WorldWideScience

Sample records for almanacs

  1. Almanac

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "The original idea for Almanac was to make a diary or "book of hours" that would reflect on my father's life, and his passing. I chose a format concentrating on marking time : the 52-week calendar, the equinox and solstice, the punctuation of the beginning, middle, and end, etc. While the graphic and symmetrical imaging of sacrificial altars, movie screens, and deco lighting propose an odd symbolic orientation, the pairing of projected platonic shapes a...

  2. Almanac Songs and Singers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    ) effort against Fascism. Issues addressed herein will include assessing strategies in the practices of musical performers who have political agendas, investigating the usefulness of Guy Debord’s terminology of détournement ("turning expressions of the capitalist system and its media culture against itself......"), as well as the Birmingham School’s set of terms: commodification, familiarization and incorporation. The paper will progress through a lyrics and performance analysis, and will contextualize these with attempts to situate The Almanac Singers culturally and politically in the turbulent public...

  3. The Einstein almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Calaprice, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein was an exceptional human being. Perhaps nothing reflects the breadth and scope of his brilliance, his interests, and his influence better than his publications -- more than six hundred scientific papers, books, essays, reviews, and opinion pieces. Einstein began publishing in March 1901 with a scientific work that appeared in the German journal Annalen der Physik when he was twenty-two; the last publication was an editorial in the journal Common Cause which appeared a few months before his death in 1955. In the fifty-four-year interval, his published work ranged widely over relativity theory and quantum physics, nationalism, Judaism, war, peace, and education. Indeed, Einstein's literary output was so abundant that even many of his most informed admirers are not familiar with all of it. The Einstein Almanac takes a look at Einstein's year-by-year output, explaining his three-hundred most important publications and setting them into the context of his life, science, and world history. Concentr...

  4. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Sean E

    2013-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  5. Indians in Almanacs (1793-1815)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrick, Jon S.

    1975-01-01

    The American Indian appeared frequently in the almanac literature of 1783-1815 and was used as a source of humor, political comment, romanticism, etc, much of which contributed to the cultural conflict of the times. (JC)

  6. Stars on Local Time: A Personal Almanac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb-Roberts, M.

    2016-01-01

    First presented at INSAP VIII, the artwork A Personal Almanac is my interpretation of the familiar seasons-of-life allegory. The booklet's eight pairs of seasonal pages— spring equinox through the cross-quarter Groundhog Day—portray a life in the decades from the 1940s to the 2010s under the stars of rural Georgia, France, Miami, West Africa and the other places I have lived. A Personal Almanac is included in the art book A Durable Tale, the illustrated story of my thirty-year search in the Southeast United States and in West Africa for living memories of old star almanacs. In that odyssey I uncovered some very deep roots for an oral literature of the African desert, the nomadic bard's star story that I believe inspired creation of the first nine tablets of the standard version Babylonian Gilgamesh.

  7. Multiyear interactive computer almanac, 1800-2050

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Naval Observatory

    2005-01-01

    The Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA Version 2.2.2 ) is a software system that runs on modern versions of Windows and Macintosh computers created by the U.S. Naval Observatory's Astronomical Applications Department, especially for astronomers, surveyors, meteorologists, navigators and others who regularly need accurate information on the positions, motions, and phenomena of celestial objects. MICA produces high-precision astronomical data in tabular form, tailored for the times and locations specified by the user. Unlike traditional almanacs, MICA computes these data in real time, eliminating the need for table look-ups and additional hand calculations. MICA tables can be saved as standard text files, enabling their use in other applications. Several important new features have been added to this edition of MICA, including: extended date coverage from 1800 to 2050; a redesigned user interface; a graphical sky map; a phenomena calculator (eclipses, transits, equinoxes, solstices, conjunctions, oppo...

  8. Development of Nautical Almanac at Korea Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In-Woo; Shin, Junho

    1994-12-01

    In Korea Astronomy Observatory, we developed a S/W package to compile the Korean Nautical Almanac. We describe the motivation to develop the S/W and explain the S/W package in general terms. In appendix, we describe the procedure to calculate the polaris table in more detail. When we developed the S/W, we paid much attention to produce accurate data. We also made great effort to automate the compilation of Nautical Almanac as far as possible, since the compilation is time consuming labour extensive. As a result, the S/W we developed turns out to be very accurate and efficient to compile Nautical Almanac. In fact, we could compile a Korean Nautical Almanac in a few days.

  9. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (3rd Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Sean E.; Seidelmann, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Publications and software from the the Astronomical Applications Department of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) are used throughout the world, not only in the Department of Defense for safe navigation, but by many people including other navigators, astronomers, aerospace engineers, and geodesists. Products such as The Nautical Almanac, The Astronomical Almanac, and the Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA) are regarded as international standards. To maintain credibility, it is imperative that the methodologies employed and the data used are well documented. "The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter, "The ES") is a major source of such documentation. It is a comprehensive reference book on positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of USNO and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). The first edition of The ES appeared in 1961, and the second followed in 1992. Several major changes have taken place in fundamental astronomy since the second edition was published. Advances in radio observations allowed the celestial reference frame to be tied to extragalactic radio sources, thus the International Celestial Reference System replaced the FK5 system. The success of ESA's Hipparcos satellite dramatically altered observational astrometry. Improvements in Earth orientation observations lead to new precession and nutation theories. Additionally, a new positional paradigm, no longer tied to the ecliptic and equinox, was accepted. Largely because of these changes, staff at USNO and HMNAO decided the time was right for the next edition of The ES. The third edition is now available; it is a complete revision of the 1992 book. Along with subjects covered in the previous two editions, the book also contains descriptions of the major advancements in positional astronomy over the last 20 years, some of which are

  10. 150 Years of the American Nautical Almanac Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    1999-05-01

    In 1849, 50 years before the founding of the American Astronomical Society, the American Nautical Almanac Office was established in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Although the British had published a Nautical Almanac since 1767, both patriotic and practical reasons lay behind the founding of an American Nautical Almanac Office in the context of the growth of science in the United States. Lt. Charles Henry Davis served as the first Superintendent. In 1866 the Office moved to Washington, D. C., and beginning in 1893 it was physically located at the new (present) site of the U. S. Naval Observatory, of which it became a part over the next few years, and where it has since remained. >From its beginning the work of the Office was much broader than the publication of data for navigation. The Office also sought to improve the theories of motion of the Sun, Moon and planets, and the astronomical constants on which the Almanac was based. Under Simon Newcomb, Superintendent of the Office from 1877 until his retirement in 1897, a consistent system of constants was devised; some of these constants remained unchanged until 1984. The American Nautical Almanac Office was dominated before World War II by its Directors William S. Eichelberger (1910-1929) and A. James Robertson (1929-1939). During the War years Wallace J. Eckert introduced punched card techniques to the Office. Gerald Clemence used these techniques to improve planetary theories during his years as Director (1945-1958), and also ushered in the era of the electronic computer for both research and production. International collaboration was a hallmark of the tenures of Clemence, Edgar Woolard, Raynor Duncombe and P. K. Seidelmann, who also implemented changes necessitated by the Space Age. Since 1990 the Nautical Almanac Office has been part of the Astronomical Applications Department of the Naval Observatory.

  11. The Liberating Role of Astronomy in an Old Farmer's Almanac: David Rittenhouse's "Useful Knowledge" and a Benjamin Banneker Almanac for 1792

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Theodore, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, astronomy met theology and political ethics in almanacs. As presented in early New England almanacs of the farmer's type, astronomy was deity-affirming and liberty-oriented. The old English label for astronomy that affirms theology was "Astro-theology" (William Derham, 1715). The New England rendering of astro-theology was so strongly oriented towards liberty that it can now be labeled astro-liberation theology. This 21st century label is appropriate because 18th century New England printers and astronomers used astronomy to demonstrate the glory of the Creator (astro-theology) and to encourage liberation from colonialism and slavery (astro-liberation theology). A philosophy of astronomy as "useful knowledge' expressed by David Rittenhouse in 1775 - and implicit in a Benjamin Banneker almanac for 1792 - included liberty-oriented visions of planet Earth as seen from outer space, and liberty-oriented visions of intelligent life on other planets orbiting other stars.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of the ALMANAC Model's Input Variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yun; James R.Kiniry; Jimmy R.Williams; CHEN You-min; LIN Er-da

    2002-01-01

    Crop models often require extensive input data sets to realistically simulate crop growth. Development of such input data sets can be difficult for some model users. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of variables in input data sets for crop modeling. Based on published hybrid performance trials in eight Texas counties, we developed standard data sets of 10-year simulations of maize and sorghum for these eight counties with the ALMANAC (Agricultural Land Management Alternatives with Numerical Assessment Criteria) model. The simulation results were close to the measured county yields with relative error only 2.6%for maize, and - 0.6% for sorghum. We then analyzed the sensitivity of grain yield to solar radiation, rainfall, soil depth, soil plant available water, and runoff curve number, comparing simulated yields to those with the original, standard data sets. Runoff curve number changes had the greatest impact on simulated maize and sorghum yields for all the counties. The next most critical input was rainfall, and then solar radiation for both maize and sorghum, especially for the dryland condition. For irrigated sorghum, solar radiation was the second most critical input instead of rainfall. The degree of sensitivity of yield to all variables for maize was larger than for sorghum except for solar radiation. Many models use a USDA curve number approach to represent soil water redistribution, so it will be important to have accurate curve numbers, rainfall, and soil depth to realistically simulate yields.

  13. Almanacs and schedules for teachers Almanaques y calendarios para maestros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miryam CARREÑO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analise the contents of the almanacs for school teachers published in the second half of the 19th century (after the enactment of the first Ley de Instrucción Pública and the first decades of the 20th century. These little books, specially written for teachers, played an important role in the making of the school time. They were a good instrument for teachers in organising school work, synchronizying it with the requirements of the Central Administration through the spreading or educational legislation. They were used as well in divulgating professional matters for the teacher's interest: grammar, literature, geography, science... They also have some pages in which textbooks and teaching material are advertised.En este artículo analizamos los contenidos de los almanaques para maestros publicados en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX (después de la puesta en marcha de la primera ley de Instrucción pública y primeras décadas del siglo XX. Estos libritos, especialmente escritos para maestros, juegan un papel muy importante en la construcción del tiempo escolar. Constituyeron un excelente instrumento para los maestros en lo que respecta a la organización del trabajo escolar, sincornizándola con las demandas de la administración central en el desarrollo de la legislación educativa. También se utilizaron para difundir temas de interés para los maestros referentes a diversas disciplinas: gramática, literatura, geografía, ciencias... Dedican, además, algunas páginas para anunciar manuales escolares y material de enseñanza.

  14. Almanac W22340a from Uruk: the Latest Datable Cuneiform Tablet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hunger; T. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a transliteration and translation of Tablet W22340a, an astronomical Almanac from Uruk. Based on the astronomical predictions in the text we suggest that it must be dated to the year 326 in the Arsacid Era, equivalent to 79/80 AD. This makes W22340a the latest datable cune

  15. Verification of the Astronomical Almanac's algorithm for approximate the position of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Shen, Guotu; Cai, Jiguang; Dong, Zhanhai; Gao, Jing

    2013-09-01

    With the consumption of the resources, it's important to develop clean solar energy that can solve the problem of energy shortage. Obtaining an accurate position of the sun is the premise of using the solar energy efficiently. An accurate solar position includes two factors that are elevation and azimuth. In the paper, Joseph J. Michalsky's algorithm for calculation of the solar position is verified that is taken from the American Astronomical Almanac. The algorithm has been written into program by Joseph J. Michalsky in FORTRAN. In the paper, it's has been adapted to visual C++ that can calculate the solar elevation and azimuth and errors or some places that less accurate are corrected. The Chinese Astronomical Almanac for the year 1985 doesn't tabulate elevation and azimuth. The quantities needed to calculate elevation and azimuth are the right ascension, the declination and the Greenwich mean sidereal time that are tabulated in the Almanac. Comparing those variables that calculated from the algorithm with the data from the Chinese Astronomical Almanac for the year 1985, it can be found that the biggest difference of the two ways is only 0.01°, 0.01° and 0.0001h respectively, which prove the accuracy of the algorithm indirectly. The measured data that only include elevation comes from Basic Data of Geography in China written by Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Comparing elevation given by the algorithm with the measured data, it shows that the algorithm can be accurate calculating the position of the sun in some extent. And the paper shows in detail the conversion from the local real solar time to Universal Time because the time in Basic Data of Geography in China is the local real solar time. Finally we notice that the 0.01° accuracy mentioned by other paper is not the accuracy of the elevation and azimuth of the sun, but the accuracy of the right ascension and declination. It's easy to understand why the difference of the results

  16. Almanac 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Pascal; Franzen, Olaf; Lansky, Alexandra J

    2014-01-01

    Recent innovations in interventional cardiology have dramatically expanded the therapeutic options for patients with cardiac conditions. Interventional cardiology is no longer limited to the treatment of coronary artery disease but allows also treatment of valvular disease, stroke prevention, hyp...... strokes, and renal denervation for resistant hypertension. This review explains the basic principles of these procedures, the most important clinical evidence, and also provides additional recent clinical data on each of them.......Recent innovations in interventional cardiology have dramatically expanded the therapeutic options for patients with cardiac conditions. Interventional cardiology is no longer limited to the treatment of coronary artery disease but allows also treatment of valvular disease, stroke prevention......, hypertension, etc. One of the most important new treatment options is the percutaneous treatment for aortic valve stenosis (transcatheter aortic valve implantation), since aortic valve disease is a rather common problem in elderly patients, with many of them at high risk for surgery. Similarly, mitral...

  17. The Almanac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Modern revolutions, in all of their historical varieties and doctrines, perplex many of us. In the hopes of providing some elements for profitable reflection, 23 quotes from famous sources are provided. For example; "Every act of rebelling expresses a nostalgia for innocence" (Albert Camus). (NW)

  18. Book review: "Astronomical almanac", 2016, vol. 62. Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev. ISBN 978-966-02-7765-6,2015, 286 p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    The first part of the almanac gives the 2016 calendar, description of calendar systems used by various peoples in the world, ephemerides for the Sun, the Moon, and planets, moments of rising and setting for the Sun and the Moon, planetary configurations, the visibility of planets and Jupiter's satellites on the sky, some data on variable stars, comets, occultations of stars by the Moon and asteroids, meteor showers, eclipses, and other celestial phenomena. The second part informs us on the current state of investigations in some fields of astronomy, and gives some memorable dates in history of astronomy and cosmonautics. The almanac may be used as a handbook by specialists in astronomy and related sciences, by school teachers, students, pupils, amateur astronomers etc.

  19. The Dissolution of the Mexican-American Border and Redefinition of Chicano/a /Mexican Identity in Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, David

    2006-01-01

    In Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead, notions of Mexican identity are deconstructed. This article analyzes how Silko, through a variety of characters and sub-plotlines, brings to the surface hidden tensions in the contsruction of Mexican identity through the melding of the sangre limpia o...... of the conquering Spanish and the subjugated indigenous peoples of Mexico. It explores the implications of apocolyptic consequences of a reawakening of indigenous identity among Mexicans living on both sides of the Mexican-US border....

  20. Angelita La Escapía e a fotografia viva de Marx: feminismo e passados presentes em Almanac of the Dead Angelita La Escapía and the Live Photograph of Marx: Feminism and Present-Pasts in Almanac of the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÚCIA HELENA DE AZEVEDO VILELA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Análise de Almanac of the Dead à luz de teorias feministas e de uma perspectiva pós-moderna segundo a qual a noção de passados presentes é enfatizada através da exploração da metáfora da fotografia viva de Marx, mostrada no romance. A paixão da personagem Angelita pela fotografia de Marx é vista como uma forma de síntese entre a percepção indígena do tempo como eternos presentes - que é também resistência à opressão, uma vez que o passado não é jamais esquecido - e os conceitos marxistas de tempo e história.This article offers an analysis of Almanac of the Dead, by Angelita La Escapía, in light of feminist theories and of a post-modern perspective on time, emphasizing the notion of present pasts through the exploration of the metaphor of a live photograph of Marx, shown in the novel. The passion the character Angelita demonstrates for the photograph of Marx is seen as form of synthesis between the Native American perception of time as eternal presents -- which is also resistance against oppression insofar as the past is never forgotten --, and the Marxist concepts of time and history.

  1. 简析美国《老农夫年鉴》的产业经营与创新%The Business Innovation of The Old Farmer’s Almanac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘书峰

    2015-01-01

    美国《老农夫年鉴》是世界上连续出版最久的年鉴。从1792起一直坚持每年连续出版,至今已有200多年的历史。本文介绍了美国《老农夫年鉴》在销售、广告、推广等方面的手段,研究了《老农夫年鉴》在产业经营方面的创新策略———多媒体发展、衍生产品开发以及品牌营销策略等,并结合中国年鉴的实际情况,提出打造名鉴、强鉴的产业经营策略。%The Old Farmer’s Almanac is the oldest continuously published periodical since 1792. The article introduces the retail, advertisement, and public relations of The Old Farmer’s Almanac, and studies its innovation strategy: multi-media de-velopment, derivative products and brand strategy. The article also suggests business strategy of Chinese almanacs and year-books.

  2. Angelita La Escapía e a fotografia viva de Marx: feminismo e passados presentes em Almanac of the Dead Angelita La Escapía and the Live Photograph of Marx: Feminism and Present-Pasts in Almanac of the Dead

    OpenAIRE

    LÚCIA HELENA DE AZEVEDO VILELA

    2002-01-01

    Análise de Almanac of the Dead à luz de teorias feministas e de uma perspectiva pós-moderna segundo a qual a noção de passados presentes é enfatizada através da exploração da metáfora da fotografia viva de Marx, mostrada no romance. A paixão da personagem Angelita pela fotografia de Marx é vista como uma forma de síntese entre a percepção indígena do tempo como eternos presentes - que é também resistência à opressão, uma vez que o passado não é jamais esquecido - e os conceitos marxistas de t...

  3. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  4. A infância nos almanaques: nacionalismo, saúde e educação (Brasil 1920-1940 Childhood in almanacs: nationalism, health and education (Brazil 1920-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Kuhlmann Jr.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Os almanaques de farmácia foram veículos de difusão não só de medicamentos, mas também de ideias relacionadas com o projeto de modernização da sociedade brasileira. No período entre 1920 a 1940, eles se dedicaram a vários temos vinculados à infância. Associava-se o progresso a uma infância bem-cuidada e disciplinada. As amas de leite e o tipo de amamentação foram objetos de obstinados debates. Além disso, nota-se a preocupação com os aspectos educacionais em atividades como jogos e passatempos, assim como em artigos e editoriais sobre campanhas de alfabetização, a manutenção de escolas e a publicação de materiais didáticos, como abecedários e tabuadas. A mulher é interlocutora privilegiada, tanto em relação aos cuidados e indicações de medicamentos e alimentos quanto nas atividades educativas propostas para as crianças. Cuidar e educar a criança simbolizava a introdução de padrões modernizadores no Brasil.The pharmacy almanacs were a source of diffusion not only for medicines but also for ideas related with a project for the modernization of the Brazilian society. In the period 1920-1940 such publications dealt with several topics regarding childhood. Progress was associated with a well-cared and disciplined childhood. Wet-nurses and the type of breastfeeding were the subject of stubborn debates. Besides, it was also common the concern with educational issues in activities like games and pastimes, as well as in articles and texts about literacy campaigns, school maintenance and the publication of didactic materials, alphabets and multiplication tables. The woman is a privileged addressee, both on issues related with medicine and food care, and also on educative activities aimed at children. To care for and to educate a child symbolized the introduction of patterns that modernized many aspects of the Brazilian society.

  5. 基于天文年历算法的7.5kW聚光光伏追日系统研制%Development of the 7.5 kW Concentrating Photovoltaics Sun Tracker System Based on the Astronomic Almanac's Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程新党; 李宏; 陈静; 毛军

    2012-01-01

    For studying the application of concentrator photovoltaic technology, a new low cost double axis sun tracker system based on the astronomical almanac's algorithm was designed. The controller using a 32 bit MCU STM32F103RC, with motor encoder position feedback, a closed-loop system was constructed. By local time, longitude and latitude, sun's position was worked out, and corresponding action was taken by the tracker to control push rod and reverse turning dish. The influences caused by all kinds of errors to system were analyzed, and the system was worked in long term and was checked by method of shadow of a pole. The results show that the sun tracker system runs stably with precise tracking, and satisfies the multi-time needs of CPV electric generator system.%为了研究聚光光伏发电技术的应用,提出并研制了一种基于天文年历算法的低成本双轴追日系统.追日系统采用STM32F103RC微控制器,与电机编码器位置反馈构成闭环系统,根据时间、经纬度计算出太阳的位置,控制推杆和回转盘动作实施跟踪.分析了各种误差对系统的影响,并通过圭测法检测和长时间运行.结果表明:该追日系统运行稳定,跟踪精确,满足高倍聚光光伏发电系统的需求.

  6. ANUARIO 2012: LA TERAPIA CELULAR EN LA ENFERMEDAD CARDIOVASCULAR. LAS REVISTAS DE LAS SOCIEDADES NACIONALES PRESENTAN UNA SELECCIÓN DE LAS INVESTIGACIONES QUE HAN IMPULSADO AVANCES RECIENTES EN CARDIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA / Almanac 2012: Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease. The National Society Journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in Clinical Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mathur

    2013-01-01

    engineered´ cell-that have been developed to display a phenotype that will fur-ther enhance the myocardial repair/salvage process. This almanac review covers the latest basic research that may soon have application to humans as well as the results of the latest clinical trials.

  7. Cold War America, 1946 to 1990. Almanacs of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ross

    This book offers an in-depth look at U.S. culture during a 45-year period when the threat of nuclear war loomed over millions worldwide, and post-World War II ideological tensions took form as an ever-deepening chasm separating two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The book finds that the national and global societies that…

  8. The lesson-almanac «Ivan the Terrible: light or darkness?»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrosimova T. V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The 16-th century became a significant phenomenon in our history when,very often the combination of words «Russia of the 16-th century» is replaced by the other one: « Russia of Ivan Terrible». The figure of the tsar, who had reigned for half a centure, became the symbol of the epoch.The lesson, held in the 10-th form, is devoted to the study of Ivan Ivs personality.

  9. Almanac of the contributions of the 49. meeting of the chemical societies. Selected papers from Vol. 1,2,3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with chemical problems. The book (Vol. 1) consists of the sections: (A) Analytical chemistry; (B) Inorganic chemistry. The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (C) Physical chemistry; (D) History of the chemistry; (E) Food chemistry and technology; (D) Environmental chemistry; (E) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology; (H) Synthetic polymers. The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (I) Fibres, Textile and foil materials; (J) Wood, pulp, paper; (K) Organic Chemistry; (L) Bio-organic chemistry; (M) Didactic of the chemistry

  10. 51. Meeting of the Chemical Societies: Almanac of Contributions, Vol. Program, 1, 2, 3, 4 Molecular Models (Workshop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication has been set up as a abstracts of the meeting dealing with different chemical problems. The book (Vol. 1) consists of the sections: All-plenary lectures (9 papers); (D) History of the chemistry (14); (K) Didactics of chemistry (32); The book (Vol. 2) consists of the sections: (A) Analytical chemistry (48); (B) Inorganic chemistry (75); (C) Physical chemistry (27); (F) Nuclear chemistry and radioecology (12); (L) Environmental chemistry and toxicology (33); (M) Agricultural chemistry (20). The book (Vol. 3) consists of the sections: (E) Wood, pulp, paper (15); (G) Macromolecular chemistry (42); (H) Organic chemistry, bio-organic chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry (96); (I) Food chemistry and biochemistry (34); (J) Textile, fibres and foil materials (9). The book (Vol. 4) consists of the workshop Molecular models (3 papers)

  11. Almanac 2012: interventional cardiology. The national society journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in clinical cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meier Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of interventional cardiology continues to progress quickly. The efficacy of percutaneous interventions with newer generation drug-eluting stents has advanced a lot over the last decade. This improvement in stent performance has broadened the level of indication towards more complex interventions such as left main and multivessel PCI. Major improvements continue in the field of medical co-therapy such as antiplatelet therapies (bivalirudin, prasugrel, ticagrelor and this will further improve outcomes of PCI. The same is true for intravascular imaging such as ultrasound IVUS and optical coherence tomography OCT. However, interventional cardiology has become a rather broad field, also including alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, etc. At the moment, the fastest growing area is the structural interventions, especially for aortic valve stenosis (transcatheter aortic valve implantation TAVI and for mitral regurgitation (mitral clipping.This review covers recent advances in all these different fields of interventional cardiology.

  12. Plunkett's E-Commerce & Internet Business Almanac 2012 E-Commerce & Internet Business Industry Market Research, Statistics, Trends & Leading Companies

    CERN Document Server

    Plunkett, Jack W

    2012-01-01

    Market research guide to the e-commerce and Internet business-a tool for strategic planning, competitive intelligence, employment searches or financial research. Contains trends analysis, globalization, trade, statistical tables and an industry glossary. Includes our profiles of nearly 450 top e-commerce and internet industry firms, featuring addresses, phone numbers and executive names.

  13. Ben Franklin. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Benjamin Franklin's "Poor Richard's Almanac," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Ben Franklin is known, among other things, for his wit and wisdom; that Franklin published an almanac for 25 years; and he scattered aphorisms throughout the almanac. The main activity in the lesson is for students…

  14. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH About Mission The NIH Director Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Small Text Medium Text Large Text Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder According ...

  15. Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH About Mission The NIH Director Organization Budget History NIH Almanac Public Involvement Outreach & Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Progeria Small Text Medium Text Large Text Progeria YESTERDAY Thirty years ...

  16. ANUARIO 2012: CIRUGÍA CARDÍACA EN ADULTOS. LAS REVISTAS DE LAS SOCIEDADES NACIONALES PRESENTAN UNA SELECCIÓN DE LAS INVESTIGACIONES QUE HAN IMPULSADO AVANCES RECIENTES EN CARDIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA / Almanac 2012: Adult cardiac surgery. The National Society Journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in Clinical Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Bridgewater

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Esta revisión abarca las más importantes publicaciones sobre cirugía cardíaca en adultos en los últimos años, incluida la base de la evidencia actual para la revascularización quirúrgica y el uso de la cirugía sin circulación extracorpórea, las arterias mamarias internas bilaterales y la extracción endoscópica de la vena. Se describen los cambios en la cirugía convencional de la válvula aórtica junto a los resultados de los ensayos clínicos y los registros para la implantación de válvula aórtica transcatéter, así como la introducción de métodos novedosos y menos cruentos de la cirugía convencional de reemplazo valvular aórtico. Se considera también la cirugía para la valvulopatía mitral, con énfasis en la cirugía para la insuficiencia mitral degenerativa asintomática. / Abstract This review covers the important publications in adult cardiac surgery in the last few years, including the current evidence base for surgical revascularisation and the use of off-pump surgery, bilateral internal mammary arteries and endoscopic vein harvesting. The changes in conventional aortic valve surgery are described alongside the outcomes of clinical trials and registries for transcatheter aortic valve implantation, and the introduction of less invasive and novel approaches of conventional aortic valve replacement surgery. Surgery for mitral valve disease is also considered, with particular reference to surgery for asymptomatic degenerative mitral regurgitation.

  17. ANUARIO 2012: CARDIOLOGÍA INTERVENCIONISTA. LAS REVISTAS DE LAS SOCIEDADES NACIONALES PRESENTAN UNA SELECCIÓN DE LAS INVESTIGACIONES QUE HAN IMPULSADO AVANCES RECIENTES EN CARDIOLOGÍA CLÍNICA / Almanac 2012: Interventional Cardiology. The National Society Journals present selected research that has driven recent advances in Clinical Cardiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Meier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El campo de la cardiología intervencionista sigue avanzando rápidamente. La eficacia de las intervenciones percutáneas con las nuevas generaciones de stents liberadores de fármacos ha avanzado mucho en la última década. Esta mejora en el rendimiento del stent ha ampliado el nivel de indicación hacia intervenciones más complejas tales como intervencionismo del tronco coronario izquierdo y de múltiples vasos. En el campo del tratamiento médico coadyuvante continúan los grandes avances, como lo es el tratamiento antiplaquetario (bivalirudina, prasugrel, ticagrelor que mejorará aún más los resultados del intervencionismo coronario percutáneo. Lo mismo ocurre para la imagenología intravascular como es el caso del ultrasonido intravascular y la tomografía de coherencia óptica. Sin embargo, la cardiología intervencionista se ha convertido en un campo bastante amplio, que incluye también la ablación septal con alcohol para la miocardiopatía hipertrófica obstructiva, etc. En la actualidad, las intervenciones estructurales constituyen el área de mayor crecimiento, sobre todo para la estenosis válvular aórtica (implantación de válvula aórtica transcatéter y la regurgitación mitral (clipping mitral. En esta revisión se tratan los avances recientes en todos estos diferentes campos de la cardiología intervencionista / Abstract: The field of interventional cardiology continues to progress quickly. The efficacy of percutaneous interventions with newer generation drug-eluting stents has advanced a lot over the last decade. This improvement in stent performance has broadened the level of indication towards more complex interventions such as left main and multi-vessel PCI. Major improvements continue in the field of medical co-therapy such as antiplatelet therapies (bivalirudin, prasugrel, ticagrelor and this will further improve outcomes of PCI. The same is true for intravascular imaging such as ultrasound IVUS and optical coherence tomography OCT. However, interventional cardiology has become a rather broad field, also including alcohol septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, etc. At the moment, the fastest growing area is the structural interventions, especially for aortic valve stenosis (transcatheter aortic valve implantation TAVI and for mitral regurgitation (mitral clipping. This review covers recent advances in all these different fields of interventional cardiology.

  18. Distinguished Books. Notable Books of 2002; Best Books for Young Adults; Audiobooks for Young Adults; Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers; Notable Children's Books; Notable Children's Videos; Notable Recordings for Children; Notable Software for Children; Bestsellers of 2002; Literary Prizes, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryles, Daisy; Riippa, Laurele; Ink, Gary

    2003-01-01

    Includes bibliographies of notable books of 2002, including fiction, nonfiction, and poetry; books for young adults, including fiction, nonfiction, audiobooks, and titles for reluctant readers; notable books for children; videos for children; children's recordings and software; bestsellers, fiction and nonfiction; paperback bestsellers; almanacs,…

  19. Domestic Resistance: Gardening, Mothering, and Storytelling in Leslie Marmon Silko's "Gardens in the Dunes"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Leslie Marmon Silko began her most recent work, "Gardens in the Dunes" (1999), intending to write a novel that would not be political. Following the publication of "Almanac of the Dead" (1992), which was simultaneously hailed as one of the most important books of the twentieth century and condemned for its angry self-righteousness, Silko…

  20. Putting History at the Core: History and Literature in Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    When environmental studies programs broaden their curricular offerings into the humanities, their first stop is often environmental literature, particularly classics such as Henry David Thoreau's "Walden," Aldo Leopold's "A Sand County Almanac," and Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." Environmental literature courses consider many of the works of…

  1. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Institutes, Centers & Offices NIH Office of the Director Directors of NIH Institutes and Centers Mailing Addresses for ... Us Explore NIH More » Quick Links The NIH Director The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® ...

  2. Talking to Your Doctor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Institutes, Centers & Offices NIH Office of the Director Directors of NIH Institutes and Centers Mailing Addresses for ... Us Explore NIH More » Quick Links The NIH Director The NIH Almanac NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ® ...

  3. Into the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Provides fully developed library media activities that are designed to be used with specific curriculum units. Highlights include elementary school activities for reading and language arts (using the "World Almanac," identifying a story's sequence of events, and using autobiographies); science (causes of wind and learning about squirrels); and…

  4. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  5. FCJ-183 iHootenanny: A Folk Archeology of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Adam Svec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper excavates two models of communication that can be found littered across the intertwining histories of folk revivalism and digital culture in the United States. First I examine the Hootenanny, initially a form of rent party made popular in New York City in the 1940s by the group the Almanac Singers, which constituted a complex site of convergence of a range interests, styles, media, and performance genres. Second, I explore how the utopian vision of a community joined in song has been taken up recently by ‘social music’ iPhone apps made by the developer Smule. I will ultimately consider how the mediation idealised by the Almanacs has trickled down to a narcissistic will-to-be-‘in touch’ in mainstream digital culture, making the Hootenanny a virtual path untaken in the history of mobile communication.

  6. An Ecological Probe into Land Ethics by Aldo Leopold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白虎跃

    2015-01-01

    Aldo Leopold has gained considerable repute as the initiator of eco-conservationism and been globally known as the father of American wilderness governance."Land ethics",which possesses paramount importance to eco-systems,is brought forth in his Sand Country Almanac.This thesis mainly touches upon the engendering,contents and significance of the thoughts to nowadays society by means of which the contemporary values of ecological civilization embodied in"land ethics"can be concluded provokingly.

  7. An Ecological Probe into Land Ethics by Aldo Leopold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白虎跃

    2015-01-01

    Aldo Leopold has gained considerable repute as the initiator of eco-conservationism and been globally known as the father of American wilderness governance.“Land ethics”,which possesses paramount importance to eco-systems,is brought forth in his Sand Country Almanac.This thesis mainly touches upon the engendering,contents and significance of the thoughts to nowadays society by means of which the contemporary values of ecological civilization embodied in“land ethics”can be concluded provokingly.

  8. HISTÓRIA DA EDUCAÇÃO: A PUBLICIDADE COMO FONTE DO CENTENÁRIO COLLEGIO IMACULADA CONCEIÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Morais Limeira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Historiography of Education has been interested in deepening the perception that today has about the presence and effects of educational institution in Brazil. Indeed, it has pointed to various forms of school organization, formal or informal. Characterized as one of these initiatives, the Collegio Immaculate Conception was founded in 1854. Therefore, we propose the objective reflection onthe history of this centuries-old institution, which suggests the role of the Catholic Church in education in the nineteenth century. To be able to work, we focus on advertising as a source referring two forms: the Laemmert Almanac (1844-1889 and the newspaper The Apostle (1866 to 1893.

  9. Maximilian Hell and the Northernmost Transit of Venus Expedition of 1769

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botez, E.

    2004-12-01

    A short biography of the Jesuit astronomer Maximilian Hell (1720-1792), founder and director of the Astronomical Observatory in Vienna and editor of the Viennese Astronomical Almanac is presented. He was the leader of the expedition to Vardö Island for observing the transit of Venus of 1769. The journey of the participants, the preparations for observing the important phenomenon and its successful observations are described. Hell's scientific merits won him the membership in several European Academies, and his name is found on the lunar maps.

  10. Prvo slovensko oglaševalno besedilo iz l. 1794 in njegov avtor Valentin Vodnik (1758-1819)

    OpenAIRE

    Korošec, Tomo

    1999-01-01

    The article analyzes a German-Slovene text of 1794, otherwise known as a document from the history of the Slovene book trade. It is an advertisment which in a form of a flyer advertised the publication of the first issue of Vodnik's almanac Velika pratika. The author of the Slovene translation (it can be assumed that the author of the German text was Korn, whose name is signed under the text) has not been identified. The article attempts to prove that the author of this text is Valentin Vodni...

  11. Error Minimization of Polynomial Approximation of Delta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Islam Sana; Sadiq Muhammad; Qureshi Muhammad Shahid

    2008-09-01

    The difference between Universal time (UT) and Dynamical time (TD), known as Delta ( ) is tabulated for the first day of each year in the Astronomical Almanac. During the last four centuries it is found that there are large differences between its values for two consecutive years. Polynomial approximations have been developed to obtain the values of for any time of a year for the period AD 1620 to AD 2000 (Meeu 2000) as no dynamical theories describe the variations in . In this work, a new set of polynomials for is obtained for the period AD 1620 to AD 2007 that is found to produce better results compared to previous attempts.

  12. Danish TV Christmas calendars: Folklore, myth and cultural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...... in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal/‘Christmas...

  13. Sport Management and Marketing: Overview and Recommendation for Future Research. [Gestión y marketing deportivo: Revisión y recomendación para investigaciones futuras].

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Jae Ko

    2013-01-01

    The sport industry is a large and fast growing industry. The U.S. market only counted for as much as $400-435 billion in 2012 (Plunkett’s Sport Industry Almanac). The conventional definition of the industry includes “the products offered to its buyers are sport, fitness, recreation, or leisure-related and may be activities, goods, services, people, places, or ideas” (Pitts & Stotlar, 1996, p.3). However, today’s sport market is extending its border by engulfing the entertainment industry and ...

  14. A novel assistance data processing method for AGPS location system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Jian-jun; XIA Ying; Haeyoung Bae

    2007-01-01

    A method for efficiently transmitting location assistance information to an MS (mobile station) over a control channel with minimal impact on the capacity of the control channel. A location server provides a difference between satellite positions that have been computed using Almanac data and Ephemeris data. Sending only the difference between the positions and satellite clock corrections computed using the two different data types. The total amount of information to be transmitted to a MS is significantly reduced. Furthermore, by providing rate of change information, the method allows the location assistance information to remain valid for a relatively long time after it has been received by the MS.

  15. Verification of the Calendar Days of the Joseon Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Astronomical data making such as forming a calendar, period of day, determining the time of rising/setting of the sun and the onset of twilight are essential in our daily lives. Knowing the calendar day of the past is particularly crucial for studying the history of a clan or a nation. To verify previous studies in the calendar day of the Joseon dynasty (1392 -- 1910), we investigate the sexagenary cycle of the new moon day (i.e., the first day in a lunar month) by using sources such as results of the calculations using the Datong calendar (a Chinese Calendar of the Ming Dynasty) and the data of Baekjungryeok (a Perpetual Calendar; literally, a one hundred-year almanac). Compared with the study of Ahn et al., we find that as many as 17 sexagenary cycles show discrepancies. In the cases of nine discrepancies, we find that the sexagenary cycles of this study are identical to those of the almanacs at that time. In addition, we study five sexagenary cycles by using the historical accounts of Joseon Wangjo Sillok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty), Seungjeongwon Ilgi (Daily Reports of Royal Secretariat), Chungung Ilgi (Logs of Crown Prince), and so forth. For the remaining discrepancies, we present historical literature supporting the results of this study. This study will greatly contribute to the identification of the lunisolar calendar days during the Joseon dynasty as the dates of the modern (i.e., Gregorian) calendar.

  16. Colonial American Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2007-12-01

    While a foundation of German scientific methods enabled the rapid growth of North American Astronomy in the nineteenth century, during the seventeenth and most of the eighteenth centuries, the colonial men of science looked only to the English mother country for scientific patronage and guidance. An essay on fundamental astronomy appeared in one of the annual colonial almanacs as early as 1656, telescopic observations were made about 1660 and the first original colonial astronomical work was published by Thomas Danforth on the comet of 1664. By 1671 the Copernican ideas were so espoused at Harvard College that a physics class refused to read a Ptolemaic textbook when it was assigned to them by a senior instructor. At least in the Cambridge-Boston area, contemporary colonialist had access to the most recent scientific publications from the mother country. Observations of the great comet of 1680 by the Almanac maker, John Foster, reached Isaac Newton and were used and gratefully acknowledged in his Principia. During the seventeenth century the colonial interest in astronomy was more intense than it was for other sciences but colonists still occupied a position in the scientific backwater when compared with contemporary European scientists. Nevertheless, the science of astronomy was successfully transplanted from England to North America in the seventeenth century.

  17. Analysis of physical flows in primary commodity trade. A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How globalization and international trade affect sustainable development and environment has attracted worldwide attention. Associated with the import and export of primary commodities, ecologically important materials have been exchanged among regions and countries. China, having the largest population in the world and the highest economic growth rate in last decades, may have an important influence on global sustainable development through the trade of primary commodities. Using the data from Almanac of China's Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, we analyzed material flows in the trade of primary commodity in China from 1950 to 2001. Our analysis shows that: (1) China has turned from a net exporter of primary commodities to a net importer; (2) minerals and fuels have been the major imports of primary commodities since 1992, just as well as foods and minerals did in 1980s; (3) most of the net imported primary commodities come from Oceania, Africa and Latin America. (author)

  18. Promoting good health in the age of reform: the medical publications of Henry H. Porter of Philadelphia, 1829-32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, T A

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1830s, the Philadelphia publisher Henry H. Porter rapidly published five journals, six books, and an almanac, works having a particular emphasis on health and personal hygiene. Porter's health publications linked the traditional message about the importance of personal hygiene to health to the messages conveyed by the flourishing American reform movements at the time, and his Journal of Health was among the first American medically oriented periodicals published for the layperson. Yet Porter did not survive in the intensely competitive and financially unstable book trade. This study examines Porter's health publications, attempting to explain why he chose to publish what he did, the message(s) his works contained, the audience(s) he tried to reach, and the failure of his business. PMID:11609080

  19. Processos de inserção de analfabetos e semi-alfabetizados no mundo da cultura escrita (1930-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Galvão de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a broader research effort that aims to (reconstruct the reading/listening public of “cordel” literature, between 1930 and 1950, in the State of Pernambuco, north-eastern Brazil. In particular, it has the objective of identifying how was the insertion of illiterate or semi-illiterate people in literacy practices. The “ABC letters”, school textbooks, comic books, police novels and almanacs were the most popular readings of the majority of the public investigated in the research. Some factors seem to contribute for the diversity of forms of contact with the objects of the lettered culture world and their usage, among them, the urban experience, gender, professional occupation and the basic domain of reading ability.

  20. Fusion of Onboard Sensors for Better Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation results of navigation sensors such as integrated navigation system (INS, global navigation satellite system (GNSS and TACAN sensors onboard an aircraft to find the navigation solutions. Mathematical models for INS, GNSS (GPS satellite trajectories, GPS receiver and TACAN characteristics are simulated in Matlab. The INS simulation generates the output for position, velocity and attitude based on aerosond dynamic model. The GPS constellation is generated based on the YUMA almanac data. The GPS dilution of precession (DOP parameters are calculated and the best combination of four satellites (minimum PDOP is used for calculating the user position and velocity. The INS, GNSS, and TACAN solutions are integrated through loosely coupled extended Kalman filter for calculating the optimum navigation solution. The work is starting stone for providing aircraft based augmentation system for required navigation performance in terms of availability, accuracy, continuity and integrity.

  1. GPS自主完好性监测可用性预测系统的设计%Design of GPS Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Availability Prediction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟钢

    2014-01-01

    The GPS Autonomous Integrity Monitoring Availability Prediction System calculates the RAIM availability of GPS satellites ahead, and can serve in the airport. The prediction system utilizes the GPS satellites almanac, the NANU message, the NOTAM message, and airport information to predict GPS satellites RAIM availability. The prediction system has exact forecast result, and easy to engineering application.%GPS自主完好性监测可用性预测系统提前计算GPS卫星的RAIM可用性,可以为机场服务。该预测系统使用GPS卫星历书、NANU报、NOTAM报和机场信息对GPS卫星的RAIM可用性进行预测。该预测系统的预测结果准确,易于工程应用。

  2. Obituary: Alan D. Fiala (1942-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, George

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Alan Dale Fiala, astronomer and expert on solar eclipses, died on May 26, 2010 in Arlington, Virginia, of respiratory failure after a brief illness. He was 67. Fiala had been a staff astronomer at the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., for his entire professional career, where he rose from a position as a summer intern to become the Chief of the Nautical Almanac Office, responsible for annual publications for astronomy and navigation that are used the world over. He retired from the observatory in 2000. Although a childhood case of polio affected his mobility for the rest of his life, he seldom let his physical constraints limit his activities, which were many and varied. Alan Fiala was born in Beatrice, Nebraska on November 9, 1942, the middle son of Emil A. ("John") and Lora Marie Fiala. Fiala's father was a postal clerk and Civil Service examiner. Fiala expressed interest in astronomy at a very young age. He contracted polio when he was 9. He graduated from Beatrice High School in 1960 with a straight-A average and went on to study at Carleton College. He received his B.A. summa cum laude after three years, in 1963, with a major in astronomy and minors in physics and mathematics. He was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, and Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics). In 1962, Alan Fiala obtained a job as a summer intern at the Naval Observatory in Washington, working in the Nautical Almanac Office (NAO). He entered the graduate program at Yale University and continued to work summers at the observatory. He received his Ph.D. in 1968, under Gerald Clemence. His dissertation was titled "Determination of the Mass of Jupiter from a Study of the Motion of 57 Mnemosyne." After receiving his doctorate, Fiala became a permanent member of the Naval Observatory staff. Computers were just being introduced there and he participated in the automation of many procedures used to prepare the annual publications of the Nautical Almanac Office. One of his first assignments was

  3. On Three'Types of Days'in Wheel of Time Calendar Suolangsangmu,Gelang%浅析时轮历中的“三种日”理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索郎桑姆; 格朗

    2014-01-01

    Wheel of time calendar is the core of Tibetan almanac,the theory of'three types of days"are the foundation of wheel of time calendar.From three aspects of solar days and solar days move-ment,space year and solar years movement,and lunar months and lunar movement,the article dis-cusses the Tibetan astronomy and almanac embodied in the theory of'three types of days',analyzes the embodied planetary movement rules represented by the sun and the moon.Based on the relationship of solar days,lunar month and space years,the article analyzes the ideas behind extra days,skip days and 13th months (intercalary ones)in Tibetan calendar.The combination of solar days and lunar days produce the unique structure of extra days and skip days in Tibetan calendar,and the accumulation of extra days and skip days bring about big and small months.The 13th month is caused by the combina-tion of space month and lunar month,the intercalary cycle is the 24th intercalary month of 65th year.%时轮历是藏族天文历算的核心部分,“三种日”理论则是时轮历的基础。从太阳日与太阳的周日视运动、宫年与太阳的周年视运动、太阴月与月亮视运动三个方面论述“三种日”理论所体现的藏族天文历算之天文观,分析该理论所体现的以太阳和月亮为典型代表的天体运动规律,根据太阳日、太阴月和宫年之间的关系分析藏历历法中重日、缺日和闰月的设置思想。太阳日与太阴日之间日序的相互配合产生了重日与缺日这种藏历中独有的结构,重日与缺日的积累便形成大小月份,闰月则是按宫月与太阴月的配合关系产生,闰章为65年24闰。

  4. On-line Eclipse Resources from the U.S. Naval Observatory: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Amy C.; Bartlett, J. L.; Bell, S.

    2013-01-01

    On 21 August 2017, “…as the last ray of sunlight vanishes, a scene of unexampled beauty, grandeur, and impressiveness…” (Newcomb 1890) will break upon fortunate observers along a narrow band, approximately 73 mi (118 km) wide, that crosses twelve states from Oregon to South Carolina. In response to growing interest in the first total solar eclipse to sweep the continental United States in nearly a century, the U.S. Naval Observatory has developed an on-line resource center with direct links to 2017-specific services: the 2017 August 21 Total Solar Eclipse page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php). The Solar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php) calculates tables of local circumstances for events visible throughout the world. A similar service is available for lunar eclipses, Lunar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/LunarEclipse.php). The USNO Eclipse Portal (http://astro.ukho.gov.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi) provides diagrams and animations showing the global circumstances for events visible throughout the world and local circumstances for events visible at selected locations. The Web site, which includes both solar and lunar eclipses, is a joint effort with Her Majesty’s Nautical Almanac Office. The Eclipses of the Sun and Moon page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/UpcomingEclipses.php) links to electronic copies of the visibility maps from The Astronomical Almanac. The Eclipse Reference List (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/eclipse_ref.php) is a representative survey of the available literature for those interested in delving into these phenomena, either technically or historically. Less than 7 years after the 2017 total solar eclipse, another such spectacular event will cross a different swath of the continent on April 8, 2024. The U.S. Naval Observatory is planning a resource center for that event as well. If your plans for 2017 are not yet made, visit the 2017 August 21 Total Solar

  5. On-line Eclipse Resources from the U.S. Naval Observatory: Planning Ahead for April 2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Amy C.; Bartlett, J. L.; Bell, S.; Stapleton, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    On 8 April 2024, “…night from mid-day…” (Archilochus, 648 BCE) will appear to fortunate observers along a narrow band, approximately 115 mi (185 km) wide, that crosses fifteen states from Texas to Maine. In response to growing interest in the two total solar eclipses that will sweep the continental United States in the next 11 years, the U.S. Naval Observatory has developed an on-line resource center with direct links to 2024-specific services: the 2024 April 8 Total Solar Eclipse page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2024.php). The Solar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php) calculates tables of local circumstances for events visible throughout the world. A similar service is available for lunar eclipses, Lunar Eclipse Computer (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/LunarEclipse.php). The USNO Eclipse Portal (http://astro.ukho.gov.uk/eclbin/query_usno.cgi) provides diagrams and animations showing the global circumstances for events visible throughout the world and local circumstances for events visible at selected locations. The Web site, which includes both solar and lunar eclipses, is a joint effort with Her Majesty’s Nautical Almanac Office. The Eclipses of the Sun and Moon page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/UpcomingEclipses.php) links to electronic copies of the visibility maps from The Astronomical Almanac. The Eclipse Reference List (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/eclipse_ref.php) is a representative survey of the available literature for those interested in delving into these phenomena, either technically or historically. As exciting as the 2024 total solar eclipse, another spectacular event will precede it; a total solar eclipse will cross a different swath of the continent on August 21, 2017. The U.S. Naval Observatory has a resource center for that event as well (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) . If your plans for 2024 are not yet made, visit the 2024 April 8 Total Solar Eclipse

  6. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  7. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  8. The Open Service Signal in Space Navigation Data Comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau-Shiun Jan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS and the United States’ Global Positioning System (GPS. In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems’ SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance.

  9. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V; Popowich, Fred

    2016-01-01

    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms. PMID:27271937

  10. The open service signal in space navigation data comparison of the Global Positioning System and the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2014-08-19

    More and more Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs) have been developed and are in operation. Before integrating information on various GNSSs, the differences between the various systems must be studied first. This research focuses on analyzing the navigation data differences between the Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) and the United States' Global Positioning System (GPS). In addition to explaining the impact caused by these two different coordinate and time systems, this research uses an actual open service signal in space (SIS) for both GPS and BDS to analyze their current system performance. Five data quality analysis (DQA) mechanisms are proposed in this research to validate both systems' SIS navigation data. These five DQAs evaluate the differences in ephemeris and almanac messages from both systems for stability and accuracy. After all of the DQAs, the different issues related to GPS and BDS satellite information are presented. Finally, based on these DQA results, this research provides suggested resolutions for the combined use of GPS and BDS for navigation and guidance.

  11. SUPL support for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narisetty, Jayanthi; Soghoyan, Arpine; Sundaramurthy, Mohanapriya; Akopian, David

    2012-02-01

    Conventional Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers operate well in open-sky environments. But their performance degrades in urban canyons, indoors and underground due to multipath, foliage, dissipation, etc. To overcome such situations, several enhancements have been suggested such as Assisted GPS (A-GPS). Using this approach, orbital parameters including ephemeris and almanac along with reference time and coarse location information are provided to GPS receivers to assist in acquisition of weak signals. To test A-GPS enabled receivers high-end simulators are used, which are not affordable by many academic institutions. This paper presents an economical A-GPS supplement for inexpensive simulators which operates on application layer. Particularly proposed solution is integrated with National Instruments' (NI) GPS Simulation Toolkit and implemented using NI's Labview environment. This A-GPS support works for J2ME and Android platforms. The communication between the simulator and the receiver is in accordance with the Secure User Plane Location (SUPL) protocol encapsulated with Radio Resource Location Protocol (RRLP) applies to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) cellular networks.

  12. Fusion of Onboard Sensors for Better Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Shankar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simulation results of navigation sensors such as integrated navigation system (INS, global navigation satellite system (GNSS and TACAN sensors onboard an aircraft to find the navigation solutions. Mathematical models for INS, GNSS (GPS satellite trajectories, GPS receiver and TACAN characteristics are simulated in Matlab. The INS simulation generates the output for position, velocity and attitude based on aerosond dynamic model. The GPS constellation is generated based on the YUMA almanac data. The GPS dilution of precession (DOP parameters are calculated and the best combination of four satellites (minimum PDOP is used for calculating the user position and velocity. The INS, GNSS, and TACAN solutions are integrated through loosely coupled extended Kalman filter for calculating the optimum navigation solution. The work is starting stone for providing aircraft based augmentation system for required navigation performance in terms of availability, accuracy, continuity and integrity.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.145-152, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4256

  13. História e educação: as relações de gênero em Pelotas no final do século 19 e início do século 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Teresinha Peres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available  Entendendo gênero como elemento constitutivo das relações sociais, a partir da contribuição de Joan Scott, tomo aqui as relações entre homens e mulheres no espaço urbano pelotense no final do século 19 e início do século 20 como foco de análise. Com um corpus de dados empíricos, obtidos em jornais, almanaques, revistas, relatórios do período de estudo, analiso as práticas sociais e culturais de homens e mulheres articulado com suas posições de classe e grupo étnico.Palavras-chave: história, educação, relações de gênero.   Abstract Understanding gender as constitutive element of social relationships, from Joan Scott's contribution, I take here men and women relationships in the urban space of Pelotas in the end of the 19 century and beginning of the 20 century as focus of analysis. With a corpus of empirical data, got in newspapers, almanacs, magazines, reports, of the period in study, I analyze social and cultural practices of men and women articulated with their class position and ethnic group. Keywords: history, education, gender relations.   

  14. The Impact of The Autobiography by Benjamin Franklin on American Soci-ety and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ai-ping

    2015-01-01

    Franklin is an earliest writer in American history and he is the most important writers during American colonial period. The most important works of him are Poor Richard's Almanac and his Autobiography. His works have a tremendous impact on American literature later. What more important is that in his Autobiography he wrote out American dream, the spirit of business and good qualities, and some others. Franklin explained that everyone can get rich by hard work and thrift, and he called on people to come to America to make money. The American dream then became an important theme in American literature. It occurred in many works of many writers in his later time. Since Franklin was such a successful person in many areas, world-renowned inventor, writer, diplomat and one of the leaders of the American war of independence, he brought a tremendous im⁃pact on American society. And because of his success, many Americans later took him as an example and his works were popular and read widely. Both Franklin and his works affected American society deeply.

  15. Sport Management and Marketing: Overview and Recommendation for Future Research. [Gestión y marketing deportivo: Revisión y recomendación para investigaciones futuras].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Jae Ko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The sport industry is a large and fast growing industry. The U.S. market only counted for as much as $400-435 billion in 2012 (Plunkett’s Sport Industry Almanac. The conventional definition of the industry includes “the products offered to its buyers are sport, fitness, recreation, or leisure-related and may be activities, goods, services, people, places, or ideas” (Pitts & Stotlar, 1996, p.3. However, today’s sport market is extending its border by engulfing the entertainment industry and becoming a global cultural phenomenon (Gillentine, 2012.Reflecting the industry’s growth, the academic field of sport management is now in strong demand to educate professionals in the sport industry. Specifically, the special task force of the U.S. National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE and North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM defined sport management as “the field of study offering the specialization training and education necessary for individuals seeking careers in any of the many segments of the industry.” Since the Journal of Sport Management was first published in 1987, 15 scholarly journals emerged to accommodate the demand for effective communication specifically targeted toward sport management and marketing. At the same time, the growing market size of the sport industry as a cultural phenomenon received scholarly attention from other disciplines such as management, marketing and economics (Gillentine, 2012.

  16. Obituary: Julena Steinheider Duncombe, 1911-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. Kenneth

    2004-12-01

    Julena Steinheider Duncombe died on 13 September 2003, just eight days before her 92nd birthday. Julena Steinheider was born September 21, 1911 on a farm in Dorchester, Nebraska and grew up in Goehner, Nebraska. Her parents were Frederick and Ella Beenders Steinheider, and she had four brothers. She began college at the age of 17 and graduated at 21 from Doane College in Crete, Nebraska with a major in mathematics and a minor in astronomy. She started teaching in a one-room schoolhouse, where, with assistance from her family, she started possibly the first school lunch program by fixing lunches on the schoolhouse stove to provide food for children who only had popcorn to eat. Then she taught in Minatare and Scotts Bluff, Nebraska, and in a Japanese Relocation Camp in Wyoming. In 1945 she moved to Washington DC to begin working at the US Naval Observatory (USNO). She was the first woman observer on the 6-inch transit circle. She worked as an observer and mathematician reducing and analyzing observations of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars. At the Naval Observatory she met Raynor Duncombe and married him in Goehner, Nebraska, in January 1948. She resigned from the USNO in 1948 to go with her husband to Yale University. At Yale the Duncombes introduced punched card equipment into the Astronomy Department. Ray also took graduate classes and Julie worked on Astrographic Catalog reductions. Upon returning to USNO in 1950 she joined the Nautical Almanac Office. She supervised the punched card operated typewriter to produce tables of positions of celestial bodies for air and sea navigation. With Dorrit Hoffleit she directed the keypunching of over 150 star catalogs, approximating 1.5 million cards. Several thousand errata to the catalogs were discovered and corrected on the cards and tape versions of the catalogs. This activity was the basis for future stellar databases. From 1963 she was responsible for producing the tabular predictions and maps for solar and lunar

  17. It's About Time:Mark Twain's ``My Watch'' and Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hugh

    2005-09-01

    Over three decades before Einstein's year of miracles, the American humorist Mark Twain published an essay titled "My Watch," in which he recounts his experiences with a previously reliable pocket watch and those who tried to rehabilitate it. He begins his essay by confessing his first error: My beautiful new watch had run eighteen months without losing or gaining, and without breaking any part of its machinery or stopping. I had come to believe it infallible in its judgments about the time of day, and to consider its constitution and its anatomy imperishable. But at last, one night, I let it run down. I grieved about it as if it were a recognized messenger and forerunner of calamity. Twain then sets the watch by guess, and takes it to the "chief jeweler's to set it by the exact time." To Twain's dismay, the jeweler insists on opening it up and adjusting the regulator inside the watch, and the watch begins to gain time. It gained faster and faster day by day. Within a week it sickened to a raging fever, and its pulse went up to a hundred and fifty in the shade. At the end of two months, it had left all the timepieces of the town far in the rear, and was a fraction over thirteen days ahead of the almanac. It was away into November enjoying the snow, while the October leaves were still turning. It hurried up house rent, bills payable, and such things, in such a ruinous way that I could not abide it.

  18. 宋代历法中的置闰算法%Algorithm of intercalary months arrangement in the calendars of the Song Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕艳辉; 唐泉

    2012-01-01

    讨论了由平气定朔注历的宋代历法中,闰月的安排。根据太阳和月亮运动不均匀性改正,建立了朔望月长度的数值模型。通过比较分析2中气间距和朔望月长度,指出由于中气与定朔同日,在4种情况下使得闰月被提前1个月,在极少数的情况下会使闰月提前2个月。这为中国古代历谱的复原与考证提供了直接依据。%The arrangement of intercalary months in the calendars of the Song Dynasty using the method of the level Qi and the real new moon is discussed.According to the corrections of the non-uniform motions of the sun and moon,the numerical model of the lunation length is established.Through comparing and analyzing the lunation length and the interval between one Qi and the following Qi,it is pointed out that since the Qi and the new moon were on the same day,the intercalary month was arranged a month earlier in 4 cases and it was rare to arrange the intercalary month two months ahead of schedule.The direct basis for the restoration and textual research on the ancient Chinese almanac is provided.

  19. 屈辞“羲和”文化再解读%On Cultural Interpretation of the Term “Xihe” in QU Yuan’ s Ci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤洪; 黄关蓉

    2014-01-01

    Xihe is the term used repeatedly in Lisao and Tianwen by QU Yuan, however, its mean-ing is yet disagreed. Shanhaijing explained it as mother sun, the wife of Emperor Jun and Shangshu named it as the almanac officer. In QU Yuan’ s Ci, Dongjun is the sun-god and thus Xihe would be his driver. And QU’ s understanding coordinates with the record of Huainanzi. There are other explanations on Chuci which regard Xihe as sun or the sun-god. By the literary review, Xihe is interpreted as the sun-goddess, then as the wife of Emperor Jun and finally the driver of the sun-god. There is another explana-tion which believes that there exists some tight relationship between Xihe and helios, the ancient Greek sun-god.%屈辞《离骚》与《天问》中多次出现“羲和”,但“羲和”到底指什么,历来岐说不断。《山海经》记载为帝俊妻并日母,《尚书》记载为尧臣天文历官。而在屈辞中,日神为东君,羲和显然为日御,这与《淮南子》记载同。另外,尚有楚辞注家释《离骚》、《天问》“羲和”为太阳或太阳神。通过文献梳理,羲和最初释义当为女性日神,后演变为日神帝俊之妻、后又为日御。此外,羲和与古希腊太阳神赫利俄斯亦似有密切关联。

  20. A Statistical Framework for Automatic Leakage Detection in Smart Water and Gas Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fagiani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, due to the technological improvement of advanced metering infrastructures, water and natural gas grids can be regarded as smart-grids, similarly to power ones. However, considering the number of studies related to the application of computational intelligence to distribution grids, the gap between power grids and water/gas grids is notably wide. For this purpose, in this paper, a framework for leakage identification is presented. The framework is composed of three sections aimed at the extraction and the selection of features and at the detection of leakages. A variation of the Sequential Feature Selection (SFS algorithm is used to select the best performing features within a set, including, also, innovative temporal ones. The leakage identification is based on novelty detection and exploits the characterization of a normality model. Three statistical approaches, The Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM, Hidden Markov Model (HMM and One-Class Support Vector Machine (OC-SVM, are adopted, under a comparative perspective. Both residential and office building environments are investigated by means of two datasets. One is the Almanac of Minutely Power dataset (AMPds, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 1, 10 and 30 min of time resolution; the other is the Department of International Development (DFID dataset, and it provides water and gas data consumption at 30 min of time resolution. The achieved performance, computed by means of the Area Under the Curve (AUC, reaches 90 % in the office building case study, thus confirming the suitability of the proposed approach for applications in smart water and gas grids.

  1. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  2. Bioenergy crop models: Descriptions, data requirements and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Shujiang [ORNL; Zhang, Xuesong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Miguez, Fernando [Iowa State University; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lynd, L. [Dartmouth College; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Field studies that address the production of lignocellulosic biomass as a source of renewable energy provide critical data for the development of bioenergy crop models. A literature survey revealed that 14 models have been used for simulating bioenergy crops including herbaceous and woody bioenergy crops, and for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) crops. These models simulate field-scale production of biomass for switchgrass (ALMANAC, EPIC, and Agro-BGC), miscanthus (MISCANFOR, MISCANMOD, and WIMOVAC), sugarcane (APSIM, AUSCANE, and CANEGRO), and poplar and willow (SECRETS and 3PG). Two models are adaptations of dynamic global vegetation models and simulate biomass yields of miscanthus and sugarcane at regional scales (Agro-IBIS and LPJmL). Although it lacks the complexity of other bioenergy crop models, the environmental productivity index (EPI) is the only model used to estimate biomass production of CAM (Agave and Opuntia) plants. Except for the EPI model, all models include representations of leaf area dynamics, phenology, radiation interception and utilization, biomass production, and partitioning of biomass to roots and shoots. A few models simulate soil water, nutrient, and carbon cycle dynamics, making them especially useful for assessing the environmental consequences (e.g., erosion and nutrient losses) associated with the large-scale deployment of bioenergy crops. The rapid increase in use of models for energy crop simulation is encouraging; however, detailed information on the influence of climate, soils, and crop management practices on biomass production is scarce. Thus considerable work remains regarding the parameterization and validation of process-based models for bioenergy crops; generation and distribution of high-quality field data for model development and validation; and implementation of an integrated framework for efficient, high-resolution simulations of biomass production for use in planning sustainable bioenergy systems.

  3. Powstanie i rozwój filozofii środowiskowej w USA na podstawie poglądów Johna Muira, Aldo Leopolda i J. Bairda Callicota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Pyra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Origin and Development of Environmental Philosophy in the US according to John Muir, Aldo Leopold and J. Baird Callicot. The publication refers to environmental philosophy, which is also called ecological philosophy or ecophilosophy. It shows in what way philosophical reflection on the environment has been shaped in the American tradition. In this context, the views of the thinkers listed below have been presented, analysed and evaluated. John Muir, an astute observer of wild nature, has been presented as an enthusiast and a prophet persuading a return to nature. Muir was a forester under the strong influence of the representatives of transcendentalism. As an activist, he founded national parks that served to preserve virgin areas, and as a writer he popularized the concept of the preservation of wild areas. For many representatives of ecophilosophy, the views of Aldo Leopold, as expressed in his well-known work, A Sand County Almanac, constituted a new pattern of thinking about wild nature. The book itself is almost generally regarded as a bible of environmental philosophy. Leopold, a forester interested in philosophy, created the fundamentals of holistic environmental philosophy, but the theory he developed is not without defects, to which some attention has been paid in this paper. The theory of J. Baird Callicot presents the attitude of an academic philosopher with regard to wild nature. His attitude is fully professional as regards the applied method, thus allowing the author to avoid committing a naturalistic fallacy. Callicot reinterprets the issues of facts and values, because he thinks that the discoveries of the dynamically developing ecology make possible the reformulation of the traditional approach to such issues by utilising a spirit of acceptance, and lead to a shift from is to ought to be

  4. Simon Marius vs. Galileo: Who First Saw Moons of Jupiter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Van Helden, Albert

    2016-10-01

    In his almanac for 1612 and book Mundus Iovalis of 1614, Simon Marius in Germany reported his discovery of moons around Jupiter, which he started writing down in late 1609 in the Julian calendar, which translated to 8 January 1610 in the Gregorian calendar in use by Galileo in Italy. Is Marius to be believed? Galileo certainly did not. But a Dutch jury of experts about three hundred years later reported that they validated the claim that Marius independently discovered the moons of Jupiter one day after Galileo first both saw and wrote down his discovery! There is no doubt that the names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto came from Marius (to whom they were suggested by Kepler). See JMP's Journal for the History of Astronomy article, 46(2), 218-234 (2015).Marius wrote that he had been observing the moons around Jupiter since November 1609 (Julian), using a neighboring nobleman's telescope, which would mean that he actually saw the Jupiter satellites first (though publish or perish). Whether this feat was technically possible comes down to discussions of the capabilities of telescopes in the early 17th century.The quadricentennial of Marius's book was celebrated in Nuremberg with a symposium that is now in press in German with an English translation expected. One of us (AVH) has recently prepared a complete English translation of Marius's book, superseding the partial translation made 100 years ago. There is no evidence that, whether he saw what we now call the Galilean satellites first or not, Marius appreciated their cosmological significance the way that Galileo soon did. And Marius was certainly the first to publish tables of the moons of Jupiter.We thank the Chapin Library of Williams College and the Huntington Library for assistance with first editions of Marius's 1614 book, and we thank Pierre Leich of the Simon Marius Gesellschaft for his consultations.

  5. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  6. Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software (NOVAS) Version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, George H.; Bangert, J.; Bartlett, J. L.; Puatua, W.; Monet, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Software (NOVAS) is a source-code library in Fortran and C that provides common astrometric quantities and transformations. NOVAS calculations are accurate at the sub-milliarcsecond level. It can supply, in one or two subroutine or function calls, the instantaneous celestial position of any star or planet in a variety of coordinate systems. NOVAS also provides access to all of the "building blocks” that go into such computations: single-purpose subroutines for common astrometric algorithms, such as those for precession, nutation, aberration, parallax, etc. The NOVAS package is an easy-to-use facility that can be incorporated into data reduction programs, telescope control systems, and simulations. Production of the U.S. parts of The Astronomical Almanac uses NOVAS. NOVAS Version 3.0 was recently released with extensive revisions to the code in response to recent IAU resolutions on astronomical reference systems, time scales, and Earth rotation models. (USNO Circular 179 describes these IAU resolutions in detail.) NOVAS now incorporates a coherent set of foundational standards for the treatment of astrometric data and the modeling of dynamics in the solar system. This version of NOVAS also improves the accuracy of its star and planet position calculations by including several small effects not previously implemented in the code. In addition, new convenience functions have been added. NOVAS algorithms are based on a rigorous vector and matrix formulation that does not use spherical trigonometry at any point. It treats objects inside and outside the solar system similarly. NOVAS fully supports all ICRS-compatible data, e.g., the Hipparcos, Tycho-2, UCAC, 2MASS and VCS catalogs, the JPL planetary and lunar ephemerides, and IERS Earth orientation measurements. NOVAS, including its User's Guide (USNO Circular 180), is available from the USNO website (http://www

  7. Soil and variety effects on energy use and carbon emissions associated with switchgrass-based ethanol production in Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woli, Prem; Paz, Joel O.; Baldwin, Brian S.; Lang, David J.; Kiniry, James R.

    2012-06-29

    High biomass production potential, wide adaptability, low input requirement, and low environmental risk make switchgrass an economically and ecologically viable energy crop.The inherent variablity in switchgrass productivity due to variations in soil and variety could affect the sustainability and eco-friendliness of switchgrass-based ethanol production. This study examined the soil and variety effects on these variables. Three locations in Mississippi were selected based on latitude and potential acreage. Using ALMANAC, switchgrass biomass yields were simulated for several scenarios of soils and varities. The simulated yields were fed to IBSAL to compute energy use and CO2 emissions in various operations in the biomass supply From the energy and emissions values, the sustainability and eco-friendliness of ethanol production were determined using net energy value (NEV) and carbon credit balance (CCB) as indicators, respectively. Soil and variety effects on NEV and CCB were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results showed significant differences in NEV and CCB across soils and varieties. Both NEV and CCB increased in the direction of heavier to lighter soils and on the order of north-upland , south-upland, north-lowland, and south-lowland varieties. Only north-upland and south-lowland varieties were significantly significantly different because they were different in both cytotype and ecotype. Gaps between lowland and upland varieties were smaller in a dry year than in a wet year. The NEV and CCB increased in the direction of dry to wet year. From south to north, they decreased for lowland cytotypes but increased for upland cytotypes. Thus, the differences among varieties decreased northwards.

  8. The Rift Valley of African Plate in Elasto-Plastic Creeping over Magma Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigehisa

    2016-04-01

    This is a brief note to a problem on the Rift Valley in the eastern Africa. It is said that this valley was formed in an age 20,000,000 years before present though the valley is yet continuing to move eastward at an annual rate of about 5 cm/year in a geographical trend. Adding to some of the scientists tell that the separation threat of the easternAfrica from the mother land of the Africa under the effect of African crust motion over the magma. However, it is now geological understanding that the land of the Africa has been kept its basic coastal configulation in geographic pattern since the time more than 20,000,000 years before present. Sothat, it is hard to consider the above noted African land separation by part could be in the next age in a time scale of 20,000,000 years. As far as, we concern the geographic data obtaoned by the ground based survey of the African typical mountain peaks, the highest mountain peak 5885m (in 1980) is for Kilimanjaro, Kibo Peak though one of the scientific almanacs tells us its peak height as 5890m (in 2009). As for the Mount Kenia, the peak height is as 5199m (in 1980) and 5200m(in 2009). At a glance, it looks to be a trend in altimetry of the African typical mountain. Now, what trends are noted for the peak heights could be taken to suggesting the geological activity on the earth surface to maintain in a spherical shape approximately on the orbit around the Sun. In these several ten years, the digitizing of the data has been promoted even for the topographic patterns on the earth though its time scaling is extremely short comparing to the geological time scaling. Now, it should be found what is effective to monitor any trends of the African crust in motion as well as variations of the mountain peaks.

  9. Hawk and Handsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Peter D.

    2008-05-01

    In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Prince Hamlet states, "I am but mad north-north-west. When the wind is southerly, I know a hawk from a handsaw." This celebrated yet perennially baffling passage is readily understood in the context of the cosmic allegorical interpretation of the play (BAAS 28, 1305, 1996; Hamlet's Universe, 2006). The first direction points from Tycho Brahe's observatory on Hven to the fictional home of the geocentric Pyolemaic worldview at Elsinore, and the second from Hven to the home of Copernican heliocentricism at Wittenberg. The directions correspond to the two influences on Tycho's geo-heliocentric World model. Anyone at Elsinore who advocates the new organon of the New Philosophy is "mad," whereas sanity prevails at Wittenberg. "Hawk" refers to a bird of prey, the leonard, and to Leonard Digges, inventor of the world's first two-element telescope. "Handsaw" refers to the artistic tool necessary to sever the hands depicted in de Gheyn's two quasi-mirror-imaged portraits of Tycho at age 40, which show hands affixed to the wrong arms. Elsewhere in Hamlet, Shakespeare substantiates the New Astronomy through descriptions of planets and stars that could only have been determined telescopically. Therefore, the passage in question contrasts two modes of observing in the early modern era, viz. visual and telescopic. Shakespeare completed writing Hamlet in about 1601 and the Second Quarto appeared in 1604, so the first substantial account of astronomical telescopy is now over 400 years old. In addition, 432 years ago Thomas Digges published the first account of the New Astronomy in a popular almanac. These two means of presentation may seem odd by present standards, but contemporary culture was intolerant of 'natural magic,' and furthermore, it was prudent to minmize the risk of domestic persecution and threats from Continental armies and the European and Spanish Inquisitions.

  10. Deductive Coordination of Multiple Geospatial Knowledge Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldinger, R.; Reddy, M.; Culy, C.; Hobbs, J.; Jarvis, P.; Dungan, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Deductive inference is applied to choreograph the cooperation of multiple knowledge sources to respond to geospatial queries. When no one source can provide an answer, the response may be deduced from pieces of the answer provided by many sources. Examples of sources include (1) The Alexandria Digital Library Gazetteer, a repository that gives the locations for almost six million place names, (2) The Cia World Factbook, an online almanac with basic information about more than 200 countries. (3) The SRI TerraVision 3D Terrain Visualization System, which displays a flight-simulator-like interactive display of geographic data held in a database, (4) The NASA GDACC WebGIS client for searching satellite and other geographic data available through OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Map Servers, and (5) The Northern Arizona University Latitude/Longitude Distance Calculator. Queries are phrased in English and are translated into logical theorems by the Gemini Natural Language Parser. The theorems are proved by SNARK, a first-order-logic theorem prover, in the context of an axiomatic geospatial theory. The theory embodies a representational scheme that takes into account the fact that the same place may have many names, and the same name may refer to many places. SNARK has built-in procedures (RCC8 and the Allen calculus, respectively) for reasoning about spatial and temporal concepts. External knowledge sources may be consulted by SNARK as the proof is in progress, so that most knowledge need not be stored axiomatically. The Open Agent Architecture (OAA) facilitates communication between sources that may be implemented on different machines in different computer languages. An answer to the query, in the form of text or an image, is extracted from the proof. Currently, three-dimensional images are displayed by TerraVision but other displays are possible. The combined system is called Geo-Logica. Some example queries that can be handled by Geo-Logica include: (1) show the

  11. Noor-Eesti ja kunstnikud. Young Estonia’s Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Talvistu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In Estonian art history, the beginning of the 20th century is the era of the birth of nationalist art. This is the time when the first artists to study abroad, the brothers Paul and Kristjan Raud, and Ants Laikmaa return home from their studies in Düsseldorf and Munich. In the homeland, these artists’ cultural and political spirit brought them into contact with the Young Estonians, one generation younger than they were, whose overall world-view and artistic views they came to shape. The program of the Young Estonians included the furthering of cultural life as a whole; therefore they participated enthusiastically in discussions about the visual arts, and ways in which to advance art in the homeland. Through the mediation of Ants Laikmaa, they made contact with Nikolai Triik, an artist of their own generation, who in turn engaged his former fellow students from the Stieglitz School of Applied Arts in St. Petersburg – Aleksander Tassa, Jaan Koort, and Konrad Mägi. The interests and travel destinations of writers and artists were similar: they found themselves drawn primarily to Scandinavia, then Paris. Young Estonia’s almanacs and magazines were illustrated and adorned by reproductions of these same artists’ works, and artists contributed their writings on art to the publication. Nikolai Triik was artistic editor for the Young Estonia magazine, thanks to his stronger ties with the homeland and his greater authority. In the years 1909 and 1914 Young Estonia organized art exhibits, in which several artists studying abroad found their first reception among a homeland public. Young Estonia created a new standard in Estonian book design. Discussions began around the question of ”nationalism” in art. The Young Estonia period 1905–1915 was an era of great change in Estonian art, and the artists connected with the movement played a major role in subsequent developments. Together they established the art association ”Pallas” in 1918

  12. Solar Eclipse Computer API: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bell, Steve

    2016-01-01

    With the total solar eclipse of 2017 August 21 over the continental United States approaching, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) on-line Solar Eclipse Computer can now be accessed via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns local circumstances for any solar eclipse in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party Web sites or applications. For a given year, it can also return a list of solar eclipses that can be used to build a more specific request for local circumstances. Over the course of a particular eclipse as viewed from a specific site, several events may be visible: the beginning and ending of the eclipse (first and fourth contacts), the beginning and ending of totality (second and third contacts), the moment of maximum eclipse, sunrise, or sunset. For each of these events, the USNO Solar Eclipse Computer reports the time, Sun's altitude and azimuth, and the event's position and vertex angles. The computer also reports the duration of the total phase, the duration of the eclipse, the magnitude of the eclipse, and the percent of the Sun obscured for a particular eclipse site. On-line documentation for using the API-enabled Solar Eclipse Computer, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same Web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Day and Night Across the Earth, and Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object services using API calls.For those who prefer using a traditional data input form, local circumstances can still be requested that way at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/SolarEclipses.php. In addition, the 2017 August 21 Solar Eclipse Resource page (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/Eclipse2017.php) consolidates all of the USNO resources for this event, including a Google Map view of the eclipse track designed by Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO). Looking further ahead, a

  13. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1994, the city of Cincinnati, Ohio was named the most livable city in America by Places Rated Almanac (Clark, 1993. Couched within this distinction is the variance of perceived categorizations as the building blocks of a utopian-esque society such as a robust job market, low cost of living, affordable housing, highly educated populous, high arts and recreation and low crime rates. What happened within under a decade that transformed the national perception of the queen city from the most livable city in 1994 to the most recent and largest urban hot bed of racial and civil unrest since the Los Angeles riots? However, no study has explicitly assessed the perceptions of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of this study is to assess perceptions about crime in the local community since the 2001 Cincinnati riots. Methods: We surveyed 71 participants as part of a cross-sectional study designed to assess perception of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. We conducted a questionnaire of a random sample of African American residents in Cincinnati, Ohio. The city of Cincinnati was chosen because of its large African American community and in part due to its long lasting history of police violence and riots in the African American community.  Analyses: Most participants felt the level of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was a very serious problem. However, a large majority of both males (22.6% and females (10% believed crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was somewhat serious. The remaining respondents perceived crime in Cincinnati as serious (males: 16.1%, females: 12.5% or not at all serious (males 3.2%, females: 0%. A larger portion of the males (54.8% than females (40% responded that in the last 3- year’s crime in Cincinnati, Ohio relatively stayed the same.  Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in

  14. O Centro de Documentação Musical da UFPel no horizonte da multidisciplinaridade: articulações entre musicologia histórica, gestão patrimonial e memória institucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Vergara Cerqueira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo pretende apresentar o programa de memória do Centro de Documentação Musical da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (CDM-UFPEL, no qual se articulam a pesquisa em musicologia histórica, a gestão do acervo histórico do Conservatório de Música de Pelotas (CM-UFPEL e o estudo de memória institucional. A pesquisa e organização dos suportes de memória incluem a documentação institucional, o acervo de fotografias antigas, o levantamento de fontes orais e a pesquisa junto a fontes primárias escritas (jornais, revistas, almanaques. Através da formação de um banco de dados digital, as informações resultantes dos projetos de pesquisa são organizadas e sistematizadas, visando à disponibilização pela internet. A articulação entre pesquisa em musicologia histórica e procedimentos adotados para gestão de acervos reverte para aproximação entre a memória institucional e a comunidade científica, numa abordagem essencialmente multidisciplinar.This article aims to present the institutional memory program of the Centre ofMusic Documentation of the Federal University of Pelotas (CDM-UFPEL, which integrates historical musicology research, the organization of historical collections of the Conservatory of Music of Pelotas and the institutional memory studies. The research and organization of the memory sources include institutional documentation, the ancient photography collection, the analysis of oral sources and the primary research sources (newspapers, magazines, and almanacs. Through the creation of a digital database, the resulting information from the research projects is organized and systematized, aimed at enabling public access through the web. The integration of historic musicology research and the procedures adopted in the management of historic collections resulted in the drawing together of the institutional memory and the scientific community, through an essentially multidisciplinary approach.

  15. Improved model of regional flood disaster risk assessment based on remote sensing data%基于遥感数据的区域洪涝风险评估改进模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段光耀; 赵文吉; 宫辉力

    2012-01-01

    灾害风险评估是最简单有效的防灾减灾措施之一。以松花江流域为研究区域,提出了一种基于遥感实时监测数据和历史洪涝灾害数据的洪涝风险评估改进模型。选取中国气象科学数据共享服务网的降雨数据、NASA的SRTM90mDEM地形数据、河网数据以及对2007年全国统计年鉴进行空间化所得的人口和GDP数据作为因子,应用层次分析法计算了各因子的权重,基于洪涝灾害形成机制计算了初始的松花江洪涝风险指数。在此基础上,获取历史洪涝灾情频次数据和HJ-1实时遥感影像提取的水体淹没范围数据,利用地图代数法来对初始的风险指数进行改进。考虑历史洪涝风险的规律性和风险评测时的具体水体范围信息,使得所得结果能够反映松花江流域洪涝灾害的综合风险,具有一定的现势性,为防灾减灾提供了依据。%Disaster risk assessment is one of the simplest and most effective measures of disaster prevention and reduction. This paper proposed a method to improve the traditional model of regional flood risk assessment based on real-time remote sensing monitoring data and historical flood disaster data. The studied area is Songhua River Ba- sin. Rainfall data taken from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, 90m digital elevation model (DEM) data from America National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and population density and the gross domestic products (GDP) data from the national statistical almanac of 2007 were selected as influence factors in this research. Weightings of the influence factors were computed using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and a primary flood risk index was calculated based on the flooding disaster formation Mechanism. Then, the primary risk index was improved using the approach of map algebra based on the historical flood frequency data and the real-time flooding area generated from Huanjing Satellites

  16. Naturaliseerunud ravimtaimed etnobotaanika vaatenurgast. Hariliku katkujuure, hariliku siguri, aedvaagi, aed-mädarõika, hariliku seebilille ja lõhnava kannikese näitel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raivo Kalle

    2007-01-01

    important factor in introducing herbs into broader use. Already the first journal (published in 1766-1767 and the earliest popular medical book (1771 in Estonian describe the use of horseradish, butterbur, elecampane inula and sweet violet. The plants, especially garden horseradish, are repeatedly mentioned in almanacs and books published since. The use of chicory is described only once in 1895, and soapwort once in 1870. The paper describes in more detail the formation of new ethnic names. The plant names were mostly derived from adaptations of German names (e.g. aland, pestilens-wurtsel, wiola, sigur, etc., later from German translations (e.g. katkujuur for butterbur and in some cases, the name of the local plant was used to mark a similar new plant (e.g. sinilill, or hepatica, for sweet violet and põierohi, or campion, for soapwort. In conclusion it has to be said that the important factors in distributing those plants were changes in landscape gardening and eating habits as well as the fact that the plants were eventually abandoned from use and thus, lost the most powerful natural enemy - the man.

  17. Atenção e presença física: dimensões expressivas e a prática dialógica do cuidado de enfermagem na perspectiva do cliente hospitalizado Atención y presencia física: dimensiones expresivas y práctica dialógica de la atención de enfermería en la perspectiva del cliente hospitalizado Attention and physical presence: expressive dimensions and the dialogical practice of nursing care according to the perpective of the hospitalized client

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria da Silva de Barcelos

    2006-02-01

    , according to Freire. Five persons participated with internment experience, under ambulatory follow up in a hospital of Rio de Janeiro city. It used the triangulation techniques: almanac, semi-structured interview and participant observation. It showed the importance of the valorization of that is necessary and of interest of the client from the attention and the physical presence as essential requirements in the human care, expressed in the dialogical experience and in the participation of the client in the whole care process.

  18. Galileo OS SIS ICD导航电文设计解析%Navigation Message Designing in Galileo OS SIS ICD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李作虎; 郝金明; 李建文; 吕志伟

    2011-01-01

    The first official release of an updated “Galileo ()pen Service Signal-In-Space Interface Control Document” (Galileo OS SIS ICD) from European Union on April 13 meant great progress of Galileo establishment from concept designing to orbit test and to system construction, which would be of great significance for the development of GNSS. Compared to GPS Interface Specification Document on LI C/A code, the ideas and characteristics in the designing on message structure and contents from Galileo OS SIS ICD were analyzed. The analysis showed that the message designing of Galileo OS not only took over the designing partly from GPS but also acquired innovation. The overall designing is open and flexible, specially, such aspects as the flow of pages, the diversity of almanac source, compatibility and interoperability, and integrity represent the development of GNSS as well as the advancement of designing ideas of GNSS. The ideas of Galileo message designing will be helpful not only for guidance to the designing of Beidou navigation message but also for the study on the interoperation between our GNSS and Galileo.%欧盟在2010-04-13首次正式发布了Galileo公开服务空间信号接口控制文档(Galileo OS SIS ICD),标志着Galileo系统建设从概念设计、在轨验证到系统实施又迈进了重要一步,对全球导航卫星系统(GNSS)的发展具有重要意义.通过与GPS接口说明文档比较,解析了Galileo OS SIS ICD中导航电文结构设计和内容设计方面的思路和特点.解析表明,与GPS L1 C/A码导航电文设计相比,Galileo OS在导航电文设计上既有继承、亦有创新.整体设计体现了开放和灵活的特点,特别是在电文页流结构、电文星间交叉播发、兼容和互操作以及完好性方面的设计既体现了GNSS技术的发展,又体现了GNSS设计理念的进步.Galileo导航电文的设计理念不仅可为我国北斗卫星导航系统电文的设计提供参考,而且有利于加强

  19. Effect of catalogues coordinate errors of a star onto determination of the physical libration of the Moon from the observations of stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Natalia; Kocoulin, Valerii; Nefediev, Yurii

    2016-07-01

    In the Kazan University computer simulation is carried out for observation of lunar physical libration in projects planned installation of measuring equipment on the lunar surface. One such project is the project of ILOM (Japan), in which on the lunar pole an optical telescope with CCD will be equipped. As a result, the determining the selenographic coordinates (x and y) of a star with an accuracy of 1 ms of arc will be achieved. On the basis of the analytical theory of physical libration we developed a technique for solving the inverse problem of the libration. And we have already shown, for example, that the error in determining selenographic coordinates about ɛ seconds does not lead to errors in the determination of the libration angles ρ and Iσ larger than the 1.414ɛ. Libration in longitude is not determined from observations of the polar star (Petrova et al., 2012). The accuracy of the libration in the inverse problem depends on accuracy of the coordinates of the stars - α and δ - taken from the star catalogs. Checking this influence is the task of the present study. To do simulation we have developed that allows to choose the stars, falling in the field of view of the lunar telescope on observation period. Equatorial coordinates of stars were chosen by us from several fundamental catalogs: UCAC2-BSS, Hipparcos, Tycho, FK6 (part I, III) and the Astronomical Almanac. An analysis of these catalogues from the point of view accuracy of coordinates of stars represented in them was performed by Nefediev et al., 2013. The largest error, 20-70 ms, found in the catalogues UCAC2 and Tycho, the others have an error about a millisecond of arc. We simulated the observations with mentioned errors and got the following results. 1. The error in the declination Δδ of the star causes the same order error in libration parameters ρ and Iσ , while the sensitivity of libration to errors in Δα is ten time smaller. Fortunately, due to statistics (30 to 70, depending on

  20. Quantitative Research on Sandstorm Effects on Environmental Air Quality%沙尘天气对大气环境质量影响的量化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈跃浩; 高庆先; 高文康; 马占云; 谷雨; 严茹莎; 刘婷

    2013-01-01

    利用沙尘天气年鉴资料和颗粒物浓度监测数据,构建了沙尘天气对大气环境质量影响的量化指标(贡献率和绝对贡献),并利用该量化指标分析了沙尘天气对位于沙尘源区和影响区内典型城市大气环境的影响,同时比较了沙尘天气对北京城、郊区的不同影响.结果表明:2001-2009年沙尘天气对沙尘源区城市呼和浩特的贡献率年均值为6.84%,对影响区内的城市北京、天津、济南的贡献率年均值分别为5.96%、3.57%、1.66%;沙尘天气对沙尘源区城市(呼和浩特)和影响区城市(北京、天津和济南)的贡献率最大值均出现在3月,其中,对呼和浩特、北京、天津、济南的贡献率最大值分别达到19.21%、15.02%、9.41%和8.69%;2000年4月和2001年3月沙尘天气对北京ρ(PM10)的绝对贡献较大,分别为0.062和0.077 mg/m3,占GB 3095-2012《环境空气质量标准》ρ(PM10)二级标准限值(0.15 mg/m3)的41.3%和51.3%;沙尘天气过程对于北京城、郊区的影响也不完全一致.%Based on the data of the sandstorm weather almanac and the data of observed paniculate matter concentration, the quantitative index of sandstorm effect on environmental quality was defined. Meanwhile, the sandstorm effect on air quality in source areas and affected areas were analyzed using this quantitative index. Moreover, the difference of impacts in the urban and rural areas in Beijing was analyzed. The results showed that:1 ) The annual average contribution rate of the sandstorm effect on Hohhot which is near the source areas was 6. 84% , on Beijing which is the affected areas was 5. 96% , on Tianjin was 3. 57% and on Jinan was 1. 66% , from 2001 to 2009 respectively. 2) The maximum contribution rate of the sandstorm effect on source areas and affected areas was on March with 19.21% of Hohhot, 15.02% of Beijing, 9. 14% of Tianjin and 8. 69% of Jinan. 3) The absolute contribution of the sandstorm effects on

  1. 2000-2009年长春、吉林城市蔓延特征、效应与驱动力比较研究%Comparative analysis of characteristics, effects and driving factors of urban sprawl in Changchun-Jilin during 2000-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙平军; 封小平; 孙弘; 修春亮

    2013-01-01

    经济核心区是国家和地区经济增长、城市化发展的主要空间,也是城市蔓延最为严峻的区域.长(春)吉(林)一体化地区是中国图们江区域合作开发开放的先导区和东北地区的粮食主产区,肩负着“经济增长”、“人口城镇化”和“粮食安全”等多重责任.基于2000、2005、2009年的遥感图像和相关年份的统计年鉴,结合GIS和SPSS统计工具,对长、吉城市蔓延的程度、方式、效应与驱动力因子进行了比较分析.结果表明:用地扩展水平上长春市明显强于吉林市,且吉林市还表现出明显的阶段性特征;蔓延程度上,两市都表现出集约度低下、蔓延程度大的特性;蔓延方式上,长春市以“近域推进”式蔓延为主,吉林市以“轴带扩展”式蔓延为主;蔓延效应上,都带来了一系列负面效应,但长春市程度要重;在蔓延驱动力上,工业化和投资拉动是两者共同的主导影响因子,带有明显的政府导向性特征.文中提倡城市内部土地节约集约利用、区际培育城市群以形成合理的城市规模.%Economic core regions are the main space of national and regional economic growth and urbanization development, but at the same time face the severe problems of urban sprawl. The integrated Changchun-Ji-lin(Chang-Ji) region is an economic core region on a national scale, a pilot of cooperative development and opening in Tumenjiang region, and the major grain producing region in northeastern China. It shoulders multiple responsibilities such as economic growth, urbanization of population and food security. Therefore, selecting Chang-Ji as a research object for the study of urban sprawl is representative and of great practical significance. Based on remote sensing images in 2000, 2005, 2009's and Almanacs of the related years, using GIS and SPSS statistical tools, we conducted a comparative analysis on the extent, process, effects and driving factors of urban

  2. Inter-Regional Virtual Water Trade Model and Its Application in Shanxi Province%区域间虚拟水贸易模型及其在山西省的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方一; 刘卫东; 刘红光

    2012-01-01

    case area. We have calculated the direct water use coefficients of industries in Shanxi based on the Chinese Environmental Statistical Yearbook and Almanac of Chinese Second Economic Census, estimated the total amount of virtual water trade of Shanxi and other provinces according to the inter-regional trade relations and revealed the spatial pattern of virtual water trade. The main conclusions are: 1) In 2007, the total amount of water consumption of Shanxi Province was 5.871 billion cubic meters, and 153 million cubic meters of virtual water was imported from other regions of China through industrial and agricultural products trade; 2) Virtual water imported through agricultural trade was 489 million cubic meters, mainly from Xinjiang, Shaanxi, Hebei and Anhui. Virtual water exported to other regions of China through industrial products trade was 336 million cubic meters, mainly to Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Hubei, Zhejiang and Guangdong; 3) Virtual water sources of Shanxi are west region and northeast region of China while the target areas are mianly east coastal provinces, which goes against the traditional virtual water strategy; 4) The main export sectors of virtual water in Shanxi are energy and energy-related industries, while the main import sectors are agriculture and manufacturing industries. Terefore, we should actively promote virtual water policy in Shanxi Province to form sustainable water use spatial pattern, including developing water saving industries and importing virtual water from other water-rich regions through commodity trade.

  3. 河南省居民人均烟草消费与肺癌死亡率关联研究%Research on the association between per-capita tobacco consumption among the permanent residents and lung cancer mortality in Henan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 孙锦峰; 冯丽云

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨河南省居民家庭人均烟草消费与肺癌死亡率的关系,为降低肺癌死亡率提供佐证,并为控制烟草政策的制定提供依据.方法 利用1992-2011年河南省居民肺癌死亡率、居民家庭人均烟草消费资料,采用趋势检验法分析变化趋势;Spearman秩相关分析关联性,滞后时间单位为10年.拟合居民家庭烟草消费与肺癌死亡率关系.结果 河南省居民肺癌死亡率由1992年的14.75/10万上升至2011年27.00/10万,增长率为83.05%;居民家庭烟草消费与肺癌死亡率呈上升并有滞后的趋势,1992-2001年居民家庭人均烟草消费与2002-2011年肺癌死亡率关联性为rs=0.770,P=0.009<0.05,差异有统计学意义.随着烟草消费上升,肺癌死亡率也上升,模型为(y)=2.60x0.46(F=576.483,P<0.001),决定系数为0.667.结论 河南省居民家庭人均烟草消费对肺癌死亡率有影响,两者间存在关联性并有滞后趋势.%Objective To study the relationship of per-capita tobacco consumption and lung cancer mortality in Henan province,and to provide evidence for policy development on tobacco control and reduction of lung cancer mortality.Methods Data regarding lung cancer mortality and per-capita tobacco consumption among household residents from 1992 to 2011,was collected from published almanacs in Henan and Henan Tumor Institutes.Trend Method was used to analyze the development of lung cancer in Henan province and the trend of per-capita tobacco consumption of residents in the household.‘Spearman rank correlation' was used to analyze the correlation between per-capita tobacco consumption of residents in the household from 1992 to 2001 and the lung cancer mortality rates from 2002 to 2011,with the lag time unite as 10 years in this study.Cure Estimation was used to fit the model regarding the relationship between per-capita tobacco consumption of residents in the household and lung cancer.Results Lung cancer mortality among those

  4. Best Reference Practices are Not Observed in Telephone Ready Reference Services. A review of: Agosto, Denise A. and Holly Anderton. “Whatever Happened to ‘Always Cite the Source?’” Reference & User Services Quarterly 47.1 (2007: 44-54.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie McKenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study source citing practice in telephone reference service in large public libraries in the United States and Canada. Design – Field simulation (unobtrusive testing.Setting – Large public libraries in the United States and Canada.Subjects – Telephone reference staff of the 25 largest public libraries in the United States and Canada.Methods – The 2005 World Book Almanac was used to select the 25 largest (in terms of population served public libraries in Canada and the United States. Each system’s Web site was checked to locate the telephone number for reference service. For some systems it was necessary to call the general telephone number for the main library or the first branch listed on the Web site. Five ready reference test questions were developed from a list of questions that students in a graduate library and information science course had previously asked of public library telephone reference services. The selected questions in the order that they were asked were: 1. Can you tell me when Valentine’s Day is?2. Who is the current governor/premier (of the state/province where the library is located?3. What is the population of Montana?4. In which state is the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC located?5. What is the French word for “chiropractor”?The authors called each of the 25 libraries during five consecutive weeks at different times of the business day. Each week, one question was asked; once an answer was received, no clarification was requested and the call was ended. The study reports the results of 125 reference transactions. For this study, the following definitions were used to assess complete citation for each type of information resource:• For a Web site – the complete URL (title and sponsor of the site not required.• For a digital database – the database title and the title and year of the specific item (author, publisher, page number not required.• For a print resource – the title

  5. Human relations in nursing care towards cancer patients submitted to antineoplastic chemotherapy La relación humana en el cuidado de enfermería al cliente con cáncer sometido a la terapia antineoplásica A relação humana no cuidado de enfermagem junto ao cliente com câncer submetido à terapêutica antineoplásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Adriana Sales Fontes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the relationship between nurses and cancer patients, in the context of chemotherapy, according to the client's perception; to analyze nursing practice in oncology, based on human healthcare principles. METHODS: This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research. Ten clients undergoing chemotherapy treatment took part in the study. The "Almanac" techniques of creativity and sensitivity were associated to semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: The subjects' discourses revealed that nursing care is supported on principles that are proper of human relations, such as friendship, affection, attention, tolerance and solidarity. It was also highlighted that the nurse's actions join technical and human attributes together, considering life as a fundamental ethical value in relation to human dignity as the main interaction element in healthcare. CONCLUSIONS: The results contributed for the reflection about nursing care within chemotherapy, collaborating with possible changes in the nurse's oncology healthcare practice with this client, who already is very stigmatized by the social construction of the disease.OBJETIVOS: Describir la relación entre la enfermera y el cliente con cáncer, dentro del contexto de la quimioterapia, según la perspectiva del cliente y analizar la práctica de la enfermera en el área de oncología basada en los preceptos del cuidado humano. MÉTODOS: se trata de una investigación cualitativa, exploratoria y descriptiva. Participaron diez clientes que recibían tratamiento de quimioterapia. Se utilizó la técnica de creatividad y sensibilidad "Almanaque" paralelamente a la entrevista semiestructurada. RESULTADOS: El discurso de los sujetos reveló que el cuidado de enfermería se apoya en los principios propios de la relación humana, como la amistad, el cariño, la atención, la tolerancia y la solidaridad. Además, destaca que las acciones de la enfermera involucran atributos técnicos y humanos

  6. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    initio within the relativistic framework presented in the other resolutions (in that regard, there still exist some difficult problems to solve), their relativistic terms are accurate enough for all the current and near-future observational techniques. At that level, the Earth rotation models are consistent with the general relativity framework recommended by the IAU and considered in this book. The chapter presents practical algorithms for implementing the recommended models. The appendices to the book contain a list of astronomical constants and the original text of the relevant IAU resolutions adopted by the IAU General Assemblies in 1997, 2000, 2006, and 2009. Numerous colleagues have contributed to this book in one way or or another. It is a pleasure for us to acknowledge the enlightening discussions which one or more of the authors had on different occasions with Victor A. Brumberg of the Institute of Applied Astronomy (St. Petersburg, Russia); Tianyi Huang and Yi Xie of Nanjing University (China); Edward B. Fomalont of the National Radio Astronomical Observatory (USA); Valeri V. Makarov, William J. Tangren, and James L. Hilton of the US Naval Observatory; Gerhard Schäfer of the Institute of Theoretical Physics (Jena, Germany); Clifford M. Will of Washington University (St. Louis, USA); Ignazio Ciufolini of the Università del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); and Patrick Wallace, retired from Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (UK). We also would like to thank Richard G. French of Wellesley College (Massachusetts, USA); Michael Soffel and Sergei Klioner of the Technical University of Dresden; Bahram Mashhoon of the University of Missouri-Columbia; John D. Anderson, retired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA); the late Giacomo Giampieri, also of JPL; Michael Kramer, Axel Jessner, and Norbert Wex of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Bonn, Germany); Alexander F. Zakharov of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow

  7. Obituary: Thomas C. Van Flandern (1940-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David; Slabinski, Victor

    2011-12-01

    Georgetown University studying astronomy. On July 6, 1963, Tom Van Flandern married Barbara Ann Weber in Kentucky. They remained together until his passing 46 years later. They had four children, Michael, Constance, Brian, and Kevin. Also in 1963, Tom began work in the Nautical Almanac Office of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. He became an expert on refining the lunar orbit from timings of lunar occultations, then the best observations for that purpose. He encouraged observations by providing observers with predictions of occultations for their locations. He designed a cable system connecting all observers timing a grazing occultation, to record their observations at a central station. After a 1964 success, four amateur astronomical societies built similar cable systems. Tom Van Flandern relished efforts to simplify computer calculations. He and Henry Fliegel developed an algorithm to calculate a Julian date from a Gregorian date that would fit on a single IBM card. They published this in a paper, "A machine algorithm for processing calendar dates" in 1968 in the Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. This was used in countless business applications worldwide. With Kenneth Pulkkinen, he published "Low precision formulae for planetary positions", in Ap. J. Supp. in 1979. The paper set a record for the number of reprints requested from that journal. Tom Van Flandern earned a PhD in astronomy from Yale University in 1969. His thesis was "A discussion of 1950-1968 occultations of stars by the Moon," advised by Prof. G. M. Clemence. In 1976 Van Flandern asserted that the orbits of 60 long-period comets traced to a common origin, supporting Michael Ovenden's exploded planet hypothesis. He founded the non-profit Meta Research, Inc. in 1990 to provide support for alternative theories in astronomy. The Meta Research Bulletin reported the newest discoveries and how they presented difficulties to accepted astronomical theories, such as the Big Bang and

  8. Obituary: Brian Marsden (1937-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth; Marsden, Cynthia

    2011-12-01

    Brian Geoffrey Marsden was born on 1937 August 5 in Cambridge, England. His father, Thomas, was the senior mathematics teacher at a local high school. It was his mother, Eileen (nee West), however, who introduced him to the study of astronomy, when he returned home on the Thursday during his first week in primary school in 1942 and found her sitting in the back yard watching an eclipse of the sun. Using now frowned-upon candle-smoked glass, they sat watching the changing bite out of the sun. What most impressed the budding astronomer, however, was not that the eclipse could be seen, but the fact that it had been predicted in advance, and it was the idea that one could make successful predictions of events in the sky that eventually led him to his career. When, at the age of 11, he entered the Perse School in Cambridge he was developing primitive methods for calculating the positions of the planets. He soon realized that earlier astronomers had come up with more accurate procedures for doing this over the centuries, and during the next couple of years this led to his introduction to the library of the Cambridge University Observatories and his study of how eclipses, for example, could be precisely computed. Together with a couple of other students he formed a school Astronomical Society, of which he served as the secretary. At the age of 16 he joined and began regularly attending the monthly London meetings of the British Astronomical Association. He quickly became involved with the Association's Computing Section, which was known specifically for making astronomical predictions other than those that were routinely being prepared by professional astronomers for publication in almanacs around the world. Under the watchful eyes of the director and assistant director of the Computing Section, this led him to prepare and publish predictions of the occasions when one of Jupiter's moons could be seen to pass directly in front of another. He also calculated the