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Sample records for alnus nepalensis betulaceae

  1. Influence of roadside pollution on the phylloplane microbial community of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S R

    2008-09-01

    The North Eastern region of India is undergoing industrial development at a faster rate than expected. Roads form the main system of transportation and communication owing to the hilly topography of the region. Automobiles discharge a number of gaseous and trace metal contaminants. Human activities like stone grinding, road construction and sand milling also increase the atmospheric dust and heavy metal contaminant level. These contaminants get settled on leaf surfaces at roadsides and enter in contact with phylloplane microorganisms. This study compares microorganisms on leaf surfaces of alder (Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae)) on roadside and non-roadside environments. Two sites dominated by alder were selected. One at a busy road intersection on the National Highway no. 44 in Shillong with high traffic density (8 000-9 000 heavy vehicles/day), taken as the polluted site and the other one in a forest approximately 500 m away from the roadside considered as the unpolluted site. Analysis of phylloplane microorganisms, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur was carried out from leaves. The bacterial population was higher at the unpolluted site. Bacterial population showed a significant negative correlation with lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur. Similarly, fungal population was higher at the unpolluted site. A total of 29 fungal species were isolated from the phylloplane of A. nepalensis (polluted site 16 species; unpolluted site 28 species). Some fungal forms like Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Aureobasidium pollulans were dominant in the polluted site. Numbers of phylloplane fungi and bacteria were significantly reduced in the polluted site. The correlation coefficient indicated a detrimental effect of metals like lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur on the microbial community of leaf surfaces. The specificity of certain fungi to the unpolluted site may be attributed to their sensitivity to pollution. The predominance of Aureobasidium pollulans

  2. Influence of roadside pollution on the phylloplane microbial community of Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R Joshi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The North Eastern region of India is undergoing industrial development at a faster rate than expected. Roads form the main system of transportation and communication owing to the hilly topography of the region. Automobiles discharge a number of gaseous and trace metal contaminants. Human activities like stone grinding, road construction and sand milling also increase the atmospheric dust and heavy metal contaminant level. These contaminants get settled on leaf surfaces at roadsides and enter in contact with phylloplane microorganisms. This study compares microorganisms on leaf surfaces of alder (Alnus nepalensis (Betulaceae on roadside and non-roadside environments. Two sites dominated by alder were selected. One at a busy road intersection on the National Highway no. 44 in Shillong with high traffic density (8 000-9 000 heavy vehicles/day, taken as the polluted site and the other one in a forest approximately 500 m away from the roadside considered as the unpolluted site. Analysis of phylloplane microorganisms, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur was carried out from leaves. The bacterial population was higher at the unpolluted site. Bacterial population showed a significant negative correlation with lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur. Similarly, fungal population was higher at the unpolluted site. A total of 29 fungal species were isolated from the phylloplane of A. nepalensis (polluted site 16 species; unpolluted site 28 species. Some fungal forms like Mortierella sp., Fusarium oxysporum and Aureobasidium pollulans were dominant in the polluted site. Numbers of phylloplane fungi and bacteria were significantly reduced in the polluted site. The correlation coefficient indicated a detrimental effect of metals like lead, zinc, copper, cadmium and sulphur on the microbial community of leaf surfaces. The specificity of certain fungi to the unpolluted site may be attributed to their sensitivity to pollution. The predominance of

  3. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

    OpenAIRE

    GAURAV MISHRA; KRISHNA GIRI; ANTARA DUTTA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder) is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixa...

  4. Short communication: A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAURAV MISHRA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mishra G, Giri K, Dutta A, Hazarika S and Borgohain P. 2015. A laboratory study to validate the impact of the addition of Alnus nepalensis leaf litter on carbon and nutrients mineralization in soil. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 5-7. Plant litter or residues can be used as soil amendment to maintain the carbon stock and soil fertility. The amount and rate of mineralization depends on biochemical composition of plant litter. Alnus nepalensis (Alder is known for its symbiotic nitrogen fixation and capability to restore fertility of degraded lands. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 60 days under controlled conditions to validate the carbon and nutrients mineralization potential of alder litter. Soil fertility indicators, i.e. soil organic carbon (SOC, available nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P, and available potassium (K were analyzed using standard procedures. Significant differences were observed in the soil properties after addition of litter. Nutrient composition of alder litter was found superior by providing significantly higher organic matter and helped in better nutrient cycling. Therefore, alder based land use system may be replicated in other degraded lands or areas for productivity enhancement which is important for sustaining biodiversity and soil fertility.

  5. In situ pollen of Alnus kefersteinii (Goeppert) Unger (Betulales: Betulaceae) from the Oligocene of Bechlejovice, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dašková, Jiřina

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 177, č. 2 (2008), s. 27-31 ISSN 1802-6842 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300130612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : pollen * palaeobotany * Tertiary * Bechlejovice (Czech Republic) * Alnus Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://www.nm.cz/publikace/publikace-download.php?name=File1&dir=archiv&table=tabPublikaceArchiv&id=2174

  6. Efecto de la posición de los frutos en el Estrobilo y tamaño de los mismos, sobre el porcentaje de germinación en Alnus Acuminata H.B.K. (Betulaceae

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    Ruiz Peña María Cristina

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha observado en algunas especies que el tamaño de las semillas puede determinar el mayor o menor porcentaje de germinación de las mismas, especialmente si se trata de especies forestales.En este trabajo se evaluaron nueve tratamientos con el fin de verificar el efecto de la posición de los frutos (semillas en los estróbilos (basal, media y apical y el tamaño de los estróbilos de Alnus acuminaia (pequeño, mediano, grande sobre el porcentaje de germinación, en diferentes  intervalos de tiempo (0, 10 y 20 días de almacenamiento. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con los tratamientos mediano-basal (primera y tercera siembras y mediano-media (segunda siembra. Las semillas almacenadas por espacio de 10 y 20 días mostraron un incremento en el porcentaje de emergencia.

  7. The Genus Alnus, A Comprehensive Outline of Its Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueyang; He, Ting; Chang, Yanli; Zhao, Yicheng; Chen, Xiaoyi; Bai, Shaojuan; Wang, Le; Shen, Meng; She, Gaimei

    2017-08-21

    The genus Alnus (Betulaceae) is comprised of more than 40 species. Many species of this genus have a long history of use in folk medicines. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of diarylheptanoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and other compounds. Diarylheptanoids, natural products with a 1,7-diphenylheptane structural skeleton, are the dominant constituents in the genus, whose anticancer effect has been brought into focus. Pure compounds and crude extracts from the genus exhibit a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities both in vitro and in vivo. This paper compiles 273 naturally occurring compounds from the genus Alnus along with their structures and pharmacological activities, as reported in 138 references.

  8. [Study on the chemical constituents from Sarcopyramis nepalensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hong-Qiao

    2010-04-01

    To study the chemical constituents from Sarcopyramis nepalensis. Compounds were isolated by D101 macroporous adsorption resin column and purified by repeatedly chromatographic techniques on Sephadex LH-20, silica gel and ODS columnl chromatograph. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. Six compounds were isolated from Sarcopyramis nepalensis, and identified as kaempferol (1), myricetic (2), dihydroquercetin (3), egllagic acid (4), isoferulic acid (5) and caffeic acid (6). All compounds are isolated from the genus for the first time.

  9. Comparative Study of the Volatile Components of Fresh and Fermented Flowers of Alnus sieboldiana (Betulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Ghani, Nurunajah; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of the volatile components present in the fresh male and female flowers and young leaves shows that 2-phenylethanol is the major component in all these three organs, which play a significant role in the strong resinous aromatic odor. The male flowers contained styrene as a second major compound. The level of styrene does not affect the male flowers odor concentration. The level of β-phenylethyl cinnamate and trans-methyl cinnamate in the fermented male flowers decreased as the fermentation time increased. This was due to the Penicillium enzymatic action on the fermented male flowers.

  10. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna

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    Anna Maria Mercuri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change.

  11. Plant Responses to Climate Change: The Case Study of Betulaceae and Poaceae Pollen Seasons (Northern Italy, Vignola, Emilia-Romagna)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercuri, Anna Maria; Torri, Paola; Fornaciari, Rita; Florenzano, Assunta

    2016-01-01

    Aerobiological data have especially demonstrated that there is correlation between climate warming and the pollination season of plants. This paper focuses on airborne pollen monitoring of Betulaceae and Poaceae, two of the main plant groups with anemophilous pollen and allergenic proprieties in Northern Italy. The aim is to investigate plant responses to temperature variations by considering long-term pollen series. The 15-year aerobiological analysis is reported from the monitoring station of Vignola (located near Modena, in the Emilia-Romagna region) that had operated in the years 1990–2004 with a Hirst spore trap. The Yearly Pollen Index calculated for these two botanical families has shown contrasting trends in pollen production and release. These trends were well identifiable but fairly variable, depending on both meteorological variables and anthropogenic causes. Based on recent reference literature, we considered that some oscillations in pollen concentration could have been a main effect of temperature variability reflecting global warming. The duration of pollen seasons of Betulaceae and Poaceae, depending on the different species included in each family, has not unequivocally been determined. Phenological responses were particularly evident in Alnus and especially in Corylus as a general moving up of the end of pollination. The study shows that these trees can be affected by global warming more than other, more tolerant, plants. The research can be a contribution to the understanding of phenological plant responses to climate change and suggests that alder and hazelnut trees have to be taken into high consideration as sensible markers of plant responses to climate change. PMID:27929423

  12. Phenolic constituents from Sarcopyramis nepalensis and their α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compound 4, 6 and 7 showed promising α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 0.69 mg/ml, 0.56 mg/ml, 0.45 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Compounds 5-8 were isolated for the first time from S. nepalensis. This is the first report on the characterization of phenolic compounds and possible utilization of S.

  13. Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G; Sharma, E; Sharma, R; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years.

  14. Gene flow and geographic variation in natural populations of Alnus acuminata ssp. arguta (Fagales: Betulaceae in Costa Rica and Panama

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    Olman Murillo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen natural populations in Costa Rica and Panama were used to asses gene flow and geographic patterns of genetic variation in this tree species. Gene flow analysis was based on the methods of rare alleles and FST (Index of genetic similarity M, using the only four polymorphic gene loci among 22 investigated (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A. The geographic variation analysis was based on Pearson`s correlations between four geographic and 14 genetic variables. Some evidence of isolation by distance and a weak gene flow among geographic regions was found. Patterns of clinal variation in relation to altitude (r = -0.62 for genetic diversity and latitude (r= -0.77 for PGI-B3 were also observed, supporting the hypothesis of isolation by distance. No private alleles were found at the single population level.Diecisiete poblaciones naturales de esta especie forestal en Costa Rica y Panamá, fueron investigadas en relación con sus patrones de flujo genético y de variación geográfica. El análisis de flujo genético fue basado en los métodos de los alelos raros y de FST (Indice de similaridad genética M. Los análisis fueron a su vez basados en los únicos cuatro loci genéticos de un total de 22 investigados que mostraron polimorfismo (PGI-B, PGM-A, MNR-A and IDH-A. Los análisis de variación geográfica fueron basados en el desarrollo de correlaciones de Pearson entre 4 variables geográficas y 14 variables genéticas. Alguna evidencia de aislamiento por distancia así como un débil flujo genético entre regiones geográficas fue encontrado. Fueron también observados patrones de variación clinal en relación con la altitud (r = -0.62 para la diversidad genética y latitud (r= -0.77 en PGI-B3, que apoyan la hipotesis de aislamiento por distancia para esta especie. No se encontraron alelos privados en ninguna de las poblaciones investigadas.

  15. Hedera nepalensis K. Koch: A Novel Source of Natural Cancer Chemopreventive and Anticancerous Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Kondrytuk, Tamara P; Haq, Ihsan-ul; Ullah, Nazif; Pezzuto, John M; Mirza, Bushra

    2016-03-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are often used for both the prevention and the treatment of local diseases. Taking into consideration the medicinal importance of Hedera nepalensis within local Pakistani traditions, the present study was undertaken to analyze the in vitro cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic properties of the plant. The in vitro cancer chemopreventive testing was performed using nitrite assay, NFκB assay, aromatase assay, and quinone reductase 1 (QR1) assay. The cytotoxic potential was evaluated on three cancer-cell lines: MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The results of cancer chemopreventive assays show that n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of tested plant have promising cancer chemopreventive potential. Lupeol isolated from n-hexane as well as ethyl acetate fraction showed lowest IC50 (0.20 ± 1.9 μM) in NFκB assay. Crude extract and its fractions inhibited the growth of three cancer cell lines by more than 60%, IC50 value of lupeol varied from 2.32 to 10.2 μM. HPLC-DAD-based quantification of lupeol in different plant tissues demonstrated that leaves of H. nepalensis are a rich source of lupeol (0.196 mg/100 mg dry weight). Our data have shown that H. nepalensis harbors cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic agents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Anti-oxidative and Anti-microbial Activities of Purified MPN-1-1 from Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woong-Suk; Yang, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Yong; Jang, Seong-Ho; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Hwnag, Cher-Won

    2017-01-01

    Persicaria is a genus of flowering plants generally used for traditional medicine and nutritional supplements in tropical and subtropical East Asian countries. Previous studies have shown that Persicaria extracts alleviate lipid peroxidation, hypertension, and inflammation. We investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-microbial effects of ethanol extracts of Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe, and isolated and identified an active compound, MPN-1-1 from the ethanol extracts. Anti-oxidative values, as indicated by the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay, were enhanced by treatment with Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe ethanol extracts, and bacterial growth was inhibited. The active compound (MPN-1-1), which was further isolated and purified from a Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe ethanol extract by medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC), also had strong anti-oxidative and anti-microbial activity. 1H-NMR spectroscopy identified MPN-1-1 as a 1-ethenyl-4,8-dimethoxy-9H-pyrido(3,4-β) indole compound, which is an alkaloid. Our results provide evidence that Persicaria nepalensis (Meisn.) Miyabe extract has strong physiological activity without any toxic effects, and furthermore, MPN-1-1 can be potentially utilized as a natural dietary supplement as well as an anti-oxidant. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O P

    2011-07-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus.

  18. Identification and Isolation of Pharmacologically Active Triterpenes in Betuale Cortex, Betula Pendula Roth., Betulaceae

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    Elvira E. Kovač-Bešović

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Betulae cortex, Betulapendula Roth., Betulaceae, comprise triterpene substances which are confirmed to posses very important pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antiviral. In this study, extraction of triterpene substances from both, inner and external birch bark was carried out and after that qualitative analysis on betulin, betulinic acid, oleanolic acid and lupeol was performed by method of thin layer chromatography. By this separation method, applying system for development benzene-ethyl acetate-formic acid (36:12:5, is gained a good separation of examined triterpene substances from methanol extracts of inner and external birch bark as well as used standards. From obtained row triterpene mixtures, certain triterpene substances are isolated using method of dry column chromatography. To those substances infrared (IR spectra were recorded and compared with IR spectra of adequate standards.The study encloses all obtained IR spectra and interpretations on the basis of which can be concluded that triterpene substances, betulin, betulin acid and lupeol isolated from external birch bark give identical characteristic signals and absorbance as referent standards. Method of dry column chromatography has resulted as simple, efficient, repeatable and economical for laboratory conditions. Beside this, a sufficient quantity of examined triterpene substances is also obtained for continuation of their further analytical analysis.

  19. Antioxidant, antitumor activities and phyto chemical investigation of hedera nepalensis K. koch, an important medicinal plant from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwal, S.; Ullah, N.; Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, B.; Afzal, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hedera nepalensis is a ground-creeping evergreen woody plant growing mainly in the Himalayas and Kashmir. This plant is frequently used in folk medicines for the treatment of various ailments. The present research focused on the pharmacological evaluation and phyto chemical analysis of crude methanolic extract (CME) and three fractions, n-hexane (n-HF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF). The biological assays used for this study included DPPH free radical values scavenging assay, DNA protection assay and potato disc antitumor assay. Maximum antioxidant activities with IC/sub 50/ of 9.834 ppm and 14.22 ppm were shown by EAF and AQF, respectively. Crude methanolic extract (CME) and the fractions OH induced DNA damage assay, at all the concentrations tested. Both also exhibited significant DNA protection activity in EAF and AQF showed well-defined tumor inhibition in the potato disc antitumor assay, with the lowest IC/sub 50/ values shown by EAF and AQF (less than 1 ppm). Phyto chemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides in the crude extract and its fractions. The present study demonstrated that EAF and AQF of Hedera nepalensis have potent antioxidant and antitumor activity with the presence of effective phytochemicals. (author)

  20. Simultaneous determination of naphthalene and anthraquinone derivatives in Rumex nepalensis Spreng. roots by HPLC: comparison of different extraction methods and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Raju; Srivastava, Amit; Jachak, Sanjay M

    2011-01-01

    Rumex nepalensis contains mainly anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives. Although HPLC methods have been reported for the analysis of anthraquinones, neither a phytochemical analysis of Rumex species nor the simultaneous determination of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives in other samples has been reported so far. To develop and validate a HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives in R. nepalensis roots. Anthraquinones and naphthalenes were extracted from R. nepalensis roots by three methods (reflux, ultrasonication and pressurized liquid extraction) using methanol. Separation was achieved on an RP C₁₈ column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.05% orthophosphoric acid in water (solvent A) and methanol (solvent B) using a UV detector (254 nm). Small differences were observed in the contents of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives extracted by the three methods. Chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and nepodin were detected as major constituents. The method showed a good linearity (r² > 0.9992), high precision (RSD anthraquinones and naphthalenes in R. nepalensis and other Rumex species for both quality control as well as routine analytical purposes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cross-amplification and multiplexing of SSR markers for Alnus glutinosa and A. incana

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drašnarová, Alena; Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Doudová, Jana; Douda, Jan; Hadincová, Věroslava; Zákravský, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2014), s. 865-873 ISSN 1614-2942 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : alder * Betulaceae * microcatelites Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2014

  2. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... The nodules of actinorhizal plants, such as Alnus species, are perennial (Baker and Schwintzer 1990; Huss-Danell 1997). In a naturally regenerated Alnus hirsuta var. sibirica stand on the roadside in the central part of Japan, we found as well as the nodule biomass per tree, the nodule size distribution, as.

  3. Occurrence and succession of mycorrhizas in Alnus incana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arveby, A.S. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Section of Forest Ecophysiology; Granhall, U. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology

    1998-12-31

    The occurrence of different mycorrhizas of the grey alder, Alnus incana (L.) Moench., in Sweden was investigated. Root sampling was carried out in planted and natural grey alder stands, representing different soil types, geographical sites, and plant ages. Mycorrhizal infection of roots was found to be frequent at all investigated sites, except for some planted peat bogs, where alders do not occur naturally. At the latter sites, mycorrhizal infection was less frequent and consisted only of ectomycorrhizas. Young trees here were non-mycorrhizal. At all other sites vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) was found to be the almost exclusive type of mycorrhiza in first-year seedlings. In trees older than one year ectomycorrhiza was the dominating type. In the planted stands up to five years of age no fruitbodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. In such stands the ectomycorrhizas generally had thin, translucent mantles and could be observed only by microscopic examination. In one old plantation (27 years) and in the natural stands sporocarps of several specific `alder fungi` were found. Here, the mycorrhizal root tips had thick, mostly whitish mantles. The Hartig net was in all cases confined to penetration between epidermal cells. Soil collected from one alder site and two non-alder biotopes readily infected grey alder seedlings with Frankia and VAM fungi whereas a peat soil failed to infect seedlings with any symbiont. In vitro inoculation of nodulated seedlings with Glomus mossae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe resulted in VAM-infection. Simultaneous syntheses with isolates of alder-specific, and other, ectomycorrhizal fungi, using three different methods, failed. On the basis of these results an endomycorrhizal-ectomycorrhizal succession after the first growth season in Alnus incana is concluded. A subsequent succession of ectomycorrhizal species from early-stage to late-stage ones is discussed 58 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  4. Chlorogenic acid analogues from Gynura nepalensis protect H9c2 cardiomyoblasts against H2O2-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bang-Wei; Li, Jin-Long; Guo, Bin-Bin; Fan, Hui-Min; Zhao, Wei-Min; Wang, He-Yao

    2016-11-01

    Chlorogenic acid has shown protective effect on cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress-induced damage. Herein, we evaluated nine caffeoylquinic acid analogues (1-9) isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis for their protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced H9c2 cardiomyoblast damage and explored the underlying mechanisms. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts were exposed to H 2 O 2 (0.3 mmol/L) for 3 h, and cell viability was detected with MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 staining was performed to evaluate cell apoptosis. MMPs (mitochondrial membrane potentials) were measured using a JC-1 assay kit, and ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation was measured using CM-H 2 DCFDA. The expression levels of relevant proteins were detected using Western blot analysis. Exposure to H 2 O 2 markedly decreased the viability of H9c2 cells and catalase activity, and increased LDH release and intracellular ROS production; accompanied by a loss of MMP and increased apoptotic rate. Among the 9 chlorogenic acid analogues as well as the positive control drug epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) tested, compound 6 (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid ethyl ester) was the most effective in protecting H9c2 cells from H 2 O 2 -induced cell death. Pretreatment with compound 6 (1.56-100 μmol/L) dose-dependently alleviated all the H 2 O 2 -induced detrimental effects. Moreover, exposure to H 2 O 2 significantly increased the levels of Bax, p53, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9, and decreased the level of Bcl-2, resulting in cell apoptosis. Exposure to H 2 O 2 also significantly increased the phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK in the H9c2 cells. Pretreatment with compound 6 (12.5 and 25 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the H 2 O 2 -induced increase in the level of cleaved caspase-9 but not of cleaved caspase-8. It also dose-dependently suppressed the H 2 O 2 -induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK but not that of p38. Compound 6 isolated from the leaves of Gynura nepalensis potently protects H9c2

  5. Modeling and simulation of xylitol production in bioreactor by Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 using unstructured and artificial neural network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, J Sharon Mano; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the use of unstructured kinetic model and artificial neural networks as predictive tools for xylitol production by Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413 in bioreactor. An unstructured kinetic model was proposed in order to assess the influence of pH (4, 5 and 6), temperature (25°C, 30°C and 35°C) and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient kLa (0.14h(-1), 0.28h(-1) and 0.56h(-1)) on growth and xylitol production. A feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) has been developed to investigate the effect of process condition on xylitol production. ANN configuration of 6-10-3 layers was selected and trained with 339 experimental data points from bioreactor studies. Results showed that simulation and prediction accuracy of ANN was apparently higher when compared to unstructured mechanistic model under varying operational conditions. ANN was found to be an efficient data-driven tool to predict the optimal harvest time in xylitol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) from Curcuma longa, Alnus japonica, and Massa Medicata Fermentata inhibits lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells and regulates obesity in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jong Sung; Lee, Hyunghee; Woo, Sangee; Yoon, Miso; Kim, Jeongjun; Park, Sun Dong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2015-08-02

    Adipocyte lipid accumulation due to impaired fatty acid oxidation causes adipocyte hypertrophy and adipose tissue increment, leading to obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the antiobesity effects of the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)) composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata. The effects of GGH(4) and the individual components on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and body weight gain in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were examined using Oil red O staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, quantitative real-time PCR, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. GGH(4), individual components, and an active principle of Curcuma longa curcumin inhibited lipid accumulation and mRNA levels of adipocyte-specific genes (PPARγ, aP2, and C/EBPα) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with control cells. Treatment with GGH(4), the individual components or curcmumin increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial (CPT-1, MCAD, and VLCAD) and peroxisomal (ACOX and thiolase) PPARα target genes. GGH(4) and the individual components also increased PPARα reporter gene expression compared with control cells. These effects were most prominent in GGH(4)-treated cells. However, the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on adipogenesis. An in vivo study showed that GGH(4) decreased body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and visceral adipocyte size with increasing mRNA levels of adipose tissue PPARα target genes in OLETF rats. These results demonstrate that GGH(4) has an antiobesity effects through the inhibition of adipocyte lipid accumulation, and this process may be mediated in part through adipose PPARα activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 ...

  8. Nitrogen metabolism in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa: expression of glutamine synthetase and acetylornithine transaminase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guan, C.; Ribeiro, A.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Jing, Y.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.; Pawlowski, K.

    1996-01-01

    Two nodule cDNA clones representing genes involved in Alnus glutinosa nitrogen metabolism were analysed. ag11 encoded glutamine synthetase (GS), the enzyme responsible for ammonium assimilation, while ag118 encoded acetylornithine transaminase (AOTA), an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of

  9. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-alnus symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules

  10. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... Previous address: Laboratory of Forest Ecology, Graduate School of Agriculture,. Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan. To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction ...

  11. Development of Alnus tenuifolia stands on an Alaskan floodplain: patterns of recruitment, disease, and succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana R. Nossov; Teresa N. Hollingsworth; Roger W. Ruess; Knut. Kielland

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the population dynamics of the keystone symbiotic N-fixing species Alnus tenuifolia (thinleaf alder) and the patterns of primary succession on the Tanana River floodplains of interior Alaska, USA. The goals of this study were to characterize (i) the variation in the population structure of thinleaf alder and its influence on...

  12. Effect of Alnus japonica extract on a model of atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Eun; Park, Kwan Hee; Jeong, Mi Sook; Kim, Han Hyuk; Lee, Do Ik; Joo, Seong Soo; Lee, Chung Soo; Bang, Hyoweon; Choi, Young Wook; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Seo, Seong Jun; Lee, Min Won

    2011-07-14

    The bark of Alnus species has long been used in traditional oriental medicine in the treatment of many pathological conditions, including fever, hemorrhage, diarrhea, alcoholism, various skin diseases (e.g. chronic herpes, eczema and prurigo), and inflammation. In order to assess the immunomodulatory efficacy of a novel herbal medicine in treating atopic dermatitis, we measured serum levels of several allergic and inflammatory biomarkers in NC/Nga mice before and after treatment with this experimental agent. Gene and protein expression analyses of iNOS and COX-2 were quantified by real time PCR and Western blot analysis and serum levels of IL-4, -5 and -13 were also measured by ELISA, all of which were reduced after treatment with the experimental agent. Additionally, serum concentrations of IgE and blood eosinophil counts were reduced in treated mice. The topical application of leaf and bark extract from Alnus japonica suppressed the development of AD-like skin lesions. The percent of blood eosinophils was decreased after treatment with leaf and bark extract from Alnus japonica. The serum IgE and Th2-related cytokine levels were decreased after treatment with leaf and bark extract from Alnus japonica compared with those treated with base cream (vehicle treated AD group). The IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 were lower than those of vehicle treated AD group. We contend that leaf and bark extract from Alnus japonica may prove useful in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and other allergic skin diseases, although more in-depth clinical studies are necessary before clinical implementation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth, nitrogen fixation and mineral acquisition of Alnus sieboldiana after inoculation of Frankia together with Gigaspora margarita and Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashi Yamanaka; Akio Akama; Ching-Yan Li; Hiroaki. Okabe

    2005-01-01

    The role of tetrapartite associations among Frankia, Gigaspora margarita (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus), Pseudomonas putida (rhizobacterium), and Alnus sieboldiana in growth, nitrogen fixation, and mineral acquisition of A. sieboldiana was investigated....

  14. Two new species of Lactarius associated with Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay, Edith

    2014-01-01

    In pure stands of Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta trees from Sierra Norte de Puebla (central Mexico) two undescribed ectomycorrhizal species of Lactarius were discovered. Distinction of the two new species is based on morphological characters and supported with phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region and part of the gene that encodes for the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). The phylogenies inferred recovered the two species in different clades strongly supported by posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. The new Lactarius species are recognized as part of the assemblage of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Alnus acuminata. Information about these taxa includes the morphological variation achieved along 16 monitories 2010-2013. Descriptions are provided. They are accompanied by photos including SEM photomicrographs of basidiospores and information on differences between them and other related taxa from Europe and the United States. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  15. Antifungal constituents in alnus acuminata H.B.K. nodules Constituyentes antifungicos en nódulos radicales de Alnus Acuminata H.B.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Jaime

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata. H.B.K. is a native specimen of economic importance. that is characterized for having root nodules
    that can fix nitrogen. The nodules chemical composition has not been sstablished, but, it has been seen that it has influence over the soil microflora. In order to establish the chemical composition and the activity of the obtained fractions, there were made extractions of the alder nodules. The insulated compounds were; xylose and ribose; an aromatic carboxylicaeid, an fatty aeid, an phenolic biarylheptanoid and a flavonoid glycosic. were also founded. The Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium sp. growing was inhibited by this last one sustance.Alnus acuminata. H.B.K. es una especie nativa de importancia económica que se caracteriza por tener nódulos radicales
    fijadores de nitrógeno. La composición química de los nódulos no se ha establecido; sin embargo, se ha observado que actúa sobre la microflora del suelo. Con el fin de establecer la composición química de las fracciones obtenidas, se.realizaron extracciones a partir de nódulos de Aliso. Los compuestos
    aislados 'fueron: xilosa y ribosa; además se caracterizaron un ácido carboxílico aromático, un ácido graso, un biariheptanoide
    fenólico y un glicósido de flavonoide. Esta última sustancia inhibió el crecimiento de Fusarium oxvsporum y Pythium sp.

  16. Daños causados por Fitopatógenos y Entomofauna asociada en Alnus acuminata H.B.K Damages cause o by Phytopagogenus and Entomofauna asociated in Alnus aeuminata H.B.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Mary Ruth; Coba de Gutierrez Bertha; Acosta Gómez Alfredo

    1989-01-01

    Con estudios realizados sobre árboles de aliso, Alnus aeuminata H.B.K. se sugiere que la presencia de Saltahojas (HOM:Cicadellidae) en alta densidad, proporciona un marco propicio para la invasión de hongos fitopatógenos como Gloesporium, Alternaria y posiblemente roya, entre otros
    lo que conlleva al deterioro gradual de las plantas, debido al efecto sobre los procesos fisiológicos normales.Studies conducted on trees of Alnus aeumínata H.B.K., showed that the presence of leaf hoppe...

  17. Susceptibility of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) seeds and seedlings to Phytophthora alni and other Phytophthora species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, M. M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Phytophthora alni is a highly destructive host specific pathogen to alders (Alnus spp.) spreading all over Europe. Recently this pathogen has been reported to cause diseases in common alder (Alnus glutinosa) in Spain. Seeds and seedlings of A. glutinosa were tested in vitro for their susceptibility to alder Phytophthora and other Phytophthora species. Isolates of P. alni ssp. alni, P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. nicotianae and P. palmivora were used in the experiments. Seeds and seedlings were inoculated with a zoospore suspension and uniform mycelial blocks of agar of the Phytophthora species. Susceptibility was calculated in terms of pathogen virulence on seed germination and seedling mortality 42 and 67 days after inoculation respectively. Seed germination and seedling mortality rates varied differently among the isolates used. Results implied that common alder and its seeds and seedlings are at risk to be infected by P. alni. In addition, other Phytophthora species are able to infect this kind of material showing their relative host non-specificity. This is one important finding concerning alder regeneration in infected areas, and the possibility of disease spread on this plant material. (Author) 42 refs.

  18. Host species and habitat affect nodulation by specific Frankia genotypes in two species of Alnus in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Damon Anderson; Roger W. Ruess; David D. Myrold; D. Lee. Taylor

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the genetic structure (nifD-K spacer RFLP haplotypes) of Frankia assemblages symbiotic with two species of Alnus (A. tenuifolia and A. viridis) in four successional habitats in interior Alaska. We used one habitat in which both hosts occurred to...

  19. Improving germination of red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) seeds with gibberellic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenda Morales; Charles Barden; Cheryl Boyer; Jason Griffin; Lillian Fisher; Joni Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Red elm (Ulmus rubra), gray alder (Alnus incana), and buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) are considered important plants for many Native American tribes in the United States. Native Americans use these 3 species for a variety of traditional and medicinal purposes. For example, red elm is still the preferred firewood for the cultural ceremonies of several tribes....

  20. The ectomycorrhizas of Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae associated with Alnus acuminata in Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Leticia; Bandala, Victor M; Garay-Serrano, Edith

    2015-08-01

    Two pure Alnus acuminata stands established in a montane forest in central Mexico (Puebla State) were monitored between 2010 and 2013 to confirm and recognize the ectomycorrhizal (EcM) systems of A. acuminata with Lactarius cuspidoaurantiacus and Lactarius herrerae, two recently described species. Through comparison of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences from basidiomes and ectomycorrhizas sampled in the forest stands, we confirmed their ectomycorrhizal association. The phytobiont was corroborated by comparing ITS sequences obtained from EcM root tips and leaves collected in the study site and from other sequences of A. acuminata available in Genbank. Detailed morphological and anatomical descriptions of the ectomycorrhizal systems are presented and complemented with photographs.

  1. Daños causados por Fitopatógenos y Entomofauna asociada en Alnus acuminata H.B.K Damages cause o by Phytopagogenus and Entomofauna asociated in Alnus aeuminata H.B.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Mary Ruth

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Con estudios realizados sobre árboles de aliso, Alnus aeuminata H.B.K. se sugiere que la presencia de Saltahojas (HOM:Cicadellidae en alta densidad, proporciona un marco propicio para la invasión de hongos fitopatógenos como Gloesporium, Alternaria y posiblemente roya, entre otros
    lo que conlleva al deterioro gradual de las plantas, debido al efecto sobre los procesos fisiológicos normales.Studies conducted on trees of Alnus aeumínata H.B.K., showed that the presence of leaf hoppers (Hom: Cicadellidae on high density gives the right conditions for the Phytopathogenic fungus invasion like: mildew, Gloesporium, Alternaría and other. Which result gradual damage on aliso trees, because the normal physiology process of the plants could be affected.

  2. Annual pollen sums of alnus in Lublin and Roztocze in the years 2001-2007 against selected meteorological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław M. Kaszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alder (Alnus Mill., as an anemophilous species, produces large quantities of easily dispersed pollen. Annual pollen sums recorded in south-eastern Poland (by the volumetric method - Lanzoni trap and in the area of the village of Guciów in the Central Roztocze region (pollen deposition in Tauber traps were compared. The height at which the respective trap sites were located as well as local and regional vegetation and the distance from the nearest alder communities differ in both cases, likewise, the climate of these two regions differ. The analysed pollen data series cover the years 1998-2007 in Roztocze and 2001-2007 in Lublin. Large differences have been noted in Alnus pollen deposition values between particular years. Among them, there were observed years of very high annual sums (2001, 2003, 2006, as well as years of very low pollen deposition values in both regions (2002, 2005, 2007. In the period in question, the mean value of annual Alnus pollen count for Lublin was 5372 alder pollen grains in m3 of air, and in Roztocze 1647 grains per cm2 of area. During the seven-year period of monitoring (2001-2007, very similar trends were noted with respect to airborne alder pollen concentrations at both trap sites. Pollen data have been analysed against meteorological factors affecting alder pollen production and deposition. These are total precipitation and mean monthly air temperature in June, July and August in the year preceding pollen emission and the same weather elements in January and February in the year of pollen emission. In Roztocze a statistically significant negative correlation has been found between Alnus pollen annual sums and total precipitation in August in the year preceding alder pollen emission and in February in the year of pollen emission. In both regions, the Spearman's correlation coefficient does not show any statistically significant values when comparing annual Alnus pollen sums with mean monthly temperatures of both

  3. Models of sustainable use of alder (Alnus acuminate Kunth hillside area in forest mist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco-Agudo Edilberto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Timber extractions non planned affect negatively in the reduction of forest cover, proper management and planned with minor extractions preserve the natural production allow for longer and sustainable forms a stand to benefit local populations and the same ecosystem. In the basin of Acero Marca has two stands Alnus acuminata that they are extracted continuously. With the purpose of planning the extraction of timber resourses were constructed and evaluated matrix models sustainable harvest of this species on the basis of structures of age. For this, two old structures we worked following a dendrochronological analysis and demographic model of the forestall mass, from making local information by transectos Gentry. According to the demographic model, the potential regression evidences significant differences (p 1 and could be the most appropriate for a planned extraction becoming sustainable over time. The second structure of age proved extremely sensitive to any change. To use the matrix models is not a simple path of going over. In spite of the results, the matrix models joined to ample experience of the observer would be able to present proposals of sustainable handling of the forestal resources.

  4. Morphological variations of genus Alnus in Iran: assessment of five new taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shayanmehr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Alnus has two species in old references of the flora of Iran in which two varieties and one subspecies have been recorded. However, recently, five new taxa have been described and recorded for the flora of Iran. In this study, the herbarium samples were obtained during a widespread sampling from 25 stands, ranged from the most eastern limit of alder dispersion in Golestan to the west of Talish, across the plains and highlands of Hyrcanian forests. After sampling, 28 leaf and female cone morphological traits belonging to 140 alder individuals were measured and analyzed. The results of discriminant analysis showed 11 most important traits in differentiation of the taxa such as leaf angle in apex, blade shape at the base, type of serration, villosity intensity, presence of hairs on the upper surface of leaf and cone shape. In this analysis, 84.3% of recognized individuals were correctly grouped in the related taxon. The maximum disagreement between predicted and recognized groups corresponded to allocation of A. subcordata varieties to villosa and visc versa. Generally, the morphological traits of the two new species including A. dolichocarpa and A. djavanshirii were very similar to that of A. subcordata var. subcordata. While, three sub-species of A. glutinosa were distinguished by the same traits. Finally, the use of DNA barcoding techniques is suggested in order to verify the presence of new taxa in Iran.

  5. Growth and N2 fixation in an Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica stand in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Shigeaki F; Yazaki, Kenichi; Komatsu, Masabumi; Kitao, Mitsutoshi

    2013-11-01

    To estimate the N2 fixation ability of the alder (Alnus hirsuta (Turcz.) var. sibirica), we examined the seasonal variation in nitrogenase activity of nodules using the acetylene reduction method in an 18-year-old stand naturally regenerated after disturbance by road construction in Japan. To evaluate the contribution of N2 fixation to the nitrogen (N) economy in this alder stand, we also measured the phenology of the alder, the litterfall, the decomposition rate of the leaf litter, and N accumulation in the soil. The acetylene reduction activity per unit nodule mass (ARA) under field conditions appeared after bud break, peaked the maximum in midsummer after full expansion of the leaves, and disappeared after all leaves had fallen. There was no consistent correlation between ARA and tree size (dbh). The amount of N2 fixed in this alder stand was estimated at 56.4 kg ha-1 year-1 when a theoretical molar ratio of 3 was used to convert the amount of reduced acetylene to the amount of fixed N2. This amount of N2 fixation corresponded to the 66.4 percent of N in the leaf litter produced in a year. These results suggested that N2 fixation still contributed to the large portion of N economy in this alder stand.

  6. Transpiration of shrub species, Alnus firma under changing atmospheric environments in montane area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Maruyama, A.; Inoue, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the large caldera of Mt. Aso in Japan, grasslands have been traditionally managed by the farmers. Due to changes in the social structure of the region, a large area of the grassland has been abandoned and was invaded by the shrubs with different hydrological and ecophysiological traits. Ecophysiological traits and their responses to seasonally changing environments are fundamental to project the transpiration rates under changing air and soil water environments, but less is understood. We measured the tree- and leaf-level ecophysiological traits of a shrub, Alnus firma in montane region where both rainfall and soil water content drastically changes seasonally. Sap flux reached the annual peak in evaporative summer (July-August) both in 2013 and 2014, although the duration was limited within a short period due to the prolonged rainy season before summer (2014) and rapid decrease in the air vapor pressure deficit (D) in late summer. Leaf ecophysiological traits in close relationship with gas exchange showed modest seasonal changes and the values were kept at relatively high levels typical in plants with nitrogen fixation under nutrient-poor environments. Stomatal conductance, which was measured at leaf-level measurements and sap flux measurements, showed responses to D, which coincided with the theoretical response for isohydric leaves. A multilayer model, which estimates stand-level transpiration by scaling up the leaf-level data, successfully captured the temporal trends in sap flux, suggesting that major processes were incorporated. Thus, ecophysiological traits of A. firma were characterized by the absence of responses to seasonally changing environments and the transpiration rate was the function of the interannually variable environmental conditions.

  7. Nitrogenase and nitrate reductase activities in young Alnus glutinosa, relationship and effect of light-dark treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamar, S.; Thiery, G.; Pizelle, G.

    1995-01-01

    Relations between in vivo nitrogenase (N-2-ase; EC 1.18.6.1) and nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1) activities were studied in young nodulated Alnus glutinosa (L. ) Gaertn. Positive correlations linked N-2-ase activity, constitutive (non-inducible by nitrate) leaf NR activity and plant growth. Light/dark treatments applied to the whole shoot or, separately, to the upper and lower part of shoot led to the finding that(a) the constitutive leaf NR activity depended on direct illumination of the leaf and did not appear subordinate to the N-2-ase activity; (b) the N-2-ase activity was much more efficiently supported by the illumination of the upper (young) leaves than by that of the lower (mature) leaves; (c) the maintenance of nitrate-inducible root NR activity required leaf illumination. The variations of both N-2-ase and root NR activities in response to light/dark treatments emphasize the importance of the photosynthesis for the reduction of dinitrogen and nitrate in nodulated roots of Alnus glutinosa

  8. Informe preliminar sobre aspectos de la biología del Aliso (Alnus acuminata h.b.k.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés de Granada Emira

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Las especies del género Alnus se consideran de gran Importancia porque la raíz se asocia simblóticamente con Actinomycetes, formando nódulos fijadores de nitrógeno atmosférico, siendo este el principal mecanismo para la Incorporación de nitrógeno reducido en suelos pobres (Burns y Hardy, 1975; Torrey, 1976; Normand y Lalonde, 1982. En colombia el Aliso (Alnus acumlnata H.B.K., se encuentra ampliamente distribuido y se ha Iniciado su utilizAción en proyectos de reforestación (Cáceres y Oyola, 1981. La madera es empleada como carbón vegetal y para la fabricación de cajas, cajones, palillos y postes (Slcco
    et al., 1965, también es Importante por el contenido de tanino (Torres, 1983. Sin embargo se hace necesario conocer aspectos básicos de la biologla de esta especie que
    incluyan germinación, fenologla, crecimiento, desarrollo y las interacciones entre la planta y otros organismos asociados, de los cuales se desconoce su relación biológica.

  9. Alnus acuminata in dual symbiosis with Frankia and two different ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola and Alpova diplophloeus) growing in soilless growth medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandra G. Becerra; Euginia Menoyo; Irene Lett; Ching Y. Li

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the capacity of Andean alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth), inoculated with Frankia and two ectomycorrhizal fungi (Alpova austroalnicola Dominguez and Alpova diplophloeus [Zeller and Dodge] Trappe and Smith), for nodulation and growth in pots of a soilless medium...

  10. Two new polyploid species closely related to Alnus glutinosa in Europe and North Africa - An analysis based on morphometry, karyology, flow cytometry and microsatellites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vít, Petr; Douda, Jan; Krak, Karol; Havrdová, Alena; Mandák, Bohumil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 3 (2017), s. 567-583 ISSN 0040-0262 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Alnus glutinosa * flow cytometry * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  11. Fungi occurring on forests injured by air pollutants in the Upper Silesia and Cracow industrial regions. Pt. 10. Mycoflora of dying young trees of Alnus incana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanski, S.; Kowalski, T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a 10-year study on the mortality of Alnus incana in the Upper Silesia industrial region (Poland) are presented in this paper. Fungi which infected the trees at different stages of the disease were identified. The most common were: Cryptosphora suffusa, Hypoxylon fuscum, Peniophora cinerea, P. erikssonii, Pezicula cinnamomea, Tymipanis alnea, and Valsa diatrypa.

  12. N2 fixing alder (Alnus viridis spp.fruticosa) effects on soil properties across a secondary successional chronosequence in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer S. Mitchell; Roger W. Ruess

    2009-01-01

    Green alder (Alnus viridis ssp. fruticosa) is a dominant understory shrub during secondary successional development of upland forests throughout interior Alaska, where it contributes substantially to the nitrogen (N) economy through atmospheric N2 fixation. Across a replicated 200+ year old vegetation...

  13. Ecological features of flowers and the amount of pollen released in Corylus avellana (L. and Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Piotrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hazel and alder bloom as one of the first plants in climatic conditions of Poland. In the present study, detailed observations were made of the structure of flowers of Corylus avellana L. and Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. Pollen yield of the abovementioned species was determined. The number of pollen grains in the theca, anther, flower and inflorescence was calculated. A comparison was made of the number of pollen grains of these taxa recorded during the atmospheric pollen seasons analysed over a period of 8 years in the conditions of Lublin. The study demonstrates that pollen yield of the common hazel inflorescence was 66 mg, whereas for black alder it was 120 mg. It was found that the number of pollen grains produced by the alder inflorescence was 2.2 times higher than by the hazel inflorescence. The atmospheric pollen season of the studied plant taxa was recorded at similar dates, but alder pollen was in much larger concentrations.

  14. Phytophthora alni sp. nov. and its variants: designation of emerging heteroploid hybrid pathogens spreading on Alnus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasier, Clive M; Kirk, Susan A; Delcan, Jose; Cooke, David E L; Jung, Thomas; Man in't Veld, Willem A

    2004-10-01

    In 1993 a destructive new Phytophthora pathogen of riparian Alnus trees was discovered in the UK and subsequently shown to be present in other parts of Europe. The new Phytophthora comprised a group of emergent heteroploid hybrids, probably between P. cambivora and a species related to P. fragariae. These included a common, near tetraploid standard hybrid, the presumptive allopolyploid; and four scarcer major variant types with chromosome numbers intermediate between diploid and tetraploid, named the Swedish, Dutch, German and UK variants. The standard hybrid type is formally designated here as Phytophthora alni subsp. alni. The Swedish variant is designated as P. alni subsp. uniformis; and the Dutch, German and UK variants collectively as P. alni subsp. multiformis. The properties of the Dutch, German and UK variants within subsp. multiformis are informally described. The problems of designating emergent species hybrids under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and the reasons for the taxonomic choices made are discussed.

  15. Black walnut growth increased when interplanted with nitrogen fixing shrubs and trees. [Elaeagnus umbellata, Alnus glutinosa, and Robina pseudocacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.M.; Williams, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Black walnuts (1 year old) were planted at 11 x 11 foot spacing at a site in S. Indiana, in 1967. Two years later they were interplanted with autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), European alder (Alnus glutinosa) or black locust (Robina pseudocacia), or broadcast- sown with Lespedeza striata. Weeds were controlled with amazine in all except the lespedeza plots, and in 1973 the locust trees were killed because they were overtopping the walnuts. No consistent pattern of improved growth was observed until 1975. From 1975 until the end of the study in 1978, height and diameter of walnuts grown with autumn olive were significantly greater than in other treatments, although European alder and black locust also increased growth. The lespedeza failed to establish even after resowing. Walnuts in control plants were not as straight and required more pruning than those grown with nurse trees.

  16. Occurrence, structure, and nitrogen-fixation of root nodules of actinorhizal Arizona alder

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. O. Dawson; Gerald J. Gottfried; D. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Actinorhizal plants are nodulated by the symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia. The genus Alnus in the family Betulaceae is one of the 24 genera in 8 families of angiospermous plants that are actinorhizal. Arizona alder (Alnus oblongifolia Torr.) occurs in isolated populations associated with the watersheds of Madrean Sky Islands in the...

  17. Comparison of Ra-226 nuclide from soil by three woody species Betula pendula, Sambucus nigra and Alnus glutinosa during the vegetation period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šárka; Benešová, Dagmar; Tykva, Richard; Vaňková, Radomíra; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 1 (2007), s. 76-82 ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : radium * Alnus glutinosa * Betula pendula * Sambucus nigra Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2007

  18. Reclamation of a lignite combustion waste disposal site with alders (Alnus sp.): assessment of tree growth and nutrient status within 10 years of the experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzykowski, Marcin; Woś, Bartłomiej; Pająk, Marek; Wanic, Tomasz; Krzaklewski, Wojciech; Chodak, Marcin

    2018-04-11

    Combustion wastes are characterised by extremely low N contents. Therefore, introduction of nitrogen-fixing species at the first stage of their biological reclamation is required. This paper presents an assessment of the growth parameters of alders (Alnus sp.) 10 years after their introduction to a disposal site of lignite combustion waste in Central Poland. Black (Alnus glutinosa) and grey alders (Alnus incana) were planted directly in the combustion waste. The soil amendment included three variants: control with pure combustion waste, admixture of lignite culm and addition of acid sand. Both alder species displayed good growth parameters comparable to those of alders in natural habitats. However, black alder had better growth parameters, such as stand density index (SDI), diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H) than grey alder. The lignite amendment exerted a positive effect on tree growth, reflected in a higher SDI and H, whereas the acid sand amendment did not affect any of the growth parameters of the studied alder species. Despite the good growth parameters, the measured N:P and N:K ratios in the alder leaves largely differed from the optimal values indicating insufficient P and K supply at the combustion waste disposal site. This may pose a threat to further development of the introduced tree plantings. The introduction of alders along with the lignite addition into the planting holes seems to be a successful method of combustion waste revegetation.

  19. The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to fine roots and annual fine root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytter, Rose-Marie

    2013-09-01

    The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on fine root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz sand. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of fine roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of fine roots root production (roots 1-2 mm. Proportionally more C was allocated to fine roots (≤2 mm) in N or water-limited Salix; 2.7 and 2.3 times the allocation to fine roots in the unlimited regime, respectively. Estimated input to soil organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on fine root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. Fine root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher fine root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light.

  20. Nitrogen fixation in lysimeter-grown grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) saplings - influence of nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Tom; Rytter, L.

    1998-07-01

    A lysimeter study was started in order to test if nitrogen fixation as well as biomass production in grey alder plantations (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) can be stimulated by daily addition of small N doses. One-year-old grey alder saplings were planted in undrained lysimeters, each filled with 200 litres of quartz sand. Water and a low-concentrated balanced nutrient solution were distributed daily via a drip irrigation system. In this paper a complete N budget for the first growing season is presented. The results showed that presence of mineral N in the growth substrate had no beneficial effect on growth during the first growing season. The capacity of the plants to make use of the daily N additions was overestimated in this investigation. Almost twice as much N was added with fertilizers as the amount of N accumulating in the tissues. Consequently, the N concentration in the drainage water increased and the annual rate of N{sub 2}-fixation was strongly suppressed, 31 mg N plant{sup -1} (1 kg N ha{sup -1}) versus 1700 mg N plant{sup -1} (32 kg N ha{sup -1}) in the controls. However, no harmful effect of the elevated soil-N concentration on nodule development could be detected.

  1. High Genetic Diversity and Distinctiveness of Rear-Edge Climate Relicts Maintained by Ancient Tetraploidisation for Alnus glutinosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepais, Olivier; Muller, Serge D.; Ben Saad-Limam, Samia; Benslama, Mohamed; Rhazi, Laila; Belouahem-Abed, Djamila; Daoud-Bouattour, Amina; Gammar, Amor Mokhtar; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Bacles, Cécile Fanny Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Populations located at the rear-edge of a species’ distribution may have disproportionate ecological and evolutionary importance for biodiversity conservation in a changing global environment. Yet genetic studies of such populations remain rare. This study investigates the evolutionary history of North-African low latitude marginal populations of Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., a European tree species that plays a significant ecological role as a keystone of riparian ecosystems. We genotyped 551 adults from 19 populations located across North Africa at 12 microsatellite loci and applied a coalescent-based simulation approach to reconstruct the demographic and evolutionary history of these populations. Surprisingly, Moroccan trees were tetraploids demonstrating a strong distinctiveness of these populations within a species otherwise known as diploid. Best-fitting models of demographic reconstruction revealed the relict nature of Moroccan populations that were found to have withstood past climate change events and to be much older than Algerian and Tunisian populations. This study highlights the complex demographic history that can be encountered in rear-edge distribution margins that here consist of both old stable climate relict and more recent populations, distinctively diverse genetically both quantitatively and qualitatively. We emphasize the high evolutionary and conservation value of marginal rear-edge populations of a keystone riparian species in the context of on-going climate change in the Mediterranean region. PMID:24098677

  2. Ancient plant remains with special reference to buckthorn, Frangula alnus Mill., pyrenes from Dascyleum, Balıkesir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oybak Dönmez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonized plant remains recovered from the ancient city Dascyleum (Daskyleion in the province of Balıkesir in northwestern Turkey provide an outline of several phases of plant use in archaic, Hellenistic, and medieval times. At the study site, various crop plant remains of Near Eastern agriculture, including cereals (barley, Hordeum vulgare L. and bread/durum/rivet wheat, Triticum aestivum L. / T. durum Desf. / T. turgidum L. and pulses [bitter vetch, Vicia ervilia (L. Willd.; grass pea, Lathyrus sativus L. / L. cicera L.; fava bean, V. faba L.; and chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.] were found. Drupaceous fruits and pyrenes of buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. were also found, probably representing dyes and/or medicines used by the inhabitants of the mound. Archaeometrical analyses of the ancient buckthorn pyrenes by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA provide chemical evidence for traces of ancient mordants remaining until the present day. Some of the pulse seed remains retrieved from the medieval layers at the study site were found to have been infested by bruchid beetles (Bruchidae.

  3. Pre-logging Treatment of Invasive Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. Promotes Regeneration of Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-native glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. is invasive in forests of the northeastern USA but little is known of its effects on tree regeneration. We tested whether killing buckthorn stems before logging reduces its post-logging abundance and increases the density and height of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. seedlings. Three 0.4 ha plots were clearcut, three were thinned, and three were left as controls. Each plot had previously been divided into three subplots that received different buckthorn treatments during the two years before logging. Buckthorn treatments were (1 stems cut at base five times; (2 stems cut once then heat killed four times; (3 untreated control. Three years post-logging, buckthorn density and stem height were unaffected by logging but equally reduced by the two buckthorn treatments. Buckthorn reduction increased density and height of pine seedlings, and seedling height also increased with logging. In the fifth year post-logging, pine height growth and biomass were greater in clearcut than in thinned treatments, greater in areas of buckthorn removal and, within treated subplots, greater in areas with low buckthorn density than in thickets of recovering buckthorn. Thus, although buckthorn inhibited regenerating pine, pre-logging destruction of buckthorn stems reduced such competition for at least four years.

  4. Soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and phosphorus forms in ancient and post-agricultural black alder [Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn.] woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Orczewska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black alder, an N-fixing tree is considered to accelerate the availability of phosphorus in soils due to the increased production of phosphatase enzymes, which are responsible for the P release from the litter. Acid phosphatase activity plays a pivotal role in organic P mineralization in forest soils and in making P available to plants. In order to check whether Alnus glutinosa stimulates acid phosphomonoesterase (PHACID activity, we compared enzyme activities, total P concentration (PTOT, plant-available P (PAVAIL, organic P (PORG and inorganic P (PINORG, and organic matter content in 27 ancient and 27 post-agricultural alder woods (the latter ones representing different age classes: 11-20, 21-40 and 41-60 years of soil samples taken from the litter and the mineral layers. Phosphomonoesterase activity, organic matter, PTOT, PINORG and PORG concentrations were significantly higher in ancient alder woods than in the soils of post-agricultural forests. Significant differences in the acid phosphatase activity, organic matter and PAVAIL concentration were noted between the litter and mineral layers within the same forest type. In recent stands the amount of organic matter and phosphatase activity increased significantly with the age of alder stands, although only in the mineral layer of their soils. Phosphomonoesterase activity, organic matter and PAVAIL content were higher in a litter layer and decreased significantly at a mineral depth of the soil. The acid phosphatase activity was significantly correlated with organic matter content in both ancient and recent stands. There was no significant relationship between PHACID activity and any P forms.

  5. Effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Alnus cordata on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini T

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Results about the effects of thinning and mixed plantations with Italian alder (Alnus cordata Loisel. on growth and efficiency of common walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations for wood production are reported. The study, carried out for six years on sixteen year old plantations, compared three theses: pure common walnut plantation (pure common walnut; 50% common walnut - 50% Italian alder plantation; 25% common walnut - 75% Italian alder plantation. Beyond annual surveys of girth at breast height, total height, stem volume and biomass, several variables, useful to describe canopy and foliage characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI, leaf biomass and photosynthetic active radiation below the canopy, were recorded. Data collected allowed to compare growth at individual and whole stand level, to calculate the net assimilation rate (NAR and to compare the growth efficiency of the three theses. Mixed plantations performed results significantly higher than the pure plantation in terms of growth, LAI and leaf biomass both before and after experimental thinning. With reference only to common walnut, growth in mixed plantations was higher than the pure plantation with differences ranging from +40% to +100%. More relevant differences among pure common walnut, 50% common walnut and 25% common walnut at canopy and foliage characteristics were observed, with LAI values of 1.07, 3.96 e 4.35 m2 m-2 respectively. Results accounted for a general positive effect of Italian alder as accessory tree species on growth and efficiency of mixed plantations, mainly due to the good performances induced in common walnut trees. Such performances were enabled by the good ecological integration between the two species and by the positive effects of N-fixing activity of Italian alder. Experimental thinning applied, although heavy, did not biased the dynamics observed before thinning both in pure and mixed plantations. In addition, they had positive effects on common walnut

  6. Flash-flood impacts cause changes in wood anatomy of Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus angustifolia and Quercus pyrenaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, J A; Stoffel, M; Bollschweiler, M; Bodoque, J M; Díez-Herrero, A

    2010-06-01

    Flash floods may influence the development of trees growing on channel bars and floodplains. In this study, we analyze and quantify anatomical reactions to wounding in diffuse-porous (Alnus glutinosa L.) and ring-porous (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) trees in a Mediterranean environment. A total of 54 cross-sections and wedges were collected from trees that had been injured by past flash floods. From each of the samples, micro-sections were prepared at a tangential distance of 1.5 cm from the injury to determine wounding-related changes in radial width, tangential width and lumen of earlywood vessels, and fibers and parenchyma cells (FPC). In diffuse-porous A. glutinosa, the lumen area of vessels shows a significant (non-parametric test, P-value <0.05) decrease by almost 39% after wounding. For ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, significant decreases in vessel lumen area are observed as well by 59 and 42%, respectively. Radial width of vessels was generally more sensitive to the decrease than tangential width, but statistically significant values were only observed in F. angustifolia. Changes in the dimensions of earlywood FPC largely differed between species. While in ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica the lumen of FPC dropped by 22 and 34% after wounding, we observed an increase in FPC lumen area in diffuse-porous A. glutinosa of approximately 35%. Our data clearly show that A. glutinosa represents a valuable species for flash-flood research in vulnerable Mediterranean environments. For this species, it will be possible in the future to gather information on past flash floods with non-destructive sampling based on increment cores. In ring-porous F. angustifolia and Q. pyrenaica, flash floods leave less drastic, yet still recognizable, signatures of flash-flood activity through significant changes in vessel lumen area. In contrast, the use of changes in FPC dimensions appears less feasible for the determination of

  7. Characterization of lead resistant endophytic Bacillus sp. MN3-4 and its potential for promoting lead accumulation in metal hyperaccumulator Alnus firma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Mi-Na; Shim, Jaehong; You, Youngnam; Myung, Hyun; Bang, Keuk-Soo; Cho, Min; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Endophytic Bacillus spp. have reduced the lead toxicity in Alnus firma plants. ► The bacteria have sequestered the Pb molecules extracellularly. ► The bacteria have increased the growth rate of plants in the presence of Pb. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize endophytic bacteria from the roots of the metal hyperaccumulator plant Alnus firma. A total of 14 bacterial endophytes were isolated from root samples and assayed for tolerance to heavy metals. Isolate MN3-4 exhibited maximum bioremoval of Pb and was subsequently identified as Bacillus sp. based on 16S rRNA sequences. The pH and initial metal concentration highly influenced the Pb bioremoval rate. The growth of isolate MN3-4 was moderately altered in the presence of metals. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, biological-transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed that isolate MN3-4 had extracellularly sequestered the Pb molecules with little intracellular accumulation. Isolate MN3-4 did not harbor pbrA and pbrT genes. Moreover, isolate MN3-4 had the capacity to produce siderophores and indoleacetic acid. A root elongation assay demonstrated an increase (46.25%) in the root elongation of inoculated Brassica napus seedlings compared to that of the control plants. Obtained results pointed out that isolate MN3-4 could potentially reduce heavy metal phytotoxicity and increase Pb accumulation in A. firma plants.

  8. Recent similarity in distribution ranges does not mean a similar postglacial history: a phylogeographical study of the boreal tree species Alnus incana based on microsatellite and chloroplast DNA variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Havrdová, Alena; Krak, Karol; Hadincová, Věroslava; Vít, Petr; Zákravský, Petr; Douda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 210, č. 4 (2016), s. 1395-1407 ISSN 0028-646X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : postglacial migration * population structure * Alnus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 7.330, year: 2016

  9. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N tot , ammonium and generating higher BOD 7 . Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H + -ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. - Highlights: ► We examined Acer negundo and Alnus glutinosa leaf extract effects on hydrophytes. ► Nitellopsis obtusa and Lemna minor responded differently to leaf litter leachates. ► 90-day biodegraded A. negundo leaves lost twofold more biomass than that of A. glutinosa. ► A. negundo leachates evoked higher mortality and cell depolarization of N. obtusa. ► Leachates affected H + -ATPase activity in algae membrane preparations. - Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter waterbody can be environmental factor affecting differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems, thus influencing ecological scenarios.

  10. Procesos morfológicos en la iniciación y desarrollo de nódulos en aliso (Alnus acuminata H.B.K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niño Luz Marina

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available La especie nativa Alnus ecuminata H.B.K. (Aliso establece una relación simbiótica en las raíces con un Actinomycete
    del género Frankia. De esta asociación resulta la formación de nódulos que tienen capacidad para fijar nitrógeno atmosférico y mejorar la disponibilidad de este elemento
    en los suelos. Para evaluar y analizar los cambios morfológicos originados por el establecimiento de la asociación, se inocularon con nódulos macerados plántulas de. Aliso sembradas en medio estéril. Periódicamente, a partir de los tratamientos, las raíces de Aliso fueron muestradas y procesadas empleando técnicas de microscopía óptica y electrónica. Las observaciones efectuadas mostraron
    al simbionte en cuatro formas: esporas, hifas, ves ículas y bacteroides y revelaron que el proceso de iniciación y desarrollo de los nódulos fue similar al de otras especies del
    género Alnus estudiadas en las Zonas templadas. Frankia penetró a los tejidos de la planta vía pelo radical, invadió luego el tejido cortical e indujo la formación del nódulo, el cual emergió a manera de una raíz lateral. Además se estableció que la hifas forma inefectiva de Frankia, penetró por células epidermales jóvenes. En estadios iniciales de infección, el Actinomycete se encontró en espacios intercelulares, aunque siempre terminó estableciéndose en células del tejido cortical.

  11. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of primitive Biłgoraj horses on the glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus)-dominated understory in a mixed coniferous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klich, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Changes in the understory dominated by glossy buckthorn Frangula alnus via the influence of primitive horses were analyzed in a 28-year-old enclosure in the village of Szklarnia at the Biłgoraj Horse-Breeding Centre near Janów Lubelski (eastern Poland). The analysis was conducted in 20 circular plots (30 m2) defined in adjacent, similar forest stands (enclosed and control). Disturbance by the horses, mainly through trampling, caused numerous paths to form within the glossy buckthorn-dominated understory and led to a decrease in density of stems of lower height classes (30-80 and 81-130 cm, respectively). An increase in species diversity at the expense of glossy buckthorn density was also observed. The horses' trampling caused an increase in Padus avium density and the encroachment of other woody plant species that were less shade-tolerant and grew well in soils rich in nutrients. An increase in the density of woody plants over 180 cm above ground was observed within the enclosure, which was probably the result of the horses' excretion of feces. The results presented here provide new insight into the ecological role that horses play in forest-meadow landscape mosaics, which, via altering the development of vegetation, may contribute to an increase in biodiversity within forest habitats.

  13. Limited evaluation of physical and mechanical properties of Nepal alder grown in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. C. Gerhards

    1964-01-01

    Nepal alder (Alnus nepalensis ) grown in Hawaii was evaluated for shrinkage, strength in bending, and hardness. This Hawaii-grown wood was comparable in bending strength to wood of the same species grown in Bengal, India, but was lower in modulus of elasticity and exhibited greater hardness and shrinkage. It was also harder than such Mainland species as aspen (Populus...

  14. Amplicon restriction patterns associated with nitrogenase activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... Pl. Mol. Biol. Reporter 1 19–21. Jackson ML 1967 Soil chemical analysis (New Delhi, India: Pren- tice Hall). Navarro E, Bousquet J, Moiroud A, Munive A, Piou D and. Normand P 2003 Molecular phylogeny of Alnus (Betulaceae), inferred from nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. Plant Soil. 254 207–217.

  15. Alder and the Golden Fleece: high diversity of Frankia and ectomycorrhizal fungi revealed from Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata roots close to a Tertiary and glacial refugium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Roy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent climatic history has strongly impacted plant populations, but little is known about its effect on microbes. Alders, which host few and specific symbionts, have high genetic diversity in glacial refugia. Here, we tested the prediction that communities of root symbionts survived in refugia with their host populations. We expected to detect endemic symbionts and a higher species richness in refugia as compared to recolonized areas. Methods We sampled ectomycorrhizal (EM root tips and the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia communities in eight sites colonized by Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata close to the Caucasus in Georgia. Three sites were located in the Colchis, one major Eurasian climatic refugia for Arcto-Tertiary flora and alders, and five sites were located in the recolonized zone. Endemic symbionts and plant ITS variants were detected by comparing sequences to published data from Europe and another Tertiary refugium, the Hyrcanian forest. Species richness and community structure were compared between sites from refugia and recolonized areas for each symbionts. Results For both symbionts, most MOTUs present in Georgia had been found previously elsewhere in Europe. Three endemic Frankia strains were detected in the Colchis vs two in the recolonized zone, and the five endemic EM fungi were detected only in the recolonized zone. Frankia species richness was higher in the Colchis while the contrary was observed for EM fungi. Moreover, the genetic diversity of one alder specialist Alnicola xanthophylla was particularly high in the recolonized zone. The EM communities occurring in the Colchis and the Hyrcanian forests shared closely related endemic species. Discussion The Colchis did not have the highest alpha diversity and more endemic species, suggesting that our hypothesis based on alder biogeography may not apply to alder’s symbionts. Our study in the Caucasus brings new clues to understand symbioses biogeography and

  16. Efecto del medio de soporte en la estabilidad biológica de dos cepas de Frankia aisladas de Alnus acuminata H. B. K.

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    Ana María Rey

    Full Text Available Alnus acuminata H. B. K. es una especie arbórea que puede ser incorporada en sistemas silvopastoriles, ya que tiene la capacidad de crecer en suelos marginados y contribuir a la conservación de la biodiversidad y al mejoramiento del suelo; lo cual se relaciona con la incorporación de hojarasca, el efecto de sombra, la retención de humedad, el reciclaje de nutrientes y la fijación de nitrógeno atmosférico, debido a su asociación simbiótica con el actinomiceto Frankia. La utilización de este como inoculante es una tecnología que requiere un profundo análisis de su comportamiento en condiciones controladas. Por otra parte, para la comercialización de los biofertilizantes es importante conservar su calidad el mayor tiempo posible, de lo cual depende la aceptación del producto en la cadena productiva. Por ello, se realizó una investigación con el objetivo de evaluar la estabilidad biológica de las cepas nativas de Frankia (Aan17 y Aac49 con diferentes proporciones sustrato:cepa, así como el efecto del alamacenamiento a 4 °C. Las cepas fueron tolerantes a los cambios del pH y al almacenamiento en condiciones de refrigeración. Se concluye que los inoculantes se deben almacenar a 4 °C durante 120 días, con una proporción de 80:20 (inoculante:sustrato en Aan17 y 60:40 en Aac49. En estos sustratos la proteína microbial se mantuvo por encima de 0,65 mg/mL en Aan17 y 0,7 mg/mL en Aac49.

  17. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  18. Contribución al conocimiento de la biología y taxonomía de un hongo del género Phytium aislado del "aliso", Alnus acuminata HBK

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    Marina Correa de Restrepo

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biological aspects of an isolated fungus of Alnus acuminata roots were studied. It bas been found Tbat between OOC and 4°C tbe fungi grows fast. This condition can result in a important factor in the ecophysiology of 'Aliso' populations, that grows in secondary forests at sub-paramo, After a review of the taxonomic literature, we placed it in the Phytium genus, but not in a particular described species. We assume that it is a new species. We modificated the microculture technique that was simpler and safer and them we made direct observations about tbe fungus growtb and development. As for now it is nominated as Phytiun near Mammillatum Meurs. Palabras Claves: Phytium, bongos, A/nus acuminata HBK., "Aliso".

  19. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus Rubra following fertiliztion with urea or biosolids Fixação de nitrogênio e crescimento de Alnus Rubra fertilização com uréia ou biosólidos

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    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fertilization of forests using biosolids offers a potentially environmentally friendly means to accelerate tree growth. This field study was designed to analyze the effects of nitrogen fertilization on the symbiotic, nitrogen (N-fixing relationship between Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder and Frankia. Anaerobically digested, class B biosolids and synthetic urea (46% N were applied at rates of 140, 280 and 560 kg ha-1 available N to a well-drained, sandy, glacial outwash soil in the Indianola series (mixed, mesic Dystric Xeropsamments. Plots were planted with A. rubra seedlings. At the end of each of two growing seasons trees were harvested and analyzed for the rate of N fixation (as acetylene reduction activity, biomass and foliar N. At year 1, there was no N fixation for trees grown with urea amendments, but control (17 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 and biosolids (26-45 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 trees were fixing N. At the end of year 2, all trees in all treatments were fixing N (7 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, 4-16 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, and 20-29 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 for control, urea and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with biosolids amendments were larger overall (year 1 shoot biomass 10 g, 5 g, and 23 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 shoot biomass 50 g, 51 g, and 190 g for control, urea, and biosolids respectively with higher concentrations of foliar N for both years of the study (year 1 foliar N 26 g kg-1, 27 g kg-1, and 40 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively, year 2 foliar N 17 g kg-1, 19 g kg-1, and 23 g kg-1 for control, urea, and biosolids respectively. Trees grown with urea amendments appeared to use the urea N over Frankia supplied N, whereas the biosolids trees appeared to be able to use both N in biosolids and N from Frankia. The results from this study indicated that the greater growth of A. rubra may have been responsible for the observed higher N demand. Biosolids may have supplied other nutrients to the

  20. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE CAL A PLANTACIONES DE JAÚL (Alnus acuminata EN ANDISOLES DE LA CUENCA ALTA DEL RÍO VIRILLA, COSTA RICA

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    Marlon Salazar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de evaluar el impacto de adicionar cal a plantaciones de jaúl (Alnus acuminata (H.B.K. O. Kuntze en Andisoles de la cuenca alta del río Virilla, Costa Rica, se realizó el presente trabajo en 2 localidades: 1 Finca Hospicio: Ubicada en la localidad de Vista de Mar, cantón de Goicoechea, a una altitud de 1542 msmn; el suelo se clasificó como Typic Udivitrands y la plantación se estableció en el 2002. 2 Finca Dorval: Ubicada en la localidad de Las Nubes, cantón de Vásquez de Coronado, a una altitud de 1925 msnm; el suelo se clasificó como Thaptic Udivitrands y la plantación se estableció en 1997. Los tratamientos aplicados fueron 0 (testigo, 750, 1500 y 2250 kg.ha-1 de carbonato de calcio y magnesio (Dolomita, 1500 kg.ha-1 de carbonato de calcio (Calcita y 1500 kg.ha-1 de sulfato de calcio (Yeso. Se midieron el diámetro a la altura del pecho (DAP a 1,3 m, la altura total de los árboles (m y se estimó el volumen (V mediante la formula: V(m3=2,71828¿10,0557+ln(d*2,0369+0,9277 18*ln(h propuesta por Segura et al. (2005, en la cual d es el DAP en cm y h es la altura total en m. Al comparar las mediciones del diámetro a la altura del pecho, incremento medio anual en diámetro (IMA-DAP, altura total, incremento medio anual en altura (IMA-ALT, volumen total e incremento en volumen total, por dosis y fuentes de cal aplicada, se observó que ningún tratamiento causó diferencias estadísticas, en estas variables en ninguna de las 2 fincas comparadas ni entre épocas de medición. La adición de fuentes y niveles de cal no afectó significativamente las variables diámetro, altura y volumen. La falta de respuesta a las diferentes enmiendas comparadas demuestra que el suelo proporcionó suficiente Ca, Mg y S para asegurar el crecimiento óptimo del jaúl. Tampoco se encontró que los suelos mostraran problemas de acidez de magnitud tal que afectaran negativamente el crecimiento del jaúl.

  1. Determining bioclimatic space of Himalayan alder for agroforestry systems in Nepal

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    Santosh Kumar Rana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan alder species are proven to be very useful in traditional as well as contemporary agroforestry practice. These nitrogen-fixing trees are also useful in the land restoration. Therefore, understanding the distribution of Himalayan alder and the potential zone for plantation is meaningful in the agroforestry sector. Suitable climatic zones of Alnus spp. were modelled in MaxEnt software using a subset of least correlated bioclimatic variables for current conditions (1950–2000, topographic variables (DEM derived and Landuse Landcover (LULC data. We generated several models and selected the best model against random models using ANOVA and t-test. The environmental variables that best explained the current distribution of the species were identified and used to project into the future. For future projections, ensemble scenarios of climate change projection derived from the results of 19 Earth System Models (ESM were used. Our model revealed that the most favorable conditions for Alnus nepalensis are in central Nepal in the moist north-west facing slope, whereas for Alnus nitida they are in western Nepal. The major climatic factor that contributes to Alnus species distribution in Nepal appears to be precipitation during the warmest quarter for A. nepalensis and precipitation during the driest quarter for A. nitida. Future projections revealed changes in the probability distribution of these species, as well as where they need conservation and where they can be planted. Also, our model predicts that the distribution of Alnus spp. in hilly regions will remain unchanged, and therefore may represent sites that can be used to revitalize traditional agroforestry systems and extract source material for land restoration.

  2. Effect of aqueous extracts of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (LINNAEUS, 1753 GAERTNER, 1791 and elder (Sambucus nigra LINNAEUS, 1753 on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae LINNAEUS, 1758 (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (M’INTOSH, 1855 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage

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    Jankowska Beata

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal and antifeedant effects of aqueous extracts from two common plants (black alder Alnus glutinosa and elder Sambucus nigra on the occurrence of Brevicoryne brassicae, its parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae and predatory Syrphidae on white cabbage were investigated in 2008-2009. Both extracts reduced the number of cabbage aphids, although the Sambucus nigra extract proved to have a better effect. Differences were seen both in the numbers of winged aphids settling on plants and in the overall numbers of aphids on plants during the entire season. There were no significant differences in the degree of parasitization by Diaeretiella rapae in the three experimental combinations. Eight species of Syrphidae were found in the Brevicoryne brassicae colonies: Episyrphus balteatus, Sphaerophoria scripta, S. rueppelli, S. menthastri, Eupeodes corollae, Scaeva pyrastri, Scaeva selenitica and Syrphus vitripennis. The dominant species was Episyrphus balteatus. The largest numbers of syrphid larvae and pupae were collected from cabbage aphid colonies on the control plants. Smaller numbers were recorded on the plot where the cabbages were sprayed with the Sambucus nigra extract. The results of this study indicate that botanical insecticides based on S. nigra have the potential to be incorporated into control programmes for the cabbage aphid.

  3. Evidence of carpinus (betulaceae) in the late tertiary (pliocene) of alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, Debra Z; Axsmith, Brian J; Haywick, Douglas

    2002-09-01

    Carpinus is a common and widespread element of the modern North American forest vegetation, but its scant fossil record on the continent is perplexing, especially considering the abundant and relatively continuous record of the genus in the Tertiary of Europe and Asia. Despite earlier claims of Tertiary Carpinus remains, recent reviews have indicated that a definitive post-Eocene Tertiary record of the genus in North America is lacking. Therefore, it remains uncertain if Carpinus was present but left no clear fossil record or if the genus became extinct in North America and migrated back to the continent more recently. A reinvestigation of the Citronelle Formation paleoflora has yielded conclusive evidence for the presence of Carpinus in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Alabama during the Pliocene based upon the discovery of a nutlet bract. Carpinus bracts are distinctive and consist of a central bract fused basally with two lateral bractlets. This specimen provides proof of the existence of Carpinus on this continent by the Pliocene Epoch, and any future research on the biogeography of the genus must consider this as the earliest, post-Eocene record of the genus in North America based on unequivocal reproductive structures.

  4. No taxon left behind? – a critical taxonomic checklist of Carpinus and Ostrya (Coryloideae, Betulaceae

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    Norbert Holstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hornbeams (Carpinus and hop-hornbeams (Ostrya are trees or large shrubs from the northern hemisphere. Currently, 43 species of Carpinus (58 taxa including subdivisions and 8 species of Ostrya (9 taxa including sudivisions are recognized. These are based on 175 (plus 16 Latin basionyms of cultivars and 21 legitimate basionyms, respectively. We present an updated checklist with publication details and type information for all accepted names and the vast majority of synonyms of Carpinus and Ostrya, including the designation of 54 lectotypes and two neotypes. Cultivars are listed if validly described under the rules of the ICN. Furthermore, we consider Carpinus hwai Hu & W.C.Cheng to be a synonym of Carpinus fargesiana var. ovalifolia (H.J.P.Winkl. Holstein & Weigend comb. nov. During the course of our work, we found 30 legitimate basionyms of non-cultivars that have been consistently overlooked since their original descriptions, when compared with the latest checklists and floristic treatments. As regional floras are highly important for taxonomic practice, we investigated the number of overlooked names and found that 78 basionyms were omitted at least once in the eight regional treatments surveyed. More seriously, we found 4 basionyms of accepted species being overlooked in a major floristic treatment.

  5. Alnus as a disturbing factor in pollen diagrams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1959-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that percentages of pollen in a pollen diagram do not express the exact composition of forests in earlier times. This inaccuracy is due to several factors, for instance the different quantities of pollen produced by plants, the distance of transport etc. A pollen diagram

  6. Comparative phylogenies and host specialization in the alder ectomycorrhizal fungi Alnicola, Alpova and Lactarius (Basidiomycota in Europe

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    Manzi Sophie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycorrhizal fungi form intimate associations with their host plants that constitute their carbon resource and habitat. Alnus spp. (Betulaceae are known to host an exceptional species-poor and specialized ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungal community compared to other tree species, but the host-specificity pattern and its significance in terms of fungal diversification and speciation remain poorly documented. The degree of parallel speciation, host switching, and patterns of biogeography were explored in the historical associations between alders and three ECM taxa of Basidiomycetes: Alnicola (Agaricales, Alpova (Boletales, and Lactarius (Russulales. The aim was to develop an evolutionary framework on host specificity and diversification of Basidiomycetes in this highly specialized plant-fungus symbiosis. Results Sporocarps of Alnicola (220, Lactarius (61 and Alpova (29 were collected from stands of the four European alder species (A. alnobetula including the endemic subsp. suaveolens in Corsica, A. cordata, A. glutinosa, A. incana in Western Europe (mainly in France and Austria, from 1995 to 2009. Specimens were morphologically identified to the species level. From these, 402 sequences of four DNA regions (ITS, rpb2, gpd, and the V9 domain of the mit-SSU rDNA were successfully obtained and analyzed in addition with 89 sequences available in GenBank and UNITE databases. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted on all sequence data sets (individual and combined using maximum likelihood reconstruction and Bayesian inference. Fungal phylogenies are compared and discussed in relation to the host, with a focus on species boundaries by associating taxonomic, systematic and molecular information. Conclusions Patterns of host specificity and phylogenies of Alnicola and Lactarius suggest coevolution as a basal factor of speciation in relation with the subgeneric diversification of Alnus, possibly due to the very selective pressure of the host. A

  7. Current re-vegetation patterns and restoration issues in degraded geological phosphorus-rich mountain areas: A synthetic analysis of Central Yunnan, SW China

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    Kai Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest area of inland geological phosphorus-rich (GPR mountains in the world, where vegetation restoration is key to safeguarding the environment. We reviewed the published literature and collected new data in order to analyze re-vegetation patterns and the status of plant communities in central Yunnan. The aim of our analysis was to suggest future improvements to restoration strategies in GPR mountain regions. Our results showed that spontaneous recovery was the most widespread type of restoration. N-fixing species such as Coriaria nepalensis and Alnus nepalensis play a vital role in succession. In the past, monoculture tree plantation was the primary method used in afforestation activities in central Yunnan; in recent years however, several different methods of restoration have been introduced including the use of agroforestry systems. For practical restoration, we found that spontaneous recovery was capable of delivering the best results, but that during its early stages, restoration results were affected by several factors including erosion risk, the origin of propagates and environmental variation. In contrast, methods employing human-made communities performed better in their early stages, but were constrained by higher costs and vulnerability to degradation and erosion. The use of N-fixing species such as A. nepalensis and Acacia mearnsii in plantations were unsuccessful in restoring full ecosystem functions. The success of restoration activities in GPR mountain regions could be improved through the following measures: (1 developing a better understanding of the respective advantages and disadvantages of current natural and human-engineered restoration approaches; (2 elucidating the feedback mechanism between phosphorus-rich soil and species selected for restoration, especially N-fixing species; (3 introducing market incentives aimed at encouraging specific restoration activities such as agroforestry, and improving the

  8. Do pollen donors with fastest-growing pollen tubes sire the best offspring in an anemophilous tree, Betula pendula (Betulaceae)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasonen, H L; Pulkkinen, P; Käpylä, M

    2001-05-01

    The relationship between pollen and progeny performance has been a subject of many studies but the evidence for pollen-tube growth rate as an indicator of progeny fitness is equivocal. We used an anemophilous tree, Betula pendula, to examine the relationship between pollen-tube growth rate and seed and seedling performance. We crossed nine maternal plants with pollen from six pollen donors in a clonal B. pendula seed orchard, measured the pollen-tube growth rates for every cross, and analyzed the performance of the resulting seeds and seedlings. The only significant positive correlation was found between pollen-tube growth rate and seed mass when we controlled for seed number per inflorescence. Using seed mass as a covariate, we found that only maternal parent had a significant effect on the number of seeds per inflorescence, the percentage of germinable and embryonic seeds, and early seedling growth. Both maternal and paternal parents had significant effects on seedling height after 85 d of growth. These results are in concordance with the general view that maternal effects are usually most apparent in seed characters and during early plant growth. This study does not provide strong evidence for the theory of pollen-tube growth rate as an indicator of progeny quality.

  9. The influence of air temperature and relative humidity on dynamics of water potential in Betula pendula (Betulaceae trees

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    G. P. Тikhova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear multiple models were developed to describe diurnal and seasonal dynamics of water potential (Ψ of the foliated shoots in the plants of Betula genus related to air temperature and relative humidity in the middle taiga (southern Karelia. The results of the study revealed unidirectional changes, but different effect strength of air temperature and relative humidity on Ψ of the foliated shoots of common silver birch (Betula pendula Roth and curly (Karelian birch (Betula pendula Roth var. carelica. It was shown that increasing air temperature 1°С results in similar decreasing of Ψ value equal to 0.037–0.038 MPa in both of the birches (p > 0.05. Since the diurnal air temperature range achieves 10–15 °С, the contribution of this factor may be up to 0.57 MPa. On the contrary, the contribution of relative air humidity to Ψ value differs significantly in distinct birch forms (p < 0.05. In this case the change range of Ψ value in silver birch and curly birch may be up to 0.46 (0.015 MPa/1 % RH and 0.52 МПа (0.017 MPa/1 % RH, respectively. The results indicate that curly birch responds to the increase of relative air humidity with higher magnification of Ψ in comparison with common silver birch.

  10. Síntomas de deficiencia de nutrimentos en aliso (Alnus acuminata H.B.K.) Nutrient defficiency symptoms in Alnus scuminete H.B.K

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar G. Olga Constanza; Cogua S. Jorge Enrique

    1990-01-01

    Empleando la técnica de cultivos hidropónicos y utilizando la soluclón Hoagland se estableció la sintomatología causada por la deficiencia de los macronutrientes (nitrógeno, fósforo, azufre, potasio, magnesio, calcio, hierro) y micronutrientes en concentración 0.5 Molar teniendo como patrón la solución completa. La sintomatoloqía se ilustró mediante fotografías de la raíz, la planta y cortes transversales a nivel de tallo para cada una de las deficiencias.With the cultive hidroponics techniqu...

  11. Síntomas de deficiencia de nutrimentos en aliso (Alnus acuminata H.B.K. Nutrient defficiency symptoms in Alnus scuminete H.B.K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar G. Olga Constanza

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Empleando la técnica de cultivos hidropónicos y utilizando la soluclón Hoagland se estableció la sintomatología causada por la deficiencia de los macronutrientes (nitrógeno, fósforo, azufre, potasio, magnesio, calcio, hierro y micronutrientes en concentración 0.5 Molar teniendo como patrón la solución completa. La sintomatoloqía se ilustró mediante fotografías de la raíz, la planta y cortes transversales a nivel de tallo para cada una de las deficiencias.With the cultive hidroponics technique aod using the hoagland solution we established the symptom caused for macronutrients deficiency (nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and micronutrients in concentration
    0.5 Molar and taken patron Complete solution. The syimptom were illustrated for means of root and plant photographys
    and transverse cuttings stem for each one deficiencies.

  12. Performance of an Age Series of Alnus–Cardamom Plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: Productivity, Energetics and Efficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHARMA, G.; SHARMA, E.; SHARMA, R.; SINGH, K. K.

    2002-01-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus–cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2‐fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non‐N2‐fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha–1 per year) in the 40‐year‐old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha–1 per year) in the 15‐year‐old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5‐ to the 15‐year‐old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40‐year‐old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2‐fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 × 106 kJ ha –1 per year) in the 15‐year‐old stand, being 1·4 times that of the 5‐year‐old stand and 2·9‐times that of the 40‐year‐old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2‐fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus–cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years. PMID:12096738

  13. Sucrose synthase and enolase expression in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa: comparison with legume nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghelue, van M.; Ribeiro, A.; Solheim, B.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Bisseling, T.; Pawlowski, K.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Two different types of nitrogen-fixing root nodules are known - actinorhizal nodules induced by Frankia and legume nodules induced by rhizobia. While legume nodules show a stem-like structure with peripheral vascular bundles, actinorhizal nodule lobes resemble modified lateral roots with a

  14. Síntomas de deficiencia de nutrimentos en aliso (alnus acuminata h.b.k.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tovar G., Olga Constanza; Cogua S., Jorge Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Empleando la técnica de cultivos hidropónicos y utilizando la soluclón Hoagland se estableció la sintomatología causada por la deficiencia de los macronutrientes (nitrógeno, fósforo, azufre, potasio, magnesio, calcio, hierro) y micronutrientes en concentración 0.5 Molar teniendo como patrón la solución completa. La sintomatoloqía se ilustró mediante fotografías de la raíz, la planta y cortes transversales a nivel de tallo para cada una de las deficiencias.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associating with roots of Alnus and Rubus in Europe and the Middle East

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pölme, S.; Öpik, M.; Moora, M.; Zobel, M.; Kohout, Petr; Oja, J.; Köljalg, U.; Tedersoo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, Part A (2016), s. 27-34 ISSN 1754-5048 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhiza * fungi * biogeography Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  16. Migration Patterns of Subgenus Alnus in Europe since the Last Glacial Maximum: A Systematic Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Douda, J.; Doudová, Jana; Drašnarová, Alena; Kuneš, P.; Hadincová, Věroslava; Krak, Karol; Zákravský, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2014), s. 1-14, e88709 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : fossil records * northern refugia * scandinavian ice sheet Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  17. Evaluation and differentiation of the Betulaceae birch bark species and their bioactive triterpene content using analytical FT-vibrational spectroscopy and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cîntă-Pînzaru, Simona; Dehelean, Cristina A; Soica, Codruta; Culea, Monica; Borcan, Florin

    2012-07-18

    Aiming to obtain the highest triterpene content in the extraction products, nine bark samples from the forest abundant flora of Apuseni Mountains, Romania were Raman spectroscopically evaluated. Three different natural extracts from Betula pendula Roth birch bark have been obtained and characterized using Fourier transform vibrational spectra. This study shows that principal components of the birch tree extract can be rapidly recognized and differentiated based on their vibrational fingerprint band shape and intensity. The vibrational spectroscopy results are supported by the GC-MS data. Based on IR and Raman analysis, one can conclude that all the extracts, independent on the solvent(s) used, revealed dominant betulin species, followed by lupeol. Since Raman measurements could also be performed on fresh plant material, we demonstrated the possibility to apply the present results for the prediction of the highest triterpene content in bark species, for the selection of harvesting time or individual genotypes directly in the field, with appropriate portable Raman equipment.

  18. Evaluation and differentiation of the Betulaceae birch bark species and their bioactive triterpene content using analytical FT-vibrational spectroscopy and GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cîntă-Pînzaru Simona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aiming to obtain the highest triterpene content in the extraction products, nine bark samples from the forest abundant flora of Apuseni Mountains, Romania were Raman spectroscopically evaluated. Three different natural extracts from Betula pendula Roth birch bark have been obtained and characterized using Fourier transform vibrational spectra. Results This study shows that principal components of the birch tree extract can be rapidly recognized and differentiated based on their vibrational fingerprint band shape and intensity. The vibrational spectroscopy results are supported by the GC-MS data. Based on IR and Raman analysis, one can conclude that all the extracts, independent on the solvent(s used, revealed dominant betulin species, followed by lupeol. Conclusions Since Raman measurements could also be performed on fresh plant material, we demonstrated the possibility to apply the present results for the prediction of the highest triterpene content in bark species, for the selection of harvesting time or individual genotypes directly in the field, with appropriate portable Raman equipment.

  19. Palynological and palaeobotanical investigations in the Miocene of the Yatağan basin, Turkey: High-resolution taxonomy and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Güner, Tuncay H.; Denk, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The subject of this study is the palynology (biostratigraphic and taxonomic) and the plant remains of the lignite strip mines of Eskihisar, Salihpasalar, and Tinaz (Muğla province, western Turkey). In the Yatağan basin two Miocene to Pliocene formations are present, the Eskihisar Formation (early to middle Miocene) and the Yatağan Formation (late Miocene to early Pliocene). Both formations represent river and lake deposits consisting mainly of conglomerate, sandstone, claystone, limestone, tuffite, and intercalated lignite; the thickest, actively mined lignite seams occur in the Sekköy member of the Eskihisar Formation. Previous palynological studies of the palynoflora of the Yatağan basin mainly focussed on its biostratigraphic and palaeoclimatic significance, using conventional morphological nomenclature and light microscopy (LM). In this study the "single grain method" is applied. Using this method, the same individual pollen grains are investigated by using both LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resulting high-resolution pictographs enable a much higher taxonomic resolution. The studied palynoflora is very rich and taxonomically diverse. Cryptogams are represented by more than ten spore morphotypes of at least three families (Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae, Polypodiaceae). Gymnosperm pollen is dominated by Cupressaceae, Gnetales (Ephedra), and Pinaceae (Cathaya, Keteleeria, Pinus). Angiosperm pollen can be assigned to 57 different genera belonging to Poaceae, Typhaceae, Altingiaceae, Amaranthaceae (Chenopodieae), Anacardiaceae, Apiaceae (three types), Asteraceae (Asteroideae, Cichoriodeae), Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Ostrya) Buxaceae, Campanulaceae, Caprifoliaceae (Lonicera), Caryophyllaceae, Dipsacaceae, Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus, Trigonobalanopsis) Geraniaceae, Juglandaceae, Linaceae, Malvaceae (Tilia), Myricaceae, Oleaceae (four different types), Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae (Rumex), Rosaceae

  20. Metabolic activity of tree saps of different origin towards cultured human cells in the light of grade correspondence analysis and multiple regression modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wnorowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tree saps are nourishing biological media commonly used for beverage and syrup production. Although the nutritional aspect of tree saps is widely acknowledged, the exact relationship between the sap composition, origin, and effect on the metabolic rate of human cells is still elusive. Thus, we collected saps from seven different tree species and conducted composition-activity analysis. Saps from trees of Betulaceae, but not from Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, nor Juglandaceae families, were increasing the metabolic rate of HepG2 cells, as measured using tetrazolium-based assay. Content of glucose, fructose, sucrose, chlorides, nitrates, sulphates, fumarates, malates, and succinates in sap samples varied across different tree species. Grade correspondence analysis clustered trees based on the saps’ chemical footprint indicating its usability in chemotaxonomy. Multiple regression modeling showed that glucose and fumarate present in saps from silver birch (Betula pendula Roth., black alder (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and European hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. are positively affecting the metabolic activity of HepG2 cells.

  1. Flow cytometry, microsatellites and niche models reveal the origins and geographical structure of Alnus glutinosa populations in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mandák, Bohumil; Vít, Petr; Krak, Karol; Trávníček, Pavel; Havrdová, Alena; Hadincová, Věroslava; Zákravský, Petr; Jarolímová, Vlasta; Bacles, C. F. E.; Douda, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2016), s. 107-120 ISSN 0305-7364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : flow cytometry * microsatellites * glacial refugia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2016

  2. Physiological performance of an Alaskan shrub (Alnus fruticosa) in response to disease (Valsa melanodiscus) and water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer K. Rohrs-Richey; Christa P.H. Mulder; Loretta M. Winton; Glen. Stanosz

    2011-01-01

    Following the decades-long warming and drying trend in Alaska, there is mounting evidence that temperature-induced drought stress is associated with disease outbreaks in the boreal forest. Recent evidence of this trend is an outbreak of Cytospora canker disease (fungal pathogen Valsa melanodiscus [anamorph = Cytospora umbrina...

  3. Dynamics of Organic Matter in Leaf Litter and Topsoil within an Italian Alder (Alnus cordata (Loisel. Desf. Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Innangi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are the most important land ecosystems that can mitigate the earth’s ongoing climate change through their ability to sequester CO2 as C stock in forest biomass and soil. Short-rotation deciduous hardwoods or N2-fixing species are ideal candidates for afforestation and reforestation, given that most of the carbon accumulates in the first 30 years. Alders match both of the above-mentioned features, and Italian alder, which is less dependent on riparian habitats and more drought tolerant, is an ideal candidate. Despite this, few studies exist of this tree species and its effect on soil organic matter. In this study, we focused on litter input and leaf litter decomposition dynamics, forest floor leaf litter and topsoil (0–5 cm organic matter, and patterns of covariation from litter to topsoil. The leaf litter was rich in nitrogen and decomposed quickly (k = 0.002 day−1. There was a large organic carbon stock, which varied in the leaf litter (from 1.7 ± 0.3 Mg/ha in January to 0.4 ± 0.1 Mg/ha in July and was stable in the topsoil (on average 28.6 ± 1.5 Mg/ha. Stocks for total nitrogen, cellulose, lignin, water and ethanol extractables, and total phenols were also evaluated. In order to investigate patterns of covariation in these stocks from litter to soil, we used two-block partial least squares. The first axis showed that from January to July there was a reduction of total nitrogen, lignin and cellulose in the forest floor leaf litter, while in the topsoil there was a decrease in water extractables and total organic carbon. The second axis showed minor phenomena involving phenols, water and ethanol extractables, and total N. The fast turnover of dissolved organic matter fractions (water and ethanol extractables, linked with cellulose and lignin dynamics, might suggest that within the Italian alder ecosystem there is a reasonably fast formation of stable C compounds in the soil. Thus, Italian alder is an ideal species for afforestation and reforestation, which could be particularly interesting for land-use policies.

  4. Phylogeny and assemblage composition of Frankia in Alnus tenuifolia nodules across a primary successional sere in interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.D. Anderson; D.L. Taylor; R.W. Ruess

    2013-01-01

    In nitrogen (N) fixing symbioses, host-symbiont specificity, genetic variation in bacterial symbionts and environmental variation represent fundamental constraints on the ecology, evolution and practical uses of these interactions, but detailed information is lacking for many naturally occurring N-fixers. This study examined phylogenetic host specificity of ...

  5. Tree Age Effects on Fine Root Biomass and Morphology over Chronosequences of Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur and Alnus glutinosa Stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Ziółkowski, Jędrzej; Warnkowska, Aleksandra; Prais, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    There are few data on fine root biomass and morphology change in relation to stand age. Based on chronosequences for beech (9-140 years old), oak (11-140 years) and alder (4-76 years old) we aimed to examine how stand age affects fine root biomass and morphology. Soil cores from depths of 0-15 cm and 16-30 cm were used for the study. In contrast to previously published studies that suggested that maximum fine root biomass is reached at the canopy closure stage of stand development, we found almost linear increases of fine root biomass over stand age within the chronosequences. We did not observe any fine root biomass peak in the canopy closure stage. However, we found statistically significant increases of mean fine root biomass for the average individual tree in each chronosequence. Mean fine root biomass (0-30 cm) differed significantly among tree species chronosequences studied and was 4.32 Mg ha(-1), 3.71 Mg ha(-1) and 1.53 Mg ha(-1), for beech, oak and alder stands, respectively. The highest fine root length, surface area, volume and number of fine root tips (0-30 cm soil depth), expressed on a stand area basis, occurred in beech stands, with medium values for oak stands and the lowest for alder stands. In the alder chronosequence all these values increased with stand age, in the beech chronosequence they decreased and in the oak chronosequence they increased until ca. 50 year old stands and then reached steady-state. Our study has proved statistically significant negative relationships between stand age and specific root length (SRL) in 0-30 cm soil depth for beech and oak chronosequences. Mean SRLs for each chronosequence were not significantly different among species for either soil depth studied. The results of this study indicate high fine root plasticity. Although only limited datasets are currently available, these data have provided valuable insight into fine root biomass and morphology of beech, oak and alder stands.

  6. Higher genetic diversity in recolonized areas than in refugia of Alnus glutinosa triggered by continent-wide lineage admixture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havrdová, Alena; Douda, Jan; Krak, Karol; Vít, Petr; Hadincová, Věroslava; Zákravský, Petr; Mandák, Bohumil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 18 (2015), s. 4759-4777 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/0402 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Approximate Bayesian computation * black alder * climate change * phylogeography * temperate tree Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 5.947, year: 2015

  7. Forest Composition and Structure Under Various Disturbance Regimes in the Alaknanda River Basin, Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upma Manral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the resilience of mountain forests in a protected area in Alaknanda River basin, Western Himalaya, to various disturbance scenarios. The resource dependency of village communities in the Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary Landscape was studied through a questionnaire survey in 10 villages situated along an elevational gradient. Vegetation sampling was done in government-owned sanctuary forests and community-owned forests, both visited by villagers. Forest community composition, regeneration status, and tree population structure were studied to understand the impact of disturbance on forests and their resistance to anthropogenic alterations. Results indicated a reduction in both fuelwood and fodder consumption with decreasing elevation, with villages at higher elevations and located inside the sanctuary depending more on forest resources. Forests showed evidence of disturbance in the form of lower basal cover, mean canopy cover, regeneration, and disturbance-influenced distribution of shrubs. However, despite the signs of secondary succession, Quercus leucotrichophora forest has retained the original tree species composition. Vegetation recovery on 3 landslide sites at varying successional stages was also studied. The old successional site had higher species richness than early successional sites. The only tree species with adult individuals recorded in early successional sites was Alnus nepalensis, an early successional nitrogen-fixing species. The community composition of the old successional site, at Bandwara, included young individuals of Q. leucotrichophora, the climax species of forests in that elevational range. The current forest structure of both disturbed forest and vegetation recovery on the old succession site indicate the resilient dynamism of native Himalayan forests. Considering the role of mountain forests in achieving sustainable development, it is imperative to study the dynamics of changes in forest community and

  8. Assessment of fuel resource diversity and utilization patterns in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Kumaun Himalaya, India, for conservation and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samant, Sher S.; Dhar, Uppeandra; Rawal, Ranbeer S. [G.B. Pant Inst. of Himalayan Environment and Development, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2000-07-01

    A general decrease in abundance of wood plant species used as sources of fuel suggests that more detailed information is urgently needed on species-level trends and their conservation. Such studies have not been carried out so far in India and elsewhere; we therefore quantified the species-wise extraction of fuel from a site (Gori Ganga Valley) in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in the Kumaun Himalaya. In all, 31 species (26 trees and 5 shrubs) were used as fuel, of which 14 were native to the Himalaya. Utilisation patterns, distributions, probabilities of use (PU), resources use indices (RUI), preferences and availabilities in forest communities of these species were determined. Use pattern did not vary much amongst low altitude villages (Similarity: 52-74%), whereas along the vertical (elevational) gradient it varied considerably (Similarity: 15-31%). Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, Pinus roxburghii Sarg., Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus, Macaranga pustulata King ex Hk. F., Quercus lanuginosa Don, Engelhardtia spicata Bl. and Mallotus philippensis (Lamk.) Muell. contributed most to collections, while Pyracantha crenulata (Don) Roem., Syzygium cuminii (L.) Skeels, Alnus nepalensis Don and Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. were in lesser demand. W. fruticosa, P. roxburghii, M. pustulata, Casearia elliptica Willd., E. spicata, M. philippensis, Q. leucotrichophora and Phoebe lanceolata (Nees) Nees showed high values of PU and RUI, indicating high pressure. Higher density of P. roxburghii, Rhododendron arboreum Sm., Q. lanuginosa, Q. leucotrichophora, Lyonia ovalifolia (Wall.) Drude, C. elliptica and M. pustulata amongst trees and Maesa indica A.DC., P. crenulata and W. fruticosa amongst shrubs exhibited high density but the remaining species showed low density indicating the possible depletion. Intensive management of natural habitats of species highly-referred for fuel, diversification of choice of species from natives to non-natives, large scale propagation of highly

  9. Antifungal activity of some Himalayan medicinal plants and cultivated ornamental species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radhey Shyam; Mishra, Vandana; Singh, Ram; Seth, Nidhi; Babu, C R

    2008-12-01

    Extracts of roots of Rumex nepalensis, Berberis aristata, Arnebia benthamii, bark of Taxus wallichiana, Juglans regia and petals of Jacquinia ruscifolia were tested for their antifungal activity against twelve different fungal pathogens. Ethanolic extracts of R. nepalensis and J. ruscifolia extracts showed a broad spectrum of activity.

  10. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of some selected medicinal plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cytotoxicity of the crude methanolic extracts of Rumex hastatus, Rumex dentatus, Rumex nepalensis, Rheum australe, Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum plebejum (Family Polygonaceae) was determined against Artemia salina at 1000, 100 and 10 mg/ml. R. hastatus, R. dentatus and R. nepalensis showed ...

  11. Synergistic effect of Glomus intraradices and Frankia spp. on the growth and stress recovery of Alnus glutinosa in an alkaline anthropogenic sediment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oliveira, R. S.; Castro, P. M. L.; Dodd, J. C.; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 10 (2005), s. 1462-1470 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : mycorrhiza * actonorhiza * alkaline sediment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.297, year: 2005

  12. Late Pleistocene-Holocene vegetation and Indian summer monsoon record from the Lahaul, Northwest Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Suman; Gupta, Anil K.; Sangode, S. J.; Srivastava, Priyeshu; Nainwal, H. C.

    2015-04-01

    The high resolution Holocene paleomonsoon records from Northwest (NW) Himalaya are limited. The carbon isotope (δ13C), Total organic carbon (TOC) and pollen analysis were therefore carried out from a peat-lake sediment sequence developed in alpine meadows of the Chandra valley, Lahaul, NW Himalaya, in order to reconstruct centennial to millennial scale vegetational changes and Indian summer monsoon (ISM) variability during the Holocene. The chronology of peat-lake sediments is constrained with 9 AMS 14C dates. The recovered non-arboreal pollen (NAP) suggested that during Holocene alpine desert-steppe, meadows and shrubs growing along the stream had developed in the Lahaul valley whereas arboreal pollens (AP) e.g. Pinus, Quercus, Cedrus and Ulmus presently growing in the southern hill slopes of Pir Panjal range indicated moisture carrying monsoonal air flow from the South. The increased δ13C and low TOC values between ∼12,880 and 11,640 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP) suggested weakening of ISM and low organic carbon production corresponding to the Younger Dryas (YD) cold event. The gradual depletion in carbon isotope ratio from ∼11,640 to 8810 cal yr BP indicated enhanced precipitation in the Chandra valley in response of increased ISM strength in early Holocene. The short spell of cold and dry climate with gradual decrease in ISM intensity between ca 10,398 and 9778 cal yr BP is closely linked with Bond event-7. The other prominent cold-dry events recorded in present study are (i) ∼8810 to 8117 cal yr BP roughly corresponding to global 8.2 ka cold event, (ii) ∼4808 to 4327 cal yr BP closely preceding the global 4.2 ka cold-arid period, and (iii) ∼1303 to 1609 cal AD corresponding to Little Ice Age (LIA) event. The expansion of thermophillous broad leaved taxa viz. Betula utilis, Alnus nepalensis, Quercus semicarpifolia and Juglans regia and effective growth of meadow vegetation such as grasses, Caryophyllaceae and Artemisia along with

  13. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28–32°C under laboratory conditions.

  14. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28–32°C under laboratory conditions.

  15. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  16. The effects of herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats and HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seolah; Kim, Jeongjun; Lee, Hyunghee; Lee, Haerim; Lim, Jonghoon; Yang, Heejeong; Shin, Soon Shik; Yoon, Michung

    2017-01-04

    Hepatic steatosis has risen rapidly in parallel with a dramatic increase in obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the herbal composition Gambigyeongsinhwan (4) (GGH(4)), composed of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), Alnus japonica (Thunb.) Steud. (Betulaceae), and the fermented traditional Korean medicine Massa Medicata Fermentata, regulates hepatic steatosis and inflammation. The effects of GGH(4) on hepatic steatosis and inflammation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats and HepG2 cells were examined using Oil red O, hematoxylin and eosin, and toluidine blue staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) transactivation assay. Administration of GGH(4) to OLETF rats improved hepatic steatosis and lowered serum levels of alanine transaminase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids. GGH(4) increased mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation enzymes (ACOX, HD, CPT-1, and MCAD) and decreased mRNA levels of lipogenesis genes (FAS, ACC1, C/EBPα, and SREBP-1c) in the liver of OLETF rats. In addition, infiltration of inflammatory cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (CD68, TNFα, and MCP-1) in liver tissue were reduced by GGH(4). Treatment of HepG2 cells with a mixture of oleic acid and palmitoleic acid induced significant lipid accumulation, but GGH(4) inhibited lipid accumulation by regulating the expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and lipogenic genes. GGH(4) also increased PPARα reporter gene expression. These effects of GGH(4) were similar to those of the PPARα activator fenofibrate, whereas the PPARα antagonist GW6471 reversed the inhibitory effects of GGH(4) on lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GGH(4) inhibits obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and that this process may be mediated by regulation of the expression of PPARα target genes and lipogenic genes. GGH(4) also suppressed obesity

  17. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  18. Nutritional analyses of Rumex hastatus D. Don, Rumex dentatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Peshawar, Pakistan. Accepted 5 July, 2007. The study shows the presence of moisture, ash, crude fiber, proteins, fats and oils, and carbohydrates in proximate percentage in Rumex hastatus, Rumex dentatus and Rumex nepalensis (Family.

  19. Cocoon production, morphology, hatching pattern and fecundity in seven tropical earthworm species - a laboratory-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Gautam; Chaudhuri, P S

    2002-06-01

    Data on the reproductive biology of seven Indian species of earthworms, viz. Perionyx excavatus Perrier, Lampito mauritii Kinberg, Polypheretima elongata (Perrier), Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller), Eutyphoeus gammiei (Beddard), Dichogaster modiglianii (Rosa) and Drawida nepalensis Michaelsen are presented. The peregrine earthworms such as Perionyx excavatus, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster modiglianii, and Polypheretima elongata are considered to be continuous breeders with high fecundity. Native Lampito mauritii and Drawida nepalensis are semi-continuous and Eutyphoeus gammiei discrete breeders. There is a dramatic increase in cocoon production by most earthworm species of Tripura in the summer and monsoon with a corresponding peak during April and July. Cocoon production decreased or ceased during winter. Temperature affected the incubation period of cocoons. With increase in temperature, incubation period increased in the endogeic worms, Pontoscolex corethrurus, Polypheretima elongata and Drawida nepalensis and decreased in the epigeic worms, Perionyx excavatus and Dichogaster modiglianii, within a temperature range between 28-32 degrees C under laboratory conditions. There was a significant (P Pontoscolex corethrurus, Drawida nepalensis and Lampito mauritii, indicate their possible usefulness in vermiculture. The giant anecic worm, Eutyphoeus gammiei, which has a very long cocoon development time, discrete breeding strategy and very low rate of cocoon production, is not a suitable species for vermiculture.

  20. Phylogeny of Korean Hornbeam ( Carpinus turczaninovii ) based on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Carpinus belonging to Coryloideae, Betulaceae, has significant economic and ornamental importance. This study was undertaken with the aim to understand the genetic diversity among eighteen isolates of Carpinus turczaninovii collected from different geographical regions of Korea, using ribosomal RNA ...

  1. Effects of defoliation on growth characteristics and N, P, K content in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les semis d'Alnus étaient sujets a 0, 25, 50 et 75% de défoliation artificielle répétée. La défoliation a réduit la hauteur et le diamètre, et la biomasse de tige, de feuille, de racine et de nodule en Alnus. L'Alnus a montré bien que principalement non significatif (P<0,05), la performance de croissance en culture croisée élevée ...

  2. New records of eriophyoid mites from Iran (Acari: Trombidiformes: Eriophyoidea) and a description of a new Brevulacus Manson species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soika, Grażyna; Gol, Ali; Honarmand, Arash; Wozińska, Anna; Sadeghi, Hussein

    2017-01-09

    Four species of eriophyoid mites are recorded from Iran, of which three represent new records and the other is a new species. These species are: Brevulacus salicinus n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae), found on Salix sp. (Salicaceae); Aceria wallichianae Keifer, 1975 from Ulmus minor (Ulmaceae); Aceria granulata Carmona, 1972 from Verbascum spp. (Scrophulariaceae) and Tegnacus unicornutus Pye, 2012 from Carpinus betulus (Betulaceae). Each of these species are illustrated and provided with data regarding their distribution and host plants.

  3. Notes on bolete taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singer, R.

    1973-01-01

    Newly discovered mycorrhizal relationships of boletes (with Nothofagus, Shorea, Quercus humboldtii, Alnus jorullenses, Eucalyptus, and Leptospermum) are discussed. Type studies on Fistulinella, Boletus granulatus var. capricollensis, Boletogaster, and Gastroboletus are reported. The following new

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE SUBSTANCES RECEIVED FROM RAW MATERIALS OF BIRCH FAMILY PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedchenkova Yu.A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In accordance with the last events in Ukraine (considering military operations in anti-terrorist operation in the Luhansk and Donetsk regions the domestic medicine is in great need in preparations with antimicrobial activity. Our attention as the sources of receiving biologically active substances with antimicrobial activity was drawn with birch Betulaceae family plants – hazel ordinary Corylus avellana L. and black alder Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. It is known that in medicine the leaves of hazel ordinary are used as antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, vesselrestorative drug, and the leaves of black alder reveal the antiinflammatory, astringent, wound healing, spasmolytic and choleretic action. However, the drugs with antimicrobial action received from the leaves of these plants are absent on the market of Ukraine. Therefore the studying of antimicrobial activity of this type of raw materials received from hazel ordinary and black alder, for creation of new medicines, is now one of the main directions in pharmacy. For this purpose we have revealed tinctures, spirit, lipophilic and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The purpose of our research is studying of antimicrobial activity of revealed substance received from the leaves of black alder and hazel ordinary. Materials and methods. There were being examined tinctures, lipophilic, spirit and polysacharid fractions received from the leaves of hazel ordinary and black alder. The test of antimicrobial effect of substances was carried out by means of serial dilution concerning the following six reference cultures: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538-P, Candida albicans ATCC 885-653, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6833, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10702, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, according to the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine, in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology of KMAPE. For the experiment there was prepared

  5. Review of Oribotritia (Acari, Oribatida, Oribotritiidae) with a world checklist and description of a new species from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong

    2015-08-28

    The oribatid mite genus Oribotritia Jacot, 1924 (Oribotritiidae) is reviewed. A new species of Oribotritia collected from litter in Hunchun, China, Oribotritia hunchunensis sp. nov., is described and figured. Four species, Oribotritia angusta Mahunka, 1982, Oribotritia asiatica Hammer, 1977, Oribotritia chichijimensis Aoki, 1980, Oribotritia gigas Bayoumi & Mahunka, 1979, are redescribed based on Chinese specimens. Oribotritia nepalensis Niedbała, 2000 is considered as a new junior subjective synonym of Oribotritia gigas Bayoumi & Mahunka, 1979. A comprehensive, fully annotated and referenced checklist of all known species and a key to known Chinese species of this genus are provided to facilitate to the further research.

  6. Post-dispersal seed predation of woody forest species limits recolonization of forest plantations on ex-arable land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Valtinat, Karin; Kollmann, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    -generation forest plantations on ex-arable land and re-planted clear-cuts on continuously forested land. There was no recruitment following the experimental sowing of six commonwoody species (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Frangula alnus, Sambucus nigra, Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus intermedia). Thus......, the colonization of forest plantations by native shrubs and trees appears to be habitat-limited; the only exception being Rhamnus catharticus, for which poor dispersal ability may be more important. Post-dispersal seed predation of forest shrubs and trees was marked, especially in relatively small and isolated...

  7. Revision of the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig from eastern Asia (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Bin Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The species belonging to the genus Ptomaphagus Hellwig, 1795 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini from eastern Asia are assigned to three species groups. Group yasutoshii has a single species: P. (s. str. yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 from Taiwan, China. Group nepalensis with three species: P. (s. str. nepalensis Perreau, 1988 from Nepal and P. (s. str. masumotoi Nishikawa, 2011 from Thailand are redescribed, and P. (s. str. piccoloi Wang, Růžička, Nishikawa, Perreau & Hayashi, 2016 is recorded for the first time from China (Zhejiang. Group sibiricus with seven species, including two newly described Chinese ones P. (s. str. funiu sp. n. from Henan, and P. (s. str. haba sp. n. from Yunnan, and five known species: P. (s. str. chenggongi Wang, Nishikawa, Perreau, Růžička & Hayashi, 2016, P. (s. str. hayashii Wang, Růžička, Perreau, Nishikawa & Park, 2016, P. (s. str. kuntzeni Sokolowski, 1957 (distribution records from Myanmar excluded, P. (s. str. sibiricus Jeannel, 1934 and P. (s. str. tingtingtae Wang, Nishikawa, Perreau, Růžička & Hayashi, 2016. Specimens of other undescribed species of the group sibiricus are also recorded, revealing a high diversity of this genus in eastern Asia, especially in central and north Sichuan, China, which essentially remains to be investigated. Relevant morphological characters of the examined species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. A key to species of Ptomaphagus from eastern Asia is provided.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal fungi of exotic pine plantations in relation to native host trees in Iran: evidence of host range expansion by local symbionts to distantly related host taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahram, Mohammad; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kohout, Petr; Mirshahvaladi, Shahab; Tedersoo, Leho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of exotic plants change soil microbial communities which may have detrimental ecological consequences for ecosystems. In this study, we examined the community structure and species richness of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi associated with exotic pine plantations in relation to adjacent native ectomycorrhizal trees in Iran to elucidate the symbiont exchange between distantly related hosts, i.e. Fagales (Fagaceae and Betulaceae) and Pinaceae. The combination of morphological and molecular identification approaches revealed that 84.6 % of species with more than one occurrence (at least once on pines) were shared with native trees and only 5.9 % were found exclusively on pine root tips. The community diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the pine plantations adjacent to native EcM trees was comparable to their adjacent native trees, but the isolated plantations hosted relatively a species-poor community. Specific mycobionts of conifers were dominant in the isolated plantation while rarely found in the plantations adjacent to native EcM trees. These data demonstrate the importance of habitat isolation and dispersal limitation of EcM fungi in their potential of host range expansion. The great number of shared and possibly compatible symbiotic species between exotic Pinaceae and local Fagales (Fagaceae and Betulaceae) may reflect their evolutionary adaptations and/or ancestral compatibility with one another.

  9. Palinología del Neógeno de la cuenca del Duero. Castrillo del Val (Burgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Hernández, Mª F.

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available In palynological research carried out in the tertiary outcrop of Castrillo del Val (Burgos the following aspects were of interest:
    An absolute dominance of Gymnosperms. Pinus type haploxylon predominated slightly over Pinus type diploxylon; Cupressaceae-Taxodiaceae also reached very high values, Whith respect to tree-like Angiosperms, a preponderance could be observed of Palmae over other species present such as Betulaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Juglandaceae, Oleaceae, Salicaceae, etc., regarding non-arboreal pollen, of considerable interest were the families Gramineae, Compositae (Tubuliflorae, Typhaceae and Sparganiaceae, as compared with others present.
    A comparative study is also carried out of the Duero basin vegetation.

    De las investigaciones palinológicas realizadas en el afloramiento terciario de Castrillo del Val (Burgos cabe reseñar:
    Un dominio absoluto de las Gymnospermas, Destaca Pinus tipo haploxylon ligeramente sobre Pinus tipo diploxylon, asimismo Cupressaceae-Taxodiaceae alcanza valores muy elevados. En cuanto a las Angiospermas arbóreas se observa un predominio de Palmae sobre otras familias presentes, tales como: Betulaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Juglandaceae, Oleaceae, etc., y en lo que respecta al polen no arbóreo resaltan las familias Gramineae, Compositae (Tubuliflorae, Typhaceae y Sparganiaceae sobre el resto.
    Se realiza también un estudio comparativo de la vegetación de la Cuenca del Duero.

  10. Chemotaxonomic Metabolite Profiling of 62 Indigenous Plant Species and Its Correlation with Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxonomic metabolite profiling of 62 indigenous Korean plant species was performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC-linear trap quadrupole-ion trap (LTQ-IT mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS/MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis. In partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA, the 62 species clustered depending on their phylogenetic family, in particular, Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae were distinguished from Rosaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae. Quinic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, quercetin derivatives, kaempferol, and kaempferol derivatives were identified as family-specific metabolites, and were found in relatively high concentrations in Aceraceae, Betulaceae, and Fagaceae. Fagaceae and Asteraceae were selected based on results of PLS-DA and bioactivities to determine the correlation between metabolic differences among plant families and bioactivities. Quinic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin derivatives, and kaempferol derivatives were found in higher concentrations in Fagaceae than in Asteraceae, and were positively correlated with antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition activities. These results suggest that metabolite profiling was a useful tool for finding the different metabolic states of each plant family and understanding the correlation between metabolites and bioactivities in accordance with plant family.

  11. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND HOST USE IN HYBRIDIZING SUBSPECIES OF PAPILIO GLAUCUS (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Robert H

    1990-12-01

    Two parapatric subspecies of the eastern tiger swallowtail butterfly, Papilio glaucus glaucus and P. g. canadensis, differ greatly in larval survival and growth on host plants in the Magnoliaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae. In the first part of this study, butterflies were collected from 17 sites along a transect from Georgia to Quebec and used for allozyme electrophoresis. Two X- (or Z-)linked enzyme loci (Ldh and Pgd) showed allele frequency differences that delineated a hybrid zone between the subspecies in northern Pennsylvania and south-central New York. No significant linkage disequilibrium could be detected among allozyme loci within the hybrid zone samples. Genetic differentiation at Ldh and Pgd coincides with subspecies differences in diapause control and female mimicry, which are also sex-linked. Larval offspring of butterflies from 13 of the sites were then tested in the laboratory for survival and growth on Liriodendron tulipifera (Magnoliaceae), Populus deltoïdes (Salicaceae) and Betula lutea (Betulaceae). Steep clines in survival rates matched the position of the hybrid zone. Hybrid zone larvae showed intermediate survival rates and significant heterogeneity among families on all three plants, indicating presence of substantial genetic variation. The results suggest that differential host use by P. g. glaucus and P. g. canadensis is maintained primarily by independent clines in selection intensity for ability to use allopatric sets of host plants, coupled with restricted gene flow across the hybrid zone. © 1990 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Allelopathic effects of juglone on germination and growth of several herbaceous and woody species

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Rietveld

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine juglone sensitivity of 16 species (Trifolium incarnatum, Coronilla varia, Vicia villosa, Lespedeza stipulacea, L. cuneata, Acer ginnala, Caragana arboreseens, Elaegnus angustifolia, E. umbellata, Lonieera maackii, Quercus alba, Fraxinus americana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Alnus glutinosa, Pinus strobus...

  13. Water Relations of White Alder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia I. Dains

    1989-01-01

    White alder (Alnus rhombifolia) is a potentially valuable indicator of water stress along California's waterways. Measurements of stomatal conductance, water potential and tissue water relations in conjunction with growth and morphological studies give evidence for the sensitivity of this species to changes in water availability. Potted...

  14. Daldinia decipiens and Entonaema cinnabarina as fungal symbionts of Xiphydria wood wasps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrůtka, P.; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, - (2007), s. 224-231 ISSN 0953-7562 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : alnus * daldinia concentrica * daldinia fissa Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.861, year: 2007

  15. Liberomyces gen. nov with two new species of endophytic coelomycetes from broadleaf trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pažoutová, Sylvie; Šrůtka, P.; Holuša, J.; Chudíčková, Milada; Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 1 (2012), s. 198-210 ISSN 0027-5514 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0283 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : anamorph * alnus * phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.110, year: 2012

  16. Maintaining cultures of wood-rotting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.E. Nelson; H.A. Fay

    1985-01-01

    Phellinus weirii cultures were stored successfully for 10 years in small alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) disks at 2 °C. The six isolates tested appeared morphologically identical and after 10 years varied little in growth rate from those stored on malt agar slants. Long-term storage on alder disks reduces the time required for...

  17. Normal yield tables for red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman P. Worthington; Floyd A. Johnson; George R. Staebler; William J. Lloyd

    1960-01-01

    Increasing interest in the management of red alder (Alnus rubra) has created a need for reliable yield information. Existing yield tables for red alder have been very useful as interim sources of information, but they are generally inadequate for current and prospective management needs. The advisory committee for the Station's Olympia...

  18. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of runoff was done during the long rains of. 2003 and short rains of 2004. Infiltration was invariably higher under agroforestry systems (P<0.001) than sole cropping, particularly under Alnus and Calliandra systems. A similar pattern was observed for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), which was greater in ...

  19. (vitamin B1) biosynthesis genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the gene transcripts of first two enzymes in thiamine biosynthesis pathway, THIC and THI1/THI4 were identified and amplified from oil palm tissues. Primers were designed based on sequence comparison of the genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa and Alnus glutinosa. Oil palm's responses ...

  20. Spatial variation in population dynamics of Sitka mice in floodplain forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.A. Hanley; J.C. Barnard

    1999-01-01

    Population dynamics and demography of the Sitka mouse, Peromyscus keeni sitkensis, were studied by mark-recapture live-trapping over a 4-year period in four floodplain and upland forest habitats: old-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) floodplain; red alder (Alnus rubra) floodplain; beaver-pond...

  1. Chemical basal treatment to control red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Ruth; Carl M. Berntsen

    1956-01-01

    A key to better restocking of conifers on recently cutover forest land in the Oregon Coast Range is the elimination of competition from red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). This can be readily accomplished with a foliage spray containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D). Tests in 1954 and 1955 on the Cascade Head Experimental Forest have shown that...

  2. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  3. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neighbouring grass (Lolium perenne L.) Thus herbivory may significantly influence the productivity and nutrient cycling in a system involving N fixing and non—N fixing plants. Alder (Alnus acuminata) aN fixing tree species, has received considerable attention for use in hi ghland agroforesty in several tropical countries,.

  4. Comparative effects of urea fertilizer and red alder in a site III, coast Douglas-fir plantation in the Washington Cascade Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Marshall Murray; Rick. Leon

    2005-01-01

    Five randomly assigned treatments were used to quantify effects of adding varying numbers of red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) or nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of a 10-year-old conifer plantation at a medium quality site in the western Washington Cascade Range. Zero, 20, 40, and 80 alder trees per acre were retained along with about 300 conifers...

  5. Variation in damage from growing-season frosts among open-pollinated families of red alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin C. Peeler; Dean S. DeBell

    1987-01-01

    Repeated growing-season frosts during late April and early May 1985 caused extensive damage to red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) seedlings in a newly planted research trial in western Washington. About two-thirds of the seedlings were severely damaged (entire stem damaged or necrotic). Such damage varied by family, from 50 percent of seedlings in the...

  6. Amplicon restriction patterns associated with nitrogenase activity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... wood can be used as timber and fuel. Actinorhizal trees such as. Alnus have been used in the reclamation of mine spoils in. Britain (Schwintzer .... labelled plastic bags, brought to the laboratory and stored at. −80°C for further studies. Isolation of DNA from the leaves was performed using the modified CTAB ...

  7. Developing Biomass Equations for Western Hemlock and Red Alder Trees in Western Oregon Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Poudel; Hailemariam Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    Biomass estimates are required for reporting carbon, assessing feedstock availability, and assessing forest fire threat. We developed diameter- and height-based biomass equations for Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) trees in Western Oregon. A system of component biomass...

  8. Character-marked furniture made from red alder harvested in southeast Alaska: product perspectives from consumers and retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Valerie Barber

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades. red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) has become an important Pacific Northwest hardwood in appearance-grade lumber markets, such as exports, furniture, and cabinets. However, red alder generally is a short-lived pioneer species, and small logs can result in proportionally large volumes of lower grade lumber containing numerous visual...

  9. Consumer preferences for kitchen cabinets made from red alder: a comparison to other hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Geoffrey H. Donovan; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    In Alaska, red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) is an abundant but commercially underutilized species despite having properties suitable for higher value products, including furniture and cabinetry. However, it laces the name recognition of mote traditional hardwoods. Our research measured the effect of this lack of familiarity on consumer preferences...

  10. An investigation into the earlier vegetation of central Friesland (The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeist, van W.

    1950-01-01

    1. This paper deals with a pollenanalytical investigation of holocenic peat-layers in Central Friesland. 2. One diagram shows a praeboreal spectrum with Betula in the dominant position, the first appearance of thermophilous trees (Corylus, Alnus) and a high percentage of Gramineous and Cyperaceous

  11. Myrtle Lake: a late- and post-glacial pollen diagram from northern Minnesota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1969-01-01

    A pollen diagram from a lake in the former bed of the eastern arm of Lake Agassiz in northern Minnesota records a vegetation of spruce forest followed by immigration successively of Pinus banksiana and (or) P. resinosa at 10 000 B.P., then Abies and Pteridium, and still later Alnus. Between 8000 and

  12. 16S rRNA as molecular marker in ecology of Frankia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, D.

    1990-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focusses on the role of biotic factors encountered with the establishment of the symbiosis between black alder plants ( Alnus glutinosa ) and introduced Frankia strains. A selection of

  13. Impact of wind-induced microsites and disturbance severity on tree regeneration patterns: Results from the first post-storm decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floor Vodde; Kalev Jogiste; Jeroen Engelhart; Lee E. Frelich; W. Keith Moser; Alan Sims; Marek Metslaid

    2015-01-01

    In two hemiboreal mixed spruce-hardwood forests in north-east Estonia, we studied (1) which factors affect tree regeneration survival and development during the first post-storm decade and (2) how these effects change in time. Regeneration height and mortality of the tree species black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) J. Gaertn.), birch (Betula pendula Roth., Betula...

  14. Diversity of Frankia populations in root nodules of geographically isolated Arizona alder trees in central Arizona (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allana K. Welsh; Jeffrey O. Dawson; Gerald J. Gottfried; Dittmar Hahn

    2009-01-01

    The diversity of uncultured Frankia populations in root nodules of Alnus oblongifolia trees geographically isolated on mountaintops of central Arizona was analyzed by comparative sequence analyses of nifH gene fragments. Sequences were retrieved from Frankia populations in nodules of four trees from each of...

  15. Biomass of Speckled Alder on an Air-Polluted Mountain Site and its Response to Fertilization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuneš, I.; Baláš, M.; Koňasová, T.; Špulák, O.; Balcar, V.; Bednářová Millerová, K.; Kacálek, D.; Jakl, M.; Zahradník, D.; Vítámvás, J.; Šťastná, J.; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2014), s. 1421-1433 ISSN 0364-152X Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) QH92087 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Alnus incana * site amelioration * biological amelioration * slow-acting amendments * ecosystem restoration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 1.724, year: 2014

  16. Interactions among soil biology, nutrition, and performance of actinorhizal plant species in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest of Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.S. Rojas; D.A. Perry; C.Y. Li; L.M. Ganio

    2002-01-01

    The study examined the effect of Frankia, macronutrients, micronutrients, mycorrhizal fungi, and plant-growth-promoting fluorescent Pseudomonas sp. on total biomass, nodule weight, and nitrogen fixation of red aider (Alnus rubra) and snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus) under greenhouse conditions. The soil...

  17. Phylloplane bacteria increase the negative impact of food limitation on insect fitness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olson, Grant L.; Myers, Judith H.; Hemerik, Lia; Cory, Jenny S.

    2017-01-01

    1. When populations of herbivorous insects increase in density, they can alter the quantity or quality of their food. The impacts of diet-related stressors on insect fitness have been investigated singly, but not simultaneously. 2. Foliage quantity and quality of red alder, Alnus rubra, were

  18. Partitioning and analyzing temporal variability of wash and bed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    leads to reduction in storage capacity of dams, increases flood risk, deteriorates water quality and ultimately results .... results showed that the capacity of bed material load transport was controlled by hydraulic conditions ... oped mainly for livestock grazing in uplands. Land covers comprise Fagus orientalis, Alnus sp., Acer.

  19. Morphological, molecular and ecological aspects of the South American hypogeous fungi Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Domínguez; Alejandra G. Becerra; James M. Trappe

    2005-01-01

    Field studies in Argentina's Yunga District revealed Alpova austroalnicola sp. nov., a hypogeous fungus associated with Alnus acuminata ssp, acuminata. Morphological and molecular studies based on amplification and sequencing of the nuclear LSU rDNA gene showed its unique identity within ...

  20. Metal uptake by young trees from dredged brackish sediment : Limitations and possibilities for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Jan; Vervaeke, Pieter; de Schrijver, A.; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan

    2004-01-01

    Five tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Fraxinus excelsior L., Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were planted on a mound constructed of dredged sediment. The sediment originated from a brackish river mouth and was slightly polluted with heavy metals. This

  1. Phytase-producing capacity of yeasts isolated from traditional African fermented food products and PHYPk gene expression of Pichia kudriavzevii strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Krych, Lukasz; Costantini, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Phytate is known as a strong chelate of minerals causing their reduced uptake by the human intestine. Ninety-three yeast isolates from traditional African fermented food products, belonging to nine species (Pichia kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces...... marxianus, Millerozyma farinosa, Candida glabrata, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Debaryomyces nepalensis) were screened for phytase production on solid and liquid media. 95% were able to grow in the presence of phytate as sole phosphate source, P. kudriavzevii being the best...... growing species. A phytase coding gene of P. kudriavzevii (PHYPk) was identified and its expression was studied during growth by RT-qPCR. The expression level of PHYPk was significantly higher in phytate-medium, compared to phosphate-medium. In phytate-medium expression was seen in the lag phase...

  2. Plants at high altitude exhibit higher component of alternative respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Narinder; Vyas, Dhiraj; Kumar, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    Total respiration, capacities of cytochrome (CytR) and alternative respiration (AR) were studied in two varieties of barley (Horedum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) each and one variety of pea (Pisum sativum) at low (Palampur; 1300 m) and high altitudes (Kibber; 4200 m). Similar studies were carried out in naturally growing Rumex nepalensis and Trifoilum repenses at Palampur, Palchan (2250 m) and Marhi (3250 m). All the plants species exhibited lower CytR but significantly higher AR capacity at high altitude (HA) (72-1117% higher) as compared to those at low altitude (LA). Glycolytic product, pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate, citrate increased with increase in altitude. While the role of these metabolites in relation to HA biology is discussed, significantly higher AR at HA is proposed to be an adaptive mechanism against the metabolic perturbations wherein it might act to lower reactive oxygen species and also provides metabolic homeostasis to plants under the environment of HA.

  3. [Effects of bio-mulching on rhizosphere soil microbial population, enzyme activity and tree growth in poplar plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiu-Jun; Fang, Sheng-Zuo; Xie, Bao-Dong; Hao, Juan-Juan

    2008-06-01

    Coriaria nepalensis, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiuscukum, Imperata cylindrical var. major, and Quercus fabric were used as mulching materials to study their effects on the rhizosphere soil microbial population and enzyme activity and the tree growth in poplar plantation. The results showed that after mulching with test materials, the populations of both bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were more than those of the control. Of the mulching materials, I. cylindrical and Q. fabric had the best effect, with the numbers of bacteria and fungi being 23.56 and 1.43 times higher than the control, respectively. The bacterial and fungal populations in rhizosphere soil increased with increasing mulching amount. When the mulching amount was 7.5 kg m(-2), the numbers of bacteria and fungi in rhizosphere soil were 0.5 and 5.14 times higher than the control, respectively. Under bio-mulching, the bacterial and fungal populations in rhizosphere soil had a similar annual variation trend, which was accorded with the annual fluctuation of soil temperature and got to the maximum in July and the minimum in December. The urease and phosphatase activities in rhizosphere soil also increased with increasing mulching amount. As for the effects of different mulching materials on the enzyme activities, they were in the order of C. nepalensis > P. aquilinum > I. cylindrical > Q. fabric. The annual variation of urease and phosphatase activities in rhizosphere soil was similar to that of bacterial and fungal populations, being the highest in July and the lowest in December. Bio-mulching promoted the tree height, DBH, and biomass of poplar trees significantly.

  4. Prospective bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors from Indian medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, B K; Ghosh, R; Moktan, S; Ranjan, V K; Dey, P; Choudhury, D; Dutta, S; Deb, D; Das, A P; Chakraborty, R

    2017-07-01

    As virulence of many pathogenic bacteria is regulated by the phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS), the present study aimed to find the QS-inhibiting (QS-I) property (if any) in 61 Indian medicinal plants. The presence of QS-I compound in the leaf extract was evaluated by its ability to inhibit production of pigment in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656 (violacein) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 (pyocyanin) or swarming of P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. Extracts of three plants, Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis, have shown a dose-dependent inhibition of violacein production with no negative effect on bacterial growth. Inhibition of pyocyanin pigment production and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was also shown. Based on the results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and thin-layer chromatography-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), it was concluded that triterpenes and flavonoid compounds found in the three plant extracts could have QS-I activity. A novel alternative prospect to prevent bacterial infections without inhibiting the growth is to apply chemicals that inhibit quorum sensing mechanism of the pathogens. Antiquorum property of 61 medicinal plants was evaluated by the ability of their leaf extract(s) to inhibit production of pigment (violacein in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656, pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297) or swarming in P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. The most prospective plants (for the development of quorum sensing inhibitor), showing inhibition of violacein production without affecting bacterial growth, were Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Plant Resources, 13C-NMR Spectral Characteristic and Pharmacological Activities of Dammarane-Type Triterpenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Ruan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dammarane-type triterpenoids (DTT widely distribute in various medicinal plants. They have generated a great amount of interest in the field of new drug research and development. Generally, DTT are the main bioactive ingredients abundant in Araliaceae plants, such as Panax ginseng, P. japonicas, P. notoginseng, and P. quinquefolium. Aside from Araliaceae, DTT also distribute in other families, including Betulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Meliaceae, Rhamnaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. Until now, about 136 species belonging to 46 families have been reported to contain DTT. In this article, the genus classifications of plant sources of the botanicals that contain DTT are reviewed, with particular focus on the NMR spectral features and pharmacological activities based on literature reports, which may be benefit for the development of new drugs or food additives.

  6. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Nieukerken, Erik J; Menken, Steph B J

    2015-01-01

    Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and Betulaceae) and a tendency for related insect species to feed on related host plant species. The evolutionary processes underlying these patterns are only partly understood, we therefore assessed the role of allopatry and host plant family shifts in speciation within Ectoedemia. Six nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers with a total aligned length of 3692 base pairs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among 92 species belonging to the subgenus Ectoedemia of the genus Ectoedemia, representing a thorough taxon sampling with a global coverage. The results support monophyletic species groups that are congruent with published findings based on morphology. We used the obtained phylogeny to explore host plant family association and geographical distribution to investigate if host shifts and allopatry have been instrumental in the speciation of these leafmining insects. We found that, even though most species within species groups commonly feed on plants from one family, shifts to a distantly related host family have occasionally occurred throughout the phylogeny and such shifts are most commonly observed towards Betulaceae. The largest radiations have occurred within species groups that feed on Fagaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae. Most species are restricted to one of the seven global biogeographic regions, but within species groups representatives are commonly found in different biogeographic regions. Although we find general patterns with regard to host use and biogeography, there are differences between clades that suggest that different drivers of speciation, and perhaps drivers that we did not examine, have shaped diversity patterns in different clades.

  7. Biogeography, Host Specificity, and Molecular Phylogeny of the Basidiomycetous Yeast Phaffia rhodozyma and Its Sexual Form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libkind, Diego; Ruffini, Alejandra; van Broock, Maria; Alves, Leonor; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma (sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is a basidiomycetous yeast that has been found in tree exudates in the Northern Hemisphere at high altitudes and latitudes. This yeast produces astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with biotechnological importance because it is used in aquaculture for fish pigmentation. We isolated X. dendrorhous from the Southern Hemisphere (Patagonia, Argentina), where it was associated with fruiting bodies of Cyttaria hariotii, an ascomycetous parasite of Nothofagus trees. We compared internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenies of P. rhodozyma and its tree host (Betulaceae, Corneaceae, Fagaceae, and Nothofagaceae) and found them to be generally concordant, suggesting that different yeast lineages colonize different trees and providing an explanation for the phylogenetic distance observed between the type strains of P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous. We hypothesize that the association of Xanthophyllomyces with Cyttaria derives from a previous association of the yeast with Nothofagus, and the sister relationship between Nothofagaceae and Betulaceae plus Fagaceae correlates with the phylogeny of X. dendrorhous strains originating from these three plant families. The two most basal strains of X. dendrorhous are those isolated from Cornus, an ancestral genus in the phylogenetic analysis of the host trees. Thus, we question previous conclusions that P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous represent different species since the polymorphisms detected in the ITS and intergenic spacer sequences can be attributed to intraspecific variation associated with host specificity. Our study provides a deeper understanding of Phaffia biogeography, ecology, and molecular phylogeny. Such knowledge is essential for the comprehension of many aspects of the biology of this organism and will facilitate the study of astaxanthin production within an evolutionary and ecological framework. PMID:17189439

  8. Biogeography, host specificity, and molecular phylogeny of the basidiomycetous yeast Phaffia rhodozyma and its sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libkind, Diego; Ruffini, Alejandra; van Broock, Maria; Alves, Leonor; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2007-02-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma (sexual form, Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous) is a basidiomycetous yeast that has been found in tree exudates in the Northern Hemisphere at high altitudes and latitudes. This yeast produces astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment with biotechnological importance because it is used in aquaculture for fish pigmentation. We isolated X. dendrorhous from the Southern Hemisphere (Patagonia, Argentina), where it was associated with fruiting bodies of Cyttaria hariotii, an ascomycetous parasite of Nothofagus trees. We compared internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-based phylogenies of P. rhodozyma and its tree host (Betulaceae, Corneaceae, Fagaceae, and Nothofagaceae) and found them to be generally concordant, suggesting that different yeast lineages colonize different trees and providing an explanation for the phylogenetic distance observed between the type strains of P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous. We hypothesize that the association of Xanthophyllomyces with Cyttaria derives from a previous association of the yeast with Nothofagus, and the sister relationship between Nothofagaceae and Betulaceae plus Fagaceae correlates with the phylogeny of X. dendrorhous strains originating from these three plant families. The two most basal strains of X. dendrorhous are those isolated from Cornus, an ancestral genus in the phylogenetic analysis of the host trees. Thus, we question previous conclusions that P. rhodozyma and X. dendrorhous represent different species since the polymorphisms detected in the ITS and intergenic spacer sequences can be attributed to intraspecific variation associated with host specificity. Our study provides a deeper understanding of Phaffia biogeography, ecology, and molecular phylogeny. Such knowledge is essential for the comprehension of many aspects of the biology of this organism and will facilitate the study of astaxanthin production within an evolutionary and ecological framework.

  9. New records of Iranian bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) and their host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Sudabe; Nozari, Jamasb; Mandelshtam, Michail Yu; Knížek, Miloš; Etemad, Vahid; Faccoli, Massimo

    2017-11-17

    Bark and ambrosia beetles from the subfamily Scolytinae are among the most important pests in forests of Northern Iran. During investigations conducted in 2013-2016 in different parts of northern forests, the species Crypturgus cribrellus Reitter, Liparthrum bartschti Mühl, Scolytus varshalovitchi Michalski, Scolytus sulcifrons Rey, Scolytus triarmatus (Eggers) and Trypophloeus granulatus (Ratzeburg) were recorded for the first time in Iran; Trypophloeus and Liparthrum were new genera for Iran. As new host plants we found Zelkova sp. for Scolytus varshalovitchi, Michalski, Populus sp. for Liparthrum bartschti, Mühl, Alnus sp. and Pterocarya fraxinifolia for Taphrorychus lenkoranus Reitter, Pterocarya fraxinifolia for Ernoporicus caucasicus (Lindemann), Carpinus sp. for Pteleobius vittatus (Fabricius), Parrotia persica for Scolytus intricatus (Ratzeburg), Alnus sp. and Pterocarya fraxinifolia for Hypothenemus eruditus (Westwood).

  10. Management of Alluvial Forests Included in Natura 2000 91E0* Habitat Type in Maramureş Mountains Nature Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danci Oana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Natura 2000 habitat type 91E0* Alluvial forests of Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus excelsior (Alno-Padion, Alnion incanae, Salicion albae include three subtypes of forests. In the Maramureș Mountains Nature Park (MMNP the alluvial forests are represented by Alnus incana forest situated on the banks of mountain rivers. Starting from 2007, 70% of the MMNP is also a Natura 2000 site of community interest. In the standard form for the site are listed 18 Natura 2000 habitat types, but that of alluvial forests 91E0* is not listed either due to an error or lack of available research data. Our study seeks to provide information regarding this high conservation value habitat such as: structure, distribution,managementmeasures andmonitoring protocol. The purpose of this paper is to offer a management tool for this conservation value habitat which is also exposed to human impact more than any other priority habitat in MMNP.

  11. [Maples at the sub-Alpine vegetation belt: a long history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, F; Barbero, M

    2001-02-01

    Pollen analysis was carried out on lacustrine sediment of a small hollow (15 m x 25 m) at the treeless sub-Alpine belt (202 m) of the inner Maurienne valley in the northern French Alps. A 2,500-year-long maple settlement was demonstrared. Three AMS dates of terrestrial plant macroremains support the chronology. First, Betula and Salix spread prior to 9,000 C14 BP. The first pollen grains of Acer, Abies and Pinus cembra are quoted at 8,600 C14 BP. High frequencies of Alnus glutinosa/incana (20%) and Acer (10%) show that mixed communities of Acer and Alnus persisted above the mountainous Abies forest between 7,490 and 5,850 C14 BP. After 5,850 C14 BP, the decrease in Acer stands could be attributed to fire as suggested by the strong increase in Betula and by the delayed expansion of Pinus cembra.

  12. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1978-01-01

    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  13. Smoke damage from the copper-smelting works in Murgul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acatay, A.

    1968-01-01

    As a result of studies in woodland near the source of pollution, species are ranged in order of increasing sensitivity: for hardwoods--Buxus sempervirens, Quercus sessiliflora, Ulmus campestris, Robinia pseudoacacia, Fagus orientalis, Diospyros lotus, Tilia sp., Populus tremula, Betula verrucosa, alnus glabra, Carpinus spp., Fraxinus spp, Sorbus aucuparia, Corylus avellana, Castanea sativa, Ostrya carpinifolia, and Juglans regia (very sensitive); and for conifers--Taxus baccata, Pinus spp., Picea spp., Cedrus spp., and Abies spp. 4 references, 11 figures.

  14. The potential of grey alder plantation forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry

    1996-12-31

    A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  15. Compilation of 1987 Annual Reports of the Navy ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Element 5 - Movement Patterns of Insects .................... 166 Element 6 - Leaf Litter Processing Studies .................... 179 Element 7 - Fish...E.L.F. radiation on thier movements. Element 6 - Leaf Litter Processina Fresh tag alder (Alnus rugosa) leaves were processed significantly faster than...through 1986. Shredders are an important functional feeding group found on leaves, as they process leaf fragments. Shredder biomass was higher on fresh

  16. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BRULLO

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  17. The phenological phases of flowering and pollen seasons of spring flowering tree taxa against a background of meteorological conditions in Kraków, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Stępalska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare phenological observations of pollen seasons of selected early spring trees. Special attention was paid to meteorological conditions which favored or did not favor tree flowering and pollen release. For this reason, we used phenological observation, pollen counts, and meteorological data in five sites in the center of Kraków in the period 2009–2011. Phenological phases (5 of four tree species: Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Corylus avellana, and Betula pendula, were analyzed. It was found that in case of A. glutinosa the pollen season often preceded the flowering period, while for A. incana those two phenomena were more correlated. As regards Corylus avellana, the beginning of the pollen season and phenological phases was simultaneous. However, pollen grains occurred in the air longer, even by a dozen or so days. The phenological phases and pollen seasons of Alnus and Corylus were dependent on meteorological conditions. To give the definition of the relationship between pollen concentration and weather conditions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied. High Alnus and Corylus pollen concentrations were found on sunny days with a maximum temperature over 10°C and no precipitation, and when the snow cover was gone. In case of Betula, the phenological phases of the full pollination period usually coincided with the periods of high pollen concentrations. However, Betula pollen sometimes appears earlier and stays in the air longer than the flowering period of local trees in the nearest vicinity. This situation indicates long-distance transport or secondary deposition.

  18. SYNTAXONOMY OF HY GROPHILOUS WOODS OF THE ALNO-QUERCION ROBORIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. BRULLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of the hygrophilous woods occurring in marshy places of the flood-plains from SE Europe is given. This vegetation is included in the Alno-Quercion roboris, alliance of the Populetalia albae, which comprises numerous associations characterized by the dominance of hard-wood trees, such as Quercus robur, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Ulmus minor, Alnus glutinosa, etc. For each association the synonyms, nomenclature type, diagnostic species, ecology, structure and chorology are given.

  19. Growth responses of indigenous Frankia populations to edaphic factors in actinorhizal rhizospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Suvidha S; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2015-10-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to follow population dynamics of indigenous Frankia populations in bulk soil, in leaf-litter-amended soil and in the rhizosphere of Alnus glutinosa or Casuarina equisetifolia at 2 matric potentials representing dry and wet conditions in soil microcosms. Analyses revealed between 10- and 100-fold increases of Frankia populations within the incubation period of 12 weeks independent of treatment. Numbers were generally higher under dry conditions and in the rhizosphere, with that of C. equisetifolia supporting highest abundance. Frankiae detected at any time and treatment belonged to either subgroup I of the Alnus host infection group or the Elaeagnus host infection group, with those of the Elaeagnus host infection group largely representing the genus in all samples under wet conditions, and in bulk and leaf litter amended soil under dry conditions. Subgroup I of the Alnus host infection group was most prominent in the rhizosphere of both plant species where it represented up to 95% of the genus with higher percentages in that of C. equisetifolia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of growth on mannitol salt agar, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, VITEK®2 with partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene for identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayeni, Funmilola A; Andersen, Camilla; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Mannitol salt agar (MSA) is often used in resources' limited laboratories for identification of S. aureus however, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) grows and ferments mannitol on MSA. 171 strains of CoNS which have been previously misidentified as S. aureus due to growth on MSA were collected from different locations in Nigeria and two methods for identification of CoNS were compared i.e. ViTEK 2 and MALDI-TOF MS with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing as gold standard. Partial tuf gene sequencing was used for contradicting identification. All 171 strains (13 species) grew on MSA and ferments mannitol. All tested strains of S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri, S. sciuri,, S. warneri, S. xylosus, S. capitis were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF while variable identification were observed in S. saprophyticus and S. cohnii (90%, 81%). There was low identification of S. arlettae (14%) while all strains of S. kloosii and S. gallinarum were misidentified. There is absence of S. gallinarum in the MALDI-TOF database at the period of this study. All tested strains of S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, S. haemolyticus, S. sciuri,, S. warneri, S. xylosus and S. capitis were correctly identified by ViTEK while variable identification were observed in S. saprophyticus, S. arlettae, S. cohnii, S. kloosii, (84%, 86%, 75%, 60%) and misidentification of S. nepalensis, S. pasteuri. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used as gold standard for most strains except S. capitis and S. xylosus where the two species were misidentified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA contrary to MALDI-TOF and ViTEK identification. Tuf gene sequencing was used for correct identification. Characteristic growth on MSA for CoNS is also identical to S. aureus growth on the media and therefore, MSA could not differentiate between S. aureus and CoNS. The percentage accuracy of ViTEK was better than MALDI-TOF in identification of CoNS. Although partial sequencing of

  1. Free atmospheric CO2 enrichment increased above ground biomass but did not affect symbiotic N2-fixation and soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous stand in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Through increases in net primary production (NPP, elevated CO2 is hypothesized to increase the amount of plant litter entering the soil. The fate of this extra carbon on the forest floor or in mineral soil is currently not clear. Moreover, increased rates of NPP can be maintained only if forests can escape nitrogen limitation. In a Free atmospheric CO2 Enrichment (FACE experiment near Bangor, Wales, 4 ambient and 4 elevated [CO2] plots were planted with patches of Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa and Fagus sylvatica on a former arable field. After 4 years, biomass averaged for the 3 species was 5497 (se 270 g m−2 in ambient and 6450 (se 130 g m−2 in elevated [CO2] plots, a significant increase of 17% (P = 0.018. During that time, only a shallow L forest floor litter layer had formed due to intensive bioturbation. Total soil C and N contents increased irrespective of treatment and species as a result of afforestation. We could not detect an additional C sink in the soil, nor were soil C stabilization processes affected by elevated [CO2]. We observed a decrease of leaf N content in Betula and Alnus under elevated [CO2], while the soil C/N ratio decreased regardless of CO2 treatment. The ratio of N taken up from the soil and by N2-fixation in Alnus was not affected by elevated [CO2]. We infer that increased nitrogen use efficiency is the mechanism by which increased NPP is sustained under elevated [CO2] at this site.

  2. Efectos de plantaciones abandonadas de especies exóticas y nativas sobre la regeneración natural de un bosque montano en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cavelier, Jaime; Santos, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Se realizaron censos de vegetación durante 1994 en una parcela de 0.1 ha. en cada una de las plantaciones abandonadas de Pinus radiata, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, Alnus acuminata y en un bosque secundario montano alto en los Andes centrales de Colombia. También fueron recolectados datos de las propiedades físicas y químicas de suelos superficiales. El bosque de rege- ' neración natural tiene el mayor número de especies (33) seguido por las plantaciones de E. glob,¡¡lus (26) y ...

  3. Efectos de plantaciones abandonadas de especies exóticas y nativas sobre la regeneración natural de un bosque montano en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Cavelier; Carolina Santos

    1999-01-01

    Se realizaron censos de vegetación durante 1994 en una parcela de 0.1 ha. en cada una de las plantaciones abandonadas de Pinus radiata, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, Alnus acuminata y en un bosque secundario montano alto en los Andes centrales de Colombia. También fueron recolectados datos de las propiedades físicas y químicas de suelos superficiales. El bosque de regeneración natural tiene el mayor número de especies (33) seguido por las plantaciones de E. globulus (26) y A. acu...

  4. PHENOECOLOGY STUDIES ON SOME ANEMOPHILE LIGNEOUS MAGNOLIATAE FROM TIMIŞOARA

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    A. Faur

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence show that weather changes in the recent years manifested through warming-up conditions in the spring months in many European regions. Our researches focussed on the blooming phenophasic comparison in eight species of anemophile ligneous Magnoliatae (Acer, Alnus, Corylus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Morus, Tilia, Ulmus between years 1950-1959 and 2000-2002. Studies show that data of season start in ligneous Magnoliatae pollen progressively became more early in the last 50 years as a response to climate changes.

  5. Nouvelles contributions a la connaisance de l'histoire de la vegetation holocene des Monts Rodnei (Carpates Orientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Tant̡ău

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available New Contributions to the Knowledge of the Holocene Vegetation History of Rodnei Mountains. Two sequences originating from one peat bog in Poiana Ştiol (Rodnei Mts. were pollen analyzed. The vegetation history is described since the Atlantic period. In this period the vegetation is dominated by Picea together with Corylus, Ulmus and Alnus viridis. The components frequencies of the Quercetum mixtum (Quercus, Fraxinus, Tilia, Corylus rarely exceed 10%. The vegetation of the Subboreal period is dominated by the Carpinus and that of the Subatlantic is dominated by Fagus. Picea pollen is well represented belong the entire sequences.

  6. Short-rotation hardwood species as whole-tree raw material for pulp and paper. 4. Effect of bark upon chemical pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Data are tabulated and discussed from pulping, beating and washing experiments on pulps including various proportions of the bark and leaves of 4 species: Aspen (Populus tremula), Sallow (Salix caprea), White Birch (Betula pubescens) and Grey Alder (Alnus incana). Leaves were found to be unsuitable as a raw material, but the yields and strength of pulps including bark were satisfactory. The main problem in the use of these pulps is their bad drainage characteristics; this calls for either more washing capacity or for a chip barking process. An economic analysis indicates that it is best to use unbarked stems of these species at age 20 to 25.

  7. Short rotation hardwood species as whole-tree raw material for pulp and paper. 3. Chemical pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loennberg, B.

    1976-01-01

    Sulphate pulps from whole-tree leafless samples of 3 to 5-year-old, 10 to 15-year-old and 20 to 25-year-old Populus tremula, Alnus incana, Salix caprea and Betula pubescens, and 9-year-old Populus tremula X P. tremuloides required more alkali and gave lower yields than barked materials. Soda/oxygen pulps were not satisfactory. It is thought that 25% of young whole-tree hardwood chops would be acceptable in a furnish of normal Birch chips.

  8. BOSQUE MESÓFILO DE MONTAÑA Y ESCENARIOS DE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA EVALUACIÓN EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro I. Monterroso-Rivas; Jesús D. Gómez-Díaz; Juan A. Tinoco-Rueda

    2013-01-01

    El hábitat de ocho especies forestales (Liquidambar macrophylla, Alnus arguta, Carpinus caroliniana, Clethra mexicana, Pinus patula, Nectandra sanguínea, Podocarpus reichei y Quercus spp.) representativas del bosque mesófilo de montaña en el estado de Hidalgo se evaluó en condiciones actuales y bajo escenarios de cambio climático. Se utilizó el marco conceptual de nicho ecológico y se evaluaron doce variables: una topográfica, cinco paisajísticas y seis climáticas. Se realizó un análisis fact...

  9. Saproxylic beetles of the Po plain woodlands, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Stefanelli

    2014-07-01

    Although we didn’t find species listed in the Annexes of the EU Habitat Directive, some of the species found are locally threatened because of their rarity, local distribution, and strong linkage to old forests. Among these species there are the Bothrideridae Bothrideres bipunctatus, the Cerambycidae Prionus coriarius and Xylotrechus rusticus, the Dryophthoridae Dryophthorus corticalis, the Eucnemidae Nematodes filum (with only 1 individual captured in Alnus unmanged forest, the Histeridae Aeletes atomarius and Paromalus flavicornis, the Laemophloeidae Cryptolestes duplicatus, the Latridiidae Enicmus rugosus and Latridius hirtus, the Mycetophagidae Mycetophagus piceus, and the Zopheridae Colydium elongatum and Pycnomerus terebrans.

  10. A supplementary description of Brevipalpus californicus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae

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    Mohammad Raissi Ardali

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The false spider mite Brevipalpus californicus from the family Tenuipalpidae was collected from Caucasian alnus, White willow, Persian raspberry and a wild Chrysanthemum bush in Mazandaran province. This species is reported as a new record to the false spider mites-fauna of Iran here. Reviewing literatures revealed that it was briefly described in the original paper without any measures. So, a completed description is presented based on the Iranian specimens and different body segments are drawn for B. californicus. In addition, the above plants are new host records for B. californicus.

  11. Begonia myanmarica (Begoniaceae), a new species from Myanmar, and molecular phylogenetics of Begonia sect. Monopteron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Hsin; Kim, Young-Dong; Peng, Ching-I; Htwe, Khin Myo; Cho, Seong-Hyun; Kono, Yoshiko; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2017-12-01

    A new species, Begonia myanmarica, was discovered from Myanmar and herein documented. Characterized by a single developed wing in the ovary/fruit, this species would be assigned to sect. Monopteron (sensu Doorenbos et al. in The sections of Begonia including descriptions, keys and species lists: studies in Begoniaceae VI. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, 1998) that is known by B. griffithiana and B. nepalensis from the Himalaya. To confirm its sectional assignment, we conducted morphological, phylogenetic and cytological studies. Morphological observations indicated that B. myanmarica was distinguishable from the two known species of sect. Monopteron by the leaf shape and size, 1-locular ovary, parietal placentation and chromosome number. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using nrITS sequences showed that B. myanmarica was not allied with the clade of sect. Monopteron, though both were nested within sect. Platycentrum-sect. Sphenanthera clade. Studies of morphology, molecular phylogenetics and cytology support the recognition of the new species, Begonia myanmarica, which is fully described and illustrated. Our results also indicate that B. myanmarica is not closely related to species previously assigned to sect. Monopteron, suggesting that the fruit morphology of a single developed wing in the ovary/fruit characterizing sect. Monopteron is homoplasious.

  12. Microbiological changes and biodiversity of cultivable indigenous bacteria in Sanbao larger yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea), a Chinese salted and fermented seafood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Li, Yan; Xu, Kunhua; Wu, Jiajia; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2015-04-01

    Sanbao large yellow croaker is a kind of Chinese salted and fermented seafood processed by adding 50% of salt and fermenting at high temperature [around 30 °C] over 20 d. To get a comprehensive understanding of cultivable microorganism's diversity present in its fermentation, the chemical and microbial properties of this product, were detected initially, followed by identification of bacteria recovered from different fermentation periods using PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. In total, 105 indigenous isolates were recovered with 3 different medium and majority of the isolates picked up from both MRS and MSA medium were finally clustered into the genus of Staphylococcus (S.). Among the 90 Staphylococci, S. xylosus, S. saprophyticus, and S. nepalensis were the most prevailing cultivable species recovered throughout the whole production process (70 isolates, 77.8%), while 5 other species, namely, S. aureus, S. vitulinus, S. sciuri, S. equorum, and S. succinus formed a minor fraction (20 isolates, 22.2%) of the Staphylococcus communities. Lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas, Proteus, and Bacillus constituted trivial populations in the initial period of the fermentation and then gave the way to the Staphylococcus immediately. High salt concentration used during the processing is like to have a pronounced influence on the microbial populations involved. Data obtained in this work could be referred in control and optimization of the fermentation process and selecting suitable strains for aquatic product fermentation. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Absence of Cospeciation between the Uncultured Frankia Microsymbionts and the Disjunct Actinorhizal Coriaria Species

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    Imen Nouioui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriaria is an actinorhizal plant that forms root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing actinobacteria of the genus Frankia. This symbiotic association has drawn interest because of the disjunct geographical distribution of Coriaria in four separate areas of the world and in the context of evolutionary relationships between host plants and their uncultured microsymbionts. The evolution of Frankia-Coriaria symbioses was examined from a phylogenetic viewpoint using multiple genetic markers in both bacteria and host-plant partners. Total DNA extracted from root nodules collected from five species: C. myrtifolia, C. arborea, C. nepalensis, C. japonica, and C. microphylla, growing in the Mediterranean area (Morocco and France, New Zealand, Pakistan, Japan, and Mexico, respectively, was used to amplify glnA gene (glutamine synthetase, dnaA gene (chromosome replication initiator, and the nif DK IGS (intergenic spacer between nifD and nifK genes in Frankia and the matK gene (chloroplast-encoded maturase K and the intergenic transcribed spacers (18S rRNA-ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA in Coriaria species. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated that the radiations of Frankia strains and Coriaria species are not congruent. The lack of cospeciation between the two symbiotic partners may be explained by host shift at high taxonomic rank together with wind dispersal and/or survival in nonhost rhizosphere.

  14. The oral microbiota of domestic cats harbors a wide variety of Staphylococcus species with zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ciro César; da Silva Dias, Ingrid; Muniz, Igor Mansur; Lilenbaum, Walter; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the species, antimicrobial resistance and dispersion of CRISPR systems in staphylococci isolated from the oropharynx of domestic cats in Brazil. Staphylococcus strains (n=75) were identified by MALDI-TOF and sequencing of rpoB and tuf genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by disk diffusion method and PCR to investigate the presence of antimicrobial-resistance genes usually present in mobile genetic elements (plasmids), in addition to plasmid extraction. CRISPR - genetic arrangements that give the bacteria the ability to resist the entry of exogenous DNA - were investigated by the presence of the essential protein Cas1 gene. A great diversity of Staphylococcus species (n=13) was identified. The presence of understudied species, like S. nepalensis and S. pettenkoferi reveals that more than one identification method may be necessary to achieve conclusive results. At least 56% of the strains contain plamids, being 99% resistant to at least one of the eight tested antimicrobials and 12% multidrug resistant. CRISPR were rare among the studied strains, consistent with their putative role as gene reservoirs. Moreover, herein we describe for the first time their existence in Staphylococcus lentus, to which the system must confer additional adaptive advantage. Prevalence of resistance among staphylococci against antimicrobials used in veterinary and human clinical practice and the zoonotic risk highlight the need of better antimicrobial management practices, as staphylococci may transfer resistance genes among themselves, including to virulent species, like S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pollen-related allergy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, G; Spieksma, F T; Liccardi, G; Jäger, S; Russo, M; Kontou-Fili, K; Nikkels, H; Wüthrich, B; Bonini, S

    1998-06-01

    The increasing mobility of Europeans for business and leisure has led to a need for reliable information about exposure to seasonal airborne allergens during travel abroad. Over the last 10 years or so, aeropalynologic and allergologic studies have progressed to meet this need, and extensive international networks now provide regular pollen and hay-fever forecasts. Europe is a geographically complex continent with a widely diverse climate and a wide spectrum of vegetation. Consequently, pollen calendars differ from one area to another; however, on the whole, pollination starts in spring and ends in autumn. Grass pollen is by far the most frequent cause of pollinosis in Europe. In northern Europe, pollen from species of the family Betulaceae is a major cause of the disorder. In contrast, the mild winters and dry summers of Mediterranean areas favor the production of pollen types that are rarely found in central and northern areas of the continent (e.g., the genera Parietaria, Olea, and Cupressus). Clinical and aerobiologic studies show that the pollen map of Europe is changing also as a result of cultural factors (e.g., importation of plants for urban parklands) and greater international travel (e.g., the expansion of the ragweed genus Ambrosia in France, northern Italy, Austria, and Hungary). Studies on allergen-carrying paucimicronic or submicronic airborne particles, which penetrate deep into the lung, are having a relevant impact on our understanding of pollinosis and its distribution throughout Europe.

  16. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in floral diversities, floral turnover rates, and climates in Campanian and Maastrichtian time, North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.

    1989-01-01

    One-hundred-and-ten angiosperm pollen taxa have been found in upper Campanian to Masstrichtian rocks of the Colville River region, North Slope of Alaska. These are the highest paleolatitude Campanian and Maastrichtian floras known from North America. Total angiosperm pollen diversity rose during the Campanian and declined toward the end of the Maastrichtian. However, anemophilous porate pollen of the Betulaceae-Myricaceae-Ulmaceae complex increased gradually in diversity during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian and into the Paleocene. Turnover of angiosperm taxa was active throughout most of late Campanian and Maastrichtian time; rapid turnover affected mainly the taxa of zoophilous herbs, representing an bundant but ecologically subordinate element of the vegetation. Last appearances of pollen taxa during the late Campanian and Maastrichtian probably represented mainly extinctions rather than emigrations; end- Cretaceous angiosperm extinctions in the North American Arctic began well before the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event. The last appearances in the late Maastrichtian took place in bursts; they appear to represent stepwise rather than gradual events, which may indicate the existence of pulses of climatic change particularly in late Maastrichtian time. ?? 1989.

  18. Changes in the concentration of pollen over an 11-year period in a Polish urban environment

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    Barbara Majkowska-Wojciechowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change can influence plant reproductive systems and have an impact on the increase in allergenic pollen in atmospheric air; highly allergenic pollen may intensify the allergic response in people. The aim of our study was to evaluate the seasonal dynamic concentration of the most allergenic pollen taxa, i.e., the following trees: Alnus, Corylus, Betula, and herbaceous plants: grasses (Poaceae, Artemisia, and Ambrosia, in the long-term period of 2003–2013 in the city of Lodz, Poland. Weekly airborne pollen concentrations were evaluated with a volumetric Lansoni pollen trap. The beginning and the end of the season were calculated by the 98% method. The birch (Betula pollen was at the highest level and accounted for 79%, followed by alder (Alnus – 19%, and hazel (Corylus – 2%. Among the herbaceous taxa, grasses (Poaceae pollen dominated – 79%, followed by mugwort (Artemisia – 18%, and ragweed (Ambrosia – 3%. Our findings indicate a lack of qualitative and quantitative change in the pollen produced over the 11-year period.

  19. Performance of ectomycorrhizal alders exposed to specific Canadian oil sands tailing stressors under in vivo bipartite symbiotic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Nadeau, Martin; Gagné, André; Bissonnette, Cyntia; Bélanger, Pier-Anne; Fortin, J André; Roy, Sébastien; Greer, Charles W; Khasa, Damase P

    2016-07-01

    Canadian oil sands tailings are predominately sodic residues contaminated by hydrocarbons such as naphthenic acids. These conditions are harsh for plant development. In this study, we evaluated the effect of inoculating roots of Alnus viridis ssp. crispa and Alnus incana ssp. rugosa with ectomycorrhizal fungi in the presence of tailings compounds. Seedlings were inoculated with 7 different strains of Paxillus involutus and Alpova diplophloeus and were grown under different treatments of NaCl, Na2SO4, and naphthenic acids in a growth chamber. Afterwards, seedling survival, height, dry biomass, leaf necrosis, and root mycorrhization rate were measured. Paxillus involutus Mai was the most successful strain in enhancing alder survival, health, and growth. Seedlings inoculated with this strain displayed a 25% increase in survival rate, 2-fold greater biomass, and 2-fold less leaf necrosis compared with controls. Contrary to our expectations, A. diplophloeus was not as effective as P. involutus in improving seedling fitness, likely because it did not form ectomycorrhizae on roots of either alder species. High intraspecific variation characterized strains of P. involutus in their ability to stimulate alder height and growth and to minimize leaf necrosis. We conclude that in vivo selection under bipartite symbiotic conditions is essential to select effective strains that will be of use for the revegetation and reclamation of derelict lands.

  20. Sequential palynostratigraphy of the Queen City and Weches formations (Middle Eocene Claiborne Group), southeast central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsik, W.C. (MycoStrat Connection, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Palynomorph sequences of several orders of magnitude were found in the Queen City and Weches formations respectively at Six Mile and Burleson bluffs on the Brazos River, Milam and Burleson counties, Texas. The long term development of the subtropical to tropical Claibornian palynoflora included Engelhardtia spp., Friedrichipollis claibornensis, Nudopollis terminalis, Pollenites laesius and Symplocoipollenites spp. Shorter term fluctuations in sea level were reflected by common herbaceous pollen in the Queen City, and common mangrove pollen in the Weches. Paleoenvironments were marginally to fully marine; dinocysts occurred throughout. The Wetzeliella group of dinocysts were present only in the Queen City at Six Mile Bluff. Late Paleocene to Early Eocene pollen, and Early Middle Eocene pollen with last effective occurrences near the Queen City and Weches boundary included Aesculiidites circumstriatus, Annona foveoreticulata and a new species of Platycarya. Five short term warmer-cooler couplet events were represented by successive abundance peaks of Juglandaceae followed by Ulmus; Alnus supports the three upper Ulmus peaks. One deep water event was recorded by an abundance of fresh water Pediastrum at the Queen City and Weches boundary. That boundary event was bracketed by two of the Alnus and Ulmus peaks.

  1. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of decision tree algorithms for discriminating among woody plant taxa based on the pollen season characteristics

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    Kubik-Komar Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether and which parameters of the atmospheric pollen season can distinguish between pollen types, the ranges of parameter values that delineate classes of taxa, and finally which taxa are similar to others within the domain of these parameter ranges. Decision tree algorithms were applied and the best tree was chosen to describe the rules of pollen classification. The study material consisted of airborne pollen grains of the following eight taxa: Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus, Cupressaceae, Fraxinus, Populus and Ulmus. Research was conducted in Lublin in eastern Poland during 2001-2013. The following six atmospheric pollen season parameters were analyzed: season start and end, duration, maximum daily pollen concentration, date of maximum pollen concentration, and the Seasonal Pollen Index (SPI. Four algorithms were used in data analysis and the J4.8 algorithm was chosen as the best for taxa classification, date of the end of season and the SPI value belonging to characteristics that served most to discriminate between pollen types. Based on the classification tree, the following four groups of taxa were identified: (i Ulmus; (ii Corylus, Alnus, Populus; (iii Betula; and (iv Carpinus, Fraxinus, Cupressaceae.

  3. Spatial variation of modern pollen in Oregon and southern Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minckley; Whitlock

    2000-10-01

    Surface sediments from 95 lakes provide information on the spatial variation of modern pollen spectra in Oregon and southern Washington. Percentages for 13 pollen types were compared within and between vegetation zones to characterize regional patterns of pollen spectra. The percentage data were also compared with climate variables to determine relationships between pollen percentages and regional climate gradients. The composition of modern pollen spectra corresponds well with the distribution of the pollen producers. Most pollen assemblages were generally dominated by Pinus, but those west of the Cascade Range were dominated by Alnus. Low percentages of Pseudotsuga/Larix, Tsuga mertensiana, Abies, and Picea pollen coincided with local occurrence of the trees. The distributions of the pollen data were arranged along gradients of temperature and effective moisture. West of the Cascade Range, Alnus, Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga/Larix, and Cupressaceae pollen were abundant and correlate well with moderate temperature and high effective moisture. In the shrub-steppe and woodlands east of the Cascade Range, where effective moisture is low, Artemisia, Cupressaceae, and Pinus pollen were dominant. At high elevations, Pinus, T. mertensiana, Abies, and Picea were common pollen types in areas with short growing seasons and high effective moisture. Pollen percentages collected from lake surface sediments, moss polsters, and soils were compared within a number of vegetation types to assess their similarity. The three types of sample yielded similar results for forested areas, but lake sediment samples from upper- and lower-treeline sites captured a more regional picture of the vegetation.

  4. Models to predict the start of the airborne pollen season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniscalco, Consolata; Caramiello, Rosanna; Migliavacca, Mirco; Busetto, Lorenzo; Mercalli, Luca; Colombo, Roberto; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2015-07-01

    Aerobiological data can be used as indirect but reliable measures of flowering phenology to analyze the response of plant species to ongoing climate changes. The aims of this study are to evaluate the performance of several phenological models for predicting the pollen start of season (PSS) in seven spring-flowering trees ( Alnus glutinosa, Acer negundo, Carpinus betulus, Platanus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Alnus viridis, and Castanea sativa) and in two summer-flowering herbaceous species ( Artemisia vulgaris and Ambrosia artemisiifolia) by using a 26-year aerobiological data set collected in Turin (Northern Italy). Data showed a reduced interannual variability of the PSS in the summer-flowering species compared to the spring-flowering ones. Spring warming models with photoperiod limitation performed best for the greater majority of the studied species, while chilling class models were selected only for the early spring flowering species. For Ambrosia and Artemisia, spring warming models were also selected as the best models, indicating that temperature sums are positively related to flowering. However, the poor variance explained by the models suggests that further analyses have to be carried out in order to develop better models for predicting the PSS in these two species. Modeling the pollen season start on a very wide data set provided a new opportunity to highlight the limits of models in elucidating the environmental factors driving the pollen season start when some factors are always fulfilled, as chilling or photoperiod or when the variance is very poor and is not explained by the models.

  5. Juglans regia L. tree plantations for wood production in mining area of S. Barbara (AR. Evaluation of N-fixing accessory trees effect

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    Tani A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in experimental plots located in the Arno valley (Cavriglia, province of Arezzo - Italy. The experimental plots, walnut (Juglans regia L. plantations both pure and mixed to accessory trees (Alnus cordata Loisel., Corylus avellana L., Eleagnus angustifolia L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., were established in 1986 and 1989. Data on grown and architectural characteristics were collected in different periods on trees aged 9, 13 and 16. Walnut trees grown with accessory trees showed the best performances, especially if associated with N-fixing species. These positive effects are probably due to many co-occuring favourable causes, a remarkable aspect of which is the higher availability of N. To better investigate the above effect, N concentration in the soil and in walnut leaves was measured in plantations both pure and mixed with Italian alder (Alnus cordata or black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, and N concentration values were compared with growth characteristics. The results showed that Juglans regia trees associated with Italian alder grow faster, with straighter stems and better stem shapes for qualified wood production. Even if walnut trees growing in plantations with black locust show similar N concentration values, growth performances are worse.

  6. Variations of airborne winter pollen in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Clavijo, E; Galán, C; Infante, F; Domínguez, E

    1988-01-01

    This work deals with the variation in the atmosphere of the airborne pollen produced by winter blooming plants and is aimed to establish correlations between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere of Córdoba and meteorological parameters such as the temperature, humidity, rainfall, pressure, hours of sunlight and wind speed and direction. The work was conducted for two consecutive years (1981-82 and 1982-83). The sampling was carried out in Córdoba (Spain) with a BURKARD sporetrap. The data obtained in the aeropalinological study are correlated to the above-mentioned meterological parameters. Along the period investigated grains were found from Ulmus minor, Fraxinus sp., Populus sp., Alnus glutinosa and Cupressaceae, and less frequently, Artemisia sp., Pinaceae, Urticaceae, type Helianthus and Gramineae. Pollen grains from Cupressaceae were found at the highest absolute and relative concentrations in the atmosphere of Córdoba during the winter, where they occurred almost throughout. The correlation analysis applied showed that the parameters most markedly influencing the grain concentration of most taxa were the temperature and humidity. Alnus glutinosa was the least affected species, probably because of the scarcity of its pollen grains.

  7. Fuels assessment and its availability in forest fire: a study in the Malinche National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Wong González

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of forest fire danger and control considers the interaction between the weather factors and fuels characteristics. The fuels moisture was evaluated in relation on its diameter and the relative humidity. Fuels from 0.6 to 2.5 and from 2.6 to 7.5 cm of diameter were analyzed in the communities where dominate genera was: Quercus, Alnus, Abies and Pinus at National Park Malinche, Tlaxcala, Mexico. The results show: a the fuels moisture content varied according to the atmospheric conditions in different places and hourly, b the fuels with greater diameter had a smaller relation between the exposition surface and its volume (120 m2/m3 and for the smaller diameter the relation enlarged (235 m2/m3, having a greater probability of ignition. During the fires season in the months of February, March and April, the fuels moisture content in Alnus jorullensis and Pinus montezumae was greater to 25% where the combustion is not produced, this is the humidity of extinction. In Quercus crassipes, Pinus hartwegii and Abies religious-Pinus teocote, the fuels moisture was smaller to 25% these communities were more vulnerable to fires hazard.

  8. Links between belowground and aboveground resource-related traits reveal species growth strategies that promote invasive advantages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S Smith

    Full Text Available Belowground processes are rarely considered in comparison studies of native verses invasive species. We examined relationships between belowground fine root production and lifespan, leaf phenology, and seasonal nitrogen dynamics of Lonicera japonica (non-native versus L. sempervirens (native and Frangula alnus (non-native versus Rhamnus alnifolia (native, over time. First and second order fine roots were monitored from 2010 to 2012 using minirhizotron technology and rhizotron windows. 15N uptake of fine roots was measured across spring and fall seasons. Significant differences in fine root production across seasons were seen between Lonicera species, but not between Frangula and Rhamnus, with both groups having notable asynchrony in regards to the timing of leaf production. Root order and the number of root neighbors at the time of root death were the strongest predictors of root lifespan of both species pairs. Seasonal 15N uptake was higher in spring than in the fall, which did not support the need for higher root activity to correspond with extended leaf phenology. We found higher spring 15N uptake in non-native L. japonica compared to native L. sempervirens, although there was no difference in 15N uptake between Frangula and Rhamnus species. Our findings indicate the potential for fast-growing non-native Lonicera japonica and Frangula alnus to outcompete native counterparts through differences in biomass allocation, root turnover, and nitrogen uptake, however evidence that this is a general strategy of invader dominance is limited.

  9. Impact of age of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation on earthworm communities of West Tripura (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, P S; Bhattacharjee, Subhalaxmi; Dey, Animesh; Chattopadhyay, Sharmila; Bhattacharya, Dipto

    2013-01-01

    A comparative analysis of earthworm communities was carried out in the rubber plantations (Hevea brasiliensis) of different age groups in West Tripura to understand the impact of such exotic and monoculture plantation in biodiversity conservation. Earthworm communities were studied on monthly basis over a period of one year (2006-2007) in the 3, 10, 14, 20 and 25 year-old plantations. Among twelve earthworm species collected from the studied sites, six species belonged to Octochaetidae [Eutyphoeus assomensis Stephenson, Eutyphoeus comillahnus Michaelsen, Lennogaster chittagongensis (Stephensen), Octochaetona beatrix Gates, Dichogaster offinis Michaelsen, Lennogaster yeicus (Stephensen)], two species each to Megascolecidae [Metaphire houlleti (Perrier), Konchurio sp. 1] and Moniligastridae [Drowida nepalensis Michaelsen, Drawida papillifer papillifer Stephenson], one species each to Glossoscolecidae [Pontoscolex corethrurus (Muller)] and Ocnerodrilidae [Gordiodrilus elegans Beddard]. Exotic species P corethrurus, M. houlleti and native peregrine species like D. nepolensis and D. papillifer papillifer were distributed in all the age groups of plantation, while other species showed restricted distribution. P. corethrurus contributed more than 60% biomass and 70% density of earthworm communities in rubber plantation. With aging of rubber plantations both the densities and biomasses of earthworms increased. High contents of polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin in the litters of 3 and 10 year-old-rubber plantations through their effects on food intake, probably resulted to low biomass values of earthworms in those age groups of plantation. With further increase in the age of plantations beyond 10 years, polyphenol, flavonoid and lignin contents decreased. Accordingly the biomass of earthworms increased with increase in the age of plantation. Soil moisture increased with increase in the age of plantation and there was a good positive correlation between soil moisture and

  10. Antibacterial efficacy of local plants and their contribution to public health in rural Ethiopia

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    Gutema Taressa Tura

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper hand hygiene with soap and detergents prevents the transmission of many infectious diseases. However, commercial detergents are less likely to be accessible or affordable to poor people in remote rural areas. These people traditionally use some plant parts as a detergent even though their antibacterial activity has not been yet investigated. Therefore, this study aims to determine the antibacterial activities of some of the plants against bacteria isolated from humans. Methods Plants selected for this study are Phytolacca dodecandra fruits, Rumex nepalensis leaves, Grewia ferruginea bark and leaves. The samples of these plants were collected from rural areas of Jimma town based on their ethno-botanical survey and information on their local use. Acetone was used as a solvent to extract the bioactive constituents of the plants. The antibacterial activities of the plants were evaluated against reference strains and bacteria isolated from humans using disc diffusion and macro dilution methods. Results The plant extracts have shown varying antimicrobial activities against the bacterial species tested. Susceptibility testing shows zones of inhibition ranging from 8.0 ± 1.0 mm to 20.7 ± 5.5 mm. The MIC and MBC of the plants against the bacterial species tested were 3.13 and 12.5 mg/ml respectively. These variations are attributed to different concentrations of the bioactive constituents of the extracts like saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Conclusion The studied plants can contribute to achieve better personal hygiene since they are effective against different bacterial agents and are freely available in rural areas.

  11. A study of medicinal plants used as ethnoveterinary: harnessing potential phytotherapy in Bheri, District Muzaffarabad (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil Ahmed, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-15

    Medicinal plants are utilized for handling health care system and in preventing a variety of diseases. A survey was conducted to document the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in union council Bheri, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Questionnaire format was used to collect the medicinal uses of plants. The 180 informants were interviewed from six villages in total, 30 from each village (20 male and 10 female) regarding the ethnoveterinary uses of plants in several ailments. For the reliability of ethnoveterinary knowledge, the informant consensus factor (FIC), and fidelity level (FL) were calculated and the literature cited was surveyed. The medicinal information was gathered from local inhabitants, healers, shepherds and old men and women of different age groups. A total of 24 medicinal plant species used as ethnoveterinary were found belonging to 22 genera and 19 families. The most dominant family was Polygonaceae (3 species) followed by Araceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae each with 2 species and remaining families having one species. The important medicinal plant species showed the highest fidelity level (FL) such as: Rumex nepalensis, Primula denticulata, (100%) used for dysuria, red urination, Skimmia laureola (100%), Swertia paniculata (99%), and Angelica glauca (97%), used for ague, cold, shivering, gastric ailments, Melia azedarach (100%), used to reduce intestinal worm load in cattle showing the conformity of knowledge on these species. Highest FIC was recorded for foot and mouth diseases and ectoparasite (1) followed by ague (0.98) and dysuria (0.99) depicting that a few species were used to cure various animals׳ ailments. The findings of the research revealed that merely a few species are used as ethnoveterinary medicine supported by pharmacology study. Due to anthropogenic pressure the extinction of each species from the areas could result in disappearing knowledge regarding century׳s old traditional methods of

  12. Contribución al estudio paleobotánico mediante análisis de polen

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    Víaz-Fierros Viqueira, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The palynological of two sedimentary organic sequences placed over the present sea level, one located in the southern atlantic coast and the other in the cantabric coast of Galicia (Spain, shows an important tree-like cover (Pinus sylvestris L. & Alnus Miller in the preceding phase to the pre-Boreal period, more intense on the N. It brings into the pre-Boreal period, and it reappears with Quercus L. and Alnus Miller into the Atlantic period. Likewise, there are differences concerning vegetacional data windscreen the depot of the N and of the S: there is more tree-Iike outstanding presence of the Ulmus L. the marked manifestation of Corylus L. and ample and prolonged performance of the Ericaceae they are outstanding characteristics of the N depot. In the Atiantic period in the coast as log as the Asteraceae Cichorioideae increase in the southern Atlantic coast. We propose that the erosion of the soil have different risk intensity. Generally that is pussy in the Preboreal and major during the Holoceno, it is due at stage of forest degradation.El análisis de dos series sedimentarias orgánicas, situadas sobre el nivel actual del mar, localizadas una en la costa atlántico-meridional y otra en la cantábrica de Galicia (España, ha puesto de manifiesto la existencia de una importante cobertura arbórea (Pinus sylvestris L., Alnus Millar en una etapa anterior al pre-Boreal y resurgimiento con Quercus L. y Ulmus L. en el Atlantico. Se establecen asimismo diferencias en cuanto a los datos de vegetación obtenidos para los depósitos del N y del S: más intensa cobertura arbórea en el N. presencia singular de Ulmus L. abundante manifestación de Corylus L. y una amplia y prolongada representación de Ericáceas son características destacables para el sedimento del N. Las compuestas cichorioideas alcanzan un importante incremento en la costa cantábrica durante el periodo Atlántico, mientras que en la atlántico-meridional lo alcanzan las arteroideas

  13. Estudio paleobotánico del afloramiento vallesiense (Neógeno del barranco de Salanca (la Cerdaña, Lérida, España. Aspectos paleoecológicos

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    Barrón, Eduardo

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available An integral palaeobotanical study (macro- and microflora has been done of the Salanca ravine outcrop. This place is located in the región of la Cerdaña (Lérida province, Spain, which constitutes an Upper Miocene lacustrine basin from Eastern Pyrenees. The sediments of the Salanca ravine outcrop consist of diatomites and grey mudstones. They have been interpreted as being deposited in distal lacustrine zones. In a palynological study, 79 taxa have been identified. They belong to the divisions Pteridophyta, Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. The recorded assemblages allow us to reconstruct the vegetation of la Cerdaña during the Vallesian, though the problem of overrepresented taxa exists. The macrofloristic study has revealed the presence of 36 taxa through foliar remanís and winged seeds. The recorded assemblage presents plant remains of the divisions Pinophyta and Magnoliophyta. The best represented remains are leaves of dicotyledonous angiosperms because of their wind transport. The high percentage of angiosperm foliar remains in the sediments of the Salanca ravine outcrop revealed calm water conditions in the neogene lake. The palaeoclimatology deduced from the palynological study and the physiognomic study of macroflora indicates that températe conditions existed in which mixed mesophitíc forest developed where the families Pinaceae, Betulaceae and Fagaceae dominated.Se realiza un estudio paleobotánico (macro- y microflora del afloramiento del barranco de Salanca (comarca de la Cerdaña, Pirineos orientales, Lérida, España. En esta zona durante el Mioceno Superior se desarrolló una cuenca lacustre. Los materiales del barranco de Salanca son fundamentalmente diatomitas y "mudstones" de color gris, que se depositaron en zonas lacustres distales. Tras el estudio palinológico, se han identificado 79 táxones pertenecientes a las divisiones Pteridophyta, Pinophyta y Magnoliophyta. Las asociaciones registradas nos permiten reconstruir la

  14. New reports of nuclear DNA content for 407 vascular plant taxa from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Chengke; Alverson, William S; Follansbee, Aaron; Waller, Donald M

    2012-12-01

    The amount of DNA in an unreplicated haploid nuclear genome (C-value) ranges over several orders of magnitude among plant species and represents a key metric for comparing plant genomes. To extend previously published datasets on plant nuclear content and to characterize the DNA content of many species present in one region of North America, flow cytometry was used to estimate C-values of woody and herbaceous species collected in Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA. A total of 674 samples and vouchers were collected from locations across Wisconsin and Michigan, USA. From these, C-value estimates were obtained for 514 species, subspecies and varieties of vascular plants. Nuclei were extracted from samples of these species in one of two buffers, stained with the fluorochrome propidium iodide, and an Accuri C-6 flow cytometer was used to measure fluorescence peaks relative to those of an internal standard. Replicate extractions, coefficients of variation and comparisons to published C-values in the same and related species were used to confirm the accuracy and reliability of our results. Prime C-values for 407 taxa are provided for which no published data exist, including 390 angiosperms, two gymnosperms, ten monilophytes and five lycophytes. Non-prime reports for 107 additional taxa are also provided. The prime values represent new reports for 129 genera and five families (of 303 genera and 97 families sampled). New family C-value maxima or minima are reported for Betulaceae, Ericaceae, Ranunculaceae and Sapindaceae. These data provide the basis for phylogenetic analyses of C-value variation and future analyses of how C-values covary with other functional traits.

  15. Chemical Constituents from the Branches of Carpinus turczaninowii with Antioxidative Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Ha Na; Kim, Jung Mi; Bu, Hee Jung; Lee, Nam Ho [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Eight compounds were identified in ethanol extracts prepared from the branches of C. turczaninowii. The compounds, besides 5 and 6, were isolated for the first time from this woody plant. Pyracrenic acid (4) and quercitrin (8) showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activities with SC{sub 50} values of 55.2 and 62.4 μM, respectively, where ascorbic acid (SC{sub 50} 43.5 μM) was used as a positive control. Compounds 4, 5, 6 and 8 showed strong activities in ABTS{sup +} radical scavenging assay, with SC{sub 50} values of 34.1, 42.1, 45.8 and 29.6 μM, respectively. These activities are comparable in potency to ascorbic acid (SC{sub 50} 31.6 μM). Based on these results, C. turczaninowii extracts are expected to be useful antioxidative agents, potentially applicable in food or cosmetic industries, based on the results of further studies. Korean hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii is a deciduous woody plant belonging to the family Betulaceae. This flora is endemic to Korea, and can reach a height of 15 m. In the autumn, the fallen leaves of C. turczaninowii display a beautiful orange-red color and the tree is commonly used for bonsai in Korea. The wood is very hard, dense and fine textured, and has been used for making agricultural tools and furniture. Previous chemical investigation on this plant indicated only the existence of flavonoids such as naringenin and quercetin glycosides from the leaves. We have recently reported the isolation diarylheptanoids possessing anti-inflammatory activities from the ethanol extract of C. turczaninowii.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandal, Janique; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh M; Ferroni, Garry; Leduc, Leo G

    2015-06-01

    The number of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms is increasing and the antimicrobial resistance expressed by these pathogens is generating a rising global health crisis. In fact, there are only a few antimicrobial agents left that can be used against MDR bacteria and fungi. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of selected natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario against selected microorganisms are reported. Plants were collected from Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, and ethanol extracts were prepared using EtOH:H2O (1:1, v/v). Fungal cultures used in this study were Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus. Bacterial cultures employed included Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium phlei ATCC 11758, and Streptococcus lactis ATCC 19435. The microplate resazurin assay was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. Extracts of four plant species Chimaphila umbellata L. (Pyrolaceae), Betula papyrifera Marshall (Betulaceae), Rhus typhina L. (Anacardiaceae), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae), and six compounds (gallic acid, ethyl gallate, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid) demonstrated antibacterial or antifungal activities with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL, respectively, for a chemical fraction of an extract from Betula papyrifera against the bacterium S. aureus. The present study has shown that certain plant extracts and select fractions and standard chemical compounds exhibit antimicrobial effects. Prince's Pine, Chimaphila umbellate, White Birch, Betula papyrifera, Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina, and Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica were the principal extracts exhibiting notable antibacterial and/or antifungal activities; while gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and caffeic acid demonstrated antibacterial activities and sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid demonstrated antifungal activities.

  17. Chemical Constituents from the Branches of Carpinus turczaninowii with Antioxidative Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Ha Na; Kim, Jung Mi; Bu, Hee Jung; Lee, Nam Ho

    2013-01-01

    Eight compounds were identified in ethanol extracts prepared from the branches of C. turczaninowii. The compounds, besides 5 and 6, were isolated for the first time from this woody plant. Pyracrenic acid (4) and quercitrin (8) showed potent DPPH free radical scavenging activities with SC 50 values of 55.2 and 62.4 μM, respectively, where ascorbic acid (SC 50 43.5 μM) was used as a positive control. Compounds 4, 5, 6 and 8 showed strong activities in ABTS + radical scavenging assay, with SC 50 values of 34.1, 42.1, 45.8 and 29.6 μM, respectively. These activities are comparable in potency to ascorbic acid (SC 50 31.6 μM). Based on these results, C. turczaninowii extracts are expected to be useful antioxidative agents, potentially applicable in food or cosmetic industries, based on the results of further studies. Korean hornbeam Carpinus turczaninowii is a deciduous woody plant belonging to the family Betulaceae. This flora is endemic to Korea, and can reach a height of 15 m. In the autumn, the fallen leaves of C. turczaninowii display a beautiful orange-red color and the tree is commonly used for bonsai in Korea. The wood is very hard, dense and fine textured, and has been used for making agricultural tools and furniture. Previous chemical investigation on this plant indicated only the existence of flavonoids such as naringenin and quercetin glycosides from the leaves. We have recently reported the isolation diarylheptanoids possessing anti-inflammatory activities from the ethanol extract of C. turczaninowii

  18. Petrographic and biomarker analysis of xylite-rich coal from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins (Pannonian Basin, Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đoković, Nataša; Mitrović, Danica; Životić, Dragana; Bechtel, Achim; Sachsenhofer, Reinhard F.; Stojanović, Ksenija

    2018-02-01

    The maceral and biomarker characteristics of 4 sublithotypes of xylite-rich coal (SXCs), pale yellow, dark yellow, brown and black, originating from the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins were determined. Based on these results, differences in sources and changes of organic matter (OM) resulting in formation of 4 SXCs were established. Conifers (particularly Cupressaceae, Taxodiaceae and Pinacea) had a significant impact on the precursor OM of all SXCs. The contribution of gymnosperm vs. angiosperm vegetation decreased in order pale yellow SXC>dark yellow SXC>brown SXC>black SXC. The distribution of non-hopanoid triterpenoids indicates that change of SXC colour from yellow to black is associated with reduced input of angiosperm plants from the Betulacea family. Differences in hopane distribution, bitumen content, proportion of short-chain n-alkanes and degree of aromatization of di- and triterpenoids of pale yellow SXC are controlled by microbial communities which took part in the diagenetic alteration of OM. The content of total huminites increased from black to pale yellow SXC, whereas contents of total liptinite and inertinite macerals showed the opposite trend. SXCs differ according to textinite/ulminite ratio, which sharply decreased from pale yellow to black SXC, reflecting increase in gelification of woody tissue. Regarding the composition of liptinite macerals, the SXCs mostly differ according to resinite/liptodetrinite and resinite/suberinite ratios, which are higher in yellow than in brown and black SXC. This result along with values of TOC/N ratio and Carbon Preference Index indicate that the contribution of well preserved woody material, including lignin tissue vs. the impact of epicuticular waxes decreased from yellow to black SXC.

  19. Environmental health of Spanish parks: An approach to the allergenic potential of urban green spaces

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    Paloma Cariñanos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban parks are green infrastructure elements that should contribute to improving the quality of life and well-being of citizens. In this work there are presented the results of applying a new index to estimate the potential allergenicity of parks located in 20 Spanish cities. This index, which considers intrinsic biological and biometric parameters of existing plant species in parks, allows the allergenic risk thereof to be calculated on a scale ranging from 0 to 1, depending on whether to the park’s allergenicity is zero or has a high risk for the population. The parks selected for this study have different typologies, sizes, species richness and biodiversities, which has yielded highly variable index values. Almost half of the analysed parks have an index value higher than 0.30, a threshold considered having a moderate to high risk, and therefore, enough to cause allergy symptoms in the population. Conversely, most of the parks had an index value below this threshold, so that the risk of suffering allergies is low or very low. The formula also allows the species that most contribute to the resulting value for allergenicity to be known, which are those having an anemophilous strategy of pollination, extended periods of flowering, and a referenced high allergenicity. These requirements are met by all species of the Betulaceae, Cupressaceae and Moraceae families, and to a lesser extent by Oleaceae and Platanaceae. It can be concluded that the development of an index to estimate the allergenicity of urban green spaces constitutes a useful tool to minimize the impact of pollen allergy on the population.

  20. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

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    Mekala Sundaram

    Full Text Available The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis, and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%, and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%. A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is

  1. Prevalence of pollinosis in patients with allergic asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis in the South of Mexico City 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-López, Arturo; López-Rocha, Eunice; Rodríguez-Mireles, Karen; Segura-Méndez, Nora; Del Rivero-Hernández, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of pollinosis has doubled in the past two decades. Several studies suggest that up to 50% of adult residents of Mexico City can present manifestations of respiratory allergy, and pollens from trees, grasses and weeds are a common cause. To determine the prevalence of their families and antigenic cross-reactivity allows us to offer appropriate diagnoses and treatments. To know the prevalence of sensitization of pollens to trees, grasses and weeds in adults with respiratory allergy of the South zone of Mexico City from January 2007 to December 2013. A cross-sectional, observational and prospective study was done with patients from Mexico City, referred to the National Medical Center Siglo XXI, IMSS, from 2007 to 2013 with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis, asthma and conjunctivitis. We analyzed the results of skin prick tests to pollens from trees, grasses and weeds in selected patients. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 672 patients were analyzed, 70% men, the average age was 34 ± 16 years. Regarding occupation 31% were students, 48% employees and 21% housewives. Fifty-three percent had rhinitis, 47% had asthma and 40.5% had both, asthma and rhinitis. Prevalence of sensitization to weeds was 56%, 33% to trees and 11% to grasses. Sensitization to weeds is the first cause of respiratory pollinosis in the south of Mexico City, Amaranthus was the most prevalent pollen in this area. Sensitization to trees is the second cause, with a predominance of trees form Betulaceae, Fagaceae and Oleacea families. Sensitization to grass is the third cause of respiratory pollinosis. The most common are from Pooideae (Lolium perenne), Chloroideae and Cynodon/Dactylon family.

  2. Bighorn Basin Coring Project: Palynofloral changes and taphonomy through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, G.; Jardine, P.

    2012-12-01

    The early Palaeogene hyperthermals provide an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the biotic responses to rapid and transient global warming events. As part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP), we have analyzed 182 sporomorph (pollen and spore) samples from three newly cored sites in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming. Two sites, Basin Substation (121 samples) and Polecat Bench (41 samples), contain the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ETM1), and one early Eocene site, Gilmore Hill (20 samples), contains the ELMO (ETM2) event. We have focused initially on the Basin Substation section, because it is more organic rich, has demonstrated higher sporomorph recovery potential than the other two sites, and is the main focus of complementary geochemical analyses. Below 90 m core depth sporomorph concentrations are typically 1000 - 10 000 grains/gram, but between 90 and 60 m these decline to gymnosperms Cupressacites hiatipites (cypress, Cupressaceae) and bisaccate pollen (Pinaceae and/or Podocarpaceae), and the angiosperm taxa Polyatriopollenites vermontensis (wingnut or wheel wingnut, Juglandaceae), Caryapollenites spp. (hickory, Juglandaceae), and Alnipollenites spp. (alder, Betulaceae). However, samples are heterogeneous in terms of the dominant taxon, with different taxa having the highest relative abundance in different samples. In the upper part of the core, the assemblage is similar to that in the lower part, but with a more consistent dominance of gymnosperm taxa, and with the addition of Eocene marker taxa Intratriporopollenites instructus (linden, Tilioideae) and Celtis spp. (hackberry, Cannabaceae). These both have their first appearance at 56.14 m in the core, just above the zone of low sporomorph recovery. These results point to (a) a decrease in sporomorph preservation that is linked to environmental change during the PETM event, and (b) repeated reorganizations of plant relative abundances prior to the PETM. Current research is focusing on the

  3. Proteogenomics data for decipheringFrankia coriariaeinteractions with root exudates from three host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotello, Guylaine; Ktari, Amir; Gueddou, Abdellatif; Nouioui, Imen; Ghodhbane-Gtari, Faten; Armengaud, Jean; Gtari, Maher

    2017-10-01

    Frankia coriariae BMG5.1 cells were incubated with root exudates derived from compatible ( Coriaria myrtifolia ), incompatible ( Alnus glutinosa ) and non-actinorhizal ( Cucumis melo ) host plants. Bacteria cells and their exoproteomes were analyzed by high-throughput proteomics using a Q-Exactive HF high resolution tandem mass spectrometer incorporating an ultra-high-field orbitrap analyzer. MS/MS spectra were assigned with two protein sequence databases derived from the closely-related genomes from strains BMG5.1 andDg1, the Frankia symbiont of Datisca glomerata . The tandem mass spectrometry data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis (Ktari et al., 2017, doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00720) [1] have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD005979 (whole cell proteomes) and PXD005980 (exoproteome data).

  4. Influence of fumes from industrial works on the seasonal development of trees and shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, V.G.

    1957-01-01

    Phenological observations were made at Leningrad in 1953 and 1954 on woody species growing near three chemical works. Controls were observed in an unpolluted park. Data on the relative incidence of the main phenological phases (flushing, flowering, fruiting, autumn coloration and leaf-fall) are tabulated separately for each works. Pollution curtailed the growing season to some degree in all species; its effect in hastening coloration and leaf-fall was more marked than in retarding the spring phases. The least susceptible species were Populus balsamifera, P. suaveolens, Alnus incana, Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Amelanchier rotundifolia and Lonicera tatarica. Species unsuited for cultivation in these conditions are Caragana arborescens, Prunus padus, Tilia cordata, Ulmus laevis, Crataegus oxyacantha, Betula pubescens and B. verrucosa.

  5. METHODS OF BIOMONITORING IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: ALLERGENIC POLLEN IN WESTERN ROMANIA AND RELATIONSHIPS WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomonitoring results showed that a total of 23 pollen types were located in the air of the study area. The analysis of the airborne pollen content concerned 20 taxa, whose pollen has allergenic properties and occurs in large quantities in the air of Timisoara: Alnus, Taxaceae/Cupressaceae, Salix, Populus, Ulmus, Fraxinus, Juglans, Quercus, Tilia, Pinaceae, Corylus, Carpinus, Betula, Poaceae, Rumex, Plantago, Urticaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Ambrosia and Artemisia. Analysis of the pollen count in Timisoara was performed on the basis of the data collected in the year 2009. Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Urticaceae and Poaceae reached the highest atmospheric pollen concentrations in Timisoara. Multiple regression analysis was found to be a very valuable tool for identifying the weather variables most closely associated with atmospheric pollen seasons.

  6. Factors affecting distribution of wood, detritus, and sediment in headwater streams draining managed young-growth red alder - Conifer forests in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomi, T.; Johnson, A.C.; Deal, R.L.; Hennon, P.E.; Orlikowska, E.H.; Wipfli, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Factors (riparian stand condition, management regimes, and channel properties) affecting distributions of wood, detritus (leaves and branches), and sediment were examined in headwater streams draining young-growth red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) - conifer riparian forests (40 years old) remained in channels and provided sites for sediment and organic matter storage. Despite various alder-conifer mixtures and past harvesting effects, the abundance of large wood, fine wood, and detritus accumulations significantly decreased with increasing channel bank-full width (0.5-3.5 m) along relatively short channel distances (up to 700 m). Changes in wood, detritus, and sediment accumulations together with changes in riparian stand characteristics create spatial and temporal variability of in-channel conditions in headwater systems. A component of alder within young-growth riparian forests may benefit both wood production and biological recovery in disturbed headwater stream channels. ?? 2006 NRC.

  7. Dietary Preference of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus during a Laboratory Breeding Programme for Ecotoxicological Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Bloor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken to establish if Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus preferred a diet of unconditioned, artificially or naturally conditioned alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa. Standardised, 24 hour ex situ feeding assays were undertaken with both species to determine their food preference. The results showed that A. aquaticus ate more leaf material compared to G. pulex (Z 23.909, P 0.001 when exposed to all three test variables. Also, both G. pulex and A. aquaticus demonstrated a preference for naturally conditioned leaves compared to the other two variables, with unconditioned leaves proving the least popular food option for both macroinvertebrates (Z 18.803, <0.001. However, both species ate varying amounts of all the leaf treatments (Z 136.399, <0.001. Subsequently, the author outlined a feeding methodology for natural alder leaf conditioning that could be used during a laboratory breeding programme.

  8. The forest melliferous flora in the vicinity of Blace, Serbia

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    Perišić Snežana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Melliferous plant species in the forests near Blace (South Serbia were investigated in order to estimate the significance, contribution, quality and ecological characteristics of representatives of the apiflora as potential nectar and pollen sources, the elements of bee pasturage. The significance of melliferous plants was determined on the basis of nectar and pollen production intensity, as well as by following blooming periods. According to adaptations to moisture, light, and temperature, melliferous species can be relegated to eight groups and six subgroups. Out of the total number of melliferous species in the investigated area (223, the forest apiflora accounted for 82 species (36,77%. The species with highest nectar and/or pollen production are: Alnus glutinosa, Corylus avellana, Paulownia tomentosa, Picea abies, Prunus tenella, Robinia pseudoacacia, species of the genera Salix, Tilia, and Campanula, Atropa bella-donna, Calamintha officinalis, Glechoma hederacea, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salvia glutinosa and Valeriana officinalis.

  9. Evaluación de los bosques templados en México: una aplicación en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Toluca

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    Lourdes Villers Ruíz

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on In a photonterpretation and fieldwork analysis a méthodologie procedure to characterize the temperate forests in Mexico is proposed The methodology was applied in the Nevado de Toluca National Park, Three forest communities were determined; a Pinus hartwegii. b Abies religiosa and ci mixed: Abies religiosa, Alnus jorullensis. P pseudostrobus and P. hartwegii. For each community three types of covering density were delineated. Remarkable differences between number of trees, height and cover, with regard to the different density types and the three forest types were found. From dominant species analysis, subdominants species and covering percentage of the fieldwork sampling sites suggested more richness in the Abies and mixed forests than in the Pmus forests. Several impact levels caused by human activities exist: logging (mainly in Abies forest, in Pinus forests deliberately fires for grass-induced. The presence of Lipmus montanus and Penstemon gentienoides can be used as disturbed indicators.

  10. Synthesis of the PHYTENER project. Development of phyto-remediation on soils contaminated by metals for energy purposes: ecologic viability, social interest and economic assessment. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bidar, Geraldine; Detriche, Sebastien; Douay, Francis; Fourrier, Herve; Louvel, Brice; Pelfrene, Aurelie; Pourrut, Bertrand; Nsanganwimana, Florien; Pruvot, Christelle; Waterlot, Christophe; Muchembled, Jerome; Comont, Eric; Statnik, Corinne; Demuynck, Sylvain; Grumiaux, Fabien; Lemiere, Sebastien; Lepretre, Alain; Pernin, Celine; Pauwels, Jean-Francois; Therssen, Eric; Deram, Annabelle; Hayet, Audrey; Billet, Sylvain; Firmin, Stephane; Fontaine, Joel; Labidi, Sonia; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Shirali, Pirouz; Tisserand, Benoit; Verdin, Anthony; Cazier, Fabrice; Dorothee, Dewaele; Genevray, Paul; Scheifler, Renaud; Proix, Nicolas; Retailleau, Julien; Richard, Antoine; Blarel, Jacques; Lefevre, Benoit; Billaut, Geoffrey; Cadiere, Frederique; Collet, Bastien; Faure, Olivier; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    This publication proposes a synthesis of results obtained within a multi-disciplinary research programme, Phytener, performed between 2009 and 2013. This programme notably considered the case of ancient mining sites and of the associated soil contaminations (by cadmium, lead or zinc), and the study of the use of phyto-technologies for a better management of highly contaminated agricultural spaces. These studies addressed management modes based on phyto-remediation (assisted or not) of cadmium, lead and zinc, with the implication of two biomass production sectors: wood (with the following species: Robinia pseudoacacia, Alnus glutinosa, Quercus ilex and Acer pseudoplatanus) and an herbaceous vegetation (Miscanthus x giganteus). The objective was then to assess the ecologic viability of the proposed management modes, to contribute to a sustainable redevelopment of agriculture, and to give back an economic interest to disqualified agricultural soils while meeting environmental, economic and social demands. Thus, the authors present the experimental approach and discuss the obtained results

  11. Land regeneration: soil development through forestation on former opencast coal-lands in upland Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haigh, M.J. [Oxford Brookes University, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The degradation of lands that have been 'reclaimed' after surface coal mining is an international concern. Research near the UNESCO World Heritage site for industrial land at Blaenavon, Wales, seeks more effective ways of creating self-sustaining soils on coal-lands, where the auto-compaction of minespoils causes land degradation. Remedies are sought through the use of close-planted trees as bio-accumulators. Preliminary findings suggest that: 1. forestation quickly mitigates soil compaction, 2. soil fertilisation with NPK improves the survival rate of Alnus glutinosa but may not enhance average growth, 3. soil remineralisation with basic igneous rock flour may be more effective than conventional NPK application alone for enhancing both survival rates and growth and that 4. soil disturbance causes long term depletion of the soil microbial ecosystem. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Studies on radioallergosorbent test (RAST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Minoru; Usami, Atsushi; Unno, Tokuji

    1975-01-01

    The radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is one of the solid phase radioimmunoassays. The authors first studied Ceska's method, a RAST with a paper disc instead of a solid phase. The patients with nasal allergic disorders were selected. The following items were used as antigens: Acarus, House Dust, Sugi, American Sugi timber, Alternaria, Candida, Penicillium and Protargol. The RAST was very reproducible with an average error of 5% according to our results. Treatments to decrease sensitivity did not influence RAST values within a nine-month period. The purity of the 125 I-labeled anti-serum was considered to be most important in the success of the RAST. The RAST was useful for all of these tests for allergy to Acarus, House Dust, Sugi pollen, Ragweed pollen, Typha angustate pollen, Alnus japonica pollen, Alternaria, Candida and Penicillium. Applications of American Sugi timber and Protargol to the allergic tests have not been studied. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  13. Proteogenomics data for deciphering Frankia coriariae interactions with root exudates from three host plants

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    Guylaine Miotello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Frankia coriariae BMG5.1 cells were incubated with root exudates derived from compatible (Coriaria myrtifolia, incompatible (Alnus glutinosa and non-actinorhizal (Cucumis melo host plants. Bacteria cells and their exoproteomes were analyzed by high-throughput proteomics using a Q-Exactive HF high resolution tandem mass spectrometer incorporating an ultra-high-field orbitrap analyzer. MS/MS spectra were assigned with two protein sequence databases derived from the closely-related genomes from strains BMG5.1 andDg1, the Frankia symbiont of Datisca glomerata. The tandem mass spectrometry data accompanying the manuscript describing the database searches and comparative analysis (Ktari et al., 2017, doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00720 [1] have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD005979 (whole cell proteomes and PXD005980 (exoproteome data.

  14. SPECIES RICHNESS AND INDICES OF ABUNDANCE OF MEDIUM-SIZED MAMMALS IN ANDEAN FOREST AND REFORESTATIONS WITH ANDEAN ALDER: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS

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    SÁNCHEZ FRANCISCO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the species richness and two indices of abundance of medium-sizedmammals in areas with Andean forest and Andean alder (Alnus acuminatareforestations in a reserve at the Central Andes of Colombia. Since reforested areashave a less complex habitat structure and lower plant diversity than native forests, wepredicted that they have lower richness of mammals than areas with Andean forest.We obtained the indices of abundance from direct contacts in transects and from theuse of track stations. Our results suggest that, indeed, areas with Andean forest hada higher richness of mammals than reforestations, but this pattern may be modifiedby anthropogenic factors. We found no differences between the indices of abundanceof the squirrel, Sciurus granatensis, in the two forest types. In contrast, the coatiswere recorded more frequently in the reforestations than in areas with Andean forestat the reserve.

  15. Soil microfungi in two post-mining chronosequences with different vegetation types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakova, A. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic). Inst. Soil Biology

    2001-07-01

    Soil microfungi were studied in the Sokolov (Czech Republic) post-mining dumps afforested with Alnus glutinosa and in the Lusatian (Germany) post-mining dumps afforested with Pinus sylvestris or P. nigra. Microfungi were isolated using the soil dilution plate method. Soil microfungi communities of two chronosequences were compared by species composition, frequency of species occurrence, and colony forming units of fungi (CFU-counts). Differences in species occurrence were determined. More species of entomopathogenic microfungi were found from the Sokolov post-mining area in comparison with the Cottbus post-mining area. Absidia glauca, A. cylindrospora, Penicillium glabrum, and P. janthinellum were the most frequently isolated species from the Cottbus post-mining area, while A. glauca, Geomyces pannorum, and Trichoderma koningii predominated at the Sokolov post-mining area.

  16. Defining an adequate sample of earlywood vessels for retrospective injury detection in diffuse-porous species.

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    Estelle Arbellay

    Full Text Available Vessels of broad-leaved trees have been analyzed to study how trees deal with various environmental factors. Cambial injury, in particular, has been reported to induce the formation of narrower conduits. Yet, little or no effort has been devoted to the elaboration of vessel sampling strategies for retrospective injury detection based on vessel lumen size reduction. To fill this methodological gap, four wounded individuals each of grey alder (Alnus incana (L. Moench and downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh. were harvested in an avalanche path. Earlywood vessel lumina were measured and compared for each tree between the injury ring built during the growing season following wounding and the control ring laid down the previous year. Measurements were performed along a 10 mm wide radial strip, located directly next to the injury. Specifically, this study aimed at (i investigating the intra-annual duration and local extension of vessel narrowing close to the wound margin and (ii identifying an adequate sample of earlywood vessels (number and intra-ring location of cells attesting to cambial injury. Based on the results of this study, we recommend analyzing at least 30 vessels in each ring. Within the 10 mm wide segment of the injury ring, wound-induced reduction in vessel lumen size did not fade with increasing radial and tangential distances, but we nevertheless advise favoring early earlywood vessels located closest to the injury. These findings, derived from two species widespread across subarctic, mountainous, and temperate regions, will assist retrospective injury detection in Alnus, Betula, and other diffuse-porous species as well as future related research on hydraulic implications after wounding.

  17. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

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    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  18. Miocene palynoflora from the KRAM-P 218 leaf assemblage from the Bełchatów Lignite Mine (Central Poland

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    Worobiec Elżbieta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During a palynological analysis of four samples from the Bełchatów KRAM-P 218 collection of plant macroremains 95 fossil species of sporomorphs were identified. Among the non-pollen palynomorphs was the fossil species Desmidiaceaesporites cosmarioformis, previously not reported from fossil floras of Poland, most probably related to the zygospores of desmids. The pollen analysis indicates the presence of a freshwater body (probably an oxbow lake and shows the dominant role of wetland, predominantly riparian vegetation, at the time of sedimentation. The riparian forests probably consisted of Carya, Pterocarya, Celtis, and Ulmus, accompanied by Alnus, Acer, Fraxinus, Juglans, Liquidambar, Vitis, Zelkova, and Salix. In mixed forests there probably were Fagus, Quercus, Carpinus, Eucommia, Corylus, Tilioideae, and conifers, as well as some thermophilous taxa (e.g. Castanea, Symplocos, Reevesia, Mastixiaceae, and plants producing pollen of the fossil species Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum. Taxodium, Nyssa, and presumably Glyptostrobus and Alnus were components of swamp communities that might have overgrown the adjacent area with higher groundwater. Members of the families Ericaceae, Cyrillaceae, and Clethraceae, as well as Myrica and probably also Ilex, may have been components of swamp forests and bush swamps. Our analysis indicates that the climate was warm temperate and moderately wet. The palynoflora is most similar in composition to the spore-pollen spectra of the X climatic phase - the Nyssapollenites spore-pollen zone. Deposits bearing assemblages of the Nyssapollenites spore-pollen zone were deposited during the Sarmatian and early Pannonian. Our results are consistent with those from plant macroremains from the same collection.

  19. Weight equations for determining biomass fractions of young hardwoods from natural regenerated stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsmo, H. [Agricultural Univ. of Norway, Aas (Norway). Norwegian Inst. for Nature Research

    1995-12-31

    This study gives an account of dry weight equations in biomass fractions of seven hardwoods from 90 plots in a hemiboreal forest zone in southeast Norway. The following species were investigated: goat willow (Salix caprea L.), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.), black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.), aspen (Populus tremula L.), and european ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Sample trees were collected in stands -pure in species- from abandoned land, forest sites, and brook valleys below maximum shoreline height since the last glaciation (marine limit). The highest predictive equations appeared to be natural logarithms with base e. The equations have been generated from three models depending on their ability to explain the whole variation in the regression. In most cases over 80% of the variation in the dependent variables can be explained by the independent variables in the linear model. For various biomass fractions, the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) decreases in this order of rank: dry weight of stem wood including bark, branch wood including bark, and foliage. Analyses of regression coefficients showed highly significant differences between most of the hardwoods with regard to tree components. However, no difference was found between goat willow and grey alder for branch wood including bark. For these species, there was no statistical difference in the intercept at the 5% significant level. Percentage bias increased from stem wood including bark (1.47%) to foliage (32.71%). Types of equations and selection of parameters in the regressions are discussed. 79 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Postglacial fire history and interactions with vegetation and climate in southwestern Yunnan Province of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiayun; Haberle, Simon G.; Shen, Ji; Xue, Bin; Burrows, Mark; Wang, Sumin

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution, continuous 18.5 kyr (1 kyr = 1000 cal yr BP) macroscopic charcoal record from Qinghai Lake in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, reveals postglacial fire frequency and variability history. The results show that three periods with high-frequency and high-severity fires occurred during the periods 18.5-15.0, 13.0-11.5, and 4.3-0.8 ka, respectively. This record was compared with major pollen taxa and pollen diversity indices from the same core, and tentatively related to the regional climate proxy records with the aim to separate climate- from human-induced fire activity, and discuss vegetation-fire-climate interactions. The results suggest that fire was mainly controlled by climate before 4.3 ka and by the combined actions of climate and humans after 4.3 ka. Before 4.3 ka, high fire activity corresponded to cold and dry climatic conditions, while warm and humid climatic conditions brought infrequent and weak fires. Fire was an important disturbance factor and played an important role in forest dynamics around the study area. Vegetation responses to fire after 4.3 ka are not consistent with those before 4.3 ka, suggesting that human influence on vegetation and fire regimes may have become more prevalent after 4.3 ka. The comparisons between fire activity and vegetation reveal that evergreen oaks are flammable plants and fire-tolerant taxa. Alnus is a fire-adapted taxon and a nonflammable plant, but density of Alnus forest is a key factor to decide its fire resistance. The forests dominated by Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and/or tropical trees and shrubs are not easy to ignite, but Lithocarpus/Castanopsis and tropical trees and shrubs are fire-sensitive taxa. Fire appears to be unfavourable to plant diversity in the study area.

  1. Where to Combat Shrub Encroachment in Alpine Timberline Ecosystems: Combining Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Information with Species Habitat Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunisch, Veronika; Patthey, Patrick; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L.) in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1) identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2) modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3) simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2) and (3) to 4) locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration. All six vegetation types (alpine pasture, coniferous forest, Alnus viridis (Chaix), Rhododendron-dominated, Juniperus-dominated and mixed heathland) were predicted with high accuracy (AUC >0.9). Breeding black grouse preferred a heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation types, with none exceeding 50% cover. While 15% of the timberline belt currently offered suitable breeding habitat, twice that fraction (29%) would potentially be suitable when assuming optimal shrub and ground vegetation conditions throughout the study area. Yet, only 10% of this difference was attributed to habitat deterioration by shrub-encroachment of dense heathland (all types 5.2%) and Alnus viridis (4.8%). The presented method provides both a general, large-scale assessment of areas covered by dense shrub vegetation as well as specific target values and priority areas for habitat restoration related to a selected target organism. This facilitates optimizing the spatial

  2. Where to Combat Shrub Encroachment in Alpine Timberline Ecosystems: Combining Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Information with Species Habitat Modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Braunisch

    Full Text Available In many cultural landscapes, the abandonment of traditional grazing leads to encroachment of pastures by woody plants, which reduces habitat heterogeneity and impacts biodiversity typical of semi-open habitats. We developed a framework of mutually interacting spatial models to locate areas where shrub encroachment in Alpine treeline ecosystems deteriorates vulnerable species' habitat, using black grouse Tetrao tetrix (L. in the Swiss Alps as a study model. Combining field observations and remote-sensing information we 1 identified and located the six predominant treeline vegetation types; 2 modelled current black grouse breeding habitat as a function thereof so as to derive optimal habitat profiles; 3 simulated from these profiles the theoretical spatial extension of breeding habitat when assuming optimal vegetation conditions throughout; and used the discrepancy between (2 and (3 to 4 locate major aggregations of homogeneous shrub vegetation in otherwise suitable breeding habitat as priority sites for habitat restoration. All six vegetation types (alpine pasture, coniferous forest, Alnus viridis (Chaix, Rhododendron-dominated, Juniperus-dominated and mixed heathland were predicted with high accuracy (AUC >0.9. Breeding black grouse preferred a heterogeneous mosaic of vegetation types, with none exceeding 50% cover. While 15% of the timberline belt currently offered suitable breeding habitat, twice that fraction (29% would potentially be suitable when assuming optimal shrub and ground vegetation conditions throughout the study area. Yet, only 10% of this difference was attributed to habitat deterioration by shrub-encroachment of dense heathland (all types 5.2% and Alnus viridis (4.8%. The presented method provides both a general, large-scale assessment of areas covered by dense shrub vegetation as well as specific target values and priority areas for habitat restoration related to a selected target organism. This facilitates optimizing the

  3. Medicinal plants of the genus Betula--traditional uses and a phytochemical-pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Kumar Singh Rawat, Ajay

    2015-01-15

    Trees and shrubs of the genus Betula (Betulaceae) inhabit various ecosystems in temperate and boreal climate zones of the northern hemisphere. The healing properties of Betula bark and bark extracts have been known for a long time in traditional medicine in different parts of the world. Several species of Betula have traditionally been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases including arthritis. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological and toxicological research of Betula species in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. All the available information on various species belonging to the genus Betula was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Although over a hundred Betula species are found distributed globally, about 7 different species of Betula have been documented for their traditional uses. Phytochemical research on Betula species has led to the isolation of triterpenoids, diarylheptanoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, phenolics and flavonoids. Crude extracts, fractions and phytochemical constituents isolated from Betula showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, dermatological, gastroprotective and hepatoprotective. Antiarthritic and anticancer are the two major areas of research conducted on these species. The anti-carcinogenic effects of Betula bark, betulin as well as betulinic acid have been extensively studied. Several species belonging to the genus Betula are widely used in traditional medicine. Betula platyphylla and Betula pendula have specifically been found to be potentially useful in the treatment of

  4. Leaf litter as a possible food source for chironomids (Diptera in Brazilian and Portuguese headwater streams Detritos foliares como possível fonte de alimento para Chironomidae (Diptera em riachos de cabeceira brasileiros e portugueses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the potential use of leaf detritus by chironomid larvae. Field and laboratory experiments were performed using leaves and chironomid species collected in Portugal and Brazil. Laboratory experiments under controlled conditions were done using microbial conditioned senescent leaves of Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn, Neriumoleander L., Protium heptaphilum (Aubl. March, Protium brasiliense (Spreng Engl., Myrcia guyanensis(Aubl. DC and Miconia chartacea Triana. Laboratory experiments were performed using specimens collected from leaf litter in local streams. Whenever possible, after the experiments, chironomids were allowed to emerge as adults and identified. In Portugal the following taxa were identified: Micropsectra apposita (Walker, 1856, Polypedilum albicorne (Meigen, 1838,Eukiefferiella claripennis Lundbeck (1898, Rheocricotopus (Psilocricotopus atripes Rempel (1937 and Ablabesmyia Johannsen (1905 (Diptera, Chironomidae. Consumption rates ranged from 0.15 ± 0.10 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Micropsectra apposita feeding on Alnus glutinosa up to 0.85 ± 0.33 mg (AFDM of leaf animal-1 day-1 (Polypedilum albicorne feeding on Miconia chartacea. In Brazil, the following taxa were identified from leaves: Phaenopsectra sp., Chironomus spp. and Polypedilum sp. and maximum consumption rates reached 0.47 ± 0.28 (AFDM of leaf mg.animal-1.day-1 (Chironomus Meigen (1803 feeding on Protium heptaphilum. Feeding experiments with laboratory cultured specimens, revealed that some chironomids were unable to feed on decomposing leaves (e.g., C. xanthus Rempel (1939 on P.brasiliensis and M.guyanensis. Our results suggest that some stream chironomids (not typical shredders can use leaf litter of riparian vegetation as a complementary food source.O objetivo foi avaliar o potencial uso de detritos foliares por larvas de Chironomidae. Foram realizados experimentos em campo e em laboratório utilizando folhas e larvas de Chironomidae

  5. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian mts.

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    S. Y. Milevskaya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis of birch young stands in this area.The object of the study was age class I saplings growing in the mountainous part of Pokuttya, particularly in the basin of the Lutshka River. The conceptual basis of our study is the modern dynamic vision that every forest type is a consecutive series of forest plant communities within each type of homogeneous growing conditions. We apply methods of ecological-floristic research of the Brown-Blanke school in the interpretation of the Polish school phytosociology. However we also take into account both syntaxonomy generalizations of the Ukrainian scientists. The actual material comprises the original geobotanical studies with fixation of the vast majority of species in plant communities. Mainly the species having diagnostic value to separate syntaxons were taken into account in the analytical processing. Young forest stands (with the height of 8–12 m and crown cover of 70% together form the trees Betula pendula and B. pubescens. Fairly numerous admixture is formed by trees Alnus incana; besides, there are Fagus sylvatica, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Padus avium. For dominants, they can be called “grey-alder birch blackberry sedge bracken fern” – Betula pendula+Alnus incana–Rubus caesius–Carex brizoides+Pteridium aquilinum. It is rich in floristic composition of the plant communities. They contain at least 12 species of trees, 3 species of shrubs, 4 species of bushes and 89 species of herbs. Diagnostic

  6. Deciduous shrub growth and the greening of the Arctic in West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2010-12-01

    Salix lanata and Alnus fruticosa are common and widespread shrub species in the low arctic tundra zone of West Siberia. They often occur in similar local habitats with the live portions of genets up to 100 years old. We have recently established that growth rings of S. lanata provide an excellent proxy for summer temperature. In that study our data were derived from shrubs growing on organic soils near the arctic coast of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), west of the Ural Mountains. East of the Urals, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), climate is more continental and sandy soils provide a relatively nutrient-poor substrate for plant growth. By sampling two different species side by side on the Yamal Peninsula, we shed light on the relationship between deciduous shrubs and growing season temperatures in the last half century or so, a period of pronounced regional warming. We discern differences in the climate signal within a single species (S. lanata) as well as between it and a neighboring species with a strongly overlapping ecological amplitude (A. fruticosa). July is the main month for temperature correlation in Alnus, whereas Salix responds to June-July-August temperatures in both regions. The high correlations of shrub growth with summer temperature (r > 0.7 over the period 1956-2004) strongly suggest a link between increased shrub growth and recent decadal warming in both regions (~2°C). Both species showed significant correlation with the regional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), although it was somewhat lower in YNAO compared to NAO, probably due to the relative land cover (10% vs. 20%, respectively) of erect shrubs in both areas, which affects their overall contribution to the NDVI. In both regions Salix lanata biomass peaks in the second half of July. Hand-held leaf area index data from Yamal indicate a significant difference between loamy/clayey and sandy sites. We hypothesized that this same variation would be evident at the

  7. Late Holocene Vegetation and Climate at the Mid Altitudes of the Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROY, I.; Ranhotra, P. S.; Shekhar, M.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Agrawal, S.; Kumar, P.; Patil, S. K.; Pal, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    The palynological, stable carbon isotope and magnetic susceptibility studies of a 42 cm deep sedimentary core collected from palaeolacustrine deposit at the Nachiketa area ( 2,400 m amsl) near Uttarkashi of Western Himalaya provides the late Holocene vegetation and climatic scenario of the area. Between 3200 to 1650 cal yrs BP, the high susceptibility (χlf) values along with the good frequency of fern spores might indicate the prevailing moist conditions due to high summer monsoon with good influx of the sediments. However, the low pollen concentration between 3200 to 2680 cal years BP might be due to less ground vegetation cover or poor pollen preservation in the sediments. The well represented fern spores along with the other ground vegetation taxa in the period from 1650 cal yrs BP to 600 cal yrs BP also indicates the continuous prevalence of moist conditions that can be related with the globally known medieval warm period (MWP), supported by the δ13C values around -24‰ during this time and the high χLF values. Moreover, the good representation of Cyperaceae pollen suggests the in-filling of the lake followed by the invasion of ground vegetation viz. Cheno/Ams, Apiaceae, Poaceae etc. The good pollen frequency of broadleaved taxa viz. Quercus and Alnus also supports the moist conditions. Since 600 cal years BP the lowered χLF values signifies reduced input from the surrounding suggesting the filling of the lake. The marked increase in the pollen frequency of Cheno/Ams with low values of fern spores suggest less moist conditions with reduced summer monsoon that can be related to Little Ice Age (LIA) episode. Also the low negative δ13C values (around -21‰) indicates the less ground moisture supporting the C4 taxa. The Quercus and Alnus also reduced in their pollen presence. Whereas the Pinus pollen increased gradually since nearly before 410 cal years BP till recent showing the increased invasion of this taxa to near proximity of the area. The

  8. Changes of soil carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide fluxes in relation to land use/cover management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooch, Yahya; Moghimian, Negar; Bayranvand, Mohammad; Alberti, Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Conversions of land use/cover are associated with changes in soil properties and biogeochemical cycling, with implications for carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and trace gas fluxes. In an attempt to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the significance of different land uses (Alnus subcordata plantation, Taxodium distichum plantation, agriculture, and deforested areas) on soil features and on the dynamics of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes at local scale, this study was carried out in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Sixteen samples per land use, from the top 10 cm of soil, were taken, from which bulk density, texture, water content, pH, organic C, total N, microbial biomass of C and N, and earthworm density/biomass were determined. In addition, the seasonal changes in the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were monitored over a year. Our results indicated that the different land uses were different in terms of soil properties and GHG fluxes. Even though the amount of the GHG varied widely during the year, the highest CO2 and CH4 fluxes (0.32 mg CO2 m(-2) day(-1) and 0.11 mg CH4 m(-2) day(-1), respectively) were recorded in the deforested areas. N2O flux was higher in Alnus plantation (0.18 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) and deforested areas (0.17 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) than at agriculture site (0.05 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)) and Taxodium plantation (0.03 mg N2O m(-2) day(-1)). This study demonstrated strong impacts of land use change on soil-atmosphere trace gas exchanges and provides useful observational constraints for top-down and bottom-up biogeochemistry models.

  9. [Sensitization to Castanea sativa pollen and pollinosis in northern Extremadura (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmes Martín, P M; Moreno Ancillo, A; Domínguez Noche, C; Gutiérrez Vivas, A; Belmonte Soler, J; Roure Nolla, J M

    2005-01-01

    Castanea sativa pollen allergy has generally been considered to be uncommon and clinically insignificant. In our geographical area (Plasencia, Cáceres, Spain) Castanea sativa pollen is a major pollen. To determine the atmospheric fluctuations and prevalence of patients sensitized to Castanea pollen in our region and to compare this sensitization with sensitizations to other pollens. Patients with respiratory symptoms attending our outpatient clinic for the first time in 2003 were studied. The patients underwent skin prick tests with commercial extracts of a battery of inhalants including Castanea sativa pollen. Serologic specific IgE to Castanea sativa pollen was determined using the CAP system (Pharmacia and Upjohn, Uppsala, Sweden). Airborne pollen counts in our city were obtained using Cour collection apparatus over a 4-year period (2000 to 2003). The most predominant pollens detected were (mean of the maximal weekly concentrations over 4 years in pollen grains/m3): Quercus 968, Poacea 660, Olea 325, Platanus 229, Pinus 126, Cupresaceae 117, Plantago 109, Alnus 41, Populus 40, Castanea 32. We studied 346 patients (mean age: 24.1 years). In 210 patients with a diagnosis of pollinosis, the percentages of sensitization were: Dactylis glomerata 80.4%, Olea europea 71.9%, Fraxinus excelsior 68%, Plantago lanceolata 62.8%, Chenopodium album 60.9%, Robinia pseudoacacia 49%, Artemisia vulgaris 43.8%, Platanus acerifolia 36.6%, Parietaria judaica 36.1%, Populus nigra 32.3%, Betula alba 27.6%, Quercus ilex 21.4%, Alnus glutinosa 20.9%, Cupressus arizonica 7.6% and Castanea sativa 7.1%. Fifteen patients were sensitized to Castanea sativa and 14 had seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Ten patients had serum specific IgE to Castanea pollen (maximum value: 17.4 Ku/l). Castanea pollen is present in our area in large amounts from the 23rd to the 28th weeks of the year, with a peak pollen count in the 25th week. The most important allergenic pollens in northern Extremadura

  10. Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the west-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the basin of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W.A.; Bradbury, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco basin indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco basin was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco basin with

  11. Paleoecological studies at Lake Patzcuaro on the west-central Mexican Plateau and at Chalco in the basin of Mexico*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, W. A.; Bradbury, J. Platt

    1982-01-01

    A 1520-cm sediment core from Lake Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico, is 44,000 yr old at the base. All parts of the core have abundant pollen of Pinus (pine), Alnus (alder), and Quercus (oak) with frequent Abies (fir). The interval dated from 44,000 to 11,000 yr ago has a homogeneous flora characterized by abundant Juniperus (juniper) pollen and frequent Artemisia (sagebrush). It is believed to represent an appreciably drier and colder climate than at present. The Holocene at Lake Patzcuaro is characterized by a moderate increase in Pinus pollen and the loss of Juniperus pollen, as the modern type of climate succeeded. Alnus was abundant until about 5000 yr ago; its abrupt decrease with the first appearance of herbaceous weed pollen may reflect the cutting of lake-shore and stream-course alder communities for agricultural purposes, or it may simply reflect a drying tendency in the climate. Pollen of Zea (corn) appears at Lake Patzcuaro along with low peaks of chenopod and grass pollen at 3500 yr B.P. apparently recording a human population large enough to modify the natural environment, as well as the beginning of agriculture. A rich aquatic flora in this phase suggests eutrophication of the lake by slope erosion. In the most recent period corn is absent from the sediments, perhaps reflecting a change in agricultural practices. The environment changes at Lake Patzcuaro are similar to and correlate with those in the Cuenca de Mexico, where diatom stratigraphy from the Chalco basin indicates fluctuations in lake levels and lake chemistry in response to variations in available moisture. Before 10,000 yr ago climates there were cool and dry, and the Chalco basin was occupied by a shallow freshwater marsh that drained north to Lake Texcoco, where saline water accumulated by evaporation. Increases in effective moisture and possible melting of glaciers during the Holocene caused lake levels to rise throughout the Cuenca de Mexico, and Lake Texcoco flooded the Chalco basin with

  12. Pollen sources in the Bojanów forest complex identified on honeybee pollen load by microscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Stawiarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine sources of pollen for the honeybee in the Bojanów forest complex, Nowa Dęba Forest District (southeastern Poland. Sampling of pollen loads from bees extended from the beginning of May until the end of September 2016 and was carried out at 7-day intervals using pollen traps mounted at the entrance of beehives. A total of 73 pollen load samples were collected from the study area. Fifty-nine taxa from 31 plant families were identified in the analyzed material. From 4 to 21 taxa (average 9.5 were recorded in one sample. The pollen of Brassicaceae (“others”, Taraxacum type, Solidago type, and Rumex had the highest frequency in the pollen loads examined. Apart from these four taxa, pollen grains of Rubus type, Poaceae (“others”, Calluna, Fagopyrum, Trifolium repens s. l., Phacelia, Aster type, Melampyrum, Quercus, Cornus, and Veronica were recorded in the dominant pollen group. The forest habitat taxa that provided pollen rewards to honeybees in the Bojanów forest complex were the following: Rubus, Calluna, Prunus, Tilia, Frangula alnus, Pinus, Quercus, Cornus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix, and Vaccinium. Apart from forest vegetation, the species from meadows and wastelands adjacent to this forest complex, represented by Taraxacum, Rumex, Plantago, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, and Solidago, proved to be an important source of pollen. The study indicates that forest communities are a valuable source of pollen for pollinating insects from early spring through to late fall.

  13. In-planta Sporulation Capacity Enhances Infectivity and Rhizospheric Competitiveness of Frankia Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotin-Galvan, Laetitia; Pozzi, Adrien C; Schwob, Guillaume; Fournier, Pascale; Fernandez, Maria P; Herrera-Belaroussi, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Frankia Sp+ strains maintain their ability to sporulate in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants, producing abundant sporangia inside host plant cells, in contrast to Sp- strains, which are unable to perform in-planta sporulation. We herein examined the role of in-planta sporulation in Frankia infectivity and competitiveness for root infection. Fifteen strains belonging to different Sp+ and Sp- phylogenetic lineages were inoculated on seedlings of Alnus glutinosa (Ag) and A. incana (Ai). Strain competitiveness was investigated by performing Sp-/Sp+ co-inoculations. Plant inoculations were standardized using crushed nodules obtained under laboratory-controlled conditions (same plant species, age, and environmental factors). Specific oligonucleotide primers were developed to identify Frankia Sp+ and/or Sp- strains in the resulting nodules. Single inoculation experiments showed that (i) infectivity by Sp+ strains was significantly greater than that by Sp- strains, (ii) genetically divergent Sp+ strains exhibited different infective abilities, and (iii) Sp+ and Sp- strains showed different host preferences according to the origin (host species) of the inocula. Co-inoculations of Sp+ and Sp- strains revealed the greater competitiveness of Sp+ strains (98.3 to 100% of Sp+ nodules, with up to 15.6% nodules containing both Sp+ and Sp- strains). The results of the present study highlight differences in Sp+/Sp- strain ecological behaviors and provide new insights to strengthen the obligate symbiont hypothesis for Sp+ strains.

  14. Predicting effects of environmental change on river inflows to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuarine river watersheds provide valued ecosystem services to their surrounding communities including drinking water, fish habitat, and regulation of estuarine water quality. However, the provisioning of these services can be affected by changes in the quantity and quality of river water, such as those caused by altered landscapes or shifting temperatures or precipitation. We used the ecohydrology model, VELMA, in the Trask River watershed to simulate the effects of environmental change scenarios on estuarine river inputs to Tillamook Bay (OR) estuary. The Trask River watershed is 453 km2 and contains extensive agriculture, silviculture, urban, and wetland areas. VELMA was parameterized using existing spatial datasets of elevation, soil type, land use, air temperature, precipitation, river flow, and water quality. Simulated land use change scenarios included alterations in the distribution of the nitrogen-fixing tree species Alnus rubra, and comparisons of varying timber harvest plans. Scenarios involving spatial and temporal shifts in air temperature and precipitation trends were also simulated. Our research demonstrates the utility of ecohydrology models such as VELMA to aid in watershed management decision-making. Model outputs of river water flow, temperature, and nutrient concentrations can be used to predict effects on drinking water quality, salmonid populations, and estuarine water quality. This modeling effort is part of a larger framework of

  15. New, rare or remarkable microfungi in the Italian Alps (Carnic Alps)--part I--ascomycotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, G B; Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Christiaans, B; Kricke, R

    2004-01-01

    During our observations in the SE part of the Carnic Alps in the year 2003 we were able to collect and identify 35 ascomycetes on trees and dead wood. Among these one can find numerous ascomycetes of different orders e.g. Pyrenomycetes, Loculoascomycetes and Discomycetes. Some species like Botryosphaeria ribis GROSENLUCHER & DUGGAR on Ribes alpinum L., Dothiora pyrenophora (FR.) FR. on Sorbus aucuparia L., Gemmamyces piceae (BORTH.) CASAGO. on Picea excelsa (LAM.) LINK, Glomerella montana (SACC.) v. ARX & E. MULLER on Sesleria caerulea (L.) ARD, Hymenoscyphus immutabilis (Fuck.) Dennis on Alnus incana (L.) Moench, Hysterographium fraxini (PERS. Ex. FR.) de Not. on Fraxinus ornus L., Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) DENNIS [= Trichascyphella willkommii (Hartig) NANNF.] on Larix decidua MILL.,Leptosphaeria lycopodina (Mont.) SACC. on Lycopodium annotinum L., Mollisia adenostylidis REHM. on Adenostyles glabra (MILL.) DC., Pezicula cinnamomea (DC.)SACC. [ana: Cryptosporiopsis quercina PETRAK] on Quercus robur L., Pyrenopeziza petiolaris (A. & S. Ex FR.) NANNF. on Acer pseudoplatanus L., Tapesia rosae (PERS.) FUCKEL on Rosa canina L., are new for this area. All specimen are deposited in the Herbarium ESS Mycotheca Parva, Collection G.B. Feige/N. Ale-Agha.

  16. Stream and floodplain restoration in a riparian ecosystem disturbed by placer mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Kenneth F.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques for the hydrologic restoration of placer-mined streams and floodplains were developed in Denali National Park and Preserve Alaska, USA. The hydrologic study focused on a design of stream and floodplain geometry using hydraulic capacity and shear stress equations. Slope and sinuosity values were based on regional relationships. Design requirements include a channel capacity for a 1.5-year (bankfull) discharge and a floodplain capacity for a 1.5- to 100-year discharge. Concern for potential damage to the project from annual flooding before natural revegetation occurs led to development of alder (Alnus crispa) brush bars to dissipate floodwater energy and encourage sediment deposition. The brush bars, constructed of alder bundles tied together and anchored laterally adjacent to the channel, were installed on the floodplain in several configurations to test their effectiveness. A moderate flood near the end of the two-year construction phase of the project provided data on channel design, stability, floodplain erosion, and brush bar effectiveness. The brush bars provided substantial protection, but unconsolidated bank material and a lack of bed armour for a new channel segment led to some bank erosion, slope changes and an increase in sinuosity in several reaches of the study area.

  17. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF ETHANOL MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS WITH ERYTHROMYCIN AGAINST SKIN STRAINS OF STAPHYLOCOCCI WITH INDUCIBLE PHENOTYPE OF MLS-RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchyshyn O.I.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the main ways to control microorganisms’ resistance to antibiotics is to find substances that are able to overcome it and potentiate antibiotics action, in particular to neutralize the antibiotic-inactivating enzymes or block the active efflux of antibiotic from microbial cells. Every year there is a growing interest in the therapeutic potential of herbal active compounds as modifiers of antibiotic resistance including MLS-resistance (macrolide-lincosamide-streptoramin B. It should be emphasized that a number of biologically active substances of plant origin can potentiate antimicrobial activity of erythromycin (ERY against MLS-resistant staphylococci. The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and synergistic effects of eight Ukrainian ethanol medicinal plant extracts with erythromycin against skin strains of staphylococci with inducible phenotype of MLS-resistance. Material & methods. S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains were tested for susceptibility to antibiotics of MLS-group by disk diffusion test. Effective antimicrobial concentrations of plant extracts and erythromycin were determined by two-fold serial dilution in nutrient agar and broth. Combinatory effects between organic extracts and ERY were assessed using the checkerboard assay against tested strains to evaluate culture growth in the presence of two antimicrobials with different concentrations. Results & discussion. The Alnus incana L. fruits extract was the most potent inhibitor against tested strains (MIC 40.625-162.5 µg/mL; while Geranium pratense L. rhizomes extract exhibited the least antimicrobial activity (MIC 650-2,600 µg/mL. The Alnus incana L. fruits extract and the Geranium pratense L. rhizomes extract showed synergistic effect with erythromycin against 100% strains of staphylococci (average FICI 0.028 – 0.057; p<0.001. In the presence of 1/4 MIC of ERY Alnus incana L. fruits extract antimicrobial concentration was

  18. Vegetation response to right-of-way clearing procedures in coastal British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, A.B.

    1988-09-01

    The response of the flora of forested sites to the methods employed by British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for the initial clearing of transmission line rights-of-way in coastal British Columbia was assessed. Seven immature forest vegetation units adjacent to, and seven early seral vegetation units on, the transmission line rights-of-way were identified. The environmental parameter most highly correlated with both the immature forest and the early seral vegetation units was the slope position. The degree of disturbance and seeding with agronomic grass and legume species complicated the determination of relationships between immature forest and early seral vegetation units. The majority of seeds in the forest samples were found in the floor layers, and seed bank samples from the high-disturbance sites had the fewest germinable seeds, primarily because the floor had been removed. The seed rain was dominated by tree species within the forests, and shrub and herbaceous species on rights of way. The seed rain was higher and percent germinability was higher in the second year than in the first. Important species vegetatively invading after, or recovering from, plot scarification included Gaultheria shallon, Pteridium aquilinum, and Rubus ursinus. Successful seeding establishment was rare: only Alnus rubra, Anaphalis margaritacea, and Rubus ursinus seedlings were observed in significant numbers and few survived to the following year. 142 refs., 28 figs., 39 tabs

  19. Energetic evaluation of indigenous tree and shrub species in Basilicata, Southern Italy

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    Todaro L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of energetic characteristics such as high calorific value (on ash-free dry weight basis, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and moisture content of 12 indigenous tree and shrub species of Southern Italy (Basilicata Region was carried out. The studied species are the most abundant in this area: Quercus cerris L., Quercus pubescens Willd., Fraxinus ornus L., Populus canescens (Aiton Smith, Salix alba L., Alnus cordata L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Olea europaea L., Spartium junceum L., Rubus hirtus W., Onopordum illirium L., Arundo donax L. For Q. cerris, Q. pubescens and O. europaea L., the energetic characteristics were measured by separating the wood components from the leaves. Q. cerris leaves contained the greatest high calorific value. F. ornus leaves had a greater ash content than the other samples while the lowest values were measured for S. junceum, Q. pubescens and R. pseudoacacia. The highest content of Carbon was in O. europaea leaves. A. donax and O. illirium had the lower level of high calorific value and Carbon than all the other species. The highest Nitrogen content was measured in Q. cerris leaves and the lowest one in F. ornus wood components.

  20. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

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    Józef Mitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  1. Biomass models to estimate carbon stocks for hardwood tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Montero, G.; Rio, M. del

    2012-11-01

    To estimate forest carbon pools from forest inventories it is necessary to have biomass models or biomass expansion factors. In this study, tree biomass models were developed for the main hardwood forest species in Spain: Alnus glutinosa, Castanea sativa, Ceratonia siliqua, Eucalyptus globulus, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus angustifolia, Olea europaea var. sylvestris, Populus x euramericana, Quercus canariensis, Quercus faginea, Quercus ilex, Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus suber. Different tree biomass components were considered: stem with bark, branches of different sizes, above and belowground biomass. For each species, a system of equations was fitted using seemingly unrelated regression, fulfilling the additivity property between biomass components. Diameter and total height were explored as independent variables. All models included tree diameter whereas for the majority of species, total height was only considered in the stem biomass models and in some of the branch models. The comparison of the new biomass models with previous models fitted separately for each tree component indicated an improvement in the accuracy of the models. A mean reduction of 20% in the root mean square error and a mean increase in the model efficiency of 7% in comparison with recently published models. So, the fitted models allow estimating more accurately the biomass stock in hardwood species from the Spanish National Forest Inventory data. (Author) 45 refs.

  2. Late glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in south Colombian Cauca Valley from sites Quilichao and la Teta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrio, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Rob; Rangel Orlando

    2002-01-01

    Two sedimentary cores with records of pollen and charcoal content within a chronology provided by radiocarbon are presented from the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). These records document the late glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environment history. Specifically, core Quilichao -1 (640 cm; 3 degrade 6' N, 76 degrade 31' W) represents the periods of 13/150-7720 14 C yr BP and following a hiatus from 2880 14 C yr BP to recent. Core la Teta - 2 (250 cm; 3 degrade 5' N, 76 degrade 32' W) provides a record from 8700 14 C yr BP around 13/150 21 4 C yr BP Quilichao shown an active late glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11/465-10/520 14 C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria Moraceae Urticaceae, Melastomataceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation on the slopes Andean forest with Quercus, Hedyosmum, Myrica and Alnus are common

  3. Botanicals and Phosphonate Show Potential to Replace Copper for Control of Potato Late Blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Potato late blight (PLB caused by Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most harmful disease in potato production worldwide. In organic farming, copper is used despite its persistence in soil and toxicity to soil organisms. To replace copper, suspensions of powders from three promising botanicals, including bark of buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA, roots of medicinal rhubarb (Rheum palmatum and galls of the nutgall tree (Galla chinensis, were tested in multi-year field experiments. The current study shows for the first time that botanicals could replace copper under field conditions and best PLB reduction on leaves was achieved with FA, reaching a level close to that of 2 to 3 kg copper per hectare and year. Better results than with copper were achieved with Phosfik® (Ph, a phosphonate-based product. For both FA and Ph, the mode of action is based on induced resistance, for Ph also on direct fungicidal effects. A disadvantage of Ph is the accumulation of residues in potato tubers. Nevertheless, two to three applications with 2 to 3 L/ha of Ph would be feasible to not exceed a minimal risk level (MLR of 20 mg/kg of phosphorous acid as proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. Due to an excellent environmental profile and a complex mode of action counteracting Pi resistance, phosphonate-based products would be most suitable for sustainable PLB management in integrated pest management (IPM programmes.

  4. Airborne pollen spectrum and hay fever type prevalence in Vinnitsa, central Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Valeriivna Rodinkova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main pollen spectrum in relation to patients’ sensitivity determined in the ambient air of Vinnitsa city located in central Ukraine. The study performed by gravimetric sampling in the years 1999–2000 and by volumetric sampling in the years 2009–2014 showed that Urtica, Betula, Pinus, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ambrosia, Artemisia, Juglans, Carpinus, Populus, Quercus, Acer, Salix, Poaceae, Amarathaceae, and Polygonaceae pollen grains are prevalent among the airborne allergen types in the urban atmosphere. The principal pollen types remain the same but over time their quantities have changed. The relative abundance of Carpinus and Amaranthaceae airborne pollen decreased while the fraction of Urtica pollen increased in the last decade. From 50 to 69 pollen types were determined in the ambient air depending on the season. From 24 to 27 pollen types represented woody plants and from 22 to 46 pollen types belonged to the herbaceous plants. A considerable decrease in herbal pollen types is noted in the Vinnitsa air at present. It was shown that children were sensitive to weed pollen grains, including ragweed, mugwort, and grass, while adults were more sensitive to tree and grass pollen grains. Further studies of the pollen spectrum in the ambient air of this city are required in order to control the hay fever symptoms.

  5. A paleoecological reconstruction of the Late Glacial and Holocene based on multidisciplinary studies at Steregoiu site (Gutai Mts., Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available High resolution analyses of pollen, mineral magnetic properties, loss of ignition, lithostratigraphy and AMS 14C measurements of lake sediments and peat deposits accumulated in the former crater lake of Steregoiu (Gutâiului Mts., NW Romania, gave new and important information about vegetation and climate changes from the period GS-2 to the present. During the Lateglacial, three cold events were recorded: before 14,700 cal. years BP (GS-2, 14,050–13,800 cal. years BP (GI-1d, 12,900-11,500 cal. years BP (GS-1, and a warm climatic event between 13,800-12,950 cal. years BP (GI-1c to GL-1a. The Late Glacial/Holocene transition around 11,500 cal. years BP, was determined by an expansion of Betula, Alnus and Picea, followed by a rapid and strong expansion of Ulmus. At 10,700 cal. years BP, dense and highly diverse forests with Ulmus, Quercus, Tilia, Fraxinus and a few Acer and Corylus individuals dominated the area. Corylus and Picea were the dominant species in the forests from 10,150 to 8,500 cal. years BP. The first occurrence of single Fagus pollen grains was around 8,000 cal years BP. Only at 4,700 cal year BP Fagus and Carpinus became widespread and established trees in the local woodlands.

  6. Geoarchaeological investigations at Sormás-Török-földek, in Southwestern Transdanubia, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin NÁFRÁDI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive and detailed picture was gained about the historical events and the natural environment of Southwestern Hungary at the beginning of the 5th millennia BC. Wood charcoal analysis provided site-related information about the natural milieu of the site. Anthracological analysis has not been carried out in Southwestern Hungary so far, whereby more than 3600 fragments of charred wood remains were identified. Our dataset was compared to pollen analytical, archaeobotanical and archaeological data to create a more accurate vegetation picture for this period of time and to reconstruct the utilization of wood during Middle and Late Neolithic.Charcoal assemblage reflects the composition of the woodland around the site. Based on the results a thermophilous Quercus forest mixed with Fagus, Fraxinus, Acer, Alnus and Ulmus existed in the study site during the Middle and Late Neolithic and different types of wood were used for fire wood and for construction purposes as well. Anthracological analysis of samples from Sormás-Török-földek enabled a more accurate vegetation reconstruction for the study site by the comparison to previously known pollen analytical data and added extra information regarding the local vegetation and wood utilization for the Middle and Late Neolithic.

  7. The impact of human activities in the Gutaiului Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The examination of pollen and charcoal from the Gutâiului Mountains in northwestern Romania and the archaeological evidence from surroundings provides some information on how past human activities have changed the vegetation in this region. The first evidence of potential human influence upon the woodlands is manifested by fire clearance recorded at approximately 7900 cal. yr BP coinciding with the Early Neolithic. The charcoal peaks at ca. 5750, 3300, 2700, 1500, 1000 cal. yr BP, and during the last 300 years are associated with episodes of decline of main woodland constituents (Ulmus, Tilia, Fraxinus, and Corylus, and the expansion of fire-precursors (Betula, Alnus, and Corylus, and of herb species that indicate an anthropogenic disturbance. The small openings created within the woodlands were probably used as grazing areas. The first signs of agriculture appear at ca. 1500 cal. yr BP. Only during the last 300 years does pollen of the cereals e.g. Secale, Hordeum-group, Poaceae >40 μm, suggest the spread of arable field in the lowlands (Oaş Depression, but not in the proximity of the study basins.

  8. Spatial structure of the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Seppä

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of well-dated high-resolution pollen records suggests a spatial structure in the 8200 cal yr BP event in northern Europe. The temperate, thermophilous tree taxa, especially Corylus, Ulmus, and Alnus, decline abruptly between 8300 and 8000 cal yr BP at most sites located south of 61° N, whereas there is no clear change in pollen values at the sites located in the North-European tree-line region. Pollen-based quantitative temperature reconstructions and several other, independent palaeoclimate proxies, such as lacustrine oxygen-isotope records, reflect the same pattern, with no detectable cooling in the sub-arctic region. The observed patterns challenges the general view of the wide-spread occurrence of the 8200 cal yr BP event in the North Atlantic region. An alternative explanation is that the cooling during the 8200 cal yr BP event took place mostly during the winter and spring, and the ecosystems in the south responded sensitively to the cooling during the onset of the growing season. In contrast, in the sub-arctic area, where the vegetation was still dormant and lakes ice-covered, the cold event is not reflected in pollen-based or lake-sediment-based records.

  9. Eight boreal wetlands as sources and sinks for methyl mercury in relation to soil acidity, C/N ratio, and small-scale flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjerngren, Ida; Meili, Markus; Björn, Erik; Skyllberg, Ulf

    2012-08-07

    Four years of catchment export and wetland input-output mass balances are reported for inorganic Hg (Hg(inorg)), methyl mercury (MeHg), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and sulfate in eight Swedish boreal wetlands. All wetlands had a history of artificial drainage and seven were subjected to small-scale flooding during the complete study period (two sites) or the two last years (five sites). We used an approach in which specific runoff data determined at hydrological stations situated at a distance from the studied sites were used in the calculation of water and element budgets. All wetlands except one were significant sinks for Hg(inorg). Seven wetlands were consistent sources of MeHg and one (an Alnus glutinosa swamp) was a significant sink. The pattern of MeHg yields was in good agreement with previously determined methylation and demethylation rates in the wetland soils of this study, with a maximum MeHg yield obtained in wetlands with an intermediate soil acidity (pH ∼5.0) and C/N ratio (∼20). We hypothesize that an increased nutrient status from poor to intermediate conditions promotes methylation over demethylation, whereas a further increase in nutrient status and trophy to meso- and eutrophic conditions promotes demethylation over methylation. Small-scale flooding showed no or moderate changes in MeHg yield, maintaining differences among wetlands related to nutrient status.

  10. Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard G.; Hui, Cang; Gessner, Mark O.; Pérez, Javier; Alexandrou, Markos A.; Graça, Manuel A. S.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Albariño, Ricardo J.; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Barmuta, Leon A.; Boulton, Andrew J.; Bruder, Andreas; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Death, Russell G.; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C.; Ferreira, Verónica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S.; Gonçalves, José F.; Helson, Julie; Iwata, Tomoya; Jinggut, Tajang; Mathooko, Jude; Mathuriau, Catherine; M'Erimba, Charles; Moretti, Marcelo S.; Pringle, Catherine M.; Ramírez, Alonso; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Rincon, José; Yule, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and other environmental factors on breakdown rates. We conducted an experiment in 24 streams encompassing latitudes from 47.8° N to 42.8° S, using litter mixtures of local species differing in quality and phylogenetic diversity (PD), and alder (Alnus glutinosa) to control for variation in litter traits. Our models revealed that breakdown of alder was driven by climate, with some influence of pH, whereas variation in breakdown of litter mixtures was explained mainly by litter quality and PD. Effects of litter quality and PD and stream pH were more positive at higher temperatures, indicating that different mechanisms may operate at different latitudes. These results reflect global variability caused by multiple factors, but unexplained variance points to the need for expanded global-scale comparisons. PMID:27122551

  11. Energy conservation and use of renewable energies in the bio-industries 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, F.

    1982-01-01

    The proceedings are presented of the Second International Seminar on Energy Conservation and the Use of Renewable Energies in the Bio-industries. Of 106 papers presented, the following 5 are of particular forestry interest: Brewbaker, J.L.; MacDicken, K.; Beldt, R. van den. Tropical nitrogen-fixing fuelwood trees. 108-119 (Refs. 15). Farnham, R.S.; Garton, S.; Louis, K.A.; Read, P.E. Propagating and establishing bioenergy plantations. 274-283 (Refs. 14). Salix and Alnus spp. in the marginal wetlands of northern Minnesota, USA. Kio, P.R.O. Factors and policies affecting forest resources use and conservation in Africa. 425-432 (Refs. 9), including discussion of the causes and consequences of deforestation. Plumptre, R.A.; Sandells, A. Construction, performance and economics of simple solar timber drying kilns. 577-586 (Refs. 11). Yermanos, D.M. Jojoba - outlook for maximizing oil production. 738-748 (Refs. 1). It describes experiments on seed and oil yields of Simmondsia chinensis in California.

  12. Vegetation response to right-of-way clearing procedures in coastal British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, A.B.

    1988-09-01

    The response of the flora of forested sites to the methods employed by British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority for the initial clearing of transmission line rights-of-way in coastal British Columbia was assessed. Seven immature forest vegetation units adjacent to, and seven early seral vegetation units on, the transmission line rights-of-way were identified. The environmental parameter most highly correlated with both the immature forest and the early seral vegetation units was the slope position. The degree of disturbance and seeding with agronomic grass and legume species complicated the determination of relationships between immature forest and early seral vegetation units. The majority of seeds in the forest samples were found in the floor layers, and seed bank samples from the high-disturbance sites had the fewest germinable seeds, primarily because the floor had been removed. The seed rain was dominated by tree species within the forests, and shrub and herbaceous species on rights of way. The seed rain was higher and percent germinability was higher in the second year than in the first. Important species vegetatively invading after, or recovering from, plot scarification included Gaultheria shallon, Pteridium aquilinum, and Rubus ursinus. Successful seeding establishment was rare: only Alnus rubra, Anaphalis margaritacea, and Rubus ursinus seedlings were observed in significant numbers and few survived to the following year. 142 refs., 28 figs., 39 tabs.

  13. Perspectives on allelopathy in mexican traditional agroecosystems: A case study in tlaxcala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, A L; Ramos, L; Cruz, R; Hernández, J G; Nava, V

    1987-11-01

    Agroecosystems in Tlaxcala, Mexico, are surrounded by trees and water channels and have a great variety of cultivated and noncultivated plants. The main results of a study carried out on a traditional agroecosystem in Santa Inés, Tlaxcala are presented. Some ecological aspects of polycultures, plant covers (dry leaves ofAlnus firmifolia, Berula erecta, andJuncus sp.), and the allelopathic potential of crops and noncultivated plants (fresh and dry material) were analyzed. The main plants (trees, shrubs, and herbs) present in the agroecosystem were identified. The total number of weeds in plots where plant covers were added was reduced. The number of nodules ofRhizobium phaseoli and the production of bean and squash increased with plant covers. Corn, beans, and squash showed a clear allelopathic effect, as well asChenopodium murale, Tradescantia crassifolia, Melilotus indicus, andAmaranthus hybridus, among other weeds. The contribution of allelopathy in studies of traditional agroecosystems is of great importance for the management of species in space and time. Allelopathy can be the basis of biological control of pests and weeds and of the discovery of new useful substances.

  14. Biotic and abiotic variables influencing plant litter breakdown in streams: a global study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, Richard G; Hui, Cang; Gessner, Mark O; Pérez, Javier; Alexandrou, Markos A; Graça, Manuel A S; Cardinale, Bradley J; Albariño, Ricardo J; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Barmuta, Leon A; Boulton, Andrew J; Bruder, Andreas; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Death, Russell G; Dudgeon, David; Encalada, Andrea C; Ferreira, Verónica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Flecker, Alexander S; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie; Iwata, Tomoya; Jinggut, Tajang; Mathooko, Jude; Mathuriau, Catherine; M'Erimba, Charles; Moretti, Marcelo S; Pringle, Catherine M; Ramírez, Alonso; Ratnarajah, Lavenia; Rincon, José; Yule, Catherine M

    2016-04-27

    Plant litter breakdown is a key ecological process in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. Streams and rivers, in particular, contribute substantially to global carbon fluxes. However, there is little information available on the relative roles of different drivers of plant litter breakdown in fresh waters, particularly at large scales. We present a global-scale study of litter breakdown in streams to compare the roles of biotic, climatic and other environmental factors on breakdown rates. We conducted an experiment in 24 streams encompassing latitudes from 47.8° N to 42.8° S, using litter mixtures of local species differing in quality and phylogenetic diversity (PD), and alder (Alnus glutinosa) to control for variation in litter traits. Our models revealed that breakdown of alder was driven by climate, with some influence of pH, whereas variation in breakdown of litter mixtures was explained mainly by litter quality and PD. Effects of litter quality and PD and stream pH were more positive at higher temperatures, indicating that different mechanisms may operate at different latitudes. These results reflect global variability caused by multiple factors, but unexplained variance points to the need for expanded global-scale comparisons. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Woody biomass phytoremediation of contaminated brownfield land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Christopher J.; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Putwain, Philip D.

    2006-01-01

    Economic and environmental regeneration of post-industrial landscapes frequently involves some element of re-afforestation or tree planting. We report field trials that evaluate whether woody biomass production is compatible with managing residual trace element contamination in brownfield soils. Large-scale mapping of contamination showed a heterogenous dispersion of metals and arsenic, and highly localised within-site hotspots. Yields of Salix, Populus and Alnus were economically viable, showing that short-rotation coppice has a potentially valuable role in community forestry. Mass balance modelling demonstrated that phytoextraction potentially could reduce contamination hotspots of more mobile elements (Cd and Zn) within a 25-30-year life cycle of the crops. Cd and Zn in stems and foliage of Salix were 4-13 times higher than EDTA-extractable soil concentrations. Lability of other trace elements (As, Pb, Cu, Ni) was not increased 3 years after planting the coppice; woody biomass may provide an effective reduction of exposure (phytostabilisation) to these less mobile contaminants. - Field trials show short-rotation coppice provides effective risk management and remediation solutions to hotspots of residual metal and As contamination of brownfield land

  16. Middle to Late Holocene vegetation shifts in the NW Transylvanian lowlands (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Grindean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Iaz peat bog, located in northwestern Transylvania at 300 m a.s.l., was cored to study the Middle to Late Holocene vegetation shifts in the area. The pollen record is supported by seven 14C datings. The base of the sequence starts in the Middle Holocene, when the outer woodlands were dominated by Corylus avellana together with other components of the Quercetum mixtum. The local establishment of Carpinus betulus occurred at 5700 cal. yr BP with maximum values at around 4900 cal. yr BP. At 4800 cal. yr BP, Fagus sylvatica became locally established and expanded, possibly as a result of moist climatic conditions and dominated the mesothermophilous woodlands from 4300 cal. yr BP onwards. During the periods of greater moisture, the deciduous forest was overgrown by the hygrophilous Alnus glutinosa belt. Indications of human activities in the area were recorded since 6300 cal. yr BP, when Cerealia and Secale pollen and other ruderal taxa start to appear regularly throughout the sequence. Although intense at times, the anthropogenic factor only played a major role in the vegetation changes during the last 635 years.

  17. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data. - Sixteen species of verified bioindicator plants for ambient ozone are available for use in Central and Eastern Europe.

  18. Influence of wind direction on pollen concentration in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Palacios, I.; Tormo Molina, R.; Muñoz Rodríguez, A. F.

    The daily pollen concentration in the atmosphere of Badajoz (SW Spain) was analysed over a 6-year period (1993-1998) using a volumetric aerobiological trap. The results for the main pollination period are compared with the number of hours of wind each day in the four quadrants: 1 (NE), 2 (SE), 3 (SW) and 4 (NW). The pollen source distribution allowed 16 pollen types to be analysed as a function of their distribution in the four quadrants with respect to the location of the trap. Four of them correspond to species growing in an irrigated farmland environment (Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae, Plantago, Scirpus, and Typha), five to riparian and woodland species (Salix, Fraxinus, Alnus, Populus, and Eucalyptus), four to urban ornamentals (Ulmus, Arecaceae, Cupressaceae, and Casuarina), and three which include the most frequent pollen grains of widely distributed species (Poaceae, Quercus, and Olea). The results show that the distribution of the sources and the wind direction play a very major role in determining the pollen concentration in the atmosphere when these sources are located in certain quadrants, and that the widely distributed pollen sources show no relationship with wind direction. In some years the values of the correlations were not maintained, which leads one to presume that, in order to draw significant conclusions and establish clear patterns of the influence of wind direction, a continuous and more prolonged study will be required.

  19. Bioindicator plants for ambient ozone in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, W J; Godzik, B

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen species of native detector plants for ambient ozone have been identified for use in Central and Eastern Europe. They include the forbs Alchemilla sp., Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, Centauria scabiosa, Impatiens parviflora, Lapsana communis, Rumex acetosa and Senecio subalpinus; the shrubs Corylus avellana, Cornus sanguinea and Sambucus racemosa; the trees Alnus incana, Pinus cembra and Sorbus aucuparia; and the vines Humulus lupulus and Parthenocissus quinquefolia. Sensitivity to ozone and symptoms have been verified under controlled exposure conditions. Under these conditions, symptom incidence, intensity and appearance often changed with time after removal from exposure chambers. Ozone sensitivity for four species: Astrantia major, Centuarea nigra, C. scabiosa and Humulus lupulus are reported here for the first time. The other 12 species have also been confirmed by others in Western Europe. It is recommended that these detector bioindicator species be used in conjunction with ozone monitors and passive samplers so that injury symptoms incidence can be used to give biological significance to monitored ambient ozone data.

  20. The effect of fire frequency on local cembra pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genries, A; Mercier, L; Lavoie, M; Muller, S D; Radakovitch, O; Carcaillet, C

    2009-02-01

    It has been predicted that global climate change will lead to increasing drought in the Alps during the 21st century, as well as an increased fire risk, fires being currently rare in these mountains. Herein we describe fire frequency reconstruction using high-resolution analyses of macroscopic sedimentary charcoal, pollen, and plant macrofossils. Sediments were sampled from a subalpine pond within the dry western French Alps. Results show that the early-Holocene expansion of Pinus cembra (7200 calibrated years BP) occurred in Acer/Alnus incana/Betula woodlands, which were affected by fires with moderate mean fire-free intervals (MFFI = 173 +/- 61 yr [mean +/- SE]). Superposed Epoch Analyses show that the abundance of P. cembra macroremains decreased significantly after burning, although they never disappeared entirely. Statistics suggest that fires spread through cembra pine communities; they were not stand-replacing fires but mainly surface fires, probably killing nonreproductive pines. An increase in fire frequency occurred 6740 years ago, when four fires appear to have occurred within 140 years. These fires may have been associated with a regional drought and could have affected the composition of the subalpine forest by depleting the local P. cembra population in the short-term. The predicted increase in drought in the future could, therefore, affect the cembra pine ecosystem in the Alps if fire frequency is reduced to intervals of less than 80 years.

  1. Late Glacial and Early Holocene Climatic Changes Based on a Multiproxy Lacustrine Sediment Record from Northeast Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokorowski, H D; Anderson, P M; Sletten, R S; Lozhkin, A V; Brown, T A

    2008-05-20

    Palynological (species assemblage, pollen accumulation rate), geochemical (carbon to nitrogen ratios, organic carbon and biogenic silica content), and sedimentological (particle size, magnetic susceptibility) data combined with improved chronology and greater sampling resolution from a new core from Elikchan 4 Lake provide a stronger basis for defining paleoenvironmental changes than was previously possible. Persistence of herb-dominated tundra, slow expansion of Betula and Alnus shrubs, and low percentages of organic carbon and biogenic silica suggest that the Late-Glacial transition (ca. 16,000-11,000 cal. yr BP) was a period of gradual rather than abrupt vegetation and climatic change. Consistency of all Late-Glacial data indicates no Younger Dryas climatic oscillation. A dramatic peak in pollen accumulation rates (ca. 11,000-9800 cal. yr BP) suggests a possible summer temperature optimum, but finer grain-sizes, low magnetic susceptibility, and greater organic carbon and biogenic silica, while showing significant warming at ca. 11,000 cal. yr BP, offer no evidence of a Holocene thermal maximum. When compared to trends in other paleo-records, the new Elikchan data underscore the apparent spatial complexity of climatic responses in Northeast Siberia to global forcings between ca. 16,000-9000 cal. yr BP.

  2. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Knelman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Past research demonstrating the importance plant–microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant–microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  3. Interspecific Plant Interactions Reflected in Soil Bacterial Community Structure and Nitrogen Cycling in Primary Succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knelman, Joseph E; Graham, Emily B; Prevéy, Janet S; Robeson, Michael S; Kelly, Patrick; Hood, Eran; Schmidt, Steve K

    2018-01-01

    Past research demonstrating the importance plant-microbe interactions as drivers of ecosystem succession has focused on how plants condition soil microbial communities, impacting subsequent plant performance and plant community assembly. These studies, however, largely treat microbial communities as a black box. In this study, we sought to examine how emblematic shifts from early successional Alnus viridus ssp. sinuata (Sitka alder) to late successional Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) in primary succession may be reflected in specific belowground changes in bacterial community structure and nitrogen cycling related to the interaction of these two plants. We examined early successional alder-conditioned soils in a glacial forefield to delineate how alders alter the soil microbial community with increasing dominance. Further, we assessed the impact of late-successional spruce plants on these early successional alder-conditioned microbiomes and related nitrogen cycling through a leachate addition microcosm experiment. We show how increasingly abundant alder select for particular bacterial taxa. Additionally, we found that spruce leachate significantly alters the composition of these microbial communities in large part by driving declines in taxa that are enriched by alder, including bacterial symbionts. We found these effects to be spruce specific, beyond a general leachate effect. Our work also demonstrates a unique influence of spruce on ammonium availability. Such insights bolster theory relating the importance of plant-microbe interactions with late-successional plants and interspecific plant interactions more generally.

  4. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report. [Sycamore, sweet gum, alder, and locust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.

    1979-03-01

    Two biomass plantations, one in the Coastal Plain, the other in the Piedmont province of Georgia, have been established. Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Flnus glutinosa and Robinia pseudoacacia were planted in pure and mixed plots. Differences in the growth at the end of the first growing season were attributed mostly to weed competition in the Coastal Plain. Robinia grew remarkably well in the Piedmont, averaging more than 2.2 m tall in irrigated plots. A fungus tentatively identified as belonging to the genus Botryosphaeria is causing heavy Alnus mortality in the Coastal Plain. Progress in the genetic improvement phase of the project included a collection of Platanus seedlots from throughout Georgia to identify promising provenances and the production of Liquidambar and Robinia plantlets in tissue culture. Differences in the calorific content of young sprout material from nine hardwood species (unit oven dry weight basis) were found to be small. Other studies dealt with the effects of different harvesting cycles on the size and carbohydrate contents of sycamore rootstocks.

  5. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C.L.

    1978-03-01

    Progress is reported in research to increase biomass yields from coppice forests by admixing the nitrogen fixing tree Alnus glutinosa to plantations of Plantanus occidentalis and Liquidambar styraciflua. Plantations to compare growth rates of pure and mixed plots of the three species have been established on two sites in Georgia. Locations were selected on the basis of physiographic province (Piedmont and Coastal Plain) on soils which probably will be available for short rotation forestry. Propagation techniques for mass-cloning Platanus occidentalis using single buds and internodes of dormant or active twigs from young trees were developed. Tissue culture procedures were used to induce bud and root formation in callus cultures of Robinia and Gleditsia. Research dealing with fluctuations in starch and sugar levels in coppiced root systems of sycamore during the winter is reported. Total available carbohydrates ranged from 15 to 26 percent of root dry weight and starch to sugar conversion was detected. However, more starch disappeared than could be accounted for by the concomitant rise of sugar levels. There were some differences between annually coppiced root systems and those cut every two years. (JGB)

  6. Increasing the biomass production of short rotation coppice forests. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C. L.

    1980-09-01

    The objective of the project is to increase biomass yields from coppice forests by admixing tree species (Alnus glutinosa, Robinia pseudoacacia and others) to plantations of Platanus occidentalis and Liquidambar styraciflua. Yield increases due to intensive cultivation, especially fertilization and irrigation, will be documented. A genetic improvement program of promising candidate species both through the identification of superior genotypes and mass cloning with tissue culture is also included. Three plantings have been established successfully to screen candidate species on various sites and to test the effects of weed control, fertilization and irrigation on short rotation forests. Two plantations in Georgia are in their 2nd and 3rd growing seasons while one in South Carolina is in its 1st growing season. A two acre plantation has been established to test development of geographic seed source material for sycamore. A nursery is in operation to develop seedling production methods for new species and to grow and maintain genetic material. Mass cloning of selected material by tissue culture techniques has produced material for testing in outplantings.

  7. Vida útil de dos barnices para exteriores mediante intemperismo artificial en madera de aile, pino y encino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Tamarit Urias

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal función de los acabados para exteriores es proteger la madera contra los agentes del intemperismo, así como ayudar a mantener su apariencia. El intemperismo causa deterioro superficial y por lo tanto afecta directamente el funcionamiento del acabado. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la vida útil del acabado de dos barnices poliuretanos para exteriores de la marca comercial Polyform® (11000 y 7000 en madera de aile (Alnus firmifolia Fernald, pino (Pinus patula Schl. et Cham. y encino (Quercus insignis Mart. et Gal. mediante intemperismo acelerado utilizando un equipo fabricado con base en las características que especifica el Reglamento del Centro Técnico de la Madera de Francia (rueda del CTBA de Francia. Mediante los parámetros de falla en apariencia y falla por adhesión del acabado y utilizando el modelo de distribución acumulativa de Weibull se estimó la vida útil del acabado, la cual fue para el acabado del barniz 11000 en madera de aile, pino y encino de 5.0, 5.2 y 5.0 años respectivamente, en tanto que para el barniz 7000 fue de 3.7, 3.4 y 4.9 años.

  8. Fagaceae pollen from the early Cenozoic of West Greenland: revisiting Engler's and Chaney's Arcto-Tertiary hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Grimm, Guido W; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Pedersen, Asger Ken; Denk, Thomas

    In this paper we document Fagaceae pollen from the Eocene of western Greenland. The pollen record suggests a remarkable diversity of the family in the early Cenozoic of Greenland. Extinct Fagaceae pollen types include Eotrigonobalanus , which extends at least back to the Paleocene, and two ancestral pollen types with affinities to the Eurasian Quercus Group Ilex and the western North American Quercus Group Protobalanus. In addition, modern lineages of Fagaceae are unambiguously represented by pollen of Fagus, Quercus Group Lobatae/Quercus, and three Castaneoideae pollen types. These findings corroborate earlier findings from Axel Heiberg Island that Fagaceae were a dominant element at high latitudes during the early Cenozoic. Comparison with coeval or older mid-latitude records of modern lineages of Fagaceae shows that modern lineages found in western Greenland and Axel Heiberg likely originated at lower latitudes. Further examples comprise (possibly) Acer , Aesculus , Alnus , Ulmus , and others. Thus, before fossils belonging to modern northern temperate lineages will have been recovered from older (early Eocene, Paleocene) strata from high latitudes, Engler's hypothesis of an Arctic origin of the modern temperate woody flora of Eurasia, termed 'Arcto-Tertiary Element', and later modification by R. W. Chaney and H. D. Mai ('Arcto-Tertiary Geoflora') needs to be modified.

  9. Pliocene terrace gravels of the ancestral Yukon River near Circle, Alaska: Palynology, paleobotany, paleoenvironmental reconstruction and regional correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.; Matthews, J.V.; Yeend, W.

    1994-01-01

    Gravels deposited by the ancestral Yukon River are preserved in terrace remnants on the margins of the Yukon River valley near the village of Circle in east-central Alaska. Plant fossils recovered from sandy silt lenses within these gravels include cones and needles of Picea and Larix and a variety of seeds. Seed types include several taxa which no longer grow in Alaska, such as Epipremnum, Prunus and Weigela. Pollen types recovered from these deposits represent tree and shrub taxa that grow in interior Alaska today, such as Picea, Larix, Betula and Alnus, as well as several taxa that no longer grow in interior Alaska today, such as Pinus, Tsuga, Abies and Corylus. Pollen of herb taxa identified include Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Compositae, Polemonium and Epilobium. The fossil flora from the gravels near Circle are similar and probably age-equivalent to the flora recovered from the Nenana Gravel in the Alaska Range 250 km to the south. Palynological and tectonic evidence summarized in this paper now suggests that the Nenana Gravel was deposited during the early and middle Pliocene. The presence of plant fossils of Tsuga, Abies, Pinus, Weigela and Prunus suggests that the mean annual temperature (MAT) of eastern interior Alaska during the early and middle Pliocene was perhaps 7-9??C warmer and less continental than today's MAT of -6.4??C. ?? 1994.

  10. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.E.; Reukema, D.L.; Hazard, J.W.

    1996-03-01

    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, the authors (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to their distance from a strip of the plantation interplanted with nitrogen-fixing red alder (alnus rubra Bong.); and (3) observed effects of biuret on understory vegetation. On both sides of the strip centerline, the authors grouped subject trees into 30 plots of 4 trees each, based on slope position and distance from alder. The authors randomly assigned three fertilizers and a control within each plot. They analyzed separately data from east and west of the mixed stand certerline. Initial volume differed greatly among the 120 trees on each side, so they used covariance analysis to adjust observed treatment means. Adjusted mean volume growth was increased (p equal to or less than 0.10) by 22 to 28 percent on the east side and by 11 to 14 percent on the west side, with no significant difference in response to the three fertilizers.

  11. Vegetation history reconstructed from anthracology and pollen analysis at the rescue excavation of the MO Motorway, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Náfrádi, Katalin; Bodor, Elvira; Törőcsik, Tünde; Sümegi, Pál

    2011-12-01

    The significance of geoarchaeological investigations is indisputable in reconstructing the former environment and in studying the relationship between humans and their surroundings. Several disciplines have developed during the last few decades to give insight into earlier time periods and their climatic conditions (e.g. palynology, malacology, archaeobotany, phytology and animal osteology). Charcoal and pollen analytical studies from the rescue excavation of the MO motorway provide information about the vegetation changes of the past. These methods are used to reconstruct the environment of the former settlements and to detect the human impact and natural climatic changes. The sites examined span the periods of the Late-Copper Age, Late-Bronze Age, Middle-Iron Age, Late-Iron Age, Sarmatian period, Late Sarmatian period, Migration period, Late-Migration period and Middle Ages. The vegetation before the Copper Age is based only on pollen analytical data. Anthracological results show the overall dominance of Quercus and a great number of Ulmus, Fraxinus, Acer, Fagus, Alnus and Populus/Salix tree fossils, as well as the residues of fruit trees present in the charred wood assemblage.

  12. Do climate and soil influence phenotypic variability in leaf litter, microbial decomposition and shredder consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, M A S; Poquet, J M

    2014-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that water stress and soil nutrient availability drive leaf-litter quality for decomposers and detritivores by relating chemical and physical leaf-litter properties and decomposability of Alnus glutinosa and Quercus robur, sampled together with edaphic parameters, across wide European climatic gradients. By regressing principal components analysis of leaf traits [N, P, condensed tannins, lignin, specific leaf area (SLA)] against environmental and soil parameters, we found that: (1) In Q. robur the condensed tannin and lignin contents increased and SLA decreased with precipitation, annual range of temperature, and soil N content, whereas leaf P increased with soil P and temperature; (2) In A. glutinosa leaves N, P, and SLA decreased and condensed tannins increased with temperature, annual range of temperature, and decreasing soil P. On the other hand, leaf P and condensed tannins increased and SLA decreased with minimum annual precipitation and towards sites with low temperature. We selected contrasting leaves in terms of quality to test decomposition and invertebrate consumption. There were intraspecific differences in microbial decomposition rates (field, Q. robur) and consumption by shredders (laboratory, A. glutinosa). We conclude that decomposition rates across ecosystems could be partially governed by climate and soil properties, affecting litter quality and therefore decomposers and detritivores. Under scenarios of global warming and increased nutrients, these results suggest we can expect species-specific changes in leaf-litter properties most likely resulting in slow decomposition with increased variance in temperatures and accelerated decomposition with P increase.

  13. Possible similarities between the folk medicine historically used by First Nations and American Indians in North America and the ethnoveterinary knowledge currently used in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl

    2016-11-04

    This paper compares sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary remedies in British Columbia with First Nations folk medicine. In 2003, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. The data was then compared with historical documents on First Nations plant use. Exact parallels between First Nations/native American folk medicine and ethnoveterinary remedies used for farm animals and horses were Acer macrophyllum Pursh, Epilobium angustifolium L. and Lonicera involucrata (Richardson) Banks ex Spreng., used as stimulants and tonics for goats; Achlys tripylla DC. as a fly repellent in barns, Alnus rubra Bong., for rabbits' dental care, Berberis repens Lindl., Rumex crispus L., to treat sores and rashes on horses, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson for stomach problems and Bovista pila Berk. and M. A. Curtis and Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Articus used on wounds. This study revealed the parallel uses between sixty-four plants used as ethnoveterinary medicines in British Columbia and the folk medicines used by the First Nations peoples and by native American groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The History of Tree and Shrub Taxa on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago since the Last Interglacial Uncovered by Sedimentary Ancient DNA and Pollen Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike H. Zimmermann

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem boundaries, such as the Arctic-Boreal treeline, are strongly coupled with climate and were spatially highly dynamic during past glacial-interglacial cycles. Only a few studies cover vegetation changes since the last interglacial, as most of the former landscapes are inundated and difficult to access. Using pollen analysis and sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA metabarcoding, we reveal vegetation changes on Bol’shoy Lyakhovsky Island since the last interglacial from permafrost sediments. Last interglacial samples depict high levels of floral diversity with the presence of trees (Larix, Picea, Populus and shrubs (Alnus, Betula, Ribes, Cornus, Saliceae on the currently treeless island. After the Last Glacial Maximum, Larix re-colonised the island but disappeared along with most shrub taxa. This was probably caused by Holocene sea-level rise, which led to increased oceanic conditions on the island. Additionally, we applied two newly developed larch-specific chloroplast markers to evaluate their potential for tracking past population dynamics from environmental samples. The novel markers were successfully re-sequenced and exhibited two variants of each marker in last interglacial samples. SedaDNA can track vegetation changes as well as genetic changes across geographic space through time and can improve our understanding of past processes that shape modern patterns.

  15. Effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredder communities in urban Alaskan streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Wurtz, Tricia L.

    2014-01-01

    European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is spreading rapidly in riparian forests of urban Alaska. To determine how the spread of EBC affects leaf litter processing by aquatic invertebrate shredders, we conducted complementary leaf pack experiments in two streams located in Anchorage, Alaska. The first experiment contrasted invasive EBC with three native tree species—thin-leaf alder (Alnus tenuifolia), paper birch (Betula neoalaskana), and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa)—in one reach of Chester Creek; finding that EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than birch and cottonwood, but at a similar rate to alder. The second experiment contrasted EBC with alder in four reaches of Campbell and Chester creeks; finding that while EBC leaf litter broke down significantly faster than alder in Chester Creek, EBC broke down at a similar rate to alder in Campbell Creek. Although EBC sometimes supported fewer shredders by both count and mass, shredder communities did not differ significantly between EBC and native plants. Collectively, these data suggest that invasive EBC is not currently exhibiting strong negative impacts on leaf litter processing in these streams, but could if it continues to spread and further displaces native species over time.

  16. Diet preference of Eurasian Beaver (Castor Fiber L., 1758 in the environment of Oderské vrchy and its influence on the tree species composition of river bank stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Dvořák

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the dietary behaviour and the tree species preference in the river bank stands in the diet of established population Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber L., 1758 in the environment of Oderské vrchy; the objective is to assess the suitability of this environment for future development of the Eurasian Beaver and to asses the influence of the beaver’s dietary behaviour on the river bank stands. In the monitored area, the total of 5 tree species with the following preference were recorded: willow (Salix 42.2%, aspen (Populus 28%, dogwood (Comus 15.5%, birch (Betula 7.4% and alder (Alnus 6.9%. The most damaged diameter interval recorded within the all damaged tree species ranges from 2.6 to 6 cm, followed by the interval 6.1–12 cm. Over 61% of the trees felled by the beaver had a bigger diameter. The most sensitive reaction to beaver’s dietary behaviour was shown by aspen (reduction of numbers by 27.6% and by willow (reduction of numbers by 16.6% on the monitored area.

  17. The skin prick test – European standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinzerling Lucie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Skin prick testing is an essential test procedure to confirm sensitization in IgE-mediated allergic disease in subjects with rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, urticaria, anapylaxis, atopic eczema and food and drug allergy. This manuscript reviews the available evidence including Medline and Embase searches, abstracts of international allergy meetings and position papers from the world allergy literature. The recommended method of prick testing includes the appropriate use of specific allergen extracts, positive and negative controls, interpretation of the tests after 15 – 20 minutes of application, with a positive result defined as a wheal ≥3 mm diameter. A standard prick test panel for Europe for inhalants is proposed and includes hazel (Corylus avellana, alder (Alnus incana, birch (Betula alba, plane (Platanus vulgaris, cypress (Cupressus sempervirens, grass mix (Poa pratensis, Dactilis glomerata, Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, Festuca pratensis, Helictotrichon pretense, Olive (Olea europaea, mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Alternaria alternata (tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Parietaria, cat, dog, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, and cockroach (Blatella germanica. Standardization of the skin test procedures and standard panels for different geographic locations are encouraged worldwide to permit better comparisons for diagnostic, clinical and research purposes.

  18. Landscape dynamics and fire activity since 6740 cal yr BP in the Cantabrian region (La Molina peat bog, Puente Viesgo, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Obiol, R.; García-Codron, J. C.; Pèlachs, A.; Pérez-Haase, A.; Soriano, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    A lack of paleobotanic studies with adequate resolution and multiproxy approaches has limited proper discussion of vegetation dynamics in Cantabria and of the role of fires in the configuration of the plant landscape during the Holocene in the northwest part of the Iberian peninsula. The pollen diagram of La Molina peat bog in Puente Viesgo (43°15‧38″ N-3°58‧37″ W; ETRS89), located at 484 m.a.s.l., and the study of its sedimentary charcoals allowed the acquisition of a continuous and thorough fire sequence for the last 6700 cal yr BP and an understanding of its relationship to the forest. The results show the importance of human influence on the incidence and characteristics of fire activity during the different phases studied: the Neolithic, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Roman period, and Middle Ages. A synergy seems to exist between dry climate periods (especially during Bond events 3 and 4) and a greater presence of biomass. As the Holocene advances, vegetation coverage clearly tends to decrease. This study provides key elements for understanding the role of fire activity in the forest dynamics of deciduous and evergreen Quercus, Corylus, Pinus, Fagus, and Alnus and demonstrates the strongly artificialized character of the present landscape.

  19. Decreased viability and proliferation of CHANG conjunctival epithelial cells after contact with ultraviolet light-irradiated pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidinger, Andrea; Rabensteiner, Dieter Franz; Rabensteiner, Jasmin; Kieslinger, Petra; Horwath-Winter, Jutta; Stabentheiner, Edith; Riedl, Regina; Wedrich, Andreas; Schmut, Otto

    2017-12-27

    Contact with pollen is the major reason for the development of allergic symptoms on the ocular surface leading to a significant increase of allergic diseases worldwide. Environmental changes such as increased ultraviolet (UV) radiation and air pollution are discussed as contributory causes for this increase. We investigated the effect of UV light on the histamine content of pollen and examined if an irradiation of pollen affects the viability and proliferation of conjunctival cells. Alder (Alnus glutinosa) and hazel (Corylus avellana) pollen were irradiated for different time periods with sunlight, UV-A or UV-B light and the histamine content was analysed and compared with non-irradiated pollen. Conjunctival epithelial cells (CHANG cells) were exposed to irradiated and non-irradiated pollen followed by an assessment of cell viability with the colorimetric MTS test and the impedance-based measurement of cell proliferation using the xCELLigence real-time analysis system. UV light irradiation increased the histamine level of alder and hazel pollen in a dose-dependent manner. CHANG cells treated with irradiated pollen induced a statistically significant higher decrease of cell viability than treatment with non-irradiated pollen. Our results indicate that UV light is able to alter pollen thus making them more harmful for conjunctival cells.

  20. Mixed, short rotation culture of red alder and black cottonwood: growth, coppicing, nitrogen fixation, and allelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilman, P.; Stettler, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    Alnus rubra seedlings were grown in a 1:1 mixture at a spacing of 1.2 x 1.2 m with 28 Populus clones (25 clones pf P. trichocarpa, 2 of P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa, and one P. deltoides x P. nigra) in a study established in W. Washington in March 1979. Trees were harvested at 4 yr old. At harvest, average heights were: pure Populus, 10.2 m; Populus in the mixed stand 11.0 m; and alder 8.4 m. Most Populus sprouted satisfactorily after harvest (6.6 shoots/plant when pure, 7.6 shoots/plant in the mixture), but alder sprouted poorly (3.6 shoots/plant). Above-ground biomass at harvest was 15.9 t/ha p.a. for the mixture and 16.7 t/ha p.a. for pure Populus, although the mixture had been more productive at 2 yr. Nitrogenase activity (nitrogen fixation as measured by acetylene reduction) of alder declines in the 4th season; competition was the most important factor influencing this decline. Soil N content had no effect on fixation. A pot study showed that ground Populus leaf and litter material inhibited the growth of red alder seedlings, although soil collected from Populus plots had no effect. Results indicated that allelopathy is probably a minor factor under field conditions, at most, and that growing mixed stands may, on balance, be beneficial. 20 references.

  1. Patterned-ground facilitates shrub expansion in Low Arctic tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E; Walker, Donald A; Matyshak, Georgiy; Ermokhina, Ksenia

    2013-01-01

    Recent expansion of tall shrubs in Low Arctic tundra is widely seen as a response to climate warming, but shrubification is not occurring as a simple function of regional climate trends. We show that establishment of tall alder (Alnus) is strongly facilitated by small, widely distributed cryogenic disturbances associated with patterned-ground landscapes. We identified expanding and newly established shrub stands at two northwest Siberian sites and observed that virtually all new shrubs occurred on bare microsites (‘circles’) that were disturbed by frost-heave. Frost-heave associated with circles is a widespread, annual phenomenon that maintains mosaics of mineral seedbeds with warm soils and few competitors that are immediately available to shrubs during favorable climatic periods. Circle facilitation of alder recruitment also plausibly explains the development of shrublands in which alders are regularly spaced. We conclude that alder abundance and extent have increased rapidly in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic since at least the mid-20th century, despite a lack of summer warming in recent decades. Our results are consistent with findings in the North American Arctic which emphasize that the responsiveness of Low Arctic landscapes to climate change is largely determined by the frequency and extent of disturbance processes that create mineral-rich seedbeds favorable for tall shrub recruitment. Northwest Siberia has high potential for continued expansion of tall shrubs and concomitant changes to ecosystem function, due to the widespread distribution of patterned-ground landscapes. (letter)

  2. Introduced pathogens found on ornamentals, strawberry and trees in Finland over the past 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. LILJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative ease and speed of international trade and travel have enabled or enhanced the spread of pests around the globe. For example, trade in ornamental plants has bolstered the spread of alien Oomycetes such as pathogenic species of Phytophthora. To date, four Phytophthora species have been identified in Finland: P. cactorum on Fragaria x ananassa, Betula pendula and Rhododendron spp., P. plurivora on Rhododendron spp. and Syringa vulgaris, and P. pini and P. ramorum on Rhododendron spp. The ascomycete Colletotrichum acutatum, which was listed as a quarantine pathogen by the European Union until 2009, was introduced in 2000 and can survive in plant debris over two winters in Finland. Positive PCR results have also been obtained from bait plants grown in soil collected from locations where diseased Fragaria x ananassa plants had earlier been destroyed. In the mid-1990s, there was an epidemic of foliar rust caused by the Asian basidiomycete Melampsoridium hiratsukanum on Alnus glutinosa and A. incana. Recently, two ascomycetes that have been introduced are Dothistroma septosporum (responsible for red band needle blight on Pinus sylvestris and Chalara fraxinea (causing ash decline on Fraxinus excelsior.;

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF WOOD MILLING SCHEDULE – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia-Adela SALCA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a case study applied to the milling process of solid wood specimens made of black alder wood (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn. with a view to find the optimal cutting schedule when two main criteria, such as the minimum power consumption and the best surface quality are fulfilled.The experimental work was performed with black alder wood originating from mature trees from the Buzau Valley region in Romania. All samples were processed on their longitudinal edges by straight milling with a milling cutter having glued straight plates on the vertical milling machine under different cutting schedules. An electronic device connected to the machine engine and an acquisition board were used to record and compute the power consumption during milling. Roughness measurements of the samples were performed by employing an optical profilometer. All data were processed using the regression method and variance analysis. The study revealed that best results are to be obtained in terms of cutting power and surface quality when processing with low feed speeds and light cutting depths.

  4. Season and light affect constitutive defenses of understory shrub species against folivorous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolewski, Piotr; Giertych, Marian J.; Żmuda, Michał; Jagodziński, Andrzej M.; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2013-11-01

    Understory shrubs contribute to overall species diversity, providing habitat and forage for animals, influence soil chemistry and forest microclimate. However, very little is known about the chemical defense of various shrub species against folivorous insects. Using six shrub species, we tested how seasonal changes and light conditions affect their constitutive defense to insect damage. We monitored leaf perforation, concentrations of total phenols, condensed tannins, nitrogen (N), and total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC). Leaf damage caused by insects was low in Sambucus nigra, Cornus sanguinea, and Frangula alnus, intermediate in Corylus avellana and Prunus serotina, and high in Prunus padus. Leaves of all the species, when growing in high light conditions, had high concentrations of defense metabolites. Except for C. avellana, leaves of the other shrub species growing in full sun were less injured than those in shade. This may be due to higher concentrations of defense metabolites and lower concentrations of nitrogen. Similar patterns of the effects of light on metabolites studied and N were observed for leaves with varying location within the crown of individual shrubs (from the top of the south direction to the bottom of the north), as for leaves from shrubs growing in full sun and shrubs in the shade of canopy trees. A probable cause of the greater damage of more sunlit leaves of C. avellana was the fact that they were herbivorized mostly by Altica brevicollis, a specialist insect that prefers plant tissues with a high TNC level and is not very sensitive to a high level of phenolic compounds.

  5. Fusarium Head Blight Control and Prevention of Mycotoxin Contamination in Wheat with Botanicals and Tannic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Rudolf Forrer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Suspensions or solutions with 1% of Chinese galls (Galla chinensis, GC or 1% of tannic acid (TA, inhibited germination of conidia or mycelium growth of Fusarium graminearum (FG by 98%–100% or by 75%–80%, respectively, whereas dried bark from buckthorn (Frangula alnus, FA showed no effect at this concentration. In climate chamber experiments where the wheat variety “Apogee” was artificially inoculated with FG and F. crookwellense (FCr and treated with 5% suspensions of TA, GC and FA, the deoxynivalenol (DON content in grains was reduced by 81%, 67% and 33%, respectively. In field experiments with two commercial wheat varieties and artificial or semi-natural inoculations, mean DON reductions of 66% (TA and 58% (FA, respectively, were obtained. Antifungal toxicity can explain the high efficacies of TA and GC but not those of FA. The Fusarium head blight (FHB and mycotoxin reducing effect of FA is probably due to elicitation of resistance in wheat plants. With semi-natural inoculation, a single FA application in the first half of the flowering period performed best. However, we assume that applications of FA at the end of ear emergence and a treatment, triggered by an infection period, with TA or GC during flowering, might perform better than synthetic fungicides.

  6. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests

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    FARZAM TAVANKAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavankar F, Bonyad AE. 2015. Effects of timber harvest on structural diversity and species composition in hardwood forests. Biodiversitas 16: 1-9. Forest management leads to changes in structure and species composition of stands. In this research vertical and horizontal structure and species composition were compared in two harvested and protected stands in the Caspian forest of Iran. The results indicated the tree and seedling density, total basal area and stand volume was significantly (P < 0.01 higher in the protected stand. The Fagus orientalis L. had the most density and basal area in the both stands. Species importance value (SIV of Fagus orientalis in the protected stand (92.5 was higher than in the harvested stand (88.5. While, the SIV of shade-intolerant tree species such as Acer insigne, Acer cappadocicum and Alnus subcordata was higher in the harvested stand. The density of trees and seedling of rare tree species, such as Ulmus glabra, Tilia begonifolia, Zelkova caprinifolia and Fraxinus coriarifolia, was also higher in the protected stand. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index in the protected stand (0.84 was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in the harvested stand (0.72. The highest diversity value in the harvested stand was observed in DBH of 10-40 cm class, while DBH of 40-70 cm had the highest diversity value in the protected stand.

  7. Elevated CO2 and Tree Species Affect Microbial  Activity and Associated Aggregate Stability in Soil  Amended with Litter

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    Salwan M. J. Al‐Maliki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2 may affect organic inputs to woodland soils with potential consequences for C dynamics and associated aggregation; (2 The Bangor Free Air Concentration Enrichment experiment compared ambient (330 ppmv and elevated (550 ppmv CO2 regimes over four growing seasons (2005–2008 under Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Fagus sylvatica. Litter from the experiment (autumn 2008 and Lumbricus terrestris were added to mesocosm soils. Microbial properties and aggregate stability were investigated in soil and earthworm casts. Soils taken from the field experiment in spring 2009 were also investigated; (3 eCO2 litter had lower N and higher C:N ratios. F. sylvatica and B. pendula litter had lower N and P than A. glutinosa; F. sylvatica had higher cellulose. In mesocosms, eCO2 litter decreased respiration, mineralization constant (respired C:total organic C and soluble carbon in soil but not earthworm casts; microbial‐C and fungal hyphal length differed by species (A. glutinosa = B. pendula > F. sylvatica not CO2 regime. eCO2 increased respiration in field aggregates but increased stability only under F. sylvatica; (4 Lower litter quality under eCO2 may restrict its initial decomposition, affecting C stabilization in aggregates. Later resistant materials may support microbial activity and increase aggregate stability. In woodland, C and soil aggregation dynamics may alter under eCO2, but outcomes may be influenced by tree species and earthworm activity.

  8. Influence of invasive Acer negundo leaf litter on benthic microbial abundance and activity in the littoral zone of a temperate river in Lithuania

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    Krevš Alina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Riparian forests are known as important source of allochthonous organic matter entering to water ecosystems via fallen leaves. However, leaf litter, depending on their quality, may create different conditions for benthic microorganisms functioning in littoral zone of water bodies. In order to evaluate the impact of riparian invasive Acer negundo on littoral water zone of the River Neris (Lithuania, we performed physicochemical and microbiological investigations in bottom sediments of three different sites of the river. One sampling site was close by riparian A. negundo, another close by native Alnus glutinosa location and a third zone was near the shore without riparian vegetation. Content of nutrients in the littoral sediments differed between invasive and native trees leaf litter accumulation sites, while not always significantly. The highest microbial densities as well as benthic community respiratory activity (expressed as the rate of organic carbon mineralization occurred in A. negundo leaves accumulation site. In sediments of this site, the most intensive anaerobic terminal organic carbon mineralization process − sulfate reduction and the highest concentration of hydrogen sulfide were also observed. Differences in the intensity of mineralization processes between sites suggest that the replacement of the riparian native species such as dominant A. glutinosa by invasive A. negundo with higher biodegradability leaves may induce local changes in organic matter processing in the littoral zone of the river. The increase of littoral bioproductivity in the accumulation zone of A. negundo leaf litter can occur due to the inflow of available organic matter and its intensive mineralization.

  9. The Phytophthora species assemblage and diversity in riparian alder ecosystems of western Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Laura Lee; Sutton, Wendy; Reeser, Paul; Hansen, Everett M

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora species were systematically sampled, isolated, identified and compared for presence in streams, soil and roots of alder (Alnus species) dominated riparian ecosystems in western Oregon. We describe the species assemblage and evaluate Phytophthora diversity associated with alder. We recovered 1250 isolates of 20 Phytophthora species. Only three species were recovered from all substrates (streams, soil, alder roots): P. gonapodyides, the informally described "P. taxon Pgchlamydo", and P. siskiyouensis. P. alni ssp. uniformis along with five other species not previously recovered in Oregon forests are included in the assemblage: P.citricola s.l., P. gregata, P. gallica, P. nicotianae and P. parsiana. Phytophthora species diversity was greatest in downstream riparian locations. There was no significant difference in species diversity comparing soil and unwashed roots (the rhizosphere) to stream water. There was a difference between the predominating species from the rhizosphere compared to stream water. The most numerous species was the informally described "P. taxon Oaksoil", which was mainly recovered from, and most predominant in, stream water. The most common species from riparian forest soils and alder root systems was P. gonapodyides. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  10. Osmotic, Oxidative and Salinity Stresses Up regulate the Expressions of Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Biosynthesis Genes (THIC and THI1/ THI4) in Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisamuddin Ardi Zainal Abidin; Yee, W.S.; Nur Syuhadah Abdul Rahman; Zainor Hafisah Che Idris; Zetty Norhana Balia Yusof

    2016-01-01

    Thiamine or vitamin B1 comprises a pyrimidine moiety and a thiazole moiety. Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), the active form of thiamine, acts as a cofactor for various major enzymes for example transketolase (TK), α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). In this study, the gene transcripts of first two enzymes in thiamine biosynthesis pathway, THIC and THI1/ THI4 were identified and amplified from oil palm tissues. Primers were designed based on sequence comparison of the genes from Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays, Oryza sativa and Alnus glutinosa. The oil palm's response in terms of the expression profiles of these two thiamine biosynthesis genes to osmotic stress, salinity stress and oxidative stress were analysed in this project. This is due to the suggestion that TPP plays another important role, which is protecting plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. Both THIC and THI1/ THI4 gene transcripts were successfully amplified and the expressions of the gene transcripts were detected using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The levels of expressions were measured and the results showed that the expression of THIC gene transcripts showed increase in gene expression in conjunction with increase concentration of stress inducer. (author)

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships among Species of Phellinus sensu stricto, Cause of White Trunk Rot of Hardwoods, from Northern North America

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    Nicholas J. Brazee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Species in Phellinus s.s. are some of the most important wood-decaying fungal pathogens in northern temperate forests, yet data on species incidence in North America remains limited. Therefore, phylogenetic analyses were performed using four loci (ITS, nLSU, tef1 and rpb2 with isolates representing 13 species. Results of phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference revealed that eight species of Phellinus s.s. occur in North America, and include: P. alni, P. arctostaphyli, P. betulinus, P. lundellii, P. nigricans, P. tremulae and two undescribed species, P. NA1 and P. NA2. Meanwhile, P. tuberculosus, P. igniarius s.s., P. populicola, P. laevigatus s.s. and P. orienticus were not detected and appear restricted to Europe and/or Asia. The tef1 dataset outperformed all other loci used and was able to discriminate among all 13 of the currently known Phellinus s.s. species with significant statistical support. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region performed well but a high level of intraspecific variation could lead to inflated taxa recognition. Phellinus alni exhibited the broadest host range, as demonstrated previously, and appears to be the most common species in northern hardwood (Acer-Betula-Fagus, northern floodplain (Fraxinus-Populus-Ulmus and coastal alder (Alnus forests of North America.

  12. Structure and Composition of Old-Growth and Unmanaged Second-Growth Riparian Forests at Redwood National Park, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of second-growth riparian stands has become an important issue for managers of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl. forest reserves. Identifying differences between old-growth and second-growth forest vegetation is a necessary step in evaluating restoration needs and targets. The objective of this study was to characterize and contrast vegetation structure and composition in old-growth and unmanaged second-growth riparian forests in adjacent, geomorphologically similar watersheds at Redwood National Park. In the old-growth, redwood was the dominant overstory species in terms of stem density, basal area, and importance values. Second-growth was dominated by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong., Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco, and redwood. Understory species were similar in both forests, with several key differences: Oxalis oregana Nutt. and Trillium ovatum Pursh had greater importance values in the old-growth, and Vaccinium parvifolium Sm., Dryopteris spp. and sedges Carex spp. had greater importance values in the second-growth. Notable differences in structure and composition suggest that restoration practices such as thinning could expedite the acquisition of old-growth characteristics in second-growth riparian forests.

  13. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  14. Global atmospheric change and herbivory: Effects of elevated levels of UV-B radiation, atmospheric CO2 and temperature on boreal woody plants and their herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteli, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280- 320 nm), atmospheric CO 2 , temperature and soil nitrogen level on the growth and chemical quality of boreal deciduous woody plants and on performance of the herbivorous insects feeding on them. Eggs and larvae of Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) were subjected to elevated UV-B radiation in the laboratory. Two willow species, Salix phylicifolia L. (Salicaceae) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., were grown in an UV-B irradiation field where the responses of both plants and their herbivorous insects were monitored. S. myrsinifolia, Betula pendula Ehrh. (Betulaceae) and B. pubescens Roth. were subjected to elevated CO 2 and temperature and different fertilisation levels in closed-top climatic chambers. To assess the indirect effects of the different treatments, the leaves of experimental willows and birches were fed to larvae of Phratora vitellinae (L.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and adults of Agellastica alni L. in the laboratory. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly decreased the survival and performance of eggs and larvae of O. brumata. It also increased concentrations of some flavonoids and phenolic acids in S. myrsinifolia and S. phylicifolia, while the low-UV-B- absorbing phenolics, e. g. condensed tannins, gallic acid derivatives and salicylates, either decreased or remained unaffected. Both the height growth and biomass of one S. phylicifolia clone was sensitive to elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Abundance of adults and larvae of a willow- feeding leaf beetle, P. vitellinae, was increased under elevated UV-B; but this did not lead to increased leaf damage on the host plants. There were no significant differences in performance of the larvae feeding on differentially treated willow leaves, but adult A. alni preferred UV-B-treated leaves to ambient control leaves. Elevated CO 2 and temperature significantly increased the height growth of S

  15. Efectos de plantaciones abandonadas de especies exóticas y nativas sobre la regeneración natural de un bosque montano en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Cavelier

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron censos de vegetación durante 1994 en una parcela de 0.1 ha. en cada una de las plantaciones abandonadas de Pinus radiata, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, Alnus acuminata y en un bosque secundario montano alto en los Andes centrales de Colombia. También fueron recolectados datos de las propiedades físicas y químicas de suelos superficiales. El bosque de regeneración natural tiene el mayor número de especies (33 seguido por las plantaciones de E. globulus (26 y A. acuminata (16. Las plantaciones abandonadas de P. radiata y C. lusitanica, tuvieron sólo tres especies. Entre el bosque de regeneración natural y la plantación de E. globulus hubo solamente once especies en común y solamente siete con la plantación de A. acuminata. Todas estas especies, con excepción de tres, son arbustos del sotobosque dispersados por viento o aves. En el sotobosque de la plantación de P. radiata había una regeneración abundante del árbol nacional de Colombia, Ceroxylum quindiuensis. La altura de los árboles y el área basal fueron significativamente mayores en las plantaciones de P. radiata y C. lusitanica que en el bosque de regeneración natural. De las variables ambientales y biológicas medidas en este estudio, la acumulación de acículas bajo las plantaciones de P. radiata y C. lusitanica y la alta biomasa de raíces finas bajo la plantación de C. lusitanica, podrían ser los principales factores limitantes para el establecimiento de un número mayor de especies del bosque nativo. Las propiedades químicas de los suelos varían ampliamente y no hubo diferencias coherentes entre los suelos bajo especies exóticas y nativas.Vegetation surveys were carried out during 1994 in 0.1. ha plots in abandoned plantations of Pinus radiata, Cupressus lusitanica, Eucalyptus globulus, Alnus acuminata and in a secondary upper montane rain forest in the Central Andes of Colombia. The regeneration forest had the higher number of plant

  16. Astronomical tuning of long pollen records reveals the dynamic history of montane biomes and lake levels in the tropical high Andes during the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Vladimir; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Lourens, Lucas; Tzedakis, P. Chronis

    2013-03-01

    Long pollen records from two sediment cores of the basin of Bogotá (Colombia) are presented, reflecting the dynamic history of environmental and vegetation changes in the tropical high Andes during the Quaternary. An astronomically tuned age model has been developed by using the visual correlation of the temperature-constrained record of Alnus with the benthic δ18O stacked record of ODP Site 846 and 849 for the last 1 million year (Ma). In addition, spectral analysis of the arboreal pollen percentages (AP%) prior to 1 Ma shows two consistent peaks at 7.6 and 9.5 m, which could either be interpreted as reflecting the 19 and 23-kyr components of the precession cycle or the 41-kyr cycle of obliquity. Evidence for precession forcing comes from the sum of the filtered 7.6 and 9.5 m cycles, revealing a long-term modulation that can be linked to the short-term (100-kyr) and long-term (400-kyr) eccentricity cycles. A precession-forced scenario, however, is not consistent with zircon fission-track ages and is difficult to explain in terms of climate forcing mechanisms. On the contrary, an obliquity control of the AP% record is consistent with the fission-track ages and with glacial-interglacial-bound temperature changes within the study region. Accordingly, it appears that the Funza09 record extends back to ˜2.25 Ma during which four periods with distinct different depositional environments could be identified, following a chronological poorly constrained interval of fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine sediments. From ˜2.25 to ˜1.47 Ma sediment deposition occurred in an area of wetlands dissected by fluvial channels and swamps. The strongest subsidence of the basin occurred between ˜1.47 and ˜1.23 Ma when a proper lake developed. Lacustrine sediments accumulated in water up to 50 m deep between ˜1.23 and ˜0.86 Ma. Hereafter, water depth was generally lower than 50 m, but fluctuated in conjunction with the 100-kyr dominated glacial-interglacial variability during the

  17. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N (40 kg ha-1, fósforo (P (30 mg kg-1 suelo y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Multibiplot. Las variables respuesta correspondieron a la biomasa seca aérea y sus contenidos de N, P, Calcio (Ca y cenizas (cen. Se encontró que los tratamientos de P y N y las cepas nativas de Frankia spp. (UdeA902, UdeA904 y CUNMS502 combinados con hongos micorrizógenos (UdeA1905 y Glomus fistulosum respectivamente, favorecieron el rendimiento y contenido de N del aliso. La aplicación de B en algunos casos mejoró el rendimiento y en otros lo afectó negativamente; pero potenció la respuesta de algunas inoculaciones especialmente cuando estuvo presente G. fistulosum aún en el caso de estar acompañado de la cepa de Frankia (CUNMS502. Esta cepa, que presentó bajo rendimiento en otros tratamientos, se vio favorecida notablemente con la adición de B. La inoculación dual es efectiva para favorecer el manejo forestal del aliso siempre y cuando se haga la selección adecuada de las cepas, lo cual puede además condicionar la respuesta a algunos nutrientes como en el caso del B.Abstract. It was evaluated the response of alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth to the dual inoculation of strains of Frankia spp. and endomycorrhizal fungi with two levels of boron (B (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg-1 soil and the application of nitrogen (N (40 kg ha-1, phosphorus (P (30 mg kg-1 soil and a control without inoculation or chemical elements. The experimental design was completely randomized; it was composed kg-1of 41 treatments and 20 replications. The statistical analysis consisted

  18. Characteristics and storage of whole-tree biomass for energy; Ensiharvennuspuun erilliskaesittely tehdasvarastolla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, J.

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of this thesis are to describe fuelwood characteristics and to determine how they are affected by length of storage, type of storage, fuel composition and tree species. The fuel characteristics of whole-tree biomass are discussed in terms of proximate and ultimate analysis, bulk density, heating value, particle size, composition and tree species, and the storage schedules presented in the seven enclosed papers. The study material comprises of small-sized trees from cleanings and thinnings, and logging residue from regeneration cuttings. The species studied are Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten), downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench), black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertner) and trembling aspen (Populus tremula L.). The variability of the chemical composition and the heating value is small in any given tree component. However, significant differences were found between whole-tree components and species. The species factor, however, diminishes when the weighted heating value of crown, whole-stems or stump-root-system are considered. Crown material from regeneration cuttings has higher heating value than small-sized stems and whole trees. Heating values of whole-tree components and whole trees are higher at the northern extent of their range than further south in Ostrobothnia. Some correlation between lignin, carbohydrate and extractive contents with effective heating value was found. The most significant property of fuelwood is moisture content because it determines the effective heating value of the fuelwood. It also varies with a wide range. However, moisture content can be manipulated to some extent by choosing the right procurement schedules. Transpiration drying is a valid drying method prior to comminution which will shorten the time of artificial chip drying. It can be applied to both small-sized trees and logging residues

  19. Caracterización Física, Química y Mineralógica de Suelos con Vocación Forestal Protectora Región Andina Central Colombiana / Physical Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Soils with a Protective Forest Vocation, Central Andean Region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyder Echeverri Tafur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En la Reserva Forestal Protectora Bosques de la CHEC, ubicada sobre la vertiente occidental de la cordillera central colombiana, municipios de Manizales y Villamaría, departamento de Caldas, se hizo la caracterización física, química y mineralógica de dos perfiles de suelos, descritos sobre dos laderas, con un manejo actual correspondiente a una plantación de aliso (Alnus acuminata y un bosque secundario. Los resultados permitieron establecer,desde el punto de vista físico, el dominio de clase textural areno francosa en la plantación de aliso y franco arenoso en el bosque secundario. Químicamente el suelo del perfil plantado con aliso, presentó valores de pH más bajos, mayor saturación de acidez intercambiable y menor saturación de bases en comparación con el perfil del bosque secundario. En ambos perfiles, el análisis óptico con microscopio petrográfico, permitió observar que los feldespatos, del grupo de las plagioclasas y el vidrio volcánico, se destacan como minerales abundantes en la fracción arena; mientras que en la fracción arcilla, el material no cristalino, seconsidera mineral predominante, seguido de la cristobalita y los feldespatos, según la metodología de difracción de rayos X. Se concluye que la vocación de uso forestal protector, bajo el cual se encuentran sometidos ambos suelos, es el más adecuado, teniendo en cuenta que las limitaciones químicas, dificultan el establecimiento de sistemas de producción agropecuaria. / Abstract. The physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization of two soil profiles on two slopes, with a management currently corresponding to an Andean alder plantation (Alnus acuminata and a secondary forest, was carried out at the Protective Forest Reserve of the CHEC. This reserve is located on the western slope of the Central Mountain Range of the Colombian Andes, in the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaria, Caldas Department. The results

  20. BIODIVERSIDADE FLORESTAL E PAISAGÍSTICA DO TERRITÓRIO MUNICIPAL DE SELLANO - ÚMBRIA - ITÁLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Orsomando

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The municipal territory of Sellano, extended for about 86 sq Km, is located in Umbria (Italy, in the central and eastern part of the region, bordering Marches. It is characterized, from a forestal point of view, for the high value of the index of woodiness -more than 60%-, in comparison with 40% of Umbria. The forestal biodiversity is constituted by 7 deciduous natural formations (characterized by Quercus pubescens, Ostrya carpinifolia, Quercus cerris -belonging to the endemic association Carici sylvaticae-Quercetum cerridis, rich in orchids- Quercus cerris and Quercus pubescens, Castanea sativa, Fagus sylvatica and Salix alba and one artificial formation (Pinus nigra and Pinus halepensis reforestations. These woods (high forests or coppices with standards, in good state of conservation, surrounded by grasslands and anthropic areas with human settlements, fields and craft zones, characterize 11 environmental-landscape units in comparison with the 42 units of Umbrian landscapes: high hill slopes with Quercus pubescens or Ostrya carpinifolia woods, sometimes alternated to small Bromus erectus pastures, of secondary origin; mountain slopes with Fagus sylvatica woods and small Bromus erectus pastures, of secondary origin; cliffs with chasmophytic formations; high-hill and submountain slopes, with slight inclination, covered by fersiallitic paleosoils, with mesophilous Quercus cerris woods (Carpinion betuli and Castanea sativa woods of anthropic origin; High hills with Ostrya carpinifolia or Quercus pubescens woods, sometimes alternated to small Brachypodium rupestre pastures, of secondary origin; River valley bottoms with meso-igrophilous Salix alba or Alnus glutinosa woods; tops and slopes with Bromus erectus, Sesleria nitida or Cynosurus cristatus pastures, of secondary origin; forestal plantations (conifer reforestations, agricultural areas of hills with yearly cultivations; urban rural centres of slopes and mounds; cultivated lands of alluvial

  1. Late-glacial and Holocene history of the dry forest area in the south Colombian Cauca Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrío, Juan Carlos; Hooghiemstra, Henry; Marchant, Robert; Rangel, Orlando

    2002-10-01

    Two sedimentary cores with pollen, charcoal and radiocarbon data are presented. These records document the Late-glacial and Holocene dry forest vegetation, fire and environmental history of the southern Cauca Valley in Colombia (1020 m). Core Quilichao-1 (640 cm; 3° 6N, 76° 31W) represents the periods of 13 150-7720 14C yr BP and, following a hiatus, from 2880 14C yr BP to modern. Core La Teta-2 (250 cm; 3° 5N, 76° 32W) provides a continuous record from 8700 14C yr BP to modern.Around 13 150 14C yr BP core Quilichao-1 shows an active Late-glacial drainage system and presence of dry forest. From 11 465 to 10 520 14C yr BP dry forest consists mainly of Crotalaria, Moraceae/Urticaceae, Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Piper and low stature trees, such as Acalypha, Alchornea, Cecropia and Celtis. At higher elevation Andean forest comprising Alnus, Hedyosmum, Quercus and Myricacrop taxa (a.o.

  2. Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Kost, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

  3. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Agricultural and Forestial Waste in Spawn Production of Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spawn quality plays an important role in successful production of medicinal mushrooms. In this study, firstly, to determine the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of G. lucidum, four basal media, including seeds of wheat, barley, millet and Abies sp. wood chip were studied separately at 25±1˚C and 29±1˚C. In the second section, in order to achieve suitable the mycelia growth, barley, wheat and millet seeds were mixed with different ratios of agriculture waste including wheat bran (10, 20 and 30% dry weight and millet peel (20, 40 and 60% dry weight and also Abies sp wood chips (20, 30, 50 and 60% dry weight as forestial waste. In the final section, several forestial waste including sawdusts (Platanus orientalis, Acer sp, Robinia peseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fagus orientals, Alnus subcordata and Populas alba were used as medium for spawn production. In the first experiment, a higher mycelia growth rate (8.92 mm/day was obtained by applying wheat seed at 29±1˚C. In the second experiment, the results showed that higher mycelia growth rate was obtained by using wheat with 10% wheat bran (9.66 mm/day. In the final section of spawn production, R. peseudoacacia sawdust (C/N=25.84 was generated higher growth rate (9.36 mm/day. Also, using supplements containing nitrogen (N such as sawdust and bran, encourage mycelium growth and with increasing C/N ratios more than 61.3 decreased growth rate due to reduce N amount.

  4. Relationships between airborne pollen grains, wind direction and land cover using GIS and circular statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Manzano, J M; Sadyś, M; Tormo-Molina, R; Fernández-Rodríguez, S; Oteros, J; Silva-Palacios, I; Gonzalo-Garijo, A

    2017-04-15

    Airborne bio-aerosol content (mainly pollen and spores) depends on the surrounding vegetation and weather conditions, particularly wind direction. In order to understand this issue, maps of the main land cover in influence areas of 10km in radius surrounding pollen traps were created. Atmospheric content of the most abundant 14 pollen types was analysed in relation to the predominant wind directions measured in three localities of SW of Iberian Peninsula, from March 2011 to March 2014. Three Hirst type traps were used for aerobiological monitoring. The surface area for each land cover category was calculated and wind direction analysis was approached by using circular statistics. This method could be helpful for estimating the potential risk of exposure to various pollen types. Thus, the main land cover was different for each monitoring location, being irrigated crops, pastures and hardwood forests the main categories among 11 types described. Comparison of the pollen content with the predominant winds and land cover shows that the atmospheric pollen concentration is related to some source areas identified in the inventory. The study found that some pollen types (e.g. Plantago, Fraxinus-Phillyrea, Alnus) come from local sources but other pollen types (e.g. Quercus) are mostly coming from longer distances. As main conclusions, airborne particle concentrations can be effectively split by addressing wind with circular statistics. By combining circular statistics and GIS method with aerobiological data, we have created a useful tool for understanding pollen origin. Some pollen loads can be explained by immediate surrounding landscape and observed wind patterns for most of the time. However, other factors like medium or long-distance transport or even pollen trap location within a city, may occasionally affect the pollen load recorded using an air sampler. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-01-01

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  6. Living part on soil bioengineering structures in Appennino Tosco-emiliano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastini, Enrico; Preti, Federico; Dani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    From analisys headed up in soil bioengineered areas in different parts of Tuscany, the suitest root systems in slope stabilization turn out to be those spreading from seed-born plants, while adventitious roots from cuttings are often absent in the part more distant from the neck, and in some cases are insufficient to grant life support just in case of minor stress conditions. Genus Alnus shows it's adaptation capability to restore initial restoration steps and to create renovation prerequisites for other species through ammending litter production and symbiosis for nitrogen fixation with Frankia genus bacteria; other similar symbiosis (with Rhizobium and fungi) are carried out by Robinia pseudacacia. Soil fecundity increase is confirmed by the following entrance of more demanding species, as Ostrya carpinifolia and Acer pseudoplatanus at the tree level, Urtica dioica and Rubus Ulmifolius (nitrophilouses) at grass level. In the project phase it ought to imagine a well-structured implant, including rooted plants, cuttings and posibly a seed mix of colonising species aiming to form a germplasm on the structure itself in order to sprout whenever the local conditions allow it. Verifying that many after developed species came from ornithocore dissemination (Ficus carica, Pinus spp., Rosa canina, Sambucus nigra), lead to toughts about bedding out bird-attracting species on structures in order to realise a faster (and maybe more complex) succession development. This higher velocity could grant in a shorter period the production of a root mass spread in a more disomogeneous and complex pattern than that deriving from cuttings disposed in the traditional way; such a variability could allow a better interaction with other biological factors in the soil (bacteria, fungi, nematodes, ...) that are important for the plant nutrient cicle (Ohsowski et al., 2012) and then the constituion of an articulate, long-term system.

  7. Vegetation change and terrestrial carbon storage in eastern Asia during the Last Glacial Maximum as indicated by a new pollen record from central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liew, P.M.; Kuo, C.M.; Huang, S.Y.; Tseng, M.H. [Geological Department, National Taiwan Univ. 245, Chou-shan Rd., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1998-05-01

    Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) carbon storage in eastern Asia is a key issue for understanding the sinks and sources of paleocarbon. Palynological data with good time constraint for the LGM in a peat bog from a site at 650 m above mean sea level in central Taiwan, together with data from low-lying deltaic and basin deposits of Taiwan and South China, increase our understanding about vegetational evolution and possible terrestrial carbon storage in this area and probably eastern Asia. Contrasting to today`s Machilus-Castanopsis forest zone around the peat bog, the vegetation before the LGM was dominated by Alnus, a relatively xerophytic element in Taiwan. An increase in herbs and decrease in spores during the LGM is recognized when compared with Holocene and modern assemblages. A less humid interval dominated by herbs (>50%) occurred between 21 and 15.8 ka. Basin deposits in northern Taiwan and deltaic deposits in central Taiwan show that during the LGM Artemisia, Umbelliferae and Gramineae were the main components contrasting with the Pinus or Cyclobalanopsis-dominant assemblages in the rest of the last glacial. Thus, less humid conditions lasted about 5000 to 6000 years in the LGM even on this very humid island. This may also be true in eastern Asia where a large area of the widely exposed continental shelf may have been occupied by grasslands and the uplands of South China were occupied by less dense coniferous or temperate forests during the LGM in contrast to the modern subtropical forest. This scenario improves our understanding of the terrestrial paleocarbon storage

  8. Regional and landscape-scale variability of Landsat-observed vegetation dynamics in northwest Siberian tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E; Walker, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Widespread increases in Arctic tundra productivity have been documented for decades using coarse-scale satellite observations, but finer-scale observations indicate that changes have been very uneven, with a high degree of landscape- and regional-scale heterogeneity. Here we analyze time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observed by Landsat (1984–2012), to assess landscape- and regional-scale variability of tundra vegetation dynamics in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, a little-studied region with varied soils, landscape histories, and permafrost attributes. We also estimate spatio-temporal rates of land-cover change associated with expansion of tall alder (Alnus) shrublands, by integrating Landsat time-series with very-high-resolution imagery dating to the mid-1960s. We compiled Landsat time-series for eleven widely-distributed landscapes, and performed linear regression of NDVI values on a per-pixel basis. We found positive net NDVI trends (‘greening’) in nine of eleven landscapes. Net greening occurred in alder shrublands in all landscapes, and strong greening tended to correspond to shrublands that developed since the 1960s. Much of the spatial variability of greening within landscapes was linked to landscape physiography and permafrost attributes, while between-landscape variability largely corresponded to differences in surficial geology. We conclude that continued increases in tundra productivity in the region are likely in upland tundra landscapes with fine-textured, cryoturbated soils; these areas currently tend to support discontinuous vegetation cover, but are highly susceptible to rapid increases in vegetation cover, as well as land-cover changes associated with the development of tall shrublands. (paper)

  9. Effects of surface inactivation, high temperature drying and preservative treatment on surface roughness and colour of alder and beech wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ismail; Colakoglu, Gursel

    2005-10-01

    Although extensive research has been conducted in wood surface quality analysis, a unified approach to surface quality characterisation does not exist. Measurements of the variation in surface roughness and surface colour are used widely for the evaluation of wood surface quality. Colour is a basic visual feature for wood and wood-based products. Colour measurement is one of the quality control tests that should be carried out because the colour deviations are spotted easily by the consumers. On the other hand, a common problem faced by plywood manufacturers is panel delamination, for which a major cause is poor quality glue-bonds resulting from rough veneer. Rotary cut veneers with dimensions of 500 mm × 500 mm × 2 mm manufactured from alder ( Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata) and beech ( Fagus orientalis Lipsky) logs were used as materials in this study. Veneer sheets were oven-dried in a veneer dryer at 110 °C (normal drying temperature) and 180 °C (high drying temperature) after peeling process. The surfaces of some veneers were then exposed at indoor laboratory conditions to obtain inactive wood surfaces for glue bonds, and some veneers were treated with borax, boric acid and ammonium acetate solutions. After these treatments, surface roughness and colour measurements were made on veneer surfaces. High temperature drying process caused a darkening on the surfaces of alder and beech veneers. Total colour change value (Δ E*) increased linear with increasing exposure time. Among the treatment solutions, ammonium acetate caused the biggest colour change while treatment with borax caused the lowest changes in Δ E* values. Considerable changes in surface roughness after preservative treatment did not occur on veneer surfaces. Generally, no clear changes were obtained or the values mean roughness profile ( Ra) decreased slightly in Ra values after the natural inactivation process.

  10. Clavulina-Membranomyces is the most important lineage within the highly diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community of Abies religiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles-Moyao, Andrés; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Márquez-Valdelamar, Laura Margarita; Arellano-Torres, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Abies religiosa is an endemic conifer of Mexico, where its monodominant forests are the winter refuge of the monarch butterfly. Due to climate change, it has been estimated that by 2090, A. religiosa populations will decline by 96.5 %. To achieve success, reforestation programs should consider its ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We used ITS nrDNA sequences to identify the ECM fungi associated with A. religiosa and, based on its abundance and frequency, determined the diversity and community structure in a pure A. religiosa forest near Mexico City. Using sequence metadata, we inferred the species geographic distribution and host preferences. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the Clavulinaceae (the most important family). The ECM community held 83 species, among which the richest genera were Inocybe (21 species), Tomentella (10 species), and Russula (8 species). Besides its low species richness, the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage was the most dominant family. Clavulina cf. cinerea and Membranomyces sp. exhibited the highest relative abundance and relative frequency values. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Clavulinaceae genotypes in three different clades: one within Membranomyces and two within Clavulina. A meta-analysis showed that the majority of the ECM fungi (45.78 %) associated with A. religiosa in Mexico have also been sequenced from North America and are shared by Pinaceae and Fagaceae. In contrast, because they have not been sequenced previously, 32.2 % of the species have a restricted distribution. Here, we highlight the emerging pattern that the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage is dominant in several ECM communities in the Neotropics, including Aldinia and Dicymbe legume tropical forests in the Guyana Shield, the Alnus acuminata subtropical communities, and the A. religiosa temperate forests in Mexico.

  11. Airborne pollen in Funchal city, (Madeira Island, Portugal) - First pollinic calendar and allergic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Irene Câmara

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, pollen calendars are useful tools for clinical guidance intended for allergy sufferers, because they can be used to prevent and manage allergic respiratory diseases, thus improving the quality of life. An aeropalinological study was performed in the city of Funchal with the purpose of establishing a pollen calendar and determining allergic risk, based on a seven year study (2003-2009). The airborne pollen monitoring was carried out with a Hirst type volumetric spore trap, following well-established guidelines. The mean annual pollen index was 1,635.09 and comprised 42 different pollen types. Airborne pollen levels were higher between March - June, accounting for 57.9% of the annual counts. Arboreal pollen grains (52.72%) prevailed in the atmosphere together with herbs and grasses (44.64%), while fern spores (2.29%) and unidentified pollen (0.35%) were scarce. The main pollen types were Urticaceae (20.64%), Poaceae (16.02%), Cupressaceae (13.61%), Pinaceae (9.07%), Myrtaceae (5.93%) and Ericaceae (5.02%). The pollen calendar comprised a total of 14 taxa and is similar to Mediterranean regions, with the exception of Olea europaea, Quercus sp., Betula sp. and Alnus sp. pollen types which are rare or absent. The main pollen season of major pollen taxa is significantly longer in Funchal (on average 239 days) than other European sites, especially for Urticaceae and Poaceae, but the pollen peaks were substantially lower. The pollen calendar for Funchal is the first ever created for Madeira region. Taking into account the low pollen index and number of allergy-risk days recorded (39 days in 7 years), the air quality of Funchal can be considered good.

  12. Assessment of fly ash-aided phytostabilisation of highly contaminated soils after an 8-year field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourrut, Bertrand [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Lopareva-Pohu, Alena [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, Christelle [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Garcon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Waterlot, Christophe; Bidar, Geraldine [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Groupe ISA, Equipe Sols et Environnement, Laboratoire Genie Civil et geoEnvironnement (LGCgE) Lille Nord de France EA 4515, 48 boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [Universite Lille Nord de France, Lille (France); Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, Unite de Chimie Environnementale et Interaction sur le Vivant (UCEIV), EA 4492, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); and others

    2011-10-01

    Aided phytostabilisation is a cost-efficient technique to manage metal-contaminated areas, particularly in the presence of extensive pollution. Plant establishment and survival in highly metal-contaminated soils are crucial for phytostabilisation success, as metal toxicity for plants is widely reported. A relevant phytostabilisation solution must limit metal transfer through the food chain. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the long-term efficiency of aided phytostabilisation on former agricultural soils highly contaminated by cadmium, lead, and zinc. The influence of afforestation and fly ash amendments on reducing metal phytoavailability was investigated as were their effects on plant development. Before being planted with a tree mix, the site was divided into three plots: a reference plot with no amendment, a plot amended with silico-aluminous fly ash and one with sulfo-calcic fly ash. Unlike Salix alba and Quercus robur, Alnus glutinosa, Acer pseudoplatanus and Robinia pseudoacacia grew well on the site and accumulated, overall, quite low concentrations of metals in their leaves and young twigs. This suggests that these three species have an excluder phenotype for Cd, Zn and Pb. After 8 years, metal availability to A. glutinosa, A. pseudoplatanus and R. pseudoacacia, and translocation to their above-ground parts, strongly decreased in fly ash-amended soils. Such decreases fit well together with the depletion of CaCl{sub 2}-extractable metals in amended soils. Although both fly ashes were effective to decrease Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in above-ground parts of trees, the sulfo-calcic ash was more efficient.

  13. Interactions of elevated CO{sub 2} and drought stress in gas exchange and water-use efficiency in three temperate deciduous tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, N.; Maruyama, K.; Huang, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Graduate School of Science and Technology

    1995-12-31

    The effect of CO{sub 2} increase on gas exchange and water-use efficiency (WUE) in three temperate deciduous species (Fagus crenata, Ginkgo biloba and Alnus firma) under gradually-developing drought-stress was assessed. Seedlings were grown within transparent open-top cabinets and maintained for 4 months at mean CO{sub 2} concentrations of either 350(ambient; C-350) or 700{mu}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated; C-700) and combined with five water regimes (leaf water potential, Psi{sub w}, higher than -0.3 (well-watered), -0.5 and -0.8 (moderate drought), -1.0 and fewer than -1.2 MPa (serious drought-stress)). Increase in CO{sub 2} concentration induced a 60% average increase in net photosynthetic rate (P-N) under well-watered conditions. The effect of C-700 became more pronounced with drought stress established, with an 80% average increase in P-N at Psi{sub w}, as low as -0.8 MPa; leaf conductance to water vapour transfer (g{sub s}) and transpiration rate (E), however, were significantly decreased. Consequently, WUE increased under drought, through drought stress affected potential E sooner than potential P-N. The interaction of CO{sub 2} x drought stress on WUE was significant in that P-N was stimulated while E in C-700 enriched plants resembled that of C-350 plants under drought. Hence if a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration occurs by the mid 21st century, then greater P-N in F. crenata, G. biloba and A. firma may be expected and the drought susceptibility of these species will be substantially enhanced.

  14. DETERMINATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS WITH TANNINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko NN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data about determination of antimicrobial activity of extracts from some kinds of raw materials (13 plants with tannins. It was determined some kinds of technological parameters of extracts (concentration of total solids and density. A simple to use valuation method of antimicrobial properties of extracts – well method has been suggested and applied; for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial activity of extracts and compare them with each other, special mathematic method (vector algebra theory has been applied. It was determined parameters of antimicrobial properties of extracts: a complex indicator of medication antimicrobial activity for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial effect - A, and correlation coefficient - r (degree of similarity to the standard, which demonstrate the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of medication. It has been selected the most promising extracts that have the medium antimicrobial activity, which obtained from the root of bergenia crassifolia А=1.89; the root of potentilla erecta А=1.92; the bark of corylus avellana А=1.76; the leaf of cotinus coggygria А=2.21. Low level of antimicrobial activity has been demonstrated by the extract obtained from the cone of alnus incana А=0.78, r=0.58. It is noted antimicrobial properties of the solutions of tannin and gallic acids 0.5% m / m in 70% vol. ethanol, that showed respectively moderate and low strength antimicrobial properties: А=1.65, r=0.99 and А=1.26, r=0.91. This potentially allows to predict the antimicrobial properties of extracts from plants containing derivatives of tannin and gallic acids on their concentration in them. It has been shown in general that raw materials that contain different kinds of tannins have possibility to use in complex phytochemical medications as antimicrobial component.

  15. Quaternary forest and climate history of Hokkaido, Japan, from marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yaeko

    Pollen data from Quaternary marine sediments deposited in central Hokkaido, northern Japan provide insight into northeast Asian vegetation and climatic changes over the last few million years. During the Early Pleistocene, coniferous forest, dominated by Picea and Cryptomeria japonica, and taiga composed of Larix and Picea developed under cool/wet and cold/dry climates, respectively. Strong climatic contrasts are inferred from Late Pleistocene interglacial and glacial pollen assemblages which precede the last glacial cycle. In the former, cool temperate broad-leaf forest, mainly composed of Fagus, reflects a warmer and wetter climate than now. In the latter, taiga similar to that now found in northern Sakhalin apparently flourished in Hokkaido. The composition of pollen assemblages correlated with Oxygen Isotope Stage 5, changed from cool temperate forest of Quercus, Ulmus and Juglans (Substage 5e), to Picea-Larix taiga (Substage 5d), cool temperate forest of Quercus and Ulmus (Substage 5c) and Picea-Abies forest (Substage 5b). Compared with present conditions, climate during Stage 5 in northern Japan apparently fluctuated from warmer/wetter to colder/drier. Taiga composed of Picea, Pinus and Larix indicating colder/dry conditions during Stage 4, was replaced by Picea-Abies forest and Picea-Larix taiga in Stage 3, suggesting relatively cool and cold/dry environments. Taiga and mixed forest with taiga and cool temperate components characterize Stage 2. Holocene forests with Juglans-Betula and Quercus-Juglans were succeeded by Picea and Abies during the early Holocene warm interval ˜7000 BP. Subsequently, Quercus-Ulmus and Abies-Alnus assemblages reflect climatic deterioration. 'Pan-mixed' forest has been developed in Hokkaido since 2000 BP.

  16. Rates, drivers and impacts of reforestation and afforestation in Western Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakwiye, B.; Rogan, J.; Eastman, R.

    2017-12-01

    Within East-Africa, Rwanda is the most heavily populated, predominantly rural country where 85% of the population heavily depends on smallholder agriculture and natural resources. The biodiversity-rich, high elevation western region of Rwanda has historically experienced unprecedented forest loss and degradation, resulting in major losses of wildlife habitat, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Forest loss peaked during the 1990s civil wars and genocide when forests sheltered both civilians and combatants or were cleared to resettle refugees. Since the 2000s, national and international initiatives have encouraged reforestation and afforestation activities aiming to reconnect remnant fragments and improve environmental resiliency. However, consistent spatially- and temporally-explicit regional assessments of these afforestation and reforestation activities are still lacking. This study links satellite and in situ socio-ecological data to document the rates and drivers of reforestation and afforestation in Western Rwanda. Random Forest classification was used to map the extent of forests using multitemporal Landsat-5, -7 and -8 images covering the period from 1986 to 2016. Semi-structured interviews with stakeholders were used to identify the potential drivers of afforestation and reforestation. Preliminary results show a net increase of 0.05% in forest cover from 2001 to 2016, predominantly occurring on former croplands and pasture/grasslands. Around 90% of afforested and reforested areas are patchy monocultures of Eucalyptus and Alnus species, valued for timber and wood by-products but with relatively low potential to provide other ecosystem services compared to native tree species. These results highlight the need for an integrated approach to afforestation and reforestation to ensure the sustainable provision of diverse ecosystem services.

  17. UV-irradiation and leaching in water reduce the toxicity of imidacloprid-contaminated leaves to the aquatic leaf-shredding amphipod Gammarus fossarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, Dominic; Zubrod, Jochen P; Neubauer, Christoph; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2018-05-01

    Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides such as imidacloprid are increasingly applied against insect pest infestations on forest trees. However, leaves falling from treated trees may reach nearby surface waters and potentially represent a neonicotinoid exposure source for aquatic invertebrates. Given imidacloprid's susceptibility towards photolysis and high water solubility, it was hypothesized that the leaves' toxicity might be modulated by UV-irradiation during decay on the forest floor, or by leaching and re-mobilization of the insecticide from leaves within the aquatic ecosystem. To test these hypotheses, the amphipod shredder Gammarus fossarum was fed (over 7 d; n = 30) with imidacloprid-contaminated black alder (Alnus glutinosa) leaves that had either been pre-treated (i.e., leached) in water for up to 7 d or UV-irradiated for 1 d (at intensities relevant during autumn in Central Europe) followed by a leaching duration of 1 d. Gammarids' feeding rate, serving as sublethal response variable, was reduced by up to 80% when consuming non-pretreated imidacloprid-contaminated leaves compared to imidacloprid-free leaves. Moreover, both leaching of imidacloprid from leaves (for 7 d) as well as UV-irradiation reduced the leaves' imidacloprid load (by 46 and 90%) thereby mitigating the effects on gammarids' feeding rate to levels comparable to the respective imidacloprid-free controls. Therefore, natural processes, such as UV-irradiation and re-mobilization of foliar insecticide residues in water, might be considered when evaluating the risks systemic insecticide applications in forests might pose for aquatic organisms in nearby streams. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of Different Forest Type’s Structure with Applying Nearest Neighbor Indices (Case Study: Gorazon District, Kheyrud Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alijani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To implement correct management of forest ecosystems, enough information in relation to the structures of tree species is necessary. In this study, the structures of trees species in Fagus, Fagus-Carpinus, Carpinus-Fagus and Carpinus-Quercus types were investigated and compared in Hyrcanian forest. The data used in this study was collected from 239 plots with an area of 1000 m2 in Gorazbon district of Kheyrud forest, and Crancod (ver. 1.3 software was employed to calculate the uniform angle (Wi, Mingling (DMi, DBH dominance (TDi and Height dominance (THi indices. The result of uniform angle index showed a random positioning for the trees in the studied types. Also, the result of mingling index showed a low mixture for four studied types. The result of this index indicated an intra-specific competition for Fagus orientalis and Carpinus betulus and an inter-specific competition for other species. The average value of DBH and Height dominance indices showed a relative similarity among the studied types. The result of these indices showed that some species such as Acer velutinum,، Tilia begonifolia and Alnus subcordata are dominant and species including Ulmus glabra and Diospyros lotus are dominated. The comparing of similar species structure showed a non significant difference for positioning, DBH and height dominance features in different types. Also, this comparison showed a significant difference in mingling feature of Carpinus betulus, Fagus orientalis, Acer velutinum, Tilia begonifolia, and also deadwoods in the studied types. The utilized indices in this study had a high ability in the description of forest types' structures and also the ecological features of trees species.

  19. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  20. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhta, A.P.; Korpela, L.

    2006-05-01

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m 2 ), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m 2 ), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  1. Compositional dynamics of natural forests in the Bialowieza National Park, northeastern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernadzki, E.; Bolibok, L.; Brzeziecki, B.; Zajaczkowski, J.; Zybura, H. [Warsaw Agricultural Univ. (Poland). Dept. of Silviculture

    1998-04-01

    This paper presents results of a long-term study on natural forest dynamics in the Bialowieza National Park (BNP), northeastern Poland. Five permanent sample areas were used, each consisting of a transect of varying width (40-60 m) and length (200-1380 m). The total sample area is 14.9 ha. The study covers the period 1936-1992. During this period measurements were made on five occasions at approximately 10-yr intervals. On each measurement date all trees with DBH > 5 cm were identified and their spatial location, diameter, crown condition and position in the canopy determined. During the study period the stands underwent noticeable changes, mainly in terms of tree species composition. The major change was a quantitative increase of the late successional species: Tilia cordata and Carpinus betulus, also to a lesser degree Fraxinus excelsior and, in the last period, of the early successional Alnus glutinosa. Declining species included both early- and late succession species. Among the latter group, Picea abies ranked first. All typical pioneer, short-lived species: Betula pendula and B. pubescens, Salix caprea and Populus tremula also decreased, which was probably caused by a lack of major disturbances during the study period. In general, the results obtained for the semi-natural conditions of Bialowieza during the 56-yr observation period suggest a rather high compositional instability of the forest stands there. A more precise identification of the role of particular factors in the observed stand dynamics is difficult because of the paucity of appropriate historical and environmental data which refer directly to the study plots; moreover, the data are generally incompatible and of different resolution 17 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Present-day vegetation helps quantifying past land cover in selected regions of the Czech Republic.

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    Vojtěch Abraham

    Full Text Available The REVEALS model is a tool for recalculating pollen data into vegetation abundances on a regional scale. We explored the general effect of selected parameters by performing simulations and ascertained the best model setting for the Czech Republic using the shallowest samples from 120 fossil sites and data on actual regional vegetation (60 km radius. Vegetation proportions of 17 taxa were obtained by combining the CORINE Land Cover map with forest inventories, agricultural statistics and habitat mapping data. Our simulation shows that changing the site radius for all taxa substantially affects REVEALS estimates of taxa with heavy or light pollen grains. Decreasing the site radius has a similar effect as increasing the wind speed parameter. However, adjusting the site radius to 1 m for local taxa only (even taxa with light pollen yields lower, more correct estimates despite their high pollen signal. Increasing the background radius does not affect the estimates significantly. Our comparison of estimates with actual vegetation in seven regions shows that the most accurate relative pollen productivity estimates (PPEs come from Central Europe and Southern Sweden. The initial simulation and pollen data yielded unrealistic estimates for Abies under the default setting of the wind speed parameter (3 m/s. We therefore propose the setting of 4 m/s, which corresponds to the spring average in most regions of the Czech Republic studied. Ad hoc adjustment of PPEs with this setting improves the match 3-4-fold. We consider these values (apart from four exceptions to be appropriate, because they are within the ranges of standard errors, so they are related to original PPEs. Setting a 1 m radius for local taxa (Alnus, Salix, Poaceae significantly improves the match between estimates and actual vegetation. However, further adjustments to PPEs exceed the ranges of original values, so their relevance is uncertain.

  3. Vegetation Pattern and Woody Species Composition of a Broad-Leaved Forest at the Upstream Basin of Nantzuhsienhsi in Mid-southern Taiwan

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    Kuoh-Cheng Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A 8.37-ha plot of the broad-leaved forest at an elevation of about 2000 m in the upstream basin of the Nantzuhsienhsi River in mid-southern Taiwan was set up for long-term monitoring of forest dynamics. All stems with diameter at breast height (d.b.h. ≧ 1 cm were identified, measured, tagged, and mapped to analyze the forest composition, structure and species diversity of the plot. A total of 18,790 woody plant individuals, belonging to 64 species in 27 families, were recorded. The dominant families were Lauraceae, Fagaceae, and Theaceae, accounting for 78.8% of total individuals. The dominant species were Castanopsis carlesii, Machilus japonica, Listea acuminate, and Cyclobalanopsis stenophylloides. The most abundant species in the canopy layer was Castanopsis carlesii, in the subcanopy layer was Listea acuminate, and in the shrub layer were Machilus japonica and Listea acuminata. Four plant communities were identified based on Two-way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN classification, including three evergreen forest types and one deciduous forest type. The three evergreen types are Machilus japonica type, locating on the east and west valleys and partial lower slopes, Machilus japonica-Castanopsis carlesii type, locating on middle to lower slopes and the central dry valley, and Schima superba-Castanopsis carlesii type, locating on eastern ridge and upper slopes. The deciduous type is Alnus formosana forest which is distributed on mid-west and southwestern ridges. The means of species number, density and basal area for different forest types declined gradually from ridge to valley habitats. These results reveal that topography is an important factor which is closely related to the distribution of evergreen broad-leaved forest types in the plot.

  4. Effects of elevated CO2 on litter chemistry and subsequent invertebrate detritivore feeding responses.

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    Matthew W Dray

    Full Text Available Elevated atmospheric CO2 can change foliar tissue chemistry. This alters leaf litter palatability to macroinvertebrate detritivores with consequences for decomposition, nutrient turnover, and food-web structure. Currently there is no consensus on the link between CO2 enrichment, litter chemistry, and macroinvertebrate-mediated leaf decomposition. To identify any unifying mechanisms, we presented eight invertebrate species from aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with litter from Alnus glutinosa (common alder or Betula pendula (silver birch trees propagated under ambient (380 ppm or elevated (ambient +200 ppm CO2 concentrations. Alder litter was largely unaffected by CO2 enrichment, but birch litter from leaves grown under elevated CO2 had reduced nitrogen concentrations and greater C/N ratios. Invertebrates were provided individually with either (i two litter discs, one of each CO2 treatment ('choice', or (ii one litter disc of each CO2 treatment alone ('no-choice'. Consumption was recorded. Only Odontocerum albicorne showed a feeding preference in the choice test, consuming more ambient- than elevated-CO2 birch litter. Species' responses to alder were highly idiosyncratic in the no-choice test: Gammarus pulex and O. albicorne consumed more elevated-CO2 than ambient-CO2 litter, indicating compensatory feeding, while Oniscus asellus consumed more of the ambient-CO2 litter. No species responded to CO2 treatment when fed birch litter. Overall, these results show how elevated atmospheric CO2 can alter litter chemistry, affecting invertebrate feeding behaviour in species-specific ways. The data highlight the need for greater species-level information when predicting changes to detrital processing-a key ecosystem function-under atmospheric change.

  5. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N₂-fixing plants in cold biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D; Reed, Sasha C; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D; Körner, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem's capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  6. Ecological consequences of the expansion of N2-fixing plants in cold biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltbrunner, Erika; Aerts, Rien; Bühlmann, Tobias; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Magnusson, Borgthor; Myrold, David D.; Reed, Sasha C.; Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.; Körner, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Research in warm-climate biomes has shown that invasion by symbiotic dinitrogen (N2)-fixing plants can transform ecosystems in ways analogous to the transformations observed as a consequence of anthropogenic, atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition: declines in biodiversity, soil acidification, and alterations to carbon and nutrient cycling, including increased N losses through nitrate leaching and emissions of the powerful greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, we used literature review and case study approaches to assess the evidence for similar transformations in cold-climate ecosystems of the boreal, subarctic and upper montane-temperate life zones. Our assessment focuses on the plant genera Lupinus and Alnus, which have become invasive largely as a consequence of deliberate introductions and/or reduced land management. These cold biomes are commonly located in remote areas with low anthropogenic N inputs, and the environmental impacts of N2-fixer invasion appear to be as severe as those from anthropogenic N deposition in highly N polluted areas. Hence, inputs of N from N2 fixation can affect ecosystems as dramatically or even more strongly than N inputs from atmospheric deposition, and biomes in cold climates represent no exception with regard to the risk of being invaded by N2-fixing species. In particular, the cold biomes studied here show both a strong potential to be transformed by N2-fixing plants and a rapid subsequent saturation in the ecosystem’s capacity to retain N. Therefore, analogous to increases in N deposition, N2-fixing plant invasions must be deemed significant threats to biodiversity and to environmental quality.

  7. The movement of pre-adapted cool taxa in north-central Amazonia during the last glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apolito, Carlos; Absy, Maria Lúcia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of climate change on the lowland vegetation of Amazonia during the last glacial cycle are partially known for the middle and late Pleniglacial intervals (late MIS 3, 59-24 ka and MIS 2, 24-11 ka), but are still unclear for older stages of the last glacial and during the last interglacial. It is known that a more seasonal dry-wet climate caused marginal forest retraction and together with cooling rearranged forest composition to some extent. This is observed in pollen records across Amazonia depicting presence of taxa at glacial times in localities where they do not live presently. The understanding of taxa migration is hindered by the lack of continuous interglacial-glacial lowland records. We present new data from a known locality in NW Amazonia (Six Lakes Hill), showing a vegetation record that probably started during MIS 5 (130-71 ka) and lasted until the onset of the Holocene. The vegetation record unravels a novel pattern in tree taxa migration: (1) from the beginning of this cycle Podocarpus and Myrsine are recorded and (2) only later do Hedyosmum and Alnus appear. The latter group is largely restricted to montane biomes or more distant locations outside Amazonia, whereas the first is found in lowlands close to the study site on sandy soils. These findings imply that Podocarpus and Myrsine responded to environmental changes equally and this reflects their concomitant niche use in NW Amazonia. Temperature drop is not discarded as a trigger of internal forest composition change, but its effects are clearer later in the Pleniglacial rather than the Early Glacial. Therefore early climatic/environmental changes had a first order effect on vegetation that invoke alternative explanations. We claim last glacial climate-induced modifications on forest composition favoured the expansion of geomorphologic-soil related processes that initiated forest rearrangement.

  8. Vegetation changes and timberline fluctuations in the Central Alps as indicators of holocene climatic oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, L.; Tinner, W. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    Pollen and plant-macrofossil data are presented for two lakes near the timberline in the Italian (Lago Basso, 2250 m) and Swiss Central Alps (Gouille Rion, 2343 m). The reforestation at both sites started at 9700-9500 BP with Pinus cembra, Larix decidua, and Betula. The timberline reached its highest elevation between 8700 and 5000 BP and retreated after 5000 BP, due to a mid-Holocene climatic change and increasing human impact since about 3500 BP (Bronze Age). The expansion of Picea abies at Lago Basso between ca. 7500 and 6200 BP was probably favored by cold phases accompanied by increased oceanicity, whereas in the area of Gouille Rion, where spruce expanded rather late (between 4500 and 3500 BP), human influence equality might have been important. The mass expansion of Alnus viridis between ca. 5000 and 3500 BP probably can be related to both climatic change and human activity at timberline. During the early and middle Holocene a series of timberline fluctuations is recorded as declines in pollen and macrofossil concentrations of the major tree species, and as increases in nonarboreal pollen in the pollen percentage diagram of Gouille Rion. Most of the periods of low timberline can be correlated by radiocarbon dating the climatic changes in the Alps as indicated by glacier advances in combination with palynological records, solifluction, and dendroclimatical data. Lago Basso and Gouille Rion are the only sites in the Alps showing complete palaeobotanical records of cold phases between 10,000 and 2000 BP with very good time control. The altitudinal range of the Holocene treeline fluctuations caused by climate most likely was not more than 100 to 150 m. A possible correlation of a cold period at ca. 7500-6500 BP (Misox oscillation) in the Alps is made with paleoecological data from North American and Scandinavia and a climate signal in the GRIP ice core from central Greenland 8200 yr ago (ca. 7400 yr uncal. BP).

  9. Comparative phytosociological investigation of subalpine alder thickets in southwestern Alaska and the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, F. J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first vegetation analysis of subalpine alder (Alnus viridis) thickets in southwestern Alaska. The data are primarily from mesic, hilly and mountainous sites ranging from the westernmost tip of the Alaska Peninsula to the northern Kenai Peninsula, spanning 1,000 km on an E–W gradient and 700 km on a N–S gradient. 127 relevés from 18 sites represent the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform diversity. Data were analyzed by multivariate and traditional Braun-Blanquet methods. One association is distinguished, Sambuco racemosi-Alnetum viridis ass. nov. with three new subassociations, oplopanacetosum horridi, typicum, and rubetosum spectabilis with the latter subdivided into four variants. These phytocoena are well-differentiated, although they form a syntaxonomical continuum. The composition and structure of these communities are described and interpreted in relation to complex environmental factors; these are analyzed using Jancey's ranking on F-values. Community composition is primarily related to elevation, longitude, soil moisture, and latitude. Phytogeographic comparison of southwestern Alaska alder communities with those elsewhere in the North Pacific suggests a close floristic relationship to those of southcentral, southeastern Alaska and coastal British Columbia, Canada. All these communities belong to the same association, while those of the eastern and southern parts of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia belong to a different association. Syntaxonomy of the 4 major communities is discussed. Within the Northern Hemisphere, vascular plant species of southwestern Alaska alder thickets primarily occur in East Asia and North America, 36 %; while 26 % are circumpolar, and 22 % are restricted to North America. From a latitudinal perspective, the distribution of vascular plant species within these alder thickets peaks in the high-subarctic, low-subarctic, and temperate latitudinal zones, with low

  10. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ???30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (???30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and minor dwarf birch (Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ???30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca. 11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs (Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce (Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Standard and Swedish variant types of the hybrid alder Phytophthora attacking alder in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán A; Bakonyi, József; Ersek, Tibor

    2003-04-01

    A new Phytophthora disease of common alder (Alnus glutinosa) similar to that previously reported in several countries in Europe has been observed in Hungary. Based on these earlier studies, the alder Phytophthora was considered likely to be a hybrid between P cambivora and a P fragariae-like species: across Europe a range of new alder Phytophthora is spreading that comprise a range of heteroploid hybrids including a 'standard' hybrid type and several other hybrid types termed 'variants'. Phenotypic and molecular features of the pathogen in Hungary were characterised and compared with isolates from elsewhere. The morphologies of five isolates from one region (Hévíz) resembled the common, 'standard' type, whereas the three isolates from another region (Hanság) exhibited traits similar to those of one of the 'variant' types, ie the Swedish 'variant'. Molecular markers of these two groups of Hungarian isolates also represented a good fit to those of the standard type and the Swedish variant, respectively. Isozyme patterns and profiles of restriction fragments of the entire internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region or mitochondrial DNAs and of RAPD-PCR products did not differ within a group, but distinct polymorphisms were exhibited between the two groups of isolates. Southern analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed the homologous nature of co-migrating bands of P cambivora and the isolates of alder Phytophthora. Furthermore, restriction fragment profiles of the ITS region of ribosomal DNAs and the mtDNAs were consistent with reported biparental origin of alder Phytophthora. The hybrid status of these continuously evolving pathogens raises many issues and challenges concerning efficient control measures.

  12. Introduction of Seed Accumulation Index as new approach in soil seed bank classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Noraiy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the introduction of seed accumulation index as a new approach in the evaluation of soil seed bank consistency in the Populus caspica in Noor reserved forest park. Sampling were made above ground vegetation at peak vegetation cover during June 2010 by systematic- selective method. Soil samples were collected during late June, late November and early February by hammering a hollow metal frame 400 cm2 into two depths with 4 replicate in each sample plot and the species composition of seed bank was determined using seedling emergence method. Results showed that 42.2% of the plants species were classified in transient soil seed bank and only 57.8% species, which were mainly composed of early successional species, were able to produce persistent seed bank. In this case, only 3 tree species including Ficus carica, Morus alba and Alnus glutinosa were able to produce persistent soil seed bank. Chi- square goodness of fit test (χ2= 60.2 in reviewing the independence of SAI index and seed depth distribution model as the two methods of seed bank classification showed that the results of these two methods were not independent and they were applicable together with 99% probability. In this case, conformity and correlation between the two mentioned methods were assessed 85.2% based upon Kappa index and Spearman correlation coefficient. Therefore, it was concluded that seed accumulation index, which namely SAI, could be used as a new approach in soil seed bank classification of forest habitats.

  13. Genetic diversity of Frankia microsymbionts from the relict species Myrica faya (Ait.) and Myrica rivas-martinezii (S.) in Canary Islands and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, V; Land, E Ojeda; Casanova, J Garcia; Zimpfer, J F; Fernandez, M P

    2005-05-01

    In the Western Canary Islands, Myrica faya and Myrica rivas-martinezii (Myricaceae) are phylogenetically close, endemic, actinorhizal species presumed to be remnants either of the European or the African Tertiary floras. Unisolated Frankia strains from field-collected nodules on Tenerife, Gomera, and La Palma Islands were compared by their rrs gene and 16S-23S intergenic spacer (IGS) restriction patterns. To compare the genetic diversity of Frankia strains from within and outside the host's native range, nodules of M. faya field plants were collected both in Canary Islands and in Hawaii, where this species is an exotic invasive. Myrica rivas-martinezii, endemic to the Canary Islands, was sparsely nodulated in the field. Frankia strains harbored in field-collected nodules of M. faya and M. rivas-martinezii belonged to the Elaeagnaceae strains' genetic cluster and exhibited a high degree of diversity. Frankia genotypes were specific to each host species. In the Canary archipelago, we found no relationship between site of collection and Frankia genotype for M. faya. The only exceptions were strains from site 2 in Tenerife, a location with a geological history different from the other sites sampled. Hawaiian and Canarian M. faya strains had no genotypes in common, raising questions concerning the origin of M. faya-infective Frankia in Hawaii. Nodular strains of M. rivas-martinezii from nursery plants were genetically characterized and shown to be divergent from the strains of field-collected nodules and belong to the Alnus-Casuarina strains cluster. This suggests Myrica may have the potential to nodulate with a broader range of Frankia genotypes under artificial conditions than has been detected in field-collected nodules.

  14. Palynology of IODP Site U1307 at the Pliocene to Pleistocene transition: sea-surface conditions in the Labrador Sea and pollen input from the Greenland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Aurelie; de Vernal, Anne

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the marine and terrestrial palynological record from marine core sediment collected in the Labrador Sea off southwest Greenland (IODP 1307, 58.5058°N, -46.4005°W) in order to assess on the vegetation over southern Greenland from pollen and spore and reconstruct oceanic condition from dinocysts during the Pliocene to Pleistocene transition (around 2.58Ma), when permanent ice started to developed in the Northern Hemisphere. The study sequence that encompasses from 3.0 to 2.5 Ma is characterized by high species diversity of dinocysts, most of the assemblages being characterized by modern taxa. s. The dominance of Bitectatodinium sp., Operculodinium centrocarpum, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus and Brigantedinium sp., suggest cool, low saline environment characterized by stratified surface water mass, not unlike those prevailing presently along the the southeast Canadian margins. However, the overall palynological assemblage contains abundant acritarcha, notably Cymatiosphaera sp. and Lavradosphaera sp., which probably belong to Prasinophytes (green algae) and are often associated with epicontinental marine environments in the fossil marine records. The pollen assemblages are characterizedby high proportion of Pinus sp., which has exceptional dispersal properties often resulting in long distance transport and making it difficult to identify precisely the location of the source vegetation. Nevertheless, the occurrence of Picea sp., , Tsuga sp., Corylus sp., Alnus sp. and Betula sp. in late Pliocene assemblages suggest input from boreal-type forest located in a relatively proximal source, likely the southwest Greenland. In the early Pleistocene, lower pollen concentrations together with higher proportion of herbaceous taxa may indicate that more open tundra-like vegetation established in the source area.

  15. Biomass energy in organic farming - the potential role of short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Dalgaard, Tommy [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), Dept. of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Kristensen, Erik Steen [Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark)

    2005-02-01

    One of the aims of organic farming is to 'reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum'. So far, however, only very little progress has been made to introduce renewable energy in organic farming. This paper presents energy balances of Danish organic farming compared with energy balances of conventional farming. In general, the conversion to organic farming leads to a lower energy use (approximately 10% per unit of product). But the production of energy in organic farming is very low compared with the extensive utilisation of straw from conventional farming in Denmark (energy content of straw used for energy production was equivalent to 18% of total energy input in Danish agriculture in 1996). Biomass is a key energy carrier with a good potential for on-farm development. Apart from utilising farm manure and crop residues for biogas production, the production of nutrient efficient short rotation coppice (SRC) is an option in organic farming. Alder (Alnus spp.) is an interesting crop due to its symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia, which has the ability to fix up to 185 kg/ha nitrogen (N{sub 2}) from the air. Yields obtained at different European sites are presented and the R and D needed to implement energy cropping in organic farming is discussed. Possible win-win solutions for SRC production in organic farming that may facilitate its implementation are; the protection of ground water quality in intensively farmed areas, utilisation of wastewater for irrigation, or combination with outdoor animal husbandry such as pigs or poultry. (Author)

  16. Disentangling natural and anthropogenic signals in lacustrine records: An example from the Ilan Plain, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Jaan Huang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of human activities has been increasing to a degree where humans now outcompete many natural processes. When interpreting environmental and climatic changes recorded in natural archives on historical time scales, it is therefore important to be able to disentangle the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic processes. Lake Meihua on the Ilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan offers a particularly suitable opportunity to test how human activities known from historical records can be recorded in lacustrine sediment. For this purpose, three cores from Lake Meihua have been studied by a multiproxy approach, providing the first decadal-resolution lacustrine records covering the past 150 years in Taiwan. Profiles of excess 210Pb, 137Cs and 239,240Pu from two short cores (MHL-09-01 and MHL-11-02 allowed a precise chronology to be established. The presence of a yellow, earthy layer with lower levels of organic material coincide with the record of land development associated with the construction of the San-Chin-Gong Temple during AD 1970-1982. Furthermore, in the lower part of the cores, the upwards increasing trend of inc/coh, TOC, TOC/TN, and grain size, coupled with the palynological data (increase of Alnus, Mallotus, Trema and herbs from the nearby core MHL-5A with radiocarbon chronology, suggest that the area surrounding the lake has been significantly affected by agricultural activities since the arrival of Chinese settlers around ~AD 1874. In sum, this study demonstrates that this suite of lacustrine sediments in northeastern Taiwan has recorded human activities in agreement with historical documents, and that different human activities will leave distinct sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological signatures in the sedimentary archives. Therefore, multiproxy reconstructions are important to capture the complex nature of human-environmental interactions. A better understanding of the weathering and erosion response to human

  17. German-Russian project PLOT: new postglacial-glacial-preglacial pollen records from the Lakes Ladoga and Bol'shoe Shuch'e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, A.; Savelieva, L.; Shumilovskikh, L.; Gromig, R.; Wennrich, V.; Fedorov, G.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.

    2017-12-01

    The German-Russian project PLOT (PaleolimnoLOgical Transect) investigates the Late Quaternary environmental history along the Northern Eurasia transect. Within the scope of a pilot phase of the project we have investigated Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe. Although the postglacial history of the lake was studied over the last decades, the preglacial history remained unknown. It is assumed that during the Last Interglacial Lake Ladoga was part of a precursor of the Baltic Sea, which had a connection via Ladoga and Onega Lakes to the White Sea. Sediment coring at two sites in western Ladoga Lake in September 2013 has revealed sediment succession subdivided into 5 main lithological units. The sediments studied in a 22.7 m lake core were also palynologically investigated. Pollen assemblages indicate that the lowermost sediments with pollen of Betula, Alnus, Pinus, Carpinus, Quercus, Corylus, Ulmus, Tilia, remains of fresh-water Pediastrum and Botryococcus colonies as well as cysts of marine dinoflagellates and brackish water acritarchs) were accumulated during an interglacial with climate more favorable than in the Holocene. The OSL-dated samples show the late Eemian and post Eemian ages. Lake Bol'shoe Shuch'e (Polar Urals) was cored in April 2016. The thickness of the lacustrine sediments was 54 m. According to the previous studies, most of the study area has remained ice-free over the last 50-60 ka. However, the configuration and timing of the preceding glaciations has remained unclear, because of lack continuous, long-term paleoenvironmental records in the area. Preliminary studies show that the uppermost 9 m of the sediments were accumulated during the Holocene, between 11 and 9 m - in Younger Dryas, between 11 and 9 m - in Allerod, between 11 and 25 m - in MIS 2, between 25 and 54 m - in the MIS 3. We expect that the core will provide the most continuous sediment records from the whole region which can be used to reconstruct the environmental changes.

  18. Eukaryotic diversity in late Pleistocene marine sediments around a shallow methane hydrate deposit in the Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouduka, M; Tanabe, A S; Yamamoto, S; Yanagawa, K; Nakamura, Y; Akiba, F; Tomaru, H; Toju, H; Suzuki, Y

    2017-09-01

    Marine sediments contain eukaryotic DNA deposited from overlying water columns. However, a large proportion of deposited eukaryotic DNA is aerobically biodegraded in shallow marine sediments. Cold seep sediments are often anaerobic near the sediment-water interface, so eukaryotic DNA in such sediments is expected to be preserved. We investigated deeply buried marine sediments in the Japan Sea, where a methane hydrate deposit is associated with cold seeps. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the reproducible recovery of eukaryotic DNA in marine sediments at depths up to 31.0 m in the vicinity of the methane hydrate deposit. In contrast, the reproducible recovery of eukaryotic DNA was limited to a shallow depth (8.3 m) in marine sediments not adjacent to the methane hydrate deposit in the same area. Pyrosequencing of an 18S rRNA gene variable region generated 1,276-3,307 reads per sample, which was sufficient to cover the biodiversity based on rarefaction curves. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the eukaryotic DNA originated from radiolarian genera of the class Chaunacanthida, which have SrSO 4 skeletons, the sea grass genus Zostera, and the seaweed genus Sargassum. Eukaryotic DNA originating from other planktonic fauna and land plants was also detected. Diatom sequences closely related to Thalassiosira spp., indicative of cold climates, were obtained from sediments deposited during the last glacial period (MIS-2). Plant sequences of the genera Alnus, Micromonas, and Ulmus were found in sediments deposited during the warm interstadial period (MIS-3). These results suggest the long-term persistence of eukaryotic DNA from terrestrial and aquatic sources in marine sediments associated with cold seeps, and that the genetic information from eukaryotic DNA from deeply buried marine sediments associated with cold seeps can be used to reconstruct environments and ecosystems from the past. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Vertebrate Herbivore Browsing on Neighboring Forage Species Increases the Growth and Dominance of Siberian Alder Across a Latitudinal Transect in Northern Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, E. M.; Ruess, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    Vertebrate herbivores strongly influence plant growth and architecture, biogeochemical cycling, and successional dynamics in boreal and arctic ecosystems. One of the most notable impacts of vertebrate herbivory is on the growth and spread of alder, a chemically-defended, N-fixing shrub whose distribution in the Alaskan arctic has expanded dramatically over the past 60 years. Although herbivore effects on thin-leaf alder are well described for interior Alaskan floodplains, no work has been conducted on the effects of herbivores on Siberian alder (Alnus viridis spp fruticosa), despite the increasing importance of this species to high latitude ecosystems. We characterized browsing by snowshoe hares, moose, and willow ptarmigan on dominant shrub species across topo-edaphic sequences within 5 ecoregions along a 600 km latitudinal transect extending from interior Alaska to the North Slope. Ptarmigan browsed wind-blown lowland and alpine sites devoid of trees in all regions; moose browsed predominantly willow species in hardwood and mixed forests and were absent north of the Brooks Range; snowshoe hares selected habitats and forage based on their local density and vulnerability to predators. Browsing intensity on Siberian alder was either undetectable or low, limited primarily to hare browsing on young ramets in the northern boreal forest where hare density relative to forage availability is highest. Overall, alder height growth was positively correlated with levels of herbivory on competing shrub species. Our data support the hypothesis that vertebrate herbivore browsing is indirectly augmenting the growth, dominance, and possible spread of Siberian alder throughout its northern Alaskan range. Given the potential high rates of N-fixation inputs by Siberian alder, we believe herbivores are also having strong indirect effects on biogeochemical cycling and possibly C storage in these landscapes.

  20. Simulating soil organic carbon stock as affected by land cover change and climate change, Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, Azam; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Massah Bavani, Ali Reza; Jafari, Mostafa; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) contains a considerable portion of the world's terrestrial carbon stock, and is affected by changes in land cover and climate. SOC modeling is a useful approach to assess the impact of land use, land use change and climate change on carbon (C) sequestration. This study aimed to: (i) test the performance of RothC model using data measured from different land covers in Hyrcanian forests (northern Iran); and (ii) predict changes in SOC under different climate change scenarios that may occur in the future. The following land covers were considered: Quercus castaneifolia (QC), Acer velutinum (AV), Alnus subcordata (AS), Cupressus sempervirens (CS) plantations and a natural forest (NF). For assessment of future climate change projections the Fifth Assessment IPCC report was used. These projections were generated with nine Global Climate Models (GCMs), for two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) leading to very low and high greenhouse gases concentration levels (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5 respectively), and for four 20year-periods up to 2099 (2030s, 2050s, 2070s and 2090s). Simulated values of SOC correlated well with measured data (R 2 =0.64 to 0.91) indicating a good efficiency of the RothC model. Our results showed an overall decrease in SOC stocks by 2099 under all land covers and climate change scenarios, but the extent of the decrease varied with the climate models, the emissions scenarios, time periods and land covers. Acer velutinum plantation was the most sensitive land cover to future climate change (range of decrease 8.34-21.83tCha -1 ). Results suggest that modeling techniques can be effectively applied for evaluating SOC stocks, allowing the identification of current patterns in the soil and the prediction of future conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of submergence on growth and survival of saplings of three wetland trees differing in adaptive mechanisms for flood tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Iwanaga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Withstanding total submergence and reaeration following submergence is essential for the survival and establishment of wetland species. We focused on “LOES–low oxygen escape syndrome” and “LOQS–low oxygen quiescence syndrome” and compared tolerances to total submergence among wetland woody species differing in morphological adaptation to soil flooding. Area of study, materials and methods: This study examined the survival of 2-year-old saplings of Taxodium distichum and Metasequioia glyptostroboides (LOQS species, and Alnus japonica (LOES species, during and after total submergence. Saplings were completely submerged, then de-submerged to determine trends in survival and growth Main results: The M. glyptostroboides and A. japonica saplings could not survive prolonged submergence for more than 8 weeks, whereas saplings of T. distichum survived for over 2 years. Submerged saplings of all species showed no significant growth or modifications in morphology and anatomy under water, such as shoot elongation, adventitious root formation, and/or aerenchyma development. All T. distichum saplings that were de-submerged in the second year had the same pattern of shoot growth regardless of differences in timing and seasonality of de-submergence. Wood formation in T. distichum saplings ceased during submergence and resumed after de-submergence in spring and summer, but not in autumn. Research highlights: T. distichum saplings, which survived longer submergence periods than A. japonica and M. glyptostroboides, had physiological characteristics, such as suspension of growth and metabolism, which allowed survival of protracted total submergence (at least 2 years when saplings were immersed during the dormant stage before leaf flushing.

  2. Macroinvertebrate identity mediates the effects of litter quality and microbial conditioning on leaf litter recycling in temperate streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonja, Mathieu; Pellan, Laura; Piscart, Christophe

    2018-03-01

    Plant litter decomposition is an essential ecosystem function that contributes to carbon and nutrient cycling in streams. Aquatic shredders, mainly macroinvertebrates, can affect this process in various ways; they consume leaf litter, breaking it down into fragments and creating suitable habitats or resources for other organisms through the production of fine particulate organic matter (FPOM). However, measures of litter-feeding traits across a wide range of aquatic macroinvertebrates are still rare. Here, we assessed the contributions of 11 species of freshwater macroinvertebrates to litter decomposition, by measuring consumption rate, FPOM production, and assimilation rate of highly decomposable ( Alnus glutinosa ) or poorly decomposable ( Quercus robur ) leaf litter types. In general, an increase in the quality of litter improved the litter consumption rate, and fungal conditioning of the leaf litter increased both the litter consumption rate and FPOM production. Macroinvertebrates specializing in leaf litter consumption also appeared to be the most sensitive to shifts in litter quality and the conditioning process. Contrary to expectations, the conditioning process did not increase the assimilation of low-quality litter. There was a strong correlation between the relative consumption rate (RCR) of the two litter types, and the relative FPOM production (RFP) was strongly correlated to the RCR. These findings suggest a consistent relationship between RCR and macroinvertebrate identity that is not affected by litter quality, and that the RFP could be inferred from the RCR. The varying responses of the macroinvertebrate feeding traits to litter quality and the conditioning process suggest that the replacement of a shredder invertebrate species by another species could have major consequences for the decomposition process and the detritus-based food web in streams. Further studies onto the importance of invertebrate identity and the effects of litter quality in a

  3. Vegetation cover and land use impacts on soil water repellency in an Urban Park located in Vilnius, Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    It is strongly recognized that vegetation cover, land use have important impacts on the degree of soil water repellency (SWR). Soil water repellency is a natural property of soils, but can be induced by natural and anthropogenic disturbances as fire and soil tillage (Doerr et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007; Mataix-Solera et al., 2014). Urban parks are areas where soils have a strong human impact, with implications on their hydrological properties. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different vegetations cover and urban soils impact on SWR and the relation to other soil variables as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and soil organic matter (SOM) in an urban park. The study area is located in Vilnius city (54°.68' N, 25°.25' E). It was collected 15 soil samples under different vegetation cover as Pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Birch (Alnus glutinosa), Penduculate Oak (Quercus robur), Platanus (Platanus orientalis) and other human disturbed areas as forest trails and soils collected from human planted grass. Soils were taken to the laboratory, air-dried at room temperature and sieved with the 3600 (extremely water repellent). The results showed significant differences among the different vegetation cover (Kruskal-Wallis H=20.64, pJournal of Soil Science, 4, 51-60. Urbanek., E., Hallet, P., Feeney, D., Horn, R. (2007) Water repellency and distribution of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds in soil aggregates from different tillage systems. Geoderma, 140, 147-155. Wessel, A.T. (1988) On using the effective contact angle and the water drop penetration time for classification of water repellency in dune soils. Earth Surface Process and Landforms, 13, 555-265.

  4. A prognostic pollen emissions model for climate models (PECM1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Wozniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We develop a prognostic model called Pollen Emissions for Climate Models (PECM for use within regional and global climate models to simulate pollen counts over the seasonal cycle based on geography, vegetation type, and meteorological parameters. Using modern surface pollen count data, empirical relationships between prior-year annual average temperature and pollen season start dates and end dates are developed for deciduous broadleaf trees (Acer, Alnus, Betula, Fraxinus, Morus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus, evergreen needleleaf trees (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, grasses (Poaceae; C3, C4, and ragweed (Ambrosia. This regression model explains as much as 57 % of the variance in pollen phenological dates, and it is used to create a climate-flexible phenology that can be used to study the response of wind-driven pollen emissions to climate change. The emissions model is evaluated in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4 over the continental United States by prescribing an emission potential from PECM and transporting pollen as aerosol tracers. We evaluate two different pollen emissions scenarios in the model using (1 a taxa-specific land cover database, phenology, and emission potential, and (2 a plant functional type (PFT land cover, phenology, and emission potential. The simulated surface pollen concentrations for both simulations are evaluated against observed surface pollen counts in five climatic subregions. Given prescribed pollen emissions, the RegCM4 simulates observed concentrations within an order of magnitude, although the performance of the simulations in any subregion is strongly related to the land cover representation and the number of observation sites used to create the empirical phenological relationship. The taxa-based model provides a better representation of the phenology of tree-based pollen counts than the PFT-based model; however, we note that the PFT-based version provides a useful and climate-flexible emissions

  5. Using Native Plants in the Reclamation of Areas Affected of Mining Activities in the Rodrigatos River Valley (El Bierzo, Leon, Spain); Aplicacion de Flora Autoctona en la Recuperacion de Zonas Afectadas por la Mineria en el Valle del Rio Rodrigatos (El Bierzo, Leon, Espana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galean, L.; Gamarra, R.; Sainz, H.; Millan, R.

    2010-07-27

    It is difficult for sites affected by mining to be colonized by vegetation and thus they suffer a slow recovery to a healthy ecosystem and, as a result, restoration work is necessary. The aim of this report is to propose a set of native species which are conducive to establishing a stable and self-sufficient plant community that will protect the soil and contribute to the rapid integration into the landscape of the areas affected by mining in the upper basin of the river Rodrigatos in the region of El Bierzo (Leon) An analysis of plant communities was undertaken using the phyto sociological method of Braun-Blanquet in order to subsequently select, using ecological criteria, the most suitable species for revegetation. Plant mapping using ortho photos was also developed in order to identify and delineate the location of the different landscape units. Among candidate species, in the first revegetation phase, we suggest a variety of herbs that are able to fix soils and protect them from erosion; species of the genus Cytisus and Genista in areas of moderate slope and species such as Rumex induratus Boiss and Reuter, Erysimum linifolium (Pourr. Ex Pers .) Jay in steeper areas because of their rooting ability. In later stages, the introduction of tree species characteristic for each formation is recommended. Furthermore, in the riverside areas species such as Carex elata subsp.reuteriana (Boiss.) Lucen and Aedo, Alnus glutinosa (L.) and Salix atrocinerea Brot. are proposed for introduction from the fi rst stage onwards. The species proposed in this study include some not commonly used in restoration, so a subsequent more detailed study would be required in order to assess their degree of suitability for this use. (Author) 65 refs.

  6. Effects of tropical montane forest disturbance on epiphytic macrolichens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Angel [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Prieto, Maria, E-mail: maria.prieto@urjc.es [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Yadira [Instituto de Ecologia, Herbario HUTPL, Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, San Cayetano s/n, Loja (Ecuador); Aragon, Gregorio [Area de Biodiversidad y Conservacion, ESCET, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Mostoles, E-28933, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-15

    The high diversity of epiphytes typical of undisturbed montane tropical forests has been negatively affected by continuous deforestation and forest conversion to secondary vegetation. Macrolichens are an important component of these epiphytes. Because their physiology is strongly coupled to humidity and solar radiation, we hypothesized that microclimatic changes derived from forest clearing and logging can affect the diversity of these poikilohydric organisms. In southern Ecuador, we examined three types of forests according to a disturbance gradient (primary forests, secondary forests, and monospecific forests of Alnus acuminata) for the presence/absence and coverage of epiphytic macrolichens that we identified on 240 trees. We found that total richness tended to decrease when the range of the disturbance increased. The impoverishment was particularly drastic for 'shade-adapted lichens', while the richness of 'heliophytic lichens' increased in the drier conditions of secondary growth. Epiphytic composition also differed significantly among the three types of forests, and the similarity decreased when the range of the disturbance was greater. We concluded that a span of 40 years of recovery by secondary vegetation was not enough to regenerate the diversity of epiphytic macrolichens that was lost due to forest disturbances. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tropical montane forest disturbance drastically reduced macrolichen diversity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Species loss was most severe for the 'shade-adapted lichens' because high radiation is harmful to them. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In secondary forests lichen diversity of native forests was not regenerated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protection of remnants of primary tropical forest might help to preserve a diverse community of epiphytic macrolichens.

  7. Effects of dams and geomorphic context on riparian forests of the Elwha River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Perry, Laura G; Rose, Chanoane A; Braatne, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dams affect the shifting habitat mosaic of river bottomlands is key for protecting the many ecological functions and related goods and services that riparian forests provide and for informing approaches to riparian ecosystem restoration. We examined the downstream effects of two large dams on patterns of forest composition, structure, and dynamics within different geomorphic contexts and compared them to upstream reference conditions along the Elwha River, Washington, USA. Patterns of riparian vegetation in river segments downstream of the dams were driven largely by channel and bottomland geomorphic responses to a dramatically reduced sediment supply. The river segment upstream of both dams was the most geomorphically dynamic, whereas the segment between the dams was the least dynamic due to substantial channel armoring, and the segment downstream of both dams was intermediate due to some local sediment supply. These geomorphic differences were linked to altered characteristics of the shifting habitat mosaic, including older forest age structure and fewer young Populus balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa stands in the relatively static segment between the dams compared to more extensive early-successional forests (dominated by Alnus rubra and Salix spp.) and pioneer seedling recruitment upstream of the dams. Species composition of later-successional forest communities varied among river segments as well, with greater Pseudotsuga menziesii and Tsuga heterophylla abundance upstream of both dams, Acer spp. abundance between the dams, and P. balsamifera subsp. trichocarpa and Thuja plicata abundance below both dams. Riparian forest responses to the recent removal of the two dams on the Elwha River will depend largely on channel and geomorphic adjustments to the release, transport, and deposition of the large volume of sediment formerly stored in the reservoirs, together with changes in large wood dynamics.

  8. Younger Dryas To Mid-Holocene Environmental History Of The Lowlands Of NW Transylvania, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, A.; Mosbrugger, V.; Onac, B. P.; Polyak, V.; Veres, D.

    2007-12-01

    Pollen, micro-charcoal and total carbon analyses on sediments from the Turbuta profile located in the Transylvanian Basin (NW Romania) reveal information on previously unknown Younger Dryas to mid-Holocene environmental changes. The chronostratigraphy relies on AMS 14C measurements on organic matter and U/Th TIMS datings of snail shells. Results indicate the presence of Pinus and Betula open woodlands with small populations of Picea, Ulmus, Alnus and Salix before 12,000 cal yr BP, correlates well with the environmental developments expected for Younger Dryas stadial. A fairly abrupt replacement of Pinus and Betula by Ulmus dominated woodlands at ca. 11,900 cal. yr BP, likely represents competition effects of vegetation driven by climate warming at the onset of the Holocene. By 11,000 cal yr BP, the woodlands were increasingly diverse and dense with the expansion of Quercus, Fraxinus and Tilia, the establishment of Corylus, and the decline of upland herbaceous and shrubs taxa. The marked expansion of Quercus accompanied by Tilia between 10,500 and 8,000 cal yr BP could be the result of low effective moisture associated with both low elevation of the site and with regional change towards a drier climate. At 10,000 cal. yr BP Corylus spread across the region, and by 8,000 cal yr BP it replaced Quercus as a dominant forest constituent, with only little representation of Picea abies. Carpinus became established around 5,500 cal yr BP, but it was only a minor constituent in local woodlands until ca. 5,000 cal yr BP. Results from this study also indicate that the woodlands in the lowlands of Turbuta were never closed.

  9. An 11 000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history at Beaver Lake, Oregon, central Willamette Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Megan K.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Worona, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution macroscopic charcoal and pollen analysis were used to reconstruct an 11??000-year-long record of fire and vegetation history from Beaver Lake, Oregon, the first complete Holocene paleoecological record from the floor of the Willamette Valley. In the early Holocene (ca 11??000-7500 calendar years before present [cal??yr??BP]), warmer, drier summers than at present led to the establishment of xeric woodland of Quercus, Corylus, and Pseudotsuga near the site. Disturbances (i.e., floods, fires) were common at this time and as a result Alnus rubra grew nearby. High fire frequency occurred in the early Holocene from ca 11??200-9300??cal??yr??BP. Riparian forest and wet prairie developed in the middle Holocene (ca 7500??cal??yr??BP), likely the result of a decrease in the frequency of flooding and a shift to effectively cooler, wetter conditions than before. The vegetation at Beaver Lake remained generally unchanged into the late Holocene (from 4000??cal??yr??BP to present), with the exception of land clearance associated with Euro-American settlement of the valley (ca 160??cal??yr BP). Middle-to-late Holocene increases in fire frequency, coupled with abrupt shifts in fire-episode magnitude and charcoal composition, likely indicate the influence anthropogenic burning near the site. The paleoecological record from Beaver Lake, and in particular the general increase in fire frequency over the last 8500??years, differs significantly from other low-elevation sites in the Pacific Northwest, which suggests that local controls (e.g., shifts in vegetation structure, intensification of human land-use), rather than regional climatic controls, more strongly influenced its environmental history. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Proximate weather patterns and spring green-up phenology effect Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) body mass and reproductive success: the implications of climate change and topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ruairidh D; Newman, Chris; Macdonald, David W; Rosell, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Low spring temperatures have been found to benefit mobile herbivores by reducing the rate of spring-flush, whereas high rainfall increases forage availability. Cold winters prove detrimental, by increasing herbivore thermoregulatory burdens. Here we examine the effects of temperature and rainfall variability on a temperate sedentary herbivore, the Eurasian beaver, Castor fiber, in terms of inter-annual variation in mean body weight and per territory offspring production. Data pertain to 198 individuals, over 11 years, using capture-mark-recapture. We use plant growth (tree cores) and fAPAR (a satellite-derived plant productivity index) to examine potential mechanisms through which weather conditions affect the availability and the seasonal phenology of beaver forage. Juvenile body weights were lighter after colder winters, whereas warmer spring temperatures were associated with lighter adult body weights, mediated by enhanced green-up phenology rates. Counter-intuitively, we observed a negative association between rainfall and body weight in juveniles and adults, and also with reproductive success. Alder, Alnus incana, (n = 68) growth rings (principal beaver food in the study area) exhibited a positive relationship with rainfall for trees growing at elevations >2 m above water level, but a negative relationship for trees growing beavers at the landscape scale via effects on spring green-up phenology and winter thermoregulation. Rainfall influences beavers at finer spatial scales through topographical interactions with plant growth, where trees near water level, prone to water logging, producing poorer forage in wetter years. Unlike most other herbivores, beavers are an obligate aquatic species that utilize a restricted 'central-place' foraging range, limiting their ability to take advantage of better forage growth further from water during wetter years. With respect to anthropogenic climate change, interactions between weather variables, plant phenology and

  11. Sedimentation rates in eastern North America reveal strong links between regional climate, depositional environments, and sediment accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goring, S. J.; McLachlan, J. S.; Jackson, S. T.; Blaauw, M.; Christen, J.; Marlon, J.; Blois, J.; Williams, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    PalEON is a multidisciplinary project that combines paleo and modern ecological data with state-of-the-art statistical and modelling tools to examine the interactions between climate, fire and vegetation during the past two millennia in the northeastern United States. A fundamental challenge for PalEON (and paleo research more broadly) is to improve age modelling to yield more accurate sediment-core chronologies. To address this challenge, we assessed sedimentation rates and their controls for 218 lakes and mires in the northeastern U.S. Sedimentation rates (yr/cm) were calculated from age-depth models, which were obtained from the Neotoma database (www.neotomadb.org) and other contributed pollen records. The age models were recalibrated to IntCal09 and augmented in some cases using biostratigraphic markers (Picea decline, 16 kcal BP - 10.5 kcal BP; Quercus rise, 12 - 9.1 kcal BP; and Alnus decline, 11.5 - 10.6 kcal BP) as described in Blois et al. (2011). Relationships between sedimentation rates and sediment age, site longitude, and depositional environment (lacustrine or mire) are significant but weak. There are clear and significant links between variations in the NGRIP record of δ18O and sedimentation in mires across the PalEON region, but no links to lacustrine sedimentation rates. This result indicates that super-regional climatic control of primary productivity, and thus autochthonic sediment deposition, dominates in mires while deposition in lacustrine basins may be driven primarily by local and regional factors including watershed size, surficial materials,and regional vegetation. The shape of the gamma probability functions that best describe sedimentation rate distributions are calculated and presented here for use as priors in Bayesian age modelling applications such as BACON (Blaauw and Christen, in press). Future applications of this research are also discussed.

  12. A prognostic pollen emissions model for climate models (PECM1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Matthew C.; Steiner, Allison L.

    2017-11-01

    We develop a prognostic model called Pollen Emissions for Climate Models (PECM) for use within regional and global climate models to simulate pollen counts over the seasonal cycle based on geography, vegetation type, and meteorological parameters. Using modern surface pollen count data, empirical relationships between prior-year annual average temperature and pollen season start dates and end dates are developed for deciduous broadleaf trees (Acer, Alnus, Betula, Fraxinus, Morus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus), evergreen needleleaf trees (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae), grasses (Poaceae; C3, C4), and ragweed (Ambrosia). This regression model explains as much as 57 % of the variance in pollen phenological dates, and it is used to create a climate-flexible phenology that can be used to study the response of wind-driven pollen emissions to climate change. The emissions model is evaluated in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) over the continental United States by prescribing an emission potential from PECM and transporting pollen as aerosol tracers. We evaluate two different pollen emissions scenarios in the model using (1) a taxa-specific land cover database, phenology, and emission potential, and (2) a plant functional type (PFT) land cover, phenology, and emission potential. The simulated surface pollen concentrations for both simulations are evaluated against observed surface pollen counts in five climatic subregions. Given prescribed pollen emissions, the RegCM4 simulates observed concentrations within an order of magnitude, although the performance of the simulations in any subregion is strongly related to the land cover representation and the number of observation sites used to create the empirical phenological relationship. The taxa-based model provides a better representation of the phenology of tree-based pollen counts than the PFT-based model; however, we note that the PFT-based version provides a useful and climate-flexible emissions model for the

  13. BOSQUE MESÓFILO DE MONTAÑA Y ESCENARIOS DE CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: UNA EVALUACIÓN EN HIDALGO, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro I. Monterroso-Rivas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El hábitat de ocho especies forestales (Liquidambar macrophylla, Alnus arguta, Carpinus caroliniana, Clethra mexicana, Pinus patula, Nectandra sanguínea, Podocarpus reichei y Quercus spp. representativas del bosque mesófilo de montaña en el estado de Hidalgo se evaluó en condiciones actuales y bajo escenarios de cambio climático. Se utilizó el marco conceptual de nicho ecológico y se evaluaron doce variables: una topográfica, cinco paisajísticas y seis climáticas. Se realizó un análisis factorial de nicho ecológico con el software Biomapper, que básicamente es un análisis estadístico de reducción de dimensiones. Para cada especie, se obtuvieron mapas de hábitat potencial al modificar seis variables climáticas por cada modelo de cambio climático aplicado, generando igual número de mapas para condiciones futuras. Se analizaron las diferencias en hábitat potencial para las condiciones actuales y aquéllas previstas por cambio climático, encontrando que es posible que la superficie óptima de crecimiento para seis especies se reduzca. Las especies identificadas como amenazadas por el cambio climático son L. macrophylla, A. arguta, C. caroliniana, C. mexicana, P. patula, y N. sanguínea. Estas especies componen principalmente el estrato arbóreo alto del bosque mesófilo, por lo que se concluye que el ecosistema puede verse seriamente afectado como consecuencia del cambio climático.

  14. A contribution to the knowledge of biology and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L. (Coleoptera, Attelabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Urban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurrence, development and harmfulness of Deporaus betulae (L.. The majority of field studies was carried out at Training Forest Enterprise (TFE Masaryk Forest in Křtiny (District Brno-venkov in 2010 and 2011. In addition to this, the species was studied in detail also in a laboratory. It occurred mostly on Betula pendula and Carpinus betulus. Rarely, the species was found on Alnus glutinosa and Corylus avellana and only sporadically on Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Tilia cordata and T. platyphyllos. In the studied area, larvae and pupae hibernate. Beetles occur on trees from the end of April to the beginning of July, sporadically later. Females lay on average 2.5 (in the laboratory 4.4 eggs into rolls on B. pendula, on C. betulus 2.2 eggs. During two months, they damage on average 5.3 cm2 leaves creating 14 rolls and laying 35 eggs into the rolls. Larvae consume only 1.7 cm2 leaf blade. The development of the species takes three to four months from egg laying to the departure of larvae into soil. On leaves of B. pendula of an average area of 14.2 cm2, females roll up the same area (about 11.2 cm2 as on leaves of C. betulus of an area of 21.7 cm2. Into the rolls, they lay on average the same number of eggs. The average number of eggs in rolls increases with the increased area of B. pendula leaf blade. Trees partly compensate for the reduction of assimilatory area also by the growth of the area of neighbouring undamaged leaves (on average by 12.7 %.

  15. Leaf mineral nutrient remobilization during leaf senescence and modulation by nutrient deficiency.

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    Anne eMaillard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants have to cope with fluctuating mineral resource availability. However strategies such as stimulation of root growth, increased transporter activities, and nutrient storage and remobilization have been mostly studied for only a few macronutrients. Leaves of cultivated crops (Zea mays, Brassica napus, Pisum sativum, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare and tree species (Quercus robur, Populus nigra, Alnus glutinosa grown under field conditions were harvested regularly during their life span and analysed to evaluate the net mobilization of 13 nutrients during leaf senescence. While N was remobilized in all plant species with different efficiencies ranging from 40% (maize to 90% (wheat, other macronutrients (K-P-S-Mg were mobilized in most species. Ca and Mn, usually considered as having low phloem mobility were remobilized from leaves in wheat and barley. Leaf content of Cu-Mo-Ni-B-Fe-Zn decreased in some species, as a result of remobilization. Overall, wheat, barley and oak appeared to be the most efficient at remobilization while poplar and maize were the least efficient. Further experiments were performed with rapeseed plants subjected to individual nutrient deficiencies. Compared to field conditions, remobilization from leaves was similar (N-S-Cu or increased by nutrient deficiency (K-P-Mg while nutrient deficiency had no effect on Mo-Zn-B-Ca-Mn, which seemed to be non-mobile during leaf senescence under field conditions. However, Ca and Mn were largely mobilized from roots (-97 and -86% of their initial root contents, respectively to shoots. Differences in remobilization between species and between nutrients are then discussed in relation to a range of putative mechanisms.

  16. A Stratigraphic Pollen Record from a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest, Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, A.; Harley, G. L.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Truong, J. T.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Stratigraphic pollen analysis was performed on a layer of preserved peat found near the bottom of a 4.75m vibracore taken in 18m of water off the coast of Orange Beach, Alabama. The core was taken from a site where the remains of a previously buried bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) forest was discovered after wave action, likely from Hurricane Ivan in 2004, scoured and removed the overlying Holocene/late Pleistocene sand sheet. Many of the cypress stumps found at the site are still in growth position, and rooted in the preserved terrestrial soils below. Radiocarbon dating of the peat recovered in core DF1 suggests that the sediment is likely Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), or earlier. We hypothesize that the site was quickly buried and preserved by floodplain aggradation associated with sea-level rise that occurred near the end of MIS 3. This rare find provides an opportunity to study in situ fossil pollen from a glacial refugium in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pollen results from the lowermost sections within the peat layer show an assemblage consistent with a bald cypress/tupelo gum (Nyssa aquatica) backwater. This is eventually replaced by a more open, possibly brackish, environment, dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). During this change however, there is a brief but very interesting period where the pollen assemblage is likely analogous to the modern day Atlantic Coastal Plain Blackwater Levee/Bar Forests of North and South Carolina. In this modern assemblage, as well as the core samples, birch (Betula), oak (Quercus) and bald cypress are the dominant taxa, along with a strong presence of alder (Alnus), grasses and sedges. We hypothesize that these bar forests formed on areas of higher ground, which resulted from floodplain aggradation that accompanied sea level rise at the end of MIS 3.

  17. Role of river flow and sediment mobilization in riparian alder establishment along a bedrock-gravel river, South Fork Eel River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablkowski, P.; Johnson, E. A.; Martin, Y. E.

    2017-10-01

    Climatic, hydraulics, hydrologic, and fluvial geomorphic processes are the main drivers of riparian white alder (Alnus rhombifolia Nutt.) distribution in northern California. The Mediterranean climate and canyon bound, bedrock-gravel morphology of the South Fork Eel have a distinct effect on these processes. White alder seeds are preferentially deposited on river bars where river hydraulics create eddies coinciding with the downstream part of riffles and the upstream part of pools. Seeds are generally deposited below bankfull elevations by the descending hydrograph during the spring season in this Mediterranean climate. For successful germination and establishment, the seeds must be deposited at a location such that they are not remobilized by late spring flows. The summer establishment period is defined from the date of seed deposition and germination to the fall/winter date of river sediment mobilization. Seedling root growth rate decreases exponentially with decreasing water potential. However, seedlings are shown not to be generally limited by water availability at the elevations they are most commonly deposited. The establishment of white alder seedlings following the first summer will therefore depend on their ability to resist fall/winter high flows. The method proposed here compares the predicted rooting depth to predicted sediment scour rates. The length of the establishment period rather than water availability determines final seedling rooting depth. Over the past 40 years, very few years had establishment periods that were long enough or had fast enough alder growth rates to survive winter floods that often scour deeper than the total root length. The low survival of seedlings in the first autumn season following germination is believed to be a principal reason for the missing age classes often found in alder distributions along rivers.

  18. Permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto island. Establishment and results from the first inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhta, A.P.; Korpela, L. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-05-15

    This report describes in detail the vegetation quadrats established inside the permanent, follow-up sample plots (Forest Extensive High-level monitoring plots, FEH) on Olkiluoto Island. During summer 2005 a total of 94 sample plots (a 30 m{sup 2}), each containing eight quadrats (a 1m{sup 2}), were investigated. The total number of sampled quadrats was 752. Seventy of the 94 plots represent coniferous stands: 57 Norway spruce-dominated and 13 Scots pine-dominated stands. Ten of the plots represent deciduous, birch-dominated (Betula spp.) stands, 7 plots common alder-dominated (Alnus glutinosa) stands, and seven plots are mires. The majority of the coniferous tree stands were growing on sites representing various succession stages of the Myrtillus, Vaccinium-Myrtillus and Deschampsia-Myrtillus forest site types. The pine-dominated stands growing on exposed bedrock clearly differed from the other coniferous stands: the vegetation was characterised by the Cladina, Calluna-Cladina and Empetrum-Vaccinium vitis-idaea/Vaccinium Myrtillus forest site types. The deciduous stands were characterized by tall grasses, especially Calamagrostis epigejos, C. purpurea and Deschampsia flexuosa. The vegetation of the deciduous stands dominated by common alder represented grove-like sites and seashore groves. Typical species for mires included Calamagrostis purpurea, Calla palustris, Equisetum sylvaticum, and especially white mosses (Sphagnum spp.). A total of 184 vascular plant species were found growing within the quadrats. Due to the high number of quadrats in these forests, the spruce stands had the highest total number of species, but the birch and alder-dominated forests had the highest average number of species per quadrat. This basic inventory of the permanent vegetation quadrats on Olkiluoto Island provides a sound starting point for future vegetation surveys. Guidelines for future inventories and supplementary sampling are given in the discussion part of this report. (orig.)

  19. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Timme H; Hagemans, Kimberley; Dekker, Stefan C; de Weger, Letty A; de Klerk, Pim; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values), and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1), as well as in the growing season (T), are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [Pprediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (Pprecipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural archives reflect annual past climate variability, and can be used in palaeoecological and -climatological studies to bridge between population- and species-scale responses to climate forcing.

  20. TALL HERB SPRUCE FORESTS AS CLIMAX COMMUNITIES ON LOWLAND SWAMPS OF BRYANSK POLESIE

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    O. I. Evstigneev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nettle grey alder forests are a dominant forest type on lowland swamps in the Bryansk Polesie. They are formed as a result of repeated cuttings in the place of tall herb spruce forests. Tall herb spruce forests are very rare communities in the vegetation cover in this area due to clear cutting, melioration and peat extraction. An assessment of the succession status of tall herb spruce forests and nettle grey alder forests was carried out in this paper. The criteria of climax state and succession state of communities, developed for Eastern European forests, were used. These criteria are based on the degree of intensity of the following signs in the community: 1 the completeness of species composition of tree synusia; 2 the ontogenetic structure of tree species cenopopulation; 3 the gap-mosaic stand structure; 4 the diversity of microsites in soil cover; 5 the completeness of species composition and ecological-coenotic diversity of vascular species. We showed that tall herb spruce forest, as opposed to black alder forest, is close to communities of the climax type. This is evidenced by the following features of cenosis: firstly, all tree species in the area that covers the Bryansk Polesie and that are able to grow on lowland swamps are represented in the spruce forest (Alnus glutinosa, Betula pubescens, Fraxinus excelsior, Padus avium, Picea abies, Salix pentandra, Sorbus aucuparia, Ulmus glabra. Secondly, a steady turnover of generations is carried out in the cenopopulations of main edificators (Picea abies and Alnus glutinosa. This is evidenced by the complete and left-sided structure of their ontogenetic spectrum. Thirdly, a system of asynchronously developing gaps (parcels, which are formed on the site of old tree falls, is formed in the community. This ensures the continuous renewal of spruce and alder populations and creates conditions for the regeneration of other tree species. Fourthly, the structure of biogenic microsites has been formed

  1. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  2. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Miocene, the Western Carpathian paleogeography started to change. The Lake Pannon retreated southwards, and the northern coast of the back arc basin was slightly elevated due to progradation of deltaic and alluvial facies, especially in the lowlands. The studied „Pannonian lake" sediments come from the Czech and Slovak parts of Central Paratethys. Changes of the sedimentary environment from deep to shallow lake and deltaic environment, followed by development of alluvial plains were noticed. Salinity crisis due to Paratethys isolation led to development of total freshwater environment to the end of this period. Samples from 3 surficial localities and 15 boreholes were palynologically studied. Occasional occurences of Dinoflagellates indicate a slightly higher salinity, whereas green algae Pediastrum, aquatic ferns Azolla, and aquatic and coastal plants (Nelumbo, Nymphaea, Myriophyllum, Sparganium, Potamogeton, Cyperaceae etc.) represent a freshwater environment. Due to paleogeographic changes and climatic oscillations the number of thermophilous taxa decreased and some of them disappeared completely from this area (f. e. Sapotaceae, Palmae). Mostly broad-leaved deciduous elements of mixed mesophytic forests (Quercus, Celtis, Carya, Tilia, Carpinus, Betula, Juglans) with some thermophilous elements admixture of Engelhardia, Castanea, Trigonobalanopsis, Symplocos, Cornaceaepollis satzveyensis generally dominate. Variously high relief of the uplifted mountainy chains created ideal conditions for higher presence of extrazonal vegetation (Cedrus, Tsuga, Picea, Cathaya) in the investigated area. Zonal type of vegetation including marshes, riparian forests with Alnus, Salix, Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Betula, Fraxinus, shrubs and lianas on dryer substrates associated riparian forest (Buxus, Ericaceae, Vitaceae, Lonicera, Rosaceae type Rubus), and coastal swamps with Taxodiaceae, Nyssa, Myrica, Sciadopitys were growing in the floodplain lowlands of Vienna Basin

  3. Vegetation and Mammuthus primigenius extinction history on St Paul Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Newsom, L.; Belmecheri, S.; Culleton, B.; Williams, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    St. Paul Island, AK, part of the Pribilofs, is an island remnant of the Bering Land Bridge, a possible coastal Picea refugium at the last glacial maximum, and a Holocene refugium for Mammuthus primigenius. A prior pollen record from Lake Hill indicates that St. Paul was predominantly herb tundra during the last glacial maximum followed by a shrub tundra in the early Holocene (Colinvaux, 1980). Subsequently, three radiocarbon dates on bones from Qagnax Cave indicate a last appearance of Mammuthus primigenius of 6.5 ka on St. Paul (Veltre et al. 2008). In March 2013, our team retrieved a 13.5 m composite core from Lake Hill to refine the extinction timing chronology, assess environmental change during the extinction interval, and test hypotheses about vegetation-megafauna feedback. This paper reports the results from modern botanical survey and analyses of fossil pollen, Sporormiella and other coprophilous spores, anchored by a new radiocarbon chronology consisting of seven AMS dates. Presently, bryophytes, Equisetum, Poaceae, Juncaceae, Salix and Viola commonly occur at the lake margin, accompanied increasingly by sedge meadow taxa with greater distance from the water's edge, especially Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lupinus, Rubus and Valeriana. Sporormiella is consistently present in low abundances (2%, ~700 grains/cm3) in the late glacial and early Holocene until a drop to zero at 6,050 yr BP, remaining absent during the middle and late Holocene when it reappears at 1904 AD. The timing of Sporormiella decline and reappearance match well to the youngest mammoth bone date and the historic reintroduction of reindeer (1911 AD) on St. Paul Island. After 11 ka, major pollen types include Apiaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix, with lower abundances of Betula, Alnus and Ericaceae, consistent with herb tundra with some shrubs. Degraded Picea pollen grains are found at 12,240 yr BP in very low concentrations (223 grains/cm3), indicating long

  4. Link between defoliation and light treatments on root vitality of five understory shrubs with different resistance to insect herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolewski, Piotr; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Napierała-Filipiak, Anna; Oleksyn, Jacek

    2010-08-01

    Understory shrubs are frequently attacked by insect herbivores. However, very little is known regarding possible interactions between light condition, defoliation (D) and fine root vitality (% live roots) and metabolic activity, and whether different plant strategies (compensation, trade-off and equilibrium) to defoliation depend on individual species light requirements. To explore the response of roots to such conditions, an experiment was established in which we experimentally removed 50% of leaves in 1-year-old seedlings of Sambucus nigra, Cornus sanguinea, Prunus serotina, Frangula alnus and Corylus avellana grown in 15% and full sunlight. On average, defoliation leads to a 15% reduction in fine root (vitality (% live roots). However, a statistically significant reduction in root vitality after defoliation was detected only in those species that are less herbivorized in nature (48% in S. nigra and 5% in C. sanguinea). On average, shade conditions (L) resulted in 18% decline in root vitality, and the effects of defoliation were also 22% higher than for plants grown in full light. Root vitality in both treatments (D and L) was significantly correlated with their dry mass, concentration of total phenol (TPh) and carbon to nitrogen ratio, and negatively correlated with nitrogen, soluble carbohydrates, starch and total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). To a large extent, root vitality and chemistry varied by species. Higher root vitality was related to higher concentrations of phenolics, more than to N and TNC concentrations. Concentrations of phenolics also differed significantly between defoliated plants and controls. However, in defoliated plants, an increase in TPh was observed only in two species, which belong to two different groups in light requirements and susceptibility to insect grazing (C. sanguinea and P. serotina). This study indicated that higher vitality of roots occurred in species that are characterized by higher insect defoliation under natural

  5. Ecological Resilience and Resistance in the Hyper Diverse Forests on the Eastern Andean Flank (Mera, Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, H. F.; Gosling, W. D.; Montoya, E.; Sherlock, S.; Mothes, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Today the Neotropics contain some of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystems. Sediments obtained from two radiocarbon infinite (>48,000 years) stratigraphic sections on the eastern Andean flank, provide new insight into the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance during the Pleistocene (~200,000 years). Pollen analysis of modern and fossil material indicates that hyper diverse forest vegetation has been a feature of the Andean flank landscape for 100,000 years (pollen richness: modern = 44, fossil = 48). Correlation of past vegetation with disturbance events (volcanic and fluvial) indicates the response of hyper-diverse forest to past landscape scale change. Pollen records from near Mera (01°27 S, 78°06 W; 1117 m asl) indicate two major changes in the pollen assemblage, with forest communities dominated by: i) Hedyosmum-Alnus-Ilex, and ii) Combretaceae-Melastomataceae-Myrtaceae. These two pollen assemblages most closely resemble modern vegetation cloud forest (2500-3400m asl) and lower montane rain forest (700-2499 m asl) respectively. Sedimentary evidence suggests that at least 21 volcanic events and three changes in the local fluvial regime perturbed the regional landscape during the period of deposition. However, there is no evidence for volcanic or fluvial disturbance events causing a persistent change in vegetation community. Volcanic events (tephra deposits) are associated with increased fire (charcoal particles), and changes in vegetation (pollen grains); however, within ~50cm of sediment accumulation above each tephra, pollen assemblages revert to pre-deposition compositions. Increased fluvial influence (gravel deposits) is associated with elevated input of pollen from taxa today found at higher elevations (Podocarpus-Celtis). The input of high elevation taxa concomitant with fluvial deposits is most likely indicative of an increase in long-distance transport of pollen along water courses originating in the Andes. Our data indicate

  6. Germanium and Rare Earth Element accumulation in woody bioenergy crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner

    2016-04-01

    Germanium and REEs are strategic elements that are used for high tech devices and engineered systems, however these elements are hardly concentrated into mineable ore deposits. Since these elements occur widely dispersed in the earth crust with concentrations of several mgṡkg-1 (Ge 1.6 mgṡkg-1, Nd 25 mgṡkg-1) a new possibility to gain these elements could be phytomining, a technique that uses plants to extract elements from soils via their roots. Since knowledge about accumulating plant species is quite limited we conducted research on the concentrations of strategic elements in wood and leaves of fast growing tree species (Salix spec., Populus spec., Betula pendula, Alnus glutinosa, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer pseudoplatanus). In total 35 study sites were selected in the mining affected area around Freiberg (Saxony, Germany), differing in their species composition and degree of contamination with toxic trace metals (Pb, As, Cd). On each site plant tissues (wood and leaves, respectively) of different species were sampled. In addition soil samples were taken from a soil depth of 0 - 30 cm and 30 - 60 cm. The aim of our work was to investigate correlations between the concentrations of the target elements in plant tissues and soil characteristics like pH, texture, nutrients and concentrations in six operationally defined soil fractions (mobile, acid soluble, oxidizable, amorphic oxides, crystalline oxides, residual or siliceous). Concentrations of elements in soil extracts and plant tissues were measured with ICP-MS. The element Nd was selected as representative for the group of REEs, since this element showed a high correlation with the concentrations of the other REE We found that the concentration of Nd in the leaves (0.31 mgṡkg-1Nd) were several times higher than in herbaceous species (0.05 mgṡkg-1 Nd). The concentration of Ge in leaves were ten times lower than that of Nd whereas in herbaceous species Nd and Ge were in equal magnitude. Within the tree

  7. Neogene vegetation development in the Amazon Basin: evidence from marine well-2, Foz do Amazonas (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogota-Angel, Raul; Chemale Junior, Farid; Davila, Roberto; Soares, Emilson; Pinto, Ricardo; Do Carmo, Dermeval; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    currently growing along the Andean fluvial system on altitudes between c. 2000 up to c. 4800 m. Alnus is an important Andean forest taxa since Pliocene. In summary, the Neogene palynological record of the Amazon Fan strongly reflects and confirms the influence of the uplift of the Andes and its transcontinental character from late Miocene onwards.

  8. Ecological and geochemical peculiarities of the South Primorye vegetation and arboriflora species specificity in the heavy metal accumulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Shikhova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the submission of data on ecological and geochemical peculiarities of the forest ecosystems, still conserved, which were obtained during vegetation research of the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula of the Primorsky Krai. For the first time, the species specificity on the heavy metal accumulations has been identified for many Far-Eastern species of the trees, bushes and woody climbing plants (78 species, which participate in the formation of the natural phytocenoses of the South Primorye. The accumulative plant properties to accumulate heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Co, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe are found out in the different systematic groups and life forms of the plants. The best capacity to concentrate heavy metals (3–9 times more than background level has been found out at 14 species: Salix udensis Trautv. et Mey. and S. gracilistyla Miq. (Zn, Mn, Cd; Syringa wolfii C. K. Schneid. (Zn, Mn; Lonicera caerulea L. (Co, Cd; Rubus sachalinensis Levl. (Pb, Cd; Populus tremula L., Betula davurica Pall. and B. costata Trautv. (Zn; B. platyphylla Sukacz., Rhododendron mucronulatum Turcz., Aralia elata (Miq. Seem. and Corylus mandshurica Maxim. (Mn; Euonymus macroptera Rupr. (Co, Alnus hirsuta (Spach Fisch. ex Rupr. (Cu. The best abilities of the total metal accumulations have been observed at the families as Vitaceae Juss. (Pb, Co, Cd, Cu, Hydrangeaceae Dumort. (Ni, Co, Cd, Rhamnaceae Juss. (Pb, Co, Cd and Shisandraceae Blume (Pb, Cu. All heavy metal contents, mentioned above, correspond to the local and backgroung levels at Sorbaria sorbifolia (L. A. Br., minimum content – at Celastrus flagellaris Rupr. liane. Coniferous species have low ability to accumulate most metals and also Juglans mandshurica Maxim., Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr., Tilia amurensis Rupr., Salix caprea L., Ulmus pumila L., Maackia amurensis Rupr. et Maxim., Berberis amurensis Rupr. et al. The background contents of the most metals are registered in Acer mono Maxim., Abelia

  9. Belowground Plant Dynamics Across an Arctic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, V. G.; Iversen, C. M.; Breen, A. L.; Thornton, P. E.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are made up of a mosaic of different plant communities, all of which are exposed to warming at a rate double that observed in ecosystems at lower latitudes. Arctic regions are an important component of global Earth system models due to the large amounts of soil carbon (C) currently stored in permafrost as well their potential for increased plant C sequestration under warmer conditions. Losses of C from thawing and decomposing permafrost may be offset by increased plant productivity, but plant allocation to belowground structures and acquisition of limiting nutrients remain key sources of uncertainty in these ecosystems. The relationship between belowground plant traits and environmental conditions is not well understood, nor are tradeoffs between above- and belowground plant traits. To address these knowledge gaps, we sampled above- and belowground plant tissues along the Kougarok Hillslope on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. The vegetation communities sampled included Alder shrubland, willow birch tundra, tussock tundra, dwarf shrub lichen tundra, and non-acidic mountain complex. Within each plant community, aboveground biomass was quantified and specific leaf area, leaf chemistry (%C, %N, %P and δ15N), and wood density were measured. Belowground fine-root biomass and rooting depth distribution were also determined at the community level. Fine roots from shrubs and graminoids were separated so that specific root area, diameter, and chemistry (%C, %N, %P and δ15N) could be assessed for these contrasting plant functional types. Initial findings indicate fine root biomass pools across the widely varying plant communities are constrained by soil depth, regardless of whether the rooting zone is restricted by permafrost or rock. The presence of Alnus viridis subspp. fruticosa, a deciduous shrub that facilitates nitrogen (N) fixation within its root nodules by Frankia bacteria, in Alder shrubland and willow birch tundra communities was associated

  10. Palaeobotanical studies on Late Glacial and Holocene vegetation development and transformations of the ‘Wielkie Błoto’ mire near Gołdap (north-eastern Poland

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    Karpińska-Kołaczek Monika

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of palynological, macrofossil and peat analyses that were conducted on deposits from a profile collected from the Wielkie Błoto mire near Bałupiany (north eastern Poland. The investigation revealed that the recorded changes of vegetation span the period from the decline of the Younger Dryas (ca 9600 cal. yr BC to the late Subboreal or early Subatlantic chronozone, but due to a 40 cm long sediment gap a complete reconstruction was not possible. At the beginning, the area was occupied by steppe and tundra communities together with abundant Juniperus stands. A subsequent expansion of birch (Betula woodlands with pine (Pinus sylvestris took place in the Preboreal chronozone in which a rise in the water level and/or basin deepening was recorded at the site as well. The domination of such woodlands lasted to the end of the Boreal chronozone when Corylus avellana expanded rapidly. In the Atlantic chronozone multispecies deciduous forests developed with Tilia cordata and Quercus, while Ulmus together with Alnus spread in damp habitats. During this chronozone, traces of the occurrence of Carpinus betulus were detected in the macrofossil analysis, while the pollen analysis failed to record its presence. The expansion of Carpinus betulus and Picea abies was characteristic of the Subboreal chronozone when both taxa presented antagonistic optima. Alone in north-eastern Poland, there was a re-expansion of deciduous forest in the younger part of the Subboreal chronozone caused probably by low human impact, which is reflected in the whole profile. The first probable traces of human activity were noticed in the Atlantic chronozone and attributed to peoples of the Mesolithic or Early Neolithic cultures, while the first evidence of cultivation was correlated to the Bronze Age. However, the low resolution of the radiocarbon dates did not allow a more precise reconstruction of the chronology. The analysis of macrofossils and tissues

  11. The Late Glacial and Holocene development of vegetation in the area of a fossil lake in the Skaliska Basin (north-eastern Poland inferred from pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

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    Kołaczek Piotr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of vegetation in the Skaliska Basin has been reconstructed on the basis of palynological analysis and radiocarbon dating (AMS technique of 6 sites from the late phase of the Bolling- Allerod interstadial complex to modern times. Although the area covers 90 km2, the mosaic character of habitats led to the development of different patterns of vegetation changes during the Late Glacial and Holocene. Only one site located in the eastern part of the Skaliska Basin reflected the ‘pine phase’ of Allerod, and this is the oldest data on vegetation in the Skaliska Basin. Interesting discrepancies were recorded during the Younger Dryas when patches of shrublands with Juniperus were distinct around some of the sites, while steppe with Artemisia was common in others. The beginning of the Holocene brought an expansion of birch-pine forest, but around 9600 cal. BC a cold oscillation took place which was reflected in an increase in birch in the woodlands in the western and eastern part of the Skaliska Basin. In the Preboreal chronozone elm (Ulmus also expanded in the area but its appearance was non-synchronous. The vegetation of the Boreal chronozone was similar in the whole area and the most characteristic feature was the rapid expansion of hazel (Corylus avellana which displaced Betula from the most of its sites. At that time a distinct redeposition of pollen material in the Parchatka river valley was detected which was probably the effect of an increase in fluvial activity of the river (humid oscillation. The following stage of vegetation development was climax woodlands with Tilia cordata, Ulmus, Quercus, Corylus avellana, and Alnus in damp places. At the beginning of the Subboreal chronozone the expansion of Quercus took place, which was subsequently replaced by Picea abies and partly Carpinus betulus. The pattern of Picea abies expansion distinctly presents two maxima which is characteristic of many sites in the north-eastern Poland

  12. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

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    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  13. Salt Marsh Formation in the Lower Hudson River Estuary

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    Merley, Michael; Peteet, Dorothy; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Salt marshes are constant depositional environments and as a result contain accurate indicators of past relative sea level rise and salinity. The Hudson River marshes are at least twice as deep when compared to coastal marshes on either side of the mouth of the Hudson. The reason for this difference in sedimentation is unclear. This study uses macrofossil data as well as sediment stratigraphy in order to understand the formation and evolution of these marshes. The composition of seeds, roots, shoots and foraminifera, are used to indicate past sea levels. The four sites involved in this study are, from south to north, the Arthur Kill Marsh in Staten Island (40 36 N, 74 77W), Piermont marsh (N 4100; 73 55W) Croton Point (41 14 N; 73 50W) and Iona Island (41 18N, 73 58W). These are all tidally influenced but with increasing distances from the New York Bight, which gives a good spectrum of tidal influence. AMS-C14 dates on basal macrofossils will document the time of each marsh formation. Basal material from Arthur Kill (8 m) includes freshwater seeds such as Viola, Potomageton and Alnus along with Salix buds. Basal material from Croton Point (10 m) includes fibrous woody material, foraminifera and Zanichellia seeds and other brackish vegetational components. The basal material from Piermont (13.77 m) is lacking any identifiable macrofossils between 150 and 500 microns. The basal material from Iona Island (10 m) has vegetation such as Scirpus and Cyperus seeds, probably implying a brackish environment. The freshwater origin of the Arthur Kill marsh in Staten Island is significant because it predates either sea level rise or the western channel incision. Additional implications for this study include evidence for changes in river channel geomorphology. Reasons for the relatively deeper river marshes include possible basal clay compaction, high production due to river and marine nutrients as well as tectonic activity. This study provides the groundwork for more high

  14. Late Pleniglacial vegetation in eastern-central Europe: are there modern analogues in Siberia?

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    Magyari, Enikő Katalin; Kuneš, Petr; Jakab, Gusztáv; Sümegi, Pál; Pelánková, Barbora; Schäbitz, Frank; Braun, Mihály; Chytrý, Milan

    2014-07-01

    To characterize Late Pleniglacial (LPG: 26.5-15 ka cal BP) and particularly Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21 ± 2 ka cal BP) vegetation and climate, fossil pollen assemblages are often compared with modern pollen assemblages. Given the non-analogue climate of the LPG, a key question is how glacial pollen assemblages and thereby vegetation compare with modern vegetation. In this paper we present three LPG pollen records from the Carpathian Basin and the adjoining Carpathian Mountains to address this question and provide a concise compositional characterization of the LPG vegetation. Fossil pollen assemblages were compared with surface pollen spectra from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in southern Siberia. This area shows many similarities with the LPG vegetation of eastern-central Europe, and has long been considered as its best modern analogue. Ordination and analogue matching were used to characterize vegetation composition and find the best analogues. Our results show that few LPG pollen assemblages have statistically significant analogues in southern Siberia. When analogue pairings occur they suggest the predominance of wet and mesic grasslands and dry steppe in the studied region. Wooded vegetation types (continental and suboceanic hemiboreal forest, continental taiga) appear as significant analogues only in a few cases during the LGM and more frequently after 16 ka cal BP. These results suggest that the LPG landscape of the Carpathian Basin was dominated by dry steppe that occurred outside the river floodplains, while wet and mesic grasslands occurred in the floodplains and on other sites influenced by ground water. Woody vegetation mainly occurred in river valleys, on wet north-facing hillsides, and scattered trees were likely also present on the loess plateaus. The dominant woody species were Larix, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies, Betula pendula/pubescens, Betula nana, Juniperus, Hippophaë rhamnoides, Populus, Salix and Alnus. The pollen

  15. High-resolution study of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in the Southern Carpathian Mountains

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    Magyari, E.; Jakab, G.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Retezat Massif of the S Carpathian Mountains abounds in glacial lakes, mainly above 1900 m a.s.l., just above the present day tree limit formed by Picea abies and Pinus cembra in the northern slopes. For the reconstruction of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in this mountain, two lakes were selected: Taul dintre Brazi (1740 m a.s.l.) and Lake Gales (1990 m a.s.l.). Sediments obtained from these lakes extend back to the Late Glacial, and so provide us an exceptional opportunity to study 1) when trees were first established locally around the lower lake following glacial retreat and 2) what tree and shrub species were present and replaced each other in the Late Glacial and early postglacial forests in response to the high-amplitude climatic fluctuation, and in case of the Early Holocene, the high-amplitude climatic amelioration. Pollen, conifer stomata and plant macrofossils were studied from both lake sediments at approximately 100 years resolution. Sediment chronologies were based on multiple AMS radiocarbon dates. Preliminary results from this study show that Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies and Betula nana appeared very early during the lateglacial interstadial, ca. 14,500 cal yr BP followed by Larix decidua around 14,200 cal yr BP. Pinus cembra gained dominance in the Latglacial interstadial forest and survived locally during the Younger Dryas reversal unlike Picea abies. Another important result was the reconstruction of the Early Holocene forest composition around the lower lake that proved much more species rich than the present-day forest; Picea abies grew together with Larix decidua, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Alnus viridis, Juniperus, Betula nana and Betula pubescens during the Early Holocene, furthermore the stomatal record suggested that conifer species were evenly distributed around the lake. In light of our data, the position of the Early Holocene tree line reached 1990 m a.s.l. by ca. 10,700 cal yr BP (i

  16. Two are better than one: combining landscape genomics and common gardens for detecting local adaptation in forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepais, Olivier; Bacles, Cecile F

    2014-10-01

    Predicting likely species responses to an alteration of their local environment is key to decision-making in resource management, ecosystem restoration and biodiversity conservation practice in the face of global human-induced habitat disturbance. This is especially true for forest trees which are a dominant life form on Earth and play a central role in supporting diverse communities and structuring a wide range of ecosystems. In Europe, it is expected that most forest tree species will not be able to migrate North fast enough to follow the estimated temperature isocline shift given current predictions for rapid climate warming. In this context, a topical question for forest genetics research is to quantify the ability for tree species to adapt locally to strongly altered environmental conditions (Kremer et al. ). Identifying environmental factors driving local adaptation is, however, a major challenge for evolutionary biology and ecology in general but is particularly difficult in trees given their large individual and population size and long generation time. Empirical evaluation of local adaptation in trees has traditionally relied on fastidious long-term common garden experiments (provenance trials) now supplemented by reference genome sequence analysis for a handful of economically valuable species. However, such resources have been lacking for most tree species despite their ecological importance in supporting whole ecosystems. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, De Kort et al. () provide original and convincing empirical evidence of local adaptation to temperature in black alder, Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn, a surprisingly understudied keystone species supporting riparian ecosystems. Here, De Kort et al. () use an innovative empirical approach complementing state-of-the-art landscape genomics analysis of A. glutinosa populations sampled in natura across a regional climate gradient with phenotypic trait assessment in a common garden experiment (Fig. ). By

  17. Late Pleistocene to Holocene vegetation transition in the Eastern Pamir inferred from palynological data from Lake Karakul, Tajikistan

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    Heinecke, Liv; Fletcher, William; Mischke, Steffen; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    Arid Central Asia is characterized by large differences in altitude, leading to a complicated climate history regarding regional patterns. Although an increasing number of local studies have been conducted in the recent years, few datasets cover regional climatic changes since the Last Glacial Maximum. Nevertheless, existing studies reveal significant spatial differences, calling for a higher number of data points in order to decipher climatic changes in the arid Central Asia region over time. Here we present the first palynological study from the late Pleistocene (approximately 29 cal kyr BP) to Holocene in the high Pamir Mountains. A 10.86 m long sediment core was retrieved from the shallower eastern basin of Lake Karakul, which is located in an endorheic basin at 3915 m above sea level in the eastern Pamir. The lake represents a valuable archive due to its remoteness and near absence of human influence. Modern vegetation in the catchment is sparse due to the harsh climate with mean annual temperatures of -3.8°C and a mean annual precipitation of 82 mm. The pollen record suggests three pollen assemblage zones (PAZ) and shows a clear dominance of Artemisia (40 to 80 %) and Chenopodiaceae (5 to 25 %), while other taxa are mainly recorded with values below 5 %. PAZ 1 (28.6 - 15.3 cal kyr BP) reflects variable Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae percentages and maximum values in herbs such as Caryophyllaceae and Lamiaceae as well as in the arboreal taxa Pinus and Alnus. The long distance transported arboreal pollen throughout the LGM and late glacial are assumed to point towards a strong Westerly influence. PAZ 2 (14.3 - 6.9 cal kyr BP) reveals maximum values of shrubby Ephedra spp., typical steppe taxa, increases in Cyperaceae and Asteraceae and a rapid decline in arboreal taxa, indicating warm and dry conditions in the early to mid-Holocene, and weakened Westerly influence. PAZ 3 (6.1 cal kyr BP to present) reflects an increase in meadow taxa such as Asteraceae and

  18. The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain lake in central Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, A. E.; Klimaschewski, A.; Solovieva, N.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.; Brooks, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4-5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid

  19. The climate warming effect of a fen peat meadow with fluctuating water table is reduced by young alder trees

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    V. Huth

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L. Gaertn. occurs naturally in temperate marshes and in minerotrophic peatlands and is also suitable for paludiculture - the cultivation of biomass on wet or rewetted peatland. We investigated the effect of a newly established black alder plantation on the greenhouse gas (GHG balance of a degraded fen in north-eastern Germany over a two-year period (August 2010–August 2012. We compared the alder plantation (Awet with an extensively used meadow (Mwet and a drier reference meadow (Mmoist. GHG fluxes were measured monthly to bi-monthly using the closed chamber method. Our results show that Awet was a slight net GHG (in CO2-eq sink of 3.4 ± 1.7 t ha-1 yr-1, Mwet was a moderate net GHG source of 9.6 ± 1.2 t ha 1 yr-1, and Mmoist was a strong net GHG source of 24.5 ± 1.6 t ha-1 yr-1. This was mainly driven by CO2 uptake at the two very moist (wet sites and by high CO2 release at the drier reference site. Awet was a larger CO2 sink than Mwet, probably due to additional CO2 uptake by the alder stand at Awet and carbon export in plant material harvested from Mwet. All sites were significant CH4 sources. Substantial CH4 emission peaks were observed at all sites following extraordinarily heavy precipitation during the summer of 2011, which accounted for up to 70 % of the accumulated two-year CH4 emissions. However, the Awet site generally emitted less CH4, possibly due to the effective oxygen transport mechanism in black alders. N2O emissions were negligible at all three sites. Our results indicate that the GHG balances of formerly drained fens benefit in the short term from planting of black alders, mostly due to reduced CH4 emissions. This study highlights the importance of acknowledging extreme precipitation events and groundwater fluctuations for the derivation of reliable GHG emission factors.

  20. Region-specific sensitivity of anemophilous pollen deposition to temperature and precipitation.

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    Timme H Donders

    Full Text Available Understanding relations between climate and pollen production is important for several societal and ecological challenges, importantly pollen forecasting for pollinosis treatment, forensic studies, global change biology, and high-resolution palaeoecological studies of past vegetation and climate fluctuations. For these purposes, we investigate the role of climate variables on annual-scale variations in pollen influx, test the regional consistency of observed patterns, and evaluate the potential to reconstruct high-frequency signals from sediment archives. A 43-year pollen-trap record from the Netherlands is used to investigate relations between annual pollen influx, climate variables (monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation values, and the North Atlantic Oscillation climate index. Spearman rank correlation analysis shows that specifically in Alnus, Betula, Corylus, Fraxinus, Quercus and Plantago both temperature in the year prior to (T-1, as well as in the growing season (T, are highly significant factors (TApril rs between 0.30 [P<0.05[ and 0.58 [P<0.0001]; TJuli-1 rs between 0.32 [P<0.05[ and 0.56 [P<0.0001] in the annual pollen influx of wind-pollinated plants. Total annual pollen prediction models based on multiple climate variables yield R2 between 0.38 and 0.62 (P<0.0001. The effect of precipitation is minimal. A second trapping station in the SE Netherlands, shows consistent trends and annual variability, suggesting the climate factors are regionally relevant. Summer temperature is thought to influence the formation of reproductive structures, while temperature during the flowering season influences pollen release. This study provides a first predictive model for seasonal pollen forecasting, and also aides forensic studies. Furthermore, variations in pollen accumulation rates from a sub-fossil peat deposit are comparable with the pollen trap data. This suggests that high frequency variability pollen records from natural

  1. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E

    2014-04-01

    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental

  2. The period from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Maximum (MIS 5 - 2) in different archives of southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Wagner, Stephen; Al-Sharif, Riyad; Brückner, Helmut; Scarciglia, Fabio; Mastronuzzi, Giuseppe; Stahr, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Sediment cores from S Italy provide excellent archives of Late Pleistocene climate and vegetation changes, particularly from the Lago Grande di Monticchio (Allen et al., 2000; Brauer et al., 2007), the crater lakes of the central West coast of Italy, Valle di Castiglione, Lagaccione, Lago di Vico, Stracciacappa (Follieri et al., 1998) and the marine core GNS84-C106 in the Gulf of Salerno (Di Donato et al., 2008). These records show that woody Mediterranean vegetation covered the region during most of the Last Interglacial (from 129-127 ka BP until 115-116 ka BP). In the last phase of the interglacial (from 115-116 ka BP until about 110 ka BP), the forest composition changed, showing an increase in Abies and Alnus and a decrease in Mediterranean taxa. The interglacial was terminated by the Melisey I Stadial, during which grasses and Betula predominated. Forests spread again during St. Germain I, but they consisted mainly of Fagus, Abies and various deciduous trees. A steppe phase (Melisey II) followed, in which Chenopodiaceae prevailed, before St. Germain II set in, with forests dominated by Abies, Ulmus and Carpinus. From the end of St. Germain II until the Lateglacial, steppe, composed of Artemisia, Gramineae and Chenopodiaceae, predominated, with week expansions of trees (mainly Pinus and Juniperus) during several periods. What information can be obtained from terrestrial geo-archives for the same region and time? Sea level highstands, corresponding to interglacial and interstadial periods, created marine terraces along the coasts of S Italy. We are currently carrying out a geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological study on a flight of 11 uplifted marine terraces in the central Gulf of Taranto, the lowermost of them falling into the time span of interest. The terraces generally comprise a gravel body, deposited in a littoral environment, covered by a layer of fine sediments of varying thickness. The latter were deposited when the terrace was still close

  3. Diurnal variations of airborne pollen concentration and the effect of ambient temperature in three sites of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, B; Torres-Jardón, R; Ramírez-Arriaga, E; Martínez-Bernal, A; Rosas, I

    2016-05-01

    Pollen is an important cause of allergic respiratory ailments in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). However, very little is known if ambient air temperature correlates with the early blooming of plants observed in other urban areas around the world. A research study was conducted during the dry season of 2012-2013 at three representative sites of the MCMA with different urban characteristics with the aim to understand the relationships between the profusion and diversity of pollen against temperature and other meteorological variables and degree of urbanization. Pollen samples were collected using a Hirst-type trap sampler in the sites: Merced (highly urbanized), Iztapalapa (medium-high urbanized) and Coyoacan (moderately urbanized). Urbanization levels were determined using a composite index based on population density, proportion of surface covered by construction and asphalt, and urban heat island intensity. A set of representative pollen sampling tapes were assayed under a light microscope at magnification of ×1,000 and converted to grains per cubic meter. The most representative pollen types found in the three sites were, regardless of urbanization levels were: Fraxinus, Cupressaceae/Taxodiaceae, Casuarina, Alnus, Myrtaceae, and Pinus. Total pollen concentration was greatest in the moderately urbanized area, although earlier blooming took place at the highly urbanized zone. Total pollen concentration in the medium-high urbanized site has the lowest because the green areas in this zone of MCMA are few. In a diurnal basis, the most abundant pollen types peaked near midday or in the afternoon evening at the three sites. A Spearman test showed a positive correlation among bihourly pollen concentrations, temperature and relative humidity in all sites, but wind speed just correlated in Iztapalapa and Coyoacan. The results obtained suggest that Urban Heat Island Intensity can disturb flowering periods and pollen concentrations, largely in the highly urbanized

  4. Disturbance and California riparian tree establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendix, J.; Cowell, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    As is the case in many ecosystems, tree establishment in riparian corridors is often episodic, following disturbance events that clear colonization sites. In many riparian settings, flooding is the most obvious, and relevant disturbance agent. However, in Mediterranean-climate regions, fire is an equally important disturbance agent. In California, the frequency and severity of both floods and fire are expected to change with projected climate change, making an understanding of their roles key to understanding future ecological processes in California riparian environments. In this paper, we use tree-ring data from the Transverse Ranges of Southern California to explore the relative importance of fire and flood in the establishment of riparian gallery forest. We examined 42 cores of Alnus rhombifolia, Populus fremontii and Quercus agrifolia from the riparian zone adjacent to Piedra Blanca and Potrero John Creeks in California’s Transverse Ranges, and compared their establishment dates with records of fire and floods, to see how establishment related to disturbance history. Our results show some evidence for major fire having an impact, as all of the largest stems dated to the few years following the 1932 Matilija fire, which had burned all of the sites in our sample. The remainder of the record is less straightforward, although there is an establishment peak in the 1970s, which may be related to a 1975 fire that burned part of the Potrero John watershed. Of note, the establishment chronology shows no relationship to the flood record, as years of major floods do not relate to either prolific or sparse years in the tree-ring record. This record suggests that large fires may serve as a trigger for tree establishment in California riparian settings, but that they are hardly a prerequisite, as many stems germinated between fires. Indeed, ongoing regeneration is apparently independent of disturbance, given the apparent irrelevance of flooding in this regard. The result

  5. Global synthesis of the temperature sensitivity of leaf litter breakdown in streams and rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follstad Shah, Jennifer J; Kominoski, John S; Ardón, Marcelo; Dodds, Walter K; Gessner, Mark O; Griffiths, Natalie A; Hawkins, Charles P; Johnson, Sherri L; Lecerf, Antoine; LeRoy, Carri J; Manning, David W P; Rosemond, Amy D; Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Swan, Christopher M; Webster, Jackson R; Zeglin, Lydia H

    2017-08-01

    Streams and rivers are important conduits of terrestrially derived carbon (C) to atmospheric and marine reservoirs. Leaf litter breakdown rates are expected to increase as water temperatures rise in response to climate change. The magnitude of increase in breakdown rates is uncertain, given differences in litter quality and microbial and detritivore community responses to temperature, factors that can influence the apparent temperature sensitivity of breakdown and the relative proportion of C lost to the atmosphere vs. stored or transported downstream. Here, we synthesized 1025 records of litter breakdown in streams and rivers to quantify its temperature sensitivity, as measured by the activation energy (E a , in eV). Temperature sensitivity of litter breakdown varied among twelve plant genera for which E a could be calculated. Higher values of E a were correlated with lower-quality litter, but these correlations were influenced by a single, N-fixing genus (Alnus). E a values converged when genera were classified into three breakdown rate categories, potentially due to continual water availability in streams and rivers modulating the influence of leaf chemistry on breakdown. Across all data representing 85 plant genera, the E a was 0.34 ± 0.04 eV, or approximately half the value (0.65 eV) predicted by metabolic theory. Our results indicate that average breakdown rates may increase by 5-21% with a 1-4 °C rise in water temperature, rather than a 10-45% increase expected, according to metabolic theory. Differential warming of tropical and temperate biomes could result in a similar proportional increase in breakdown rates, despite variation in E a values for these regions (0.75 ± 0.13 eV and 0.27 ± 0.05 eV, respectively). The relative proportions of gaseous C loss and organic matter transport downstream should not change with rising temperature given that E a values for breakdown mediated by microbes alone and microbes plus detritivores were similar at the

  6. Linking Watershed Nitrogen Sources with Nitrogen Dynamics in Rivers of Western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Goodwin, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed contemporary nitrogen (N) budgets for 25 river basins in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon, USA, to improve the understanding of how recent trends in human-driven N loading have influenced riverine N dynamics in the region. Nearly 20% of WRB stream length is currently in fair or poor condition because of high N concentrations. Additionally, nitrate contamination of drinking water affects at least 8,000 people in the WRB. We hypothesized that 1) the majority of N inputs in the WRB would originate from agricultural activities in lowland portions of watersheds, 2) annual riverine N yield (kg/ha/yr) would correspond to annual per area watershed N inputs, and 3) riverine N yields would be seasonal and highest during winter due to the region's Mediterranean climate. We calculated average annual N inputs for each study basin by summing newly available datasets describing spatially explicit N inputs of synthetic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, crop biological N2 fixation, biological N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), livestock manure, and point sources for the period 1996 - 2007. Annual and seasonal riverine N exports were estimated with the USGS model LOADEST calibrated to N concentration data collected during the study period. We estimated that two-thirds of total N input to the WRB study basins in the 2000s came from synthetic fertilizer application. Nearly all fertilizer application occurred on the lowlands near watershed mouths. We found a wide range of riverine N yields from the study basins, ranging from one to 70 kg N/ha/yr. Across the study basins, N export was more strongly correlated to fertilizer application rates than to percent of agricultural area in the watershed. Low watershed N yields reflected a high proportion of watershed area in the forested Cascade Mountain Range, which received low N inputs mainly from atmospheric deposition. N yields from study basins were strongly seasonal, with at least 50%, and

  7. Estudios ecológicos en la Cordillera Oriental colombiana III. - La vegetación de la cuenca del lago de Tota (Boyacá Estudios ecológicos en la Cordillera Oriental colombiana III. - La vegetación de la cuenca del lago de Tota (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel Ch. Orlando

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In the river basin of the Tota lake (Boyacá there are two differents zones related to the geomorphology, soil and climate. In the noreast zone the ecological conditions allow that the vegetation shows a greater cover; in the norwest zone on the other hand these conditions are very drastic, the floristic composition of vegetation is poor and generally speaking the landscape is of "arid type".  The distribution of vegetation in the river basin is caused by topographic variations (altitude, reIief and by differences of climate (temperature and solar radiation. Around the lake, the soil-content of water and nutrients, the physiography and the wind-action in some cases determine of the arrangement of plants-associations. These units of vegetation (associations are described following the Zurich-Montpellier school and the rules and recomendations of the Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (BARKMAN et at.. 1976.  Among these units are the: forest of Alnus acuminata subsp.  acuminata which grow on moist and marsh places around the lake and the sparse scrub with Hypericum ruscoides and Plantago monticola ond dry places.  In the "Páramo-región", the dense scrub with Brachyotum striqosum and Celamaqrostis effusa and the stemrosette communities with Espeletia lopezii were studied.  The "life-form" spectrum (RAUNKIAER, en BRAUN-BLANQUET, 1979 and the leaf characters (size, consistency, indumentation for each association also are provided. En la geomorfología y en el clima de la cuenca del lago de Tota, se diferencian dos regiones: nor-oriental y nor-occidental. En la primera las condiciones ecológicas son favorables y permiten una mayor cobertura y diversidad de la vegetación; la región nor-occidental por el contrario, esta sujeta a condiciones ecológicas drásticas, muestra una vegetación muy pobre y en general el paisaje es de tipo "árido".  La preliminar caracterización de los suelos, indica que en su mayoría, estos son bastante

  8. Acid test of joint technical and biological measures in slope stabilisation - Impact analysis of the heavy rainstorm event in August 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, F.; Böll, A.

    2009-04-01

    transport. The development of the biological measures that consisted of cuttings of Salix purpurea and rooted plantlets of Alnus incana combined with a conventional seed mixture (hydro-seeding) was most satisfactory. The natural re-establishment of Salix appendiculata - rarely used in eco-engineering due to the low vegetative reproduction - reveals the underestimated potential of this species. The rainstorm left hardly any destructive marks neither on the vegetation nor on the soil surface. Root excavations in the field and laboratory investigations confirm a high rooting degree. Furthermore, plant association analysis yielded in considerable diversity and a species composition close to natural succession stages. The stability of the "Schwandrübi" was not affected during the heavy rainstorm although some of the sections between the technical structures were too steep compared to the proposed tolerable inclination. A new approach based on the experience of the "Schwandrübi-project" offers the first time to explain this phenomenon with biological effects on soil stability. Previously conducted laboratory experiments were validated with field based investigations conducted in 2006 and confirmed the higher soil stability due to mycorrhizal fungi and better rooting; in terms of an increase of the angle of internal friction Φ' of up to 5˚ . The concept of joint technical and biological measures applied has proven suitable to protect the ski resort above and the subjacent villages. There is evidence that the eco-engineering approach of WSL shapes up as a successful strategy in the long-term, although the complex interactions of the processes that control soil stability do not adjust within 25 years to a steady-state.

  9. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS WITH QUINONEDERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko N.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on screening of antimicrobial properties of extracts from some kinds of raw materials (18 plants with hydroquinone, naphtoquinone or anthraquinone derivatives. Some technological parameters of extracts (density and concentration of extraneous substances have been determined. The most appropriate microbiological method of studying antimicrobial properties of extracts, diffusion method of “well”, has been applied; special mathematic method of comparison of antimicrobial properties of extracts vector analysis has been applied in order to study and to compare antimicrobial properties of extracts. Indexes of antimicrobial properties of extracts have been determined: a complex index of medicinal product antimicrobial activity for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial effect - A, and square of correlation coefficient - r², which demonstrates the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of the extracts (degree of similarity to the standard. The most active extracts have been selected; they have antimicrobial properties of medium strength: from the herb of chimaphila umbellata А=2.20; the fruits of rhamnus cathartica А=2.12; the root of rubia tinctorum А=2.11; the bark of frangula alnus А=2.05; the root of rumex confertus А=2.04; the leaf of pyrola rotundifolia А=2.00; and leaf of arctostaphylos uva-ursi А=2.08 (but extract from uva-ursi did not affected on 2 strains of microorganisms r²=0.64. Low levels of antimicrobial activity have been demonstrated by the extract obtained from the leaf of urtica dioica А=0.72, r²=0.34. The mean result of the complex index of antimicrobial activity for the most of extracts from plants containing quinonederivatives is A = 1.77 (on 70% vol. ethanol at a ratio of raw material : extracting agent – 1:7 wt. : vol. and may range from 0.68 to 2.85. The mean result of the correlation coefficient is r = 0.93 and may range from 0.59 to 0.99. The mean result of the concentration of

  10. BIODIVERSIDADE FLORESTAL E PAISAGÍSTICA DO TERRITÓRIO MUNICIPAL DE SELLANO - ÚMBRIA - ITÁLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Orsomando

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Sellano, situado na Úmbria (Itália, ocupando uma superfície de cerca 86 km² no setor regional central mais oriental junto à fronteira com as Marcas, do ponto de vista florestal se destaca pelo elevado índice de cobertura florestal superior a 60% em relação aos 40% da Úmbria. A biodiversidade florestal é constituída por 7 formações de caducifólias naturais (florestas: de Quercus pubescens, de Ostrya carpinifolia, de Quercus cerris com a associação endêmica denominada Carici sylvaticae-Quercetum cerridis rica em Orquídeas, de Quercus cerris com Quercus pubescens, de Castanea sativa, de Fagus sylvatica, de Salix alba e por um artificialismo (reflorestamentos de Pinusnigra e Pinus halepensis. Tais florestas, voltadas para a exploração econômica, em bom estado de conservação, contornadas por áreas de pastagem, por áreas antrópicas com ocupações humanas, áreas cultivadas e zonas de artesanato caracterizam 11 unidades ambientais paisagísticas do conjunto das 42 tipologias de paisagens da Região Úmbria como um todo: vertentes alto-colinares com florestas de Quercus pubescens ou de Ostrya carpinifolia, às vezes interrompidas por pequenas clareiras de pastagens, de origem secundária, de Bromus erectus; vertentes montanas com florestas de Fagus sylvatica e pequenas pastagens, de origem secundária, de Bromus erectus; áreas rupestres com agrupamentos casmofiticos; vertentes alto-colinares e submontanas, com fraca declividade e recobertas por paleossolos fersialíticos, com florestas mesófilas de Quercus cerris (Carpinion betuli e florestas de Castanea sativa de origem antrópica; relevos alto-colinares com florestas de Ostryacarpinifolia ou Quercus pubescens, às vezes interrompidas por pequenas clareiras de pastagem, de origem secundária, de Brachypodium rupestre; leitos fluviais com florestas meso-higrófilas de Salixalba ou Alnus glutinosa; cimos e vertentes com pastagens de origem secundária de

  11. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  12. Natural drying methods to promote fuel quality enhancement of small energywood stems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, D.; Erkkilae, A; Mola-Yudego, B. (and others)

    2010-07-01

    broad-leaved trees, (Petula pubescens), alder (Alnus incana) and sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) dry faster than pine (Pinus sylvestris) and lodge pole pine (Pinus contorta). The results showed that debarking using, e.g. a harvester head, can be quite demanding due to different characteristics of tree species and diameters. The debarking device should be designed so that it could be switched on only when needed. This would ensure that the harvester head could be used to harvest normal timber and also energy wood. In conclusion, the drying season is essential to decrease the moisture content particularly in Finland and Scotland. The results show that the moisture content can be decreased by 15-20% in several months using only solar and wind power if more bark than normal is removed and the piles are covered. (orig.)

  13. Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records from the Chatanika River valley near Fairbanks (Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kienast, Frank; Bobrov, Anatoly; Fuchs, Margret; Sierralta, Melanie; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    ice and sediments of unit C. Pollen data show that spruce forests and wetlands dominated the area. The macrofossil remains of Picea, Larix, and Alnus incana ssp. tenuifolia also prove the existence of boreal coniferous forests during the mid-Wisconsin interstadial, which were replaced by treeless tundra-steppe vegetation during the late Wisconsin stadial. Unit C is discordantly overlain by the 2-m-thick late Holocene deposits of unit D. The pollen record of unit D indicates boreal forest vegetation similar to the modern one. The permafrost record from the Vault Creek tunnel reflects more than 90 ka of periglacial landscape dynamics triggered by fluvial and eolian accumulation, and formation of ice-wedge polygons and post-depositional deformation by slope processes. The record represents a typical Wisconsin valley-bottom facies in Central Alaska.

  14. Linking soil permeability and soil aggregate stability with root development: a pots experiment (preliminary results)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Chiara; Graf, Frank; Gerber, Werner

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying and monitoring the contribution of vegetation to the stability of the slopes is a key issue for implementing effective soil bioengineering measures. This topic is being widely investigated both from the hydrological and mechanical point of view. Nevertheless, due to the high variability of the biological components, we are still far from a comprehensive understanding of the role of plants in slope stabilization, especially if the different succession phases and the temporal development of vegetation is considered. Graf et al., 2014, found within the scope of aggregate stability investigations that the root length per soil volume of alder specimen grown for 20 weeks under laboratory conditions is comparable to the one of 20 years old vegetation in the field. This means that already relatively short time scales can provide meaningful information at least for the first stage of colonization of soil bioengineering measures, which is also the most critical. In the present study we analyzed the effect of root growth on two soil properties critical to evaluate the performance of vegetation in restoring and re-stabilizing slopes: permeability and soil aggregate stability. We set up a laboratory experiment in order to work under controlled conditions and limit as much as possible the natural variability. Alnus incana was selected as the study species as it is widely used in restoration projects in the Alps, also because of its capacity to fix nitrogen and its symbiosis with both ecto and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. After the first month of growth in germination pots, we planted one specimen each in big quasi cylindrical pots of 34 cm diameter and 35 cm height. The pots were filled with the soil fraction smaller than 10 mm coming from an oven dried moraine collected in a subalpine landslide area (Hexenrübi catchment, central Switzerland). The targeted dry unit weight was 16 kN/m3. The plants have been maintained at a daily temperature of 25°C and relative

  15. The Oligocene flora from the Uricani coalfield, Petrosani Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnea, Roxana; Popa, Mihai E.

    2017-04-01

    The Petrosani Basin is a typical Oligocene - Miocene intramontaneous basin located in the South Carpathians. It has a SW-NE orientation and is 48-km long; its width is varying between 10 and 2 km, and it overlays the Danubian and Getic basements. The Oligocene sequences are filling the basin, with a thickness ranging between 300 and 500 m. They consist of clays, marls, bituminous shales, microconglomerates and limestones, including 22 coal beds. One essential feature of the Petrosani Basin is the occurrence of thick coal seams and the remains of a rich, 28 milion years old ecosystem. The studied material was collected from Uricani coal mine, from the „Lower Productive Horizon", Chattian in age (Upper Oligocene), and from Uricani coal waste dumps. The Lower Productive Horizon, also described as the Dalja-Uricani Formation, includes several coal seams and crops out in several areas (Buia et al., 2014). Collecting fossil plants from underground mining horizons represents a unique method for detailed understanding of coal bearing formations in a three-dimensional approach (Popa, 2011). Although the plant remains are represented by a large number of species, most specimens belong to the Family Lauraceae. The fossil flora is very well preserved, some of the leaves preserving their cuticles. The fossil plants from Uricani coal mine, Petro?ani Basin, are described, illustrated and discussed based on leaf impressions. The associated macroflora of Uricani coal mine comprises various leaf species of Daphnogene, Laurophyllum, Ocotea, Smilax and Alnus. Most of the studied woody plants are mesophytic, like Lauraceae (narrow-leaved Daphnogene, Laurophyllum), but the affinities of the plant remains from Uricani coalfield have not been clarified yet. Nonetheless, the taxonomic composition of the studied flora from Uricani coalfield points to a semi-tropical climate. The overall character of the depositional conditions of Petrosani Basin fit best to a flatland with surrounding

  16. Determining the sensitivity of the high mountain region in Northern Romania to climate and land use changes through multi-proxy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Geanta, Anca; Tantau, Ioan; Auer, Andreea; Hutchinson, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Climate and land use changes can have a great impact on high altitude environments due to their species' narrow tolerance capabilities, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. Since trees at the timberline and the treeline ecotone grow at their temperature and soil tolerance limit, even small alterations in these parameters can result in marked changes in the position of the treeline ecotone, diversity, and species composition. Current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree and timberlines upwards, whereas land use changes can drive this movement in the opposite direction. Therefore the long-term responses of vegetation to past climate variations and land use changes are of particular relevance for the prediction of future vegetation change in high mountain areas. Here, we use a multi-proxy analysis (pollen, spores, micro and macrocharcoal, mineral magnetic properties and AMS 14C dating) of a 1m lacustrine sequence covering the last 5000 years located in the subalpine zone (1910 m a.s.l.) in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romanian Carpathians) to determine the sensitivity of high mountain habitats (i.e., movements of the timberline and treeline ecotones, and changes in vegetation composition diversity) in response to climate, fires and land use. The pollen and stomata records reveal regional forests dominated by Pinus sylvestris between ca. 5000 and 4250 cal yrs BP, which were replaced by Picea abies, Abies alba and Fagus sylvatica from about 4200 cal yrs BP onwards. The proximity of the lake was treeless, dominated by sub-alpine shrubs (Alnus viridis), alpine herbaceous communities (Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae Tubuliflorae, A. Liguliflorae, Thalictrum) and ruderal species (Artemisia, Rumex, Chenopodiaceae) through almost the whole record. However, Pinus stomata found between 5000 and 4000 cal yr BP probably indicate a higher position of the treeline and the local occurrence of Pinus before 4000 cal yr BP. Our results show

  17. Chronology of Terra Firme formation in western Amazonia and implications for the diversification of Amazonian biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupim, Fabiano do N.; Sawakushi, André O.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Savian, Jairo F.; Kern, Andrea K.; Mineli, Thays D.; Cruz, Francisco W.; Almeida, Renato P.; Grohmann, Carlos H.; Ribas, Camila C.; d'Horta, Fernando M.; Bertassoli, Dailson J.; Marconato, André; Nogueira, Luciana; Lohmann, Lúcia G.

    2017-04-01

    The shift from a large wetland dominated by avulsive channels and flooded forests to the incised transcontinental Amazon River valley (Várzea) bounded by non-flooded forests (Terra Firme) is suggested as one of the main drivers of diversification of the mega diverse Amazonian Biota. Nonetheless, there is no consensus about the timing of this landscape shift, with the current literature suggesting a period that ranges from the Miocene (11 Ma) and the Late Pleistocene (100 ka). This uncertainty may be due to a lack of absolute ages for the sediments forming Terra Firme forest substrates in western Amazonian lowlands. In Brazil, the Içá Formation represents the uppermost fluvial deposits of Terra Firme forests substrates in western Amazonia. Therefore, a reliable chronology for the last depositional stage of the Içá Formation is key for an improved understanding of the formation of the current Terra Firme-Várzea system. Four sediment profiles were sampled along the margins of the Solimões and Içá rivers for Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, geomagnetic excursions, and palynological analysis. OSL dating was performed in twelve samples using a Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) protocol in quartz sand grains. The equivalent doses ranged from 47 to 130 Gy (Central Age Model) and the dose rate values ranged from 0.4 to 2.0 Gy/ka. The resulting sediment burial ages range from 48 to 112 ka. Paleomagnetic data were obtained from samples collected at same profiles sampled for OSL dating and results suggest the presence of Post-Blake geomagnetic excursion ( 100 ka). The age of 100 ka for Post-Blake excursion are adopted for the Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale. Pollen assemblage data show a similarity to a more modern flora and the presence of Alnus clearly points towards Pleistocene deposition as it is unknown before in South America. The combined OSL, paleomagnetism and pollen data is a robust geochronological dataset that indicates Late Pleistocene

  18. population in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V rokoch 2011 – 2014 sa realizoval monitoring hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina v ôsmich chránených vtáčích územiach na Slovensku. U 149 hniezdnych párov z celkových 272 úspešných hniezdení počas 4 hniezdnych sezón vyletelo 277 mláďat. Priemerná reprodukčná úspešnosť predstavovala 0,51 juv./prítomný pár, 0,69 juv./hniezdiaci pár a 1,37 juv./100 km2. V uvedenom období bolo okolo hniezd orlov krikľavých ustanovených celkom 151 ochranných zón, ktoré zabezpečili ochranu 119 hniezdnych teritórií, čo predstavuje cca 17 % hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého na Slovensku. Testovaním účinnosti ochranných zón sa zistilo, že v hniezdach s vyhlásenou ochrannou zónou je vyššia pravdepodobnosť úspešného odchovania mláďat v porovnaní s hniezdami bez takejto zóny. Pravdepodobnosť, že hniezdenie bude úspešné v hniezdach hniezdiacich párov bez ochrannej zóny bola 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 37.4–59.0%, v hniezdach s ochrannou zónou 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%. Medzi 5 najčastejšie využívaných hniezdnych stromov na hniezdenie A. pomarina na Slovensku patrí Picea abies 61× (28,4%, Pinus sylvestris 45× (20,9%, Quercus sp. 36× (16,7%, Fagus sylvatica 25× (11,6% a Abies alba 18× (8,4%. Medzi zriedkavejšie druhy hniezdnych stromov patrí Larix decidua 12× (5,6% a Alnus glutinosa 3× (1,4%, ďalších 11 druhov hniezdnych stromov nedosiahli 1 %. Najvyšší počet hniezdnych stromov (n = 215, tj. 34 hniezd (15,8% sa nachádzal v intervale nadmorskej výšky 401 – 450 m a 29 hniezd (13,5% v intervale 351 – 400 m n. m. Ostatné výškové pásma boli pod hranicou 10%. 54% zistených hniezd (116 hniezd sa nachádza vo výškovom pásme 301 – 600 m n. m., 71 hniezd (33% v pásme 600 – 900 m n. m. Najnižšie situované hniezdo bolo v nadmorskej výške 150 m a najvyššie 950 m, priemer bol 595,01 m. Najvyšší počet hniezd (n = 209 bol na strome

  19. Holocene glacial and climate history of the Jostedalsbreen region, Western Norway; evidence from lake sediments and terrestrial deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesje, Atle; Kvamme, Mons; Rye, Noralf; Løvlie, Reidar

    The valleys surrounding the Jostedalsbreen ice cap were deglaciated during the latter half of the Preboreal Chronozone. At the end of the Preboreal Chronozone, however, a glacier readvance occurred. Terminal moraines were deposited by outlet valley glaciers from the Jostedalsbreen Plateau up to 1 km beyond Little Ice Age moraines. Inferred from the altitude of lateral moraines formed during this readvance and calculations of the equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) depression based on an accumulation area ratio (AAR) of 0.6, the average depression of the ELA was 325 + {75}/{-115} m below the present. By assuming a similar precipitation pattern as at present, this suggests a mean temperature decline of about 2°C. Palynological investigations from Sygneskardet, Sunndalen, indicate that climate like the present was achieved just after 9000 BP. The Holocene climatic optimum occurred during the Atlantic Chronozone, with elm ( Ulmus) stands growing at the present birch ( Betula) forest limit in Sunndalen and pine ( Pinus) growing at Styggevatnet to an altitude of at least 1160 m. During this period the mean summer temperature is estimated to have been at least 2.7 and 1.8°C warmer than at present, with and without the local climatic effect of Jostedalsbreen, respectively. An inferred rise of the ELA of about 400 m from the present altitude suggests that possibly no glaciers existed on the Jostedalsbreen Plateau during the Holocene climatic optimum. Vegetational changes as deduced from palynological studies, lowered tree limits and increased resedimentation in peat bogs indicate general climatic deterioration since the Late Atlantic Chronozone. A significant Alnus decline 6300 BP and a Betula expansion 5300 BP, as recorded from palynological studies of peat bogs in Sprongdalen, is interpreted to represent the initial Neoglaciation on the Jostedalsbreen Plateau. Lithostratigraphic evidence at a section in the upper part of Glomsdalen may indicate a minor Neoglacial phase

  20. Improving the flash flood frequency analysis applying dendrogeomorphological evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Stoffel, M.; Bollschweiler, M.; Díez-Herrero, A.

    2009-09-01

    .) influenced by flash flood events were sampled using an increment borer. For each tree sampled, additional information were recorded including the geographical position (GPS measure), the geomorphological situation based on a detailed geomorphological map, the social position within neighbouring trees, a description of the external disturbances and information on tree diameter, tree height and the position of the cores extracted. 265 cores were collected. In the laboratory, the 265 samples were analyzed using the standard methods: surface preparation, counting of tree rings as well as measuring of ring widths using a digital LINTAB positioning table and TSAP 4.6 software. Increment curves of the disturbed trees were then crossdated with a reference chronology in order to correct faulty tree-ring series derived from disturbed samples and to determine initiation of abrupt growth suppression or release. The age of the trees in this field site is between 50 and 100 years old. In the field most of the trees were tilted (93 %) and showed exposed roots (64 %). In the laboratory, growth suppressions were detected in 165 samples. Based on the number of trees showing disturbances, the intensity of the disturbance and the spatial distribution of the trees in the field, seven well represented events were dated for the last 50 years: 2005, 2000, 1996, 1976, 1973, 1966 and 1963. The second field site was a reach of 2 km length along the Arenal River, where the stream is channelized. Here stumps from previously felled trees could be analyzed directly in the field. 100 Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. and Fraxinus angustifolia (Vahl.) cross sections were investigated in order to date internal wounds. Different carpenter tools, sanding paper and magnifying glasses were used to count tree rings and to date the wounds in the field. In addition to the dating in the field, 22 cross sections were sampled and analyzed in the laboratory using the standard methods. The age of the trees ranges between 30

  1. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake [Dept. of Forest Soi ls, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Hyvoenen, Riitta [Dept. of Eco logy, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2007-04-15

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m{sup 2} respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m{sup 2}. There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m{sup 2}), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m{sup 2}), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m{sup 2}). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m{sup 2}/yr). At the

  2. Input and turnover of forest tree litter in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoefors, Kristina; Johansson, Maj-Britt; Nilsson, Aake; Hyvoenen, Riitta

    2007-04-01

    The site investigations reported here were conducted to provide data for the comprehensive descriptive ecosystem model that is being constructed. This report provides estimates of annual inputs of aboveground litter from trees (dry mass and amounts of C and N), litter decomposition rates and changes in organic and inorganic components in litter during decomposition. The study in the Forsmark area comprised two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) stands (sites F1 and F3), and a mixed stand of Norway spruce and alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) (site F2). The study in the Oskarshamn area comprised one common oak stand (Quercus robur L.) (site O1), one Scots pine stand (Pinus silvestris L.) (site O2) and one Norway spruce stand (site O3). In the Forsmark area, the aboveground litterfall from trees was of similar magnitude at sites F1 and F2, but considerably lower at site F3. At the former sites the average annual litterfall amounted to 195 and 231 gdw/m 2 respectively, whereas the latter site received only 136 gdw/m 2 . There was also a large variation in annual litterfall between stands in the Oskarshamn area. The spruce stand at site O3 exhibited the highest litterfall (almost 400 gdw/m 2 ), followed by the oak stand at site O1 (with almost 300 gdw/m 2 ), whereas the pine stand at site O2 had the lowest (less than 150 gdw/m 2 ). The proportion of needles/leaves in the total litterfall varied between 65% and 75% for the stands. The amount of carbon (C) returned in aboveground litterfall amounted to between 60 and 110 gdw/m 2 /yr at the forest sites within the Forsmark area. The corresponding range for the sites in the Oskarshamn area was 70 to 190 gdw/m 2 /yr. At sites O1 and O2 in Oskarshamn, about 3.6 gdw/m 2 /yr of nitrogen (N) were returned annually to the forest floor by the aboveground litterfall. This was over four times the N amount deposited in the Scots pine stand in the same area (about 0.8 gdw/m 2 /yr). At the Forsmark sites, the N return in

  3. Silvicultural and classificatory analysis of forests of Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Sytnik

    2013-11-01

    ,189.8 ha. The other hard-leaved types of tree are species of Quercus L. – 20,288.2 ha, Robinia L. – 17,639.9 ha, Fraxinus L. – 3,200.1 ha, Acer L. – 864.2 ha, Ulmus L. – 860.3 ha and Gleditsia L. – 172.9 ha. Soft-leaved species in the forests of Dnipropetrovsk region are represented by the following genera Betula, Populus, Alnus, Tilia, Salix. The predominant among the identified age groups of Dnipropetrovsk region are the middle-aged and mature stands which occupy 40.2% (26,392.5 ha and 39.7% (26,076.1 ha of the forest area respectively. The age structure of forests in Dnipropetrovsk region is very irregular, which indicates a great potential for further increase in the volume of reafforestation. It is established that the largest area of the forest stands of environmental, scientific, historical and cultural significance is occupied by middle-aged (3,568.4 ha and over mature (2,782.0 ha stands with a total stock of 657.7 and 517.4 m3 per ha respectively. Stands of young-growth occupy the smallest area – 706.7 ha. Similarly in stands of recreational and health forests the largest area is occupied by middle-aged stands – 13,368.1 ha with a total stock of 2,550.8 m3 per ha. Middle aged trees occupy the largest area of protective forests – 9,456.0 ha (38.4%, of which the stands’ stock is 1,782.0 m3 per ha.

  4. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    's boreal forest Remote Sens. 2 2729-47 Riordan B, Verbyla D and McGuire A D 2006 Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950-2002 remotely sensed images J. Geophys. Res. 111 G04002 Ruess R W, McFarland J M, Trummer L M and Rohrs-Richey J K 2009 Disease-mediated declines in N-fixation inputs by Alnus tenuifolia to early-successional floodplains in interior and south-central Alaska Ecosystems 12 489-502 Stafford J M, Wendler G and Curtis J 2000 Temperature and precipitation of Alaska: 50 year trend analysis Theor. Appl. Climatology 67 33-44 Stow D, Peterson A, Hope A, Engstrom R and Coulter L 2007 Greenness trends of Arctic tundra vegetation in the 1990s: comparison of two NDVI data sets from NOAA AVHRR systems Int. J. Remote Sens. 28 4807-22 van Mantgem P J et al 2009 Widespread increase of tree mortality rates in the western United States Science 323 521-4 Walsh, J E, Chapman W L, Romanovsky V, Christensen J H and Stendel M 2008 Global climate model performance over Alaska and Greenland J. Clim. 21 6156-74 Wendler G and Shulski M 2009 A century of climate change for Fairbanks, Alaska Arctic 62 295-300 Zhang K, Kimball J S, Hogg E H, Zhao M, Oechel W C, Cassano J J and Running S W 2008 Satellite-based model detection of recent climate-driven changes in northern high-latitude vegetation productivity J. Geophys. Res. 113 G03033