Diet and its seasonality of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Qingmuchuan Nature Reserve, Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李言阔; 蒋志刚; 缪涛

    2013-01-01

    From 2005 to 2008,we studied the diet of golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Qingmuchuan Nature Reserve,Shaanxi Province,China.We made 73-day observations on the monkeys in the field,including 31 days in summer and 42 days in winter during the period.Golden snub-nosed monkeys were found feeding on 42 plant species,belonging to 34 genera of 23 families.Twenty-one plant species were consumed in summer while 25 species were fed on in winter; among these plants,two species were eaten in both winter and summer.The monkeys consumed Rosaceae the most,followed by Fagaceae.Plant parts consumed by the monkey were fruits,flowers,leaves,buds and barks.The monkeys had a primarily frugivorous diet in summer and a folivorous diet in winter.Frequencies of the monkey feeding on fruits increased from 5.6% in winter to 72.2% in summer.In winter,leaves were the main foods,accounting for 73.0% of the total observations.Fruit of the giant dogwood (Cornus controversa) was the major food in summer.Bark-stripping mainly occurred in deciduous broadleaved forests,and coniferous-deciduous broadleaved mixed forests,but seldom occured in mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forests.Compared with the diets of other snub-nosed monkeys reported in recent years,we found that the monkeys in Qingmuchuan had a wide food spectrum,dominated by species of Rosaceae and Fagaceae,as well as Betulaceae,Cornaceae,Caprifoliaceae,Aceraceae and Betulaceae.%2005~2008年于陕西省青木川自然保护区使用瞬时扫描法观察了川金丝猴的食性.结果表明,川金丝猴冬季和夏季共取食42种植物,可鉴定植物归属23科34属.川金丝猴食物类型包括果实、花、树叶、树皮、树芽.夏季取食21种植物的果实或树叶;冬季取食25种植物.树叶是其冬季主要食物,取食频次占总取食频次的73.0%;夏季取食果实的频次占总取食频次的72.2%,灯台树果实是其主要食物.啃食树皮行为主要发生在落

  19. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekala Sundaram

    Full Text Available The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%, and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%. A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is

  20. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  1. Clinical relevance of [i]Corylus[/i] pollen in Poznań, western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Grewling

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Central Europe, hazel ([i]Corylus[/i] sp. pollen is considered to be an important aeroallergen in early spring. Objective. This study examines hazel pollen levels in Poznań, western Poland, and the clinical relevance of this aeroallergen in the city. Methods. [i]Corylus[/i] pollen data (1996–2010 were obtained by volumetric spore trap located near the centre of Poznań. Clinical data (2006–2010, i.e. skin prick test (SPT and allergen-specific IgE measurements (asIgE, were supplied by the Allergy Diseases Diagnostic Centre in Poznań. Results. Mean diurnal hazel pollen concentrations peaked around 14:00–16:00 when mean bi-hourly pollen concentrations were ~60 P m-3. Onset of the hazel pollen season varied up to 87 days annually, and was significantly (r=–0.647; p<0.01 related to mean maximum temperature during late December. SPT data revealed that ~11% of allergy patients had positive skin reactions to [i]Corylus[/i] pollen allergens, and most of these (94.4% reacted to pollen allergens from other members of the Betulaceae family – alder or birch. Of those sensitized, 53% suffered from atopic dermatitis. Of patients examined for serum asIgE, 26.0% had asIgE measurements in classes 5 and 6. Conclusions. Hazel pollen has a detrimental effect on the allergic population of Poznań, with more than half of those sensitised to hazel pollen allergens showing symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Hazel pollen concentrations reach levels recognized as being able to induce allergy symptoms, especially in the afternoon and early evening when many people are returning home from work. The cross-reactivity with other members of the Fagales order also increases the allergenic potential of hazel pollen.

  2. Chemical Constituents from the Branches of Carpinus turczaninowii with Antioxidative Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Ha Na; Kim, Jung Mi; Bu, Hee Jung; Lee, Nam Ho [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Eight compounds were identified in ethanol extracts prepared from the branches of C. turczaninowii. The compounds, besides 5 and 6, were isolated for the first time from this woody plant. Pyracrenic acid (4) and quercitrin (8) showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activities with SC{sub 50} values of 55.2 and 62.4 μM, respectively, where ascorbic acid (SC{sub 50} 43.5 μM) was used as a positive control. Compounds 4, 5, 6 and 8 showed strong activities in ABTS{sup +} radical scavenging assay, with SC{sub 50} values of 34.1, 42.1, 45.8 and 29.6 μM, respectively. These activities are comparable in potency to ascorbic acid (SC{sub 50} 31.6 μM). Based on these results, C. turczaninowii extracts are expected to be useful antioxidative agents, potentially applicable in food or cosmetic industries, based on the results of further studies. Korean hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii is a deciduous woody plant belonging to the family Betulaceae. This flora is endemic to Korea, and can reach a height of 15 m. In the autumn, the fallen leaves of C. turczaninowii display a beautiful orange-red color and the tree is commonly used for bonsai in Korea. The wood is very hard, dense and fine textured, and has been used for making agricultural tools and furniture. Previous chemical investigation on this plant indicated only the existence of flavonoids such as naringenin and quercetin glycosides from the leaves. We have recently reported the isolation diarylheptanoids possessing anti-inflammatory activities from the ethanol extract of C. turczaninowii.

  3. Tree diversity and economic importance of forest trees of Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ali Lone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim The paper throws light on diversity of trees of forests of Kashmir of Jammu And Kashmir State. Methodology: Present study is based on the extensive and intensive field surveys made during 2007-2008. Various forest areas were visited for the identification of tree species and their economic importance. Various forest areas were visited for the identification of tree species and their economic importance. The areas including Drang Tangmerg, Gulmarg, Dachigam, Lolab and Karanah valley. Information on the utilization of trees for curing common ailments was obtained from people of the above forest areas. Conversation regarding the economic importance of plants was especially done with the elderly men, hakims and tribals. Repeated queries were made to get the data verified and confirmed. The plant specimens were dried using the standard herbarium techniques. The specimens were identified using Hooker method. Wherever necessary, comparisons were made with herbarium specimens in the herbarium of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Survey Results: Botanical names, English/common/local/Vernacular names, family, fruiting and flowering period, distribution and uses (wherever known of 53 species belonging to 33 genera and 21 families are provided. Conclusion: Present study has revealed the occurrence of 53 species belonging to 33 genera under 21 families. The most dominant family as per the number of genera is Pinaceae family followed by Betulaceae. And the most dominant genera is Prunus which is having 6 species. The study reveals that there are 10 gymnosperms and 43 angiosperms in the forests of Kashmir. The present work gives a detailed account of economic importance of forest trees of Kashmir. The work shows the relevance of plants to the problems of health care, food, agriculture improvements, conservation of genetic resources and to economic welfare of the tribal is emphasized. The work should rightly be applied to the natural and direct

  4. Maximum sustainable xylem sap tensions in Rhododendron and other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombie, D S; Milburn, J A; Hipkins, M F

    1985-01-01

    The acoustic technique was used in conjunction with the pressure chamber to determine the tensions causing cavitation of xylem sap in leaves of five woody angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Fraxinus excelsior L. and Rhododendron ponticum L.) and three species of herbs (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Plantago major L. and Ricinus communis L.). The results showed leaves of most species to suffer considerably from cavitation at sap tensions of 1.6-3 MPa. Two of the herbs, Lycopersicum and Ricinus, cavitated extensively at sap tensions below 1 MPa. Additional evidence is presented that clicks, detected by acoustic amplification, are caused by cavitation of sap in the xylem conduits. A rapid method is suggested for the determination of sap tensions in cavitating leaves and which is suitable for surveys of the critical sap tension in a large number of species.

  5. Subdivision of the tribe Oligaphorurini in the light of new and lesser known species from North-East Russia (Collembola, Onychiuridae, Onychiurinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Babenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a taxonomic review of Oligaphorurini from the north-eastern part of Palaearctic. Two new species, i.e. Oligaphorura ambigua sp. n. and O. duocellata sp. n., are described. Four species, O. nataliae (Fjellberg, 1987, O. interrupta (Fjellberg, 1987, O. pingicola (Fjellberg, 1987, and Micraphorura alnus (Fjellberg, 1987, are redescribed on base of the types and new material, and remarks on other species known for the region, O. groenlandica (Tullberg, 1876, O. ursi (Fjellberg, 1984, O. aborigensis (Fjellberg, 1987, and M. absoloni (Börner, 1901, are given to clarify their generic affiliation. Finally, merits and disadvantages of the current subdivision of the tribe are discussed and a key to the northern species of the tribe is provided.

  6. Dendroflora of the historical park in Rzepiszew (Łódź province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kałczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The historical, manor park in Rzepiszew was established in the 19th century in the English landscape style. The park and manor have a long and rich history and deserve to be protected. The inventory of dendroflora showed that within the park boundaries grow more thana thousand of arborescent plants deriving from 35 species and 17 families. They are mostly common, native woody plant species, associated with deciduous forests (Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Carpinus betulus, Acer pseudoplatanus. The most valuable are the magnificent trees. Among all the trees inventoried, 123 splendid trees were found, among which 8 are monuments of nature legally protected and 33 trees with circumferences that exceed minimal values to be protected. Valuable and well-preserved elements of the park are Aesculus hippocastanum and Carpinus betulus alleys. Currently, the park in Rzepiszew is subjected to a gradual naturalization and loses its primary, spatial arrangement, therefore this object requires reassessment.

  7. European black alder survival and growth responses to herbicide treatment on an eastern Kentucky vegetated coal surface mine excess spoil area after three and eight years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, D.H.; Ringe, J.M. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry)

    1993-01-01

    A research area was established on a surface coal mine in eastern Kentucky in 1982 to test the effects of eight herbicide treatments, mechanical scalping and no treatment on the long term survival and growth of European black alder [ital Alnus glutinosa]. After eight years, three treatments (mechanical scalping and glyphosate applied simultaneously with napropamide prior to planting or by using napropamide as a post planting treatment after initial applications of glyphosate as a pre-plant treatment) were superior to one or more of the other treatments for all eight parameters tested and were indifferent to each other. If the parameter, percent growth change over time, was not considered an important factor in establishing this species, no treatment was significantly different from the control. Such results indicate factors other than biological responses should be considered when selecting a woody vegetation establishment scheme on surface coal mine excess spoil areas with existing herbaceous cover. 13 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. The forest melliferous flora in the vicinity of Blace, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perišić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Melliferous plant species in the forests near Blace (South Serbia were investigated in order to estimate the significance, contribution, quality and ecological characteristics of representatives of the apiflora as potential nectar and pollen sources, the elements of bee pasturage. The significance of melliferous plants was determined on the basis of nectar and pollen production intensity, as well as by following blooming periods. According to adaptations to moisture, light, and temperature, melliferous species can be relegated to eight groups and six subgroups. Out of the total number of melliferous species in the investigated area (223, the forest apiflora accounted for 82 species (36,77%. The species with highest nectar and/or pollen production are: Alnus glutinosa, Corylus avellana, Paulownia tomentosa, Picea abies, Prunus tenella, Robinia pseudoacacia, species of the genera Salix, Tilia, and Campanula, Atropa bella-donna, Calamintha officinalis, Glechoma hederacea, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salvia glutinosa and Valeriana officinalis.

  9. Direct-seeding of commercial trees on surface-mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tackett, E.M.; Graves, D.H.

    1979-12-01

    Three large-seeded tree species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra), pin oak (Quercus palustris), and bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) and one small-seeded species Paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), were spot-seeded and European alder (Alnus glutinosa) was broadcast-seeded on eastern Kentucky surface mine spoil. Treatments included four mulches-hydromulch, shredded bark, shredded bark and poultry manure, and Real Earth (composted municipal waste and sewage sludge), two fertilizer treatments and two rates of grass/legume ground cover seed sown in competition with the tree species. Germination, growth and survival were evaluated after the first growing season. All three oak species germinated and grew well while both small-seeded species failed to become established from seed. Germination was affected by aspect, mulching, fertilizing and competition. Spoil moisture appeared to be indirectly responsible for most of the responses. The variables tested had little effect on the first years growth of the species tested.

  10. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  11. AcEST: DK962661 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4.3 sp|O04867|GLNA1_ALNGL Glutamine synthetase OS=Alnus glutinosa GN... 31 5.6 sp|Q7T0P6|DFI8B_XENLA Differential...ly expressed in FDCP 8 homolog... 31 5.6 sp|Q6DDJ3|DFI8A_XENLA Differential...ly expressed in FDCP 8 homolog... 31 5.6 sp|Q6DJB3|DEFI8_XENTR Differentially expressed in FDCP 8 homolog......MKLLQMNAKW------GRCPGKATP 99 E LLQ + KW G PG P Sbjct: 129 EQEYTLLQKDVKWPLGWPVGGYPGPQGP 156 >sp|Q7T0P6|DFI8B_XENLA Differential

  12. A general survey of the vegetation of north - eastern anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    ATALAY, İbrahim

    1983-01-01

    Kuzeydoğu Anadolu'nun vejetasyonu üzerine genel bir araştırmaBatıda Rize-Erzurum, güneyde Erzurum-Tuzluca veya Aras vadisi arasında kalan Kuzeydoğu Anadolu vejetasyon örtüsü yönünden orman, kuru orman-çalı ve otsu olmak üzere üç ayrı formasyona ayrılmıştır.1 — Orman formasyonu ağaç formu ve ekolojik koşullara göre sınıflara ayrılmıştır. Kayın (Fagus orientalis), kızılağaç (Alnus barbata, A. glutinosa), kestane (Castanea sativa), gürgen (Carpinus orientalis, C. betulus), ıhlamur (Tilia rubra),...

  13. Human-ecosystem interactions in relation to Holocene environmental change in Port Joli Harbour, southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Karen; Gajewski, Konrad; Betts, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    A high-resolution pollen record from Path Lake in Port Joli Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada, provides a paleo-ecological perspective on Holocene climate and vegetation variability within the context of local archaeological research. Pollen assemblages in the early Holocene reflect a post-glacial forest dominated by Pinus, Tsuga, Betula and Quercus. During this time, a lower frequency of radiocarbon dated cultural material suggests lower human settlement intensity. Shallow water aquatic (Isoetes) and wetland (Alnus, Sphagnum) taxa increased after 3400 cal yr BP in response to a transition towards wetter climatic conditions. Culturally significant periods, where settlement intensity increased in the Maritimes and Maine, coincide with maximum values of reconstructed total annual precipitation, suggesting that environmental conditions may have influenced prehistoric human activity. European settlement, after 350 cal yr BP, was marked by a rise in Ambrosia. The impact of anthropogenic fire disturbances on the landscape was evidenced by peak charcoal accumulations after European settlement.

  14. Genties Phytophthora patogenai, pažeidžiantys juodalksnius VDU Kauno botanikos sode

    OpenAIRE

    Verbylaitė, Ilona; Snieškienė, Vilija; Stankevičienė, Antanina

    2012-01-01

    Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto Kauno botanikos sode nuo 2009 m. yra stebimi juodalksniai, turintys pažeidimo požymių, kurie būdingi genties Phytophthora patogenams. Per ketverius metus pažeistų juodalksių padaugėjo: nuo 1,11 % (2009 m.) iki 26,67 % (2012 m.). Liga plinta ant įvairaus amžiaus juodalksnių, augančių ne toliau kaip 5 m nuo vandens telkinių, ypač tose vietose, kurios 1–2 mėnesius būna apsemtos ar labai drėgnos. From 2009 Alnus glutinosa with marks of damage which are specific fo...

  15. Effects of botanical antifeedants on Melolontha melolontha grub feeding on Scots pine roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzecz Iwona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using botanic antifeedants to reduce the damage caused by Melolontha spp. grubs. To achieve the objective, the experiments were established in semi-field conditions to estimate the antifeedant activity of rutin, quercetin (flavonoids from buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum and an extract from black alder Alnus glutinosa leaves against Melolontha melolontha grubs. The grubs were placed individually in the pots with a soil in which 2 year old Pinus sylvestris trees were planted. The pots were put in garden pavilions placed in the open area. Then the soil in the pots were watered with the emulsions of rutin, quercetin, an extract from A. glutinosa leaves, and with pure water-comparative variant. After 4 months, the weight and mortality of grubs were compared, as well as the weight of tree roots in all pots.

  16. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... information on changes in shrub cover, and a long and complex land use history has to be taken into account. In this thesis a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches are used to investigate: I. Whether landscape scale shrub expansion occurred in SW Greenland, and to what extend it is influenced...

  17. Study on Vegetation Root Strength of Pioneer Plants for Forest Areas in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin; LIANG Da-qing; YE Xu-rong

    2005-01-01

    Forest plant roots may restrain the occurrence of shallow landslides for forest land and pioneer tree species can also reduce runoff and soil erosion;thus they are useful practical ecological materials for landslide control and erosion control.In this study,two important pioneer plant species;Formosan Alder (Alnus formosana Makino) and Roxburgh Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.Var.roxburghi i(DC.) Rehd.) were selected at landslide areas under vegetation treatments for soil and water conservation.In order to obtain the root strength model for the factors affecting pulling resistance and root tensile strength,experimental materials were tested and the data were analyzed using regression techniques.These models could be used to provide the index of slope stability and to quantify the root-strength using non-destructive methods.

  18. European black alder survival and growth responses to herbicide treatment on an eastern Kentucky vegetated coal surface mine excess spoil area after three and eight years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A research area was established on a surface coal mine in eastern Kentucky in 1982 to test the effects of eight herbicide treatments, mechanical scalping and no treatment on the long term survival and growth of European black alder Alnus glutinosa. After eight years, three treatments (mechanical scalping and glyphosate applied simultaneously with napropamide prior to planting or by using napropamide as a post planting treatment after initial applications of glyphosate as a pre-plant treatment) were superior to one or more of the other treatments for all eight parameters tested and were indifferent to each other. If the parameter, percent growth change over time, was not considered an important factor in establishing this species, no treatment was significantly different from the control. Such results indicate factors other than biological responses should be considered when selecting a woody vegetation establishment scheme on surface coal mine excess spoil areas with existing herbaceous cover. 13 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economics feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2012-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated or marginalized soils is developed to illustrate how it is possible to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns and long term sustainability issues. The biorefinery is based on grey alder...... (Alnus incana), and provide the following end products: Heat and power, bio-pharmaceuticals (diaryl heptanoids), Bio-SNG, ethyl acetate, replenished soils and a carbon sink. Several system setups were examined and compared. The optimal design obtained the following production characteristics: Total...... system Energy Return on energy Invested 4.4, total system Exergy Return on exergy Invested 3.5, Net Energy Output 78 GJ/ha/year, Net Exergy Output 50 GJ/ha/year, Net carbon sequestration 0.8 ton CO2-eq/ha/year, Total product value 2030 euro/ha/year and Net Dry Matter Removal 90%....

  20. Aliso en simbiosis dual con frankia y endomicorrizas y respuesta a boro en un andisol

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Sierra, Marisol; Velásquez Restrepo, Jesús Oswaldo; Pinzón Sarmiento, Luz Mary

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth) a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B) (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo) y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N) (40 kg ha-1), fósforo (P) (30 mg kg-1 suelo) y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Mul...

  1. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Medina Sierra; Jesús Oswaldo Velásquez Restrepo; Luz Mary Pinzón Sarmiento

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth) a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B) (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo) y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N) (40 kg ha-1), fósforo (P) (30 mg kg-1 suelo) y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Mul...

  2. Native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the Yungas forests, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Alejandra G; Cabello, Marta N; Bartoloni, Norberto J

    2011-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities from the Yungas forests of Argentina were studied. The AMF species present in the rhizosphere of some dominant native plants (one tree: Alnus acuminata; three herbaceous species: Duchesnea indica, Oxalis conorrhiza, Trifolium aff. repens; and one shrub: Sambucus peruviana) from two sites (Quebrada del Portugués and Narváez Range) of the Yungas forests were isolated, identified and quantified during the four seasons of the year. Twenty-two AMF morphotaxa were found. Spore density of some AMF species at each site varied among seasons. The genera that most contributed to the biodiversity index were Acaulospora for Quebrada del Portugués and Glomus for Narváez Range. High diversity values were observed in the Yungas forests, particularly in the spring (rainy season). We concluded AMF differed in species composition and seasonal sporulation dynamics in the Yungas forests. PMID:21415289

  3. A new species and a new record of Diatrypaceae from Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Santiago; Dörge, Dorian; Weisenborn, Jascha; Piepenbring, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Based on opportunistic collections of fungi in Panama, two species of Diatrypaceae (Xylariales) are described and illustrated. One of them, Eutypella semicircularis, found twice on branches probably belonging to Alnus acuminata, is new to science. It differs from known species of Eutypella and Peroneutypa with strongly allantoid or semicircular ascospores, such as E. crustata and P. curvispora, in having larger ascospores that sometimes almost form a circle and broader stromata, among other differences. Molecular data of the ITS rDNA region show that the new species is a sister taxon of Eutypella cerviculata, the type species of the genus Eutypella. Diatrype bermudensis on stems of Guadua angustifolia is reported from Panama for the first time, being known up to now apparently only from Bermuda. PMID:23360976

  4. 不同供氮水平对4种桤木幼苗生长的影响%Growing Responses of Four Exotic Alder Seedling under Different Nitrogen Concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶龙兵; 李霞; 段红平; 陈益泰

    2012-01-01

    The experiment on four exotic alder including Alnus glutinosa, A. rubra, A. nitida and A. incana growing under four different concentrations of nitrogen was conducted in a greenhouse in order to research the alder' s responses under different nitrogen concentrations and stresses. The results showed that the growing parameters of alder on the survival percent of transplanting, plant height, ground diameter, biomass, root-top ratio, relative content of chlorophyll (SPAD) and rooting parameters (length, superficial area, volume and tips of root) were significant a-mong different materials and different nitrogen concentrations, the different level of nitrogen significantly affected the growth of alder. Specifically, the survival percent of transplanting went down with the going up of nitrogen concentration , and the plant height, ground diameter, relative content of chlorophyll and rooting parameters went up when nitrogen varied from 0 to 1/2 normal nitrogen, yet went down at one or two times of normal nitrogen (E. G. Bollard formula). The relative content of chlorophyll went up with the concentration of nitrogen increasing from 0 to 2 normal nitrogen, and its trend during one year period showed rising firstly and then descending. The relationship between the value of SPAD and biomass did not appear positive correlation. The appropriate concentration for growing on alder was 1/2 normal nitrogen. The order of performance of growth among the four alder was Alnus glutinosa, A. rubra, A. nitida and A. incana. So, A. glutinosa and A. rubra potentially could be used as plantation trees of ecological protection and short-rotation lumber in the beach and low hills of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River.

  5. A Late-Glacial/Holocene Pollen Record from the Eastern Andes of Northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Barbara C. S.; Rodbell, Donald T.

    1995-09-01

    A pollen and sediment record of a core 4.2-m-long from Laguna Baja (7°42' S, 77°32' W, 3575 m) in the Cordillera Oriental of northern Peru suggests several episodes of major vegetational and climatic change over the past 13,000 yr. The oldest pollen assemblage consists of a mixture of paramo elements (tropical alpine vegetation), including high percentages of Poaceae (40%) that decline upward, moist montane forest (Compositae and Polylepis), and wet montane forest (e.g., Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae). Organic carbon content range from 60%), with high percentages of Jamesonia, a fern characteristic of paramo and decreasing values of Plantago tubulosa and the wet montane forest elements Hedyosmum and Podocarpaceae. Charcoal percentages are at a maximum during this period, magnetic susceptibility and sand percentages are high, and percentages of organic matter are low. Several explanations for these changes are possible, including a reduction in temperature and moisture, more frequent periods of aridity with increased fires, or natural succession. The Holocene record begins with pronounced increases in organic carbon and pollen of wet montane forest, primarily Hedyosmum , Podacarpaceae, and Urticales. High values of Podocarpaceae pollen (>35%) and a decline in charcoal suggest temperature and moisture levels above modern-day values. Wet montane forest pollen remain high and charcoal values are low from about 10,000 to 6000 yr B.P., suggesting that warm and moist conditions prevailed for about 4000 yr. Subsequently Podocarpaceae and Urticales decline, and for a brief time Alnus is prominent in the pollen record. Following the Alnus maximum at about 5000 yr B.P., Poaceae, Ambrosia and Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae become frequent. Increased paramo and disturbance indicator pollen suggest increased anthropogenic activities in this region from the middle Holocene to the present.

  6. un estudio en el Parque Nacional La Malinche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Wong González

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios sobre peligro y combate de incendios forestales consideran la interacción entre los factores meteorológicos y las características de los combustibles. Por ello, se analizó la humedad de los combustibles muertos sobre el suelo, la cual depende de su diámetro y de la humedad relativa principalmente. Se analizaron combustibles de 0.6 a 2.5 y de 2.6 a 7.5 cm de diámetro en las comunidades donde predominan especies de los géneros: Quercus, Alnus, Abies y Pinus del Parque Nacional Malinche, Tlaxcala, México. Los resultados demuestran: a que la humedad de los combustibles varió de acuerdo con las condiciones atmosféricas en los diferentes sitios y horarios, b que los combustibles con mayor diámetro tuvieron una menor relación entre la superficie de exposición al medio y su volumen (120 m2/m3 y que los de menor diámetro la relación aumentó (235 m2/m3, teniendo estos últimos una mayor probabilidad de incendiarse. Durante la temporada de incendios en los meses de febrero, marzo y abril, la humedad de los combustibles en Alnus jorullensis y Pinus montezumae fue mayor a 25% que es aquella que impide la combustión, conocida como humedad de extinción. En Quercus crassipes, Pinus hartwegii y Abies religiosa-Pinus teocote, la humedad de los combustibles fue menor a 25% por lo que fueron las comunidades más vulnerables a incendios.

  7. Spatial analysis of plant detritus processing in a Mediterranean River type: the case of the River Tirso Basin, Sardinia, Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The river continuum concept represents the most general framework addressing the spatial variation of both structure and function inriver ecosystems.In the Mediterranean ecoregion, summer drought events and dams constitute the main sources of local disturbance to thestructure and functioning of river ecosystems occurring in the river basin.In this study, we analysed patterns of spatial variation of detritusprocessing in a 7th order river of the Mediterranean ecoregion( River Tirso, Sardinia-Italy) and in three 4th order sub-basins which wereexposed to different summer drought pressures.The study was carried out on Phragmites australis and Alnas glutinosa leaf detritus at 31 fieldsites in seasonal field experiment Detritus processing rates were higher for Alnus glutinosa than for Phragmites australis plant detritus.Processing rates of Alnus glutinosa leaves varied among seasons and study sites from 0.006d-1 to 0.189 d- 1 and those of Phragmites australisleaves ranged from 0.0008 d- 1 to 0.102 d- 1 , with the lowest values occurring at sites exposed to summer drought.Seasons and sites accountedfor a significant proportion of such variability.Alder detritus decay rates generally decreased with increasing stream order, while reed detritusdecay rates generally increased on the same spatial gradient.Summer drought events affected these spatial patterns of variation by influencingsignificantly the decay rates of both plant detritus.The comparisons among and within sub-basins showed strong negative influence of summerdrought on detritus processing rates.Similarly, in the entire River Tirso basin decay rates were always lower at disturbed than at undisturbedsites for each stream order; decay rates of reed detritus remained lower at those sites even after the end of the disturbance events, while alderdecay rates recovered rapidly from the summer drought perturbations.The different recovery of the processing rates of the two leaves could alsoexplain the different patterns of

  8. Monitoring of live and woody elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico

    2013-04-01

    This study deals with surveys operated on crib walls in Casentino and Versilia (Tuscany), where Salix alba cuttings did not develop as expected from literature data. After more then 10 years since realization and and an initial very high survival rate, a few plants are yet alive among those put in place and the root strengthening is localized in the first 0.30 m just below the structure front face, while at further depth the detected root area ratio (R.A.R.) does not determine a noticeable increase in soil cohesion (Guastini et al., 2012). Mortality curve in willow cuttings is comparable with growing curve in Alnus nigra plants born in front of the structure, due to shading as failing cause. Assessing quantitatively the residual strength of the timber elements and estimating their possible duration allow comparison with the time needed for a complete stabilisation of the para-natural succession. The two spans of time must be almost similar to avoid unexpected collapse of the frame or unacceptable costs for oversized structures. Since the realization of a new live crib-wall in Casentino we sampled Alnus and Salix cuttings to compare rooting, survivability and evolution in randomized block design. Tests with Resistograph carried out on timber elements gives a good relationship between test results and density; through the non-destructive test it is possible to differentiate portions of wood with a noticeable residual strength from the decayed parts without any more load bearing capacity. MOR value (flexural strength) of timber elements has been estimated on the basis of the effective section verified by the Resistograph (Guastini et al., 2012), and then confirmed through rupture in bending of the same elements (Wood Technology DEISTAF lab), by proving the non-destructive test utility.

  9. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  10. Large-scale fungal diversity assessment in the Andean Yungas forests reveals strong community turnover among forest types along an altitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geml, József; Pastor, Nicolás; Fernandez, Lisandro; Pacheco, Silvia; Semenova, Tatiana A; Becerra, Alejandra G; Wicaksono, Christian Y; Nouhra, Eduardo R

    2014-05-01

    The Yungas, a system of tropical and subtropical montane forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes, are extremely diverse and severely threatened by anthropogenic pressure and climate change. Previous mycological works focused on macrofungi (e.g. agarics, polypores) and mycorrhizae in Alnus acuminata forests, while fungal diversity in other parts of the Yungas has remained mostly unexplored. We carried out Ion Torrent sequencing of ITS2 rDNA from soil samples taken at 24 sites along the entire latitudinal extent of the Yungas in Argentina. The sampled sites represent the three altitudinal forest types: the piedmont (400-700 m a.s.l.), montane (700-1500 m a.s.l.) and montane cloud (1500-3000 m a.s.l.) forests. The deep sequence data presented here (i.e. 4 108 126 quality-filtered sequences) indicate that fungal community composition correlates most strongly with elevation, with many fungi showing preference for a certain altitudinal forest type. For example, ectomycorrhizal and root endophytic fungi were most diverse in the montane cloud forests, particularly at sites dominated by Alnus acuminata, while the diversity values of various saprobic groups were highest at lower elevations. Despite the strong altitudinal community turnover, fungal diversity was comparable across the different zonal forest types. Besides elevation, soil pH, N, P, and organic matter contents correlated with fungal community structure as well, although most of these variables were co-correlated with elevation. Our data provide an unprecedented insight into the high diversity and spatial distribution of fungi in the Yungas forests. PMID:24762095

  11. Biological Characteristics of Frankia Isolated from Different Actinorhizal Plants%不同宿主植物根瘤Frankia及其生物学特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢一青

    2009-01-01

    19 strains were isolated from the root nodules of actinorhizal plants Casuarina, Myrica, Elaeagnus and Alnus by squashing, and their morphological, physiological and cross-infection characteristics were studied. The results showed that all the isolates had a typical Frankia morphology with filamentous hyphae, sporangia and vesicle. The reproducrive torulose hyphae were observed in some isolates (FCc64, FCe33 and FMr43). Most of the Frankia isolates were characterized in that their cell walls were type Ⅲ and the physiological groups belonged to B. Furthermore, it is deduced that these strains all had nitrogenase activity for their growth in the nitrogen-free medium. They were also found growing well in liquid media BAP, JA and S. Tween-80 and casein were the optimum carbon and nitrogen sources. However, some obvious differences in morphological and cultural characteristics occurred among the strains isolated from different actinorhizal plants. Most of the isolates from Casuarina had thick hyphae and few sporangia, and formed Lichee's meat white flocculent granular precipitate in the BAP liquid medium, while most of the isolates from Myrica rubra had thin hyphae and many sporangia, and formed rosiness granular precipitate. The morphological characteristics of the isolates from Alnus and Elaeagnus were similar to the isolates from Casuarina in the same medium, but the isolates from Alnus had thin hyphae while the isolates from Elaeagnus had thick hyphae. The Frankia isolates were divided into two host-specific groups, according to back inoculation experiment and cross-infection of pure culture with seedlings of Casuarina cunninghamiana, C. equisetifolia, C. glauca, Myrica rubra, Alnus cremastogym and Elaeagnus angustifolia. The strains of group Ⅰ which were all isolated from Casuarina could not only infect Casuarina, but also Myrica, Elaeagnus and Alnus, and those of group Ⅱ from Myrica, Elaeagnus and Alnus had the ability to infect the unoriginal host plants

  12. 浙江天童常绿阔叶林藤本植物的适应生态学 Ⅰ. 叶片解剖特征的比较%ADAPTIVE ECOLOGY OF LIANAS IN TIANTONG EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED FOREST, ZHEJIANG, CHINA I. LEAF ANATOMICAL CHARACTERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡永立; 宋永昌

    2001-01-01

    The ecological adaptations and leaf characters of ten genera (including eleven species of liana) were studied in evergreen broad-leaved forest of Tiantong Forest Park, Zhejiang province, China. The results are as follows: 1) Despite the mesophyte leaf form of the eleven liana species there were significant differences in leaf anatomical characters among them and some differences among different plants of an individual. These differences are mainly controlled by genetic factors, but environmental factors (mainly light and water or humidity) also had an important influence on them and these may oppose forms required in climbing methods; 2) Based on leaf adaptive characters the 11 species may be divided into three adaptive kinds: sun-adapted taxa or xerophytes (Broussonetia kaempferi, Ficus pumila and F. sarmentosa var. henryi), shade-adapted taxa (Morinda umbellata, Millettia reticulata) and mesophytes (Ampelopsis cantoniensis, Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, Smilax lanceiofolia var. opaca, Celastrus rosthonianus, Dioscorea cirrhosa, Dalbergia millettii); 3) Rates of variation of different anatomical characters adapting to light or humidity differed among species. The ability to vary these characters, which may be influenced by changing environmental factors during the growth of liana, may be important for liana to adapt to the different environmental conditions it experiences through its life.%利用解剖学方法对浙江天童森林公园常绿阔叶林的10属11种木质藤本叶片的解剖特征进行了比较和因子分析,结果表明:藤本植物叶片结构在不同种类之间具有明显的差异,同种藤本的不同植物体的叶片也存在一定的差异; 这些差异除受遗传因子控制外,环境因子(主要为光照和水分)也有重要作用; 攀援方式对藤本叶片特征有一定影响,但未表现出规律性。尽管叶片的基本结构仍属中生类型,但也表现出一定的趋异适应,根

  13. 铅锌矿区污染土壤的植物淋洗剂筛选研究%Screening of Phyto-eluents for Contaminated Soil in Pb-Zn Mining Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹雅茹; 张世熔; 陈月; 王贵胤; 李婷

    2015-01-01

    Soil washing is a frequently used soil remediation technique. The key to this technique is washing agents. The objective of this study is to screen eco-friendly washing agents—phyto-eluents. We collected 14 plant species, ground the aboveground biomass to powders (﹤2 mm), and made washing agents using distilled water. Then the washing efficiencies of Pb and Zn by these washing agents were exam-ined under different concentrations, pH and contact time. At 25℃and 200 r·min-1 rotational oscillation, the washing efficiencies of Pb by these agents showed either continuous increases or initial increase and then decreases as the agent concentrations increased, whereas those of Zn displayed gradual increases or slight changes with the agent concentrations. Increasing pH apparently reduced the removal efficiencies of two metals. The effect of contacting time on the removal efficiencies of two metals showed gradual increase, slight changes or decline pat-terns. Among these 14 plants, Coriaria nepalensis proved to have a better removal efficiency, with the removal efficiencies of Pb and Zn be-ing 23.78%and 77.03%, respectively, at 5%eluent, pH 4.0 and a reaction time of 8 h. Therefore, C. nepalensis could be used as an envi-ronmental-friendly eluent for Pb-Zn contaminated soils.%高效绿色淋洗剂的筛选是土壤淋洗技术开发的重要内容之一。本文以汉源某铅锌矿区污染土壤为对象,将14种植物地上部分风干研磨过2 mm筛后蒸馏水浸提24 h,采用振荡淋洗的方法研究浸提液在不同浓度、pH和作用时间下对铅锌复合污染土壤中铅和锌的提取效果。结果表明,在25℃、200 r·min-1恒温振荡条件下,14种植物淋洗剂对土壤铅锌的淋洗效率不同(P﹤0.05):随着淋洗剂浓度的增加,其对土壤铅的淋洗率呈逐渐增加和先增后减两种变化趋势,对土壤锌的淋洗率则呈逐渐增加和变化趋势不明显;淋洗率随着pH增加总体降低;14种

  14. The influence of aqueous extracts of selected Potentilla species on normal human colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michał; Paduch, Roman; Wiater, Adrian; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Potentilla L. (Rosaceae) species have been used in traditional medicine in Asia, Europe and Northern America. This study analyzed the biological activity of aqueous extracts of Potentilla species (Rosaceae): Dasiphora fruticosa (syn. P. fruticosa), P. norvegica, P. pensylvanica, P. thuringiaca, P. crantzii and P. nepalensis. The activities were tested using MTT, NR and DPPH assays on normal human colon epithelium (CCD 841 CoTr) and colon myofibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Moreover, cell morphology using the May-Grünwald-Giemsa method, IL-6 by ELISA, and nitric oxide (NO) analysis with the Griess method in culture supernatants were performed after 24 h. Extracts were tested at dose levels between 25 and 250 microg/mL. For ELISA, 15 microg/mL was chosen. All extracts suppressed the metabolism of myofibroblasts, while epithelial cells' mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity decreased after incubation with extracts. All extracts showed a free radical scavenging (DPPH) effect in a concentration-dependent manner. The most potent was the extract from D. fruticosa, while the least action was observed for P. thuringiaca. Potentilla extracts stimulated, IL-6 production in tested cells but the level of the cytokine was found to decrease in epithelial cells. Pre-incubation of cells with LPS resulted in increased IL-6 secretion. Modulation of NO production after extract addition and cell pre-incubation with LPS was also observed. Potentilla extracts may be interesting natural factors modulating the main features of cells forming the colon wall, and thus may be potentially useful in the prophylaxis or healing of colon disorders. PMID:23757943

  15. 常春藤应用概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀芬; 张德顺; 王小青; 许强; 王文莉; 李绪苹

    2002-01-01

    @@常春藤为五加科常绿攀缘植物,凭气根攀缘于他物,老茎部分象灌木,没有攀缘特性,营养枝上的叶多为3到5裂,生殖枝上的叶为全缘。通常情况下,叶在夏天为深绿色并具有白色叶脉,目前培育的新品种叶色十分丰富。花两性,果实为浆果。全球约有5—13种,自然分布于亚洲、欧洲及北非洲。目前在我国应用比较多的品种分别属于3个种或变种,一种为中华常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var.sinesis),分布于华中、华南、西南及甘、陕等省,极耐荫,有一定的耐寒性,在华北宜选小气候良好的稍荫环境栽培;一种为洋常春藤,又名西洋常春藤、长春藤、英国常春藤,(H.helix L.)原产欧洲及高加索地带,目前国内外栽培非常普遍,而且品种繁多;另一种为菱叶常春藤(H.rhomben Bean),原产日本,我国山东有引种栽培[2]。……

  16. H2S对三种空气净化植物保护酶活性的影响%The Influence of H2S on the Activities of Protective Enzyme of Three Air Purification Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原红娟; 谭志远; 杨辉

    2013-01-01

    以绿萝(Scindapsus aureun)、常春藤(Hedera nepalensisK,Koch var.sin ensis)、吊兰(Chlorophytum)三种植物种为材料,通过密闭箱静态熏气方法,H2S处理浓度为0μ mol·L-1、l0μmol·L-1、20μmol·L-1、30 μmol·L-、40μmol·L-1,胁迫3d后,测定其叶绿素含量,丙二醛(MDA)含量,超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性,过氧化物酶(POD)活性.结果表明:在H2S的胁迫下,三种植物的叶绿素相对含量均下降,但丙二醛呈上升的趋势;绿萝的SOD活性在30μmol.L-1时开始下降,常春藤和吊兰的SOD活性均呈上升的趋势;POD的活性都呈先上升再下降的趋势,而且均在30μ mol·L-1时达到阈值.综合分析,3种植物的抗H2S胁迫以吊兰最强,绿萝次之,常春藤最差.

  17. Restoration potential of pioneer plants growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in Lanping, southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Dongmei; DUAN Changqun

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the restoration potential of ten pioneer plants (Artemisia roxburghiana, Artemisia tangutica, Carex inanis,Cyperaceae hebecarpus, Plantago depresa, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Potentilla saundesiana, Coriaria sinica, Oxyria sinensis, andMiscanthus nepalensis) during the early phase of Pb-Zn mine tailings phytostabilization, in Lanping, China. The concentrations ofheavy metals (Pb, Zn, and Cu) and soil fertility (the available N, P, K, and organic matter) in the rhizosphere of these species have been compared. The results showed a general improvement in the rhizosphere soil properties of pioneer plants. Of the ten species, theconcentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the rhizosphere of A. Roxburghiana have the greatest reduction of 56.23%, 83.00%, and 84.36%,respectively, compared to the bulk soil. The best improvement in soil fertility was found in the rhizosphere of P. Saundesiana, with anincrease of 241.83%, 170.76%, 49.09%, and 81.60%, respectively, in the available N, E K, and organic matter. Metals accumulated bythe plants have been mainly distributed in the root tissues, and only small amounts transferred m the aboveground tissues. The highestcontents of Pb and Zn have been recorded in C. Hebecarpus with 57.84 and 87.92 mg/kg dry weight (dw), respectively. The maximumCu content was observed in C. Inanis with 1.19 mg/kg dw. Overall, pioneer plants will be ideal species for the phytostabilization of minetailings, but the potential use varies in different pioneer plant species. Among these ten species, A. Roxburghiana has been identified tobe the most suitable for phytostabilization programs, due to its greatest improvement on physicai-chemical properties in the rhizospheresoil.

  18. Immune gene expression profile of Penaeus monodon in response to marine yeast glucan application and white spot syndrome virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wilsy; Lowman, Douglas; Antony, Swapna P; Puthumana, Jayesh; Bright Singh, I S; Philip, Rosamma

    2015-04-01

    Immunostimulant potential of eight marine yeast glucans (YG) from Candida parapsilosis R20, Hortaea werneckii R23, Candida spencermartinsiae R28, Candida haemulonii R63, Candida oceani R89, Debaryomyces fabryi R100, Debaryomyces nepalensis R305 and Meyerozyma guilliermondii R340 were tested against WSSV challenge in Penaeus monodon post larvae (PL). Structural characterization of these marine yeast glucans by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated structures containing (1-6)-branched (1-3)-β-D-glucan. PL were fed 0.2% glucan incorporated diet once in seven days for a period of 45 days and the animals were challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The immunostimulatory activity of yeast glucans were assessed pre- and post-challenge WSSV by analysing the expression profile of six antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5 and 13 immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, caspase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-s-transferase, haemocyanin, peroxinectin, pmCathepsinC, prophenol oxidase (proPO), Rab-7, superoxide dismutase and transglutaminase. Expression of seven WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, thymidine kinase and VP28 were also analysed to detect the presence and intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals post-challenge. The study revealed that yeast glucans (YG) do possess immunostimulatory activity against WSSV and also supported higher survival (40-70 %) post-challenge WSSV. Among the various glucans tested, YG23 showed maximum survival (70.27%), followed by YG20 (66.66%), YG28 (60.97%), YG89 (58.53%), YG100 (54.05%), YG63 (48.64%), YG305 (45.7%) and YG340 (43.24%). PMID:25555812

  19. Photosynthetic characteristics of three species of liana seedlings in different light environments%不同光环境下3种藤本植物幼苗的光合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海艳; 喻理飞

    2010-01-01

    用100%(ck),68%~75%(S1),40%~49%(S2)和10%~21%(S3)等4种人为控光处理常春藤Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis,常春油麻藤Mucuna sempervirens和葛藤Pueraria lobata 1年生苗木,研究其光合特性.结果表明:常春油麻藤的光饱扣点和光补偿点均较高,为喜光植物;葛藤的光饱和点和光补偿点较低,反应了葛藤耐荫性的同时,它对光能有效辐射的利用范围较窄;常春藤光饱和点较高、光补偿点较低,即常春藤具有一定的耐荫性且对光能有效辐射的利用范围较宽.10%~21%控光处理叶绿素质量分教最高,葛藤、常春油麻藤、常春藤的叶绿素质量分数分别高达2.888,2.242和2.955 mg·g-1,叶绿素a/b值差异显著.不同光环境下根冠比均表现为10%~21%控光处理最低,随着光照强度的增加,根冠比随之增加.

  20. Adaptive changes in the plasticity of body melanisation in generalist, cold and warm adapted Drosophila species%不同气候适应类型果蝇体色黑化可塑性的适应性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravi PARKASH; Seema RAMNIWAS; Chanderkala LAMBHOD; Babita KAJLA

    2011-01-01

    变温昆虫果蝇Drosophila深受热选择(即遗传效应)或表型诱导效应(即可塑性)的影响.表型可塑性是不同生物进行适应的有效方法,但是它在不同的果蝇种中较少受到关注.我们分析了不同发育温度范围和地理分布的果蝇的黑化反应模式.嗜凤梨果蝇D.ananassae和蒲桃果蝇D.jambulina对低温敏感,这些物种可在18 ~ 32℃下饲育.相反,D.nepalensis为耐冷且对热敏感的物种,可在12 ~ 25℃下饲育.世界广为分布的黑腹果蝇D.melanogaster的温度范围宽(13~31℃),该物种前3个腹节和后3个腹节的黑化反应模式未见明显差异.D.nepalensis的全部6个腹节(第2~7节)均具有高度的可塑性.不过,黑腹果蝇D.melanogaster只有后3个腹节具有可塑性.相反,热带物种嗜凤梨果蝇D.ananassae的所有腹节均不具有可塑性.世界广为分布的黑腹果蝇,即使来自冷得多的气候环境,其体色也不加深,与D.nepalensis中观察到的体色接近.本研究的目的旨在认识引起体色的形态多样性的过程以及果蝇对不同地理区域的适应性.最后,将体色黑化与物种系统发育谱系的比较表明,在不同的演化谱系中不断发生遗传多态性或表型可塑性两种不同模式的适应.%Ectothermic drosophilids are profoundly affected by thermal selection (i.e.,genetic effects) or through induced effects on phenotype (i.e.,plasticity).Phenotypic plasticity is a powerful means of adaptation in diverse organisms but has received less attention for different drosophilids. We analyzed reaction norms of melanisation in Drosophila species which differ in developmental thermal range and geographical distribution.D.ananassae and D.jambulina are cold sensitive,and these species can be cultured between 18 to 32℃.By contrast,D.nepalensis is cold-tolerant and heat-sensitive species which can be raised between 12 and 25℃.The cosmopolitan species D. melanogaster has a broader thermal range ( 13

  1. Prevalence of pollinosis in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis in the South of Mexico City 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prevalencia de la polinosis se ha duplicado en las últimas dos décadas. Diversos estudios sugieren que incluso 50% de los adultos residentes del Distrito Federal pueden tener datos de alergia respiratoria y que los pólenes de árboles, pastos y malezas constituyen una causa frecuente. Conocer la prevalencia de sus familias y cruces antigénicos permite ofrecer diagnósticos y tratamientos adecuados. Objetivo: conocer la prevalencia de sensibilización a pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas en adultos con alergia respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal en el periodo de enero de 2007 a diciembre de 2013. Material y método: estudio transversal, observacional y retrospectivo efectuado con pacientes que acudieron al servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital de Especialidades Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI de la Ciudad de México, de 2007 a 2013, con diagnóstico de rinitis, asma y conjuntivitis alérgica. Analizamos los resultados de las pruebas cutáneas para pólenes de árboles, gramíneas y malezas de los pacientes. Los resultados se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se incluyeron 672 pacientes, 70% hombres, la edad promedio fue de 34 ± 16 años. En relación con su ocupación 31% eran estudiantes, 48% trabajadores y 21% amas de casa. El 53% tenía rinitis alérgica, 47% asma y 40.5% tenía ambos padecimientos. Se encontró prevalencia de sensibilización a malezas de 56%, a árboles de 33% y a gramíneas de 11%. Conclusiones: la sensibilización a malezas constituye en México la primera causa de polinosis respiratoria de la zona sur del Distrito Federal, el polen del amaranto fue el más prevalente en esta zona. La sensibilización a los árboles es la segunda causa de polinosis, con predominio de las familias Betulaceae, Fagaceae y Oleacea. La sensibilización a gramíneas constituye la tercera causa de polinosis respiratoria. Las más frecuentes son la

  2. Resilient terrestrial ecosystems at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of global warming lasting ~200 ka that began ~56 Ma. Global temperature rose 5-8 °C in association with the emission of thousands of Pg of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system. PETM rocks and fossils are extensively exposed in the SE Bighorn Basin of Wyoming, where the event is represented by ~40 m of fluvial rocks. Fossil plants demonstrate a rapid and nearly complete turnover in floral composition that also suggests a change in the structure of vegetation. Floras collected from the last ~50 ka of the Paleocene are composed of Platanaceae (sycamores), Betulaceae (birches), Fagaceae (oaks), Lauraceae (laurels), Juglandaceae (walnuts), Cercidiphyllaceae (katsura), Taxodiaceae (dawn redwood), and Arecaceae (palms), among others. Many of these families are most diverse and abundant today in temperate to subtropical, mid-latitude forests. During the body of the carbon isotope excursion (CIE) associated with the PETM fossil floras have a completely different composition. All of the latest Paleocene plant types are absent, except for palms, and instead the floras are dominated by Fabaceae (bean family). Other taxa include Sapindaceae (soapberry), Annonaceae (paw-paw), and Hernandiaceae. Where living relatives are known, they live in dry tropical forests of Central and South America. This floral composition is maintained through the ~30 m of section representing the ~110 ka-long body of the CIE, the same interval characterized by dwarfed mammalian faunas. During the recovery phase of the CIE most of the latest Paleocene plants returned to the area of study, although some new taxa appeared, apparently coming in from Europe or Asia. The distinctive PETM floral types are not seen after the recovery phase of the CIE. Change in floral composition during the PETM apparently represents regional extirpations of populations of plants that preferred warm, mesic conditions, and northward range extensions of plants that

  3. The Variation Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon and Its Relationship with Soil Properties in Typical Subtropical Plantations%亚热带几种林分类型土壤有机碳变化特征及与土壤性质的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓娟; 李萍; 戴伟; 尹其悦; 王丹; 莫莉

    2012-01-01

    为了研究亚热带天然次生林不同更新方式对土壤有机碳特征影响,将江西大岗山天然次生林分别采伐更新为马褂木林、马尾松林、杉木林和马褂木-桤木混交林,在比较分析不同更新方式对土壤有机碳含量特征影响的基础上,进一步利用相关和逐步回归分析方法,研究了不同土壤性质对土壤有机碳的.影响.结果表明:与次生林相比,几种更新林分在不同程度上降低了土壤有机碳含量,改变了土壤有机碳的层间分布特征.在0~40cm的剖面内,土壤有机碳含量的降幅分别为:马褂木林>马尾松林>杉木林>马褂木-桤木混交林;与其他更新对象相比,马褂木林作为更新树种会导致土壤有机碳含量的大幅降低,不利于土壤碳储量的增加.但与桤木混交后,却可以明显减少有机碳含量降幅,显示出良好的混交效果;分别建立的0~20cm和20~40cm土层的土壤有机碳含量和土壤性质的回归方程显示出较高的回归精度,比较标准化回归系数法处理显示,土壤全氮量、有效铁含量和碱解氮含量是导致不同层次土壤有机碳变异的主导影响因子.%In order to study the influence of soil organic carbon content by regeneration in typical subtropical plantations, the natural secondary forest in subtropical zone of Dagang Mountains of Jiangxi Province were cutting and regeneration of 4 plantations (Liriodendron chinense, Pinus massoniana, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Alnus-Liriodendron). On the basis of comparative analysis of different update characteristics of soil organic carbon content, and further correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis were also used to analyze the influence of soil physic-chemical properties on soil organic carbon. Results showed that all regenerations significantly decreased content of soil organic carbon and changed the distribution characteristics compared with the natural secondary forest. The soil

  4. Modelling accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems originating from a long-term groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke I. [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7001, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Eckersten, Henrik [Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, SLU, P.O. Box 7042, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Reinlert, Andre [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); MMT, Sven Kaellfelts Gata 11 SE 426 71 Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Dept. Land and Water Resources, KTH, SE 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, Per-Anders [Facilia AB, Gustavlundsvaegen 151A, 167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Greger, Maria [Dept. of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted as part of the risk assessment of final deposits of nuclear fuel waste. The overall objective is to assess the possible accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems after an eventual long-term groundwater contamination. The specific objectives are to assess: i) What proportion of the contamination will accumulate in the soil-plant-system? ii) Where in the soil-plant- system will it accumulate? iii) Which ecosystem characteristics and radionuclides properties are important for the accumulation? and iv) Under which circumstances do losses from the ecosystems occur? We developed the dynamic model Tracey (Gaerdenaes et al. 2009) describing cycling of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems with high temporal resolution (1 day). The model is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclides are described for different plant parts and soil pools in each of the 10 soil layers. The radionuclide fluxes are driven either by water or carbon fluxes. The water and the carbon fluxes are simulated with the dynamic, bio-geophysical Coup Model (Jansson and Karlberg, 2004). Tracey includes two root uptake approaches of radionuclides; (i) passive uptake driven by root water uptake and (ii) active uptake driven by plant growth. A linear approach describes the adsorption of radionuclides to soil particles and organic matter. Tracey was applied on two ecosystems with contrasting hydrology, the mixed Pinus-Picea forests found in the dry, elevated areas and the Alnus forests found in the wet, low-land areas of Uppland in central east Sweden. Different varieties of the two forest types were created by varying the root depth and radiation use efficiency. The climate was cold-temperate and based on 30-year daily weather data from Uppsala. The assumed groundwater contamination was close to 1 mg of an unspecified radionuclide per m2 and year. This load corresponds to 1 Bq per m{sup 2} and year of {sup 238}U, a common long

  5. Modelling accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems originating from a long-term groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted as part of the risk assessment of final deposits of nuclear fuel waste. The overall objective is to assess the possible accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems after an eventual long-term groundwater contamination. The specific objectives are to assess: i) What proportion of the contamination will accumulate in the soil-plant-system? ii) Where in the soil-plant- system will it accumulate? iii) Which ecosystem characteristics and radionuclides properties are important for the accumulation? and iv) Under which circumstances do losses from the ecosystems occur? We developed the dynamic model Tracey (Gaerdenaes et al. 2009) describing cycling of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems with high temporal resolution (1 day). The model is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclides are described for different plant parts and soil pools in each of the 10 soil layers. The radionuclide fluxes are driven either by water or carbon fluxes. The water and the carbon fluxes are simulated with the dynamic, bio-geophysical Coup Model (Jansson and Karlberg, 2004). Tracey includes two root uptake approaches of radionuclides; (i) passive uptake driven by root water uptake and (ii) active uptake driven by plant growth. A linear approach describes the adsorption of radionuclides to soil particles and organic matter. Tracey was applied on two ecosystems with contrasting hydrology, the mixed Pinus-Picea forests found in the dry, elevated areas and the Alnus forests found in the wet, low-land areas of Uppland in central east Sweden. Different varieties of the two forest types were created by varying the root depth and radiation use efficiency. The climate was cold-temperate and based on 30-year daily weather data from Uppsala. The assumed groundwater contamination was close to 1 mg of an unspecified radionuclide per m2 and year. This load corresponds to 1 Bq per m2 and year of 238U, a common long-living radionuclide in

  6. Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, C.J.; Drummond, F.; Ginsberg, H.

    2007-01-01

    Invasive plant species can have profound negative effects on natural communities by competively excluding native species. Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), Frangula alnus (glossy or alder buckthorn) and Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) are invasive species known to reduce native plant diversity and are thus of great concern to Acadia National Park. Pollinators visit them for nectar and pollen. The effects of invasive plant species on pollinator behavior were investigated by comparing pollinator visitation to co-flowering native and invasive species with visitation to native species growing alone. The effect of invasives on pollination of native plants was studied by comparing fruit set in patches of the native species growing near invasives with patches far from invasive species in Acadia National Park. The coflowering pairs were as follows: in the spring native Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) was paired with B. thunbergii; in early summer native Viburnum nudum (wild raisin) was paired with F. alnus ; in late summer native Spiraea alba (meadowsweet) was paired with L. salicaria. We investigated whether these invasives competed with native plants for pollinators in Acadia and thus negatively affected native plant reproduction. Our objectives were to determine: 1) the influence, if any, of each invasive on pollinator visitation to a co-flowering native species, 2) factors that might affect visitation, 3) invasive pollen transfer to native plants, and 4) whether invasives influence native plant reproduction (fruit set). Our findings indicate that at times the number of flower visitors to natives was lower or the species composition of visitors different when invasives were present, that invasives sometimes attracted more pollinators, that generally the invasives were more rewarding as far as nectar and pollen availability for pollinators, and that generally native plant fruit set and seed set was not significantly lowered in the presence of

  7. Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the west-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W.A.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco basin indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco basin was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco basin with

  8. Deciduous shrub growth and the greening of the Arctic in West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2010-12-01

    Salix lanata and Alnus fruticosa are common and widespread shrub species in the low arctic tundra zone of West Siberia. They often occur in similar local habitats with the live portions of genets up to 100 years old. We have recently established that growth rings of S. lanata provide an excellent proxy for summer temperature. In that study our data were derived from shrubs growing on organic soils near the arctic coast of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), west of the Ural Mountains. East of the Urals, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), climate is more continental and sandy soils provide a relatively nutrient-poor substrate for plant growth. By sampling two different species side by side on the Yamal Peninsula, we shed light on the relationship between deciduous shrubs and growing season temperatures in the last half century or so, a period of pronounced regional warming. We discern differences in the climate signal within a single species (S. lanata) as well as between it and a neighboring species with a strongly overlapping ecological amplitude (A. fruticosa). July is the main month for temperature correlation in Alnus, whereas Salix responds to June-July-August temperatures in both regions. The high correlations of shrub growth with summer temperature (r > 0.7 over the period 1956-2004) strongly suggest a link between increased shrub growth and recent decadal warming in both regions (~2°C). Both species showed significant correlation with the regional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), although it was somewhat lower in YNAO compared to NAO, probably due to the relative land cover (10% vs. 20%, respectively) of erect shrubs in both areas, which affects their overall contribution to the NDVI. In both regions Salix lanata biomass peaks in the second half of July. Hand-held leaf area index data from Yamal indicate a significant difference between loamy/clayey and sandy sites. We hypothesized that this same variation would be evident at the

  9. Holocene environmental changes in southern Kamchatka, Far Eastern Russia, inferred from a pollen and testate amoebae peat succession record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimaschewski, A.; Barnekow, L.; Bennett, K. D.; Andreev, A. A.; Andrén, E.; Bobrov, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.

    2015-11-01

    High resolution palaeoenvironmental records in Far-Eastern Russia are rare, and the Kamchatka Peninsula is among the least studied areas of the region. This paper describes a record spanning the last ca. 11,000 yr, obtained from a bog in the southern part of Kamchatka. The radiocarbon dated core was analysed for pollen, testate amoebae, charcoal and loss-on-ignition (LOI). The vegetation during the early Holocene was dominated by grasses (Poaceae), birch (Betula) and heath (Ericaceae p. p.). Around 10,300 cal yr BP there was a substantial change in the vegetation cover to shrub alder (Alnus viridis s.l.) stands with sedges and ferns (Polypodiophyta) as well as herbs such as meadow rue (Thalictrum) in the understory. In the surroundings of Utka peatlands started to form. The variations in the vegetation cover were most probably caused by climatic changes. At the beginning of sediment accumulation, before 10,300 cal yr BP, the composition of the vegetation points to cooler summers and/or decreased annual precipitation. Around 10,300 cal yr BP, changes in vegetation occurred due to rising temperatures and/or changed water regimes. Increased abundancies of dry indicating testate amoebae after 9100 cal yr BP point to intermediate to dry soil conditions. Between 8600 and 7700 cal yr BP tree alder (Alnus incana) was widely spread at the site which probably indicates optimal environmental conditions. The tephra layer at 381-384.5 cm (ca. 8500 cal yr BP) produces a strong impact on the testate amoebae assemblages. At 7700 cal yr BP there was a sudden drop of A. incana in the local vegetation. From this time on, A. incana and also A. viridis decrease continuously whereas Betula gradually increases. The upper part of the sequence (after 6300 cal yr BP) shows higher abundancies of meadowsweet (Filipendula) and sweet gale (Myrica) pollen. After 6300 cal yr BP, changes in testate amoebae demonstrate variable soil moisture conditions at the site. Between 3700 and 1800 cal yr BP

  10. Atypical coastal environmental change during Copper Age - Bronze Age transition (Rio de Moinhos, NW Portugal) - preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Helena; Danielsen, Randi

    2015-04-01

    The research is part of an ongoing project of geo-archaeology from Rio de Moinhos beach (Esposende, NW Portugal), where an extensive area of dark sedimentary outcrops and a large amount of ceramic remains from a Roman shipwreck are present. The dark sedimentary deposit, presenting tree stumps and roots in life position, partially covers a rocky platform that extends seawards. Over the platform, that presents many pits of sea urchins (infralittoral environment) as well as salt pans (supratidal environment), a marine rusty conglomerate is present in some places. Several hand gauge cores were extracted in the sedimentary deposit whose maximum depth do not exceed 50cm. Samples from cores and outcrops were analysed for grain size, mineralogical composition, pollen and diatom content and radiocarbon dated. This work concerns sediment size analysis, dating and pollen. Tree stumps and roots of Alnus glutinosa dated 6310-6220 cal BP are in the base of the sedimentary sequence that presents a gradual passage from very fine sands to clayey silts, all of them organic and very poorly sorted. Pollen analysis revealed an initial wetland habitat containing Alnus, inundated ca 5645-5585 cal BP due to rising sea level at the time. A brackish lagoon formed at the site presumably protected by a clastic barrier seaward. Similar formations of lagoons are detected all along the Portuguese coast, typically disappearing with time due to sand infilling. In this case, however, the brackish lagoon turned into a fresh water lake ca 4485-4440 cal BP. This may have been a natural development caused by permanent closing of the clastic barrier but human interference cannot be excluded as anthropic activity was detected since formation of the lagoon. The lake seems to have filled in with sand at some point in time subsequent to ca 3750-3725 cal BP, the date of the top lake sediment. However, shipwreck vestiges from the Roman Period presently dispersed over the lake sediment, suggests a later date

  11. Improving soil bioengineering techniques to control erosion and sedimentation within the context of torrential Mediterranean climate: a French-Canadian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Freddy; Louis, Séverine; Burylo, Mélanie; Raymond, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    On marly eroded terrains of the French Southern Alps, many researches are undertaken in order to better understand the role of vegetation and bioengineering works on erosion and sedimentation control. To this view, the eroded marly gullies of the French Southern Alps are an experimental design where an original French strategy of rehabilitation, developed by scientists from Irstea (ex-Cemagref), has been tested since 2002. It is comprised of the construction of bioengineering works, namely of "brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood microdams", and implements the use of willow cuttings (Salix purpurea and S. incana). The main objective of these works is to sustainably trap and retain marly sediment, by checking their performance (growth and survival of the cuttings, sediment trapping) in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate. In Canada, several private companies have developed their own knowledge and expertise in the conception and building of bioengineering works for erosion control, especially in the context of hilly and mountainous landscapes and climates. Therefore, it was decided to use the competence and expertise of Terra Erosion Control Ltd., a Canadian company, in the French torrential Mediterranean climate. Ten modalities were tested, the aims being to develop and/or to modify existing designs of current techniques, to experiment with other live cuttings (Populus nigra) and rooted species (Alnus spp. and Hippophae spp.), to evaluate and compare the potential use of different organic soil amendments in order to increase beneficial soil microorganisms and finally, to evaluate the potential use of specialized tools and equipment in order to increase the efficiency of the installation for vegetation establishment and sediment trapping, while decreasing the implementation costs. The experimental design was installed in March 2011 and the early observations in Spring 2012 showed that: 1/ most of the cuttings and the plants resisted to burial and

  12. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  13. Effect of Post-Heat Treatment on Dimensional Stability of Compressed Wood%后期热处理对压缩木尺寸稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈太安; 蒋明; 王昌命; 高力勇

    2011-01-01

    The timber of Pinus armandii and Alnus cremastogyne was experimented to evaluate the dimensional stability by taking thickness swelling ( TS) as the major evaluation index after the compressed wood was individually treated under 170℃ and 210℃ for 2 h with the heated air or conductive oil heat transfer media. The results showed that both of the moisture-uptake and water-uptake of the compressed wood could be reduced by post heat-treating, so the dimensional stability of the compressed wood was improved. The conductive oil treatment had better effect than that of the hot air, while the treatment effect under 210℃ was better than that of under 170℃. The best technological condition was conductive oil treatment under 210℃, which could reduce moisture uptake TS index by 50% while reduce TS value after 24 h water uptake by 85%. The results also showed that the effect of heat treatment varied with tree species, The heat treatment effect on Pinus armandii wood was better than that of on Alnus cremastogyne wood.%以华山松和西南桤木为研究试材,以热空气和导热油为加热介质,在温度为170℃和210℃时分别对2种压缩木进行2 h的热处理,以厚度膨胀率为主要指标评价其尺寸稳定性.结果表明:后期热处理可以降低压缩木吸湿率和吸水率,改善压缩木的尺寸稳定性,油浴处理的效果优于热空气处理,210℃处理效果优于170℃;在所有工艺条件中,以210℃油浴处理效果最佳,可使吸湿厚度膨胀率下降50%左右,使24h吸水厚度膨胀率减小85%左右;热处理对树种具有一定的选择性,对西南桤木的效果略优于华山松.

  14. Changes of soil carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes in relation to land use/cover management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Moghimian, Negar; Bayranvand, Mohammad; Alberti, Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Conversions of land use/cover are associated with changes in soil properties and biogeochemical cycling, with implications for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and trace gas fluxes. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the significance of different land uses (Alnus subcordata plantation, Taxodium distichum plantation, agriculture, and deforested areas) on soil features and on the dynamics of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at local scale, this study was carried out in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Sixteen samples per land use, from the top 10 cm of soil, were taken, from which bulk density, texture, water content, pH, organic C, total N, microbial biomass of C and N, and earthworm density/biomass were determined. In addition, the seasonal changes in the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored over a year. Our results indicated that the different land uses were different in terms of soil properties and GHG fluxes. Even though the amount of the GHG varied widely during the year, the highest CO2 and CH4 fluxes (0.32 mg CO2 m(-2) day(-1) and 0.11 mg CH4 m(-2) day(-1), respectively) were recorded in the deforested areas. N2O flux was higher in Alnus plantation (0.18 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) and deforested areas (0.17 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) than at agriculture site (0.05 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) and Taxodium plantation (0.03 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)). This study demonstrated strong impacts of land use change on soil-atmosphere trace gas exchanges and provides useful observational constraints for top-down and bottom-up biogeochemistry models. PMID:27173683

  15. Maintenance of an abrupt boundary between needle-leaved and broad-leaved forests in a wetland near coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiro Tsuyuzaki; Akira Haraguchi

    2009-01-01

    There is an abrupt boundary between two well-developed wetland forests, a stand consisting of a broad-leaved, nitrogen-fixer Alnus japonica and a stand of the needle-leaved Picea glehnii Masters, in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. To clarify maintenance mechanisms, we studied the forest profile, water level, groundwater and precipitation chemistry, seedling establishment patterns in relation to microhabitats, and seed migration. The profile of groundwater level insufficiently explained the abrupt boundary formation, while the groundwater chemistry differed significantly between the two forests; i.e., EC, Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and Cl- were higher in P. glehnii forest and pH was lower. Precipitation in P. glehnii forest contained richer Na+, Ca2+ and Cl-, indicating that the differences in surface-water chemistry were mostly derived from precipitation. Solar radiation was less than 2.2 MJ·m-2·d-1 on P. glehnii forest in late June, while that was patchily distributed in A. japonica forest with a range from 1.0 to 3.7 MJ·m-2·d-1. Moss cover on the soil surface, most of which were made of Sphagnum spp., was 60% in P. glehnii forest, but was 10% in A. japonica forest. Surface water chemistry represented by pH was considered to determine the development of Sphagnum moss. About 70% of P. glehnii seedlings < 1.3 m in height established on moss cover. Seed-sowing experiments suggested that seed germination and seedling survival for both species were significantly higher in P. glehnii forest. Therefore, the regeneration of P. glehnii in A. japonica forest was negligible, owing to the paucity of favorable microhabitats and low seedling establishment. A. japonica regenerated only by resprouting, and the seedlings were few in both forests. In addition, A. japonica seed migration into the P. glehnii forests was greatly restricted, and low solar radiation in the P. glehnii forest contributed to low seedling survival. Based on those results, we concluded that Picea glehnii and Alnus

  16. Humus bacteria of Norway spruce stands: plant growth promoting properties and birch, red fescue and alder colonizing capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo; Maunuksela; Salkinoja-Salonen; Smolander; Haahtela

    2000-02-01

    We studied the potential of the humus layer of the Norway spruce stands to supply beneficial rhizobacteria to birch (Betula pendula), alder (Alnus incana) and fescue grass (Festuca rubra), representatives of pioneer vegetation after clear-cutting of the coniferous forest. Axenically grown seedlings of these species were inoculated with the acid spruce humus, pH 3.7-5.3. Actinorhizal propagules, capable of nodulating alder, were present in high density (10(3) g(-1)) in humus of long-term limed plots, whereas plots with nitrogen fertilization contained almost none (

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF WOOD MILLING SCHEDULE – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia-Adela SALCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a case study applied to the milling process of solid wood specimens made of black alder wood (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn. with a view to find the optimal cutting schedule when two main criteria, such as the minimum power consumption and the best surface quality are fulfilled.The experimental work was performed with black alder wood originating from mature trees from the Buzau Valley region in Romania. All samples were processed on their longitudinal edges by straight milling with a milling cutter having glued straight plates on the vertical milling machine under different cutting schedules. An electronic device connected to the machine engine and an acquisition board were used to record and compute the power consumption during milling. Roughness measurements of the samples were performed by employing an optical profilometer. All data were processed using the regression method and variance analysis. The study revealed that best results are to be obtained in terms of cutting power and surface quality when processing with low feed speeds and light cutting depths.

  18. Vegetation response to right-of-way clearing procedures in coastal British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, A.B.

    1988-09-01

    The response of the flora of forested sites to the methods employed by British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for the initial clearing of transmission line rights-of-way in coastal British Columbia was assessed. Seven immature forest vegetation units adjacent to, and seven early seral vegetation units on, the transmission line rights-of-way were identified. The environmental parameter most highly correlated with both the immature forest and the early seral vegetation units was the slope position. The degree of disturbance and seeding with agronomic grass and legume species complicated the determination of relationships between immature forest and early seral vegetation units. The majority of seeds in the forest samples were found in the floor layers, and seed bank samples from the high-disturbance sites had the fewest germinable seeds, primarily because the floor had been removed. The seed rain was dominated by tree species within the forests, and shrub and herbaceous species on rights of way. The seed rain was higher and percent germinability was higher in the second year than in the first. Important species vegetatively invading after, or recovering from, plot scarification included Gaultheria shallon, Pteridium aquilinum, and Rubus ursinus. Successful seeding establishment was rare: only Alnus rubra, Anaphalis margaritacea, and Rubus ursinus seedlings were observed in significant numbers and few survived to the following year. 142 refs., 28 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. Season and light affect constitutive defenses of understory shrub species against folivorous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolewski, Piotr; Giertych, Marian J.; Żmuda, Michał; Jagodziński, Andrzej M.; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2013-11-01

    Understory shrubs contribute to overall species diversity, providing habitat and forage for animals, influence soil chemistry and forest microclimate. However, very little is known about the chemical defense of various shrub species against folivorous insects. Using six shrub species, we tested how seasonal changes and light conditions affect their constitutive defense to insect damage. We monitored leaf perforation, concentrations of total phenols, condensed tannins, nitrogen (N), and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC). Leaf damage caused by insects was low in Sambucus nigra, Cornus sanguinea, and Frangula alnus, intermediate in Corylus avellana and Prunus serotina, and high in Prunus padus. Leaves of all the species, when growing in high light conditions, had high concentrations of defense metabolites. Except for C. avellana, leaves of the other shrub species growing in full sun were less injured than those in shade. This may be due to higher concentrations of defense metabolites and lower concentrations of nitrogen. Similar patterns of the effects of light on metabolites studied and N were observed for leaves with varying location within the crown of individual shrubs (from the top of the south direction to the bottom of the north), as for leaves from shrubs growing in full sun and shrubs in the shade of canopy trees. A probable cause of the greater damage of more sunlit leaves of C. avellana was the fact that they were herbivorized mostly by Altica brevicollis, a specialist insect that prefers plant tissues with a high TNC level and is not very sensitive to a high level of phenolic compounds.

  20. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  1. Survival and growth for pubescent birch, pendula birch and common alder growing on farmland areas; Oeverlevnad och tillvaext hos glasbjoerk, vaartbjoerk och klibbal planterade paa aakermark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Tord

    2000-07-01

    Pendula birches (Betula pendula Roth) and pubescent birches (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were planted on former farmland. Before planting, the ground was harrowed or the ground was sprayed with terbuthylazine. Tree shelters were used as protection against weeds, voles and wild habitat. Birches treated with terbuthylazine showed the lowest survival. Birches growing in tree shelters were tallest and those growing on spots treated with terbuthylazine were smallest. The diameter at 0.1 m did not differ in a statistically significant way between the treatments. In another experiment with different herbicides, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and pendula birch (Betula pendula Roth) were planted on former farmland that had been treated with glyphosate, terbuthylazine and propyzamide or after ground had been harrowed or not treated. In the study on herbicide-treated plants, birch had the highest plant survival. Mostly, species treated with glyphosate were thicker than species treated in other ways. Both species appeared sensitive to terbuthylazine, but not to glyphosate. Birch was not sensitive for propyzamide in opposite to alder. Some practical recommendations concerning afforestation of former farmland, especially weeding, are given.

  2. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of the northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, Edward E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  3. Research observation: Hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in plants of northwest Spain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M. P.; Karchesy, J.; Starkey, E.E.

    2003-01-01

    Tannins are secondary metabolites that may influence feeding by mammals on plants. We analyzed hydrolyzable and condensed tannins in 30 plant species consumed by livestock and deer, as a preliminary attempt to study their possible implications on browsing and grazing in forest ecosystems. Heathers (Ericaceae) and plants of the Rose (Rosaceae) family had tannins, while forbs, grasses and shrubs other than the heathers did not show astringency properties. We found the highest tannin content of all the species in Rubus sp., with the highest value around 180 mg TAE/g dry weight in spring. Potentilla erecta, Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur were next with 57 to 44 mg TAE/g dw. Total tannins in heathers ranged from 22 to 36 mg TAE/g dw. Levels of condensed tannins were higher than hydrolyzable for most of the species. Only Betula alba, Calluna vulgaris, Pteridium aquilinum and Vaccinium myrtillus had 100% hydrolyzable tannins. Tannin content of the species changed seasonally with highest values during the growing season, corresponding to late winter or early spring, depending on the species.

  4. Characteristic of Soil Hydro-Physical Properties and Water Dynamics under Different Vegetation Restoration Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zelong; GONG Yuanbo; HU Tingxing

    2006-01-01

    By combining the observation of the soil profile at field and the chemical and physical analysis in laboratory, a study on the hydro-physical properties of soil in six different vegetation types and the dynamics of water content after rain was conducted in Wanchanggou, Guangyuan City to find out the vegetation types with effective water-conservation functions in order to serve the ecological restoration in the low hill heavy rain area upper the Jialing River. Results showed that:the hydro-physical properties of soil in the mixed Alnus cremastogyne and Cupressua Leyland forest (AcCl) were best. But in the depth of 0-20 cm. The properties of soil in the abandoned cropland (Fm) was better than that in the AcCl. The soil bulk densities varied significantly between the layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm in all the six vegetation types except that in the Robinia pseudoacacia shrub forest (RpⅡ), and the changes of the maximum and the capillary moisture capacity between layers were significant only in the Fm and in the AcCl. Of these stands, the AcCl had the shortest water-absorbing period and the strongest moisture changes in the upper layer (0-15 cm). In the same stand, the deeper the soil layer, the slighter the soil moisture varied, and the longer the soil moisture accumulating process lasted.

  5. Effect of human disturbance on the structure and regeneration of forests in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angel Rolando Endara Agramont; Sergio Franco Maass; Gabino Nava Bemal; Juan Ignacio Valdez Hemández; Todd S.Fredericksen

    2012-01-01

    Sample plots were established in the principal forest types in the the Nevado de Toluca National Park,Mexico including those dominated by Pinus hartwegii,Abies religiosa,Quercus laurina and Alnus jorullensis.The vertical structure was defined by three strata in the coniferous forests and two strata in the broadleaved forests.Timber harvesting in Abies religiosa and Quercus laurina forests and fires generated by humans in Pinus hartwegii forests impeded the recruitment of saplings.Mature trees were also heavily impacted by logging in Pinus hartwegii forests.On the contrary,Alnusjorullensis forests were increasing due to the disturbance of Pinus and Quercus forests,as well abandoned crop lands within the park.A combination of logging,uncontrolled fire,and grazing appears to be compromising the recruitment of important tree species in this national park.These factors,together with human settlements,have also increased the proportion of early successional species.Changes in forest structure from human disturbance indicate a need to control these activities if conservation goals are not to be compromised.

  6. Depositional environments of the Hart coal zone (Paleocene), Willow Bunch Coalfield, southern Saskatchewan, Canada from petrographic, palynological, paleobotanical, mineral and trace element studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J.; Beaton, A.P.; McDougall, W.J.; Nambudiri, E.M.V.; Vigrass, L.W. (University of Regina, SK (Canada). Energy Research Unit)

    1991-12-01

    Coal petrology, palynology, paleobotany and mineralogy of the Hart coal indicate deposition under wet, warm-temperate to subtropical climatic conditions in low-lying backswamps with fluvial channels and locally ponded areas. The coal is dominated by mixed xylitic/attrital lithotypes and by huminite macerals with secondary inertinite macerals and minor liptinite macerals. Good correlation exists between lithotypes and maceral composition. Local and vertical variations in proportions of huminites and inertinites reflect frequent fluctuations in water levels, periodic flooding, desiccation and burning of the peat. Swamps were dominated by {ital Glyptostrobus-Taxodium} forest with {ital Betula-Myrica-Alnus} communities and, locally {ital Laevigatosporites}, which are the dominant contributors to the xylite-rich lithotypes. Attrital lithotypes with abundant {ital Pandanus}, {ital Typha} and {ital Azolla} are consistent with wetter areas of a fluvial environment, including ponds and channels. Trace elements Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Si, Ti, U, Se, V, W, K and Th, typically associated with syngenetic minerals kaolinite, calcite and quartz, may have a volcanic source. High concentrations of Na, Ba and Ca found in organic complexes are of secondary origin and probably originate in deep source brines rather than marine surface waters. 55 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Take me to your leader: does early successional nonhost vegetation spatially inhibit Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Jordan M; De La Giroday, Honey-Marie C; Lindgren, B Staffan; Aukema, Brian H

    2009-08-01

    The spatial influences of host and nonhost trees and shrubs on the colonization patterns of white pine weevil Pissodes strobi (Peck) were studied within a stand of planted interior hybrid spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss x Picea engelmannii (Parry) ex Engelm.]. Planted spruce accounted for one third of all trees within the stand, whereas the remaining two thirds were comprised of early-successional nonhost vegetation, such as alder (Alnus spp.), paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), black cottonwood [Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa (T. Ng.) Brayshaw], lodgepole pine [Pinus contorta (Dougl.) ex Loud.], trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx), willow (Salix spp.), and Canadian buffaloberry [Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt.]. Unlike the spruce trees, nonhost vegetation in the stand was not uniformly distributed. Spatial point process models showed that Canadian buffaloberry, paper birch, black cottonwoood, and trembling aspen had negative associations with damage caused by the weevil, even though the density of the insects' hosts in these areas did not change. Moreover, knowing the locations of these nonhost trees provided as much, or more, inference about the locations of weevil-attacked trees as knowing the locations of suitable or preferred host trees (i.e., those larger in size). Nonhost volatiles, the alteration of soil composition, and overstory shade are discussed as potential explanatory factors for the patterns observed. New research avenues are suggested to determine whether nonhost vegetation in early successional stands might be an additional tool in the management of these insects in commercially important forests. PMID:19689899

  8. Planting woody crops on dredged contaminated sediment provides both positive and negative effects in terms of remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: w.hartley@salford.ac.uk [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Riby, Philip [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M. [Department of Ecology, Lincoln University, Lincoln 7647, Canterbury (New Zealand); Shutes, Brian [Urban Pollution Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Middlesex University, Hendon, London NW4 4BT (United Kingdom); Sparke, Shaun [School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Scholz, Miklas [School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, Cockcroft Building, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    There is currently a requirement for studies focusing on the long-term sustainability of phytoremediation technologies. Trace element uptake by Salix, Populus and Alnus species planted in dredged contaminated canal sediment and concentrations in sediment and pore waters were investigated, eight years after a phytoremediation trial was initiated in NW England. Soil biological activity was also measured using invertebrate and microbial assays to determine soil quality improvements. Zinc was the dominant trace metal in foliage and woody stems, and the most mobile trace element in sediment pore water ({approx}14 mg l{sup -1}). Biological activity had improved; earthworm numbers had increased from 5 to 24, and the QBS index (an index of microarthropod groups in soil) had increased from 70 to 88. It is concluded that biological conditions had improved and natural processes appear to be enhancing soil quality, but there remains a potential risk of trace element transfer to the wider environment. - Highlights: > Trees provide positive and negative effects for remediation of dredged sediment. > Biological conditions had improved and natural processes enhance soil quality. > Zinc was the dominant trace metal in foliage and sediment pore waters. > Metal contaminants remain a problem in relation to their wider environmental fate. > A sustainable environment appears to be forming as a result of natural attenuation. - Soil biological quality improves in a woody crop stand eight years after a phytoremediation trial.

  9. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  10. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  11. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe

  12. Paxillus rubicundulus (Boletales, Paxillaceae) and two new alder-specific ectomycorrhizal species, Paxillus olivellus and Paxillus adelphus, from Europe and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargeat, Patricia; Moreau, Pierre-Arthur; Gryta, Hervé; Chaumeton, Jean-Paul; Gardes, Monique

    2016-05-01

    Paxillus rubicundulus P.D. Orton has been shown to be a complex of at least three ectomycorrhizal taxa strictly associated with alders (Alnus) in Europe, P. rubicundulus s. str., and two undescribed clades. To assess the taxonomic status of these three clades and their phylogenetic relationships, phylogenetic analyses of two independent gene regions (ITS and gpd), combined with macro- and micromorphological comparisons of genetically identified specimens, were carried out. A total of 85 sequences were successfully obtained from basidiomata and alder mycorrhizae collected in France and Algeria and combined with GenBank and UNITE sequences. The phylogenetic results and estimates of genetic diversity confirmed that the three clades are distinct species, often found in sympatry. As a result, P. rubicundulus s. str. was redefined based on the revision of type material, and Paxillus adelphus and Paxillus olivellus are introduced as new Linnaean names. The often used name Paxillus filamentosus is rejected since it could not be applied to any of the new species. The three species are distinguished micromorphologically by spore size and shape. They are widely distributed in Europe, North Africa and western Asia; P. rubicundulus is rare, and all species have a limited host range. PMID:27109368

  13. Assessment of abandoned agricultural land resource for bio-energy production in Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukk, Liia; Astover, Alar; Roostalu, Hugo; Suuster, Elsa; Noormets, Merrit; Sepp, Kalev (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)); Muiste, Peeter (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-03-15

    The current study locates and quantifies abandoned agricultural areas using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and evaluates the suitability of abandoned fields for bio-energy production in Tartumaa (Tartu County) in Estonia. Soils of abandoned areas are generally of low quality and thereby limited suitability for crop production; as a result soil-crop suitability analyses could form the basis of knowledge-based bio-energy planning. The study estimated suitable areas for bio-energy production using willow (Salix sp), grey alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench], hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.Populus tremula L.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in separate plantations. A combined land-use strategy is also presented as these crops are partially suitable to the same areas. Reed canary grass and grey alder have the highest energy potentials and each would re-use more than 80% of the available abandoned agricultural land. Energy grasses and short-rotation forestry in combined land-use strategy represents the opportunity of covering approximately a quarter of county's annual energy demand. The study estimates only agronomic potential, so further bio-energy analysis should take into account technical and economic limitations. Developed framework supports knowledge-based decision-making processes from field to regional scale to achieve sustainable bio-energy production

  14. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  15. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  16. Naturalistic Engineering for risk prevention in two slopes in southern Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Argüello

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2013/11/01 - Accepted: 2013/12/12Naturalistic engineering is a technical-scientific modern science cobining civil, environmental and geotechnical engineerings. It studies and uses building materials, plants, organic and synthetic materials for holding slopes. San Luis de Chillogallo and El Recreo are located in the South of Quito, where two projects for erosion control, containment and environmental recovery, have been implemented. These are pilot interventions that allow applying strategies and capabilities of estimation and reduction of risks from disasters. To implement the works, the ground was shifted, the organic and inorganic matter was wiped out, and unstable parts of the slope were removed, reshaping the slope through land exclusion and relocation. Subsequently, depending on the shape of each slope, specific techniques where designed and implemented. Double Wall Crib and Latin Triangular Branching techniques were used in San Luis de Chillogallo. Live Grating and Latino Triangular Branching techniques were used in El Recreo. Plants such as: Alder, Alnus glutinosa; paper tree, Polylepis sp.; chilca, Baccharis latifolia; lechero Euphorbia lactiflua and Tilo, Tilia platyphyllos; have been used in these projects. These plants are fast growing species and they have adapted successfully on the two slopes intervened.

  17. Incorporating spatially explicit crown light competition into a model of canopy transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranty, M. M.; Mackay, D. S.; Roberts, D. E.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.; Traver, E.

    2006-12-01

    Stomatal conductance parameterized in a transpiration model has been shown to vary spatially for aspen ( Populus tremuloides) and alder (Alnus incana) growing along a moisture gradient. We hypothesized that competition for light within the canopy would explain some of this variation. Sap flux data was collected over 10 days in 2004, and 30 days in 2005 at a 1.5 ha site near the WLEF AmeriFlux tower in the Chequmegon National Forest near Park Falls, Wisconsin. We used inverse modeling with the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) to estimate values of GSref for individual trees. Competition data for individual aspen sampled for sap flux was collected in August 2006. The number, height, DBH, and location of all competitors within 5 meters of each flux tree were recorded. Preliminary geostatistical analysis indicates that the number of competitor trees varies spatially for aspen. We hypothesize that height and species specific crown characteristics of competitor trees will have a spatially variable affect on transpiration via light attenuation. Furthermore, a simple light competition term will be able to incorporate this variability into the TREES transpiration model.

  18. Energy conservation and use of renewable energies in the bio-industries 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, F.

    1982-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of the Second International Seminar on Energy Conservation and the Use of Renewable Energies in the Bio-industries. Of 106 papers presented, the following 5 are of particular forestry interest: Brewbaker, J.L.; MacDicken, K.; Beldt, R. van den. Tropical nitrogen-fixing fuelwood trees. 108-119 (Refs. 15). Farnham, R.S.; Garton, S.; Louis, K.A.; Read, P.E. Propagating and establishing bioenergy plantations. 274-283 (Refs. 14). Salix and Alnus spp. in the marginal wetlands of northern Minnesota, USA. Kio, P.R.O. Factors and policies affecting forest resources use and conservation in Africa. 425-432 (Refs. 9), including discussion of the causes and consequences of deforestation. Plumptre, R.A.; Sandells, A. Construction, performance and economics of simple solar timber drying kilns. 577-586 (Refs. 11). Yermanos, D.M. Jojoba - outlook for maximizing oil production. 738-748 (Refs. 1). It describes experiments on seed and oil yields of Simmondsia chinensis in California.

  19. The advancing timberline on Mt. Fuji: natural recovery or climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakio, Hitoshi; Masuzawa, Takehiro

    2012-07-01

    The alpine timberline on Mt. Fuji (central Japan) is at 2,400-2,500 m above sea level. Over a 21-year period (1978-1999), we tracked changes in this vegetation boundary on a transect at a site impacted by the 1707 volcanic eruption. The timberline advanced rapidly upwards during this time period. Dominant tree species at the timberline (Alnus maximowiczii, Salix reinii, and Larix kaempferi) colonized sites that were initially largely free of vegetation at higher altitudes. Seedlings of L. kaempferi were particularly abundant at the border of advancing vegetation. According to tree age, we found that this was the first canopy species in the colonized areas. L. kaempferi is drought resistant, and this probably contributes to its establishment capability in the high-altitude climate. Most seedlings of Abies veitchii invaded patches of herbs and shrubs. These vegetation patches in the upper kampfzone provide important shelter for seedlings of invading tree species. We predict that the upward advance of the alpine timberline is a recovery process following the volcanic eruption, and that climate change may accelerate this advance.

  20. Energetic evaluation of indigenous tree and shrub species in Basilicata, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todaro L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of energetic characteristics such as high calorific value (on ash-free dry weight basis, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and moisture content of 12 indigenous tree and shrub species of Southern Italy (Basilicata Region was carried out. The studied species are the most abundant in this area: Quercus cerris L., Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L., Populus canescens (Aiton Smith, Salix alba L., Alnus cordata L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Olea europaea L., Spartium junceum L., Rubus hirtus W., Onopordum illirium L., Arundo donax L. For Q. cerris, Q. pubescens and O. europaea L., the energetic characteristics were measured by separating the wood components from the leaves. Q. cerris leaves contained the greatest high calorific value. F. ornus leaves had a greater ash content than the other samples while the lowest values were measured for S. junceum, Q. pubescens and R. pseudoacacia. The highest content of Carbon was in O. europaea leaves. A. donax and O. illirium had the lower level of high calorific value and Carbon than all the other species. The highest Nitrogen content was measured in Q. cerris leaves and the lowest one in F. ornus wood components.

  1. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna P. Poudel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg. and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong. trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass equations was fitted simultaneously with a constrained seemingly unrelated regression. Additionally, a linear model that predicts total aboveground biomass as a function of DBH and height was also fitted. The predicted total biomass was then apportioned to different components according to the predicted proportions from beta, Dirichlet, and multinomial log-linear regressions. Accuracy of these methods differed between species with higher root mean squared error (RMSE being produced in red alder trees. Within species, the accuracy of the equation for bole biomass was better than the equations for other components. None of these methods stood out as a clear winner, but the multinomial log-linear regression produced marginally better results compared to other methods in terms of RMSE, except for Western hemlock bark biomass and red alder bole and branch biomass. The equations based on a seemingly unrelated regression provided lower RMSEs for those species-component combinations.

  2. Taiwanese Native Plants Inhibit Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity after Ultraviolet B Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Lun Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have long been used as a source of therapeutic agents. They are thought to be important anti-aging ingredients in prophylactic medicines. The aim of this study was to screen extracts from Taiwanese plant materials for phenolic contents and measure the corresponding matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 activity. We extracted biological ingredients from eight plants native to Taiwan (Alnus formosana, Diospyros discolor, Eriobotrya deflex, Machilus japonica, Pyrrosia polydactylis, Pyrus taiwanensis, Vitis adstricta, Vitis thunbergii. Total phenolic content was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. MMP-9 activities were measured by gelatin zymography. The extracted yields of plants ranged from 3.7 % to 16.9 %. The total phenolic contents ranged from 25.4 to 36.8 mg GAE/g dry material. All of these extracts (except Vitis adstricta Hance were shown to inhibit MMP-9 activity of WS-1 cell after ultraviolet B irradiation. These findings suggest that total phenolic content may influence MMP-9 activity and that some of the plants with higher phenolic content exhibited various biological activities that could serve as potent inhibitors of the ageing process in the skin. This property might be useful in the production of cosmetics.

  3. Headwater streams and forest management: does ecoregional context influence logging effects on benthic communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, R. Bruce; Wipfli, Mark S.; Binckley, Chris; Polivka, Karl; Hessburg, Paul F.; Salter, R. Brion

    2010-01-01

    Effects of forest management on stream communities have been widely documented, but the role that climate plays in the disturbance outcomes is not understood. In order to determine whether the effect of disturbance from forest management on headwater stream communities varies by climate, we evaluated benthic macroinvertebrate communities in 24 headwater streams that differed in forest management (logged-roaded vs. unlogged-unroaded, hereafter logged and unlogged) within two ecological sub-regions (wet versus dry) within the eastern Cascade Range, Washington, USA. In both ecoregions, total macroinvertebrate density was highest at logged sites (P = 0.001) with gathering-collectors and shredders dominating. Total taxonomic richness and diversity did not differ between ecoregions or forest management types. Shredder densities were positively correlated with total deciduous and Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) riparian cover. Further, differences in shredder density between logged and unlogged sites were greater in the wet ecoregion (logging × ecoregion interaction; P = 0.006) suggesting that differences in post-logging forest succession between ecoregions were responsible for differences in shredder abundance. Headwater stream benthic community structure was influenced by logging and regional differences in climate. Future development of ecoregional classification models at the subbasin scale, and use of functional metrics in addition to structural metrics, may allow for more accurate assessments of anthropogenic disturbances in mountainous regions where mosaics of localized differences in climate are common.

  4. Evaluation on benefits of different managements for the grain for green project in southwest Hubei%鄂西南退耕还林不同经营模式综合效益评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴代坤; 戴应金; 李双龙; 韩梅; 吴应华

    2011-01-01

    The ecological, sociological and economical benefits of six managements for the grain on green project were comprehensively evaluated in southwest Hubei. The results showed that the comprehensive benefits of six managements were in the order as: Mangnolia officinalis + Indocalamus tessellates > tea plantation > Cunninghamia lanceolata + Phyllestachys pubescens > C. lanceolata + Alnus glutinosa > Toona sinensis > Larix kaempferi. The ecological benefits of the mixed forest models were better than those of the pure forest models.%对鄂西南6种退耕还林经营模式,进行了生态、经济和社会效益多指标综合评价.结果表明,综合效益由高至低为厚朴+箬竹模式﹥密植茶园模式﹥杉木+毛竹模式﹥杉木+桤木模式﹥香椿纯林模式﹥日本落叶松纯林模式;混交模式比纯林模式的生态功能发挥更好.

  5. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  6. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S; Lozhkin, A V; Brown, T A

    2008-05-20

    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicates no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.

  7. 5种木制玩具原料林树种在云和的早期生长表现%Early Growth of 5 Tree Species for Wooden Toy in Yunhe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建灵; 吴涛; 卢刚; 王永标

    2010-01-01

    自2005年开始在云和镇开展枫香(Liquidambar formosana)、木荷(Schima superba)、南酸枣(Choerospondias axillaris)、江南桤木(Alnus trabeculosa)、马褂木(Liriodendron chinense)5种木制玩具原料树种造林试验,结果表明:5种速生阔叶树种造林当年的成活率均在95%以上,最高的为枫香,达98.5%,5年后各树种的保存率均超过92%,最高的枫香为97.2%;5个树种的5年生树高总生长量最大的为江南桤木,达7.6 m,其余依次为南酸枣、枫香、木荷、马褂木;5年生胸径生长量也是江南桤木最大达6.7 cm,其余依次为南酸枣、枫香、木荷、马褂木.

  8. Colour Changes Evaluation of Freshly Cut Alder Veneers Under the Influence of Indoor Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Adela SALCA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental study concerning the colour changes occurred on the surfaces ofblack alder veneers (Alnus glutinosa, obtained from a freshly cut (not treated log, after their exposure tosunlight and darkness, for 1 and 3 months, under indoor conditions.A Chroma Meter Konika Minolta CR-410 device was used for colour measurement.The colorimetric coordinates were recorded before and after the exposure, according to ISO 7724-2.The results highlight a significant decrease of colour lightness, right after the first month of sunlight exposure.The a* and b* colour coordinates showed an increasing tendency with increasing exposure time, whichsignifies a colour darkening under sunlight radiation that penetrates the window glass. Colour differenceswere noticed right after the first month of sunlight exposure, while under darkness conditions, a relativecolour constancy was noticed, the colour changes being less pronounced, but yet perceptible by the humaneye.The study results complete the colorimetric database of veneers used in furniture industry, but theyalso contribute to the rehabilitation of black alder as a wood species with a real potential of use in furnitureindustry.

  9. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report. [Sycamore, sweet gum, alder, and locust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.

    1979-03-01

    Two biomass plantations, one in the Coastal Plain, the other in the Piedmont province of Georgia, have been established. Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Flnus glutinosa and Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in pure and mixed plots. Differences in the growth at the end of the first growing season were attributed mostly to weed competition in the Coastal Plain. Robinia grew remarkably well in the Piedmont, averaging more than 2.2 m tall in irrigated plots. A fungus tentatively identified as belonging to the genus Botryosphaeria is causing heavy Alnus mortality in the Coastal Plain. Progress in the genetic improvement phase of the project included a collection of Platanus seedlots from throughout Georgia to identify promising provenances and the production of Liquidambar and Robinia plantlets in tissue culture. Differences in the calorific content of young sprout material from nine hardwood species (unit oven dry weight basis) were found to be small. Other studies dealt with the effects of different harvesting cycles on the size and carbohydrate contents of sycamore rootstocks.

  10. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  11. Influence of wind on daily airborne pollen counts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    tareq Majeed, Husam; Periago, Cristina; Alarcón, Marta; De Linares, Concepción; Belmonte, Jordina

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analize the influence of wind (speed and direction) on the daily airborne pollen counts recorded in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) of 21 pollen taxa recorded at 6 aerobiological stations: Barcelona, Bellaterra, Girona, Lleida Manresa, and Tarragona for the period 2004-2014. The taxa studied are Alnus, Betula, Castanea, Cupressaceae, Fagus, Fraxinus, Olea, Pinus, Platanus, total Quercus, Quercus deciduous type, Quercus evergreen type, Ulmus, Corylus, Pistacia, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae, Polygonaceae, and Urticaceae. The mean daily wind direction was divided into 8 sectors: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W and NW. For each sector, the correlation between the daily pollen concentrations and wind speed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was computed and compared with the wind rose charts. The results showed that Tarragona was the station with more significant correlations followed by Bellaterra, Lleida and Manresa. On the other hand, Artemisia was the most correlated taxon with mainly negative values, and Fagus was the least. The W wind direction showed the largest number of significant correlations, mostly positive, while the N direction was the least and negatively correlated.

  12. History of formation of forests in the plain part of Ukraine in the Holocene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The authors analyzed and generalized the results of palynological and radiocarbon-dating studies of Holocene deposits of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones of Ukraine. Based on the obtained data, we reconstructed the pattern of main changes of vegetation and climate starting from 10,300 years BP. We consider changes in forest vegetation of the studied area in the Early (PB-1, PB-2, BO-1, BO-2, BO-3), Middle (AT-1, AT-2, AT-3, SB-1, SB-2, SB-3) and Late Holocene. For most important forest-forming trees (species of Pinus, Betula, Alnus, Quercus, Tilia, Carpinus, Fagus etc.), the main periods of their maximum participation in Ukrainian forest vegetation were identified. Broadleaf forests and mixed forests with participation of broadleaf trees were most widespread in Ukraine 4,500-6,200 years BP. During the second phase of the Atlantic time of the Holocene the northern border of the steppe zone in Ukraine was stable. Expansion of forest communities in the steppe zone progressed through gradual increase of forest areas that originally occurred in flood plains and ravines. (author)

  13. Botanical Characteristics of Polish Honeys from Natura 2000 Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Anna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen samples of honeys which were harvested over several beekeeping seasons from apiaries located in the area of the “Kózki” Nature Reserve (central-eastern Poland were the subject of the present study. The “Kózki” Nature Reserve is included in the European Ecological Network Natura 2000 program. A microscopic analysis of the pollen sediment in the honeys showed the presence of 61 pollen types from 32 botanical families in the investigated material. There were represented by nectariferous (72.1% and nonnectariferous plants (27.9% and both entomophilous and anemophilous ones. The total number of pollen taxa in individual samples ranged from 13 to 37. The main sources of nectar from trees and shrubs were: Frangula alnus, Prunus, Robinia pseudacacia, Rubus, Salix, Tilia. The main sources of nectar from herbaceous plants were: Anthriscus, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Centaurea cyanus, Taraxacum, and Trifolium repens. Four unifloral honeys (three fruit tree honeys and one lime honey and fourteen multifloral honeys, with a significant percentage of pollen from several nectariferous plant taxa, were distinguished in the studied material.

  14. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne,Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adem BICAKCI; Goksel OLGUN; Mehmet AYBEKE; Perihan ERKAN; Hulusi MALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp.,Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp.,Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp.,Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of pollen from non-arboreal plants in the last months of the year.

  15. Analysis of Airborne Pollen Fall in Edirne, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AdemBICAKCI; GokselOLGUN; MehmetAYBEKE; PerihanERKAN; HulusiMALYER

    2004-01-01

    In the atmosphere of Edirne 12 691 pollen grains belonging to 42 taxa were identified by using of Durham sampler in 2000 and 2001. A total of 6 189 pollen grains per cm2 were recorded in 2000 and a total of 6 502 pollen grains per cm2 in 2001. Total pollen grains consisted of 71.81% grains from arboreal plants, 25.88% grains from non-arboreal plants and 2.31% unidentified pollen grains. Pollen from the following taxa were also found to be prevalent in the atmosphere of Edirne: Gramineae, Pinus sp., Quercus sp., Cupressaceae/Taxaceae, Platanus sp., Salix sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Carpinus sp., Juglans sp., Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Fraxinus sp., Fagus sp., Ulmus sp., Ailanthus sp., Alnus sp., Ostrya sp., Helianthus sp. The season of maximum pollen fall was from April to June, with a prevalence of arboreal pollen in the first month, and of oollen from non-arboreal olants in the last months of the vear.

  16. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of the project is to increase biomass yields from coppice forests by admixing tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Robinia pseudoacacia and others) to plantations of Platanus occidentalis and Liquidambar styraciflua. Yield increases due to intensive cultivation, especially fertilization and irrigation, will be documented. A genetic improvement program of promising candidate species both through the identification of superior genotypes and mass cloning with tissue culture is also included. Three plantings have been established successfully to screen candidate species on various sites and to test the effects of weed control, fertilization and irrigation on short rotation forests. Two plantations in Georgia are in their 2nd and 3rd growing seasons while one in South Carolina is in its 1st growing season. A two acre plantation has been established to test development of geographic seed source material for sycamore. A nursery is in operation to develop seedling production methods for new species and to grow and maintain genetic material. Mass cloning of selected material by tissue culture techniques has produced material for testing in outplantings.

  17. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  18. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha. PMID:15756826

  19. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  20. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  1. Evaluation of cambial electrical resistance for the appraisal of tree vitality on reclaimed coal lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith Plamping; Martin Haigh; Michael J. Cullis; Rhian E. Jenkins [Earthwatch Europe, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Cambium electrical resistance (CER) is explored as a rapid-assessment method of measuring of forest vitality and disease damage. A five year study in a 10-year-old mixed plantation of Alder (Alnus glutinosa, L.) and Oak (Quercus petraea (Mattuschka) Liebl.) created for the reclamation of surface-coal mined land in South Wales found a negative correlation between CER and tree maturity and no correlation between CER and fertiliser treatment levels. However, it detected strong significant correlations between CER and both a tree vitality index and diameter breast height (DBH) after five years. In fact, CER shows very strong and significant negative correlations with DBH recorded in 2007 and 2002, while tree vitality correlates more strongly with DBH than CER. Partial correlation of the data finds that when these data are controlled for the effect of DBH-the correlation between CER and vitality is no longer significant, while partial correlations between vitality and DBH in both 2002 and 2007-controlled for CER-remain highly significant. The conclusion is that while CER may act as a useful measure and predictor of tree vitality-DBH is better.

  2. Geoarchaeological investigations at Sormás-Török-földek, in Southwestern Transdanubia, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin NÁFRÁDI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and detailed picture was gained about the historical events and the natural environment of Southwestern Hungary at the beginning of the 5th millennia BC. Wood charcoal analysis provided site-related information about the natural milieu of the site. Anthracological analysis has not been carried out in Southwestern Hungary so far, whereby more than 3600 fragments of charred wood remains were identified. Our dataset was compared to pollen analytical, archaeobotanical and archaeological data to create a more accurate vegetation picture for this period of time and to reconstruct the utilization of wood during Middle and Late Neolithic.Charcoal assemblage reflects the composition of the woodland around the site. Based on the results a thermophilous Quercus forest mixed with Fagus, Fraxinus, Acer, Alnus and Ulmus existed in the study site during the Middle and Late Neolithic and different types of wood were used for fire wood and for construction purposes as well. Anthracological analysis of samples from Sormás-Török-földek enabled a more accurate vegetation reconstruction for the study site by the comparison to previously known pollen analytical data and added extra information regarding the local vegetation and wood utilization for the Middle and Late Neolithic.

  3. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. PMID:19061265

  4. Seasonal variations of airborne pollen in Allahabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahney, Manju; Chaurasia, Swati

    2008-01-01

    Using a Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler a survey of airborne pollen grains in Allahabad was carried out from December 2004--November 2005 to assess the qualitative and quantitative occurrence of pollen grains during different months of the year, and to characterize the pollen seasons of dominant pollen types in the atmosphere of Allahabad. 80 pollen types were identified out of the total pollen catch of 3,416.34 pollen grains/m(3). Bulk of the pollen originated from anemophilous trees and grasses. Thirteen pollen types recorded more than 1 % of the annual total pollen catch. Holoptelea integrifolia formed the major component of the pollen spectrum constituting 46.21 % of the total pollen catch followed by Poaceae, Azadirachta indica, Ailanthus excelsa, Putranjiva roxburghii, Parthenium hysterophorus, Ricinus communis, Brassica compestris, Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae, Madhuca longifolia, Syzygium cumini, other Asteraceae and Aegle marmelos. Highest pollen counts were obtained in the month of March and lowest in July. The pollen types recorded marked the seasonal pattern of occurrence in the atmosphere. February-May was the principal pollen season with maximum number of pollen counts and pollen types. Chief sources of pollen during this period were arboreal taxa. September-October was the second pollen season with grasses being the main source of pollen. Airborne pollen spectrum reflected the vegetation of Allahabad, except for Alnus sp., which grows in the Himalayan region. A significant negative correlation was found of daily pollen counts with minimum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall.

  5. Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, Richard G; Hui, Cang; Gessner, Mark O; Pérez, Javier; Alexandrou, Markos A; Graça, Manuel A S; Cardinale, Bradley J; Albariño, Ricardo J; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Barmuta, Leon A; Boulton, Andrew J; Bruder, Andreas; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Death, Russell G; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C; Ferreira, Verónica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie; Iwata, Tomoya; Jinggut, Tajang; Mathooko, Jude; Mathuriau, Catherine; M'Erimba, Charles; Moretti, Marcelo S; Pringle, Catherine M; Ramírez, Alonso; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Rincon, José; Yule, Catherine M

    2016-04-27

    Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and other environmental factors on breakdown rates. We conducted an experiment in 24 streams encompassing latitudes from 47.8° N to 42.8° S, using litter mixtures of local species differing in quality and phylogenetic diversity (PD), and alder (Alnus glutinosa) to control for variation in litter traits. Our models revealed that breakdown of alder was driven by climate, with some influence of pH, whereas variation in breakdown of litter mixtures was explained mainly by litter quality and PD. Effects of litter quality and PD and stream pH were more positive at higher temperatures, indicating that different mechanisms may operate at different latitudes. These results reflect global variability caused by multiple factors, but unexplained variance points to the need for expanded global-scale comparisons. PMID:27122551

  6. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Mitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  7. Biological Durability of Oil Heat Treated Alder Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lacić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary results of the biological durability of oil heat treated (OHT alder wood (Alnus glutinosa against pure cultures of rot fungi (Postia placenta and Trametes versicolor in lab conditions. The modification was performed by heating of specimens immersed in soya oil. There were four heating regimes of different duration (6 and 10 hours at final temperature of 180 and 200 ºC. The increase in mass (MI caused by modification and mass loss of wood caused by fungal decay (ML were determined. In addition, the natural durability of alder wood was determined and compared to the natural durability of beech wood as the reference wood species. After modification of alder wood at 200 °C, MI was lower than after treatment at 180 °C. MI was also lower after 10 hours of treatment than after 6 hours of treatment. The results showed significantly increased biological durability of modified alder wood against both tested fungi. The effect of OHT on increasing the biological durability of alder wood was higher against the fungus P. placenta. It seems that the fungus T. versicolor favours the remained oil after modification causing higher mass loss. The results showed that alder wood, thermally modified in soya oil by testing regimens, is not suitable for applications in use classes 3-5.

  8. Adhesion Strength of Cellulosic Varnish Coated Wood Species as Function of Their Surface Roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Ozdemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate adhesion strength of four wood species, namely, beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky, alder (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata Yalt., spruce (Picea orientalis L. Link, and fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. coated with cellulosic varnish. Samples were prepared in tangential and radial grain orientations from the above species. Surface quality of the specimens was also measured employing stylus type equipment after samples of all four types of species were sanded with 80- and 180-grit sandpaper prior to coating process. Surface roughness of the specimens sanded with 80-grit sandpaper resulted in significantly higher mean peak-to-valley height (Rz values based on the measurement employing stylus type profilometer. The highest adhesion strength values of 2.39 N/mm2 and 2.03 N/mm2 were found for beech and alder samples, respectively. It appears that overall higher roughness characteristics of the specimens exhibited enhanced adherence between substrate and varnish resulting in higher adhesion strength values.

  9. Co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores in Rzeszów, Poland (2000-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The co-occurrence of airborne allergenic pollen grains and fungal spores was estimated in Rzeszów in the years 2000-2002. The volumetric method was used in this aerobiological study. Six taxa of pollen grains and five types of fungal spores characterized by strong allergenicity and/or high concentrations in the air were analyzed. The time series of pollen grains and fungal spores were compared using PCA analysis. The periods of the greatest concentrations of tree pollen did not coincide with similar periods for herbaceous plants and fungal spores. From February to mid-March, Alnus pollen dominated in the air. The second period was characterized by Betula pollen. It occurred in April. Herbaceous pollen and fungal spores occurred in the air simultaneously (from mid May to the end of August, creating a risky situation for sensitized people. The periods of the highest concentrations of Epicoccum and Ganoderma fungal spores did not coincide with the same period for the examined plant taxa. In Rzeszów the probability of becoming exposed to very high concentrations of allergenic pollen and fungal spores at the same time was high, especially in July, when the highest concentrations of Poaceae, Alternaria and Cladosporium were noted. The hypersensitivity to only one plant or fungal allergen is rarely encountered. Under the present scenarios of global warming, pollen seasons of many taxa will be longer and sufferers will have year-long symptoms.

  10. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  11. Tech-IA floating system introduced in urban wastewater treatment plants in the Veneto region - Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietto, Anna; Borin, Maurizio; Salvato, Michela; Ronco, Paolo; Tadiello, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The performance of three integrated wetland treatment plants (horizontal sub-surface flow (h-SSF) and floating treatment wetland (FTW) with differentiated primary treatments) designed for treating domestic wastewater was investigated, monitoring total (TN), nitrate (NO3-N), nitrite (NO2-N) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N), total (TP) and phosphate phosphorus (PO4-P), chemical (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5), and dissolved oxygen (DO) at the inlet and outlet of each wetland section from February 2011 to June 2012. Sediments settled in the FTW were collected and analyzed. The growth of plants in each system was also monitored, observing their general conditions. The chemical-physical characteristics of the pretreated domestic wastewater depended on the primary treatment installed. During the monitoring period we observed different reduction performance of the wetland sector in the three sites. In general, the wetland systems demonstrated the capacity to reduce TN, COD, BOD5 and Escherichia coli, whereas NO3-N and NH4-N removal was strictly influenced by the chemical conditions, in particular DO concentration, in the h-SSF and FTW. Vegetation (Phragmites australis, Alnus glutinosa and Salix eleagnos) was well established in the h-SSF as well as in the floating elements (Iris pseudacorus), although there were some signs of predation. FTW is a relatively novel wetland system, so the results obtained from this study can pave the way for the application of this technology. PMID:24037167

  12. Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, Richard G; Hui, Cang; Gessner, Mark O; Pérez, Javier; Alexandrou, Markos A; Graça, Manuel A S; Cardinale, Bradley J; Albariño, Ricardo J; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Barmuta, Leon A; Boulton, Andrew J; Bruder, Andreas; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Death, Russell G; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C; Ferreira, Verónica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie; Iwata, Tomoya; Jinggut, Tajang; Mathooko, Jude; Mathuriau, Catherine; M'Erimba, Charles; Moretti, Marcelo S; Pringle, Catherine M; Ramírez, Alonso; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Rincon, José; Yule, Catherine M

    2016-04-27

    Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and other environmental factors on breakdown rates. We conducted an experiment in 24 streams encompassing latitudes from 47.8° N to 42.8° S, using litter mixtures of local species differing in quality and phylogenetic diversity (PD), and alder (Alnus glutinosa) to control for variation in litter traits. Our models revealed that breakdown of alder was driven by climate, with some influence of pH, whereas variation in breakdown of litter mixtures was explained mainly by litter quality and PD. Effects of litter quality and PD and stream pH were more positive at higher temperatures, indicating that different mechanisms may operate at different latitudes. These results reflect global variability caused by multiple factors, but unexplained variance points to the need for expanded global-scale comparisons.

  13. Forest structure and woody plant species composition after a wildfire in beech forests in the north of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Ali Omidi; Daniel C Dey

    2013-01-01

    Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) forest covers about 565,000 ha of land in Guilan province,north of Iran and forms a major carbon pool.It is an important economic,soil protection and recreation resource.We studied long-term effects of fire on the structure and composition 37 years after fire occurrence in these forests.To do this research,we selected 85 ha burned and 85 ha unbumed beech forests).The results indicated that the fire had not changed the overall uneven-aged structure,but it changed forest composition from pure stands to mixed stands that now include species such as Carpinus betulus,Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata.The density of trees and regeneration was significantly increased,while the density of shrubs significantly decreased.The main reasons for increased tree regeneration were attributed to (1) reduction of litter depth,and (2) increase in available light from opening of the canopy and reduction in shrub competition.It is apparent that the forest is on a path to return to its natural state before the fire after 37 years.

  14. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Angel; Prieto, María; González, Yadira; Aragón, Gregorio

    2012-12-15

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for "shade-adapted lichens", while the richness of "heliophytic lichens" increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. PMID:23137982

  15. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del

    2012-11-01

    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  16. Role of genetic improvement in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, P.A.; Wright, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    A major effort in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program (SRWCP) is species screening and genetic improvement of selected species. Of the 125 species initially evaluated for SRIC, 20 are being seriously considered with most of emphasis on 16 hardwood species. Range-wide seed collections of 12 species were provenance tested; these include Platanus occidentalis (sycamore), Alnus glutinosa (European black alder), and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust). Based on the results of these tests, highly productive, site-specific seed sources are being chosen for several geographic regions. Three of these species re currently being bred for increased productivity in SRIC systems. Genetic improvement is viewed as a tool for increasing productivity, having anticipated gains of 40 to 50%. The techniques of somaclonal screening and genetic engineering are being evaluated for their usefulness in the SRIC improvement program. Currently, salt-tolerant Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush) and herbicide-resistant Populus spp. are being sought via somaclonal screening. 35 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanxing; Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Zeng, Chen; Gao, Dan

    2013-12-30

    This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

  18. Traffic-Related Trace Element Accumulation in Roadside Soils and Wild Grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanxing Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg, Zn (100.56 mg/kg, Cd (0.28 mg/kg, Pb (28.75 mg/kg, Cr (36.82 mg/kg, Co (10.24 mg/kg, Ni (32.44 mg/kg and As (21.43 mg/kg, while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg, Zn (31.47 mg/kg, Cd (0.05 mg/kg, Pb (2.06 mg/kg, Cr (14.16 mg/kg, Co (0.55 mg/kg, Ni (4.03 mg/kg and As (1.33 mg/kg. The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA results indicate that: (1 the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2 the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3 the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4 the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5 when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

  19. Diurnal Variation of Net Photosynthetic Rate and Influencing Environmental Factors of Hedera palensis var. Sinensis Under Drought Stress%干旱胁迫下常春藤净光合速率日变化及其影响因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏江宝; 张光灿; 许景伟; 李传荣

    2010-01-01

    利用CIRAS-2型便携式光合仪对干早胁迫下3a生常春藤(Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis)叶片光合速率Pn的日动态及其主要生态生理因子进行测定分析,以阐明干早胁迫下pn的日变化特征及其午休原因,并探讨了影响常春藤Pn的主要影响因子.结果表明,常春藤Pn日动态与土壤水分及微环境因子密切相关.随着干早胁迫的加重,其pn,日均值及最大值下降显著,其中轻度、中度、重度干早胁迫下,其pn,日均值分别比对照下降15%,4700,70%;随着干早胁迫的加重,常春藤pn.日动态由"单峰"向"双峰"型变化,光合作用午休原因由气孔限制为主逐渐过渡到以非气孔限制为主.多元回归及主成分分析表明,适宜水分条件下,影响常春藤Pn的日动态因素可归纳为两类,一类以气温、相对湿度和大气CO2:浓度为主,其次是以光照强度为主;随着干早胁迫的增强,光照强度、大气CO2浓度、相对湿度等生态因子对常春藤Pn的影响越大,其中相对湿度对pn的影响最显著.

  20. 常春油麻藤等3种藤本植物抗旱性生理指标研究%Physiological indices of three liana species (Mucuna sempervirens, Hederanepalensis var. sinensis and Euonymus fortunei) with drought resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柯; 王小德

    2008-01-01

    为研究常春油麻藤Mucuna sempervirens的抗旱机制,利用聚乙二醇(PEG 6000)模拟50g·L-1(轻度干旱胁迫)和200g·L-1(重度干旱胁迫)2种质量浓度的干旱胁迫环境,分别处理1,3和5d后,测定常春油麻藤在干旱胁迫下的生理指标,并以中华常春藤Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis和扶芳藤Euonymus fortunei为对比材料,比较分析常春油麻藤的抗旱性.研究表明,随着PEG 6000质量浓度和处理时间的增加,3种藤本的叶片含水量和失水速率均呈下降趋势,而叶片水分饱和亏缺、细胞膜透性和游离脯氨酸指标数均显著上升,超氧化物岐化酶活性变化呈先上升后下降趋势.重度胁迫下,常春油麻藤的游离脯氨酸质量分数显著高于扶芳藤和常春藤,而细胞膜透性却上升幅度不大.3种被测藤本中抗旱性排序为:扶芳藤常春油麻藤>中华常春藤.常春油麻藤主要通过提高体内渗透调节物质的积累和保护酶活性来抵抗干旱胁迫,保护细胞膜结构,提高抗旱性.

  1. 利用藤本植物治理石漠化的成效、存在的问题与对策%Problems and countermeasures of using vines for rocky desertification control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴易雄; 陶抵辉; 邓沛怡

    2015-01-01

    Taking Sangzhi County of Hunan Province as the test base of using vine for rocky desertification control, combined with evergreen and deciduous vines, large and small plant combination test. The results showed that it is feasible of using vines for rocky desertification control, Mucuna sempervirens, Campsis grandiflora, Lonicera japonica, Parthenocissus spp., Ficus pumila, Euonymus fortunei, Trachelospermum jasminoides, Hedera nepalensis var. sinensis, Celastrus aculeatus, Millettia spp., Tripterygium wilfordii and other vine plants were suitable for rocky desertification control, but it is difficult to manage, the government paid insufficient attention, basic research is not deep and other important problems were found in the process of experiment and observation. Therefore, it need to increase the intensity of management and protection, sufficient attention of government and strengthen basic research have vital significance for speeding up the restoration of vegetation, improving the ecological environment and promoting the sustainable development of local society.%以湖南省桑植县作为藤本植物石漠化治理试验基地,采用常绿与落叶藤本植物相结合,大型与中小型藤本植物相结合进行试验。结果显示,利用藤本植物进行石漠化治理是完全可行的,常春油麻藤,凌霄,金银花,爬山虎类,薜荔,扶芳藤,络石,常春藤,过山枫,崖豆藤,雷公藤等藤本植物适用于石漠化治理,但在试验和观测过程中也发现了管护难度大、政府重视不够、基础研究不深等一些重要的问题。因此,需要加大管护力度,政府高度重视,加强基础研究,对加速植被恢复,改善生态环境,促进当地社会可持续发展具有十分重要的意义。

  2. Combustion characteristics of stems and leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum%紫茎泽兰茎叶的燃烧性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永波; 张雨瑶; 廖周瑜; 李路良; 周劲峰; 王秋华; 李世友

    2014-01-01

    为全面了解紫茎泽兰Eupatorium adenophorum的燃烧性,在防火戒严期内,对紫茎泽兰和对比植物的老活叶片、新叶片分别进行了100%氧气氛下的燃烧试验、垂直燃烧试验,计算了各种植物活叶片的燃烧速率、损毁程度;对紫茎泽兰活茎与旱冬瓜A lnus nepalensis活枝进行了点燃试验,测定了点燃时间和温度;对紫茎泽兰干枯茎与华山松Pinus armandii干枯枝进行了50%氧气氛下燃烧和105℃恒温条件下干燥试验,计算了燃烧速率,绘制了样品干燥过程质量变化曲线.分析表明:①紫茎泽兰老活叶片的燃烧性与中华常春藤Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis,常春油麻藤Mucuna sempervirens和大叶女贞Ligustrum lucidum相近,但损毁程度远低于滇青冈Cyclobalanopsis glauc oides和滇润楠Mac hilus yunnane ns is;②在6种植物的垂直燃烧试验中,紫茎泽兰新叶片的燃烧速率最大而损毁程度各项指标均居中;③在质量或尺寸相近的情况下,紫茎泽兰活茎较旱冬瓜活枝难燃;④在直径相近的情况下,紫茎泽兰干枯茎较华山松干枯枝失水快,燃烧速率大于华山松干枯枝.

  3. 紫茎泽兰茎叶的燃烧性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永波; 张雨瑶; 廖周瑜; 李路良; 周劲峰; 王秋华; 李世友

    2014-01-01

    为全面了解紫茎泽兰Eupatorium adenophorum的燃烧性,在防火戒严期内,对紫茎泽兰和对比植物的老活叶片、新叶片分别进行了100%氧气氛下的燃烧试验、垂直燃烧试验,计算了各种植物活叶片的燃烧速率、损毁程度;对紫茎泽兰活茎与旱冬瓜A lnus nepalensis活枝进行了点燃试验,测定了点燃时间和温度;对紫茎泽兰干枯茎与华山松Pinus armandii干枯枝进行了50%氧气氛下燃烧和105℃恒温条件下干燥试验,计算了燃烧速率,绘制了样品干燥过程质量变化曲线.分析表明:①紫茎泽兰老活叶片的燃烧性与中华常春藤Hedera nepalensis var.sinensis,常春油麻藤Mucuna sempervirens和大叶女贞Ligustrum lucidum相近,但损毁程度远低于滇青冈Cyclobalanopsis glauc oides和滇润楠Mac hilus yunnane ns is;②在6种植物的垂直燃烧试验中,紫茎泽兰新叶片的燃烧速率最大而损毁程度各项指标均居中;③在质量或尺寸相近的情况下,紫茎泽兰活茎较旱冬瓜活枝难燃;④在直径相近的情况下,紫茎泽兰干枯茎较华山松干枯枝失水快,燃烧速率大于华山松干枯枝.

  4. CUTICULAR STRUCTURE OF TWO ANGIOSPERM FOSSILS IN NEOGENE FROM TENGCHONG, YUNNAN PROVINCE AND ITS PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE%云南腾冲新近纪两种被子植物化石的角质层构造及其古环境意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙柏年; 丛培允; 阎德飞; 解三平

    2003-01-01

    today. By comparing the cuticular characteristic of C.subcordata with that of its NLR, C.cordata, we concluded that the Neogene climate in western Yunnan was warm and humid, belonging to tropical zone to subtropical zone or warm temperate zone. In addition, the same feature exsists in C.subcordata and B. mioluminifera, whose epidermic cells are all arrayed as rotundity. This maybe is the characteristic of Betulaceae, or the phenomenon due to excess of veinlet in plant leave. It is expected to be proved in the future. From this brief review, the leaf of C.subcordata may be taken as a bio-indicator of palaeoatmospheric CO2 concentration.%重点描述云南腾冲晚第三纪两种被子植物化石Betula mioluminifera Hu et Chaney, Carpinus subcordata Nathorst的角质层构造,并分析它们的现存最近亲缘种B.luminifera Winkler和C.cordata B1. var. mollis Cheng et Chen的表皮特征.实验分析证明:化石叶片的气孔参数可以推测地质历史时期大气CO2的浓度,并进而分析古环境的变化.C.subcordata Nathorst叶片能作为大气CO2浓度的生物指标.

  5. Caracterización Física, Química y Mineralógica de Suelos con Vocación Forestal Protectora Región Andina Central Colombiana / Physical Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Soils with a Protective Forest Vocation, Central Andean Region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyder Echeverri Tafur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En la Reserva Forestal Protectora Bosques de la CHEC, ubicada sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera central colombiana, municipios de Manizales y Villamaría, departamento de Caldas, se hizo la caracterización física, química y mineralógica de dos perfiles de suelos, descritos sobre dos laderas, con un manejo actual correspondiente a una plantación de aliso (Alnus acuminata y un bosque secundario. Los resultados permitieron establecer,desde el punto de vista físico, el dominio de clase textural areno francosa en la plantación de aliso y franco arenoso en el bosque secundario. Químicamente el suelo del perfil plantado con aliso, presentó valores de pH más bajos, mayor saturación de acidez intercambiable y menor saturación de bases en comparación con el perfil del bosque secundario. En ambos perfiles, el análisis óptico con microscopio petrográfico, permitió observar que los feldespatos, del grupo de las plagioclasas y el vidrio volcánico, se destacan como minerales abundantes en la fracción arena; mientras que en la fracción arcilla, el material no cristalino, seconsidera mineral predominante, seguido de la cristobalita y los feldespatos, según la metodología de difracción de rayos X. Se concluye que la vocación de uso forestal protector, bajo el cual se encuentran sometidos ambos suelos, es el más adecuado, teniendo en cuenta que las limitaciones químicas, dificultan el establecimiento de sistemas de producción agropecuaria. / Abstract. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of two soil profiles on two slopes, with a management currently corresponding to an Andean alder plantation (Alnus acuminata and a secondary forest, was carried out at the Protective Forest Reserve of the CHEC. This reserve is located on the western slope of the Central Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes, in the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaria, Caldas Department. The results

  6. Registro polínico arbóreo en la atmósfera de la ciudad de San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina- agosto a noviembre 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar la caracterización aerobiológica de la ciudad de San Miguel de Tucumán (26º 50'S, 65º 15'W durante el período de primavera agosto - noviembre 2006. El muestreo se realizó con un captador volumétrico tipo Hirst (modelo Burkard. Se identificaron 30 tipos polínicos que aportaron un total de 3290 granos durante ese período. El 75,41% del polen captado correspondió a polen proveniente de especies arbustivas y arbóreas (PA mayoritariamente exóticas cultivadas en la ciudad y al de especies nativas las cuales se hallan en las laderas orientales de las sierras de San Javier. La máxima concentración se registró en el mes de septiembre con 1178 granos y estuvo dada principalmente por el aporte de 19 tipos polínicos arbóreos siendo Broussonetia (65, 79% el más abundante. En menores proporciones se registraron Morus (9, 24%, Alnus (7, 51%, Celtis (6, 50%, Fraxinus (2, 29%, Platanus (1, 90% y Juglans (0, 73%. El análisis intradiurno muestra un marcado incremento en horas nocturnas que se inicia a partir de la hora 20:00, se acentúa a las horas 22:00 y 2:00 hasta alcanzar el máximo a las 8:00, siendo el valor mínimo a la hora 14. En este período el aporte polínico principal corresponde a taxa arbóreos y arbustivos los cuales presentan altos niveles de concentración en un corto período de tiempo.Arboreal pollen record in the atmosphere of San Miguel de Tucumán city, Argentina- august to november 2006. The aim of this study was to make the aerobiological characterization of San Miguel de Tucumán city (26º 50'S, 65º 15'W during the spring period august to november 2006. The sampling was performed with a Hirst type volumetric collector (Burkard model. Thirty pollen types were identified, providing a total of 3290 grains in the period. The 75,41% of pollen caught corresponded to pollen from shrub and tree species (PA, mainly exotic ones cultivated in the city and the native species growing on

  7. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N (40 kg ha-1, fósforo (P (30 mg kg-1 suelo y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Multibiplot. Las variables respuesta correspondieron a la biomasa seca aérea y sus contenidos de N, P, Calcio (Ca y cenizas (cen. Se encontró que los tratamientos de P y N y las cepas nativas de Frankia spp. (UdeA902, UdeA904 y CUNMS502 combinados con hongos micorrizógenos (UdeA1905 y Glomus fistulosum respectivamente, favorecieron el rendimiento y contenido de N del aliso. La aplicación de B en algunos casos mejoró el rendimiento y en otros lo afectó negativamente; pero potenció la respuesta de algunas inoculaciones especialmente cuando estuvo presente G. fistulosum aún en el caso de estar acompañado de la cepa de Frankia (CUNMS502. Esta cepa, que presentó bajo rendimiento en otros tratamientos, se vio favorecida notablemente con la adición de B. La inoculación dual es efectiva para favorecer el manejo forestal del aliso siempre y cuando se haga la selección adecuada de las cepas, lo cual puede además condicionar la respuesta a algunos nutrientes como en el caso del B.Abstract. It was evaluated the response of alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth to the dual inoculation of strains of Frankia spp. and endomycorrhizal fungi with two levels of boron (B (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg-1 soil and the application of nitrogen (N (40 kg ha-1, phosphorus (P (30 mg kg-1 soil and a control without inoculation or chemical elements. The experimental design was completely randomized; it was composed kg-1of 41 treatments and 20 replications. The statistical analysis consisted

  8. Vegetation and soil dynamics under climatic to anthropogenic forcing through the Holocene in Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyen, Elise; Vannière, Boris; Gauthier, Emilie; Bichet, Vincent; Berger, Jean-François; Arnaud, Fabien

    2010-05-01

    Small lakes with little catchment areas, and high resolution Holocene sediment infilling, offer the interest to record mainly local perturbation and to study the switch from climatic to anthropogenic forcing. Two cores were extracted from Lake Antre in the Jura Mountains (Eastern France, 798 m a.s.l) and Lake Moras located on a low-elevated plateau from the upper Rhone valley (Eastern France, 304 m a.s.l). Cores taken from the deep zone of the lakes present continuous sedimentary series from the Late-glacial (15 000 cal. BP) for Lake Moras and from the Atlantic chronozone (6000 cal. BP) for Lake Antre. Several archaeological excavations and investigations around Lakes Antre and Moras give evidence of major human occupation during Gallo-roman period, while former settlements are indicating by Pre- and Protohistoric archaeological artifacts. Multi-proxy reconstructions with high temporal resolution were undertaken: vegetation dynamics by pollen analysis, fire history by the quantification of microscopic charcoal and soil erosion by magnetic susceptibility measurements. Before the anthropogenic forcing, during the mid-Holocene environment of both lakes are constituted mainly by a dense mixed oak forest. The first palaeoecological signs of anthropogenic impact on the two sites appear to have been discontinuous and limited. They appear at the early Neolithic (ca 6000 cal .BP) for Lake Moras and during the Bronze Age (4000 to 3000 cal .BP) for Lake Antre. For the both sites, all the proxies indicate an acceleration of human impact around 3000 to 2700 cal. BP i.e. at the transition between the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age. The dense forest and the Alnus dominated vegetation on borders of lakes are affected by several clearances. The influx of micro-charcoal increases due to the use of the fire for clearing and manage settlements. The development of Poaceae and Anthropogenic Pollen Indicators (API) suggest an expansion of pastures, whereas the farming

  9. Monitoring of a landslide stabilized with bioengineering techniques in 1997, northern Tuscany. Vegetation development analysis and state of preservation of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Alessandro; Giambastiani, Yamuna; Guastini, Enrico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    In 1996 a large landslide occurred in the chestnut grove nearby Pomezzana, a small town situated in the mountains of northern Tuscany, Italy. No damages were registered to population nor infrastructures, but the residual risks deriving from the effects of the event needed to be solved by means of a stabilization of the ground and reforestation. The choice has been found among bioengineering techniques, which perfectly fit in the ecosystem, landscape and the economic budgets of mountain engineering. A complex project has been implemented, using several different typologies of wooden structures, combined with rooted plants, wooden cuttings and grass seeding on the slopes. The most of the stabilization effect was assigned to the cribwalls, construct using local chestnut wood. Works ended in 1997. In 2013, 16 years later, a monitoring on the vegetation development and the state of preservation of the wood in cribwalls has been conducted. On vegetation, it has been surveyed the composition of species, diameter and height. Moreover, by means of a GPS device, the position of every plant has been registered and transcribed on GIS softwares for elaboration. The conservation of wood in cribwalls has been checked using a Resistograph, drilling each structure in three areas (at the two ends and roughly in the middle) and testing every order. The root systems of two plants have been excavated to calculate the RAR value for different depths, in order to quantify the contribution of roots in land stabilization. The soil has been also analyzed to determine structure, texture and geotechnical properties. Combining these data with the topographic survey conducted by the designers of the work, it has been possible to calculate the Safety Factor for landslide triggering using the model Slip4ex. The results show a good preservation rate of wooden structures, combined with a high contribution of roots in stabilization. The registered tree species (mainly Alnus glutinosa) were almost all

  10. Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghai, N.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Jorstad, R.B. [Eastern Illinois Univ., Charleston, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen and spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Interactions of elevated CO{sub 2} and drought stress in gas exchange and water-use efficiency in three temperate deciduous tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, N.; Maruyama, K.; Huang, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology

    1995-12-31

    The effect of CO{sub 2} increase on gas exchange and water-use efficiency (WUE) in three temperate deciduous species (Fagus crenata, Ginkgo biloba and Alnus firma) under gradually-developing drought-stress was assessed. Seedlings were grown within transparent open-top cabinets and maintained for 4 months at mean CO{sub 2} concentrations of either 350(ambient; C-350) or 700{mu}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated; C-700) and combined with five water regimes (leaf water potential, Psi{sub w}, higher than -0.3 (well-watered), -0.5 and -0.8 (moderate drought), -1.0 and fewer than -1.2 MPa (serious drought-stress)). Increase in CO{sub 2} concentration induced a 60% average increase in net photosynthetic rate (P-N) under well-watered conditions. The effect of C-700 became more pronounced with drought stress established, with an 80% average increase in P-N at Psi{sub w}, as low as -0.8 MPa; leaf conductance to water vapour transfer (g{sub s}) and transpiration rate (E), however, were significantly decreased. Consequently, WUE increased under drought, through drought stress affected potential E sooner than potential P-N. The interaction of CO{sub 2} x drought stress on WUE was significant in that P-N was stimulated while E in C-700 enriched plants resembled that of C-350 plants under drought. Hence if a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration occurs by the mid 21st century, then greater P-N in F. crenata, G. biloba and A. firma may be expected and the drought susceptibility of these species will be substantially enhanced.

  12. Influences of channelization on discharge of suspended sediment and wetland vegetation in Kushiro Marsh, northern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Futoshi; Sudo, Tadashi; Kameyama, Satoshi; Jitsu, Mieko

    1997-03-01

    normal. Original vegetation such as sedges and Alnus japonica were disappearing from the adjacent areas of the river channel and were being replaced by willow trees ( Salix spp.).

  13. Antifeedants and feeding stimulants in bark extracts of ten woody non-host species of the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Carina; Månsson, Per E; Sjödin, Kristina; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2008-10-01

    Bark of ten woody species, known to be rejected as a food source by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, were sequentially extracted by a Soxhlet apparatus with pentane followed by methanol. Species were alder (Alnus glutinosa), aspen (Populus tremula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), guelder rose (Viburnum opulus), holly (Ilex aquifolium), horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), lilac (Syringa vulgaris), spindle tree (Evonymus europaeus), walnut (Juglans regia), and yew (Taxus baccata). Bark of each species was collected in southern Scandinavia during the summer. Resulting extracts were tested for antifeedant activity against the pine weevil by a micro-feeding choice assay. At a dose corresponding to that in the bark, methanol extracts from Aesculus, Taxus, Ilex, and Populus were antifeedant active, while pentane extracts of Aesculus, Fagus, Syringa, and Viburnum were stimulatory. Four known antifeedants against H. abietis, the straight-chained carboxylic acids, hexanoic and nonanoic acid (C6 and C9), carvone, and carvacrol were identified by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in several extracts. The major constituents were identified and tested for feeding deterrence. The aromatic compounds benzyl alcohol and 2-phenylethanol are new non-host plant-derived feeding deterrents for the pine weevil. Additionally, two feeding stimulants, beta-sitosterol and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde, were identified. One active methanol extract of Aesculus bark was sequentially fractionated by liquid chromatography, and major compounds were tentatively identified as branched alcohols and esters of hexanoic acid. Five commercially available hexanoate esters and two commercially available branched alcohols were identified as new active antifeedants. Both stimulatory and inhibiting compounds were found in the same extracts and co-eluted in the same or adjacent fractions. The mix of semiochemicals of opposite activity in each extract or fraction could explain the stimulatory

  14. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrut, Bertrand [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); and others

    2011-10-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  15. [Frequency of sensitization to aeroallergens in patients with seasonal and perennial allergic conjunctivitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Morales, Guillermina; Velasco-Medina, Andrea Aida; Arroyo-Cruz, Mariana Esther; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la conjuntivitis alérgica es una enfermedad inflamatoria que afecta directamente a la conjuntiva, la patogénesis de la conjuntivitis alérgica es predominantemente una reacción de hipersensibilidad tipo I mediada por IgE. Se relaciona principalmente con la sensibilización a aeroalergenos extra e intradomiciliarios. En términos clínicos se clasifica como estacional o perenne. El cuadro clínico consiste en prurito ocular, hiperemia conjuntival, epífora y fotofobia. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de sensibilización a aeroalergenos en pacientes con conjuntivitis alérgica estacional o perenne que acuden al Servicio de Alergia e Inmunología Clínica del Hospital General de México. Material y método: estudio transversal y descriptivo efectuado en pacientes con conjuntivitis alérgica estacional o perenne. Previo consentimiento informado, se realizó la historia clínica completa, así como estudios de laboratorio y pruebas cutáneas a aeroalergenos; se determinó la frecuencia de sensibilización a aeroalergenos. Resultados: se encontró con mayor frecuencia la sensibilización a pólenes de Quercus, Alnus y Fraxinus, seguidos de Dermatophagoides spp. Predominó el género femenino entre la segunda y cuarta décadas de la vida. Conclusiones: la conjuntivitis alérgica es una enfermedad frecuente asociada con rinitis alérgica. Los alergenos asociados con mayor frecuencia en este estudio fueron los pólenes y ácaros del polvo doméstico.

  16. BIODIVERSIDADE FLORESTAL E PAISAGÍSTICA DO TERRITÓRIO MUNICIPAL DE SELLANO - ÚMBRIA - ITÁLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Orsomando

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The municipal territory of Sellano, extended for about 86 sq Km, is located in Umbria (Italy, in the central and eastern part of the region, bordering Marches. It is characterized, from a forestal point of view, for the high value of the index of woodiness -more than 60%-, in comparison with 40% of Umbria. The forestal biodiversity is constituted by 7 deciduous natural formations (characterized by Quercus pubescens, Ostrya carpinifolia, Quercus cerris -belonging to the endemic association Carici sylvaticae-Quercetum cerridis, rich in orchids- Quercus cerris and Quercus pubescens, Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Salix alba and one artificial formation (Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis reforestations. These woods (high forests or coppices with standards, in good state of conservation, surrounded by grasslands and anthropic areas with human settlements, fields and craft zones, characterize 11 environmental-landscape units in comparison with the 42 units of Umbrian landscapes: high hill slopes with Quercus pubescens or Ostrya carpinifolia woods, sometimes alternated to small Bromus erectus pastures, of secondary origin; mountain slopes with Fagus sylvatica woods and small Bromus erectus pastures, of secondary origin; cliffs with chasmophytic formations; high-hill and submountain slopes, with slight inclination, covered by fersiallitic paleosoils, with mesophilous Quercus cerris woods (Carpinion betuli and Castanea sativa woods of anthropic origin; High hills with Ostrya carpinifolia or Quercus pubescens woods, sometimes alternated to small Brachypodium rupestre pastures, of secondary origin; River valley bottoms with meso-igrophilous Salix alba or Alnus glutinosa woods; tops and slopes with Bromus erectus, Sesleria nitida or Cynosurus cristatus pastures, of secondary origin; forestal plantations (conifer reforestations, agricultural areas of hills with yearly cultivations; urban rural centres of slopes and mounds; cultivated lands of alluvial

  17. Biomass energy in organic farming - the potential role of short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Dalgaard, Tommy [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), Dept. of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Kristensen, Erik Steen [Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark)

    2005-02-01

    One of the aims of organic farming is to 'reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum'. So far, however, only very little progress has been made to introduce renewable energy in organic farming. This paper presents energy balances of Danish organic farming compared with energy balances of conventional farming. In general, the conversion to organic farming leads to a lower energy use (approximately 10% per unit of product). But the production of energy in organic farming is very low compared with the extensive utilisation of straw from conventional farming in Denmark (energy content of straw used for energy production was equivalent to 18% of total energy input in Danish agriculture in 1996). Biomass is a key energy carrier with a good potential for on-farm development. Apart from utilising farm manure and crop residues for biogas production, the production of nutrient efficient short rotation coppice (SRC) is an option in organic farming. Alder (Alnus spp.) is an interesting crop due to its symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia, which has the ability to fix up to 185 kg/ha nitrogen (N{sub 2}) from the air. Yields obtained at different European sites are presented and the R and D needed to implement energy cropping in organic farming is discussed. Possible win-win solutions for SRC production in organic farming that may facilitate its implementation are; the protection of ground water quality in intensively farmed areas, utilisation of wastewater for irrigation, or combination with outdoor animal husbandry such as pigs or poultry. (Author)

  18. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  19. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  20. Spatial heterogeneity of light and tree sapling responses in the understory of disturbed montane forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez-Dewar G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Attributes and frequency of forest gaps are usually described in reference to a one-dimensional gradient of light, which may relate to their disturbance dynamics. Similarly, species are customarily classified by their light response. We propose that a bi-dimensional light framework facilitates the understanding and comparison of forest systems and the understanding of plant responses to the complex light environment. This light plane is based on two spatially related components: 1 light received directly on a particular point (Focal; and 2 a statistical summary of the immediate environment representing the light conditions surrounding that point (Context. The contrast between these two values is null when Focal = Context and positive when Focal > Context or otherwise negative. Light was assessed using hemispherical photographs using a spatial arrangement of pictures spaced ~3 metres (m in-between. Eight forest plots were surveyed, each with a central gap of different size. Sapling performance of Alnus acuminata, Cornus excelsa, Liquidambar styraciflua, Persea americana and Quercus laurina was also assessed within these plots. Measurements of stem height, basal diameter, and slenderness allometry were taken over a period of more than two years. We found in the light plane that plots were distributed in a pattern congruent with their estimated degree of disturbance (gap size, which spanned wide areas in the plane. Liquidambar styraciflua. and Quercus laurina were found to be sensitive to Focal light, irrespective of Context light. All species responded to Focal light under negative Contrast. Cornus and Persea grew taller and more slender as Focal light increased, particularly under null contrast. There is evidence suggesting that plant growth is dependent on the contrast measured. Thus, it would be relevant to devise a functional classification of tree species that considers their response to both direct light and luminosity of the immediate

  1. Natural Forest Landscape Pattern Characteristics of Tengchong County%腾冲县天然林景观格局特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒相才; 王天灿; 黄维金; 龚成朝

    2014-01-01

    Based on the survey of forest resources planning and design , use ArcMap 10, Fragstats 4.1, DPS 14.1, Excelland other software , select commonly used landscape indices , landscape pattern features of natural forest was analyzed , the results showed that:①Landscape pattern characteristics of natural for-est in Tengchong County was more complicated with high heterogeneity , complex shape , high degree of aggregation , a more balanced distribution of plaque;②Area ratio of each forest type was in descending order of oak forest>Other broadleaf forest>Yunnan pine>conifer>Alnus forest>hardwood forest>Bamboo>fir forest>soft broadleaf forest >Huashan pine>hemlock , forest area of oak forest and other broad-leaved accounted for 61.51%, was the main component of natural landscapes;forest area of Yun-nan pine , mixed conifer and Alnus accounted for 32.04%, was an important part of natural landscape;forest area of hardwood forest , bamboo forest, fir forest, softwood forest, Huashan pine, hemlock accoun-ted for only 6.45%, the area was mall , but played a special role in the natural landscape;③Factor a-nalysis results showed that comprehensive evaluation from the aspects of stability , complexity , high heter-ogeneity , low fragmentation , strong anti-interference ability and others , scores from high to low followed by oak forest >broadleaf forest >Yunnan pine >hardwood forest >mixed conifer >Alnus forest >Bamboo>fir forest>hemlock>Huashan pine>softwood forest;④Cluster analysis results showed that the natural forests could be divided into four categories , the first category was oak forest and other broad-leaved forest with a low degree of fragmentation , complex shape , high heterogeneity , strong anti-interfer-ence ability;the second category was Yunnan pine , mixed conifer and Alnus forest with high heterogene-ous, broken and complex shape , high anti-interference ability; the third category is hardwood forest , bamboo , hemlock and fir forests with the average

  2. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m2), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m2), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  3. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  4. Synthesis of siderophores by plant-associated metallotolerant bacteria under exposure to Cd(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złoch, Michał; Thiem, Dominika; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    Rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria are well known producers of siderophores, organic compounds that chelate ferric iron (Fe(3+)), and therefore play an important role in plant growth promotion in metalliferous areas, thereby improving bioremediation processes. However, in addition to their primary function in iron mobilization, siderophores also have the capacity to chelate other heavy metals, such as Al(3+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Cd(2+), that can affect homeostasis and the heavy metal tolerance of microorganisms. The main goal of our study was to select the most efficient siderophore-producing bacterial strains isolated from the roots (endophytes) and rhizosphere of Betula pendula L. and Alnus glutinosa L. growing at two heavy metal contaminated sites in southern Poland. Siderophore biosynthesis of these strains in the presence of increasing concentrations of Cd(2+) (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mM) under iron-deficiency conditions was analysed using spectrophotometric chemical tests for hydroxamates, catecholates and phenolates, as well as the separation of bacterial siderophores by HPLC and characterization of their structure by UHPLC-QTOF/MS. We proved that (i) siderophore-producing bacterial strains seems to be more abundant in the rhizosphere (47%) than in root endophytes (18%); (ii) the strains most effective at siderophore synthesis belonged to the genus Streptomyces and were able to secrete three types of siderophores under Cd(2+) stress: hydroxamates, catecholates and phenolates; (iii) in general, the addition of Cd(2+) enhanced siderophore synthesis, particularly ferrioxamine B synthesis, which may indicate that siderophores play a significant role in tolerance to Cd(2+) in Streptomyces sp. PMID:27183333

  5. РЕДКИЕ ВИДЫ РАСТЕНИЙ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОГО ПАРКА «БУРАБАЙ» (ЦЕНТРАЛЬНЫЙ КАЗАХСТАН)

    OpenAIRE

    Хрусталева, Ирина; Куприянов, Андрей; Султангазина, Гульнара

    2012-01-01

    Представлены сведения о распространении в национальном природном парке «Бурабай» (Центральный Казахстан) редких растений, включенных в Красную книгу Казахстана: Adonis vernalis L., Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., Cypripedium calceolus L., Drosera rotundifolia L., Sphagnum teres (Schimp.) Ångstr. Для каждого приведенного вида растений описывается общий ареал, распространение в Казахстане, данные об условиях произрастания на территории природного парка....

  6. Effect on tumor necrosis factor-α production and antioxidant ability of black alder, as factors related to its anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2012-06-01

    Alders exhibit several uses in different areas and also offer some nutritional and medicinal values. The bark and leaves from black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn] are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory processes and other health disorders. This study assessed if an extract of A. glutinosa stem bark exhibits some biological properties linked to improving the inflammatory state, which could partly justify its ethnopharmacological use. Therefore, various aspects of antioxidant activity as well as the effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production were evaluated. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of terpenes, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones (by high-performance thin-layer chromatography). The betulinic acid content in the extract, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (validated method), was 0.72±0.027%. In addition, high amounts for total phenols as well as flavonoids were determined. The extract exhibited a 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity similar to that of ascorbic acid and had a significant effect on superoxide anion scavenging, superior to that of ascorbic acid. It was also able to protect HeLa cells from induced oxidative stress. In the TNF-α assay, levels of this citokine were depressed by the extract in HL-60 cells. To test the effect of the extract on cell proliferation, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed. According to the results, the antioxidant properties displayed by the extract of A. glutinosa stem bark, together with the effect on TNF-α levels, suggest that these activities, linked to a successful reduction in inflammatory processes, may support, in part, its ethnopharmacological use. PMID:22424456

  7. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants in cold biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Körner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem’s capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  8. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N₂-fixing plants in cold biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D; Reed, Sasha C; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Körner, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem's capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  9. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India- ARIA Asia Pacific Workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand B; Shahi, Shipra

    2008-12-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30% of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken by us to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centers in the country. Allergenically important airborne pollen identified by clinico-immunologic evaluation are Alnus, Amaranthus, Argemone, Brassica, Cannabis, Cassia, Cedrus, Chenopodium, Cocos, Holoptelia, Mallotus, Morus, Parthenium, Prosopis juliflora, Quercus, Ricinus communis, and grasses such as Cenchrus, Cynodon, Imperata, Pennisetum etc. Cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen a commonly growing weed/shrub in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis--all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae but geographically distantly located. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer while pollen of Holoptelia integrifolia from India cross reacts with pollen of Parietaria judaica from Mediterranean Europe, both of which are members of family Urticaceae. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO2 and SO2) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes its allergenic potency.

  10. Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India. An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anand B; Kumar, Pawan

    2003-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30 % of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centres in the country. Predominant airborne pollen are Holoptelea, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Putanjiva, Cassia, Quercus, Cocos, Pinus, Cedrus, Ailanthus, Cheno/Amaranth, Cyperus, Argemone, Xanthium, Parthenium and others. Clinical and immunological evaluations have revealed allergenically important texa - some of them for the first time. Allergenically important pollen are Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Morus, Mallotus, Alnus, Querecus, Cedrus, Argemone, Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Holoptelea, Brassica, Cocos, Cannabis, Parthenium, Cassia and grasses. Further cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen from commonly growing weeds in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis - all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO(2) and SO(2)) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes their allergenic potency. Immunotherapy with recombinant proteins

  11. Variability of alder-dominated forest vegetation along a latitudinal gradient in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Slezák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Syntaxonmical revision of azonal forest vegetation with dominance of Alnus glutinosa and A. incana was done along a latitudinal transect of Slovakia. A data matrix consisting of 240 phytosociological relevés was obtained in accordance with the standard Zürich-Montpellier approach. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to clarify the relationships between the vegetation composition and environmental variables, whereas one-way ANOVA was applied to quantify the differences in site requirements of particular vegetation types. The unsupervised numerical classification resulted in identification of five clusters corresponding to the traditionally described and ecologically interpretable associations within the Euro-Siberian alder carr forests of Alnion glutinosae and the European broad-leaved floodplain forests of Alnion incanae: Carici elongatae-Alnetum glutinosae Schwickerath 1933 (alder carr forests on permanently waterlogged soils, Stellario-Alnetum glutinosae Lohmeyer 1957 (riparian alder vegetation on mesic to humid sites along small brooks, Piceo-Alnetum Mráz 1959 (submontane and montane oligotrophic spruce-alder forests on waterlogged habitats, Cardamino amarae-Alnetum incanae Šomšák 1961 (grey alder vegetation in spring fed areas and Alnetum incanae Lüdi 1921 (submontane and montane streamside grey alder forests on mesic sites. They significantly (P < 0.05 differed in the Ellenberg's indicator values for nutrients, moisture, temperature and altitude. These environmental variables were also established by DCA analysis as underlying sources of variation in alder-dominated forest composition. Special attention was given to discussion of their syntaxonomy, nomenclature, floristic structure, ecological features and distribution.

  12. Regional and landscape-scale variability of Landsat-observed vegetation dynamics in northwest Siberian tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread increases in Arctic tundra productivity have been documented for decades using coarse-scale satellite observations, but finer-scale observations indicate that changes have been very uneven, with a high degree of landscape- and regional-scale heterogeneity. Here we analyze time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observed by Landsat (1984–2012), to assess landscape- and regional-scale variability of tundra vegetation dynamics in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, a little-studied region with varied soils, landscape histories, and permafrost attributes. We also estimate spatio-temporal rates of land-cover change associated with expansion of tall alder (Alnus) shrublands, by integrating Landsat time-series with very-high-resolution imagery dating to the mid-1960s. We compiled Landsat time-series for eleven widely-distributed landscapes, and performed linear regression of NDVI values on a per-pixel basis. We found positive net NDVI trends (‘greening’) in nine of eleven landscapes. Net greening occurred in alder shrublands in all landscapes, and strong greening tended to correspond to shrublands that developed since the 1960s. Much of the spatial variability of greening within landscapes was linked to landscape physiography and permafrost attributes, while between-landscape variability largely corresponded to differences in surficial geology. We conclude that continued increases in tundra productivity in the region are likely in upland tundra landscapes with fine-textured, cryoturbated soils; these areas currently tend to support discontinuous vegetation cover, but are highly susceptible to rapid increases in vegetation cover, as well as land-cover changes associated with the development of tall shrublands. (paper)

  13. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Angel [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Prieto, Maria, E-mail: maria.prieto@urjc.es [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Yadira [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Aragon, Gregorio [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for 'shade-adapted lichens', while the richness of 'heliophytic lichens' increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tropical montane forest disturbance drastically reduced macrolichen diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species loss was most severe for the 'shade-adapted lichens' because high radiation is harmful to them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In secondary forests lichen diversity of native forests was not regenerated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protection of remnants of primary tropical forest might help to preserve a diverse community of epiphytic macrolichens.

  14. Environmental change controls postglacial forest dynamics through interspecific differences in life-history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacourse, Terri

    2009-08-01

    A key goal of functional ecology is identifying relationships between species traits and environmental conditions. Here, the nature and significance of these relationships to community composition on long ecological timescales is investigated using paleoecological and paleoenvironmental data from coastal British Columbia, Canada. RLQ and fourth-corner analyses, two three-table statistical techniques, are used to link traits of the region's dominant woody plants to environmental conditions over the last 15 000 calendar years (cal yr) through a fossil pollen record derived from lake sediments. Both RLQ and fourth-corner analyses revealed highly significant correlations between plant traits and temporal changes in environmental conditions. Axis 1 of the RLQ explained 92% of the total covariance between plant species traits and paleoenvironmental variables and was correlated most strongly with temperature and relative growth rate. In general, climate change during the cold period following deglaciation favored species such as Alnus sinuata and Pinus contorta that exhibit a "fast" life-history strategy (e.g., high relative growth rate, short life span, low shade tolerance), whereas the relative climatic stability of the last 8000 cal yr favored species such as Tsuga heterophylla that exhibit a "slow" life-history strategy (e.g., low relative growth rate, long life span, high shade tolerance). Fourth-corner analyses revealed significant correlations between all paleoenvironmental variables (i.e., temperature, precipitation, summer insolation, vegetation density) and most plant traits (relative growth rate, minimum seed-bearing age, seed mass, height, life span, and shade, drought, and waterlogging tolerances). The strongest correlation was between paleotemperature and height, reflecting the positive effect of temperature on plant growth and development and the overarching competitive advantage that height confers. This research demonstrates that environmental conditions

  15. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Vojtěch; Oušková, Veronika; Kuneš, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius). Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen) yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s). We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions) to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae) significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain. PMID:24936973

  16. 15,000-yr pollen record of vegetation change in the high altitude tropical Andes at Laguna Verde Alta, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rull, Valentí; Abbott, Mark B.; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Bezada, Maximiliano; Bradley, Raymond S.

    2005-11-01

    Pollen analysis of sediments from a high-altitude (4215 m), Neotropical (9°N) Andean lake was conducted in order to reconstruct local and regional vegetation dynamics since deglaciation. Although deglaciation commenced ˜15,500 cal yr B.P., the area around the Laguna Verde Alta (LVA) remained a periglacial desert, practically unvegetated, until about 11,000 cal yr B.P. At this time, a lycopod assemblage bearing no modern analog colonized the superpáramo. Although this community persisted until ˜6000 cal yr B.P., it began to decline somewhat earlier, in synchrony with cooling following the Holocene thermal maximum of the Northern Hemisphere. At this time, the pioneer assemblage was replaced by a low-diversity superpáramo community that became established ˜9000 cal yr B.P. This replacement coincides with regional declines in temperature and/or available moisture. Modern, more diverse superpáramo assemblages were not established until ˜4600 cal yr B.P., and were accompanied by a dramatic decline in Alnus, probably the result of factors associated with climate, humans, or both. Pollen influx from upper Andean forests is remarkably higher than expected during the Late Glacial and early to middle Holocene, especially between 14,000 and 12,600 cal yr B.P., when unparalleled high values are recorded. We propose that intensification of upslope orographic winds transported lower elevation forest pollen to the superpáramo, causing the apparent increase in tree pollen at high altitude. The association between increased forest pollen and summer insolation at this time suggests a causal link; however, further work is needed to clarify this relationship.

  17. Leaf litter dynamics and nitrous oxide emission in a Mediterranean riparian forest: implications for soil nitrogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, S; Butturini, A; Nin, E; Sabater, F; Sabater, S

    2003-01-01

    Mediterranean riparian zones can experience severe drought periods that lead to low soil moisture content, which dramatically affects their performance as nitrate removal systems. In the Mediterranean riparian zone of this study, we determined that N2O emission was practically nil. To understand the role of forest floor processes in nitrogen retention of a Mediterranean riparian area, we studied leaf litter dynamics of two tree species, London planetree [Platanus x acerifolia (Aiton) Willd.] and alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.], for two years, along with soil nitrogen mineralization rates. Annual leaf litter fall equaled 562.6 +/- 10.1 (standard error) g dry wt. m(-2), 68% of which was planetree and 32% of which was alder. The temporal distribution of litterfall showed a two-peak annual cycle, one occurring in midsummer, the other in autumn. Planetree provided the major input of organic nitrogen to the forest floor, and the amount of planetree leaves remaining on the forest floor was equivalent to approximately four years of stock. Leaf litter decomposition was three times higher for alder (decay coefficient [k] = 1.13 yr(-1)) than for planetree (k = 0.365 yr(-1)). Mineralization rates showed a seasonal pattern, with the maximum rate in summer (1.92 mg N kg(-1) d(-1)). Although the forest floor was an important sink for nitrogen due to planetree leaf accumulation, 7.5% of this leaf litter was scoured to the streambed by wind. This loss was irrelevant for alder leaves. Due to the litter quality, the forest floor of this Mediterranean riparian forest acts as a nitrogen sink. PMID:12549558

  18. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Fradkin, Steven C.

    2016-05-31

    Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake. Natural abundance ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) measured in plant tissue growing in nearshore areas of the lake indicate that the major source of nitrogen used by these primary producing plants is derived mainly from atmospherically fixed nitrogen in an undeveloped forested ecosystem. Exceptions to this pattern occurred in the Barnes Point area where elevated δ15N ratios indicate that effluent from septic systems also contribute nitrogen to filamentous-periphytic algae growing in the littoral zone of that area. Near the Lyre River outlet of Lake Crescent, the δ15N of filamentous-periphytic algae growing in close proximity to the spawning areas of a unique species of trout show little evidence of elevated δ15N indicating that nitrogen from on-site septic systems is not a substantial source of nitrogen for these plants. The δ15N data corroborate estimates that nitrogen input to Lake Crescent from septic sources is comparatively small relative to input from motor vehicle exhaust and vegetative sources in undeveloped forests, including litterfall, pollen, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees (Alnus rubra). Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources.

  19. A Late Holocene environmental history of a bat guano deposit from Romania: an isotopic, pollen and microcharcoal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forray, Ferenc L.; Onac, Bogdan P.; Tanţău, Ioan; Wynn, Jonathan G.; Tămaş, Tudor; Coroiu, Ioan; Giurgiu, Alexandra M.

    2015-11-01

    A 1.5-m-long core from a bat guano deposit in Zidită Cave (western Romania) has provided a 900-year record of environmental change. Shifts in δ13C values of bulk guano (between -22.6 and -27.5‰) combined with guano-sourced pollen and microcharcoal information show significant changes in the structure of vegetation and plant biomass. Cave guano δ13C values reflect the dietary preferences of bats which are controlled by local vegetation dynamics, which in turn depend on local climatic conditions. Neither δ13C values nor pollen association in guano changed strikingly over the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA) transition. Instead, an overall decreasing trend of δ13C values between ca. AD 1200 and 1870-1900 defines the duration of LIA. A shift toward cooler and wetter conditions at ca. AD 1500 noticed in the pollen record by an increase in Fagus sylvatica and Alnus and the decrease of Carpinus betulus, may indicate the first major change at the beginning of the LIA. Evidence for two major cold spells occurring around AD 1500 and ca. AD 1870 comes from both δ13C and pollen record. In between these events, the cave region experienced a warmer and drier climate but colder and wetter than the MWP, favouring the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia simultaneously with the decrease of F. sylvatica and Poaceae. Human impact in the studied area is mainly related to agriculture, grazing and deforestation. The effects are most pronounced after AD 1845 when the pollen of cereals increases and Zea is recorded (AD 1845). Higher percentages of microcharcoal particles in the guano sequence are generally correlated with agricultural activities like land cleaning via controlled fires.

  20. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for “shade-adapted lichens”, while the richness of “heliophytic lichens” increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. -- Highlights: ► Tropical montane forest disturbance drastically reduced macrolichen diversity. ► Species loss was most severe for the “shade-adapted lichens” because high radiation is harmful to them. ► In secondary forests lichen diversity of native forests was not regenerated. ► The protection of remnants of primary tropical forest might help to preserve a diverse community of epiphytic macrolichens.

  1. Effects of multiple but low pesticide loads on aquatic fungal communities colonizing leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talk, Anne; Kublik, Susanne; Uksa, Marie; Engel, Marion; Berghahn, Rüdiger; Welzl, Gerhard; Schloter, Michael; Mohr, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In the first tier risk assessment (RA) of pesticides, risk for aquatic communities is estimated by using results from standard laboratory tests with algae, daphnids and fish for single pesticides such as herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides. However, fungi as key organisms for nutrient cycling in ecosystems as well as multiple pesticide applications are not considered in the RA. In this study, the effects of multiple low pesticide pulses using regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) on the dynamics of non-target aquatic fungi were investigated in a study using pond mesocosm. For that, fungi colonizing black alder (Alnus glutinosa) leaves were exposed to multiple, low pulses of 11 different pesticides over a period of 60days using a real farmer's pesticide application protocol for apple cropping. Four pond mesocosms served as treatments and 4 as controls. The composition of fungal communities colonizing the litter material was analyzed using a molecular fingerprinting approach based on the terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (t-RFLP) of the fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) gene(s). Our data indicated a clear fluctuation of fungal communities based on the degree of leaf litter degradation. However significant effects of the applied spraying sequence were not observed. Consequently also degradation rates of the litter material were not affected by the treatments. Our results indicate that the nutrient rich environment of the leaf litter material gave fungal communities the possibility to express genes that induce tolerance against the applied pesticides. Thus our data may not be transferred to other fresh water habitats with lower nutrient availability. PMID:27521943

  2. Quaternary forest and climate history of Hokkaido, Japan, from marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yaeko

    Pollen data from Quaternary marine sediments deposited in central Hokkaido, northern Japan provide insight into northeast Asian vegetation and climatic changes over the last few million years. During the Early Pleistocene, coniferous forest, dominated by Picea and Cryptomeria japonica, and taiga composed of Larix and Picea developed under cool/wet and cold/dry climates, respectively. Strong climatic contrasts are inferred from Late Pleistocene interglacial and glacial pollen assemblages which precede the last glacial cycle. In the former, cool temperate broad-leaf forest, mainly composed of Fagus, reflects a warmer and wetter climate than now. In the latter, taiga similar to that now found in northern Sakhalin apparently flourished in Hokkaido. The composition of pollen assemblages correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 5, changed from cool temperate forest of Quercus, Ulmus and Juglans (Substage 5e), to Picea-Larix taiga (Substage 5d), cool temperate forest of Quercus and Ulmus (Substage 5c) and Picea-Abies forest (Substage 5b). Compared with present conditions, climate during Stage 5 in northern Japan apparently fluctuated from warmer/wetter to colder/drier. Taiga composed of Picea, Pinus and Larix indicating colder/dry conditions during Stage 4, was replaced by Picea-Abies forest and Picea-Larix taiga in Stage 3, suggesting relatively cool and cold/dry environments. Taiga and mixed forest with taiga and cool temperate components characterize Stage 2. Holocene forests with Juglans-Betula and Quercus-Juglans were succeeded by Picea and Abies during the early Holocene warm interval ˜7000 BP. Subsequently, Quercus-Ulmus and Abies-Alnus assemblages reflect climatic deterioration. 'Pan-mixed' forest has been developed in Hokkaido since 2000 BP.

  3. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  4. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  5. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

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    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  6. Effects of submergence on growth and survival of saplings of three wetland trees differing in adaptive mechanisms for flood tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Iwanaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Withstanding total submergence and reaeration following submergence is essential for the survival and establishment of wetland species. We focused on “LOES–low oxygen escape syndrome” and “LOQS–low oxygen quiescence syndrome” and compared tolerances to total submergence among wetland woody species differing in morphological adaptation to soil flooding. Area of study, materials and methods: This study examined the survival of 2-year-old saplings of Taxodium distichum and Metasequioia glyptostroboides (LOQS species, and Alnus japonica (LOES species, during and after total submergence. Saplings were completely submerged, then de-submerged to determine trends in survival and growth Main results: The M. glyptostroboides and A. japonica saplings could not survive prolonged submergence for more than 8 weeks, whereas saplings of T. distichum survived for over 2 years. Submerged saplings of all species showed no significant growth or modifications in morphology and anatomy under water, such as shoot elongation, adventitious root formation, and/or aerenchyma development. All T. distichum saplings that were de-submerged in the second year had the same pattern of shoot growth regardless of differences in timing and seasonality of de-submergence. Wood formation in T. distichum saplings ceased during submergence and resumed after de-submergence in spring and summer, but not in autumn. Research highlights: T. distichum saplings, which survived longer submergence periods than A. japonica and M. glyptostroboides, had physiological characteristics, such as suspension of growth and metabolism, which allowed survival of protracted total submergence (at least 2 years when saplings were immersed during the dormant stage before leaf flushing.

  7. Landscape patterns of overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes in a cool-temperate forest watershed in northern Hokkaido,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-niu; Hideaki SHIBATA

    2007-01-01

    Within a forested watershed at the Uryu Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University in northern Hokkaido, overstory litterfall and related nutrient fluxes were measured at different landscape zones over two years. The wetland zone covered with Picea glehnii pure stand. The riparian zone was deciduous broad-leaved stand dominated by Alnus hirsuta and Salix spp., while the mixture of deciduous broadleaf and evergreen conifer dominated by Betula platyphylla, Quercus crispula and Abies sachalinensis distributed on the upland zone.Annual litterfall averaged 1444, 5122, and 4123 kg·hm-2·a-1 in the wetland, riparian and upland zones, respectively. Litterfall production peaked in September-ctober,and foliage litter contributed the greatest amount (73.4%-87.6 %) of the annual total litterfall. Concentrations of nutrients analyzed in foliage litter of the dominant species showed a similar seasonal variation over the year except for N in P. Glehnii and A. Hirsuta. The nutrient fluxes for all elements analyzed were greatest on riparian zone and lowest in wetland zone. Nutrient fluxes via lit terfall followed the decreasing sequence: N (11-129 kg·hm-2·a-1) > Ca (9-69) > K (5-20) > Mg (3-15) > P (0.4-4.7) for all stands. Significant differences were found in litterfall production and nutrient fluxes among the different landscape components. There existed significantdif ferences in soil chemistry between the different landscape zones. The consistently low soil C:N ratios at the riparian zone might be due to the higher-quality litter inputs (largely N-fixing alder).

  8. La comunidad de Furcraea parmentieri, una especie amenazada, en el centro de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Almeida-Leñero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la fl ora y vegetación de la comunidad deFurcraea parmentieri(Roezl ex Ortigies Garcia-Mend. (F. bedinghausii especie amenazada y endémica de México (NOM-059-ECOL-2001, en el volcán Pelado, al S de la Ciudad de México. Se realizaron 25 levantamientos siguiendo la escuela fitosociológica Zurich-Montpellier, a los que se calculó el índice de similitud de Jaccard.Furcraea parmentierise asocia conMuhlenbergia macrouraformando una comunidad azonal, entre los 3 020 y 3 330 m, sobre suelos rocosos y claros del bosque dePinus-Alnus. Se diferenciaron tres subcomunidades:Furcraea parmentieri-Trisetum virletii, Furcraea parmentieri-Aegopogon cenchroides y Furcraea parmentieri-Solanum cervantesii. Se registraron en total 87 especies agrupadas en 63 géneros y 27 familias, siendo las más abundantes Asteraceae y Poaceae. Las condiciones ambientales propicias para el establecimiento deFurcraea parmentierison altitudes entre 3 020 a 3 100 m, en exposición N, suelos ácidos con pH 6.0 y pendientes de 36° a 45º. El mayor problema para la conservación de la especie en el área son las quemas repetidas que empobrecen el suelo y destruyen los bulbilos, causando la disminución de las poblaciones. La conservación deF. parmentieries importante porque además de ser una especie amenazada y endémica, estabiliza suelos en zonas severamente degradadas.

  9. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl2-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  10. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  11. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geffen, Koert G; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possible combinations of three functionally different macro-detritivores (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, isopod Oniscus asellus, and millipede Julus scandinavius). Our results show that these macro-detritivores stimulated decomposition, especially of the high-quality A. incana litter and that the macro-detritivores tested differed in their decomposition-stimulating effects, with earthworms having the largest influence. Decomposition processes increased with increasing number of macro-detritivore species, and positive net diveristy effects occurred in several macro-detritivore treatments. However, after correction for macro-detritivore biomass, all interspecific differences in macro-detritivore effects, as well as the positive effects of species number on subarctic litter decomposition disappeared. The net diversity effects also appeared to be driven by variation in biomass, with a possible exception of net diversity effects in mass loss. Based on these results, we conclude that the expected climate change-induced range expansion of macro-detritivores into subarctic regions is likely to result in accelerated decomposition rates. Our results also indicate that the magnitude of macro-detritivore effects on subarctic decomposition will mainly depend on macro-detritivore biomass, rather than on macro-detritivore species number or identity.

  12. Effect on tumor necrosis factor-α production and antioxidant ability of black alder, as factors related to its anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores

    2012-06-01

    Alders exhibit several uses in different areas and also offer some nutritional and medicinal values. The bark and leaves from black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn] are used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory processes and other health disorders. This study assessed if an extract of A. glutinosa stem bark exhibits some biological properties linked to improving the inflammatory state, which could partly justify its ethnopharmacological use. Therefore, various aspects of antioxidant activity as well as the effect on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production were evaluated. The phytochemical study revealed the presence of terpenes, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and anthraquinones (by high-performance thin-layer chromatography). The betulinic acid content in the extract, determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (validated method), was 0.72±0.027%. In addition, high amounts for total phenols as well as flavonoids were determined. The extract exhibited a 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity similar to that of ascorbic acid and had a significant effect on superoxide anion scavenging, superior to that of ascorbic acid. It was also able to protect HeLa cells from induced oxidative stress. In the TNF-α assay, levels of this citokine were depressed by the extract in HL-60 cells. To test the effect of the extract on cell proliferation, a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed. According to the results, the antioxidant properties displayed by the extract of A. glutinosa stem bark, together with the effect on TNF-α levels, suggest that these activities, linked to a successful reduction in inflammatory processes, may support, in part, its ethnopharmacological use.

  13. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances. PMID:18055434

  14. Introduction of Seed Accumulation Index as new approach in soil seed bank classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Noraiy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the introduction of seed accumulation index as a new approach in the evaluation of soil seed bank consistency in the Populus caspica in Noor reserved forest park. Sampling were made above ground vegetation at peak vegetation cover during June 2010 by systematic- selective method. Soil samples were collected during late June, late November and early February by hammering a hollow metal frame 400 cm2 into two depths with 4 replicate in each sample plot and the species composition of seed bank was determined using seedling emergence method. Results showed that 42.2% of the plants species were classified in transient soil seed bank and only 57.8% species, which were mainly composed of early successional species, were able to produce persistent seed bank. In this case, only 3 tree species including Ficus carica, Morus alba and Alnus glutinosa were able to produce persistent soil seed bank. Chi- square goodness of fit test (χ2= 60.2 in reviewing the independence of SAI index and seed depth distribution model as the two methods of seed bank classification showed that the results of these two methods were not independent and they were applicable together with 99% probability. In this case, conformity and correlation between the two mentioned methods were assessed 85.2% based upon Kappa index and Spearman correlation coefficient. Therefore, it was concluded that seed accumulation index, which namely SAI, could be used as a new approach in soil seed bank classification of forest habitats.

  15. 兰坪铅锌尾矿区土壤与自然发生的5种植物的研究%Study on lead-zinc tailings soil and five plants occurring naturally in lead-zinc mining tailings in Lanping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪福俊; 孙浩; 陈玲; 王金华; 熊智

    2011-01-01

    By investigation and analysis of the soil and the vegetation occurring naturally in lead-zinc mining tailings of Lanping, it is found that the soil of lead-zinc mining tailings is seriously polluted by cadmium,which is 350 times of the background level of soil in Yunnan Province, and then followed by Pb, Zn. The contents of heavy metals have been decreasing with the time of piling up, and there is obviously higher content in center of mining tailing than in the edge. There are many plant populations occuring naturally in mining tailings,among them, five populations are dominant and widespread, the others distribute occasionally in the edge of mining tailings. The five prevalent plants are characterized by relatively strong heavy metals tolerance and accumulation capability in filed, Cyperus microiria have the strongest capacity of accumulation for Cd, Pb. However, the amount of heavy metal accumulation in plant does not approach the hyperaccumulation plant definition. Both Coriaria nepalensis and Elaeagnus pungens have higher capability tolerating heavy metal than the others. These two actinorhizal plants are candidates of pioneer plants for bioremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, due to their symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Frankia.%对兰坪铅锌尾矿区的土壤和自然发生植物的调查分析发现:该尾矿区土壤污染以Cd最为严重,是云南土壤背景值的350倍,其次是以Pb、Zn为主.尾矿区重金属含量随堆积时间而减少,尾矿边缘重金属含量明显低于中心.尾矿区自然发生多种植物类群,绝大多数植物类群零星发生,仅有5种植物为优势类群.5种优势植物对铅锌富集和耐性研究表明,这5种植物对重金属具有较强的耐性与富集能力,虽然莎草对cd、Pb的富集能力最强,但5种植物的富集量均未达到超积累植物所规定的临界含量.研究表明,放线菌根植物马桑与胡颓子的耐性都高于其他3种植物,它们能与Frankia菌共

  16. Selection of Vine Plants in Three-dimensional Greening in Chengdu%成都市空间立体绿化藤本植物的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓阳; 柳林安; 高永恒

    2012-01-01

    The main vine plant species for the three-dimensional greening in the urban area of Chengdu, capital of Sichuan Province, China, were investigated based on the application of analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Eight resistant indices, four growth indices, five ecology indices, and five aesthetics indices were selected to establish a comprehensive evaluation index system for these vine plant species. It was concluded that the key species among the main vine plants suited for three-dimensional greening in the urban area of Chengdu were Parthenocissus tricuspidata ,Rosa multiflora ,R. Chinensis,Wisteria sinensis ,R. Banksiae, P. Himalayana ,P'. Henryana, and Mucuna sentpervirens ; the main supplement species were Pueraria lo-bata , Bougainvillea spectabilis , Trachelos permum jasminoid.es , Vitis vinifera , Campsis grandiflora , Hedera nepalensis var. Sinensis, Euonymus fortunei, Pharbifisnil, Lonicera japonica ; the common supplement species were Cucurbita pepo var. Ovifera, Lagenaria siceraria var. Microcarpa, Epipremnum aureum , Millettia dielsiana , Quamoclit pennata , Trichosanthes rosthornii. Some constructive suggestions on the selection of vine plants in the city three-dimensional greening in Chengdu were given.%对成都市中心城区空间立体绿化中主要藤本植物的种类进行了调查,应用层次分析法(AHP),筛选出8个抗性指标、4个生长指标、5个生态指标和5个美学指标,建立了综合评价指标与其权重值体系,并对调查出的藤本植物进行评价,结果表明:成都市空间立体绿化中藤本植物主要适生种可作为骨干种的有8种:爬山虎、多花蔷薇、藤本月季、紫藤、木香花、三叶爬山虎、川鄂爬山虎、常春油麻藤;主要配置种有9种:葛藤、三角梅、络石、葡萄、中国凌霄、中华常春藤、扶芳藤、牵牛花、金银花;一般配置种或补充种有6种:观赏南瓜、观赏葫芦、绿萝、香花崖豆藤、茑萝、括楼.同时对成都

  17. Study on the Armillaria mellea Cultured Wood of Eight Kinds of Trees in Tengchong country of Yunnan Province%云南省腾冲县八种树材用于培养蜜环菌栽培菌棒的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秋颖; 李立屯

    2016-01-01

    The aim is searching for more tree species to culture Armillaria mellea.The inoculated time,inoculation rate,growth rate of Armillaria mellea and the properties of tree were observed through the culture of Armillaria mellea in the eight tree species.The result showed that the inoculated time was shortest,inoculation rate was high and the growth rate of Armillaria mellea was faster in Fagus sylvatica and Tamarindus indica Linn; the comprehensive case was good in Craibiodendron yunnanensis W.W.Smith,Ternstroemia gymnanthera(Wight et Arn.),Alnus cremastogyne Burk and Betula alnoides Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don.The conclusion was that the six tree species are suitable meterials for culture of Armillaria mellea except Exochorda racemosa and Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb.%目的:合理利用当地林木资源,寻找更多适合天麻蜜环菌栽培生长的树材;方法:通过前期的三级种培养筛选试验之后,有目的性地选取云南腾冲县八种当地常见树种制成菌棒,每种菌棒种1 m2,三个重复,培养蜜环菌栽培种,观察不同树材的接菌速度、接菌率、蜜环菌菌索生长速度以及树材特性;结果:欧洲山毛榉和酸角树接菌速度快,接菌率高,菌索生长速度也较快;金叶子、厚皮香、桤木、西南桦的综合情况也较好;结论:实验结果证明,八种树材中除了白杜娟和南烛综合情况不理想之外,其他六种树材都适合作为培养蜜环菌的菌材,其中豆科、山茶科和杜鹃花科属于以前没有用于生产过蜜环菌栽培种的的树种。

  18. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timme H Donders

    Full Text Available Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values, and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1, as well as in the growing season (T, are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001] in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001. The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural

  19. Dendrochronology and lakes: using tree-rings of alder to reconstruct lake levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maaten, Ernst; Buras, Allan; Scharnweber, Tobias; Simard, Sonia; Kaiser, Knut; Lorenz, Sebastian; van der Maaten-Theunissen, Marieke; Wilmking, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is considered a major threat for ecosystems around the world. Assessing its effects is challenging, amongst others, as we are unsure how ecosystems may respond to climate conditions they were not exposed to before. However, increased insight may be obtained by analyzing responses of ecosystems to past climate variability. In this respect, lake ecosystems appear as valuable sentinels, because they provide direct and indirect indicators of change through effects of climate. Lake-level fluctuations of closed catchments, for example, reflect a dynamic water balance, provide detailed insight in past moisture variations, and thereby allow for assessments of effects of anticipated climate change. Up to now, lake-level data are mostly obtained from gauging records and reconstructions from sediments and landforms. However, these records are in many cases only available over relatively short time periods, and, since geoscientific work is highly demanding, lake-level reconstructions are lacking for many regions. Here, we present and discuss an alternative method to reconstruct lake levels, which is based on tree-ring data of black alder (Alnus glutinosa L.). This tree species tolerates permanently waterlogged and temporally flooded conditions (i.e. riparian vegetation), and is often found along lakeshores. As the yearly growth of trees varies depending upon the experienced environmental conditions, annual rings of black alder from lakeshore vegetation likely capture information on variations in water table, and may therefore be used to reconstruct lake levels. Although alder is a relatively short-lived tree species, the frequent use of its' decay-resistant wood in foundations of historical buildings offers the possibility of extending living tree-chronologies back in time for several centuries. In this study, the potential to reconstruct lake-level fluctuations from tree-ring chronologies of black alder is explored for three lake ecosystems in the Mecklenburg

  20. Soil aggregation and slope stability related to soil density, root length, and mycorrhiza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Frank; Frei, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Eco-engineering measures combine the use of living plants and inert mechanical constructions to protect slopes against erosion and shallow mass movement. Whereas in geotechnical engineering several performance standards and guidelines for structural safety and serviceability of construction exist, there is a lack of comparable tools in the field of ecological restoration. Various indicators have been proposed, including the fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution, microbiological parameters, and soil aggregate stability. We present results of an soil aggregate stability investigation and compare them with literature data of the angle of internal friction ?' which is conventionally used in slope stability analysis and soil failure calculation. Aggregate stability tests were performed with samples of differently treated moraine, including soil at low (~15.5 kN/m³) and high (~19.0 kN/m³) dry unit weight, soil planted with Alnus incana (White Alder) as well as the combination of soil planted with alder and inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Melanogaster variegatus s.l. After a 20 weeks growth period in a greenhouse, a total of 100 samples was tested and evaluated. Positive correlations were found between the soil aggregate stability and the three variables dry unit weight, root length per soil volume, and degree of mycorrhization. Based on robust statistics it turned out that dry unit weight and mycorrhization degree were strongest correlated with soil aggregate stability. Compared to the non-inoculated control plants, mycorrhized White Alder produced significantly more roots and higher soil aggregate stability. Furthermore, the combined biological effect of plant roots and mycorrhizal mycelia on aggregate stability on soil with low density (~15.5 kN/m³) was comparable to the compaction effect of the pure soil from 15.5 to ~19.0 kN/m³. Literature data on the effect of vegetation on the angle of internal friction ?' of the same moraine showed

  1. 桉-桤不同混合比例凋落物分解过程中土壤动物群落动态%Dynamics on soil faunal community during the decomposition of mixed eucalypt and alder litters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳红; 杨万勤; 罗承德; 吴福忠; 胡杰

    2013-01-01

    采用凋落物分解袋法研究了10:0(TⅠ)、7:3(TⅡ)5:5(TⅢ)、3:7(TⅣ)和0:10(TV)巨桉(Eucalyptus grandis)和台湾桤木(Alnus formosana)混合凋落物分解过程中的土壤动物群落特征.从5种类型、3种规格的810只凋落袋中共收集土壤动物75651只,隶属2门10纲20目,其中弹尾目(Collembola)和蜱螨目(Acarina)为优势类群.土壤动物个体数最高是7-8月,大型土壤动物个体数最高是7月,中小型土壤动物个体数最高是7-8月.大型、中小型土壤动物类群数各月间均波动较小.与30目和6目相比,260目网袋中弹尾目和蜱螨目等中小型土壤动物数量更高.相对台湾桤木(TV)而言,巨桉(TⅠ)凋落物中弹尾目数量更多.啮虫目(Psocoptera)在台湾桤木(TV)凋落物中的数量远远高于其它凋落物,后孔寡毛目(Opisthopora)在混合凋落物中数量较高.不同比例的凋落物混合可改变凋落物中土壤动物的数量和组成.桤木、混合凋落物中大型土壤动物的个体数高于巨桉凋落物,而且上述凋落物的分解速率亦明显快于巨桉凋落物,这意味着大型土壤动物的活动可加速凋落物的分解.因此,在巨桉人工纯林中混栽台湾桤木,可显著提高大型土壤动物的数量,促进凋落物的分解.

  2. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  3. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, B.; Torres-Jardón, R.; Ramírez-Arriaga, E.; Martínez-Bernal, A.; Rosas, I.

    2016-05-01

    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  4. Plant-Arthropod Associations from the Lower Miocene of the Most Basin in Northern Bohemia(Czech Republic):A Preliminary Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub PROKOP; Torsten WAPPLER; Stanislav KNOR; Zlatko KVA(C)EK

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial plants and insects currently account for the majority of the Earth's biodiversity,and approximately half of insect species are herbivores.Thus,insects and plants share ancient associations that date back more than 400 Myr.However,investigations of their past interactions are at the preliminary stages in Western Europe.Herein,we present the first results of our study of various feeding damage based on a dataset of nearly 3500 examined plant specimens from the Lower Miocene of the Lagerstatte Bilina Mine in the Most Basin,Czech Republic.This site provides a unique view of the Neogcue freshwater ecosystems.It has long been studied by scientists working in different branches of sedimentology,paleobotany,and paleozoology.The fossils are preserved in three characteristic horizons overlaying the coal seam(Clayey Superseam Horizon,Delta Sandy Horizon,and Lake Clayey Horizon),reflecting paleoenvironmental changes in a short time period of development.The trace fossils are classified as functional feeding groups or"guilds",without searching for a direct cause or a recent analog host relation.Approximately 23% of specimens of dicotyledonous plant leaves were found to be damaged and associated with some leaf"morphotypes".Deciduous plant-host taxa,and those with a chartaceons texture typical of riparian habitats,were frequently damaged,such as Populus,recorded with two species Populus zaddachii and Populus populina(57.9% and 31% herbivory levels,respectively),followed by Acer,Alnus,and Carya,averaging almost 30% of damaged leaves/leaflets.There has been evidence of 60 damage types(DT)representing all functional feeding groups recorded at the Bilina Mine,including 12 types of leaf mines and 16 galltype DT.In total,Lower Miocene of the Lagerstatte Bilina Mine exhibits a high level of external foliage feeding types(23.7%),and a low level of more specialized DT,such as galls(4.3%)and leaf mines(<1%).A broader comparison based on DT of the main sedimentary environments

  5. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    currently growing along the Andean fluvial system on altitudes between c. 2000 up to c. 4800 m. Alnus is an important Andean forest taxa since Pliocene. In summary, the Neogene palynological record of the Amazon Fan strongly reflects and confirms the influence of the uplift of the Andes and its transcontinental character from late Miocene onwards.

  6. Late-glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in the south Colombian Cauca Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrío, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Robert; Rangel, Orlando

    2002-10-01

    Two sedimentary cores with pollen, charcoal and radiocarbon data are presented. These records document the Late-glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environmental history of the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). Core Quilichao-1 (640 cm; 3° 6N, 76° 31W) represents the periods of 13 150-7720 14C yr BP and, following a hiatus, from 2880 14C yr BP to modern. Core La Teta-2 (250 cm; 3° 5N, 76° 32W) provides a continuous record from 8700 14C yr BP to modern.Around 13 150 14C yr BP core Quilichao-1 shows an active Late-glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11 465 to 10 520 14C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria, Moraceae/Urticaceae, Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation Andean forest comprising Alnus, Hedyosmum, Quercus and Myrica

  7. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg-1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg-1, Nd 25 mgṡkg-1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg-1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg-1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree

  8. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Miocene, the Western Carpathian paleogeography started to change. The Lake Pannon retreated southwards, and the northern coast of the back arc basin was slightly elevated due to progradation of deltaic and alluvial facies, especially in the lowlands. The studied „Pannonian lake" sediments come from the Czech and Slovak parts of Central Paratethys. Changes of the sedimentary environment from deep to shallow lake and deltaic environment, followed by development of alluvial plains were noticed. Salinity crisis due to Paratethys isolation led to development of total freshwater environment to the end of this period. Samples from 3 surficial localities and 15 boreholes were palynologically studied. Occasional occurences of Dinoflagellates indicate a slightly higher salinity, whereas green algae Pediastrum, aquatic ferns Azolla, and aquatic and coastal plants (Nelumbo, Nymphaea, Myriophyllum, Sparganium, Potamogeton, Cyperaceae etc.) represent a freshwater environment. Due to paleogeographic changes and climatic oscillations the number of thermophilous taxa decreased and some of them disappeared completely from this area (f. e. Sapotaceae, Palmae). Mostly broad-leaved deciduous elements of mixed mesophytic forests (Quercus, Celtis, Carya, Tilia, Carpinus, Betula, Juglans) with some thermophilous elements admixture of Engelhardia, Castanea, Trigonobalanopsis, Symplocos, Cornaceaepollis satzveyensis generally dominate. Variously high relief of the uplifted mountainy chains created ideal conditions for higher presence of extrazonal vegetation (Cedrus, Tsuga, Picea, Cathaya) in the investigated area. Zonal type of vegetation including marshes, riparian forests with Alnus, Salix, Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Betula, Fraxinus, shrubs and lianas on dryer substrates associated riparian forest (Buxus, Ericaceae, Vitaceae, Lonicera, Rosaceae type Rubus), and coastal swamps with Taxodiaceae, Nyssa, Myrica, Sciadopitys were growing in the floodplain lowlands of Vienna Basin

  9. Streamflow and Soil Moisture of Agroforestry and Grass Watersheds in Hilly Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang-Cai; TIAN Guang-Long; SHU Dong-Cai; LIN San-Yi; LIU Shu-Zhen

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted in a hilly area of Sichuan Province,Southwestern China, to compare the streamflow and soil moisture in two upland watersheds with different land use patterns. One was an agroforestry watershed, which consisted mainly of trees with alder (Alnus cremastogyne Burkill) and cypress (Cupressus funebris Endl.) planted in belts or strips with a coverage of about 46%, and the other was a grassland primarily composed of lalang grass (Imperata cylindrica var. major (Nees) C. E. Hubb.), filamentary clematis (Clematis filamentosa Dunn) and common eulaliopsis (Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C. E. Hubb) with a coverage of about 44%. Streamflow measurement with a hydrograph established at the watershed outlet showed that the average annual streamflow per 100 mm rainfall from 1983 to 1992 was 0.36 and 1.08 L s-1 km-2 for the agroforestry watershed and the grass watershed, respectively. This showed that the streamflow of the agroforestry watershed was reduced by 67% when compared to that of the grass watershed. The peak average monthly streamflow in the agroforestry watershed was over 5 times lower than that of the grass watershed and lagged by one month. In addition, the peak streamflow during a typical rainfall event of 38.3 mm in August 1986 was 37% lower in the agroforestry watershed than in the grass watershed. Results of the moisture contents of the soil samples from 3 slope locations (upper, middle and lower slopes) indicated that the agroforestry watershed maintained generally higher soil moisture contents than the grass watershed within 0-20 and 20-80 cm soil depths for the upper slope, especially for the period from May through July. For the other (middle and lower) slopes, soil moisture contents within 20-80 cm depth in the agroforestry watershed was generally lower than those in the grass watershed, particularly in September, revealing that water consumption by trees took place mainly below the plow layer. Therefore, agroforestry land use types might

  10. Late-Holocene climate variability and ecosystem responses in Alaska inferred from high-resolution multiproxy sediment analyses at Grizzly Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; Beer, Ruth; Bigler, Christian; Clegg, Benjamin F.; Jones, Richard T.; Kaltenrieder, Petra; van Raden, Ulrike J.; Gilli, Adrian; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The late-Holocene shift from Picea glauca (white spruce) to Picea mariana (black spruce) forests marked the establishment of modern boreal forests in Alaska. To understand the patterns and drivers of this vegetational change and the associated late-Holocene environmental dynamics, we analyzed radiocarbon-dated sediments from Grizzly Lake for chironomids, diatoms, pollen, macrofossils, charcoal, element composition, particle size, and magnetic properties for the period 4100-1800 cal BP. Chironomid assemblages reveal two episodes of decreased July temperature, at ca. 3300-3150 (ca -1 °C) and 2900-2550 cal BP (ca -2 °C). These episodes coincided with climate change elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere, atmospheric reorganization, and low solar activity. Diatom-inferred lake levels dropped by ca. 5 m at 3200 cal BP, suggesting dry conditions during the period 3200-1800 cal BP. P. glauca declined and P. mariana expanded at ca. 3200 cal BP; this vegetational change was linked to diatom-inferred low lake levels and thus decreased moisture availability. Forest cover declined at 3300-3100, 2800-2500 and 2300-2100 cal BP and soil erosion as inferred from increased values of Al, K, Si, Ti, and Ca intensified, when solar irradiance was low. Plant taxa adapted to disturbance and cold climate (e.g. Alnus viridis, shrub Betula, Epilobium) expanded during these periods of reduced forest cover. This open vegetation type was associated with high fire activity that peaked at 2800 cal BP, when climatic conditions were particularly cold and dry. Forest recovery lagged behind subsequent climate warming (≤+3 °C) by ca. 75-225 years. Our multiproxy data set suggests that P. glauca was dominant under warm-moist climatic conditions, whereas P. mariana prevailed under cold-dry and warm-dry conditions. This pattern implies that climatic warming, as anticipated for this century, may promote P. glauca expansions, if moisture availability will be sufficiently high, while P. mariana may

  11. Climate signal detected in sub-fossil and living oak trees data. An analysis of signal frequency components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Nechita; Francisca, Chiriloaei; Maria, Radoane; Ionel, Popa; Nicoae, Radoane

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on analysis the frequency components of the signal detected in living and sub-fossil tree ring series from different time periods. The investigation is oriented to analyze signal frequency components (low and high) of the two categories of trees. The interpretation technique of tree ring width is the instrument most often used to elaborate past climatic reconstructions. The annual resolution, but also, the high capacity of trees to accumulate climatic information are attributes which confer to palaeo-environmental reconstructions the biggest credibility. The main objective of the study refers to the evaluation of climatic signal characteristics, both present day climate and palaeo-climate (last 7000 years BP). Modern dendrochronological methods were applied on 350 samples of sub-fossil trees and 400 living trees. The subfossil trunks were sampled from different fluvial environments (Siret, Suceava, Moldova). Their age was determined using radiocarbon, varying from under 100 years to almost 7000 years BP. The subfossil tree species investigated were Quercus, Alnus, Ulmus. Considering living trees, these were identified on eastern part of Romania, in different actual physico-geographical conditions. The studied living tree species consisted in Quercus species (robur and petraea). Each site was investigated regarding stress factors of the sampled tree. The working methods were applied to the total wood series, both late and early, to detect intra-annual level climate information. Each series has been tested to separate individual trees with climatic signal of other trees with different signals (noises determined by competition between individuals or site stress, or anthropic impact). Comparing dendrochronological series (sub-fossil and living trees) we want to identify what significant causes determined the difference in the signal frequencies. Especially, the human interventions registered in the last 2 centuries will be evaluated by these

  12. Bank erosion and large wood recruitment along a gravel bed river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Picco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Riverine environments can be very dynamic and complex systems, particularly because of the interaction between active channel and riparian land during flood events of different magnitude. In recent years increasing attention has been paid to large wood (LW, focusing on its role and impact along riverine systems and fluvial landscapes. This research aims to analyze the characteristics of LW recruitment as a consequence of a flood event along a reach of a gravel-bed river. The study was conducted on a 3 km-long reach located in the middle course of the Piave River (north-eastern Italian Alps. A 20 m-wide buffer zone was considered along the floodplains and islands. Every standing tree in this buffer with diameter ≥0.10 m was measured manually (diameter breast height; height, whereas shrubs were not considered. The most common species in the study area are: Populus sp., Salix sp., Alnus sp., Carpinus sp., Fraxinus sp., Pinus sylvestris and Robinia pseudoacacia. An over bankfull flood (Q=1329 m3s–1; recurrence interval=6 years in November 2014 caused erosions along the floodplain (15,565.5 m2, pioneer islands (25.2 m2 and building islands (2085.6 m2, recruiting 690 trees. Four of these trees were recruited from the pioneer islands (0.16 tree m–2, 79 from building islands (0.04 tree m–2 and 607 from floodplains (0.04 tree m–2. Accurate dendrometric measurements were used to define the input volume of LW from the floodplains (86.25 m3, pioneer islands (0.14 m3 and building islands (6.62 m3. The maximum distance traveled by LW recruited from the floodplain, pioneer and building islands was 8927, 1021 and 3727 m, respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant relationship between the displacement and LW characteristics considered (diameter, length, volume, density. These results demonstrate that the recruitment and subsequent transport of LW is a complex mechanism that requires further study. To better characterize these mechanisms

  13. Screening of Plants with N Fixation Efficiency and High N Concentration in Leaf Litter of Shanghai%上海地区落叶含氮量丰富的高效固氮树种选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振; 张京伟; 张德顺

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze the N exporting ratio of leaves, the relationship between N fixation efficiency and leaf N concentration of different N-fixing trees, N fixation efficiency and leaf N concentration of 29 N-fixing trees were screened in this experiment. The results showed that the trees with high-N-fixation efficiency usually had high-N-concentration in leaves, and there was significant correlation (correlative coefficient was 0.888**) between them. δ15N values ofAlnus traboculosa, Elaeagnus pungens, Elaeagnus pungens 'Maculata',Mucuna sempervirens, Wisteria sinensis, Genista tinctoria, Albizia julibrissin and Myrica rubra were between -0.632‰ and 1.313‰, and the N concentration values of their leaf litter were between 1.288% and 1.628‰. So they all had high capability of N fixation and were preferable plants for soil fertility enhancement.%对29种固氮树种的固氮效率与叶片含氮量进行测定,分析了两者的关系及叶片氮输出率的大小.以此为据,筛选具有较强固氮能力、落叶含氮量较高的树种.结果表明:大多数固氮能力强的树种鲜叶含氮量较高,两者的相关系数为0.888**,达到极显著水平;江南桤木、胡颓子、花叶胡颓子、常春油麻藤、紫藤、染料木、合欢、杨梅8种树种N自然丰度值介于-0.632%~1.313%,落叶含氮量介于1.288%~1.628%,是筛选出的较好的落叶肥田植物.

  14. Carbon Sink in Natural Swamp Forest Ecosystems in Lesser Xing' an Mountains%小兴安岭天然森林沼泽生态系统碳汇功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文昌; 牟长城; 刘夏; 顾韩

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the potential of carbon sink in live types of natural swamp forests in Lesser Xing' an Mountains, Northeast China. Biomass of the swamp forests was determined by setting up standard plots at Youhao Forestry Bureau of Yichun City. Soil fluxes of CO, and CH4 were measured by static opaque chamber and gas chroma-tography techniques. Regression models for biomass were established for predicting net primary productivity of trees. Results showed that the carbon concentration of all plant species in the five types of swamp forests ranged torn 40.2% to 49.3%. The net carbon fixed by plants in Alnus sibirica swamp, Betula platyphylla swamp, Larix gmelinii-Carex schmidtii swamp, L gmeti-nii-moss swamp, and L. gmelinii-Sphagrum spp. swamp were 161.20, 273.56, 242.18, 205.02, and 295.33 g · m-2 · a-1, respectively. The carbon emissions from soils, including conversion of CH4 into carbon, in A. sibinca swamp, B. platyphyllu swamp, L gmelinii-C. schmidtii swamp, L. gmelinii-miass swamp and L. gmelinii-Sphagnum spp. swamp were 226.49, 253.57, 191.86, 169.53 and 127.33 g ·m-2 · a-1, respectively. The CO2-C sinks in B. platyphylla swamp, L gmeli-nii-C. schmidtii swamp, L. gmelinii-moss swamp, and L. gmelinii-Sphagman spp. swamp were 19.99, 50.32, 35.49 and 168.00 g · m-2 · a-1, respectively, while the source of CO2-C from A. sibirica swamp was 65. 29 g · m-2 · a-1.%为了定量评价小兴安岭森林沼泽生态系统碳汇潜力,在伊春市友好林业局岭峰林场设立了标准地,采用静态暗箱—气相色谱法测量土壤CO2和CH4的排放通量,调查小兴安岭5种天然森林沼泽生物量,并建立了生物量回归模型,以推测乔木净初级生产力.研究结果表明:5种森林沼泽各类植被物种碳质量分数范围为40.2%~49.3%,毛赤杨(Alnus sibirica)沼泽、白桦(Betula platyphylla)沼泽、落叶松(Larix gmelinii—苔草(Carex schmidtii)沼泽、落叶松—藓类(Moss)沼

  15. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  16. Unexpected patterns of vegetation distribution response and climate change velocities in cold ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Fauria, M.; Johnson, E. A.; Forbes, B. C.; Willis, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    climate warming in the region (Macias-Fauria & Johnson 20013, PNAS). 2) In the low arctic tundra, un-treed to treed landscapes have sprouted in several parts of the tundra in a matter of decades, as opposed to the previously predicted response times of several centuries for boreal forest to advance to its new climate optimum (migrational lags). This takes place not through very rapid moving fronts, but through phenotypic responses of extant vegetation with highly flexible life forms, such as woody deciduous shrubs (Salix, Alnus, Betula). The resulting vegetation response creates strong energy feedbacks while at the same time potentially further reduces the speed of northward displacement of the boreal forest, that has to compete with a new treed ecosystem (Macias-Fauria et al. 2012, Nature Climate Change). In conclusion, control of rates of migration by factors other than climate in mountain systems can largely reduce the ability of vegetation to track climate change, and emergence of structurally novel ecosystems in low arctic tundra might largely alter current predictions based on climate response of vegetation, by accelerating ecosystem change and reducing migrational rates simultaneously.

  17. Acid test of joint technical and biological measures in slope stabilisation - Impact analysis of the heavy rainstorm event in August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, F.; Böll, A.

    2009-04-01

    transport. The development of the biological measures that consisted of cuttings of Salix purpurea and rooted plantlets of Alnus incana combined with a conventional seed mixture (hydro-seeding) was most satisfactory. The natural re-establishment of Salix appendiculata - rarely used in eco-engineering due to the low vegetative reproduction - reveals the underestimated potential of this species. The rainstorm left hardly any destructive marks neither on the vegetation nor on the soil surface. Root excavations in the field and laboratory investigations confirm a high rooting degree. Furthermore, plant association analysis yielded in considerable diversity and a species composition close to natural succession stages. The stability of the "Schwandrübi" was not affected during the heavy rainstorm although some of the sections between the technical structures were too steep compared to the proposed tolerable inclination. A new approach based on the experience of the "Schwandrübi-project" offers the first time to explain this phenomenon with biological effects on soil stability. Previously conducted laboratory experiments were validated with field based investigations conducted in 2006 and confirmed the higher soil stability due to mycorrhizal fungi and better rooting; in terms of an increase of the angle of internal friction Φ' of up to 5˚ . The concept of joint technical and biological measures applied has proven suitable to protect the ski resort above and the subjacent villages. There is evidence that the eco-engineering approach of WSL shapes up as a successful strategy in the long-term, although the complex interactions of the processes that control soil stability do not adjust within 25 years to a steady-state.

  18. 喀斯特山地不同景观树种光合色素含量研究——以贵阳市郊区为例%Study on the Photosynthetic Pigment Content of Landscape Plants in Karst Mountain Area: Taking Suburb of Guiyang City as An Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆兵; 魏媛; 胡刚; 杨萍

    2012-01-01

    通过探讨不同景观树种的光合色素含量,为喀斯特山地筛选抗逆性强、观赏价值高的景观树种提供理论依据,并促进其生态恢复与景观建设.以喀斯特山地16种景观树种为材料,采用丙酮-乙醇提取法测定了其叶片的光合色素含量.结果表明,16种景观树种叶片的叶绿素a含量、叶绿素b含量、叶绿素a含量+叶绿素b含量、叶绿素a含量与叶绿素b含量比值、类胡萝卜素含量都存在着一定的差异,反映出各树种具有不同的光合生理适应特性.其中无患子、桤木、桂花及乐昌含笑4种景观树种对喀斯特生境的适应性最强,是贵阳市郊区脆弱的喀斯特山地植被恢复的首选景观树种;红叶乌柏、重阳木、飞蛾槭、深山含笑、红花木棉、黄心夜合、鹅掌楸、白玉兰8种景观树种对喀斯特生境的适应性次之,也可选择其作为喀斯特山地植被恢复的景观树种.%The photosynthetic pigment content of different landscape plants was analyzed to provide theoretical basis for training and screening landscape trees with strong resistance and high ornamental value in Karst mountain area as well as promote the ecological restoration and landscape construction. The method of acetone and ethanol extraction measure was adopted to detect the photosynthetic pigments content in the leaves of 16 kinds of landscape species in Karst mountain area. The result showed the contents of Chlorophyll (Chl)a, Chlh, Chl a + Chlb, Chl a/Chl b and Carotenoids of 16 landscape trees were different, reflecting different photosynlhelic physiological adaptation features of each species. Sapindus muhorossi Gaertn., Al-nus cremastogyne Burk., Osmanthus fragrans Lour., and Michelia chapensis Dandy were more adaptable to the Karst habitats, thus were the preferred landscape species for vegetation restoration of fragile Karst mountain area in Guiyang suburb. Eight kinds of landscape species, Sapium discolor (Champ, ex

  19. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the 3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, pDegradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Bisdom, E.B.A., Dekker, L., Schoute, J.F.Th. (1993) Water repellency of sieve fractions from sandy soils and relationships with organic material and soil structure. Geoderma, 56, 105-118. Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D. (2000) Soil water repellency: Its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65. Doerr, S.H. (1998) On standardising the "Water Drop Penetration Time" and the "Molarity of an Ethanol Droplet" techniques to classify soil hydrophobicity: a case study using medium

  20. Effects of Freezing Rain and Snow Disaster on the Plant Diversity in the Subtropical Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest%雨雪冰冻灾害干扰对亚热带常绿阔叶林植物多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘足根; 袁小兰; 钟梁; 李铭书

    2014-01-01

    2008年雨雪冰冻灾害后,在崇义县选取了4块亚热带常绿阔叶林作为固定样地,分别记为P1,P2,P3和P4,连续5年监测了雨雪冰冻灾害对其植物多样性的影响。结果表明:雨雪冰冻灾害后的5年内,样地内的马尾松、拟赤杨和桤木消失了,增加了杜英;每块样地重要值排第一的树种在雨雪冰冻灾害后,其重要值都减小了,这些树种主要有槠树、栲树和木荷。雨雪冰冻灾害后,乔木层植物丰富度指数P 1和P3样地增大, P4样地减小, P2样地变化较小;植物多样性指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地变化较小,P4样地减小;植物均匀度指数P1样地增大,P2和P3样地基本未变,P4样地变化较小。林下植物种类数增加了黄瑞木、猕猴桃、白背叶等植物,而黄杨、野甘菊、苦竹等植物消失了,铁芒萁和茅草数量增加较多。从2011年开始,林内郁闭度恢复到了灾害前水平。%After freezing rain and snow disaster in 2008,four fixed sample plots (P1、P2、P3 and P4) were selected to measure the effects on the plant diversity of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved for-est in Chongyi County from 2008 to 2012.The result showed that Pinus massoniana,Alniphyllum fortunei and Alnus cremastogyne disappeared,and Elaeocarpus decipiens appeared.The important value of tree species which ranked the first before freezing rain and snow disaster was reduced.These tree species in-cluded Oachestnut,castanopsis fargesii,and Schima superba.The important value of Choerospondias axil-laris increased within five years after the freezing rain and snow disaster.P1 and P2 increased,P4 re-duced,P3 changed little for the Margalef index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 changed lit-tle,P4 reduced for the Shannon-wiener index of the arbor layer.P1 increased,P2 and P3 basically un-changed,P4 reduced for the Pielou index of the arbor layer.The species kinds and the species number increased

  1. Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records from the Chatanika River valley near Fairbanks (Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kienast, Frank; Bobrov, Anatoly; Fuchs, Margret; Sierralta, Melanie; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    ice and sediments of unit C. Pollen data show that spruce forests and wetlands dominated the area. The macrofossil remains of Picea, Larix, and Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia also prove the existence of boreal coniferous forests during the mid-Wisconsin interstadial, which were replaced by treeless tundra-steppe vegetation during the late Wisconsin stadial. Unit C is discordantly overlain by the 2-m-thick late Holocene deposits of unit D. The pollen record of unit D indicates boreal forest vegetation similar to the modern one. The permafrost record from the Vault Creek tunnel reflects more than 90 ka of periglacial landscape dynamics triggered by fluvial and eolian accumulation, and formation of ice-wedge polygons and post-depositional deformation by slope processes. The record represents a typical Wisconsin valley-bottom facies in Central Alaska.

  2. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    coatings, rather indicates that it developed over a longer time-span and/or warmer climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started developing during the Eemian. Steblich et al. (2009) reconstructed for the period 16.7-14.45 ka BP steppe with Betula (and minor proportions of Larix, Alnus, Picea and Salix). We assume a similar environment for the time of the deposition of the pyroclastics (18.9 ka BP) in the toe slope profile. The character of the steppe was probably more open at this time, but the presence of at least few scattered trees over the steppe is evidenced by a charred tree trunk that was found in the profile. During Holocene, vegetation consisted mainly of deciduous forest, until anthropogenic influence increased from around 1850 AD on. Reference: Steblich, M., Mingram, J., Han, J., Liu, Y. (2009): Late Pleistocene spread of (cool-)temperate forests in Northeast China and climate changes synchronous with the North Atlantic region. Global and Planetary Change, 65, 56-70.

  3. Holocene local forest history at two sites in Småland, southern Sweden - insights from quantitative reconstructions using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qiaoyu; Gaillard, Marie-José; Lemdahl, Geoffrey; Olsson, Fredrik; Sugita, Shinya

    2010-05-01

    et al.; Trondman et al., CL 1.22; Mazier et al. CL 1.21) we used 3 sets of pollen taxa (20, 22, 31) and 3 sets of pollen productivity estimates (PPEs) (1. southern Sweden; 2. southern Sweden except for cereals, Calluna, Plantago and Rumex, Denmark; 3. the mean of all PPEs available in NW Europe). The Spearman rank correlation test shows that there are no significant differences between the 9 runs. LOVE was applied on the pollen records from the two small bogs following the same strategy. We also compared the LOVE estimates (20 taxa, PPEs dataset 2) with the records of plant macro-remains and coleoptera species that are indicators of the local occurrence of conifers (Pinus and Picea), Betula, and deciduous trees. The results show large discrepancies between the LOVE estimates and pollen percentages. The LOVE estimates are higher than pollen percentages for Cyperaceae, Gramineae and Filipendula, and the broaded-leaved trees Corylus, Fraxinus, and Tilia. In contrast, the LOVE estimates for Pinus and Betula are generally much lower than their pollen percentages. LOVE estimates and pollen percentages are relatively similar for Alnus, Quercus, and Calluna. The LOVE reconstruction confirms the assumed difference between the sites in terms of the abundance of birch and pine, which was not clearly demonstrated by the pollen percentages and accumulation rates. The Pinus LOVE estimates are significantly higher at one of the sites, which explains the differences in fire history between the sites. The comparison of the LOVE estimates with plant macro-remains and coleoptera species shows a good correspondence. References: Greisman, A. and Gaillard, MJ, 2009. Journal of Quaternary Science, 24(6):593-611. Olsson, F. et al. 2009. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 10.1016/j.palaeo.2009.07.013 Sugita, S., 1993. Quaternary Research, 39:239-244. Sugita, S., 2007a. The Holocene, 17(2):229-241. Sugita, S., 2007b. The Holocene, 17(2):243-257.

  4. Population Characteristics of Mistletoe (Viscum coloratum) in Wandashan Mountain%完达山地区槲寄生(Viscum coloratum)种群特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长宝; 徐增奇; 岳仁杰

    2013-01-01

    Population characteristics of mistletoe in seven types of host trees of six communities in Laopinggang forest farm were studied from April to November 2012.Results showed that:As a whole,the ultimate distribution pattern of mistletoe was determined by the host trees.However,the distribution pattern of mistletoe on individual host trees was aggregated.In terms of quantitative characteristics,the numbers of mistletoe in host trees was Populus davidiana > Betula platyphylla > Alnus sibirica > B.dahurica > Tilia amurensis var.tricuspidata =Acer tegmentosum >A.mono,and the mean number of fruit in a mistletoe was P.davidiana > B.platyphylla > A.sibirica > A.tegmentosum > T.amurensis var.tricuspidata > A.mono > B.dahurica.Red fruit and yellow fruit mistletoe were found on the same host species and the ratio of these two types was one to one.Genetically,the seeds of mistletoe showed excess propagation and their dispersal process had a close relationship with Bombycilla garrulus.Among these seeds,82% were found on fallen leaves,15% on shrubs and 3% on the trunk of host trees.It was concluded that the distribution pattern of host trees,composition and development degree of communities,living habit of seed dispersers and reproductive strategy of mistletoe itself played major roles in the development of the population.%于2012年4-11月对老平岗林场6个群落中7种寄主上的槲寄生(Viscum coloratum)种群进行了研究,结果表明:以寄主为单位,槲寄生的最终分布格局取决于寄主的格局;而在每个寄主上则呈聚集性分布.从数量上看,寄生强度为:山杨>白桦>辽东桤木>黑桦>紫椴=青楷槭>色木槭;各寄主上单株槲寄生平均结果量为:山杨>白桦>辽东桤木>青楷槭>紫椴>色木槭>黑桦;红黄两种果实型植株的比例近于1∶1.从遗传上看,槲寄生表现出过量繁殖特征;其种子传播与太平鸟存在密切联系,

  5. Soil Humus and Aggregate Carbon and Nitrogen in Slope Farmland with Different De-farming Patterns in Southern Sichuan Province%川南坡地不同退耕模式对土壤腐殖质及团聚体碳和氮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景燕; 龚伟; 胡庭兴

    2012-01-01

    通过对川南坡地进行退耕试验,研究坡地退耕成慈竹林、杂交竹林、桤木+慈竹林和弃耕地对土壤腐殖质及团聚体碳和氮的影响。结果表明,坡地退耕5年后土壤腐殖质(胡敏酸、富里酸和胡敏素)、活性腐殖质(活性胡敏酸和活性富里酸)及团聚体碳和氮含量、胡敏酸与富里酸比值和胡敏酸E4/E6值,以及可浸提腐殖质(胡敏酸和富里酸)、活性腐殖质及〉0.25mm各粒径团聚体碳和氮分配比例均增加,并呈现出慈竹林〉杂交竹林〉桤木+慈竹林〉弃耕地〉农耕地的变化规律。土壤团聚体有机碳(氮)含量及其分配比例随土壤团聚体粒径的增加呈现出"V"形变化,其最小值分别出现在2~1mm和0.5~0.25mm粒径。说明川南坡地退耕对增加土壤腐殖质及团聚体碳和氮含量、改善土壤肥力状况和促进土壤碳固定具有重要的作用和意义。%The contents of soil humus(including humic acid,fulvic acid and humin),labile humus(including labile humic acid and fulvic acid) and aggregate carbon and nitrogen fractions were studied under slope farmland(CK) and its four de-farming patterns,including Neosinocalamus affinis plantation(NAP),Bambusa pervariabilis×Dendrocalamopsis oldhami plantation(BDP),Alnus crenastogyne+Neosinocalamus affinis plantation(ANP) and abandoned farmland(AFL).After 5 years' de-farming,all de-farming patterns of slope farmland showed higher contents of humic acid carbon(CHA) and nitrogen(NHA),fulvic acid carbon(CFA) and nitrogen(NFA),humin carbon(CHM) and nitrogen(NHM),labile humic acid carbon(CLHA) and nitrogen(NLHA),labile fulvic acid carbon(CLFA) and nitrogen(NLFA) and aggregate carbon and nitrogen,CHA/CFA ratio,E4/E6 ratio of humic acid,and higher proportions of CHA,CFA,CLHA,CLFA and 0.25 mm particle-sized aggregate carbon in total organic carbon and of NHA,NFA,NLHA,NLFA and 0

  6. population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V rokoch 2011 – 2014 sa realizoval monitoring hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina v ôsmich chránených vtáčích územiach na Slovensku. U 149 hniezdnych párov z celkových 272 úspešných hniezdení počas 4 hniezdnych sezón vyletelo 277 mláďat. Priemerná reprodukčná úspešnosť predstavovala 0,51 juv./prítomný pár, 0,69 juv./hniezdiaci pár a 1,37 juv./100 km2. V uvedenom období bolo okolo hniezd orlov krikľavých ustanovených celkom 151 ochranných zón, ktoré zabezpečili ochranu 119 hniezdnych teritórií, čo predstavuje cca 17 % hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého na Slovensku. Testovaním účinnosti ochranných zón sa zistilo, že v hniezdach s vyhlásenou ochrannou zónou je vyššia pravdepodobnosť úspešného odchovania mláďat v porovnaní s hniezdami bez takejto zóny. Pravdepodobnosť, že hniezdenie bude úspešné v hniezdach hniezdiacich párov bez ochrannej zóny bola 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 37.4–59.0%, v hniezdach s ochrannou zónou 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%. Medzi 5 najčastejšie využívaných hniezdnych stromov na hniezdenie A. pomarina na Slovensku patrí Picea abies 61× (28,4%, Pinus sylvestris 45× (20,9%, Quercus sp. 36× (16,7%, Fagus sylvatica 25× (11,6% a Abies alba 18× (8,4%. Medzi zriedkavejšie druhy hniezdnych stromov patrí Larix decidua 12× (5,6% a Alnus glutinosa 3× (1,4%, ďalších 11 druhov hniezdnych stromov nedosiahli 1 %. Najvyšší počet hniezdnych stromov (n = 215, tj. 34 hniezd (15,8% sa nachádzal v intervale nadmorskej výšky 401 – 450 m a 29 hniezd (13,5% v intervale 351 – 400 m n. m. Ostatné výškové pásma boli pod hranicou 10%. 54% zistených hniezd (116 hniezd sa nachádza vo výškovom pásme 301 – 600 m n. m., 71 hniezd (33% v pásme 600 – 900 m n. m. Najnižšie situované hniezdo bolo v nadmorskej výške 150 m a najvyššie 950 m, priemer bol 595,01 m. Najvyšší počet hniezd (n = 209 bol na strome

  7. Effects of different vegetation types on the shear strength of root-permeated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank; Rickli, Christian; Springman, Sarah M.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of vegetation and, in particular, of forests on the stability of slopes are well recognized and have been widely studied in recent decades. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the underlying processes that occur prior to triggering superficial failures in root-permeated soil. Thus, appropriate quantification of the vegetation effects on the shear strength of soil is crucial in order to be able to evaluate the stability of a vegetated slope. Direct shear testing is widely employed to determine the shearing response of root-permeated soil. However, mechanical aspects of direct shear apparatuses may affect the shear strength parameters derived, which often remains unnoticed and hampers direct comparison between different studies. A robust Inclinable Large-scale Direct Shear Apparatus (ILDSA), with dimensions of 500x500x400 mm, was built in order to shear root-permeated soil specimens and to analyse the influence of the machine setup on the results, too. Two different sets of planted specimens were prepared using moraine (SP-SM) from a recent landslide area in Central Switzerland: a first set consisting of Alnus incana, Trifolium pratense, Poa pratensis and a second set, consisting of these three species complemented with Salix appendiculata, Achillea millefolium, Anthyllis vulneraria. Direct shear tests were conducted on specimens planted with the different vegetation types, at a constant rate of horizontal displacement of 1 mm/min up to a maximum horizontal displacement of 190 mm, and under three different applied normal stresses: 6 kPa, 11 kPa and 16 kPa. Artificial rainfall was applied at a constant intensity (100 mm/h) prior to shearing. Tensiometers had been installed close to the shear surface and were monitored continuously to obtain the matric suction during the saturation process. Suctions were reduced as close to 0 kPa as possible, in order to simulate the loss of strength after a heavy period of rainfall. The analyses of the above

  8. Natural drying methods to promote fuel quality enhancement of small energywood stems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.; Erkkilae, A; Mola-Yudego, B. (and others)

    2010-07-01

    broad-leaved trees, (Petula pubescens), alder (Alnus incana) and sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) dry faster than pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodge pole pine (Pinus contorta). The results showed that debarking using, e.g. a harvester head, can be quite demanding due to different characteristics of tree species and diameters. The debarking device should be designed so that it could be switched on only when needed. This would ensure that the harvester head could be used to harvest normal timber and also energy wood. In conclusion, the drying season is essential to decrease the moisture content particularly in Finland and Scotland. The results show that the moisture content can be decreased by 15-20% in several months using only solar and wind power if more bark than normal is removed and the piles are covered. (orig.)

  9. Research on forest vegetation carbon stock dynamics and capacity of raising carbon sink in Xishuangbanna%西双版纳森林植被碳储量动态与增汇潜力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张修玉; 许振成; 王俊能; 宋巍巍; 秦建桥; 胡习邦; 张婉璐; 邹洁

    2011-01-01

    汇增量表现为栎类(Quercus L.)>经济林>思茅松(Pinus Kesiya)>其它阔叶>桤木(Alnus cremastogyne),主要森林类型的碳密度范围为15.08~74.76t·hm-2;2005-2006年间森林植被整体碳储量为62 347 715.19t,比1994-1993年间上升2.60%,碳汇增量均表现为其它阔叶>经济林>栎类>思茅松>桤木>杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolate)>其它针叶,主要森林类型的碳密度范围为8.60-70.90t·hm-2.(2)2005-2006年间,景洪森林植被整体碳储量为23 299801.23t,碳密度范围为8.78~73.35t·hm-2;勐海森林植被整体碳储量为14 058 043.42t,碳密度范围为7.95~59.51 t·hm-2;勐腊森林植被整体碳储量为25 050 562.32 t,碳密度范围为8.46-98.73 t·hm-2.可见,1993-2006年间,西双版纳森林植被起到了重要的碳汇功能,且其碳汇功能呈上升趋势.

  10. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m2 respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m2. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m2), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m2), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m2). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m2/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m2/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m2/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m2/yr). At the Forsmark sites, the N return in litterfall varied

  11. Tritium and radiocarbon in environmental components of the Ignalina NPP region, Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globally distributed beta-emitters tritium (3H) and radiocarbon (14C) in the Ignalina NPP (INPP) region and in the background regions have been studied in precipitation, annually growing terrestrial and aquatic plants, tree radial rings, surface water, in unconfined and, at smaller scale, in confined groundwater. The biota samples for 3H and 14C measurements were collected in co-operation with Dendrochronology Laboratory of the Vytautas Magnus University. The scintillation forms were prepared using chemical methods: the biota samples for 3H analysis - separating hydrogen from organic matter by oxidation with MnO2 in high temperature and obtaining chemically bound biota water for measurements of 3H activity; for 14C determination - by preparation benzene form from organic carbon. Conventional LSC methods have been used for 3H and 14C determinations. The annual 3H variations in precipitation were studied more in detail in 1997-1998 collecting monthly-integrated samples. The annual average activity of 3H in precipitation of the INPP region in 1997 was 16.6 TU, when in winter season it was 11.7 TU and in summer season - 20.2 TU. The 3H activity in precipitation of the background region in 1993 was the following: annual average - 15.5, in winter season - 11.7 and in summer season - 21.3 TU. The influence of the INPP on the 3H activity in precipitation, according to the data of monthly-integrated samples of precipitation, was not observed. Terrestrial plants assimilate 3H and 14C: the 3H - in processes of moisture transfer; and 14C - from atmosphere using CO2 in processes of photosynthesis by plants. For the evaluation of the 3H and 14C variations in the atmosphere under the influence of the INPP, the activities of these isotopes in annual rings of pine tree (Pinus sylvestris), annual terrestrial plants (Artemisia L.) and tree leafs (Alnus) were studied. Three pine model trees were selected for background area. The maximum and minimum of ring increment coincide in

  12. بررسی مقاومت به چسبندگی رنگ‌های شفاف رایج در صنایع مبلمان بر روی گونه‌های چوبی راش، ملج، توسکا و نوئل

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    محمد غفرانی

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available در این تحقیق، مقاومت به چسبندگی (آزمون خراش- نوارچسب Cross-Cut رنگ‌های شفاف سیلر- کیلر و سیلر- نیم پلی‌استر، و با توجه به درصدرطوبت، در گونه­های چوبی­راش (Fagus orientalis، ملج (Ulmus smontana، توسکا (Alnus glutinosa و نوئل (Picea  glauca مورد مطالعه قرارگرفت. تخته‌هایی به ابعاد 12×110×550 میلی­متر از قسمت برون چوب و از تخته مماسی تهیه شدند و به مدت یک ماه با رعایت اصول روش­های چوب خشک کنی در هوای آزاد قرار گرفتند. سپس برای متعادل‌سازی رطوبت، به طور مجزا برای رسیدن به رطوبت 8، 12 و 15% در سه اتاق کلیما قرار داده شدند. تمامی سطوح نمونه­ها با استفاده از پیستوله رنگ­کاری شدند و آزمون­های­ مقاومت به خراش بر روی آن­ها انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین مقدار مقاومت به خراش، با درصد از دست دادن چسبندگی 4/10%، مربوط به رنگ سیلر- نیم پلی‌استر استفاده شده بر روی گونه­ی چوبی ملج با رطوبت 8% و کمترین مقدار مقاومت به خراش با درصد از دست دادن چسبندگی 6/53%، مربوط به رنگ سیلر- کیلر استفاده شده بر روی گونه­ی چوبی نوئل با رطوبت 15% بوده‌است.

  13. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    .) influenced by flash flood events were sampled using an increment borer. For each tree sampled, additional information were recorded including the geographical position (GPS measure), the geomorphological situation based on a detailed geomorphological map, the social position within neighbouring trees, a description of the external disturbances and information on tree diameter, tree height and the position of the cores extracted. 265 cores were collected. In the laboratory, the 265 samples were analyzed using the standard methods: surface preparation, counting of tree rings as well as measuring of ring widths using a digital LINTAB positioning table and TSAP 4.6 software. Increment curves of the disturbed trees were then crossdated with a reference chronology in order to correct faulty tree-ring series derived from disturbed samples and to determine initiation of abrupt growth suppression or release. The age of the trees in this field site is between 50 and 100 years old. In the field most of the trees were tilted (93 %) and showed exposed roots (64 %). In the laboratory, growth suppressions were detected in 165 samples. Based on the number of trees showing disturbances, the intensity of the disturbance and the spatial distribution of the trees in the field, seven well represented events were dated for the last 50 years: 2005, 2000, 1996, 1976, 1973, 1966 and 1963. The second field site was a reach of 2 km length along the Arenal River, where the stream is channelized. Here stumps from previously felled trees could be analyzed directly in the field. 100 Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Fraxinus angustifolia (Vahl.) cross sections were investigated in order to date internal wounds. Different carpenter tools, sanding paper and magnifying glasses were used to count tree rings and to date the wounds in the field. In addition to the dating in the field, 22 cross sections were sampled and analyzed in the laboratory using the standard methods. The age of the trees ranges between 30

  14. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    ,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

  15. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake [Dept. of Forest Soi ls, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Hyvoenen, Riitta [Dept. of Eco logy, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m{sup 2} respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m{sup 2}. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m{sup 2}), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m{sup 2}), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m{sup 2}). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr). At the

  16. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    's boreal forest Remote Sens. 2 2729-47 Riordan B, Verbyla D and McGuire A D 2006 Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950-2002 remotely sensed images J. Geophys. Res. 111 G04002 Ruess R W, McFarland J M, Trummer L M and Rohrs-Richey J K 2009 Disease-mediated declines in N-fixation inputs by Alnus tenuifolia to early-successional floodplains in interior and south-central Alaska Ecosystems 12 489-502 Stafford J M, Wendler G and Curtis J 2000 Temperature and precipitation of Alaska: 50 year trend analysis Theor. Appl. Climatology 67 33-44 Stow D, Peterson A, Hope A, Engstrom R and Coulter L 2007 Greenness trends of Arctic tundra vegetation in the 1990s: comparison of two NDVI data sets from NOAA AVHRR systems Int. J. Remote Sens. 28 4807-22 van Mantgem P J et al 2009 Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States Science 323 521-4 Walsh, J E, Chapman W L, Romanovsky V, Christensen J H and Stendel M 2008 Global climate model performance over Alaska and Greenland J. Clim. 21 6156-74 Wendler G and Shulski M 2009 A century of climate change for Fairbanks, Alaska Arctic 62 295-300 Zhang K, Kimball J S, Hogg E H, Zhao M, Oechel W C, Cassano J J and Running S W 2008 Satellite-based model detection of recent climate-driven changes in northern high-latitude vegetation productivity J. Geophys. Res. 113 G03033