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Sample records for alma senoidal sujeitas

  1. ALMA measures Calama earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, R.; Shillue, B.

    2010-04-01

    On 4 March 2010, the ALMA system response to an extraordinarily large disturbance was measured when a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck near Calama, Chile, relatively close to the ALMA site. Figures 1 through 4 demonstrate the remarkable performance of the ALMA system to a huge disturbance that was more than 100 times the specification for correction accuracy.

  2. ALMA science data management

    OpenAIRE

    Stoehr, Felix

    2015-01-01

    ALMA has transitioned now from the construction to the operation phase. We review the Science Data Management of ALMA including the concepts of Data Reduction, Quality Assurance as well as of the Science Archive. We also place the Science Data Management of ALMA into the larger context.

  3. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  4. ALMA science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Lars-Åke; Andreani, Paola; Hibbard, John; Okumura, Sachiko K.

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) project is an international collaboration between Europe, East Asia and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The ALMA Array Operations Site (AOS) is located at Chajnantor, a plateau at an altitude of 5000 m in the Atacama desert in Chile, and the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF) is located near the AOS at an altitude of 2900 m. ALMA will consist of an array of 66 antennas, with baselines up to 16 km and state-of-the-art receivers that cover all the atmospheric windows up to 1 THz. An important component of ALMA is the compact array of twelwe 7-m and four 12-m antennas (the Atacama Compact Array, ACA), which will greatly enhance ALMA's ability to image extended sources. Construction of ALMA started in 2003 and will be completed in 2013. Commissioning started in January 2010 and Early Science Operations is expected to start during the second half of 2011. ALMA science operations is provided by the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) in Chile, and the three ALMA Regional Centers (ARCs) located in each ALMA region - Europe, North America and East Asia. ALMA observations will take place 24h per day, interrupted by maintenance periods, and will be done in service observing mode with flexible (dynamic) scheduling. The observations are executed in the form of scheduling blocks (SBs), each of which contains all information necessary to schedule and execute the observations. The default output to the astronomer will be pipeline-reduced images calibrated according to the calibration plan. The JAO is responsible for the data product quality. All science and calibration raw data are captured and archived in the ALMA archive, a distributed system with nodes at the OSF, the Santiago central office and the ARCs. Observation preparation will follow a Phase 1/Phase 2 process. During Phase 1, observation proposals will be created using software tools provided by the JAO and submitted for scientific and

  5. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  6. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  7. Alma Data Mining Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, Marc W.; Rauch, Kevin P.; Mundy, Lee; Harris, Robert J.; Xu, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) is a Python based pipeline toolkit for the creation and analysis of new science products from ALMA data. ADMIT quickly provides users with a detailed overview of their science products, for example: line identifications, line 'cutout' cubes, moment maps, and emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection). Users can download the small ADMIT pipeline product (web browser and command line interface available for this purpose. By analyzing multiple data cubes simultaneously, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions are possible. Users are also able to enhance the capabilities of ADMIT by creating customized ADMIT tasks satisfying any special processing needs. We will present some of the salient features of ADMIT and example use cases.

  8. ALMA Observations of TNOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bryan J.; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    Some of the most fundamental properties of TNOs are still quite poorly constrained, including diameter and density. Observations at long thermal wavelengths, in the millimeter and submillimeter, hold promise for determining these quantities, at least for the largest of these bodies (and notably for those with companions). Knowing this information can then yield clues as to the formation mechanism of these bodies, allowing us to distinguish between pairwise accretion and other formation scenarios.We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe Orcus, Quaoar, Salacia, and 2002 UX25 at wavelengths of 1.3 and 0.8 mm, in order to constrain the sizes of these bodies. We have also used ALMA to make astrometric observations of the Eris-Dysnomia system, in an attempt to measure the wobble of Eris and hence accurately determine its density. Dysnomia should also be directly detectable in those data, separate from Eris (ALMA has sufficient resolution in the configuration in which the observations were made). Results from these observations will be presented and discussed.

  9. ALMA correlator computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Jim; Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus

    2004-09-01

    We present a design for the computer systems which control, configure, and monitor the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) correlator and process its output. Two distinct computer systems implement this functionality: a rack- mounted PC controls and monitors the correlator, and a cluster of 17 PCs process the correlator output into raw spectral results. The correlator computer systems interface to other ALMA computers via gigabit Ethernet networks utilizing CORBA and raw socket connections. ALMA Common Software provides the software infrastructure for this distributed computer environment. The control computer interfaces to the correlator via multiple CAN busses and the data processing computer cluster interfaces to the correlator via sixteen dedicated high speed data ports. An independent array-wide hardware timing bus connects to the computer systems and the correlator hardware ensuring synchronous behavior and imposing hard deadlines on the control and data processor computers. An aggregate correlator output of 1 gigabyte per second with 16 millisecond periods and computational data rates of approximately 1 billion floating point operations per second define other hard deadlines for the data processing computer cluster.

  10. Admit: Alma Data Mining Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Xu, Lisa; Pound, Marc W.; Teuben, Peter J.; Rauch, Kevin P.; Mundy, Lee; Kern, Jeffrey S.

    2015-06-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) is a toolkit for the creation and analysis of new science products from ALMA data. ADMIT is an ALMA Development Project written purely in Python. While specifically targeted for ALMA science and production use after the ALMA pipeline, it is designed to be generally applicable to radio-astronomical data. ADMIT quickly provides users with a detailed overview of their science products: line identifications, line 'cutout' cubes, moment maps, emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection), etc. Users can download the small ADMIT pipeline product (data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions will be possible. Users will also be able to enhance the capabilities of ADMIT by creating customized ADMIT tasks satisfying any special processing needs. Future implementations of ADMIT may include EVLA and other instruments.

  11. The ALMA software architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Farris, Allen; Sommer, Heiko

    2004-09-01

    The software for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is being developed by many institutes on two continents. The software itself will function in a distributed environment, from the 0.5-14 kmbaselines that separate antennas to the larger distances that separate the array site at the Llano de Chajnantor in Chile from the operations and user support facilities in Chile, North America and Europe. Distributed development demands 1) interfaces that allow separated groups to work with minimal dependence on their counterparts at other locations; and 2) a common architecture to minimize duplication and ensure that developers can always perform similar tasks in a similar way. The Container/Component model provides a blueprint for the separation of functional from technical concerns: application developers concentrate on implementing functionality in Components, which depend on Containers to provide them with services such as access to remote resources, transparent serialization of entity objects to XML, logging, error handling and security. Early system integrations have verified that this architecture is sound and that developers can successfully exploit its features. The Containers and their services are provided by a system-orienteddevelopment team as part of the ALMA Common Software (ACS), middleware that is based on CORBA.

  12. ALMA and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F

    2005-01-01

    ALMA is a privileged instrument to tackle high redshift galaxies, due to the negative K-correction in the millimeter domain. Many dusty star-forming galaxies, invisible in the optical or NIR, will be detected easily through the peak of their emission in the FIR redshifted in the submm between z=10 and z=5. Their mass and dynamics will be determined through the CO lines, together with the efficiency of star formation. Normal intervening galaxies at all z will be studied through absorption lines in front of quasars, exploring the dense tail of the column density spectrum. CMB anisotropies could be detected at the arcsecond scale, the secondary effects (SZ, Vishniak-Ostriker) could test the re-ionization and the nature of dark energy. The detection of the SZ effect on a few arcsec scales will allow to map in detail clusters and proto-clusters.

  13. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions

  14. The ALMA Observation Support Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, I; Williams, C J

    2011-01-01

    The ALMA Observation Support Tool (OST) is an ALMA simulator which is interacted with solely via a standard web browser. It is aimed at users who may or may not be experts in interferometry, or those that do not wish to familarise themselves with the simulation components of a data reduction package. It has been designed to offer full imaging simulation capability for an arbitrary ALMA observation while maintaining the accessibility of other online tools such as the ALMA Sensitivity Calculator. Simulation jobs are defined by selecting and entering options on a standard web form. The user can specify the standard parameters that would need to be considered for an ALMA observation (e.g. pointing direction, frequency set up, duration), and there is also the option to upload arbitrary sky models in FITS format. Once submitted, jobs are sequentially processed by a remote server running a CASA-based back-end system. The user is notified by email when the job is complete, and directed to a standard web page which co...

  15. ALMA Telescope Reaches New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory took another step forward and upward, as one of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to Chile's 16,500-foot-high plateau of Chajnantor on the back of a giant, custom-built transporter. The 40-foot-diameter antenna, weighing about 100 tons, was moved to ALMA's high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for observing the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only about half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 9,500-foot altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF). It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "The successful transport of the first ALMA Antenna to the high site marks the start of the next phase of the project. Now that we are starting to move the ALMA antennas to the high site, the real work begins and the exciting part is just beginning," said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Manager. The antenna's trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters lifted the antenna onto its back, carrying its heavy load along the 17-mile road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 8 miles per hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas use state-of-the-art technology, and are the most advanced submillimeter-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions of the Array Operations Site, to survive strong winds and extreme temperatures, to point precisely enough that they could pick out a golf

  16. ALMA Cycle 0 Publication Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Stoehr, Felix; Meakins, Silvia; Bishop, Marsha; Uchida, Ayako; Testi, Leonardo; Iono, Daisuke; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Wootten, Al

    2016-01-01

    The scientific impact of a facility is the most important measure of its success. Monitoring and analysing the scientific return can help to modify and optimise operations and adapt to the changing needs of scientific research. The methodology that we have developed to monitor the scientific productivity of the ALMA Observatory, as well as the first results, are described. We focus on the outcome of the first cycle (Cycle 0) of ALMA Early Science operations. Despite the fact that only two years have passed since the completion of Cycle 0 and operations have already changed substantially, this analysisconfirms the effectiveness of the underlying concepts. We find that ALMA is fulfilling its promise as a transformational facility for the observation of the Universe in the submillimetre.

  17. ALMA Common Software - UTFSM Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M.; Avarias, J.; Mora, M.; Tobar, R.

    The ACS-UTFSM Group was created as a distributed systems research team on astronomical and non-astronomical applications on the year 2004. The choice of the ALMA Common Software framework (ACS) as the development platform came from the experience gained during summerjobs at ESO observatories. After three years of informal contributions to ACS development, the team presented a technology exchange initiative to the ALMA-CONICYT Fund 2006, which was granted in 2007. Through the past years, the UTFSM helped the ACS team with "nice-to-have" applications and testing. Currently the ACS-UTFSM is involved in several contributions to ACS, and the development of a flexible telescope control system (gTCS) framework which aims to encapsulate common requirements and will provide a uniform software. In preparation for this challenging objective, several small projects are currently being developed. The other interesting edge of the team work is the technology transfer initiatives. Several inter-universities collaborations are flourishing (PUC, UCN, UV) after the first ACS Workshop held at the UTFSM this year. Today three former team members are working at NRAO's ALMA Test Facility in Socorro, New Mexico. Two other students will have a summer job next year to work in ALMA related development.

  18. The North American ALMA Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hibbard, J. E.; Staff, NAASC

    2010-01-01

    The North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, in Charlottesville, Virginia, in partnership with the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, will support the North American community in their observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA. Our goal is to promote successful observations with ALMA for both novice users, with no experience in either interferometry or millimeter astronomy, and experts alike. We will describe the services that the Science Center will provide for the community, from education about the capabilities of ALMA, though proposal preparation to data analysis. The Science Center will host a website with a Helpdesk that includes FAQs and a growing knowledgebase of ALMA expertise, and will support extensive demos and tutorials on observation preparation and data reduction with ALMA. The Science Center also promotes science-themed meetings. The staff of the Science Center will provide expert assistance for observers at all stages of development and execution of their program. There are visitor and postdoc opportunities at the Science Center. The North American ALMA Science Center is one of three regional centers around the globe that will support ALMA observations. Our partners are the European ALMA Regional Center at ESO in Garching, Germany, and the East Asian ALMA Region Center in Tokyo, Japan.

  19. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  20. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  1. Kemanda Çalma Teknikleri

    OpenAIRE

    ÇUHADAR, Yrd. Doç. C. Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Keman ortaya çıkışından bugüne kadar üzerinde en çok eser yazılan ve çalma tekniği geliştirilen çalgılardan birisidir Hemen hemen tüm doğu ve batı müziklerinde önemli bir yeri bulunmaktadır Özellikle gelişen yay ve çalma teknikleri sayesinde batı müziğinin en önemli üyesi olmuştur Batı dünyasında 1600 yıllarında geliştirilmeye başlanan keman İtalyan ustalar Amati Guarnerius ve Stradivarius sayesinde bugünkü şeklini elde etmiştir Keman çalmada önemli bir unsur olan yay ise Fransız yay ...

  2. ADMIT: The ALMA Data Mining Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuben, P.; Pound, M.; Mundy, L.; Rauch, K.; Friedel, D.; Looney, L.; Xu, L.; Kern, J.

    2015-09-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining ToolkiT), a toolkit for the creation of new science products from ALMA data, is being developed as an ALMA Development Project. It is written in Python and, while specifically targeted for a uniform analysis of the ALMA science products that come out of the ALMA pipeline, it is designed to be generally applicable to (radio) astronomical data. It first provides users with a detailed view of their science products created by ADMIT inside the ALMA pipeline: line identifications, line ‘cutout' cubes, moment maps, emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection). Using descriptor vectors the ALMA data archive is enriched with useful information to make archive data mining possible. Users can also opt to download the (small) ADMIT pipeline product, then fine-tune and re-run the pipeline and inspect their hopefully improved data. By running many projects in a parallel fashion, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions will also be possible. Future implementations of ADMIT may include EVLA and other instruments.

  3. Morphologies of protostellar outflows: An ALMA view

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Seifried, Daniel; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of stars is usually accompanied by the launching of protostellar outflows. Observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) will soon revolutionalise our understanding of the morphologies and kinematics of these objects. In this paper, we present synthetic ALMA observations of protostellar outflows based on numerical magnetohydrodynamic collapse simulations. We find significant velocity gradients in our outflow models and a very prominent helical structure within the outflows. We speculate that the disk wind found in the ALMA Science Verification Data of HD 163296 presents a first instance of such an observation.

  4. First two ALMA antennas successfully linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Scientists and engineers working on the world's largest ground-based astronomical project, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), have achieved another milestone -- the successful linking of two ALMA astronomical antennas, synchronised with a precision of one millionth of a millionth of a second -- to observe the planet Mars. ALMA is under construction by an international partnership in the Chilean Andes. ESO PR Photo 18a/09 The two ALMA antennas On 30 April, the team observed the first "interferometric fringes" of an astronomical source by linking two 12-metre diameter ALMA antennas, together with the other critical parts of the system. Mars was chosen as a suitable target for the observations, which demonstrate ALMA's full hardware functionality and connectivity. This important milestone was achieved at the ALMA Operations Support Facility, high in Chile's Atacama region, at an altitude of 2900 metres. "We're very proud and excited to have made this crucial observation, as it proves that the various hardware components work smoothly together. This brings us another step closer to full operations for ALMA as an astronomical observatory," says Wolfgang Wild, the European ALMA Project Manager. The two antennas used in this test will be part of ALMA's array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas that will observe in unison as a single giant telescope, under construction on the Chajnantor plateau above the Operations Support Facility, at an altitude of 5000 metres. ALMA will operate as an interferometer, capturing millimetre and submillimetre wavelength signals from the sky with multiple antennas, and combining them to create extremely high resolution images, similar to those that would be obtained by a single, giant antenna with a diameter equal to the distance between the antennas used. "This can only be achieved with the perfect synchronisation of the antennas and the electronic equipment: a precision much better than one millionth of

  5. Interstellar Isotopes: Prospects with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Cold molecular clouds are natural environments for the enrichment of interstellar molecules in the heavy isotopes of H, C, N and O. Anomalously fractionated isotopic material is found in many primitive Solar System objects, such as meteorites and comets, that may trace interstellar matter that was incorporated into the Solar Nebula without undergoing significant processing. Models of the fractionation chemistry of H, C, N and O in dense molecular clouds, particularly in cores where substantial freeze-out of molecules on to dust has occurred, make several predictions that can be tested in the near future by molecular line observations. The range of fractionation ratios expected in different interstellar molecules will be discussed and the capabilities of ALMA for testing these models (e.g. in observing doubly-substituted isotopologues) will be outlined.

  6. Two years of ALMA bibliography - lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Meakins, Silvia; Bishop, Marsha J; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  7. The First Six ALMA Band 10 Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kroug, M.; Kaneko, K.; Miyachi, A.; Yokoshima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Ogawa, H.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Uzawa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The first six Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers have been developed and characterized during the receiver preproduction phase. State-of-the-art measurement systems at THz frequencies have been implemented and successfully used to measure the performance of the first six receivers. Extensive tests ranging from receiver sensitivity and stability to optical aperture efficiency on the secondary antenna have been performed. Performance of all six receivers is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. Moreover, our extensive tests have shown that there are no big performance differences between receivers. These results indicate that the ALMA Band 10 receiver is ready for the production phase, during which an additional 67 receivers will be produced and characterized.

  8. Common Software for the ALMA project

    CERN Document Server

    Chiozzi, G; Jeram, B; Sivera, P; Plesko, M; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Dovc, J; Kadunc, M; Milcinski, G; Verstovsek, I; Zagar, K

    2001-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, USA and Japan. ALMA will consist of at least 64 12-meter antennas operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range, with baselines up to 10 km. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert[1]. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns in control systems and of components, which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is an object model of controlled devices, called Distributed Objects (DOs), implemented as CORBA network objects. Components such as antenna mount, power supply, etc. are defined by means of DOs. A code generator creates Java Bean components for each DO. Programmers can write Java client applications by connecting those Beans with data-manipulation and visualization Beans using commercial visual development tools or programmatically. ACS i...

  9. ALMA Observatory Equipped with its First Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    High in the Atacama region of northern Chile one of the world’s most advanced telescopes has just passed a major milestone. The first of many state-of-the-art antennas has been handed over to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA is being built by a global partnership whose North American partners are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). With ALMA, astronomers will study the cool Universe, the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies and even life are formed. ALMA will provide new, much-needed insights into the formation of stars and planets, and will reveal distant galaxies in the early Universe, which we see as they were over ten billion years ago. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high-precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12-meter diameter antennas, acting together as a single giant telescope, and a compact array composed of 7-meter and 12-meter antennas. The first 12-meter antenna to be handed over to the observatory was built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, one of the ALMA partners. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. “Our Japanese colleagues have produced this state-of-the-art antenna to exacting specifications. We are very excited about the handover because now we can fully equip this antenna for scientific observations,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Antennas arriving at the ALMA site undergo a series of tests to ensure that they meet the strict requirements of the telescope. The antennas have surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick out a golf ball at a distance of 9 miles. “The handover of the first Japanese antenna is the crowning achievement of the ALMA Project to date,” said Adrian Russell, the North American ALMA Project Director at NRAO. The

  10. TELCAL: The On-line Calibration Software for ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broguière, D.; Lucas, R.; Pardo, J.; Roche, J.-C.

    2011-07-01

    The ALMA on-line calibration regroups all the operations needed to maintain the ALMA interferometer optimally tuned to successfully execute the planned observations. The results of the calibrations are used in quasi-real time by the ALMA Control System. Since the first ALMA antennas were put into operation in 2009, TELCAL has been used for all the basic calibration operations and is still being improved following the project advancement. We describe here the calibrations done by TELCAL, its relationships with the other ALMA software subsystems and, briefly, the architecture of the software based on CORBA.

  11. First ALMA Transporter Ready for Challenging Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The first of two ALMA transporters -- unique vehicles designed to move high-tech radio-telescope antennas in the harsh, high-altitude environment of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array -- has been completed and passed its initial operational tests. The 130-ton machine moves on 28 wheels and will be able to transport a 115-ton antenna and set it down on a concrete pad within millimeters of a prescribed position. ALMA Transporter The ALMA Transporter on a Test Run CREDIT: ESO Click on image for high-resolution file (244 KB) The ALMA transporter rolled out of its hangar and underwent the tests at the Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik company site near Nuremberg, Germany. The machine is scheduled for delivery at the ALMA site in Chile by the end of 2007, and a second vehicle will follow about three months later. ALMA is a giant, international observatory under construction in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile at an elevation of 16,500 feet. Using at least 66 high-precision antennas, with the possibility of increasing the number in the future, ALMA will provide astronomers with an unprecedented ability to explore the Universe as seen at wavelengths of a few millimeters to less than a millimeter. By moving the antennas from configurations as compact as 150 meters to as wide as 15 kilometers, the system will provide a zoom-lens ability for scientists. "The ability to move antennas to reconfigure the array is vital to fulfilling ALMA's scientific mission. The operations plan calls for moving antennas on a daily basis to provide the flexibility that will be such a big part of ALMA's scientific value. That's why the transporters are so important and why this is such a significant milestone," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. "The ALMA antennas will be assembled and their functionality will be verified at a base camp, located at an altitude of 2900 meters (9500 feet) and the transporters will in a first step bring the telescopes up to the

  12. The exciting future of (sub-)millimeter interferometry: ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Casasola, V

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), presently under construction, is a revolutionary astronomical interferometer, that will operate at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. With unprecedented sensitivity, resolution, and imaging capability, ALMA will explore the (sub-)mm Universe, one of astronomy's last frontiers. ALMA is expected to provide insight in star- and galaxy formation in the early Universe and to image local star- and planet formation in great detail. The ALMA Commissioning and Science Verification phase is currently in course, preparing the path for Early Science. The Call for ALMA Early Science proposals is expected to be released before the end of 2010. In this contribution we will describe the ALMA project, the array and its receivers, its science goals, and its scientific and technological potential. We will outline the organizational structure of the ALMA Regional Centres, that will play an important role in providing support to the users, with particular attention to the Italian...

  13. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  14. Alma Flor Ada: Writer, Translator, Storyteller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of children's author Alma Flor Ada, a Cuban native who has won awards honoring Latino writers and illustrators. Includes part of an interview that explores her background, describes activity ideas, and presents a bibliography of works written by her (several title published in both English and Spanish) as well as sources of…

  15. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  16. Detecting the First Quasars with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, Marco; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2010-05-01

    We show that ALMA is the first telescope that can probe the dust-obscured central region of quasars at z > 5 with a maximum resolution of ~ 30 pc employing the 18 km baseline. We explore the possibility of detecting the first quasars with ALMA (Schleicher, Spaans, & Klessen 2009). For this purpose, we adopt the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as a reference system and calculate the expected fluxes if this galaxy were placed at high redshift. This choice is motivated by the detailed observations available for this system and the absence of any indication for an evolution in metallicity in high-redshift quasars. It is a conservative choice due to the moderate column densities in NGC 1068, leading to moderate fluxes.

  17. CURA MÉDICA DE ALMAS (CMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancisar Restrepo Toro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La «Cura médica de almas» tiene como objetivo señalar otra zona de aplicación de la Logoterapia, el acercamiento al hombre que sufre, al homo patiens, pero no ya a su sufrimiento en sí mismo sino a su humanidad. Si la Logoterapia, en su sentido más estricto, es la terapia indicada para las neurosis noógenas o en otros casos es complementaria de las psicoterapias, en el caso de la «Cura médica de almas» ya no es intervención terapéutica sino, específicamente, ejercicio de la humanidad del terapeuta en contacto con la humanidad de su paciente.

  18. Prospects for Asymmetric PNe with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Huggins, P J

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter and sub-millimeter observations have made fundamental contributions to our current understanding of the transition from AGB stars to white dwarfs. The approaching era of ALMA brings significantly enhanced observing capabilities at these wavelengths and promises to push back the frontiers in a number of ways. We examine the scientific prospects of this new era for PNe, with an emphasis on how developments may contribute to the goals of the asymmetric PNe community.

  19. Performance highlights of the ALMA correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Alain; Lacasse, Richard; Escoffier, Ray; Webber, John; Greenberg, Joseph; Platt, Laurence; Treacy, Robert; Saez, Alejandro F.; Cais, Philippe; Comoretto, Giovanni; Quertier, Benjamin; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Kamazaki, Takeshi; Chikada, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Manabu; Okuda, Takeshi; Kurono, Yasutake; Iguchi, Satoru

    2012-09-01

    Two large correlators have been constructed to combine the signals captured by the ALMA antennas deployed on the Atacama Desert in Chile at an elevation of 5050 meters. The Baseline correlator was fabricated by a NRAO/European team to process up to 64 antennas for 16 GHz bandwidth in two polarizations and another correlator, the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) correlator, was fabricated by a Japanese team to process up to 16 antennas. Both correlators meet the same specifications except for the number of processed antennas. The main architectural differences between these two large machines will be underlined. Selected features of the Baseline and ACA correlators as well as the main technical challenges met by the designers will be briefly discussed. The Baseline correlator is the largest correlator ever built for radio astronomy. Its digital hybrid architecture provides a wide variety of observing modes including the ability to divide each input baseband into 32 frequency-mobile sub-bands for high spectral resolution and to be operated as a conventional 'lag' correlator for high time resolution. The various observing modes offered by the ALMA correlators to the science community for 'Early Science' are presented, as well as future observing modes. Coherently phasing the array to provide VLBI maps of extremely compact sources is another feature of the ALMA correlators. Finally, the status and availability of these large machines will be presented.

  20. Application development using the ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, G.; Caproni, A.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Wang, V.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.; Zagar, K.; Fugate, D. W.; Harrington, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.

    2006-06-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides the software infrastructure used by ALMA and by several other telescope projects, thanks also to the choice of adopting the LGPL public license. ACS is a set of application frameworks providing the basic services needed for object oriented distributed computing. Among these are transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location based on a container/component model, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. ACS is based on CORBA and built on top of free CORBA implementations. Free software is extensively used wherever possible. The general architecture of ACS was presented at SPIE 2002. ACS has been under development for 6 years and it is midway through its development life. Many applications have been written using ACS; the ALMA test facility, APEX and other telescopes are running systems based on ACS. This is therefore a good time to look back and see what have been until now the strong and the weak points of ACS in terms of architecture and implementation. In this perspective, it is very important to analyze the applications based on ACS, the feedback received by the users and the impact that this feedback has had on the development of ACS itself, by favoring the development of some features with respect to others. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of this analysis and discuss what we would like to do in order to extend and improve ACS in the coming years, in particular to make application development easier and more efficient.

  1. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is the new name [2] for a giant millimeter-wavelength telescope project. As described in the accompanying joint press release by ESO and the U.S. National Science Foundation , the present design and development phase is now a Europe-U.S. collaboration, and may soon include Japan. ALMA may become the largest ground-based astronomy project of the next decade after VLT/VLTI, and one of the major new facilities for world astronomy. ALMA will make it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. As presently envisaged, ALMA will be comprised of up to 64 12-meter diameter antennas distributed over an area 10 km across. ESO PR Photo 24a/99 shows an artist's concept of a portion of the array in a compact configuration. ESO PR Video Clip 03/99 illustrates how all the antennas will move in unison to point to a single astronomical object and follow it as it traverses the sky. In this way the combined telescope will produce astronomical images of great sharpness and sensitivity [3]. An exceptional site For such observations to be possible the atmosphere above the telescope must be transparent at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This requires a site that is high and dry, and a high plateau in the Atacama desert of Chile, probably the world's driest, is ideal - the next best thing to outer space for these observations. ESO PR Photo 24b/99 shows the location of the chosen site at Chajnantor, at 5000 meters altitude and 60 kilometers east of the village of San Pedro de Atacama, as seen from the Space Shuttle during a servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope. ESO PR Photo 24c/99 and ESO PR Photo 24d/99 show a satellite image of the immediate vicinity and the site marked on a map of northern Chile. ALMA will be the highest continuously operated observatory in the world. The stark nature of this extreme site is well illustrated by the panoramic view in ESO PR Photo 24e/99. High sensitivity and sharp images ALMA

  2. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  3. Italian Science Case for ALMA Band 2+3

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, M T; Brand, J; Casasola, V; Cesaroni, R; Codella, C; Fontani, F; Gregorini, L; Guidi, G; Hunt, L; Liuzzo, E; Marconi, A; Massardi, M; Moscadelli, L; Paladini, R; Podio, L; Prandoni, I; Rygl, K L J; Rivilla, V; .,; Testi, L

    2015-01-01

    The Premiale Project "Science and Technology in Italy for the upgraded ALMA Observatory - iALMA" has the goal of strengthening the scientific, technological and industrial Italian contribution to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the largest ground based international infrastructure for the study of the Universe in the microwave. One of the main objectives of the Science Working Group (SWG) inside iALMA, the Work Package 1, is to develop the Italian contribution to the Science Case for the ALMA Band 2 or Band 2+3 receiver. ALMA Band 2 receiver spans from ~67 GHz (bounded by an opaque line complex of ozone lines) up to 90 GHz which overlaps with the lower frequency end of ALMA Band 3. Receiver technology has advanced since the original definition of the ALMA frequency bands. It is now feasible to produce a single receiver which could cover the whole frequency range from 67 GHz to 116 GHz, encompassing Band 2 and Band 3 in a single receiver cartridge, a so called Band 2+3 system. In addit...

  4. ALMA Achieves Major Milestone With Antenna-Link Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project, reached a major milestone on March 2, when two ALMA prototype antennas were first linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object. The milestone achievement, technically termed "First Fringes," came at the ALMA Test Facility (ATF) on the grounds of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in New Mexico. NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation (NSF), managed by Associated Universities, Incorporated (AUI). AUI also is designated by NSF as the North American Executive for ALMA. ALMA Test Facility ALMA Test Facility, New Mexico: VertexRSI antenna, left; AEC antenna, right. CREDIT: Drew Medlin, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Saturn were collected by the two ALMA antennas, then processed by new, state-of-the-art electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of multi-antenna imaging systems such as ALMA and the VLA. In such a system, each antenna is combined electronically with every other antenna to form a multitude of pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly-detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed in 2012, ALMA will have 66 antennas. The successful Saturn observation began at 7:13 p.m., U.S. Mountain Time Friday (0213 UTC Saturday). The planet's radio emissions at a frequency of 104 GigaHertz (GHz) were tracked by the ALMA system for more than an hour. "Our congratulations go to the dedicated team of scientists, engineers and technicians who produced this groundbreaking achievement for ALMA. Much hard work and many long hours went into this effort, and we appreciate it all. This team should be very proud today," said NRAO

  5. ALMA Observations of the Orion Proplyds

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Rita K; Johnstone, Doug; Andrews, Sean M; Williams, Jonathan P; Bally, John; Ricci, Luca; Hughes, A Meredith; Matthews, Brenda C

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of protoplanetary disks ("proplyds") in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We imaged 5 individual fields at 856um containing 22 HST-identified proplyds and detected 21 of them. Eight of those disks were detected for the first time at submillimeter wavelengths, including the most prominent, well-known proplyd in the entire Orion Nebula, 114-426. Thermal dust emission in excess of any free-free component was measured in all but one of the detected disks, and ranged between 1-163 mJy, with resulting disk masses of 0.3-79 Mjup. An additional 26 stars with no prior evidence of associated disks in HST observations were also imaged within the 5 fields, but only 2 were detected. The disk mass upper limits for the undetected targets, which include OB stars, theta1Ori C and theta1Ori F, range from 0.1-0.6 Mjup. Combining these ALMA data with previous SMA observations, we find a lack of massive (>3 Mjup) disks in the extreme-UV dominated region of Orion, within 0.03 pc of O-star theta1Ori C. At large...

  6. ALMA Nutator Design and Preliminary Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Koch, Patrick M; Ni, Chih-Wen; Chen, Wei-Long; Chen, Ming-Tang; Raffin, Philippe; Ong, Chin-Long; Ho, Paul T P; Symmes, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the past two years of collaboration between the di?erent actors on the ALMA nutator. Building on previous developments, the nutator has seen changes in much of the design. A high-modulus carbon ?fiber structure has been added on the back of the mirror in order to transfer the voice coils forces with less deformation, thus reducing delay problems due to flexing. The controller is now an off?-the-shelf National Instrument NI-cRIO, and the ampli?fier a class D servo drive from Advanced Motion Controls, with high peak power able to drive the coils at 300 Volts DC. The stow mechanism has been totally redesigned to improve on the repeatability and precision of the stow position, which is also the reference for the 26 bits Heidenhain encoders. This also improves on the accuracy of the stow position with wind loading. Finally, the software, written largely with National Instrument's LabView, has been developed. We will discuss these changes and the preliminary performances achieved to date. Keywords: ALMA, ...

  7. Quasi-optical attenuators for ALMA band 10 receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Fujii, Y.; Kaneko, K.; Uzawa, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Simple quasi-optical attenuators based on beam truncation have been designed, fabricated and tried on ALMA band 10 receivers (787-950 GHz) with optimal results. The design is based on physical-optics simulations considering effects of diffraction. The use of these attenuators allows flexibility in the design of the local oscillator (LO) quasi-optical injection scheme depending on the specific performance of components for each of the 73 ALMA band 10 receivers. In particular, they have proven very effective to keep system noise within the stringent ALMA requirements (230 K at 80% of 787-950 GHz band).

  8. World-Wide Effort Bringing ALMA Telescope Into Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    In the thin, dry air of northern Chile's Atacama Desert, at an altitude of 16,500 feet, an amazing new telescope system is taking shape, on schedule to provide the world's astronomers with unprecedented views of the origins of stars, galaxies, and planets. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will open an entirely new "window" on the Universe, allowing scientists to unravel longstanding and important astronomical mysteries. ALMA Artist's Concept Artist's Concept of Completed ALMA CREDIT: ALMA/ESO/NRAO/NAOJ Click on image for high-resolution file (182 KB) "Most of the photons in the Universe are in the wavelength range that ALMA will receive, and ALMA will give us our first high-resolution views at these wavelengths. This will be a tremendous advancement for astronomy and open one of our science's last frontiers," Anneila Sargent, a Caltech professor and ALMA Board member, told the American Association for the Advancement of Science at its meeting in Boston, Mass. The millimeter and submillimeter wavelength range lies between what is traditionally considered radio waves and infrared waves. ALMA, a system using up to 66 high-precision dish antennas working together, will provide astronomers with dramatically greater sensitivity, the ability to detect faint objects, and resolving power, the ability to see fine detail, than has ever before been available in this range. "This ambitious project is the product of an international collaboration that spans the globe," Sargent said. "ALMA truly will enable transformational science and providing this capability has required a massive, world-wide effort," she added. The ALMA project is a partnership between Europe, Japan and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded in Europe by ESO, in Japan by the National Institutes of Natural Sciences in cooperation with the Academia Sinica in Taiwan and in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation in cooperation with the

  9. ALMA Observations of the Sun in Cycle 4 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer, S; Battaglia, M; Labrosse, N; Fleishman, G; Hudson, H; Antolin, P; Alissandrakis, C; Ayres, T; Ballester, J; Bastian, T; Black, J; Benz, A; Brajsa, R; Carlsson, M; Costa, J; DePontieu, B; Doyle, G; de Castro, G Gimenez; Gunár, S; Harper, G; Jafarzadeh, S; Loukitcheva, M; Nakariakov, V; Oliver, R; Schmieder, B; Selhorst, C; Shimojo, M; Simões, P; Soler, R; Temmer, M; Tiwari, S; Van Doorsselaere, T; Veronig, A; White, S; Yagoubov, P; Zaqarashvili, T

    2016-01-01

    This document was created by the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON) in preparation of the first regular observations of the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), which are anticipated to start in ALMA Cycle 4 in October 2016. The science cases presented here demonstrate that a large number of scientifically highly interesting observations could be made already with the still limited solar observing modes foreseen for Cycle 4 and that ALMA has the potential to make important contributions to answering long-standing scientific questions in solar physics. With the proposal deadline for ALMA Cycle 4 in April 2016 and the Commissioning and Science Verification campaign in December 2015 in sight, several of the SSALMON Expert Teams composed strategic documents in which they outlined potential solar observations that could be feasible given the anticipated technical capabilities in Cycle 4. These documents have been combined and supplemented w...

  10. ALMA observations of the Orion proplyds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of protoplanetary disks ('proplyds') in the Orion Nebula Cluster. We imaged five individual fields at 856 μm containing 22 Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-identified proplyds and detected 21 of them. Eight of those disks were detected for the first time at submillimeter wavelengths, including the most prominent, well-known proplyd in the entire Orion Nebula, 114-426. Thermal dust emission in excess of any free-free component was measured in all but one of the detected disks, and ranged between 1 and 163 mJy, with resulting disk masses of 0.3-79 M jup. An additional 26 stars with no prior evidence of associated disks in HST observations were also imaged within the 5 fields, but only 2 were detected. The disk mass upper limits for the undetected targets, which include OB stars, θ1 Ori C, and θ1 Ori F, range from 0.1 to 0.6 M jup. Combining these ALMA data with previous Submillimeter Array observations, we find a lack of massive (≳3 M jup) disks in the extreme-UV-dominated region of Orion, within 0.03 pc of θ1 Ori C. At larger separations from θ1 Ori C, in the far-UV-dominated region, there is a wide range of disk masses, similar to what is found in low-mass star forming regions. Taken together, these results suggest that a rapid dissipation of disk masses likely inhibits potential planet formation in the extreme-UV-dominated regions of OB associations, but leaves disks in the far-UV-dominated regions relatively unaffected.

  11. ALMA Partners Break Ground on World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from North America, Europe, and Chile broke ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths. ALMA - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located on the Chajnantor plain of the Chilean Andes in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, 16,500 feet (5,000 meters) above sea level. ALMA's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimeter portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site The Atacama Large Millimeter Array is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. "The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare for a spectacular new instrument," said Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation. "The Atacama Large Millimeter Array will expand our vision of the Universe with "eyes" that pierce the shrouded mantles of

  12. ALMA Telescope Passes Major Milestone with Successful Antenna Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an immense international telescope project under construction in northern Chile, reached a major milestone on April 30, when two ALMA antennas were linked together as an integrated system to observe an astronomical object for the first time. The milestone achievement, technically termed "First Fringes," came at ALMA’s Operations Support Facility, 9,500 feet above sea level. Faint radio waves emitted by the planet Mars were collected by the two 12-meter diameter ALMA antennas, then processed by state-of-the-art electronics to turn the two antennas into a single, high-resolution telescope system, called an interferometer. Such pairs of antennas are the basic building blocks of imaging systems that enable radio telescopes to deliver pictures that approach or even exceed the resolving power of visible light telescopes. In such a system, each antenna is combined electronically with every other antenna to form a multitude of antenna pairs. Each pair contributes unique information that is used to build a highly-detailed image of the astronomical object under observation. When completed early in the next decade, ALMA’s 66 antennas will provide over a thousand such antenna pairings, with distances between antennas exceeding ten miles. This will enable ALMA to see with a sharpness surpassing that of the best space telescopes. The antennas will operate at an altitude of 16,500 feet, high above the OSF, in one of the best locations on Earth for millimeter-wavelength astronomy, the Chajnantor Plateau in Chile’s Atacama Desert. Last week’s successful Mars observation was conducted at an observing frequency of 104.2 GHz. Astronomers measured the distinctive varying “fringes” detected by the interferometer as the planet moved across the sky. “This is a great success,” said Adrian Russell, North American ALMA Project Director at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), “not because we observed a

  13. U.S., European ALMA Partners Award Prototype Antenna Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. and European partners in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project have awarded contracts to U.S. and Italian firms, respectively, for two prototype antennas. ALMA is a planned telescope array, expected to consist of 64 millimeter-wave antennas with 12-meter diameter dishes. The array will be built at a high-altitude, extremely dry mountain site in Chile's Atacama desert, and is scheduled to be completed sometime in this decade. On February 22, 2000, Associated Universities Inc. (AUI) signed an approximately $6.2 million contract with Vertex Antenna Systems, of Santa Clara, Calif., for construction of one prototype ALMA antenna. AUI operates the U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the National Science Foundation under a cooperative agreement. The European partners contracted with the consortium of European Industrial Engineering and Costamasnaga, of Mestre, Italy, on February 21, 2000, for the production of another prototype. (Mestre is located on the inland side of Venice.) The two antennas must meet identical specifications, but will inherently be of different designs. This will ensure that the best possible technologies are incorporated into the final production antennas. Only one of the designs will be selected for final production. Several technical challenges must be met for the antennas to perform to ALMA specifications. Each antenna must have extremely high surface accuracy (25 micrometers, or one-third the diameter of a human hair, over the entire 12-meter diameter). This means that, when completed, the surface accuracy of the ALMA dishes will be 20 times greater than that of the Very Large Array (VLA) antennas, and about 50 times greater than dish antennas for communications or radar. The ALMA antennas must also have extremely high pointing accuracy (0.6 arcseconds). An additional challenge is that the antennas, when installed at the ALMA site in Chile, will be exposed to the ravages of weather at 16,500 feet (5000 meters

  14. Exploring remote operation for ALMA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Ovando, Nicolás.; Velez, Gaston; Fuica, Soledad; Schemrl, Anton; Robles, Andres; Ibsen, Jorge; Filippi, Giorgio; Pietriga, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. The observatory has another office located in Santiago of Chile, 1600 km from the Chajnantor plain. In the Atacama desert, the wonderful observing conditions imply precarious living conditions and extremely high operation costs: i.e: flight tickets, hospitality, infrastructure, water, electricity, etc. It is clear that a purely remote operational model is impossible, but we believe that a mixture of remote and local operation scheme would be beneficial to the observatory, not only in reducing the cost but also in increasing the observatory overall efficiency. This paper describes the challenges and experience gained in such experimental proof of the concept. The experiment was performed over the existing 100 Mbps bandwidth, which connects both sites through a third party telecommunication infrastructure. During the experiment, all of the existent capacities of the observing software were validated successfully, although room for improvement was clearly detected. Network virtualization, MPLS configuration, L2TPv3 tunneling, NFS adjustment, operational workstations design are part of the experiment.

  15. $\\eta$ Carinae Baby Homunculus Uncovered by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P B

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of $\\eta$ Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280 and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.88" to 0.45" for the lower and higher frequencies respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42$\\alpha$, He42$\\alpha$, H40$\\alpha$, He40$\\alpha$, H50$\\beta$, H28$\\alpha$, He28$\\alpha$, H21$\\alpha$ and He21$\\alpha$ were also detected and their intensities reveal non local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of $\\eta$ Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the hi...

  16. Solving the polarization problem in ALMA-VLBI observations

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Alef, W; Conway, J; Lindqvist, M; Zensus, A J

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Large mm-submm Array (ALMA) is, by far, the most sensitive mm/submm telescope in the World. The ALMA Phasing Project (APP) will allow us to phase-up all the ALMA antennas and use them as one single VLBI station. This will be a key component of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a Global VLBI array at millimeter wavelengths. A problem in the APP is the calibration and conversion of the polarization channels. Most VLBI stations record their signals in a circular basis, but the ALMA receivers record in a linear basis. The strategy that will be followed in the phased-ALMA VLBI observations will be to correlate in "mixed" basis (i.e., linear versus circular) and convert the visibilities to a pure circular basis after the correlation. We have developed an algorithm to perform such a polarization conversion of the VLBI visibilities. In these proceedings, we present the basics of the PolConvert algorithm and discuss on the polarization conversion in the general case were single dishes (besides phased arra...

  17. Modelo conceitual para projetos de instalações produtivas sujeitas à Vigilância Sanitária / Conceptual model for production facilities projects subject to Sanitary Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Battesini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O projeto de instalações produtivas objeto da ação de Vigilância Sanitária é uma atividade complexa e multidisciplinar que deve resultar em arranjos espaciais capazes de otimizar a obtenção de produtos e atender à regulação sanitária. A linguagem utilizada na legisla-ção sanitária dificulta sua compreensão por projetistas, prejudicando o entendimento da relação direta entre o risco sanitário, as instalações e os fluxos por elas condicionados. O objetivo do artigo é propor um Modelo Conceitual para projetos de Instalações Produtivas sujeitas à Vigilância Sanitária (MCIP-VISA. A coleta de dados ocorrida durante o processo de trabalho participativo e multidisciplinar no nível estadual da VISA, no RS, no período de 2000 a 2010, caracterizam a natureza aplicada e a abordagem qualitativa utilizada. Como resultados são apresentados uma sistematização dos requisitos legais para instalações, as diferentes formas de compor os espaços, os fluxos e o sequenciamento de processos, e as implicações práticas da utilização do modelo no projeto e avaliação de instalações. A aplicação do MCIP-VISA em situações reais demonstrou não haver incompatibilidade entre projetar instalações que minimizem os riscos sanitários e simultaneamente otimizem a produção. A demanda legal pela aprovação dos projetos de instalações pela VISA se mos-trou um momento oportuno à reflexão sobre o planejamento de infraestruturas físicas capazes de viabilizar o cumprimento das Boas Práticas de Fabricação. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ The design of production facilities subject to Sanitary Surveillance is a complex and multi-disciplinary activity that should result in spatial arrangements that optimize the products obtainment and meet the sanitary regulation. The language used in health legislation diffi-cult its understanding by designers, hindering the understanding of the direct

  18. VIDEO AT OSF - Interview to David Rabanus, ESO, on the ALMA OSF site, at 2900 m

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In this interview, recorded on the ALMA OSF (Operations and Support Facilities) site, at 2900 m on the Chajnantor highlands, physicist David Rabanus of ESO/ ALMA takes us inside the heart of the ALMA antennas, to reveal how the antennas detect millimetric and submillimetric radiowaves.

  19. New Eyes on the Sun — Solar Science with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedemeyer, S.

    2016-03-01

    In Cycle 4, which starts in October 2016, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be open for regular observations of the Sun for the first time. ALMA’s impressive capabilities have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of our host star, with far-reaching implications for our knowledge about stars in general. The radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere — a complex and dynamic layer between the photosphere and the corona that is prominent during solar eclipses. Despite decades of intensive research, the chromosphere is still elusive due to its complex nature and the resulting challenges to its observation. ALMA will change the scene substantially by opening up a new window on the Sun, promising answers to long-standing questions.

  20. The Soul of Lupus with ALMA (SOLA) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; de Gregorio, I.; Team SOLA

    2015-12-01

    The SOLA (Soul of Lupus with ALMA) project is conducting comprehensive studies of the Lupus Molecular Clouds and their star formation processes. Our goal is to exploit ALMA and other facilities over a wide wavelength range to establish a prototypical low-mass star forming scenario based on the Lupus region. We focus mainly on 10-104 au scale physics, kinematics, density, and temperature, together with detailed modelling of radiative transfer. Our unique source catalog so far contains more than 700 sources at various evolutionary stages and we have obtained complementary data with Mopra, APEX, etc. In the poster, we will report the latest status of SOLA and the expected outcome in observing runs in the near future, including ALMA Cycle 3.

  1. Python code parallelization for ALMA, challenges and alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Justo; Taylor, Julian; Castro, Sandra; Kern, Jeff; Knudstrup, Jens; Zampieri, Stefano; Manning, Alisdair

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years development of Python code for science and data reduction purposes has gained significant popularity. ESO in itself uses a Python-based archiving  system for VLT and ALMA data. Also the data reduction suite for ALMA data is python-based. Rapid development is fostered by a big community and a wide range of already available packages. However Python enforces locking mechanisms, to ensure thread safety, that effectively reduce the capacity of Python to use only one cor...

  2. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  3. Revealing the dynamics of Class 0 protostellar discs with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Seifried, D; Walch, S; Banerjee, R

    2016-01-01

    We present synthetic ALMA observations of Keplerian, protostellar discs in the Class 0 stage studying the emission of molecular tracers like $^{13}$CO, C$^{18}$O, HCO$^+$, H$^{13}$CO$^+$, N$_2$H$^+$, and H$_2$CO. We model the emission of discs around low- and intermediate-mass protostars. We show that under optimal observing conditions ALMA is able to detect the discs already in the earliest stage of protostellar evolution, although the emission is often concentrated to the innermost 50 AU. Therefore, a resolution of a few 0.1" might be too low to detect Keplerian discs around Class 0 objects. We also demonstrate that under optimal conditions Keplerian rotation signatures are recognisable and protostellar masses can be determined with high fidelity for edge-on discs. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to reveal Keplerian rotation even for strongly inclined discs and that ALMA should be able to detect possible signs of fragmentation in face-on discs. In order to give some guidance for future ALMA observa...

  4. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  5. Circumnuclear molecular gas in M87 detected with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahakis, Catherine E.

    2016-01-01

    We present the detection of circumnuclear molecular gas residing within 100 pc of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the galaxy M87 (3C 274), using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to image the gas on spatial scales from 100 to 10 pc. The proximity of M87, the archetypical giant elliptical radio galaxy at the centre of the Virgo galaxy cluster, presents a unique opportunity to investigate in detail the circumnuclear molecular gas revealed first by single-dish observations and recently imaged for the first time with ALMA (Vlahakis et al., in prep). ALMA's unique long baseline capability now allows us to make the first detailed investigation of the properties of the interstellar medium around the galaxy's SMBH on scales down to 10 pc (0.1 arcsec). Here, we present results of ALMA Band 3 CO J=1-0 observations obtained at different angular resolutions. With this data we are able to trace the bulk of the molecular gas as well as the continuum emission, providing the deepest and highest spatial resolution images yet of the molecular gas content of this giant elliptical galaxy. The highest resolution data allow us to unambiguously resolve the molecular gas structures for the first time and investigate, in unprecedented detail, the nature and origin of molecular gas that resides within the sphere of influence of the SMBH.

  6. Alma-0: an imperative language that supports declarative programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apt, K.R.; Brunekreef, J.; Partinton, V.; Schaerf, A.

    1997-01-01

    We describe here an implemented small programming language, called Alma, that augments the expressive power of imperative programming by a limited number of features inspired by the logic programming paradigm. These additions encourage declarative programming and make it a more attractive vehicle fo

  7. Observaci\\'on de lentes gravitatorias con ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, A; Fuentes, I; Motta, V

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a fundamental tool for cosmology. A recent instrument which will provide more information for models of these objects is ALMA. Our goal is to select lens candidates to observe with ALMA and then model them using GravLens Software. We had selected 12 quadruple images systems from the CASTLES database, which show a high probability of observing extended sources in the submillimetric range. These new data will allow us to improve existing models. Las lentes gravitatorias son una herramienta fundamental para la cosmolog\\'ia. Un nuevo instrumento que nos proporcionar\\'a mayor informaci\\'on para los modelos de estos objetos, es ALMA. Nuestro objetivo es seleccionar lentes candidatas para observar con ALMA y posteriormente modelarlas mediante el programa GravLens. Seleccionamos de la base de datos de CASTLES, 12 sistemas cu\\'adruples, los cuales tienen mayor probabilidad de observar fuentes extendidas en el rango submilim\\'etrico. Estos nuevos datos nos permitir\\'an mejorar los modelos exite...

  8. The High Redshift Universe Seen Through the Eyes of ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklind, Tommy

    2012-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) is an interferometric telescope currently under construction on the Chajnantor Plateau in northern Chile. It is situated at an altitude of 5000m, in one of the driest places in the world. The combination of the meteorological conditions, increased total collecting area and the use of state-of-the-art receivers means that the fully operational ALMA is a factor 10-1000 more sensitive than existing facilities, depending on the wavelength. When completed in 2013, ALMA will consists of 66 antennas, with maximum baselines of up to 15 km and it will be able to observe at wavelengths from 10 millimeter to ~350micron. ALMA will be able to provide an angular resolution of ~0.05 arcseconds. ALMA is still under construction, but has started producing science in an 'Early Science' phase. The goal with ALMA has from the beginning been to provide very high sensitivity as well as an angular resolution matching that of space based optical observatories such as the HST. One of three main drivers when designing ALMA has been the ability to study the high redshift universe. The main reason behind this is that almost half of the integrated background radiation comes from the far-infrared wavelength regime. This emission is interpreted as originating from dust re-radiated stellar emission in high redshift galaxies. Interstellar dust is almost invariably associated with molecular gas, that can be studied using molecular rotational transitions. The shape of the dust spectral energy distribution ensures that the observed flux at a fixed wavelength long-ward of the far-infrared peak (about 100micron) remains more or less constant over a redshift range z=1-10. This aspect makes dust continuum emission extraordinarily important for studying galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei at high redshift. Through observations of line emission from molecular transitions it is possible to study the associated molecular gas distribution and its kinematics. The

  9. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) astronomical project will not only enlarge our knowledge of the vast Universe beyond the imaginable. It will also help scientists learn more about the human body. Located 5000m above sea level, in the Chilean Atacama desert, ALMA is the highest site for ground-based astronomy. This property will be put to good use for academic institutions in Chile and in Europe in order to study the human response to extreme altitude conditions. During a ceremony held on 2 April in Antofagasta, the largest town close to ESO's Very Large Telescope, representatives from ALMA, ESO and the University of Antofagasta have officially launched a collaborative agreement that also involves the University of Chile and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). The newly established cooperation aims at contributing to the promotion of teaching, scientific research, and the expansion of altitude physiology and medicine or other related areas considered appropriate. ESO PR Photo 20/07 ESO PR Photo 20/07 Working at 5000 metres "An increasing number of people are periodically exposed to brisk changes in altitude, and not only for astronomical research," said Jacques Lassalle, the ALMA Safety Manager. "Short stays at high altitude alternate with short stays at sea level but the corresponding shifts are very often established by agreement, and not based on scientific arguments. With this project, we aim at improving our knowledge and procedures in order to protect the long term health of the operators, engineers, and scientists as well as ALMA visitors of all ages and all physical conditions," he added. Around the world, a large number of people systematically commute between sea level and high altitude, for example when working in mountainous mines. This poses stringent conditions that may affect health, wellbeing and working performance. Some of the factors in question are the shift work regime, the perturbation of circadian rhythms, fatigue

  10. Fideísmo y racionalismo en las tres potencias del alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Calvo Rodríguez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la gnoseología luliana, las tres potencias del alma racional (Voluntad, Memoria y Entendimiento adquieren una especial importancia por ser los instrumentos del alma que permiten el acceso y el conocimiento del amor divino. A este respecto escribe Cruz Hernández: «Las potencias del alma, además, tanto por su naturaleza como por su actividad, reflejan las virtudes divinas; y, de un modo eminente, la Trinidad personal».1 De esta manera, no hay mejor espejo de Dios en el hombre que el alma, donde reside la presencia divina. Por esto, el Libro de amigo y Amado, considerando la reiterativa presencia de las tres potencias del alma que presenta, simplemente propone un viaje errático por el interior del alma humana en busca de Dios y, en definitiva, en busca del propio yo del místico.

  11. Phase Correction for ALMA with 183 GHz Water Vapour Radiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, Bojan; Graves, Sarah F; Hills, Richard E; Richer, John S

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuating properties of the atmosphere, and in particular its water vapour content, give rise to phase fluctuations of astronomical signals which, if uncorrected, lead to rapid deterioration of performance of (sub)-mm interferometers on long baselines. The Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter Array (ALMA) uses a 183 GHz Water Vapour Radiometer (WVR) system to help correct these fluctuations and provide much improved performance on long baselines and at high frequencies. Here we describe the design of the overall ALMA WVR system, the choice of design parameters and the data processing strategy. We also present results of initial tests that demonstrate both the large improvement in phase stability that can be achieved and the very low contribution to phase noise from the WVRs. Finally, we describe briefly the main limiting factors to the accuracy of phase correction seen in these initial tests; namely, the degrading influence of cloud and the residual phase fluctuations that are most likely to be due to var...

  12. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  13. Star and Stellar Cluster Formation: ALMA-SKA Synergies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, G A; Rathborne, J M; Longmore, S; Molinari, S

    2015-01-01

    Over the next decade, observations conducted with ALMA and the SKA will reveal the process of mass assembly and accretion onto young stars and will be revolutionary for studies of star formation. Here we summarise the capabilities of ALMA and discuss recent results from its early science observations. We then review infrared and radio variability observations of both young low-mass and high-mass stars. A time domain SKA radio continuum survey of star forming regions is then outlined. This survey will produce radio light-curves for hundreds of young sources, providing for the first time a systematic survey of radio variability across the full range of stellar masses. These light-curves will probe the magnetospheric interactions of young binary systems, the origins of outflows, trace episodic accretion on the central sources and potentially constrain the rotation rates of embedded sources.

  14. The 1976 Illini: Sweet Memories of Alma Mater

    OpenAIRE

    Diya Dutt

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the attitudes of graduates of the class of 1976 from the University of Illinois toward their alma mater over a period of fifteen years. The central question addressed in this article is: How do former students feel about their educational institution as time passes? Early research suggests that students' attachment to their educational institution becomes weaker with the passage of time. This panel data on alumni attitudes towards the academic environ...

  15. The ALMA assembly, integration, and verification project: a retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, B.; Knee, L. B. G.; Jager, H.; Whyborn, N.; McMullin, J.; Murowinski, R.; Peck, A.; Corder, S.

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA consists of 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. Assembly, Integration, and Verification (AIV) of the antennas was completed at the end of the year 2013, while the final optimization and complete expansion to validate all planned observing modes will continue. This paper compares the actually obtained results of the period 2008-2013 with the baselines that had been laid out in the early project-planning phase (2005-2007). First plans made for ALMA AIV had already established a two-phased project life-cycle: phase 1 for setting up necessary infrastructure and common facilities, and taking the first three antennas to the start of commissioning; and phase 2 focused on the steady state processing of the remaining units. Throughout the execution of the project this lifecycle was refined and two additional phases were added, namely a transition phase between phases 1 and 2, and a closing phase to address the project ramp-down. A sub-project called Accelerated Commissioning and Science Verification (ACSV) was carried out during the year 2009 in order to provide focus to the whole ALMA organization, and to accomplish the start-of-commissioning milestone. Early phases of CSV focused on validating the basic performance and calibration. Over time additional observing modes have been validated as capabilities expanded both in hardware and software. This retrospective analysis describes the originally presented project staffing plans and schedules, the underlying assumptions, identified risks and operational models, among others. For comparison actual data on staffing levels, the resultant schedule, additional risks identified and those that actually materialized, are presented. The

  16. Solar ALMA Observations - A new view of our host star

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer, Sven; Brajsa, Roman; Barta, Miroslav; Shimojo, Masumi; Hales, Antonio; Yagoubov, Pavel; Hudson, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    ALMA provides the necessary spatial, temporal and spectral resolution to explore central questions in contemporary solar physics with potentially far-reaching implications for stellar atmospheres and plasma physics. It can uniquely constraint the thermal and magnetic field structure in the solar chromosphere with measurements that are highly complementary to simultaneous observations with other ground-based and space-borne instruments. Here, we highlight selected science cases.

  17. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlop, J S; Biggs, A D; Geach, J E; Michalowski, M J; Ivison, R J; Rujopakarn, W; van Kampen, E; Kirkpatrick, A; Pope, A; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; Targett, T A; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Best, P N; Bruce, V A; Chapin, E L; Charlot, S; Cirasuolo, M; Coppin, K E K; Ellis, R S; Finkelstein, S L; Hayward, C C; Hughes, D H; Ibar, E; Khochfar, S; Koprowski, M P; Narayanan, D; Papovich, C; Peacock, J A; Robertson, B; Vernstrom, T; van der Werf, P P; Wilson, G W; Yun, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first, deep ALMA imaging covering the full 4.5 sq arcmin of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) as previously imaged with WFC3/IR on HST. Using a mosaic of 45 pointings, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3mm image of the HUDF, achieving an rms sensitivity of 35 microJy, at a resolution of 0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ~50 >3.5sigma peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with flux densities S(1.3) > 120 microJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts ( = 2.15), and 12 are also detected at 6GHz in new deep JVLA imaging. Due to the wealth of supporting data in this unique field, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star-formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-z Universe; indeed at z > 2 our ALMA sample contains 7 of the 9 galaxies in the HUDF with M* > 2 x 10^10 Msun and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, re...

  18. Final tests and performances verification of the European ALMA antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is under erection in Northern Chile. The array consists of a large number (up to 64) of 12 m diameter antennas and a number of smaller antennas, to be operated on the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude. The antennas will operate up to 950 GHz so that their mechanical performances, in terms of surface accuracy, pointing precision and dimensional stability, are very tight. The AEM consortium constituted by Thales Alenia Space France, Thales Alenia Space Italy, European Industrial Engineering (EIE GROUP), and MT Mechatronics is assembling and testing the 25 antennas. As of today, the first set of antennas have been delivered to ALMA for science. During the test phase with ESO and ALMA, the European antennas have shown excellent performances ensuring the specification requirements widely. The purpose of this paper is to present the different results obtained during the test campaign: surface accuracy, pointing error, fast motion capability and residual delay. Very important was also the test phases that led to the validation of the FE model showing that the antenna is working with a good margin than predicted at design level thanks also to the assembly and integration techniques.

  19. Future mmVLBI Research with ALMA: A European vision

    CERN Document Server

    Tilanus, R P J; Zensus, J A; Baudry, A; Bremer, M; Falcke, H; Giovannini, G; Laing, R; van Langevelde, H J; Vlemmings, W; Abraham, Z; Afonso, J; Agudo, I; Alberdi, A; Alcolea, J; Altamirano, D; Asadi, S; Assaf, K; Augusto, P; Baczko, A-K; Boeck, M; Boller, T; Bondi, M; Boone, F; Bourda, G; Brajsa, R; Brand, J; Britzen, S; Bujarrabal, V; Cales, S; Casadio, C; Casasola, V; Castangia, P; Cernicharo, J; Charlot, P; Chemin, L; Clenet, Y; Colomer, F; Combes, F; Cordes, J; Coriat, M; Cross, N; D'Ammando, F; Dallacasa, D; Desmurs, J-F; Eatough, R; Eckart, A; Eisenacher, D; Etoka, S; Felix, M; Fender, R; Ferreira, M; Freeland, E; Frey, S; Fromm, C; Fuhrmann, L; Gabanyi, K; Galvan-Madrid, R; Giroletti, M; Goddi, C; Gomez, J; Gourgoulhon, E; Gray, M; di Gregorio, I; Greimel, R; Grosso, N; Guirado, J; Hada, K; Hanslmeier, A; Henkel, C; Herpin, F; Hess, P; Hodgson, J; Horns, D; Humphreys, E; Kramer, B Hutawarakorn; Ilyushin, V; Impellizzeri, V; Ivanov, V; Julião, M; Kadler, M; Kerins, E; Klaassen, P; Klooster, K van 't; Kording, E; Kozlov, M; Kramer, M; Kreikenbohm, A; Kurtanidze, O; Lazio, J; Leite, A; Leitzinger, M; Lepine, J; Levshakov, S; Lico, R; Lindqvist, M; Liuzzo, E; Lobanov, A; Lucas, P; Mannheim, K; Marcaide, J; Markoff, S; Martí-Vidal, I; Martins, C; Masetti, N; Massardi, M; Menten, K; Messias, H; Migliari, S; Mignano, A; Miller-Jones, J; Minniti, D; Molaro, P; Molina, S; Monteiro, A; Moscadelli, L; Mueller, C; Müller, A; Muller, S; Niederhofer, F; Odert, P; Olofsson, H; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Panessa, F; Paragi, Z; Paumard, T; Pedrosa, P; Pérez-Torres, M; Perrin, G; Perucho, M; Porquet, D; Prandoni, I; Ransom, S; Reimers, D; Rejkuba, M; Rezzolla, L; Richards, A; Ros, E; Roy, A; Rushton, A; Savolainen, T; Schulz, R; Silva, M; Sivakoff, G; Soria-Ruiz, R; Soria, R; Spaans, M; Spencer, R; Stappers, B; Surcis, G; Tarchi, A; Temmer, M; Thompson, M; Torrelles, J; Truestedt, J; Tudose, V; Venturi, T; Verbiest, J; Vieira, J; Vielzeuf, P; Vincent, F; Wex, N; Wiik, K; Wiklind, T; Wilms, J; Zackrisson, E; Zechlin, H

    2014-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imagin...

  20. ALMA Binary Data Transport Mechanism using VOTable Headers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicenec, A.; Meuss, H.; Pisano, J.

    2006-07-01

    ALMA will produce very large data rates and volumes. In full operation the correlator will generate up to 60 MB/s of visibility data. These data have to be transported from the correlator on the high site (5000 m) to the ALMA archive, the telescope calibration and the quick-look subsystems, which are all located at the low site (2500 m) some 40 km away. A dedicated fiber connection between the sites is under construction and the interfaces between the subsystems are under development. The actual transport format produced by the correlator has been defined and implemented and is described in this paper in more detail. The format is derived from the SOAP with attachments [1], but instead of the SOAP XML envelope it is using a slightly modified VOTable [2] to keep the description of the binary data. The VOTable uses content ID pointers (CID, RFC2111 [3]) to refer to the binary parts contained in the same Multipart/Related (RFC2387 [4]) container. Such Multipart/Related containers are constructed for each ALMA integration and sent through a multimedia streaming connection implemented in CORBA (TAO[5, 6]).

  1. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  2. El culteranismo cartujo de 'Alma de Dios' (1637), de Miguel de Dicastillo

    OpenAIRE

    Mata-Induráin, C. (Carlos)

    2002-01-01

    El estilo poético del tafallés Miguel de Dicastillo, religioso cartujo, presenta rasgos característicos del culteranismo, cuya obra destacada es un libro de poemas titulado 'Alma de Dios', de 1637. ---------------------- The poetic style of Miguel de Dicastillo has features characteristic of culteranism; his outstanding work is a book of poems entitled 'Alma de Dios', from 1637.

  3. SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin2 deep survey: 1.1-mm number counts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kohno, Kotaro; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J.; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ich; Tamura, Yoichi; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S.

    2016-01-01

    We report 1.1-mm number counts revealed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF). The advent of ALMA enables us to reveal millimeter-wavelength number counts down to the faint end without source confusion. However, previous studie

  4. Design and development of a 600-720 GHz receiver for ALMA Band 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Jackson, B. D.; Adema, J.; Schaeffer, H.; Barkhof, J.; Wild, W.; Candotti, M.; Lodewijk, C.; Loudkov, D.; Zijlstra, T.; Noroozian, 0.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the ALMA Band 9 receiver cartridges. The ALMA project is a collaboration between Europe, North America, and Japan to build an aperture synthesis telescope consisting of at least 64 12-m antennas located at 5000 m altitude in Chile. In its full confi

  5. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  6. The ALMA common software: dispatch from the trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J.; Sommer, H.; Jeram, B.; Sekoranja, M.; Chiozzi, G.; Grimstrup, A.; Caproni, A.; Paredes, C.; Allaert, E.; Harrington, S.; Turolla, S.; Cirami, R.

    2008-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides both an application framework and CORBA-based middleware for the distributed software system of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. Building upon open-source tools such as the JacORB, TAO and OmniORB ORBs, ACS supports the development of component-based software in any of three languages: Java, C++ and Python. Now in its seventh major release, ACS has matured, both in its feature set as well as in its reliability and performance. However, it is only recently that the ALMA observatory's hardware and application software has reached a level at which it can exploit and challenge the infrastructure that ACS provides. In particular, the availability of an Antenna Test Facility(ATF) at the site of the Very Large Array in New Mexico has enabled us to exercise and test the still evolving end-to-end ALMA software under realistic conditions. The major focus of ACS, consequently, has shifted from the development of new features to consideration of how best to use those that already exist. Configuration details which could be neglected for the purpose of running unit tests or skeletal end-to-end simulations have turned out to be sensitive levers for achieving satisfactory performance in a real-world environment. Surprising behavior in some open-source tools has required us to choose between patching code that we did not write or addressing its deficiencies by implementing workarounds in our own software. We will discuss these and other aspects of our recent experience at the ATF and in simulation.

  7. Radio measurements of constant variation, and perspectives with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Françoise

    2010-11-01

    In the radio domain, absorption lines in front of quasars of CO, HI, OH, HCO+, HCN, up to NH3 and CII are providing interesting constraints on fundamental constant variation (α and μ). With more absorbing systems, and a wider redshift range, they could be more competitive than optical studies. This could come with ALMA, with more than one order of magnitude in sensitivity. Up to now, at intermediate and high redshift, between z = 0.25 to z = 0.89, only four absorption lines systems have been detected in the millimeter range and a fifth system at 0.765, at the OH-18cm lines (Kanekar et al. 2005). Out of these 5 systems, 3 are intervening lensing galaxies (and the background quasar is multiply imaged), and 2 correspond to an absorption of the host (PKS1413+135, B3-1504+377, for an overview see Combes & Wiklind 1996; Wiklind & Combes 1994 to 1998). A global comparison of all molecular lines observed with the HI-21cm absorption lines in PKS1413 and B0218 systems, the two narrowest line systems, have given quite stringent constraints on y = α2 gp μ, Δ y/y = (-0.20 ± 0.44) 10-5 and Δ y/y = (-0.16 ± 0.54) 10-5 respectively (Murphy et al. 2001). The precision is comparable to the MM method (Murphy et al. 2003), with a limited number of absorbing systems. The high sensitivity if the NH3 inversion lines to variation in the μ ratio (Flambaum & Kozlov 2007) was used by Henkel et al. (2009) in a recent multi-line study of PKS1830 at z ~ 0.9, and Murphy et al. (2008) for B0218 at z ~ 0.7. They find a limit of Δμ/μ 100 for NH3). Fortunately, the sensitivity of ALMA will be able to detect many more continuum sources, to search for absorption lines, and at larger redshifts. ALMA will have a much wider bandwidth, allowing the search of absorption, even if not previously detected in the optical or HI-21cm. The redshift will be obtained directly in the millimeter. It is possible to predict the number of continuum sources that can be selected as targets for absorption

  8. ALMA Observations of HD141569's Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    White, J A; Hughes, A M; Flaherty, K M; Ford, E; Wilner, D; Corder, S; Payne, M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA band 7 (345 GHz) continuum and $^{12}$CO(J = 3-2) observations of the circumstellar disk surrounding HD141569. At an age of about 5 Myr, the disk has a complex morphology that may be best interpreted as a nascent debris system with gas. Our $870\\rm~\\mu m$ ALMA continuum observations resolve a dust disk out to approximately $ 56 ~\\rm au$ from the star (assuming a distance of 116 pc) with $0."38$ resolution and $0.07 ~ \\rm mJy~beam^{-1}$ sensitivity. We measure a continuum flux density for this inner material of $3.8 \\pm 0.4 ~ \\rm mJy$ (including calibration uncertainties). The $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas is resolved kinematically and spatially from about 30 to 210 au. The integrated $^{12}$CO(3-2) line flux density is $15.7 \\pm 1.6~\\rm Jy~km~s^{-1}$. We estimate the mass of the millimeter debris and $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas to be $\\gtrsim0.04~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$ and $\\sim2\\times 10^{-3}~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$, respectively. If the millimeter grains are part of a collisional cascade, then we infer that the inner disk ($&...

  9. ALMA images of discs: are all gaps carved by planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Jean-François; Maddison, Sarah T; Pinte, Christophe; Ménard, François

    2015-01-01

    Protoplanetary discs are now routinely observed and exoplanets, after the numerous indirect discoveries, are starting to be directly imaged. To better understand the planet formation process, the next step is the detection of forming planets or of signposts of young planets still in their disc, such as gaps. A spectacular example is the ALMA science verification image of HL Tau showing numerous gaps and rings in its disc. To study the observability of planet gaps, we ran 3D hydrodynamical simulations of a gas and dust disc containing a 5 M J gap-opening planet and characterised the spatial distribution of migrating, growing and fragmenting dust grains. We then computed the corresponding synthetic images for ALMA. For a value of the dust fragmentation threshold of 15 m s --1 for the collisional velocity, we identify for the first time a self-induced dust pile up in simulations taking fragmentation into account. This feature, in addition to the easily detected planet gap, causes a second apparent gap that could...

  10. Measuring protoplanetary disk gas surface density profiles with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    McPartland, Jonathan P Williams Conor

    2016-01-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best (2014) to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, Mgas = 0.048 solar masse, and accretion disk characteristic size Rc = 213au and gradient gamma = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2--1 image and indicates an abundance ratio [13CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2--1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 Jupiter masses at 150pc, ALMA observations with a resolutio...

  11. Unveiling the dust nucleation zone of IRC+10216 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Cernicharo, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Agundez, M; Marcelino, N; Joblin, C; Goicoechea, J R; Guélin, M

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection in IRC+10216 of lines of HNC $J$=3-2 pertaining to 9 excited vibrational states with energies up to $\\sim$5300 K. The spectrum, observed with ALMA, also shows a surprising large number of narrow, unidentified lines that arise in the vicinity of the star. The HNC data are interpreted through a 1D--spherical non--local radiative transfer model, coupled to a chemical model that includes chemistry at thermochemical equilibrium for the innermost regions and reaction kinetics for the external envelope. Although unresolved by the present early ALMA data, the radius inferred for the emitting region is $\\sim$0.06'' (i.e., $\\simeq$ 3 stellar radii), similar to the size of the dusty clumps reported by IR studies of the innermost region ($r <$ 0.3''). The derived abundance of HNC relative to H$_2$ is $10^{-8} <$ $\\chi$(HNC) $< 10^{-6}$, and drops quickly where the gas density decreases and the gas chemistry is dominated by reaction kinetics. Merging HNC data with that of molecular species...

  12. La ciencia del alma en IBN Bayya (Avempace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomba, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Não possui resumo em portugês El objetivo de este trabajo es la interpretación de del más importante aspecto de la filosofía de Ibn Bayya (Avempace a base de la lectura de su Kitab al nafs, primer comentario del De anima de Aristóteles en Occidente. Este estudio sobre el alma es, para Avempace, constituye la principal ciencia porque sin el análisis de la propia alma es imposible conocer el resto de las ciencias y del mundo. Este autor, en todas sus obras encentra el ideal del filósofo y del hombre sabio, sobre todo, en la progresiva desmaterialización de toda su vida. Este objetivo se obtiene mediante el transcendeer de tres formas de vida, concretamente, las formas materiales, el primer nivel espiritual y, por fin, el segundo nivel espiritual. La culminación de este itinerario es alcanzar el segundo nivel espiritual, concretamente, la unión con el Intelecto Agente mediante un misticismo espiritual o «amor Dei intellectualis». Los materiales básicos de esta filosofía están conteniddos en este comentario al aristotélico al De anima. $$bspa

  13. ALMA Observations of the Active Nucleus of NGC 7469

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Takuma; Aalto, Susanne; Doi, Akihiro; Espada, Daniel; Fathi, Kambiz; Harada, Nanase; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hattori, Takashi; Hsieh, Pei-Ying; Ikarashi, Soh; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Iono, Daisuke; Ishizuki, Sumio; Krips, Melanie; Martín, Sergio; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakajima, Taku; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Nomura, Hideko; Regan, Michael W; Schinnerer, Eva; Sheth, Kartik; Takano, Shuro; Tamura, Yoichi; Terashima, Yuichi; Tosaki, Tomoka; Turner, Jean L; Umehata, Hideki; Wiklind, Tommy

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the central kpc region of the luminous type-1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 with unprecedented high resolution (0.5$"$ $\\times$ 0.4$"$ = 165 pc $\\times$ 132 pc) at submillimeter wavelengths. Utilizing the wide-bandwidth of ALMA, we simultaneously obtained HCN(4-3), HCO$^+$(4-3), CS(7-6), and partially CO(3-2) line maps, as well as the 860 $\\mu$m continuum. The region consists of the central $\\sim$ 1$"$ component and the surrounding starburst ring with a radius of $\\sim$ 1.5$"$-2.5$"$. Several structures connect these components. Except for CO(3-2), these dense gas tracers are significantly concentrated towards the central $\\sim$ 1$"$, suggesting their suitability to probe the nuclear regions of galaxies. Their spatial distribution resembles well those of centimeter and mid-infrared continuum emissions, but it is anti-correlated with the optical one, indicating the existence of dust obscured star formation. The integrated intensity ratios of HCN(4-3)/HCO$^+$(4-3) and HCN(4-3)/...

  14. Possibility of Terahertz Observations at the ALMA site

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Satoki

    2011-01-01

    Observational rates under terahertz (THz) opacities less than 3.0 and 2.0 at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) site have been calculated using the 225 GHz tipping radiometer monitoring data and the opacity correlation between 225 GHz and THz opacities. The observational rate with THz opacity condition less than 3.0 is 12.4% in a year, and in winter (November - April) it is about twice higher than in summer (May - October). This observational rate shows a large sinusoidal annual variation, and it seems to have relation with the El Ni\\~no and La Ni\\~na phenomena; the La Ni\\~na years tend to have high observational rates, but the El Ni\\~no years show low rates. On the other hand, the observational rate with the THz opacity condition less than 2.0 is only 1.9%, and no obvious annual and seasonal variations are observed. This indicates that THz observations under low opacity condition of less than 2.0 at the ALMA site are very difficult to be performed.

  15. ALMA band 8 continuum emission from Orion Source I

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Tomoya; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A; Honma, Mareki

    2016-01-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.1". The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au times 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelength. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick black-body spectral energy distribution (SED), and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright (2016), in which the continuum emission have been proposed to arise from the edge-on circum...

  16. A CORBA event system for ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, David W.

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software notification channel framework provides developers with an easy to use, high-performance, event-driven system supported across multiple programming languages and operating systems. It sits on top of the CORBA notification service and hides nearly all CORBA from developers. The system is based on a push event channel model where suppliers push events onto the channel and consumers process these asynchronously. This is a many-to-many publishing model whereby multiple suppliers send events to multiple consumers on the same channel. Furthermore, these event suppliers and consumers can be coded in C++, Java, or Python on any platform supported by ACS. There are only two classes developers need to be concerned with: SimpleSupplier and Consumer. SimpleSupplier was designed so that ALMA events (defined as IDL structures) could be published in the simplest manner possible without exposing any CORBA to the developer. Essentially all that needs to be known is the channel's name and the IDL structure being published. The API takes care of everything else. With the Consumer class, the developer is responsible for providing the channel's name as well as associating event types with functions that will handle them.

  17. An overview of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Caproni, A.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Harrington, S.; Zagar, K.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is an application framework designed to provide a common and homogeneous software architecture and infrastructure, spanning the end to end needs of an Astronomical observatory, from the Telescope Control system to high-level data flow management. ACS offers, at the lower level, several basic services needed for object-oriented distributed computing like transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. On top of this it provides an application architecture based on the Component/Container paradigm that fosters sharing and reusing of software components. Although developed for the ALMA project, ACS is now used by several other projects worldwide, among which the Italian Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). Besides, there is an active community that shares ideas, concepts and actual software components. Major drivers for this diffusion were the choice of adopting the LGPL public license and the adoption of CORBA, a free but reliable and widely used middleware software. In this paper we present an overview of the main features of ACS, emphasizing in particular the role of INAF-OAT in this project.

  18. Container-component model and XML in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zagar, Klemen; Voelter, Markus

    2004-09-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. To meet the challenges of developing distributed software in distributed teams, ACS offers a container/component model that integrates the use of XML transfer objects. ACS containers are built on top of CORBA and are available for C++, Java, and Python, so that ALMA software can be written as components in any of these languages. The containers perform technical aspects of the software system, while components can focus on the implementation of functional requirements. Like Web services, components can use XML to exchange structured data by value. For Java components, the container seamlessly integrates the use of XML binding classes, which are Java classes that encapsulate access to XML data through type-safe methods. Binding classes are generated from XML schemas, allowing the Java compiler to enforce compliance of application code with the XML schemas. This presentation will explain the capabilities of the ACS container/component model, and how it relates to other middleware technologies that are popular in industry.

  19. Testing particle trapping in transition disks with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, P; Pérez, L M; van Dishoeck, E F; Andrews, S; Birnstiel, T; Herczeg, G; Pontoppidan, K M; van Kempen, T

    2015-01-01

    We present new ALMA continuum observations at 336 GHz of two transition disks, SR 21 and HD 135344B. In combination with previous ALMA observations from Cycle 0 at 689 GHz, we compare the visibility profiles at the two frequencies and calculate the spectral index ($\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}$). The observations of SR 21 show a clear shift in the visibility nulls, indicating radial variations of the inner edge of the cavity at the two wavelengths. Notable radial variations of the spectral index are also detected for SR 21 with values of $\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}\\sim3.8-4.2$ in the inner region ($r\\lesssim35$ AU) and $\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}\\sim2.6-3.0$ outside. An axisymmetric ring ("ring model") or a ring with the addition of an azimuthal Gaussian profile, for mimicking a vortex structure ("vortex model"), is assumed for fitting the disk morphology. For SR 21, the ring model better fits the emission at 336 GHz, conversely the vortex model better fits the 689 GHz emission. For HD 135344B, neither a significant shift in the null of the...

  20. ALMA Observations of Asteroid 3 Juno at 60 Kilometer Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Kneissl, R; Moullet, A; Brogan, C L; Fomalont, E B; Vlahakis, C; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Dent, W R F; Hills, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Matsushita, S; Nakanishi, K; Perez, L M; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Hales, A S; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodon, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; de Gregorio, I; Di Francesco, J; Mangum, J; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Randall, S; van kempen, T; Videla, L; Villard, E; Andreani, P; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm continuum images of the asteroid 3 Juno obtained with an angular resolution of 0.042 arcseconds (60 km at 1.97 AU). The data were obtained over a single 4.4 hr interval, which covers 60% of the 7.2 hr rotation period, approximately centered on local transit. A sequence of ten consecutive images reveals continuous changes in the asteroid's profile and apparent shape, in good agreement with the sky projection of the three-dimensional model of the Database of Asteroid Models from Inversion Techniques. We measure a geometric mean diameter of 259pm4 km, in good agreement with past estimates from a variety of techniques and wavelengths. Due to the viewing angle and inclination of the rotational pole, the southern hemisphere dominates all of the images. The median peak brightness temperature is 215pm13 K, while the median over the whole surface is 197pm15 K. With the unprecedented resolution of ALMA, we find that the brightness temperature varies ...

  1. Simulating ALMA Observations of High-Redshift Submillimeter Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Michael; Wagg, J.

    2007-12-01

    Until now, the coarse angular resolution of single-dish submm/mm telescopes has limited the depth of extragalactic surveys through confusion noise, meaning that only 20-30% of the 850 micron background can be resolved. However, the majority of this population should have flux densities of 1 mJy or fainter, and so either cannot be resolved or would require prohibitively long integration times to conduct surveys with existing interferometers. This will change with the advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA); beginning operation within the next decade, it will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity over that of current interferometers. To better plan for future surveys with this facility, I have prepared a set of simulated 850 micron and 1 mm maps covering 16 square arcminutes with an angular resolution of 1 arcsecond. The input models used to create these simulations are based on our current constraints on the 850 micron and 1 mm number counts, as well as a heuristic model which assumes an evolving 60 micron IRAS luminosity function. This work shows how ALMA will constrain the number counts well below the sub-mJy level. Research was conducted as part of the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates program.

  2. Business Intelligence Applied to the ALMA Software Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, M.; Recabarren, C.; González, V.; Hoffstadt, A.; Soto, R.; Shen, T.-C.

    2012-09-01

    Software quality assurance and planning of an astronomy project is a complex task, specially if it is a distributed collaborative project such as ALMA, where the development centers are spread across the globe. When you execute a software project there is much valuable information about this process itself that you might be able to collect. One of the ways you can receive this input is via an issue tracking system that will gather the problem reports relative to software bugs captured during the testing of the software, during the integration of the different components or even worst, problems occurred during production time. Usually, there is little time spent on analyzing them but with some multidimensional processing you can extract valuable information from them and it might help you on the long term planning and resources allocation. We present an analysis of the information collected at ALMA from a collection of key unbiased indicators. We describe here the extraction, transformation and load process and how the data was processed. The main goal is to assess a software process and get insights from this information.

  3. Prototype Implementation of Web and Desktop Applications for ALMA Science Verification Data and the Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Wataru; Shirasaki, Yuji; Komiya, Yutaka; Kosugi, George; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    ALMA is estimated to generate TB scale data during only one observation; astronomers manage to identify which part of the data they are really interested in. Now we have been developing new GUI software for this purpose utilizing the VO interface: ALMA Web Quick Look System (ALMAWebQL) and ALMA Desktop Application (Vissage). The former is written in JavaScript and HTML5 generated from Java codes by Google Web Toolkit, and the latter is in pure Java. An essential point of our approach is how t...

  4. Os sete graus de atividade da alma humana no De quantitate animae de Santo Agostinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ricardo Strefling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A alma é, sem dúvida, um dos problemas que mais interessou a Santo Agostinho; ele a define como uma substância partícipe da razão adequada ao governo de um corpo. A alma não tem quantidade corporal, contudo, é uma coisa grande. Este estudo pretende refletir sobre os sete graus de atividade da alma, os quais o autor apresenta na sua obra De quantitate animae. São eles: a animação, a sensação, a arte, a virtude, a tranquilidade, o ingresso e a contemplação.

  5. The Science Case for ALMA Band 2 and Band 2+3

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, G A; Beltran, M; Casasola, V; Caselli, P; Cicone, C; Costagliola, F; De Breuck, C; Hunt, L; Jimenez-Serra, I; Laing, R; Longmore, S; Massardi, M; Paladino, R; Ramstedt, S; Richards, A; Testi, L; Vergani, D; Viti, S; Wagg, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the science drivers for ALMA Band 2 which spans the frequency range from 67 to 90 GHz. The key science in this frequency range are the study of the deuterated molecules in cold, dense, quiescent gas and the study of redshifted emission from galaxies in CO and other species. However, Band 2 has a range of other applications which are also presented. The science enabled by a single receiver system which would combine ALMA Bands 2 and 3 covering the frequency range 67 to 116 GHz, as well as the possible doubling of the IF bandwidth of ALMA to 16 GHz, are also considered.

  6. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R.; Longmore, Steven N.; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Falcke, Heino

    2016-09-01

    Aims: Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz. This frequency, well into the submillimeter bump where the emission is supposed to become optically thin, allows us to see down to the event horizon. Hence the reported observations contain potentially vital information on black hole properties. We have compared our measurements with previous, lower frequency observations, which provides information in the time domain. Methods: We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz, based on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from the central fields of our ALMA mosaic observations. We used calibration observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan and the observations of Ci line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. Results: The flux density of 3.6 ± 0.72 Jy which we measured during our run is consistent with extrapolations from previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle can be explained by a constant polarization position angle of ~158°± 3°. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14% ± 1.2%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed on the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9% ± 0.9% polarization at position angle PA = 14°± 4.2°. Conclusions: The observed polarization percentage and polarization position angle in the present work appear consistent with those expected from longer wavelength observations in the period of 1999-2005. In particular, the polarization position angle at 492 GHz expected from the previously fitted 167°± 7° intrinsic

  7. Fernando Vallejo,  Almas en pena chapolas negras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En uno de sus aforismos Ciorán se pregunta por qué no ha sido un motivo de suicidio para nadie el solo hecho de pensar que otro escribiría su biografía. Fernando Vallejo, por su parte, reconoce la miseria de este género espurio y no puede imaginarse un oficio peor que el de los biógrafos, « metidos en archivos y bibliotecas entre papeles polvosos, viejos, viviendo las infamias del pasado », más muertos que los muertos. La anécdota que abre Almas en pena chapolas negras, la biografía de José A...

  8. El alma colombiana. Idiosincrasia e identidades culturales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pedro José Díaz Camacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene el propósito de averiguar sobre los rasgos anímicos y temperamentales que se expresan en el modo de ser y en la conducta de los colombianos, según las distintas regiones y grupos socioculturales; es decir, sobre cómo ha llegado a ser en el siglo XXI la índole y el alma del pueblo colombiano. Bajo este panorama, se indaga acerca de algunos factores que intervienen en la configuración y expresión del modo de ser, pensar, sentir, percibir y actuar de los colombianos, junto con la forma diversa como se manifiesta su idiosincrasia y la identidad cultural, según lo expuesto por algunos estudiosos de las cuestiones antropológicas, históricas y sociológicas del pueblo colombiano.

  9. The ALMA Front-end Archive Setup and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicenec, A.; Chen, A.; Checcucci, A.; Jeram, B.; Meuss, H.; Persson, A.; Burgos, P.; Cirami, R.

    2010-12-01

    The ALMA front-end archive system has to capture up to 64 MB/s for a period of several days plus the data of about 100,000 monitor points from all 66 antennas and the correlators. The main science data is delivered through corba based audio/video streams and finally stored on SATA disk arrays hosted on 6 computers and controlled by 12 daemons. All data is collected by software components running on computers in the antennas and then sent through dedicated fiber links to the Array Operations Site at 5000 m and from there to the Operations Support Facility (OSF) at 3000 m elevation. The various hardware and software components have been tuned and tested to be able to meet the performance requirements. This paper describes the setup and the various components in more detail and gives results of various test runs.

  10. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jonathan B; Jackson, James M; Longmore, Steve N; Whitaker, Scott; Hoq, Sadia

    2013-01-01

    ALMA will revolutionize our understanding of star formation within our galaxy, but before we can use ALMA we need to know where to look. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey is a large international project to map the molecular line emission of over 2,000 dense clumps in the Galactic plane. MALT90 serves as a pathfinder for ALMA, providing a large public database of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. In this proceedings, we describe the survey parameters and share early science highlights from the survey, including (1) a comparison between galactic and extragalactic star formation relations, (2) chemical trends in MALT90 clumps, (3) the distribution of high-mass star formation in the Milky Way, and (4) a discussion of the Brick, the target of successful ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 proposals.

  11. Goodbye to WIMPs: A Scalable Interface for ALMA Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J.; Pietriga, E.; Schilling, M.; Grosbol, P.

    2011-07-01

    The operators of the ALMA Observatory will monitor and control more than 50 mm/submm radio antennas and their associated instrumentation from an operations site that is separated from this hardware by 35-50 km. Software that enables them to identify trouble spots and react to failures quickly in this environment will be critical to the safe and efficient functioning of the observatory. Early commissioning of ALMA uses a operator interface implemented with a standard window, icon, menu, pointing device (WIMP) toolkit. Early experience indicates that this paradigm will not scale well as the number of antennas approaches its full complement. Operators lose time as they manipulate overlapping or tabbed windows to drill-down to detailed diagnostic data, losing a feeling for "where they are" in the process. The WIMP model reaches its limits when there is so much information to present to users that they cannot focus on details while maintaining a view from above. To simplify the operators' tasks and let them concentrate on the real issues at hand rather than continually re-organizing their use of screen space, we are replacing the existing top-level interface with a multi-scale interface that takes advantage of semantic zooming, dynamic network visualization and other advanced filtering, navigation and visualization features. Following the first of several planned participatory design workshops, we have developed prototypes to show how users' needs can be met with the kinds of navigation that become possible when the restrictions of the WIMP model are lifted. Cycles of design and implementation coupled with active user feedback will characterize this project up through deployment.

  12. JCMT in the Post-Herschel ERA of Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Doug

    2013-07-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), with a 15m dish, is the largest single-dish astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the sub-mm wavelength regime. The JCMT is located close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. The most recent addition to the JCMT's suite of instruments is the 10,000 bolometer sub-mm continuum instrument: SCUBA-2. SCUBA-2 operates simultaneously with 7' x7' foot print sub-arrays at both 450 and 850-microns. SCUBA-2's wide field surveying potential, combined with a 65% shared view of the sky from both sites, makes it the ideal instrument to provide complementary data for the ALMA Project. Furthermore, the SCUBA-2 sub-millimetre wavelength coverage and angular resolution complement existing Herschel observations. A set of comprehensive surveys of the submillimetre sky is underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using SCUBA-2 and HARP, a heterodyne array receiver operating between 325 and 375 GHz. The JCMT Legacy Survey (JLS) is comprised of seven survey projects, and ranges in scope from the study of nearby debris disk systems, the study of star formation in nearby molecular cloud systems and more distant structures in our Galactic Plane, to the structure and composition of galaxies in our local neighbourhood and the number and evolution of submillimetre galaxies at high redshifts in the early Universe. In addition to the JLS, the COHR survey is imaging the Galactic plane in CO (3-2) and a JAC Staff-led project is using SCUBA-2 to survey the Galactic Centre. This poster highlights the significant survey capabilities of SCUBA-2 and HARP and reveals the continuing importance of the JCMT in a post-Herschel, ALMA world.

  13. ACA phase calibration scheme with the ALMA water vapor radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaki, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Satoki; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Nikolic, Bojan

    2012-09-01

    In Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) commissioning and science verification we have conducted a series of experiments of a novel phase calibration scheme for Atacama Compact Array (ACA). In this scheme water vapor radiometers (WVRs) devoted to measurements of tropospheric water vapor content are attached to ACA’s four total-power array (TP Array) antennas surrounding the 7 m dish interferometer array (7 m Array). The excess path length (EPL) due to the water vapor variations aloft is fitted to a simple two-dimensional slope using WVR measurements. Interferometric phase fluctuations for each baseline of the 7 m Array are obtained from differences of EPL inferred from the two-dimensional slope and subtracted from the interferometric phases. In the experiments we used nine ALMA 12-m antennas. Eight of them were closely located in a 70-m square region, forming a compact array like ACA. We supposed the most four outsiders to be the TP Array while the inner 4 antennas were supposed to be the 7 m Array, so that this phase correction scheme (planar-fit) was tested and compared with the WVR phase correction. We estimated residual root-mean-square (RMS) phases for 17- to 41-m baselines after the planar-fit phase correction, and found that this scheme reduces the RMS phase to a 70 - 90 % level. The planar-fit phase correction was proved to be promising for ACA, and how high or low PWV this scheme effectively works in ACA is an important item to be clarified.

  14. ALMA 1.3 mm observations of the Fomalhaut System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew John; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.89 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  15. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira ($o$ Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, K T; Menten, K M; Wyrowski, F

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical Mira variable, $o$ Cet (Mira), has been observed as a Science Verification target in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign with a longest baseline of 15 km. ALMA clearly resolves the images of the continuum and molecular line emission/absorption at an angular resolution of ~30 mas at 220 GHz. We image the data of the $^{28}$SiO v=0, 2 $J$=5-4 and H$_2$O $\

  16. A Web-based Dashboard for the High-level Monitoring of ALMA

    OpenAIRE

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Filippi, Giorgio; Véliz, Luis; Del Campo, Fernando; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    International audience The ALMA radio-telescope's operations depend on the availability of high-level, easy-to-understand status information about all of its components. The ALMA Dashboard aims at providing an all-in-one-place near-real-time overview of the observatory's key elements and figures to both line and senior management. The Dashboard covers a wide range of elements beyond antennas, such as pads, correlator and central local oscillator. Data can be displayed in multiple ways, inc...

  17. Planet gaps in the dust layer of 3D proto-planetary disks: Observability with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Jean-François; Maddison, Sarah T; Ménard, François

    2013-01-01

    Among the numerous known extrasolar planets, only a handful have been imaged directly so far, at large orbital radii and in rather evolved systems. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will have the capacity to observe these wide planetary systems at a younger age, thus bringing a better understanding of the planet formation process. Here we explore the ability of ALMA to detect the gaps carved by planets on wide orbits.

  18. Supporting Student Learning in Computer Science Education via the Adaptive Learning Environment ALMA

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Gasparinatou; Maria Grigoriadou

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the ALMA environment (Adaptive Learning Models from texts and Activities). ALMA supports the processes of learning and assessment via: (1) texts differing in local and global cohesion for students with low, medium, and high background knowledge; (2) activities corresponding to different levels of comprehension which prompt the student to practically implement different text-reading strategies, with the recommended activity sequence adapted to the student’s learning style;...

  19. Software Development for ALMA in Chile: The ACS-UTFSM Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brand, H. H.

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a common software framework for ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile. ACS is a collection of well-documented patterns for controlling systems and a set of components written to those patterns. In its core, ACS is a distributed, object-oriented system, written on top of CORBA. The ACS-UTFSM Group started as some students of informatics did summer jobs at the La Silla Observatory of ESO, where they became acquainted with ACS. Their interest led them to continue working on ACS on their own, and they eventually became official developers of the package. Now the group is being funded by project ALMA-CONICYT 31060008 ``Software Development for ALMA: Building Up Expertise to Meet ALMA Software Requirements within a Chilean University''. Several members of the original group are now working for ALMA, which fullfills one of the goals of the project. Some parts of ACS developed by the ACS-UTFSM Group include H3E (Hardware End-to-End Example), a Lego model of a telescope and its controlling software for training and demonstration purposes; and CDBChecker, a tool to verify the consistency of the configuration database for a ACS deployment. Currently we are working towards a general framework for telescope control using ACS, in order to simplify the deployment of new instruments; and repackaging ACS so it is easier to install and use. A master's thesis is exploring the real-time requirements of ACS.

  20. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Timothy S.

    2015-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian project that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high-resolution imaging in frequency bands currently ranging from 84 GHz to 950 GHz (300 microns to 3 mm). Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of matter and energy, and the in heating the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of research, the solar chromosphere remains a significant challenge: both to observe, owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics; and to understand, as a result of the complex nature of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere. ALMA has the potential to change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.In this paper we describe recent efforts to ensure that ALMA can be usefully exploited by the scientific community to address outstanding questions in solar physics. We summarize activities by the ALMA solar development team comprised of scientists from the East Asia, North America, and Europe. These activities include instrument testing, development of calibration and imaging strategies, software requirements development, and science simulations. Opportunities for the wider community to contribute to these efforts will be highlighted.

  1. El (reconocimiento de la madre en La mitad del alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. Schumm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La mitad del alma de Carme Riera, en que C rememora a su madre, enfatiza la importancia del reconocimiento de las mujeres en la memoria histórica. Desde el mito griego de Atena, quien ignoraba a su madre Metis, la sociedad patriarcal ha excluido a la madre, lo cual promete que la hija conlleve negación también, según Amber Jacobs en On Matricide. Jacobs observa que en La Oresteia hay crímenes sancionados contra las mujeres, las hijas están deprimidas, existe incesto contra la hija, la reproducción familiar se paraliza, toda la sociedad sufre y la hija se desperdicia también cuando la madre es menospreciada. Jacobs afirma que este desprecio de la madre que transcurría en los mitos griegos continúa en la sociedad y la psicología hoy en día. En esta novela de Riera, la hija protagonista, quien desconoce a su madre, sufre de un estado depresivo, la falta de creatividad y una conexión demasiado fuerte con su padre, semejante a lo que Jacobs observa en los mitos, pero la escritura de C sobre su madre la integrará en la consciencia y mejorará la situación de la hija y, últimamente, la de toda la civilización.Summary: Carme Riera‟s La mitad del alma, in which C recollects her mother, emphasizes the importance of the recognition of women in historic memory. Ever since the Greek myth of Athena, who was ignorant of the existence of her mother, Metis, patriarchal society has excluded the mother, a fact which promises that the daughter will also experience negation, according to Amber Jacobs in On Matricide. Jacobs observes that in La Oresteia there are sanctioned crimes against women, the daughters are depressed, there is incest against the daughter, she is dishonored, family reproduction stops, and all of society suffers when the mother is not appreciated. Jacobs affirms that the distain of the mother that took place in Greek myths continues in society and psychology today. In this novel by Riera, the protagonist/daughter, who

  2. First North American Antenna Enables Next Phase in Joint ALMA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Astronomers celebrated today the formal acceptance of the first North American antenna by the Joint ALMA Observatory. ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, is a gathering armada of short-wavelength radio telescopes whose combined power will enable astronomers to probe with unprecedented sharpness phenomena and regions that are beyond the reach of visible-light telescopes. The observatory is being assembled high in the Chilean Andes by a global partnership. The 12-meter-diameter antenna delivered today is the first of twenty-five being provided by North America’s ALMA partners, whose efforts are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada and the National Science Council of Taiwan. The antenna was manufactured by General Dynamics SATCOM Technologies. The acceptance comes just weeks after the first ALMA antenna, produced under the direction of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan on behalf of ALMA’s East Asian partners, was handed over to the observatory. “These ALMA antennas are technological marvels,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. “They are more precise and more capable than any ever made. Their performance in the harsh winds and temperatures of our high-altitude site bodes well for the observatory’s future.” A single 12-meter antenna’s dish is bigger than the largest optical telescope’s reflective mirror, but to match the sharpness achieved by an optical telescope, a millimeter-wavelength dish would have to be impossibly large, miles across. ALMA will combine signals from dozens of antennas spread across miles of desert to synthesize the effective sharpness of such a single, gigantic antenna. The process involves analysis of the ways in which the signals coming from each antenna interfere with one another, and is called interferometry. “This is a major milestone for the ALMA

  3. Health for All Now! Reviving the spirit of Alma Ata in the Twenty-first century: An Introduction to the Alma Ata Declaration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Baum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1978 two United Nations organizations, the World Health Organization and UNICEF, held a joint conference at Alma Ata in the Soviet Union at which health was described as a human right to which all people were entitled. The goal of achieving health for all by the end of the century was established. The Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care emerged from this conference. It was endorsed on the 12th September 1978, and has inspired subsequent generations of health activists. It has become a common meeting ground where likeminded public health personnel can compare and discuss strategy and relate their discussion to a common document. The slogan “Health for All by the Year 2000”, while not achieved, has been a rallying call for progressive health workers and activists. The Declaration has also inspired the global people’s health movement and two global people’s health assemblies. The concept “primary health care” has been crucial to the improvement of many countries’ health systems and, while its meaning has been variously interpreted, the pursuit of the ideal of comprehensive primary health care still motivates health workers around the world who want to ensure a more people-centred, responsive and effective and efficient health care system for their community and country. Thus the Alma Ata Declaration is a quite remarkable document and has made an impact that few other before or since have had. This article describes the international context that enabled the drafting and adoption of the Alma Ata Declaration. It then describes the document and assesses the reasons for its importance. The struggles for the ideals and strategies of the Declaration through the progressively more hostile international climate of the 1980s and 1990s are discussed. Finally, the prospects for a revival of the spirit of Alma Ata are assessed.

  4. Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S; Dent, William R F; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orb...

  5. Water around IRAS15398-3359 observed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerkeli, P; Bergin, E A; Frimann, S; Harsono, D; Jacobsen, S K; Lindberg, J E; Persson, M; Sakai, N; van Dishoeck, E F; Visser, R; Yamamoto, S

    2016-01-01

    How protostars accrete mass is one of the fundamental problems of star formation. High column densities and complex kinematical structures make direct observations challenging and they only provide a snapshot. Chemical tracers provide an interesting alternative to characterise the infall histories of protostars. Previous observations of H13CO+ towards the low-mass protostar IRAS15398-3359 showed a depression in the abundance. This is a sign of destruction of HCO+ by an enhanced presence of gaseous water in an extended region, possibly related to a recent burst in the accretion. Direct observations of water vapour can determine the exact extent of the emission and confirm the hypothesis that HCO+ is indeed a good tracer of the water snow-line. IRAS15398 was observed using ALMA at 0.5" resolution. Maps of HDO(101-000) and H218O(414-321) were taken simultaneously with observations of the CS(8-7) and N2H+(5-4) lines and continuum at 0.65 and 0.75 mm. The maps were interpreted using dust radiative transfer calcula...

  6. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Requena-Torres, Miguel A; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R; Longmore, Steven N; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Falcke, Heino

    2016-01-01

    We report linearly polarized continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at $\\sim$492 GHz, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We used the observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan, and the observations of C\\textsc{i} line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. The Stokes I flux of 3.6$\\pm$0.72 Jy during our run is consistent with extrapolations from the previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at $\\sim$492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle may be explained by a constant polarization position angle of $\\sim$158$^{\\circ}$$\\pm$3$^{\\circ}$. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14\\%$\\pm$1.2\\%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed at the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9\\%$\\pm$0.9\\% polariz...

  7. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  8. A code generation framework for the ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Nicolás; von Brand, Horst H.; Ibsen, Jorge; Mora, Matias; Gonzalez, Victor; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Zamora, Gabriel; Tejeda, Alexis

    2010-07-01

    Code generation helps in smoothing the learning curve of a complex application framework and in reducing the number of Lines Of Code (LOC) that a developer needs to craft. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) has adopted code generation in specific areas, but we are now exploiting the more comprehensive approach of Model Driven code generation to transform directly an UML Model into a full implementation in the ACS framework. This approach makes it easier for newcomers to grasp the principles of the framework. Moreover, a lower handcrafted LOC reduces the error rate. Additional benefits achieved by model driven code generation are: software reuse, implicit application of design patterns and automatic tests generation. A model driven approach to design makes it also possible using the same model with different frameworks, by generating for different targets. The generation framework presented in this paper uses openArchitectureWare1 as the model to text translator. OpenArchitectureWare provides a powerful functional language that makes this easier to implement the correct mapping of data types, the main difficulty encountered in the translation process. The output is an ACS application readily usable by the developer, including the necessary deployment configuration, thus minimizing any configuration burden during testing. The specific application code is implemented by extending generated classes. Therefore, generated and manually crafted code are kept apart, simplifying the code generation process and aiding the developers by keeping a clean logical separation between the two. Our first results show that code generation improves dramatically the code productivity.

  9. Further ALMA observations and detailed modeling of the Red Rectangle

    CERN Document Server

    Bujarrabal, V; Alcolea, J; Santander-Garcia, M; Van Winckel, H; Contreras, C Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    We present new high-quality ALMA observations of the Red Rectangle (a well known post-AGB object) in C17O J=6-5 and H13CN J=4-3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published 13CO J=3-2 data. A detailed model fitting of all the molecular line data, including previous maps and single-dish spectra, was performed using a sophisticated code. These observations and the corresponding modeling allowed us to deepen the analysis of the nebular properties. We also stress the uncertainties in the model fitting. We confirm the presence of a rotating equatorial disk and an outflow, which is mainly formed of gas leaving the disk. The mass of the disk is ~ 0.01 Mo, and that of the CO-rich outflow is ~ 10 times smaller. High temperatures of ~ 100 K are derived for most components. From comparison of the mass values, we roughly estimate the lifetime of the rotating disk, which is found to be of about 10000 yr. Taking data of a few other post-AGB composite nebulae into account, we find that the lifetimes o...

  10. The Early ALMA View of the FU Ori Outburst System

    CERN Document Server

    Hales, A S; Dent, W R D; Andrews, S M; Eisner, J A; Cieza, L A

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained ALMA Band 7 observations of the FU Ori outburst system at 0.6"x0.5" resolution to measure the link between the inner disk instability and the outer disk through sub-mm continuum and molecular line observations. Our observations detect continuum emission which can be well modeled by two unresolved sources located at the position of each binary component. The interferometric observations recover the entire flux reported in previous single-dish studies, ruling out the presence of a large envelope. Assuming that the dust is optically thin, we derive disk dust masses of $2\\times 10^{-4}$M$_{\\odot}$ and $8\\times 10^{-5}$M$_{\\odot}$, for the north and south components respectively. We place limits on the disks' radii of $r<$45 AU. We report the detection of molecular emission from $^{12}$CO(3-2), HCO$^{+}$(4-3) and from HCN(4-3). The $^{12}$CO appears widespread across the two binary components, and is slightly more extended than the continuum emission. The denser gas tracer HCO$^{+}$ peaks close...

  11. Measuring Turbulence in TW Hya with ALMA: Methods and Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, Richard; Semenov, Dmitry; Henning, Thomas; Dutrey, Anne; Pietu, Vincent; Birnstiel, Tilman; Chapillon, Edwige; Hollenbach, David; Gorti, Uma

    2016-01-01

    We obtain high spatial and spectral resolution images of the CO J=2-1, CN N=2-1 and CS J=5-4 emission with ALMA in Cycle~2. The radial distribution of the turbulent broadening is derived with three approaches: two `direct' and one modelling. The first requires a single transition and derives \\Tex{} directly from the line profile, yielding a \\vturb{}. The second assumes two different molecules are co-spatial thus their relative linewidths allow for a calculation of \\Tkin{} and \\vturb{}. Finally we fit a parametric disk model where physical properties of the disk are described by power laws, to compare our `direct' methods with previous values. The two direct methods were limited to the outer $r > 40$~au disk due to beam smear. The direct method found \\vturb{} ranging from $\\approx$~\\vel{130} at 40~au, dropping to $\\approx$~\\vel{50} in the outer disk, qualitatively recovered with the parametric model fitting. This corresponds to roughly $0.2 - 0.4~c_s$. CN was found to exhibit strong non-LTE effects outside $r ...

  12. A sensitive ALMA Band 10 SIS receiver engineering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a single polarization engineering model of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (0.78-0.95 THz) receivers. The front-end optics comprises a pair of ellipsoidal mirrors and a corrugated feed horn. A waveguide mixer block is attached to the feed horn in which an NbTiN-based superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) mixer chip, which uses a quartz substrate, is mounted onto a WR-1.2 full-height waveguide. The SIS mixer employs two Nb/AlOx/Nb junctions and an NbTiN/SiO2/Al microstrip tuning circuit. A very wide intermediate frequency (IF) system with a bandwidth of 4-12 GHz is employed. The receiver demonstrated double-sideband (DSB) noise temperatures of below 240 K at local oscillator (LO) frequencies ranging from 792 to 945 GHz, without any correction for loss in front of the receiver. The lowest DSB receiver noise temperature, 179 K, was obtained at the center frequency of the designed band, which corresponds to about 4 quanta. These results represent state-of-the-art sensitivity for a receiver at an operating physical temperature of 4 K.

  13. Evidence for outflows in z ~ 6 galaxies with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Gallerani, S; Feruglio, C; Ferrara, A; Maiolino, R; Vallini, L; Riechers, D A

    2016-01-01

    We present the first attempt to detect outflows from galaxies approaching the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) using a sample of 9 star-forming (5 < SFR < 70 Msun/yr) z ~ 6 galaxies for which high-quality spectra of the [CII]158 micron line has been previously obtained with ALMA. We first fit each line with a Gaussian function and compute the residuals by subtracting the best fitting model from the data. We combine the residuals of all sample galaxies and find that the total signal is characterized by a flux excess that can be ascribed to broad wings of the [CII] line, which we interpret as a signature of starburst-driven outflows. The tentatively inferred outflow rate is dM/dt ~ 65 Msun/yr. Our interpretation is consistent with results from zoomed hydro- simulations of Dahlia, a z ~ 7 galaxy (SFR ~ 100 Msun/yr) whose feedback-regulated star formation results in an outflow rate dM/dt ~ 30 Msun/yr. These results suggest that starburst-driven outflows are in place in the EoR. Deeper observations of the [CII] l...

  14. ALMA Observations of HCN and its Isotopologues on Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Molter, Edward M; Cordiner, Martin A; Serigano, Joseph; Irwin, Patrick G J; Teanby, Nicholas A; Charnley, Steven B; Lindberg, Johan E

    2016-01-01

    We present sub-millimeter spectra of HCN isotopologues on Titan, derived from publicly available ALMA flux calibration observations of Titan taken in early 2014. We report the detection of a new HCN isotopologue on Titan, H$^{13}$C$^{15}$, and confirm an earlier report of detection of DCN. We model high signal-to-noise observations of HCN, H$^{13}$CN, HC$^{15}$N, DCN, and H$^{13}$C$^{15}$ to derive abundances and infer the following isotopic ratios: $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C = 89.8 $\\pm$ 2.8, $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N = 72.3 $\\pm$ 2.2, D/H = (2.5 $\\pm$ 0.2)$\\times$10$^{-4}$, and HCN/H$^{13}$C$^{15}$ = 5800 $\\pm$ 270 (1$\\sigma$ errors). The carbon and nitrogen ratios are consistent with and improve on the precision of previous results, confirming a factor of $\\sim$2.3 elevation in $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N in HCN compared to N$_2$ and a lack of fractionation in $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C from the protosolar value. This is the first published measurement of D/H in a nitrile species on Titan, and we find evidence for a factor of $\\sim$2 deuteri...

  15. Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto's atmosphere with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Lellouch, E; Butler, B; Fouchet, T; Lavvas, P; Strobel, D F; Sicardy, B; Moullet, A; Moreno, R; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Young, L; Lis, D; Stansberry, J; Stern, A; Weaver, H; Young, E; Zhu, X; Boissier, J

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the Pluto-Charon system, acquired with the ALMA interferometer on June 12-13, 2015, have yielded a detection of the CO(3-2) and HCN(4-3) rotational transitions from Pluto, providing a strong confirmation of the presence of CO, and the first observation of HCN, in Pluto's atmosphere. The CO and HCN lines probe Pluto's atmosphere up to ~450 km and ~900 km altitude, respectively. The CO detection yields (i) a much improved determination of the CO mole fraction, as 515+/-40 ppm for a 12 ubar surface pressure (ii) clear evidence for a well-marked temperature decrease (i.e., mesosphere) above the 30-50 km stratopause and a best-determined temperature of 70+/-2 K at 300 km, in agreement with recent inferences from New Horizons / Alice solar occultation data. The HCN line shape implies a high abundance of this species in the upper atmosphere, with a mole fraction >1.5x10-5 above 450 km and a value of 4x10-5 near 800 km. The large HCN abundance and the cold upper atmosphere imply supersaturation of HCN...

  16. ALMA - The March to Early Science and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Alwyn

    2011-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is rapidly proceeding through its commissioning stages in Chile. Tests at the atmospherically superb 5050m Array Operations Site and readiness reviews held during the Fall of 2010 will result in a decision to issue a call for proposals to use the instrument during its 'Early Science' phase. At the beginning of Early Science, projected for later in 2011, 16 antennas of the final 66 will stand ready to produce the deepest integrations ever achieved in the cool thermal spectral region. The array will be equipped with at least three of its eventual complement of ten receivers operating over a decade of bandwidth from 3.6mm to 0.42mm. At this point, its sensitivity will be on the order of 0.5mJy in a minute's integration. Operating at this stage baselines of at least .25km, ALMA will provide a beam as small as 0".3 on the little-explored southern skies from its Chilean site near the Tropic of Capricorn. By one year later, the array will have grown to more than fifty antennas; at the second call for proposals the array will reach 0.2 mJy in a minute and baselines will extend to the full set of array configurations, effectively about 14 km. Observations which will be made possible by these transformative capabilities will be presented.

  17. ALMA: The March to Early Science and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Al

    2010-05-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is rapidly proceeding through its commissioning stages in Chile. Within a short time, equipment from all over the world will be installed at the 5050m altitude Array Operations Site and a call will go out for proposals to use the instrument during its 'Early Science' phase. At the beginning of Early Science, a little over a year from now, 16 antennas of the final 66 will stand ready to produce the deepest images ever achieved in the cool thermal spectral region. The array will be equipped with at least three of its eventual complement of ten receivers; even now operating over a decade of bandwidth from 3.6mm to 0.42mm. At this point, its sensitivity will be on the order of 0.5mJy in a minute's integration. Operating at this stage baselines of at least .25km, ALMA will provide a beam as small as 0".3 on the little-explored southern skies from its Chilean site near the Tropic of Capricorn. By one year later, the array will have grown to more than fifty antennas; at the second call for proposals the array will reach 0.2 mJy in a minute and baselines will extend to the full set of array configurations, effectively about 14 km. Illustrative examples of observations which will be made possible by these transformative capabilities will be presented.

  18. Fast single-dish scans of the Sun using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Neil; Bastian, Tim; Hudson, Hugh; Marson, Ralph; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We have implemented control and data-taking software that makes it possible to scan the beams of individual ALMA antennas to perform quite complex patterns while recording the signals at high rates. We conducted test observations of the Sun in September and December, 2014. The data returned have excellent quality; in particular they allow us to characterize the noise and signal fluctuations present in this kind of observation. The fast-scan experiments included both Lissajous patterns covering rectangular areas, and double-circle patterns of the whole disk of the Sun and smaller repeated maps of specific disk-shaped targets. With the latter we find that we can achieve roughly Nyquist sampling of the Band~6 (230~GHz) beam in 60~s over a region 300$"$ in diameter. These maps show a peak-to-peak brightness-temperature range of up to 1000~K, while the time-series variability at any given point appears to be of order 0.5 percent RMS over times of a few minutes. We thus expect to be able to separate the noise contr...

  19. New architectures support for ALMA common software: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menay, Camilo E.; Zamora, Gabriel A.; Tobar, Rodrigo J.; Avarias, Jorge A.; Dahl-skog, Kevin R.; von Brand, Horst H.; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a distributed control framework based on CORBA that provides communication between distributed pieces of software. Because of its size and complexity it provides its own compilation system, a mix of several technologies. The current ACS compilation process depends on specific tools, compilers, code generation, and a strict dependency model induced by the large number of software components. This document presents a summary of several porting and compatibility attempts at using ACS on platforms other than the officially supported one. A porting of ACS to the Microsoft Windows Platform and to the ARM processor architecture were attempted, with different grades of success. Also, support for LINUX-PREEMPT (a set of real-time patches for the Linux kernel) using a new design for real-time services was implemented. These efforts were integrated with the ACS building and compilation system, while others were included in its design. Lessons learned in this process are presented, and a general approach is extracted from them.

  20. Ethyl cyanide on Titan: Spectroscopic detection and mapping using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Cordiner, M A; Nixon, C A; Irwin, P G J; Teanby, N A; Charnley, S B; Mumma, M J; Kisiel, Z; Serigano, J; Kuan, Y -J; Chuang, Y -L; Wang, K -S

    2014-01-01

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C$_2$H$_5$CN) in Titan's atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA). The presence of C$_2$H$_5$CN in Titan's ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C$_2$H$_5$CNH$^+$. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C$_2$H$_5$CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at $>3\\sigma$ confidence), in the frequency range 222-241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC$_3$N, CH$_3$CN and CH$_3$CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC$_3$N, CH$_3$CN and CH$_3$CCH, which peak in Titan's northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C$_2$H$_5$CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C$_2$H$_5$CN. Radiative transf...

  1. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Bout, Paul Vanden; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well-resolved for the first time.In the more luminous West nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends to 0.2\\arcsec radius (80 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ($\\tau_{\\rm 2.6mm} \\sim1$) at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm with a dust emission brightness temperature $\\sim120$ K. The column of ISM at this nucleus is $\\rm N_{H2} \\geq 2\\times10^{26}$ cm$^{-2}$, corresponding to A$_V = 10^6$ mag and 1000 gr cm$^{-2}$. The East nucleus is somewhat more elongated with radial extent 0.3\\arcsec or $\\sim120$ pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles sampled every 50 mas, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves and velocity dispersio...

  2. ALMA Finds Dew Drops in the Dusty Spider's Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gullberg, B; De Breuck, C; Branchu, S; Dannerbauer, H; Drouant, G; Emonts, B; Guillard, P; Hatch, N; Nesvadba, N P H; Omont, A; Seymour, N; Vernet, J

    2016-01-01

    We present 0."5 resolution ALMA detections of the observed 246GHz continuum, [CI]^3P_2-^3P_1 fine structure line ([CI]2-1), CO(7-6) and H2O lines in the z=2.161 radio galaxy MRC1138-262, the 'Spiderweb Galaxy'. We detect strong [CI]2-1 emission both at the position of the radio core, and in a second component ~4kpc away from it. The 1100km/s broad [CI]2-1 line in this latter component, combined with its H2 mass of 1.6x10^10Msun implies this emission must come from a compact region <60pc, possibly containing a second AGN. The combined H2 mass derived for both objects using the [CI]2-1 emission is 3.3x10^10Msun. The total CO(7-6)/[CI]2-1 line flux ratio of 0.2 suggests a low excitation molecular gas reservoir and/or enhanced atomic carbon in cosmic-ray dominated regions. We detect spatially-resolved H2O 2_{11}-2_{02} emission - for the first time in a high-z un-lensed galaxy - near the outer radio lobe to the east, and near the bend of the radio jet to the west of the radio galaxy. No underlying 246GHz conti...

  3. The Science Cases for Building a Band 1 Receiver Suite for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Di Francesco, J; Matthews, B C; Bartel, N; Bronfman, L; Casassus, S; Chitsazzadeh, S; Cunningham, M; Duchene, G; Geisbuesch, J; Hales, A; Ho, P T P; Houde, M; Iono, D; Kemper, F; Kepley, A; Koch, P M; Kohno, K; Kothes, R; Lai, S -P; Lin, K Y; Liu, S -Y; Mason, B; Maccarone, T J; Mizuno, N; Morata, O; Schieven, G; Scaife, A M M; Scott, D; Shang, H; Shimojo, M; Takakuwa, S; Wagg, J; Wootten, A; Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2013-01-01

    We present the various science cases for building Band 1 receivers as part of ALMA's ongoing Development Program. We describe the new frequency range for Band 1 of 35-52 GHz, a range chosen to maximize the receiver suite's scientific impact. We first describe two key science drivers: 1) the evolution of grains in protoplanetary disks and debris disks, and 2) molecular gas in galaxies during the era of re-ionization. Studies of these topics with Band 1 receivers will significantly expand ALMA's Level 1 Science Goals. In addition, we describe a host of other exciting continuum and line science cases that require ALMA's high sensitivity and angular resolution. For example, ALMA Band 1 continuum data will probe the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in galactic clusters, Very Small Grains and spinning dust, ionized jets from young stars, spatial and flaring studies of Sgr A*, the acceleration sites of solar flares, pulsar wind nebulae, radio supernovae, and X-ray binaries. Furthermore, ALMA Band 1 line data will probe che...

  4. The Database for Astronomical Spectroscopy - Updates, Additions and Plans for Splatalogue for Alma Full Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, Anthony; Seifert, Nathan A.; McGuire, Brett A.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 10 years, Splatalogue has been constantly updated, modified and enhanced in order to make molecular spectroscopy data readily available to the astronomical community. Splatalogue is fully integrated into the ALMA Observing Tool, the ALMA data reduction and analysis package (CASA) and several enhanced tools being developed through the ALMA development program including the next generation CASA viewer (CARTA) and the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit (ADMIT). In anticipation for ALMA full science operations, a number of improvements have taken place over the past year to the Splatalogue database including, but not limited too, additions to Splatalogue from the JPL and CDMS line lists, improvements and reconciliation of the Lovas/NIST Catalog assigning NRAO recommended rest frequencies to every astronomically detected transition, including recent astronomical surveys to the list of transitions detected in space and finally, improved search and display features as requested by the astronomical community. Splatalogue is planning for the next 10 years of development and welcomes any and all contributions to improving the data integrity and availability to the scientific community.

  5. Supporting Student Learning in Computer Science Education via the Adaptive Learning Environment ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gasparinatou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the ALMA environment (Adaptive Learning Models from texts and Activities. ALMA supports the processes of learning and assessment via: (1 texts differing in local and global cohesion for students with low, medium, and high background knowledge; (2 activities corresponding to different levels of comprehension which prompt the student to practically implement different text-reading strategies, with the recommended activity sequence adapted to the student’s learning style; (3 an overall framework for informing, guiding, and supporting students in performing the activities; and; (4 individualized support and guidance according to student specific characteristics. ALMA also, supports students in distance learning or in blended learning in which students are submitted to face-to-face learning supported by computer technology. The adaptive techniques provided via ALMA are: (a adaptive presentation and (b adaptive navigation. Digital learning material, in accordance with the text comprehension model described by Kintsch, was introduced into the ALMA environment. This material can be exploited in either distance or blended learning.

  6. The Cultural Implications of Primary Health Care and the Declaration of Alma-Ata: The Health District of Kedougou, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanas, Demetri A.

    2008-01-01

    In 1978, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the international health community convoked a conference in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, to address global inequalities in health. The conference resulted in the publication of the "Declaration of Alma-Ata," which made the ambitious call "for urgent action by all governments, all health and development…

  7. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Andreani, Paola; Barta, Miroslav; Bertoldi, Frank; Brand, Jan; Gueth, Frederique; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Maercker, Matthias; Massardi, Marcella; Muehle, Stefanie; Muxlow, Thomas; Richards, Anita; Schilke, Peter; Tilanus, Remo; Vlemmings, Wouter; Afonso, Jose; Messias, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  8. High-Angular-Resolution and High-Sensitivity Science Enabled by Beamformed ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Vincent; Anderson, James; Asada, Keiichi; Baudry, Alain; Broderick, Avery; Carilli, Chris; Colomer, Francisco; Conway, John; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd; Eatough, Ralph; Falcke, Heino; Frey, Sándor; Gabányi, Krisztina; Gálvan-Madrid, Roberto; Gammie, Charles; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gómez, Jose L; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael; Honma, Mareki; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Impellizzeri, Violette; Johannsen, Tim; Jorstad, Svetlana; Kino, Motoki; Körding, Elmar; Kramer, Michael; Krichbaum, Thomas; Kudryavtseva, Nadia; Laing, Robert; Lazio, Joseph; Loeb, Abraham; Lu, Ru-Sen; Maccarone, Thomas; Marscher, Alan; Mart'ı-Vidal, Iván; Martins, Carlos; Matthews, Lynn; Menten, Karl; Miller, Jon; Miller-Jones, James; Mirabel, Félix; Muller, Sebastien; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil; Nakamura, Masanori; Paragi, Zsolt; Pradel, Nicolas; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ransom, Scott; Rodr'\\iguez, Luis; Rottmann, Helge; Rushton, Anthony; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Smith, David; Stappers, Benjamin; Takahashi, Rohta; Tarchi, Andrea; Tilanus, Remo; Verbiest, Joris; Vlemmings, Wouter; Walker, R Craig; Wardle, John; Wiik, Kaj; Zackrisson, Erik; Zensus, J Anton

    2013-01-01

    An international consortium is presently constructing a beamformer for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile that will be available as a facility instrument. The beamformer will aggregate the entire collecting area of the array into a single, very large aperture. The extraordinary sensitivity of phased ALMA, combined with the extremely fine angular resolution available on baselines to the Northern Hemisphere, will enable transformational new very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations in Bands 6 and 7 (1.3 and 0.8 mm) and provide substantial improvements to existing VLBI arrays in Bands 1 and 3 (7 and 3 mm). The ALMA beamformer will have impact on a variety of scientific topics, including accretion and outflow processes around black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN), tests of general relativity near black holes, jet launch and collimation from AGN and microquasars, pulsar and magnetar emission processes, the chemical history of the universe and the evolution of fundame...

  9. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrang, Gesa H -M; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary disks, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to ALMA observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disk regions.

  10. The ALMA Band 9 receiver - Design, construction, characterization, and first light

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshev, A M; Mena, F P; Klapwijk, T M; van Kempen, T A; Hogerheijde, M R; Jackson, B D; Adema, J; Gerlofsma, G J; Bekema, M E; Barkhof, J; de Haan-Stijkel, L H R; Bemt, M van den; Koops, A; Keizer, K; Pieters, C; Jagt, J Koops van het; Schaeffer, H H A; Zijlstra, T; Kroug, M; Lodewijk, C F J; Wielinga, K; Boland, W; de Graauw, M W M; van Dishoeck, E F; Jager, H; Wild, W

    2015-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and characterization of the Band 9 heterodyne receivers (600-720 GHz) for the Atacama Large Millimeter / submillimeter Array (ALMA). The ALMA Band 9 receiver units ("cartridges"), which are installed in the telescope's front end, have been designed to detect and down-convert two orthogonal linear polarization components of the light collected by the ALMA antennas. The light entering the front end is refocused with a compact arrangement of mirrors, which is fully contained within the cartridge. The arrangement contains a grid to separate the polarizations and two beam splitters to combine each resulting beam with a local oscillator signal. The combined beams are fed into independent double-sideband mixers, each with a corrugated feedhorn coupling the radiation by way of a waveguide with backshort cavity into an impedance-tuned SIS junction that performs the heterodyne down-conversion. Finally, the generated intermediate frequency signals are amplified by cryogenic and room...

  11. ALMA service data analysis and level 2 quality assurance with CASA

    CERN Document Server

    Petry, Dirk; Villard, Eric; Komugi, Shinya; Schnee, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Atacama Large mm and sub-mm Array (ALMA) radio observatory is one of the world's largest astronomical projects. After the very successful conclusion of the first observation cycles Early Science Cycles 0 and 1, the ALMA project can report many successes and lessons learned. The science data taken interleaved with commissioning tests for the still continuing addition of new capabilities has already resulted in numerous publications in high-profile journals. The increasing data volume and complexity are challenging but under control. The radio-astronomical data analysis package "Common Astronomy Software Applications" (CASA) has played a crucial role in this effort. This article describes the implementation of the ALMA data quality assurance system, in particular the level 2 which is based on CASA, and the lessons learned.

  12. ALMA service data analysis and level 2 quality assurance with CASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Dirk; Vila-Vilaro, Baltasar; Villard, Eric; Komugi, Shinya; Schnee, Scott

    2014-07-01

    The Atacama Large mm and sub-mm Array (ALMA) radio observatory is one of the world's largest astronomical projects. After the very successful conclusion of the first observation cycles Early Science Cycles 0 and 1, the ALMA project can report many successes and lessons learned. The science data taken interleaved with commis- sioning tests for the still continuing addition of new capabilities has already resulted in numerous publications in high-profile journals. The increasing data volume and complexity are challenging but under control. The radio-astronomical data analysis package "Common Astronomy Software Applications" (CASA) has played a crucial role in this effort. This article describes the implementation of the ALMA data quality assurance system, in particular the level 2 which is based on CASA, and the lessons learned.

  13. ETHYL CYANIDE ON TITAN: SPECTROSCOPIC DETECTION AND MAPPING USING ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Palmer, M. Y.; Nixon, C. A.; Charnley, S. B.; Mumma, M. J.; Serigano, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Irwin, P. G. J. [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Teanby, N. A. [School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queen’s Road, Bristol, BS8 1RJ (United Kingdom); Kisiel, Z. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikøw 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Kuan, Y.-J.; Chuang, Y.-L. [National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, K.-S., E-mail: martin.cordiner@nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-10

    We report the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN) in Titan’s atmosphere, obtained using spectrally and spatially resolved observations of multiple emission lines with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The presence of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN in Titan’s ionosphere was previously inferred from Cassini ion mass spectrometry measurements of C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CNH{sup +}. Here we report the detection of 27 rotational lines from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN (in 19 separate emission features detected at >3σ confidence) in the frequency range 222–241 GHz. Simultaneous detections of multiple emission lines from HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH were also obtained. In contrast to HC{sub 3}N, CH{sub 3}CN, and CH{sub 3}CCH, which peak in Titan’s northern (spring) hemisphere, the emission from C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is found to be concentrated in the southern (autumn) hemisphere, suggesting a distinctly different chemistry for this species, consistent with a relatively short chemical lifetime for C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN. Radiative transfer models show that C{sub 2}H{sub 5}CN is most concentrated at altitudes ≳200 km, suggesting production predominantly in the stratosphere and above. Vertical column densities are found to be in the range (1–5) × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}.

  14. H-alpha features with hot onsets III. Fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by a dense canopy of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the large opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe the H-alpha fibril canopy, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if this canopy were transparent.

  15. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin$^2$ Deep Survey: 1.1-mm Number Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kohno, Kotaro; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J.; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi, Stott, John P; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji

    2016-01-01

    We report 1.1 mm number counts revealed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF). The advent of ALMA enables us to reveal millimeter-wavelength number counts down to the faint end without source confusion. However, previous studies are based on the ensemble of serendipitously-detected sources in fields originally targeting different sources and could be biased due to the clustering of sources around the targets. We derive n...

  16. Embriaguez e males da alma: entre a mania e a melancolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as relações estabelecidas no campo da medicina da alma entre a embriaguez e os males da alma. Parte da atitude ambivalente em relação ao vinho sustentada desde a Antiguidade para mostrar como no século XVIII explicações baseadas nas dinâmicas psicofisiológicas e tratamentos que faziam apelo à ordenação da razão com a vontade para o domínio dos apetites são substituídos por uma concepção propriamente patologizante do abuso da bebida.

  17. ALMA observations of Lyman-alpha Blob 1: halo sub-structure illuminated from within

    OpenAIRE

    Geach, J. E.; Narayanan, D.; Matsuda, Y.; Hayes, M.; Mas-Ribas, Ll.; Dijkstra, M.; Steidel, C.C.; Chapman, S. C.; Feldmann, R.; Avison, A.; Agertz, O.; Ao, Y.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bremer, M. N.; Clements, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850um continuum observations of the original Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z=3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with total flux density S_850 = 1.68+/-0.06 mJy, corresponding to a star formation rate of ~150 M_sun/yr. The submillimeter sources are associated with several faint (m~27 mag) rest-frame ultraviolet sources identified in Hubble...

  18. A web-based dashboard for the high-level monitoring of ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Filippi, Giorgio; Véliz, Luis; del Campo, Fernando; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope's operations depend on the availability of high-level, easy-to-understand status information about all of its components. The ALMA Dashboard aims at providing an all-in-one-place near-real-time overview of the observatory's key elements and figures to both line and senior management. The Dashboard covers a wide range of elements beyond antennas, such as pads, correlator and central local oscillator. Data can be displayed in multiple ways, including: a table view, a compact view fitting on a single screen, a timeline showing detailed information over time, a logbook, a geographical map.

  19. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; De Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2015-10-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the limited spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870 μm 0.″45 resolution imaging obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs that have far-infrared (FIR) flux densities that lie between the brightest of sources found by Herschel and fainter DSFGs found via ground-based surveys in the submillimeter region. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5σ point-source sensitivity limit in our ALMA sample; σ ≈ 0.2 {mJy}). Optical or near-infrared imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (μ \\gt 1.1), but only six are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general-purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility-plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for DSFGs with a break near 8 {mJy} at 880 μ {{m}} and a steep fall-off at higher flux densities. Nearly 70% of the Herschel sources break down into multiple ALMA counterparts, consistent with previous research indicating that the multiplicity rate is high in bright sources discovered in single-dish submillimeter or FIR surveys. The ALMA counterparts to our Herschel targets are located significantly closer to each other than ALMA counterparts to sources found in the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. Theoretical models underpredict the excess number of sources with small separations seen in our ALMA sample. The high multiplicity rate and small projected separations between sources seen in our sample argue in favor of interactions

  20. Water around IRAS 15398-3359 observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Bergin, E. A.; Frimann, S.; Harsono, D.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Lindberg, J. E.; Persson, M.; Sakai, N.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Yamamoto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Understanding how protostars accrete their mass is one of the fundamental problems of star formation. High dust column densities and complex kinematical structures make direct observations challenging. Moreover, direct observations only provide a snapshot. Chemical tracers provide an interesting alternative to characterise the infall histories of protostars. Aims: We aim to map the distribution and kinematics of gaseous water towards the low-mass embedded protostar IRAS 15398-3359. Previous observations of H13CO+ showed a depression in the abundance towards IRAS 15398-3359. This is a sign of destruction of HCO+ by an enhanced presence of gaseous water in an extended region, possibly related to a recent burst in the accretion. Direct observations of water vapour can determine the exact extent of the emission and confirm the hypothesis that HCO+ is indeed a good tracer of the water snow-line. Methods: IRAS 15398-3359 was observed using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 0.5″ resolution in two setups at 390 and 460 GHz. Maps of HDO (101-000) and were taken simultaneously with observations of the CS (8-7) and N2H+ (5-4) lines and continuum at 0.65 and 0.75 mm. The maps were interpreted using dust radiative transfer calculations of the protostellar infalling envelope with an outflow cavity. Results: HDO is clearly detected and extended over the scales of the H13CO+ depression, although it is displaced by 500 AU in the direction of the outflow. HO is tentatively detected towards the red-shifted outflow lobe, but otherwise it is absent from the mapped region, which suggests that temperatures are low. Although we cannot entirely exclude a shock origin, this indicates that another process is responsible for the water emission. Conclusions: Based on the temperature structure obtained from dust radiative transfer models, we conclude that the water was most likely released from the grains in an extended hour-glass configuration during a

  1. Multimolecule ALMA observations toward the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S.; Kohno, K.; Izumi, T.; Krips, M.; Meier, D. S.; Aladro, R.; Matsushita, S.; Takano, S.; Turner, J. L.; Espada, D.; Nakajima, T.; Terashima, Y.; Fathi, K.; Hsieh, P.-Y.; Imanishi, M.; Lundgren, A.; Nakai, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.; Wiklind, T.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The nearby Sy 1 galaxy NGC 1097 represents an ideal laboratory for exploring the molecular chemistry in the surroundings of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: Exploring the distribution of different molecular species allows us to understand the physical processes affecting the interstellar medium both in the AGN vicinity and in the outer star forming molecular ring. Methods: We carried out 3 mm ALMA observations that include seven different molecular species, namely HCN, HCO+, CCH, CS, HNCO, SiO, HC3N, and SO, as well as the 13C isotopologues of the first two. Spectra were extracted from selected positions and all species were imaged over the central 2 kpc (~30'') of the galaxy at a resolution of ~2.2'' × 1.5'' (150 pc × 100 pc). Results: HCO+ and CS appear to be slightly enhanced in the star forming ring. CCH shows the largest variations across NGC 1097 and is suggested to be a good tracer of both obscured and early stage star formation. HNCO, SiO, and HC3N are significantly enhanced in the inner circumnuclear disk surrounding the AGN. Conclusions: Differences in the molecular abundances are observed between the star forming ring and the inner circumnuclear disk. We conclude that the HCN/HCO+ and HCN/CS differences observed between AGN-dominated and starburst (SB) galaxies are not due to a HCN enhancement due to X-rays, but rather this enhancement is produced by shocked material at distances of 200 pc from the AGN. Additionally, we claim that lower HCN/CS is a combination of a small underabundance of CS in AGNs, together with excitation effects, where a high density gas component (~106 cm-3) may be more prominent in SB galaxies. However, the most promising are the differences found among the dense gas tracers that, at our modest spatial resolution, seem to outline the physical structure of the molecular disk around the AGN. In this picture, HNCO probes the well-shielded gas in the disk, surrounding the dense material moderately exposed to the X

  2. ALMA finds dew drops in the dusty spider's web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Bitten; Lehnert, Matthew D.; De Breuck, Carlos; Branchu, Steve; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Guillard, Pierre; Hatch, Nina; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Omont, Alain; Seymour, Nick; Vernet, Joël

    2016-06-01

    We present 0.̋5 resolution ALMA detections of the observed 246 GHz continuum, [CI] 3P2→3P1 fine structure line ([CI]2-1), CO(7-6), and H2O lines in the z = 2.161 radio galaxy MRC1138-262, the so-called Spiderweb galaxy. We detect strong [CI]2-1 emission both at the position of the radio core, and in a second component ~4 kpc away from it. The 1100 km s-1 broad [CI]2-1 line in this latter component, combined with its H2 mass of 1.6 × 1010 M⊙, implies that this emission must come from a compact region <60 pc, possibly containing a second active galactic nucleus (AGN). The combined H2 mass derived for both objects, using the [CI]2-1 emission, is 3.3 × 1010 M⊙. The total CO(7-6)/[CI]2-1 line flux ratio of 0.2 suggests a low excitation molecular gas reservoir and/or enhanced atomic carbon in cosmic ray dominated regions. We detect spatially-resolved H2O 211-202 emission - for the first time in a high-z unlensed galaxy - near the outer radio lobe to the east, and near the bend of the radio jet to the west of the radio galaxy. No underlying 246 GHz continuum emission is seen at either position. We suggest that the H2O emission is excited in the cooling region behind slow (10-40 km s-1) shocks in dense molecular gas (103-5 cm-3). The extended water emission is likely evidence of the radio jet's impact on cooling and forming molecules in the post-shocked gas in the halo and inter-cluster gas, similar to what is seen in low-z clusters and other high-z radio galaxies. These observations imply that the passage of the radio jet in the interstellar and inter-cluster medium not only heats gas to high temperatures, as is commonly assumed or found in simulations, but also induces cooling and dissipation, which can lead to substantial amounts of cold dense molecular gas. The formation of molecules and strong dissipation in the halo gas of MRC1138-262 may explain both the extended diffuse molecular gas and the young stars observed around MRC1138-262. The reduced data cubes

  3. Measuring turbulence in TW Hydrae with ALMA: methods and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, R.; Guilloteau, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Dutrey, A.; Piétu, V.; Birnstiel, T.; Chapillon, E.; Hollenbach, D.; Gorti, U.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We aim to obtain a spatially resolved measurement of velocity dispersions in the disk of TW Hya. Methods: We obtained images with high spatial and spectral resolution of the CO J = 2-1, CN N = 2-1 and CS J = 5-4 emission with ALMA in Cycle 2. The radial distribution of the turbulent broadening was derived with two direct methods and one modelling approach. The first method requires a single transition and derives Tex directly from the line profile, yielding a vturb. The second method assumes that two different molecules are co-spatial, which allows using their relative line widths for calculating Tkin and vturb. Finally we fitted a parametric disk model in which the physical properties of the disk are described by power laws, to compare our direct methods with previous values. Results: The two direct methods were limited to the outer r > 40 au disk because of beam smear. The direct method found vturb to range from ≈130 m s-1 at 40 au, and to drop to ≈50 m s-1 in the outer disk, which is qualitatively recovered with the parametric model fitting. This corresponds to roughly 0.2-0.4 cs. CN was found to exhibit strong non-local thermal equilibrium effects outside r ≈ 140 au, so that vturb was limited to within this radius. The assumption that CN and CS are co-spatial is consistent with observed line widths only within r ≲ 100 au, within which vturb was found to drop from 100 m s-1 (≈0.4 cs) to zero at 100 au. The parametric model yielded a nearly constant 50 m s-1 for CS (0.2-0.4 cs). We demonstrate that absolute flux calibration is and will be the limiting factor in all studies of turbulence using a single molecule. Conclusions: The magnitude of the dispersion is comparable with or below that predicted by the magneto-rotational instability theory. A more precise comparison would require reaching an absolute calibration precision of about 3%, or finding a suitable combination of light and heavy molecules that are co-located in the disk. The reduced

  4. Why complexity matters: using ALMaSS for risk assessment of wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John

    -sink dynamics are emergent properties and do not need to be imposed.ALMaSS is one such model system and is used here to exemplify aspects of complexity in population-level risk assessment for terrestrial mammals, birds, and arthropods exposed to pesticides. Results are used to argue for greater realism...

  5. ALMA imaging of the CO snowline of the HD 163296 disk with DCO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathews, G. S.; Klaassen, P. D.; Juhasz, A.; Harsono, D.; Chapillon, E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Espada, D.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Hales, A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Mottram, J. C.; Rawlings, M. G.; Takahashi, S.; Testi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The high spatial resolution and line sensitivity of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) opens the possibility of resolving emission from molecules in large samples of circumstellar disks. With an understanding of the conditions under which these molecules can have high a

  6. MILLIMETER EMISSION STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST ALMA IMAGE OF THE AU Mic DEBRIS DISK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Matthews, Brenda; Hughes, A. Meredith; Booth, Mark; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    We present 1.3 mm ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, similar to 10 Myr old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0 ''.6 (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU an

  7. SÓCRATES E O CUIDADO DE SI OU A TERAPÊUTICA DA ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Araújo dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo pretende ser uma abordagem simples, na verdade, um resumo, recolhido dostextos de Platão sobre o auto-conhecimento e o cuidado de si. Esses são os elementos queconstituem a base do saber ético iniciado por Sócrates e o ponto de partida do que chamamosterapêutica da alma.

  8. Improved design for low noise Nb SIS devices for Band 9 of ALMA (600 - 720 GHz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Kroug, M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Mena, F. P.; Baryshev, A. M.; Wild, W.

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting-insulating-superconducting mixers incorporating a novel design were fabricated and evaluated for heterodyne detection in the frequency range of 600 to 720 GHz (ALMA Band 9). The improved design consists in tapering the corners of the RF transformer and a careful optimization of the d

  9. ALMA Temporal Phase Stability and the Effectiveness of Water Vapor Radiometer

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, S; Barkats, D; Hills, R E; Fomalont, E; Nikolic, B

    2012-01-01

    Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be the world largest mm/submm interferometer, and currently the Early Science is ongoing, together with the commissioning and science verification (CSV). Here we present a study of the temporal phase stability of the entire ALMA system from antennas to the correlator. We verified the temporal phase stability of ALMA using data, taken during the last two years of CSV activities. The data consist of integrations on strong point sources (i.e., bright quasars) at various frequency bands, and at various baseline lengths (up to 600 m). From the observations of strong quasars for a long time (from a few tens of minutes, up to an hour), we derived the 2-point Allan Standard Deviation after the atmospheric phase correction using the 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) installed in each 12 m antenna, and confirmed that the phase stability of all the baselines reached the ALMA specification. Since we applied the WVR phase correction to all the data mentioned abov...

  10. Sideband separating mixer for 600-720 GHz for ALMA band 9 upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khudchenko, Andrey; Hesper, Ronald; Baryshev, Andrey; Gerlofma, Gerrit; Barkhof, Jan; Adema, Joost; Mena, Patricio; Klapwijk, Teun; Spaans, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    For high-frequency observational bands like ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Band 9 (600—720 GHz), which tend to be dominated by atmospheric noise, implementation of sideband-separating mixers can reduce, up to a factor of two, the integration time needed to reach a certain signal-to-noise rati

  11. Development of a 0.6 THz SIS Receiver for ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, A. M.; van de Stadt, H.; Schaeffer, H.; Hesper, R.; Zijlstra, T.; Zuiddam, M.; Wild, W.; de Jong, L.

    2001-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) requires low noise SIS receivers for frequencies from about 80 GHz to 950 GHz with very large IF bandwidth (4-12 GHz). Additional requirements for these receivers are high reliability, low cost and the possibility of series production. In this paper we repor

  12. Equilibrium chemical reaction of supersonic hydrogen-air jets (the ALMA computer program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghobashi, S.

    1977-01-01

    The ALMA (axi-symmetrical lateral momentum analyzer) program is concerned with the computation of two dimensional coaxial jets with large lateral pressure gradients. The jets may be free or confined, laminar or turbulent, reacting or non-reacting. Reaction chemistry is equilibrium.

  13. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  14. Alma Reed: A Unique Bicultural Bridge between North American and Mexican Cultures in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Neal

    Alma Reed, a Californian who became a noted figure in Mexican art history, was a bicultural individual who introduced famed Mexican muralists to the United States art world and who became a legendary figure in Mexican folklore from the 1920s through the 1960s. This paper traces her career. (JB)

  15. A detailed mass distribution of a high-density core in Taurus with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Saigo, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akiko; Fukui, Yasuo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Machida, Masahiro N; Tomida, Kengo; Tachihara, Kengo; André, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of ALMA observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines, including the ALMA Compact Array, toward a dense core MC27 (a.k.a. L1521F) in Taurus, which is considered to be at very early stage of star formation. Detailed column density distribution with a size scale from a few tens AU to ~10000 AU scale are revealed by combining the ALMA data and the single-dish data. The high angular resolution observation at 0.87 mm reveals that a protostellar source, MMS-1, is still not spatially resolved without gas association and a starless high-density core, MMS-2, has substructures both in dust and molecular emission. The averaged radial column density distribution of the inner part (r < 3000 AU) is N_H2 ~r^-0.4, clearly flatter than that of the outer part, ~r^-1.0. We found the complex velocity/spatial structure obtained with previous ALMA observations is located inside the inner flatter region, which may reflect the dynamical status of the dense core.

  16. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Fialkov, A; Scudder, J; Hayward, C C; Cowley, W I; Bock, J; Calanog, J; Chapman, S C; Cooray, A; De Bernardis, F; Farrah, D; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R; Hopwood, R; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M; Lacey, C; Loeb, A; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A J; Vieira, J D; Wang, L; Wardlow, J

    2015-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the poor spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870um 0.45" imaging obtained in Cycle 0 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5-sigma limit in our ALMA sample; sigma~0.2 mJy). Optical imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (mu>1.1), but only 6 are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for...

  17. Generic Abstraction of Hardware Control Based on the ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeram, B.; Chiozzi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Cirami, R.; Pokorny, M.; Muders, D.; Wischolek, D.

    2004-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a CORBA-based framework that provides a common and homogeneous infrastructure for the whole ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control (Schwarz et al., 2004). This paper focuses on ACS support for the development of Control System applications. In this domain, ACS provides a generic abstraction of hardware control and monitor points that is independent of the software underneath. This abstraction layer is coupled to the hardware using the DevIO (Device Input/Output) interface, based on the Bridge design pattern. Application developers have to implement DevIO classes that handle the details of the communication with the hardware. ACS itself provides a default DevIO implementation which simply writes and reads into/from a memory location. Currently there are two other major DevIO implementations available: a CAN bus communication, used by ALMA, and a socket based implementation used by the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) project. In spite of using different hardware and control electronics, the DevIO abstraction allows the ALMA and APEX projects to have the same device architecture down to the level of the DevIO implementation.

  18. The Latin Grammys and the ALMAs: Awards Programs, Cultural Epideictic, and Intercultural Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Alberto; Heuman, Amy N.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the Latin Grammy Awards and the ALMA Awards as media texts that can be used as course content on Latino people and cultures in an intercultural communication course. Outlines a critical reformulation of epideictic rhetoric, provides background on the two programs, and interprets their import as epideictic discourse. (Contains 25…

  19. The ALMA Data Mining Toolkit I: Archive Setup and User Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuben, P.; Pound, M.; Mundy, L.; Looney, L.; Friedel, D. N.

    2014-05-01

    We report on an ALMA development study and project where we employ a novel approach to add data and data descriptors to ALMA archive data and allowing further flexible data mining on retrieved data. We call our toolkit ADMIT (the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) that works within the Python based CASA environment. What is described here is a design study, with some exiting toy code to prove the concept. After ingestion of science ready datacubes, ADMIT will compute a number of basic and advanced data products, and their descriptors. Examples of such data products are cube statistics, line identification tables, line cubes, moment maps, an integrated spectrum, overlap integrals and feature extraction tables. Together with a descriptive XML file, a small number of visual aids are added to a ZIP file that is deposited into the archive. Large datasets (such as line cubes) will have to be rederived by the user once they have also downloaded the actual ALMA Data Products, or via VO services if available. ADMIT enables the user to rederive all its products with different methods and parameters, and compare archive product with their own.

  20. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  1. The ALMA common software: a developer-friendly CORBA-based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Caproni, Alessandro; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Zagar, Klemen; Fugate, David W.; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. It provides a common software infrastructure to all partners in the ALMA collaboration. The usage of ACS extends from high-level applications such as the Observation Preparation Tool [7] that will run on the desk of astronomers, down to the Control Software [6] domain. The purpose of ACS is twofold: from a system perspective, it provides the implementation of a coherent set of design patterns and services that will make the whole ALMA software [1] uniform and maintainable; from the perspective of an ALMA developer, it provides a friendly programming environment in which the complexity of the CORBA middleware and other libraries is hidden and coding is drastically reduced. The evolution of ACS is driven by a long term development plan, however on the 6-months release cycle the plan is adjusted based on incoming requests from ALMA subsystem development teams. ACS was presented at SPIE 2002[2]. In the two years since then, the core services provided by ACS have been extended, while the coverage of the application framework has been increased to satisfy the needs of high-level and data flow applications. ACS is available under the LGPL public license. The patterns implemented and the services provided can be of use also outside the astronomical community; several projects have already shown their interest in ACS. This paper presents the status of ACS and the progress over the last two years. Emphasis is placed on showing how requests from ACS users have driven the selection of new features.

  2. Bulk data transfer distributer: a high performance multicast model in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.

    2006-06-01

    A high performance multicast model for the bulk data transfer mechanism in the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Common Software (ACS) is presented. The ALMA astronomical interferometer will consist of at least 50 12-m antennas operating at millimeter wavelength. The whole software infrastructure for ALMA is based on ACS, which is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. To cope with the very strong requirements for the amount of data that needs to be transported by the software communication channels of the ALMA subsystems (a typical output data rate expected from the Correlator is of the order of 64 MB per second) and with the potential CORBA bottleneck due to parameter marshalling/de-marshalling, usage of IIOP protocol, etc., a transfer mechanism based on the ACE/TAO CORBA Audio/Video (A/V) Streaming Service has been developed. The ACS Bulk Data Transfer architecture bypasses the CORBA protocol with an out-of-bound connection for the data streams (transmitting data directly in TCP or UDP format), using at the same time CORBA for handshaking and leveraging the benefits of ACS middleware. Such a mechanism has proven to be capable of high performances, of the order of 800 Mbits per second on a 1Gbit Ethernet network. Besides a point-to-point communication model, the ACS Bulk Data Transfer provides a multicast model. Since the TCP protocol does not support multicasting and all the data must be correctly delivered to all ALMA subsystems, a distributer mechanism has been developed. This paper focuses on the ACS Bulk Data Distributer, which mimics a multicast behaviour managing data dispatching to all receivers willing to get data from the same sender.

  3. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzawa, Y., E-mail: y.uzawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z. [National Institute of Information and Telecommunications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Iwaoka-cho, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2492 (Japan); Asayama, S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The ALMA Band 10 (787–950 GHz) SIS receivers have been developed. •The complex conductivity of NbTiN was measured by a THz-TDS for the mixer design. •Tens of Band 10 receivers have been produced and their performance was quite well. •The best achieved receiver noise temperature was 125 K corresponding to 3hf/k{sub B}. •Band 10 receiver installed in the ALMA antenna captured astronomical signals. -- Abstract: The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787–950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO{sub 2}/Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/k{sub B}T{sub C} ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/k{sub B} for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation.

  4. Solar ALMA: Observation-Based Simulations of the mm and sub-mm Emissions from Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, G.; Loukitcheva, M.; Nita, G.

    2015-12-01

    We developed an efficient algorithm integrated in our 3D modeling tool, GX Simulator (Nita et al. 2015), allowing quick computation of the synthetic intensity and polarization maps of solar active regions (AR) in the ALMA spectral range.

  5. Corporate Responsibilityon the Media Sector : Study on the Corporate Responsibility Perceptions of Alma Media’s Stakeholders

    OpenAIRE

    Poukka, Riikka

    2010-01-01

    Despite the globally growing interest in corporate responsibility (CR), there is little practical as wellas academic knowledge of CR practises in the media sector. The aim of this study is to make acontribution to the evolving understanding of what CR implies in the media sector by applying astakeholder approach to a case study, which is Alma Media, a Finnish media corporation. Firstly,from the corporate perspective, the objective of this study is to provide Alma Media with a CRagenda, based ...

  6. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA resolves the bright-end of the sub-millimeter number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, James; Swinbank, Mark; Chapman, Scott; Geach, James; Ivison, Rob; Thomson, Alasdair; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Cowley, Will; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, Kristen; Dunlop, Jim; Edge, Alastair; Farrah, Duncan; Ibar, Edo; Karim, Alex; Knudsen, Kirsten; Meijerink, Rowin; Michalowski, Michal; Scott, Douglas; Spanns, Marco; van der Werf, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution 870-um ALMA continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1-square degrees 850-um maps from the SCUBA--2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median SCUBA2 flux S_850=8.7+/-0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4-sigma significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In 61+/-17% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of >=2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra--Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with L_IR>10^12 Lo. The brightest SMG contributes on average 80+/-4% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing >=2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes 25+/-3% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S_870>7.5mJy, and by 60% at S_870>12mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the cou...

  7. ALMA observations of alpha Centauri: First detection of main-sequence stars at 3mm wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; Bayo, A; Bertone, E; Black, J H; del Burgo, C; Chavez, M; Danchi, W; De la Luz, V; Eiroa, C; Ertel, S; Fridlund, M C W; Justtanont, K; Krivov, A; Marshall, J P; Mora, A; Montesinos, B; Nyman, L -A; Olofsson, G; Sanz-Forcada, J; Thebault, P; White, G J

    2014-01-01

    The precise mechanisms that provide the non-radiative energy for heating the chromosphere and the corona of the Sun and those of other stars constitute an active field of research. By studying stellar chromospheres one aims at identifying the relevant physical processes. Defining the permittable extent of the parameter space can also serve as a template for the Sun-as-a-star. Earlier observations with Herschel and APEX have revealed the temperature minimum of alpha Cen, but these were unable to spatially resolve the binary into individual components. With the data reported here, we aim at remedying this shortcoming. Furthermore, these earlier data were limited to the wavelength region between 100 and 870mu. In the present context, we intend to extend the spectral mapping to longer wavelengths, where the contrast between stellar photospheric and chromospheric emission becomes increasingly evident. ALMA is particularly suited to point sources, such as unresolved stars. ALMA provides the means to achieve our obj...

  8. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  9. Transparent XML Binding using the ALMA Common Software (ACS) Container/Component Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H.; Chiozzi, G.; Fugate, D.; Sekoranja, M.

    2004-07-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. The common architecture and infrastructure used for the whole ALMA software is presented at this conference in (Schwarz, Farris, & Sommer 2004). ACS offers a CORBA-based container/component model and supports the exchange and persistence of XML data. For the Java programming language, the container integrates transparently the use of type-safe Java binding classes to let applications conveniently work with XML transfer objects without having to parse or serialize them. This paper will show how the ACS container/component architecture serves to pass complex data structures, such as observation meta-data, between heterogeneous applications.

  10. Spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of Supernova 1987A with ALMA & ATCA

    CERN Document Server

    Zanardo, Giovanna; Indebetouw, Remy; Chevalier, Roger A; Matsuura, Mikako; Gaensler, Bryan M; Barlow, Michael J; Fransson, Claes; Manchester, Richard N; Baes, Maarten; Kamenetzky, Julia R; Lakicevic, Masha; Lundqvist, Peter; Marcaide, Jon M; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Meixner, Margaret; Ng, C -Y; Park, Sangwook; Sonneborn, George; Spyromilio, Jason; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz ($\\lambda$ 3.2 mm to 450 $\\mu$m), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component ($S_{\

  11. Uuden median murros Alma Mediassa, Sanoma Oy:ssÀ ja Yleisradiossa 1994-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Lindblom, Tomi

    2009-01-01

    This is a qualitative and multimethodological comparative study, which consists of two main parts: examining the development of new media and analysing and comparing the new media strategies of the three companies studied (Alma Media, Sanoma and the Finnish Broadcasting Company Yleisradio). The study includes the first large-scale review in Finnish of the development of new media, paying attention to the birth of the Internet as well as to mobile media, web TV and any other element of ne...

  12. SXDF-UDS-CANDELS-ALMA 1.5 arcmin2 deep survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohno, Kotaro; Tamura, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Umehata, Hideki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Lee, Minju; Motohara, Kentaro; Makiya, Ryu; Izumi, Takuma; Ivison, Rob; Ikarashi, Soh; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hayashi, Masao; Iono, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min S.; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina; Dunlop, James

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105″ × 50″ or 1.5 arcmin2 window (achieved by 19 point mosaic) in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6 × 1011 L⊙ (if Tdust = 40 K) or SFR ~100 M⊙ yr-1

  13. New Measurements of the Radio Photosphere of Mira based on Data from the JVLA and ALMA

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, L. D.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present new measurements of the millimeter wavelength continuum emission from the long period variable Mira ($o$ Ceti) at frequencies of 46 GHz, 96 GHz, and 229 GHz ($\\lambda$~7 mm, 3 mm, and 1 mm) based on observations obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The measured millimeter flux densities are consistent with a radio photosphere model derived from previous observations, where flux density, $S_{\

  14. Compact Starbursts in z ∼ 3–6 Submillimeter Galaxies Revealed by ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at {z}{phot}∼ 3–6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are {L}{IR}∼ 2–6× {10}12 {L}ȯ and ∼200–600 {M}ȯ yr‑1, respectively.

  15. Testing Wave Propagation Properties in the Solar Chromosphere with ALMA and IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Bernard; Straus, Thomas; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Waves and oscillations are interesting not only from the point of view that they can propagate energy into the chromosphere and dissipate that energy to produce non-radiative heating, they also carry information about the structure of the atmosphere in which they propagate. Since the late 80s there is substantial evidence that the chromospheric wave field is dominated by a non-propagating component, presumably resulting from wave reflection at the transition region. Observations of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca II infrared tripet lines, Ca II K, and He 10830 all show vanishing phase lags (i.e. vanishing travel time differences) between the various lines, in particular also for frequencies above the cut-off frequency. Why is the apparent phase speed of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere so high? Are these results misleading because of complex radiation transfer effects in these optically thick lines? ALMA, which acts as a linear thermometer of the solar chromosphere, will provide measurements of the local plasma conditions that should be, at least in principle, much easier to interpret. Multi-wavelength time series of ALMA observations of the temperature fluctuations of inter-network oscillations should allow travel time measurements between different heights as these disturbances propagate through the chromosphere and thus should finally settle the long-standing question about the propagation characteristics of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere. We plan to combine ALMA mm-observations with high resolution IRIS observations in the Mg II h and k lines, and until ALMA observations are available, will study the expected signals using time series of mm-maps from 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations that are being prepared within the framework of the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON).

  16. Poster 9: Isotopic Ratios of Carbon and Oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serigano, Joseph; Nixion, Conor A.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Teanby, Nick A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Lindberg, Johan E.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided a new and powerful facility for probing the atmospheres of solar system targets at long wavelengths (84-720 GHz) where the rotational lines of small, polar molecules are prominent. In the complex atmosphere of Titan, photochemical processes dissociate and ionize molecular nitrogen and methane in the upper atmosphere, creating a complex inventory of trace hydrocarbons and nitriles. Additionally, the existence of oxygen on Titan facilitates the synthesis of molecules of potential astrobiological importance. Utilization of ground-based submillimeter observations of Titan has proven to be a powerful tool to complement results from spacecraft observations. ALMA provides the ability to probe this region in greater detail with unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution at high sensitivity, allowing for the derivation of vertical mixing profiles, molecular detections, and observations of latitudinal and seasonal variations. Recent ALMA studies of Titan have presented spectrally and spatially-resolved maps of HNC and HC3N emission (Cordiner et al. 2014), as well as the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) in Titan's atmosphere (Cordiner et al. 2015). This poster will focus on ALMA observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues 13CO, C18O, and C 17O in Titan's atmosphere. Molecular abundances and the vertical atmospheric temperature profile were derived by modeling the observed emission line profiles using NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code (Irwin et al. 2008). This study reports the first spectroscopic detection of 17O in the outer solar system with C17O detected at >8σ confidence. The abundances of these molecules and isotopic ratios of 12C/13C, 16O/18O, and 16O/17O will be presented. General implications for the history of Titan from these measurements will be discussed.

  17. Detection of Lensing Substructure Using ALMA Observations of the Dusty Galaxy SDP.81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Dalal, Neal; Marrone, Daniel P.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Wen, Di; Blandford, Roger D.; Carlstrom, John E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Kemball, Athol; Marshall, Philip J.; Murray, Norman; Perreault Levasseur, Laurence; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-05-01

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 108.96±0.12 M ⊙ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ˜ 2 × 107 M ⊙, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.

  18. A dor da alma nas reflexões sobre a vaidade de Matias Aires (1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as relações entre a vaidade e o sofrimento conforme a obra Reflexões sobre a vaidade dos homens, do filósofo paulista Matias Aires Ramos da Silva de Eça (1705-1763. Discutem-se algumas fontes de seu pensamento e conclui-se que o autor faz uma fina e ainda atual análise da alma humana.

  19. Optical Characterisation of Astronomical Submillimetre Receivers including ALMA Bands 5 and 9

    OpenAIRE

    Whale, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The primary concern of this thesis is the analysis of long wavelength quasioptical receiver systems operating within the Terahertz and submillimetre wavebands. Specific attention is paid to the front-end coupling optics of the Band 5 and Band 9 receiver channels of the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA). The theory of Gaussian Beam Mode Analysis (GBMA) is expanded and developed as the basic analytical tool for the work presented. This technique is utilised to model both clas...

  20. ALMA imaging of the CO snowline of the HD 163296 disk with DCO+

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, G S; Juhasz, A; Harsono, D; Chapillon, E; van Dishoeck, E F; Espada, D; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Hales, A; Hogerheijde, M R; Mottram, J C; Rawlings, M G; Takahashi, S; Testi, L

    2013-01-01

    The high spatial and line sensitivity of ALMA opens the possibility of resolving emission from molecules in circumstellar disks. With an understanding of physical conditions under which molecules have high abundance, they can be used as direct tracers of distinct physical regions. In particular, DCO+ is expected to have an enhanced abundance within a few Kelvin of the CO freezeout temperature of 19 K, making it a useful probe of the cold disk midplane. We compare ALMA line observations of HD 163296 to a grid of models. We vary the upper- and lower-limit temperatures of the region in which DCO+ is present as well as the abundance of DCO+ in order to fit channel maps of the DCO+ J=5-4 line. To determine the abundance enhancement compared to the general interstellar medium, we carry out similar fitting to HCO+ J=4-3 and H13CO+ J=4-3 observations. ALMA images show centrally peaked extended emission from HCO+ and H13CO+. DCO+ emission lies in a resolved ring from ~110 to 160 AU. The outer radius approximately corr...

  1. ALMA observations of the debris disk around the young Solar Analog HD 107146

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, L; Fu, B; Hughes, A M; Corder, S; Isella, A

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA continuum observations at a wavelength of 1.25 mm of the debris disk surrounding the $\\sim$ 100 Myr old solar analog HD 107146. The continuum emission extends from about 30 to 150 AU from the central star with a decrease in the surface brightness at intermediate radii. We analyze the ALMA interferometric visibilities using debris disk models with radial profiles for the dust surface density parametrized as i) a single power-law, ii) a single power-law with a gap, and iii) a double power-law. We find that models with a gap of radial width $\\sim 8$ AU at a distance of $\\sim 80$ AU from the central star, as well as double power-law models with a dip in the dust surface density at $\\sim 70$ AU provide significantly better fits to the ALMA data than single power-law models. We discuss possible scenarios for the origin of the HD 107146 debris disk using models of planetesimal belts in which the formation of Pluto-sized objects trigger disruptive collisions of large bodies, as well as models which co...

  2. The ALMA archive and its place in the astronomy of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Stoehr, Felix; Leon, Stéphane; Muller, Erik; Manning, Alisdair; Moins, Christophe; Jenkins, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, is the largest astronomical project in existence. While ALMA's capabilities are ramping up, Early Science observations have started. The ALMA Archive is at the center of the operations of the telescope array and is designed to manage the 200 TB of data that will be taken each year, once the observatory is in full operations. We briefly describe design principles. The second part of this paper focuses on how astronomy is likely to evolve as the amount and complexity of data taken grows. We argue that in the future observatories will compete for astronomers to work with their data, that observatories will have to reorient themselves to from providing good data only to providing an excellent end-to-end user-experience with all its implications, that science-grade data-reduction pipelines will become an integral part of the design of a new observat...

  3. SXDF-UDS-CANDELS-ALMA 1.5 arcmin$^2$ deep survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, K; Tamura, Y; Tadaki, K; Hatsukade, B; Ikarashi, S; Caputi, K I; Rujopakarn, W; Ivison, R J; Dunlop, J S; Motohara, K; Umehata, H; Yabe, K; Wang, W -H; Kodama, T; Koyama, Y; Hayashi, M; Matsuda, Y; Hughes, D; Aretxaga, I; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Ohta, K; Akiyama, M; Kawabe, R; Iono, D; Nakanishi, K; Lee, M; Makiya, R

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous $105'' \\times 50''$ or 1.5 arcmin$^2$ window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5$\\sigma$ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, providing a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with $L_{\\rm IR} \\sim6\\times10^{11}$ $L_\\odot$ (for $T_{\\rm dust}$ =40K) up to $z\\sim10$ thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N$>$6) and 18 low-significance sources (5$>$S/N$>$4; these may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources ($S_{\\rm 1.1mm} = 0.84 \\pm 0.09$ mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey is able to uncover a faint dust-obscured population that is invisible in deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We found a possible [CII]-line emitter at $z=5.955$ or a low-$z$ CO emitting galaxy within the field, which may allow us to constrain the [CII] and/or the CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.

  4. The serendipitous discovery of a possible new solar system object with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W; Maercker, M; Davidsson, B

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity of the Atacama Large millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) is providing many new discoveries. Several of these are serendipitous to the original goal of the observations. We report the discovery of previously unknown continuum sources, or a single fast moving new source, in our ALMA observations. Here we aim to determine the nature of the detections. The detections, at $>5.8\\sigma$ in the image plane and $>14\\sigma$ in the $(u,v)-$plane, were made in two epochs of ALMA observations of a $25$ arc second region around the asymptotic giant branch star W Aql in the continuum around 345 GHz. At a third epoch, covering $50x50$ arcseconds, the source(s) were not seen. We have investigated if the detections could be spurious, if they could constitute a population of variable background sources, or if the observations revealed a fast moving single object. Based on our analysis, we conclude that a single object (with a flux of $\\sim3.0$ mJy) exhibiting a large proper motion ($\\sim87$ arcse...

  5. A detailed view of the gas shell around R Sculptoris with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Maercker, M; Brunner, M; De Beck, E; Humphreys, E M; Kerschbaum, F; Lindqvist, M; Olofsson, H; Ramstedt, S

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pulses are fundamental to the chemical evolution of AGB stars and their circumstellar envelopes. A further consequence of thermal pulses is the formation of detached shells of gas and dust around the star. We aim to determine the physical properties of the detached gas shell around R Sculptoris, in particular the shell mass and temperature, and to constrain the evolution of the mass-loss rate during and after a thermal pulse. We analyse CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2) emission, observed by. The spatial resolution of the ALMA data allows us to separate the detached shell emission from the extended emission inside the shell. We perform radiative transfer modelling of both components to determine the shell properties and the post-pulse mass-loss properties. The ALMA data show a gas shell with a radius of 19.5" expanding at 14.3km/s. The different scales probed by the ALMA Cycle 0 array show that the shell must be entirely filled with gas, contrary to the idea of a detached shell. The comparison to single-d...

  6. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A.; Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Asayama, S.

    2013-11-01

    The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787-950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO2/Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/kBTC ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/kB for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation.

  7. Reflections on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Debabar

    2003-01-01

    The Alma-Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care of 1978-based on the World Health Assembly's resolution of 1977 on Health for All by the Year 2000--was a watershed in the concepts and practices of public health as a scientific discipline; it was endorsed by every country in the world, rich and poor. According to the Declaration, health is a fundamental right, to be guaranteed by the state; people should be the prime movers in shaping their health services, using and enlarging upon the capacities developed in their societies; health services should operate as an integral whole, with promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative components; and any western medical technology used in non-western societies must conform to the cultural, social, economic, and epidemiological conditions of the individual countries. Since Alma-Ata, a syndicate of the rich countries and the ruling elites of the poor countries, aided by the WHO, World Bank, World Trade Organization, and other international institutions, has done much to overturn the Declaration's primary health care initiatives. The WHO's recent attempt to regain some credibility, its Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, ignored the primary health care principles of the Alma-Ata Declaration. A struggle for these principles will have to be part of the larger struggle, by like-minded individuals working in individual countries, for a just world order. PMID:14758860

  8. Blade Runner -What kind objects are there in the JVO ALMA Archive?-

    CERN Document Server

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Zapart, Christopher; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Wataru; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kosugi, George

    2015-01-01

    The JVO ALMA Archive provides users one of the easiest ways to access the ALMA archival data. The users can have a quick look at a 3 or 4-dimensional data cube without downloading multiple huge tarballs from a science portal of ALMA Regional Centers (ARCs). Since we just synchronize all datasets with those of ARCs, the metadata are identical to the upstream, including ``target name'' for each dataset. The name is not necessarily a common one like NGC numbers, but sometimes one of sequential numbers assigned in an observation proposal. Compilation of these artificial names into astronomical ones could provide users more flexible and powerful search interfaces; for instance, with the knowledge of the redshift for each source, the users can easily find the datasets which observed their interested emission/absorption lines at not the observer frame but the rest frame, fitting well with theoretical studies. To implement this functionality, cross-identification of all the sources in our archive with those in some o...

  9. Prototype Implementation of Web and Desktop Applications for ALMA Science Verification Data and the Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, S.; Kawasaki, W.; Shirasaki, Y.; Komiya, Y.; Kosugi, G.; Ohishi, M.; Mizumoto, Y.

    2013-10-01

    ALMA is estimated to generate TB scale data during only one observation; astronomers need to identify which part of the data they are really interested in. We have been developing new GUI software for this purpose utilizing the VO interface: ALMA Web Quick Look System (ALMAWebQL) and ALMA Desktop Application (Vissage). The former is written in JavaScript and HTML5 generated from Java code by the Google Web Toolkit, and the latter is in pure Java. An essential point of our approach is how to reduce network traffic: we prepare, in advance, “compressed” FITS files of 2x2x1 (horizontal, vertical, and spectral directions, respectively) binning, 2 x 2 x 2 binning, 4 x 4 x 2 binning data, and so on. These files are hidden from users, and Web QL automatically chooses the proper one for each user operation. Through this work, we find that network traffic in our system is still a bottleneck towards TB scale data distribution. Hence we have to develop alternative data containers for much faster data processing. In this paper, we introduce our data analysis systems, and describe what we learned through the development.

  10. ALMA-resolved salt emission traces the chemical footprint and inner wind morphology of VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, L; Millar, T J; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Homan, W; Smith, N; Van de Sande, M; Walsh, C

    2016-01-01

    (abreviated) We aim to study the inner-wind structure (R<250 Rstar) of the well-known red supergiant VY CMa. We analyse high spatial resolution (~0".24x0".13) ALMA Science Verification (SV) data in band 7 in which four thermal emission lines of gaseous sodium chloride (NaCl) are present at high signal-to-noise ratio. For the first time, the NaCl emission in the inner wind region of VY CMa is spatially resolved. The ALMA observations reveal the contribution of up to four different spatial regions. The NaCl emission pattern is different compared to the dust continuum and TiO2 emission already analysed from the ALMA SV data. The emission can be reconciled with an axisymmetric geometry, where the lower density polar/rotation axis has a position angle of ~50 degrees measured from north to east. However, this picture can not capture the full morphological diversity, and discrete mass ejection events need to be invoked to explain localized higher-density regions. The velocity traced by the gaseous NaCl line profi...

  11. Detection of lensing substructure using ALMA observations of the dusty galaxy SDP.81

    CERN Document Server

    Hezaveh, Yashar D; Marrone, Daniel P; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Wen, Di; Blandford, Roger D; Carlstrom, John E; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Holder, Gilbert P; Kemball, Athol; Marshall, Philip J; Murray, Norman; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vieira, Joaquin D; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations, we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a $M=10^{8.96\\pm 0.12} M_{\\odot}$ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of $6.9\\sigma$ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter subhalos down to $M\\sim 2\\times 10^7 M_{\\odot}$, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies...

  12. ALMA continuum observations of a 30 Myr old gaseous debris disk around HD 21997

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Kóspál, Á; Ábrahám, P; Apai, D; Csengeri, T; Grady, C; Henning, Th; Hughes, A M; Kiss, Cs; Pascucci, I; Schmalzl, M; Gabányi, K

    2013-01-01

    Circumstellar disks around stars older than 10 Myr are expected to be gas-poor. There are, however, two examples of old (30-40 Myr) debris-like disks containing a detectable amount of cold CO gas. Here we present ALMA and Herschel Space Observatory observations of one of these disks, around HD 21997, and study the distribution and origin of the dust and its connection to the gas. Our ALMA continuum images at 886um clearly resolve a broad ring of emission within a diameter of ~4.5 arcsec, adding HD 21997 to the dozen debris disks resolved at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. Modeling the morphology of the ALMA image with a radiative transfer code suggests inner and outer radii of ~55 and ~150 AU, and a dust mass of 0.09 M_Earth. Our data and modeling hints at an extended cold outskirt of the ring. Comparison with the morphology of the CO gas in the disk reveals an inner dust-free hole where gas nevertheless can be detected. Based on dust grain lifetimes, we propose that the dust content of this gaseous disk is of s...

  13. Observing the Circumstellar Environment of the Eruptive FUor/EXor Protostar V1647 Ori with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, David; Cieza, Lucas A.; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Tobin, John J.; Prieto, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Fu Ori (FUor) and EXor objects represent a short-lived stage of protostellar evolution characterized by intense mass accretion events which cause extreme variability in the form of outbursts. While it is well demonstrated that these objects exhibit sudden outbursts (ΔV~2-6), the mechanism causing such variability is not well understood. High spatial and spectral resolution observations of the circumstellar environment of these objects are essential to distinguish between different outbursting mechanisms. We present ALMA observations of the FUor/EXor object V1647 Ori as part of an ALMA campaign, which has observed a combined eight FUor and EXor type objects. Deeply embedded in the dark cloud LDN 1630 (L1630), V1647 Ori is one of a few FUor/EXor objects to have been extensively studied at multiple wavelengths before, during and after an outburst. We present preliminary results derived from ALMA 12CO, 13CO, C18O and continuum observations of the circumstellar environment of V1647 Ori. By measuring gas/dust masses and gas kinematics of the circumstellar disk, we investigate the potential mechanisms producing variability in these eruptive protostars during an essential, yet rarely observed, stage of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.

  14. ALMA observations of Lyman-alpha Blob 1: halo sub-structure illuminated from within

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, J E; Matsuda, Y; Hayes, M; Mas-Ribas, Ll; Dijkstra, M; Steidel, C C; Chapman, S C; Feldmann, R; Avison, A; Agertz, O; Ao, Y; Birkinshaw, M; Bremer, M N; Clements, D L; Dannerbauer, H; Farrah, D; Harrison, C M; Hine, N K; Kubo, M; Michalowski, M J; Scott, Douglas; Smith, D J B; Spaans, M; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Taniguchi, Y; van Kampen, E; van der Werf, P; Verma, A; Yamada, T

    2016-01-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850um continuum observations of the original Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z=3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with total flux density S_850 = 1.68+/-0.06 mJy, corresponding to a star formation rate of ~150 M_sun/yr. The submillimeter sources are associated with several faint (m~27 mag) rest-frame ultraviolet sources identified in Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) clear filter imaging (~5850A). One of these companions is spectroscopically confirmed with Keck MOSFIRE to lie within 20 projected kpc and 250 km/s of one of the ALMA components. We postulate that some of these STIS sources represent a population of low-mass star-forming satellites surrounding the central submillimeter sources, potentially contributing to their growth and activity through accretion. Using a high resolution cosmological zoom simulation of a 10^13 M_sun halo at z...

  15. The ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S): I. The massive end of the z=4 main sequence of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, C; Leiton, R; Elbaz, D; Wang, T; Okumura, K; Labbé, I

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S), a systematic ALMA survey of all the known galaxies with stellar mass (M*) larger than 5e10 Msun at 3.5ALMA at 890um (180um rest-frame) with an on-source integration time of 1.3 min per galaxy. We detect 32% of the sample at more than 3 sigma significance. Using the stacked ALMA and Herschel photometry, we derive an average dust temperature of 40+/-2 K for the whole sample, and extrapolate the Lir and SFR for all our galaxies based on their ALMA flux. We then use a forward modeling approach to estimate their intrinsic sSFR distribution, deconvolved of measurement errors and selection effects: we find a linear relation between SFR and M*, with a median sSFR=2.8+/-0.8 Gyr and a dispersion around that relation of 0.28+/-0.13 dex. This latter value is consistent with that measured at lower redshifts, which is proof that the main ...

  16. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND THE YOUNG SOLAR ANALOG HD 107146

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, L.; Carpenter, J. M.; Fu, B. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hughes, A. M. [Department of Astronomy, Wesleyan University, Van Vleck Observatory, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Midletown, CT 06457 (United States); Corder, S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Isella, A., E-mail: lricci@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 South Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) continuum observations at a wavelength of 1.25 mm of the debris disk surrounding the ∼100 Myr old solar analog HD 107146. The continuum emission extends from about 30 to 150 AU from the central star with a decrease in the surface brightness at intermediate radii. We analyze the ALMA interferometric visibilities using debris disk models with radial profiles for the dust surface density parameterized as (1) a single power law, (2) a single power law with a gap, and (3) a double power law. We find that models with a gap of radial width ∼8 AU at a distance of ∼80 AU from the central star, as well as double power-law models with a dip in the dust surface density at ∼70 AU provide significantly better fits to the ALMA data than single power-law models. We discuss possible scenarios for the origin of the HD 107146 debris disk using models of planetesimal belts in which the formation of Pluto-sized objects trigger disruptive collisions of large bodies, as well as models that consider the interaction of a planetary system with a planetesimal belt and spatial variation of the dust opacity across the disk. If future observations with higher angular resolution and sensitivity confirm the fully depleted gap structure discussed here, a planet with a mass of approximately a few Earth masses in a nearly circular orbit at ∼80 AU from the central star would be a possible explanation for the presence of the gap.

  17. Cross-polarization in quasi-optical receivers: ALMA band 4 and 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.

    2012-09-01

    A careful study about the influence of individual optical components on receiver cross-polarization has been performed. The basic mechanisms of generation of cross-polarization in ellipsoidal mirrors and dielectrics have been reviewed and characterized in terms of higher-order Gaussian beam modes. A simple model considering the phase differences of different Gaussian beam modes is proposed in order to calculate the final system cross-polarization pattern. This model has been successfully used to characterize the total cross-polarization in two cryogenically-cooled receivers for astronomy: ALMA band 4 and band 10.

  18. A dor de amor na medicina da alma da primeira modernidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o problema da dor de amor nos diferentes campos do saber que compunham a medicina da alma da primeira modernidade. Deu-se especial destaque às reflexões do médico francês Jacques Ferrand (1575-1623 sobre o caráter instável, ilusório e faltoso do amor. Conclui-se que a dor de amor exige pensar as relações entre os afetos e o corpo, além de desafiar as próprias categorias diagnósticas e os tratamentos tradicionais.

  19. ALMA view of the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Uehara, Kenta; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud (50MC) with ALMA to search for filamentary structures. In the CS J=2-1 emission line channel maps, we succeeded in identifying 27 molecular cloud filaments using the DisPerSE algorithm. This is the first attempt of "filament-finding" in the Galactic Center Region. These molecular cloud filaments strongly suggest that the molecular cloud filaments are also ubiquitous in the molecular clouds of the Galactic Center Region.

  20. La inmortalidad del alma: historia de un argumento político

    OpenAIRE

    Saralegui Benito, Miguel Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Se examina una cuestión fundamental y poco estudiada de la teología política: la relación entre la defensa de la inmortalidad del alma y el mantenimiento del orden público. Se realiza un recorrido histórico por autores como Pietro Pomponazzi y Tomás Moro, que aceptan motivos políticos para defenderla, y David Hume, quien considera que no existe ningún motivo político para mantener dicha relación. Por último, se analizan los argumentos esgrimidos para mostrar que su eficacia está condicionada ...

  1. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  2. ALMA Observations of Orion Source I at 350 and 660 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Plambeck, R L

    2016-01-01

    Orion Source I ('SrcI') is the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann-Low Nebula. ALMA observations of SrcI at 350 and 660 GHz failed to detect the H26$\\alpha$ and H21$\\alpha$ recombination lines, ruling out the possibility that SrcI is a hypercompact HII region. The deconvolved size of the continuum source is approximately 0.23 x 0.05" (100 x 20 AU); it is interpreted as a disk viewed almost edge-on. The continuum flux density is proportional to $\

  3. Dos revistas similares pero distintas: “El Olivo” y “Alma100”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arbelos

    2006-01-01

    Así aparecen dos revistas similares pero diferentes, si bien ambas se proponen la difusión y divulgación del flamenco, una El Olivo lo hace desde una perspectiva más tradicional y Alma100 lo aborda desde conceptos más ligados a lo que se ha denominado postmodernidad. La otra gran diferencia es que mientras la primera depende económicamente casi exclusivamente de una subvención institucional, la segunda lo hace desde los recursos propios que genera la publicidad que se inserta en la publicación

  4. ALMA detection of the rotating molecular disk wind from the young star HD 163296

    OpenAIRE

    Klaassen, P. D.; Juhasz, A.; Mathews, G. S.; Mottram, J. C.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Takahashi, S.; Akiyama, E.; Chapillon, E.; Espada, D.; Hales, A.; Hogerheijde, M.R.; Rawlings, M.; Schmalzl, M.; Testi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Disk winds have been postulated as a mechanism for angular momentum release in protostellar systems for decades. HD 163296 is a Herbig Ae star surrounded by a disk and has been shown to host a series of HH knots (HH 409) with bow shocks associated with the farthest knots. Here we present ALMA Science Verification data of CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 emission which are spatially coincident with the blue shifted jet of HH knots, and offset from the disk by -18.6 km/s. The emission has a double corkscrew ...

  5. U.S. and European ALMA Partners Sign Agreement Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), and Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, director general of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), today signed a historic agreement jointly to construct and operate ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy," said Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and we will be able to study and understand our Universe in ways that have previously been beyond our vision." ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site Dr. Cesarsky also commented, "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward toward wonderful research projects. With ALMA, we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvelous facility." When complete in 2011, ALMA will be an array of 64, 12-meter radio antennas that will work together as one telescope to study millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength light from space. These wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum, which cross the critical boundary between infrared and microwave radiation, hold the key to understanding such processes as planet and star formation, the formation of early galaxies and galaxy

  6. ALMA detected overdensity of sub-mm sources around WISE/NVSS-selected z~2 dusty quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Andrea; Lonsdale, Carol; Lacy, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We study the environments of 49 WISE/NVSS-selected dusty, hyper-luminous, z~2 quasars using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) 345GHz images. We find that 17 of the 49 WISE/NVSS sources show additional sub-mm galaxies within the ALMA primary beam, probing scales within ~150 kpc. We find a total of 23 additional sub-mm sources, four of which in the field of a single WISE/NVSS source. The measured 870 um source counts are ~10 times expectations for unbiased regions, suggesting such hyper-luminous dusty quasars are excellent at probing high-density peaks.

  7. ALMA-resolved salt emission traces the chemical footprint and inner wind morphology of VY Canis Majoris

    OpenAIRE

    Decin, L.; Richards, A. M. S.; Millar, T.J.; Baudry, A.; Beck, E.; Homan, W.; Smith, N; van der Sande, M.; Walsh, C

    2016-01-01

    (abreviated) We aim to study the inner-wind structure (R<250 Rstar) of the well-known red supergiant VY CMa. We analyse high spatial resolution (~0".24x0".13) ALMA Science Verification (SV) data in band 7 in which four thermal emission lines of gaseous sodium chloride (NaCl) are present at high signal-to-noise ratio. For the first time, the NaCl emission in the inner wind region of VY CMa is spatially resolved. The ALMA observations reveal the contribution of up to four different spatial r...

  8. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Survey Description

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present the rationale for and the observational description of ASPECS: The ALMA SPECtroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF), the cosmological deep field that has the deepest multi-wavelength data available. Our overarching goal is to obtain an unbiased census of molecular gas and dust continuum emission in high-redshift (z$>$0.5) galaxies. The $\\sim$1$'$ region covered within the UDF was chosen to overlap with the deepest available imaging from HST. Our ALMA observations consist of full frequency scans in band 3 (84-115 GHz) and band 6 (212-272 GHz) at approximately uniform line sensitivity ($L'_{\\rm CO}\\sim$2$\\times$10$^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$), and continuum noise levels of 3.8 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ and 12.7 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$, respectively. The molecular surveys cover the different rotational transitions of the CO molecule, leading to essentially full redshift coverage. The [CII] emission line is also covered at redshifts $6.0

  9. ALMA Reveals a Galaxy-Scale Fountain of Cold Molecular Gas Pumped by a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Grant

    2016-01-01

    A new ALMA observation of the cool core brightest cluster galaxy in Abell 2597 reveals that a supermassive black hole can act much like a mechanical pump in a water fountain, driving a convective flow of molecular gas that drains into the black hole accretion reservoir, only to be pushed outward again in a jet-driven outflow that then rains back toward the galaxy center from which it came. The ALMA data reveal "shadows" cast by giant molecular clouds falling on ballistic trajectories towards the black hole in the innermost 500 parsecs of the galaxy, manifesting as deep redshifted continuum absorption features. The black hole accretion reservoir, fueled by these infalling cold clouds, powers an AGN that drives a jet-driven molecular outflow in the form of a 10 kpc-scale, billion solar mass expanding molecular bubble or plume. The molecular shell is permeated with young stars, perhaps triggered in situ by the jet. Buoyant X-ray cavities excavated by the propagating radio source may further uplift the molecular filaments, which are observed to fall inward toward the center of the galaxy from which they came, presumably keeping the fountain long-lived. The results show that cold molecular gas can couple to black hole growth via both feedback and feeding, in alignment with "cold chaotic accretion" models for the regulation of star formation in galaxies.

  10. An ALMA Survey for Disks Orbiting Low-Mass Stars in the TW Hya Association

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, David R; Kastner, Joel H; Schneider, Adam C; Faherty, Jacqueline K; Mardones, Diego; Mohanty, Subhanjoy; Principe, David

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out an ALMA survey of 15 confirmed or candidate low-mass (<0.2M$_\\odot$) members of the TW Hya Association (TWA) with the goal of detecting molecular gas in the form of CO emission, as well as providing constraints on continuum emission due to cold dust. Our targets have spectral types of M4-L0 and hence represent the extreme low end of the TWA's mass function. Our ALMA survey has yielded detections of 1.3mm continuum emission around 4 systems (TWA 30B, 32, 33, & 34), suggesting the presence of cold dust grains. All continuum sources are unresolved. TWA 34 further shows 12CO(2-1) emission whose velocity structure is indicative of Keplerian rotation. Among the sample of known ~7-10 Myr-old star/disk systems, TWA 34, which lies just ~50 pc from Earth, is the lowest mass star thus far identified as harboring cold molecular gas in an orbiting disk.

  11. An ALMA Constraint on the GSC 6214-210 B Circum-Substellar Accretion Disk Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan P; Kraus, Adam L; Ireland, Michael J; Herczeg, Gregory; Ricci, Luca; Carpenter, John; Brown, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of GSC 6214-210 A and B, a solar-mass member of the 5-10 Myr Upper Scorpius association with a 15 $\\pm$ 2 Mjup companion orbiting at $\\approx$330 AU (2.2"). Previous photometry and spectroscopy spanning 0.3-5 $\\mu$m revealed optical and thermal excess as well as strong H$\\alpha$ and Pa~$\\beta$ emission originating from a circum-substellar accretion disk around GSC 6214-210 B, making it the lowest mass companion with unambiguous evidence of a subdisk. Despite ALMA's unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, neither component was detected in our 880 $\\mu$m (341 GHz) continuum observations down to a 3-$\\sigma$ limit of 0.22 mJy/beam. The corresponding constraints on the dust mass and total mass are <0.15 Mearth and <0.05 Mjup, respectively, or <0.003% and <0.3% of the mass of GSC 6214-210 B itself assuming a 100:1 gas-to-dust ratio and characteristic dust temperature of 10-20 K. If the host star possesses a putative c...

  12. Gaps, Rings, and Non-Axisymmetric Structures in Protoplanetary Disks - From Simulations to ALMA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Flock, M; Dzyurkevich, N; Henning, Th; Klahr, H; Wolf, S

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of disks around young stars revealed distinct asymmetries in the dust continuum emission. In this work we want to study axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric structures, evocated by the magneto-rotational instability in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks. We combine the results of state-of-the-art numerical simulations with post-processing radiative transfer (RT) to generate synthetic maps and predictions for ALMA. We performed non-ideal global 3D MHD stratified simulations of the dead-zone outer edge using the FARGO MHD code PLUTO. The stellar and disk parameters are taken from a parameterized disk model applied for fitting high-angular resolution multi-wavelength observations of circumstellar disks. The 2D temperature and density profiles are calculated consistently from a given surface density profile and Monte-Carlo radiative transfer. The 2D Ohmic resistivity profile is calculated using a dust chemistry model. The magnetic ...

  13. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin$^2$ Deep Survey: 1.1-mm Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Caputi, Karina I; Dunlop, James S; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ich; Tamura, Yoichi; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S

    2016-01-01

    We report 1.1 mm number counts revealed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF). The advent of ALMA enables us to reveal millimeter-wavelength number counts down to the faint end without source confusion. However, previous studies are based on the ensemble of serendipitously-detected sources in fields originally targeting different sources and could be biased due to the clustering of sources around the targets. We derive number counts in the flux range of 0.2-2 mJy by using 23 (>=4sigma) sources detected in a continuous 2.0 arcmin$^2$ area of the SXDF. The number counts are consistent with previous results within errors, suggesting that the counts derived from serendipitously-detected sources are not significantly biased, although there could be field-to-field variation due to the small survey area. By using the best-fit function of the number counts, we find that ~40% of the extragalactic background light at 1.1 mm is resolved at S(1.1mm)...

  14. An ALMA Search for Substructure, Fragmentation, and Hidden Protostars in Starless Cores in Chamaeleon I

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Pineda, Jaime E; Bourke, Tyler L; Tobin, John J; Arce, Héctor G; Chen, Xuepeng; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Lee, Katherine I; Myers, Philip C; Price, Daniel; Sadavoy, Sarah I; Schnee, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 106 GHz (Band 3) continuum survey of the complete population of dense cores in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. We detect a total of 24 continuum sources in 19 different target fields. All previously known Class 0 and Class I protostars in Chamaeleon I are detected, whereas all of the 56 starless cores in our sample are undetected. We show that the Spitzer+Herschel census of protostars in Chamaeleon I is complete, with the rate at which protostellar cores have been misclassified as starless cores calculated as <1/56, or < 2%. We use synthetic observations to show that starless cores collapsing following the turbulent fragmentation scenario are detectable by our ALMA observations when their central densities exceed ~10^8 cm^-3, with the exact density dependent on the viewing geometry. Bonnor-Ebert spheres, on the other hand, remain undetected to central densities at least as high as 10^10 cm^-3. Our starless core non-detections are used t...

  15. ALMA Science Verification Data: Millimeter Continuum Polarimetry of the Bright Radio Quasar 3C 286

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, H; Paladino, R; Hull, C L H; Cortes, P; Moellenbrock, G; Fomalont, E; Asada, K; Hada, K

    2016-01-01

    We present full-polarization observations of the compact, steep-spectrum radio quasar 3C~286 made with the ALMA at 1.3~mm. These are the first full-polarization ALMA observations, which were obtained in the framework of Science Verification. A bright core and a south-west component are detected in the total intensity image, similar to previous centimeter images. Polarized emission is also detected toward both components. The fractional polarization of the core is about 17\\%, this is higher than the fractional polarization at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the magnetic field is even more ordered in the millimeter radio core than it is further downstream in the jet. The observed polarization position angle (or EVPA) in the core is $\\sim$\\,$39^{\\circ}$, which confirms the trend that the EVPA slowly increases from centimeter to millimeter wavelengths. With the aid of multi-frequency VLBI observations, we argue that this EVPA change is associated with the frequency-dependent core position. We also report ...

  16. A Measurement of the Black-Hole Mass in NGC 1097 using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Onishi, Kyoko; Sheth, Kartik; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    We present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy \\object{NGC 1097} using Atacamma Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of dense gas kinematics. Dense molecular gas dynamics are traced with ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$ and ${\\rm HCO^{+}} (J=1-0)$ emission lines. Assuming a host galaxy inclination of $46^{\\circ}$, we derive a SMBH mass, $M_{\\rm BH}=1.40^{+0.27}_{-0.32} \\times 10^{8}M_{\\odot}$, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be $5.14^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$, using ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$. The estimated parameters are consistent between the two emission lines. The measured SMBH mass is in good agreement with the SMBH mass and bulge velocity dispersion relationship. Our result showcases ALMA's potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses, especially for nearby late-type galaxies. Larger samples and accurate SMBH masses will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole (BH) and host galaxy properties and constrain the coevolutionary growt...

  17. ALMA Imaging of Millimeter/Submillimeter Continuum Emission in Orion KL

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Tomoya; Kurono, Yasutaka; Honma, Mareki

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out high resolution observations with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) of continuum emission from Orion KL region. We identify 11 compact sources at ALMA band 6 (245 GHz) and band 7 (339 GHz), including Hot Core, Compact Ridge, SMA1, IRc4, IRc7, and a radio source I (Source I). Spectral energy distribution (SED) of each source is determined by using previous 3 mm continuum emission data. Physical properties such as size, mass, hydrogen number density and column density are discussed based on the dust graybody SED. Among 11 identified sources, Source I, a massive protostar candidate, is a dominant energy source in Orion KL. We extensively investigate its SED from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths. The SED of Source I can be fitted with a single power-law index of 1.97 suggesting an optically thick emission. We employ the H$^{-}$ free-free emission as an opacity source of this optically thick emission. The temperature, density, and mass of the circumstellar disk associat...

  18. ALMA observations of massive molecular gas filaments encasing radio bubbles in the Phoenix cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; McNamara, B R; Fabian, A C; Nulsen, P E J; Bayliss, M B; Benson, B A; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Edge, A C; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Marrone, D P; Reichardt, C L; Vieira, J D

    2016-01-01

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from the $2.7\\pm0.4\\times10^{10}\\rm\\thinspace M_{\\odot}$ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fuelling a vigorous starburst at a rate of $500-800\\rm\\thinspace M_{\\odot}\\rm\\; yr^{-1}$ and powerful black hole activity in the form of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each $10-20\\rm\\; kpc$ long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered molecular gas flows around each bubble, which are inconsistent with gravitational free-fall. The molecular clouds have been lifted directly by the radio bubbles, or formed via thermal instabilities ...

  19. New Measurements of the Radio Photosphere of Mira Based on Data from the JVLA and ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, L. D.; Reid, M. J.; Menten, K. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present new measurements of the millimeter wavelength continuum emission from the long period variable Mira (o Ceti) at frequencies of 46, 96, and 229 GHz (λ ≈ 7, 3, and 1 mm) based on observations obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The measured millimeter flux densities are consistent with a radio photosphere model derived from previous observations, where flux density {S}ν \\propto {ν }1.86. The stellar disk is resolved, and the measurements indicate a decrease in the size of the radio photosphere at higher frequencies, as expected if the opacity decreases at shorter wavelengths. The shape of the radio photosphere is found to be slightly elongated, with a flattening of ˜10%-20%. The data also reveal evidence for brightness non-uniformities on the surface of Mira at radio wavelengths. Mira’s hot companion, Mira B was detected at all three observed wavelengths, and we measure a radius for its radio-emitting surface of ≈ 2.0× {10}13 cm. The data presented here highlight the power of the JVLA and ALMA for the study of the atmospheres of evolved stars.

  20. ALMA observations of cool dust in a low-metallicity starburst, SBS0335-052

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Casasola, V; Garcia-Burillo, S; Combes, F; Nikutta, R; Caselli, P; Henkel, C; Maiolino, R; Menten, K M; Sauvage, M; Weiss, A

    2013-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 Band 7 observations of an extremely metal-poor dwarf starburst galaxy in the Local Universe, SBS0335-052 (12+log(O/H)~7.2). With these observations, dust is detected at 870micron (ALMA Band 7), but 87% of the flux in this band is due to free-free emission from the starburst. We have compiled a spectral energy distribution (SED) of SBS0335-052 that spans almost 6 orders of magnitude in wavelength and fit it with a spherical dust shell heated by a single-age stellar population; the best-fit model gives a dust mass of (3.8+/-0.6)x10^4 Msun. We have also constructed a SED including Herschel archival data for IZw18, another low-metallicity dwarf starburst (12+log(O/H)=7.17), and fit it with a similar model to obtain a dust mass of (3.4+/-1.0)x10^2 Msun. Compared with their atomic gas mass, the dust mass of SBS0335-052 far exceeds the prediction of a linear trend of dust-to-gas mass ratio with metallicity, while IZw18 falls far below. We use gas...

  1. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302

    CERN Document Server

    Santander-García, M; Alcolea, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Sánchez-Contreras, C; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Corradi, R L M; Neri, R

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich equatorial regions of post-AGB stars can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms at work. We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. The high spatial resolution of the $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO J=3-2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the SHAPEMOL plug-in. We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much grea...

  2. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA: evidence for truncated dust disks in Ophiuchus

    CERN Document Server

    Testi, L; Scholz, A; Tazzari, M; Ricci, L; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    The study of the properties of disks around young brown dwarfs can provide important clues on the formation of these very low mass objects and on the possibility of forming planetary systems around them. The presence of warm dusty disks around brown dwarfs is well known, based on near- and mid-infrared studies. High angular resolution observations of the cold outer disk are limited, we used ALMA to attempt a first survey of young brown dwarfs in the rho-Ophiuchi star forming region with ALMA. All 17 young brown dwarfs in our sample were observed at 890 um in the continuum at ~0.5" angular resolution. The sensitivity of our observations was chosen to detect ~0.5 MEarth of dust. We detect continuum emission in 11 disks (65% of the total), the estimated mass of dust in the detected disks ranges from ~0.5 to ~6 MEarth. These disk masses imply that planet formation around brown dwarfs may be relatively rare and that the supra-Jupiter mass companions found around some brown dwarfs are probably the result of a binar...

  3. ALMA Science Verification Data: Millimeter Continuum Polarimetry of the Bright Radio Quasar 3C 286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Paladino, R.; Hull, C. L. H.; Cortes, P.; Moellenbrock, G.; Fomalont, E.; Asada, K.; Hada, K.

    2016-06-01

    We present full-polarization observations of the compact, steep-spectrum radio quasar 3C 286 made with the Atacama Large Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 1.3 mm. These are the first full-polarization ALMA observations, which were obtained in the framework of Science Verification. A bright core and a south–west component are detected in the total intensity image, similar to previous centimeter images. Polarized emission is also detected toward both components. The fractional polarization of the core is about 17%; this is higher than the fractional polarization at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the magnetic field is even more ordered in the millimeter radio core than it is further downstream in the jet. The observed polarization position angle (or electric vector position angle (EVPA)) in the core is ˜39◦, which confirms the trend that the EVPA slowly increases from centimeter to millimeter wavelengths. With the aid of multi-frequency VLBI observations, we argue that this EVPA change is associated with the frequency-dependent core position. We also report a serendipitous detection of a sub-mJy source in the field of view, which is likely to be a submillimeter galaxy.

  4. ALMA observations of a misaligned binary protoplanetary disk system in Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO+ 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. The line-to-continuum ratios are similar for the two disks in each of the lines. From the resolved velocity gradients across each disk, we constrain the masses of the central stars, and show consistency with optical-infrared spectroscopy, both indicative of a high mass ratio ∼9. The small difference between the systemic velocities indicates that the binary orbital plane is close to face-on. The angle between the projected disk rotation axes is very high, ∼72°, showing that the system did not form from a single massive disk or a rigidly rotating cloud core. This finding, which adds to related evidence from disk geometries in other systems, protostellar outflows, stellar rotation, and similar recent ALMA results, demonstrates that turbulence or dynamical interactions act on small scales well below that of molecular cores during the early stages of star formation.

  5. ALMA Imaging of the CO(6-5) Line Emission in NGC 7130

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yinghe; Xu, Kevin C; Gao, Yu; Barcos-Munoz, Loreto; Diaz-Santos, Tanio; Appleton, Philip; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee; van der Werf, Paul; Evans, Aaron; Cao, Chen; Inami, Hanae; Murphy, Eric

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report our high-resolution ($0^{\\prime\\prime}.20\\times0^{\\prime\\prime}.14$ or $\\sim$$70\\times49$ pc) observations of the CO(6-5) line emission, which probes warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 $\\mu$m dust continuum in the nuclear region of NGC 7130, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO line and dust continuum fluxes detected in our ALMA observations are $1230\\pm74$ Jy km s$^{-1}$ and $814\\pm52$ mJy, respectively, which account for 100% and 51% of their total respective fluxes. We find that the CO(6-5) and dust emissions are generally spatially correlated, but their brightest peaks show an offset of $\\sim$70 pc, suggesting that the gas and dust emissions may start decoupling at this physical scale. The brightest peak of the CO(6-5) emission does not spatially correspond to the radio continuum peak, which is likely dominated by an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). This, together with our additional quantitative analysis, suggests that the heating contribution of t...

  6. ALMA Imaging of the CO (6-5) Line Emission in NGC 7130*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Barcos-Munõz, Loreto; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Appleton, Philip; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Armus, Lee; van der Werf, Paul; Evans, Aaron; Cao, Chen; Inami, Hanae; Murphy, Eric

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report our high-resolution (0.″20 × 0.″14 or ∼70 × 49 pc) observations of the CO(6-5) line emission, which probes warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum in the nuclear region of NGC 7130, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO line and dust continuum fluxes detected in our ALMA observations are 1230 ± 74 Jy km s‑1 and 814 ± 52 mJy, respectively, which account for 100% and 51% of their total fluxes. We find that the CO(6-5) and dust emissions are generally spatially correlated, but their brightest peaks show an offset of ∼70 pc, suggesting that the gas and dust emissions may start decoupling at this physical scale. The brightest peak of the CO(6-5) emission does not spatially correspond to the radio continuum peak, which is likely dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). This, together with our additional quantitative analysis, suggests that the heating contribution of the AGN to the CO(6-5) emission in NGC 7130 is negligible. The CO(6-5) and the extinction-corrected Pa-α maps display striking differences, suggestive of either a breakdown of the correlation between warm dense gas and star formation at linear scales of Universities, Inc.

  7. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Jazeel H.; Hwang, C.-Y.; Abidin, Zamri Z.; Ibrahim, Zainol A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1–0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the 12CO(J = 1–0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt–Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. PMID:27247251

  8. ALMA and VLA observations of the outflows in IRAS 16293-2422

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F; Pech, Gerardo; Chandler, Claire J; Brogan, Crystal L; Wilner, David J; Ho, Paul T P; Parise, Berengere; Hartmann, Lee W; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    We present ALMA and VLA observations of the molecular and ionized gas at 0.1-0.3 arcsec resolution in the Class 0 protostellar system IRAS 16293-2422. These data clarify the origins of the protostellar outflows from the deeply embedded sources in this complex region. Source A2 is confirmed to be at the origin of the well known large scale north-east--south-west flow. The most recent VLA observations reveal a new ejection from that protostar, demonstrating that it drives an episodic jet. The central compact part of the other known large scale flow in the system, oriented roughly east-west, is well delineated by the CO(6-5) emission imaged with ALMA and is confirmed to be driven from within component A. Finally, a one-sided blueshifted bubble-like outflow structure is detected here for the first time from source B to the north-west of the system. Its very short dynamical timescale (~ 200 yr), low velocity, and moderate collimation support the idea that source B is the youngest object in the system, and possibly...

  9. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2016-01-01

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  10. Dust properties across the CO snowline in the HD 163296 disk from ALMA and VLA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, G; Testi, L; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Chandler, C J; Pérez, L; Isella, A; Natta, A; Ortolani, S; Hennings, Th; Corder, S; Linz, H; Andrews, S; Wilner, D; Ricci, L; Carpenter, J; Sargent, A; Mundy, L; Storm, S; Calvet, N; Dullemond, C; Greaves, J; Lazio, J; Deller, A; Kwon, W

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms of planet formation it is crucial to investigate the properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks around young stars, where the initial conditions for the growth of planets are set. Our goal is to study grain growth in the disk of the young, intermediate mass star HD163296 where dust processing has already been observed, and to look for evidence of growth by ice condensation across the CO snowline, already identified in this disk with ALMA. Under the hypothesis of optically thin emission we compare images at different wavelengths from ALMA and VLA to measure the opacity spectral index across the disk and thus the maximum grain size. We also use a Bayesian tool based on a two-layer disk model to fit the observations and constrain the dust surface density. The measurements of the opacity spectral index indicate the presence of large grains and pebbles ($\\geq$1 cm) in the inner regions of the disk (inside $\\sim$50 AU) and smaller grains, consistent with ISM sizes, in the outer ...

  11. RESOLVED IMAGES OF THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HD 100546 WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Meru, Farzana; Meyer, Michael R.; Avenhaus, Henning [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mulders, Gijs D. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Panić, Olja, E-mail: pjaime@phys.ethz.ch [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-20

    The disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 100546 has been extensively studied and it is one of the systems for which there are observational indications of ongoing and/or recent planet formation. However, up until now, no resolved image of the millimeter dust emission or the gas has been published. We present the first resolved images of the disk around HD 100546 obtained in Band 7 with the ALMA observatory. The CO (3-2) image reveals a gas disk that extends out to 350 au radius at the 3σ level. Surprisingly, the 870 μm dust continuum emission is compact (radius <60 au) and asymmetric. The dust emission is well matched by a truncated disk with an outer radius of ≈50 au. The lack of millimeter-sized particles outside 60 au is consistent with radial drift of particles of this size. The protoplanet candidate, identified in previous high-contrast NACO/VLT L' observations, could be related to the sharp outer edge of the millimeter-sized particles. Future higher angular resolution ALMA observations are needed to determine the detailed properties of the millimeter emission and the gas kinematics in the inner region (<2''). Such observations could also reveal the presence of a planet through the detection of circumplanetary disk material.

  12. O "imperscrutável vínculo": corpo e alma na medicina lusitana setecentista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Coelho Edler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a emergência do discurso médico sobre questões relativas ao comportamento transgressor no contexto intelectual lusitano do século XVIII, através das obras Dissertação sobre as paixões da alma (1753, de Antonio Ribeiro Sanches (1699-1783, e Medicina Theologica (1794, de Francisco de Melo Franco (1757-1823. Ambas escritas e publicadas durante as reformas ilustradas em Portugal, no período que se estende entre o consulado pombalino e o reinado mariano. Calcadas em referenciais filosóficos de matriz racional-empirista, os respectivos autores se utilizam de um vocabulário médico que se renovava através dos debates entre correntes vitalistas, animistas e mecanicistas, para interpelar os discursos tradicionais, sobretudo o Direito e a Teologia, e reivindicar a legitimidade do discurso médico para tratar da alma como um objeto próprio à sua jurisdição.

  13. ALMA observations of a misaligned binary protoplanetary disk system in Orion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Mann, Rita K.; Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Bally, John, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO{sup +} 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. The line-to-continuum ratios are similar for the two disks in each of the lines. From the resolved velocity gradients across each disk, we constrain the masses of the central stars, and show consistency with optical-infrared spectroscopy, both indicative of a high mass ratio ∼9. The small difference between the systemic velocities indicates that the binary orbital plane is close to face-on. The angle between the projected disk rotation axes is very high, ∼72°, showing that the system did not form from a single massive disk or a rigidly rotating cloud core. This finding, which adds to related evidence from disk geometries in other systems, protostellar outflows, stellar rotation, and similar recent ALMA results, demonstrates that turbulence or dynamical interactions act on small scales well below that of molecular cores during the early stages of star formation.

  14. Development of the control system for the 40m OAN radiotelescope with the Alma Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, P.; Bolaño, R.; Barbas, L.

    2006-07-01

    The Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) is building a 40m radiotelescope in its facilities in Yebes (Spain) which will be delivered in summer 2006. The radiotelescope is an instrument composed of antenna, receivers, backends, and auxiliary equipment connected through a Local Area Network (LAN). The control system has to deal with a distributed environment which needs to be remotely controlled and monitored from external heterogeneous users (astronomers and engineers) and requires multiple processes simultaneously working and being synchronized. We have chosen the Alma Common Software (ACS) framework for the development of the control system. ACS provides an implementation of the component/container paradigm via Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and also provides general purpose utility libraries, hiding the complexity of CORBA to the developer. ACS is supported by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Radioastronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) with a lifetime similar to our radiotelescope. This is an important guarantee for the OAN with a very reduced software team. We present an overview of the planned software architecture of the radiotelescope and the current status of the development of the components.

  15. Linearly Polarized Millimeter and Submillimeter Continuum Emission of Sgr A* Constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Ho, Paul T P; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Martín, Sergio; Falcke, Heino; Matsushita, Satoki; Martí-Vidal, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at $\\sim$100 (3.0 mm), $\\sim$230 (1.3 mm), $\\sim$345 (0.87 mm), $\\sim$500 (0.6 mm), and $\\sim$700 GHz (0.43 mm). We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at the above frequency bands, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from ALMA single pointing and mosaic observations. We performed sinusoidal fittings to the observed (XX-YY)/I intensity ratios, to derive the polarization position angles and polarization percentages. We successfully detect polarized continuum emission from all observed frequency bands. We observed lower Stokes I intensity at $\\sim$700 GHz than that at $\\sim$500 GHz, which suggests that emission at $\\gtrsim$500 GHz is from optically thin part of a synchrotron emission spectrum. Both the Stokes I intensity and the polarization position angle at our highest observin...

  16. Travessias discursivas: intertextualidade e interdisciplinaridade no romance Netto perde sua alma, de Tabajara Ruas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Duarte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma leitura crítica das relações intertextuais promovidas por Netto perde sua alma pretende-se analisar o romance, de Tabajara Ruas, não só em seu diálogo interdisciplinar com a historiografia, mas também nas relações que a obra suscita com outros textos literários. Nesse caminho, percebe-se que a historiografia tradicionalmente trata os homens que participaram de guerras como semideuses, configurando-os apenas por suas ações e participações heroicas em conflitos políticos. Enquanto o romance Netto perde sua alma, sem deixar de incorporar ações heroicas de seu protagonista, privilegia a configuração de uma dimensão humana e humanizadora de sua personagem histórica, pois a faz refletir e questionar profundamente sobre tais ações.  Dessa forma, destacamos nessa leitura o processo de humanização que o romance de Tabajara Ruas promove de um personagem relevante da história do Rio Grande do Sul, o General Antonio de Souza Netto.

  17. ALMA resolves extended star formation in high-z AGN host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, C M; Stanley, F; Alexander, D M; Daddi, E; Mullaney, J R; Pannella, M; Rosario, D J; Smail, Ian

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) 870um imaging of five z~1.5-4.5 X-ray detected AGN (with luminosities of L(X)>10^42 erg/s). The sub-millimetre emission is extended on scales of FWHM~0.2"-0.5", corresponding to physical sizes of 1-3 kpc (median value of 1.8 kpc). These sizes are comparable to the majority of z=1-5 sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) with equivalent ALMA measurements. In combination with spectral energy distribution analyses, we attribute this rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) emission to dust heated by star formation. The implied star-formation rate surface densities are 20-200 Msol/yr/kpc^2, which are consistent with SMGs of comparable FIR luminosities (i.e., L(IR)~ [1-5]x10^12 Lsol). Although limited by a small sample of AGN, which all have high FIR luminosities, our study suggests that the kpc-scale spatial distribution and surface density of star formation in high-redshift star-forming galaxies is the same irrespective of the presence of X-ray detected AGN.

  18. Atomic carbon as a tracer of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies: perspectives for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, Matteo; Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Ludlow, Aaron D; Papadopoulos, Padelis P

    2014-01-01

    We use a high-resolution simulation that tracks the non-equilibrium abundance of molecular hydrogen, H2, within a massive high-redshift galaxy to produce mock ALMA maps of the fine-structure lines of atomic carbon CI 1-0 and CI 2-1. Inspired by recent observational and theoretical work, we assume that CI is thoroughly mixed in giant molecular clouds and demonstrate that its emission is an excellent proxy for H2. The entire H2 mass of a galaxy at redshift z<4 can be detected using a compact interferometric configuration with a large synthesized beam (that does not resolve the target galaxy) in less than 1 hour of integration time. Low-resolution imaging of the CI lines (in which the target galaxy is resolved into 3-4 beams) will detect nearly 50-60 per cent of the molecular hydrogen in less than 12 hours. In this case, the data cube also provides valuable information regarding the dynamical state of the galaxy. We conclude that ALMA observations of the CI 1-0 and 2-1 emission will widely extend the interval...

  19. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect at 5″: RX J1347.5-1145 imaged by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Tetsu; Ueda, Shutaro; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Akahori, Takuya; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Ota, Naomi; Suto, Yasushi; Takizawa, Motozaku; Yoshikawa, Kohji

    2016-10-01

    We present the first image of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) obtained by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Combining 7-m and 12-m arrays in Band 3, we create an SZE map toward a galaxy cluster RX J1347.5-1145 with 5″ resolution (corresponding to a physical size of 20 h-1 kpc), the highest angular and physical spatial resolutions achieved to-date for imaging the SZE, while retaining extended signals out to 40″. The 1 σ statistical sensitivity of the image is 0.017 mJy beam-1 or 0.12 mKCMB at the 5″ full width at half maximum. The SZE image shows a good agreement with an electron pressure map reconstructed independently from the X-ray data and offers a new probe of the small-scale structure of the intracluster medium. Our results demonstrate that ALMA is a powerful instrument for imaging the SZE in compact galaxy clusters with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity. As the first report on the detection of the SZE by ALMA, we present detailed analysis procedures including corrections for the missing flux, to provide guiding methods for analyzing and interpreting future SZE images obtained by ALMA.

  20. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS): First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, J K; Coutens, A; Lykke, J M; Müller, H S P; van Dishoeck, E F; Calcutt, H; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Garrod, R T; Jacobsen, S K; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; Wampfler, S F

    2016-01-01

    The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterised by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. This paper introduces a systematic survey, "Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)" of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The survey covers the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) with additional targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. More than 10,000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary. Glycolaldehyde, its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid, and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the ISM. The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or slightly larger than that of ethylene glycol. In comparison to the Galactic Center, these two species...

  1. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira (o Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. T.; Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High angular resolution (sub)millimetre observations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, now possible with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), allow direct imaging of these objects' photospheres. The physical properties of the molecular material around these regions, which until now has only been studied by imaging of maser emission and spatially unresolved absorption spectroscopy, can be probed with radiative transfer modelling and compared to hydrodynamical model predictions. The prototypical Mira variable, o Cet (Mira), was observed as a Science Verification target in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, offering the first opportunity to study these physical conditions in detail. Aims: With the longest baseline of 15 km, ALMA produces clearly resolved images of the continuum and molecular line emission/absorption at an angular resolution of ~30 mas at 220 GHz. Models are constructed for Mira's extended atmosphere to investigate the physics and molecular abundances therein. Methods: We imaged the data of 28SiO ν= 0, 2J = 5-4 and H2O v2 = 1JKa,Kc = 55,0-64,3 transitions and extracted spectra from various lines of sight towards Mira's extended atmosphere. In the course of imaging the emission/absorption, we encountered ambiguities in the resulting images and spectra that appear to be related to the performance of the CLEAN algorithm when applied to a combination of extended emission, and compact emission and absorption. We addressed these issues by a series of tests and simulations. We derived the gas density, kinetic temperature, molecular abundance, and outflow/infall velocities in Mira's extended atmosphere by modelling the SiO and H2O lines. Results: We resolve Mira's millimetre continuum emission and our data are consistent with a radio photosphere with a brightness temperature of 2611 ± 51 K. In agreement with recent results obtained with the Very Large Array, we do not confirm the existence of a compact region (physical

  2. La inmortalidad del alma: historia de un argumento político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saralegui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina una cuestión fundamental y poco estudiada de la teología política: la relación entre la defensa de la inmortalidad del alma y el mantenimiento del orden público. Se realiza un recorrido histórico por autores como Pietro Pomponazzi y Tomás Moro, que aceptan motivos políticos para defenderla, y David Hume, quien considera que no existe ningún motivo político para mantener dicha relación. Por último, se analizan los argumentos esgrimidos para mostrar que su eficacia está condicionada por la situación histórica.

  3. An ALMA view of the post-AGB object HD 101584

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, H.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.; Humphreys, E.; Lindqvist, M.; Nyman, L.; Ramstedt, S.

    2016-07-01

    ALMA cycles 1 and 3 observations of CO isotopologues and 1.3mm continuum are used in a study of the circumstellar environment of the binary HD 101584, a post-AGB star and a low-mass companion that is most likely a post-common-envelope-evolution system. These data are supplemented with new information from OH maser emission. It is inferred that the large- scale circumstellar medium has a bipolar hour-glass structure, seen almost pole-on, formed by an energetic, ≥⃒ 150 km s-1, jet. Significant amount of material still resides in the central region. It is proposed that the circumstellar morphology is related to an event which took place ≤⃒ 500 yr ago, possibly a capture event where the companion spiralled in towards the AGB star. Several observed features remain to be explained, and may hint to a more complicated scenario.

  4. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE MASSIVE MOLECULAR OUTFLOW G331.512-0.103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merello, Manuel; Bronfman, Leonardo; Garay, Guido; Lo, Nadia [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Nyman, Lars-Ake; Cortes, Juan R. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Cunningham, Maria R. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. Observations with ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz; 0.86 mm) reveal a very compact, extremely young bipolar outflow and a more symmetric outflowing shocked shell surrounding a very small region of ionized gas. The velocities of the bipolar outflow are about 70 km s{sup -1} on either side of the systemic velocity. The expansion velocity of the shocked shell is {approx}24 km s{sup -1}, implying a crossing time of about 2000 yr. Along the symmetry axis of the outflow, there is a velocity feature, which could be a molecular ''bullet'' of high-velocity dense material. The source is one of the youngest examples of massive molecular outflow found associated with a high-mass star.

  5. ALMA observations of the massive molecular outflow G331.512-0.103

    CERN Document Server

    Merello, Manuel; Garay, Guido; Lo, Nadia; Evans, Neal J; Nyman, Lars-Ake; Cortés, Juan R; Cunningham, Maria R

    2013-01-01

    The object of this study is one of the most energetic and luminous molecular outflows known in the Galaxy, G331.512-0.103. Observations with ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz; 0.86 mm) reveal a very compact, extremely young bipolar outflow and a more symmetric outflowing shocked shell surrounding a very small region of ionized gas. The velocities of the bipolar outflow are about 70 km s^{-1} on either side of the systemic velocity. The expansion velocity of the shocked shell is ~24 km s^{-1}, implying a crossing time of about 2000 yrs. Along the symmetry axis of the outflow, there is a velocity feature, which could be a molecular "bullet" of high-velocity dense material. The source is one of the youngest examples of massive molecular outflow found associated with a high-mass star.

  6. VLT/SPHERE- and ALMA-based shape reconstruction of asteroid (3) Juno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikinkoski, M.; Kaasalainen, M.; Ďurech, J.; Carry, B.; Marsset, M.; Fusco, T.; Dumas, C.; Merline, W. J.; Yang, B.; Berthier, J.; Kervella, P.; Vernazza, P.

    2015-09-01

    We use the recently released Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and VLT/SPHERE science verification data, together with earlier adaptive-optics images, stellar occultation, and lightcurve data to model the 3D shape and spin of the large asteroid (3) Juno with the all-data asteroid modelling (ADAM) procedure. These data set limits on the plausible range of shape models, yielding reconstructions suggesting that, despite its large size, Juno has sizable unrounded features moulded by non-gravitational processes such as impacts. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (prog. ID: 60.A-9379, 086.C-0785), and at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  7. From Alma Ata to the Global Fund: The history of international health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italian Global Health Watch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available “Global Funds are like stars in the sky, you can see them, admire them, appreciate their abundance… but fail to touch them.” - Ministry of Health Official, Malawi Abstract The paper traces the evolution of international health policies and international health institutions, starting from the birth of the World Health Organization, the setting up of the Health for All target at the Alma Ata conference in 1978 and the rise of neo-liberal policies promoted by international financial institutions from 1980 to the present. The paper looks at different issues surrounding public-private partnerships and the setting up of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the influence of these institutions on the health systems in poor countries.

  8. A bela alma e a estética goethiana do símbolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Patricia Maas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se acompanhar o desenvolvimento do pensamento estético de Goethe entre os anos de 1780 e 1790 paralelamente a sua expressão no livro VI do romance Os anos de aprendizado de Wilhelm Meister (1795-1796, no qual se narra a trajetória da Bela Alma em direção ao progressivo abandono dos símbolos religiosos como suporte sensível da fé. Entende-se que a convivência de Goethe com Karl Philipp Moritz foi decisiva para a concepção dos ensaios “Sobre os objetos das artes plásticas” (1797 e “Imitação simples, maneira, estilo” (1789, fundamentais para a constituição do pensamento estético de Goethe à época.

  9. Platão e a cidade justa: poetas ilusionistas e potências da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gazolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A censura que Platão faz à poesia na República apresenta dois ângulos que serão investigados neste texto: de um lado, a relação com a mímesis, considerada como necessária para o conhecimento pela via da phantasía; de outro, a relação do gênero epithymético da alma, com a crítica mais específica exposta no livro X.The censorship Plato directs against poetry in the Republic is investigated from two points of view in this article: on one hand, the perspective of mimesis, which is seen as necessary to achieve knowledge, through phantasía; on the other, the issue of the epithymetic genre of soul, which is part of the more specific criticism developed in book X.

  10. Constraining turbulence mixing strength in transitional discs with planets using SPHERE and ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan Ovelar, M.; Pinilla, P.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; Birnstiel, T.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effect that the turbulent mixing strength parameter αturb plays on near-infrared polarimetric and sub-millimetre interferometric imaging observations of transitional discs (TDs) with a gap carved by a planet. We generate synthetic observations of these objects with ALMA and VLT/SPHERE-ZIMPOL by combining hydrodynamical, dust evolution, radiative transfer and instrument models for values of α _{turb}=[10^{-4}, 10^{-3}, 10^{-2}]. We find that, through a combination of effects on the viscosity of the gas, the turbulent mixing and dust evolution processes, αturb strongly affects the morphology of the dust distribution that can be traced with these observations. We constrain the value of αturb to be within an order of magnitude of 10-3 in TD sources that show cavities in sub-mm continuum images while featuring continuous distribution of dust or smaller cavities in NIR-polarimetric images.

  11. ALMA and CARMA observations of Brown Dwarfs disks: testing the models of dust evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, L; Natta, A; Scholz, A; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Isella, A; Carpenter, J M

    2013-01-01

    The first steps toward planet formation involve the coagulation of small microscopic grains into larger and larger pebbles and rocks in gas-rich disks around young stars and brown dwarfs. Observations in the sub-millimeter can trace mm/cm-sized pebbles in the outer disks, and investigate the mechanisms of coagulation/fragmentation and radial migration of these solids. These represent key, yet not fully understood ingredients for our understanding of the formation of planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. Here we present the first results from an observational program using the ALMA and CARMA sub-mm/mm interferometers aimed at characterizing the dust properties and disk structure of young disks around brown dwarfs and very low mass stars. Given the physical conditions expected for these disks, they represent critical test beds for the models of the early stages of planet formation in proto-planetary disks.

  12. Spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova 1987A with ALMA and ATCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardo, Giovanna; Staveley-Smith, Lister [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Indebetouw, Remy; Chevalier, Roger A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matsuura, Mikako; Barlow, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gaensler, Bryan M. [Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Manchester, Richard N. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Kamenetzky, Julia R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Lakićević, Maša [Institute for the Environment, Physical Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, Jon M. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Martí-Vidal, Ivan [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Park, Sangwook, E-mail: giovanna.zanardo@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, 108 Science Hall, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); and others

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz (λ 3.2 mm to 450 μm), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup –0.73}) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at T ∼ 22 K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localized west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields –0.4 ≲ α ≲ –0.1 across the western regions, with α ∼ 0 around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.

  13. MILLIMETER EMISSION STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST ALMA IMAGE OF THE AU Mic DEBRIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Matthews, Brenda; Booth, Mark [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5072 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Hughes, A. Meredith; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul [Department of Astronomy, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kennedy, Grant [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Sibthorpe, Bruce [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, NL-9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-01-10

    We present 1.3 mm ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, {approx}10 Myr old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0.''6 (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU and (2) a newly recognized central peak that remains unresolved. The cold dust belt of mass {approx}1 M{sub Moon} is resolved in the radial direction with a rising emission profile that peaks sharply at the location of the outer edge of the 'birth ring' of planetesimals hypothesized to explain the midplane scattered light gradients. No significant asymmetries are discerned in the structure or position of this dust belt. The central peak identified in the ALMA image is {approx}6 times brighter than the stellar photosphere, which indicates an additional emission process in the inner regions of the system. Emission from a stellar corona or activity may contribute, but the observations show no signs of temporal variations characteristic of radio-wave flares. We suggest that this central component may be dominated by dust emission from an inner planetesimal belt of mass {approx}0.01 M{sub Moon}, consistent with a lack of emission shortward of 25 {mu}m and a location {approx}<3 AU from the star. Future millimeter observations can test this assertion, as an inner dust belt should be readily separated from the central star at higher angular resolution.

  14. Integrating a university team in the ALMA software development process: a successful model for distributed collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Matias; Ibsen, Jorge; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Troncoso, Nicolás; Tobar, Rodrigo; Araya, Mauricio; Avarias, Jorge; Hoffstadt, Arturo

    2010-07-01

    Observatories are not all about exciting new technologies and scientific progress. Some time has to be dedicated to the future engineers' generations who are going to be on the front line in a few years from now. Over the past six years, ALMA Computing has been helping to build up and collaborating with a well-organized engineering students' group at Universidad Técnica Federico Santa Maria in Chile. The Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) currently has wide collaborations with national and international organizations, mainly in the astronomical observations field. The overall coordination and technical work is done primarily by students, working side-by-side with professional engineers. This implies not only using high engineering standards, but also advanced organization techniques. This paper aims to present the way this collaboration has built up an own identity, independently of individuals, starting from its origins: summer internships at international observatories, the open-source community, and the short and busy student's life. The organizational model and collaboration approaches are presented, which have been evolving along with the years and the growth of the group. This model is being adopted by other university groups, and is also catching the attention of other areas inside the ALMA project, as it has produced an interesting training process for astronomical facilities. Many lessons have been learned by all participants in this initiative. The results that have been achieved at this point include a large number of projects, funds sources, publications, collaboration agreements, and a growing history of new engineers, educated under this model.

  15. ALMA observations of warm molecular gas and cold dust in NGC 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission (rest-frame frequency = 691.473 GHz) and of the 435 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of NGC 34, a local luminous infrared galaxy at a distance of 84 Mpc (1'' = 407 pc) which contains a Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and a nuclear starburst. The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0.''26 × 0.''23), with an integrated flux of f CO(6-5) = 1004 (± 151) Jy km s–1. Both the morphology and kinematics of the CO (6-5) emission are rather regular, consistent with a compact rotating disk with a size of 200 pc. A significant emission feature is detected on the redshifted wing of the line profile at the frequency of the H13CN (8-7) line, with an integrated flux of 17.7 ± 2.1(random) ± 2.7(systematic) Jy km s–1. However, it cannot be ruled out that the feature is due to an outflow of warm dense gas with a mean velocity of 400 km s–1. The continuum is resolved into an elongated configuration, and the observed flux corresponds to a dust mass of M dust = 106.97±0.13 M ☉. An unresolved central core (radius ≅ 50 pc) contributes 28% of the continuum flux and 19% of the CO (6-5) flux, consistent with insignificant contributions of the AGN to both emissions. Both the CO (6-5) and continuum spatial distributions suggest a very high gas column density (≳ 104 M ☉ pc–2) in the nuclear region at radius ≲ 100 pc.

  16. ALMA observations of warm molecular gas and cold dust in NGC 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C. K.; Cao, C.; Lu, N.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Zhao, Y.-H.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Lord, S.; Murphy, E. J.; Schulz, B. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Evans, A. S.; Stierwalt, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Chu, J.; Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF, P.O. Box 76, Epping 1710 (Australia); Charmandaris, V., E-mail: caochen@sdu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-05-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission (rest-frame frequency = 691.473 GHz) and of the 435 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of NGC 34, a local luminous infrared galaxy at a distance of 84 Mpc (1'' = 407 pc) which contains a Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and a nuclear starburst. The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0.''26 × 0.''23), with an integrated flux of f {sub CO(6-5)} = 1004 (± 151) Jy km s{sup –1}. Both the morphology and kinematics of the CO (6-5) emission are rather regular, consistent with a compact rotating disk with a size of 200 pc. A significant emission feature is detected on the redshifted wing of the line profile at the frequency of the H{sup 13}CN (8-7) line, with an integrated flux of 17.7 ± 2.1(random) ± 2.7(systematic) Jy km s{sup –1}. However, it cannot be ruled out that the feature is due to an outflow of warm dense gas with a mean velocity of 400 km s{sup –1}. The continuum is resolved into an elongated configuration, and the observed flux corresponds to a dust mass of M {sub dust} = 10{sup 6.97±0.13} M {sub ☉}. An unresolved central core (radius ≅ 50 pc) contributes 28% of the continuum flux and 19% of the CO (6-5) flux, consistent with insignificant contributions of the AGN to both emissions. Both the CO (6-5) and continuum spatial distributions suggest a very high gas column density (≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}) in the nuclear region at radius ≲ 100 pc.

  17. Detection of the Simplest Sugar, Glycolaldehyde, in a Solar-type Protostar with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Favre, Cécile; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Schmalzl, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH3), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0farcs2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species—in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH3OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.

  18. SXDF-ALMA 1.5 arcmin2 Deep Survey: A Compact Dusty Star-forming Galaxy at z = 2.5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Kodama, Tadayuki; Ikarashi, Soh; Aretxaga, Itziar; Berta, Stefano; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hayashi, Masao; Hughes, David H.; Ivison, Rob; Izumi, Takuma; Koyama, Yusei; Lutz, Dieter; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Wuyts, Stijn; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from the SXDF-Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.5 arcmin2 deep survey at 1.1 mm using ALMA. The map reaches a 1σ depth of 55 μJy/beam and covers 12 Hα-selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at z = 2.19 or z = 2.53. We have detected continuum emission f

  19. ALMA DETECTED OVERDENSITY OF SUB-MILLIMETER SOURCES AROUND WISE/NVSS-SELECTED z ∼ 2 DUSTY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andrea; Sajina, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Lonsdale, Carol; Lacy, Mark [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We study the environments of 49 WISE/NVSS-selected dusty, hyper-luminous, z ∼ 2 quasars using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) 345 GHz images. We find that 17 of the 49 WISE/NVSS sources show additional sub-millimeter galaxies within the ALMA primary beam, probing scales within ∼150 kpc. We find a total of 23 additional sub-millimeter sources, four of which are in the field of a single WISE/NVSS source. The measured 870 μm source counts are ∼10× what is expected for unbiased regions, suggesting such hyper-luminous dusty quasars are excellent at probing high-density peaks.

  20. Analysis of antenna position measurements and weather station network data during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Todd R; Broguiere, Dominique; Fomalont, Ed B; Dent, William R F; Phillips, Neil; Rabanus, David; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In a radio interferometer, the determination of geometrical antenna positions relies on accurate calibration of the dry and wet delay of the atmosphere above each antenna. For the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), which has baseline lengths up to 16 kilometers, the geography of the site forces the height above mean sea level of the more distant antenna pads to be significantly lower than the central array. Thus, both the ground level meteorological values and the total water column can be quite different between antennas in the extended configurations. During 2015, a network of six additional weather stations was installed to monitor pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, in order to test whether inclusion of these parameters could improve the repeatability of antenna position determinations in these configurations. We present an analysis of the data obtained during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of Oct. through Nov. 2015. The repeatability of antenna position measurem...

  1. Leibniz acerca de almas, corpos, agregados e substâncias na discussão com Fardella (1690)

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Marques

    2010-01-01

    Defendo neste artigo, contra a interpretação de Robert Adams, a tese de que, na discussão com Fardella (1690), Leibniz adota uma ontologia realista, segundo a qual seres vivos, e não almas, são substâncias.In this article, I sustain, against Robert Adam's interpretation, the thesis that Leibniz, in the discussion with Fardella (1690), adopts a realistic ontology, according to which live beings, instead of souls, are substances.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  3. Band-9 ALMA observations of the [NII] 122 micron line and FIR continuum in two high-z galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J; Sheth, Kartik; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve; Falgarone, Edith

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of two high-redshift systems (SMMJ02399-0136 and the Cloverleaf QSO) in their rest-frame 122 micron continuum (~650 GHz or ~450 micron on-sky) and [NII] 122 micron line emission. The continuum observations with a synthesized beam of ~0.25" resolve both sources and recover the expected flux. The Cloverleaf is resolved into a partial Einstein ring, while the SMMJ02399-0136 is unambiguously separated into two components; an AGN associated point source and an extend region at the location of a previously identified dusty starburst. We detect the [NII] line in both systems, though significantly weaker than our previous detections made with the 1st generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer. We show that this discrepancy is mostly explained if the line flux is resolved out due to significantly more extended emission and longer ALMA baselines than expected. Based on the ALMA observations we determine that greater than 75% of the total [NII] li...

  4. Toward Precision Black Hole Masses with ALMA: NGC 1332 as a Case Study in Molecular Disk Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, A J; Baker, A J; Boizelle, B D; Buote, D A; Ho, L C; Walsh, J L

    2016-01-01

    We present first results from a program of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) CO(2-1) observations of circumnuclear gas disks in early-type galaxies. The program was designed with the goal of detecting gas within the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes. In NGC 1332, the 0.3"-resolution ALMA data reveal CO emission from the highly inclined (i~ 83 degrees) circumnuclear disk, spatially coincident with the dust disk seen in Hubble Space Telescope images. The disk exhibits a central upturn in maximum line-of-sight velocity reaching +-500 km/s relative to the systemic velocity, consistent with the expected signature of rapid rotation around a supermassive black hole. Rotational broadening and beam smearing produce complex and asymmetric line profiles near the disk center. We constructed dynamical models for the rotating disk and fitted the modeled CO line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Degeneracy between rotation and turbulent velocity dispersion in the inner dis...

  5. A low-mass protostar's disk-envelope interface: disk-shadowing evidence from ALMA DCO+ observations of VLA1623

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo, Nadia M; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Walsh, Catherine; Harsono, Daniel; Lai, Shih-Ping; Fuchs, Christian M

    2015-01-01

    Due to instrumental limitations and a lack of disk detections, the structure between the envelope and the rotationally supported disk has been poorly studied. This is now possible with ALMA through observations of CO isotopologs and tracers of freezeout. Class 0 sources are ideal for such studies given their almost intact envelope and young disk. The structure of the disk-envelope interface of the prototypical Class 0 source, VLA1623A which has a confirmed Keplerian disk, is constrained from ALMA observations of DCO+ 3-2 and C18O 2-1. The physical structure of VLA1623 is obtained from the large-scale SED and continuum radiative transfer. An analytic model using a simple network coupled with radial density and temperature profiles is used as input for a 2D line radiative transfer calculation for comparison with the ALMA Cycle 0 12m array and Cycle 2 ACA observations of VLA1623. DCO+ emission shows a clumpy structure bordering VLA1623A's Keplerian disk, suggesting a cold ring-like structure at the disk-envelope...

  6. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect at Five Arc-seconds: RXJ1347.5-1145 Imaged by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Kitayama, T; Takakuwa, S; Tsutsumi, T; Komatsu, E; Akahori, T; Iono, D; Izumi, T; Kawabe, R; Kohno, K; Matsuo, H; Ota, N; Suto, Y; Takizawa, M; Yoshikawa, K

    2016-01-01

    We present the first image of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) obtained by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Combining 7-m and 12-m arrays in Band 3, we create an SZE map toward a galaxy cluster RXJ1347.5-1145 with 5 arc-second resolution (corresponding to the physical size of 20 kpc/h), the highest angular and physical spatial resolutions achieved to date for imaging the SZE, while retaining extended signals out to 40 arc-seconds. The 1-sigma statistical sensitivity of the image is 0.017 mJy/beam or 0.12 mK_CMB at the 5 arc-second full width at half maximum. The SZE image shows a good agreement with an electron pressure map reconstructed independently from the X-ray data and offers a new probe of the small-scale structure of the intracluster medium. Our results demonstrate that ALMA is a powerful instrument for imaging the SZE in compact galaxy clusters with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity. As the first report on the detection of the SZE by ALMA, we present ...

  7. ALMA-SZ Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock at Half the Age of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA measurements of a merger shock using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect signal, at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at z≈ 0.9. Multi-wavelength analysis in combination with the archival Chandra data and a high-resolution radio image provides a consistent picture of the thermal and non-thermal signal variation across the shock front and helps to put robust constraints on the shock Mach number as well as the relic magnetic field. We employ a Bayesian analysis technique for modeling the SZ and X-ray data self-consistently, illustrating respective parameter degeneracies. Combined results indicate a shock with Mach number { M }={2.4}-0.6+1.3, which in turn suggests a high value of the magnetic field (of the order of 4-10 μ {{G}}) to account for the observed relic width at 2 GHz. At roughly half the current age of the universe, this is the highest-redshift direct detection of a cluster shock to date, and one of the first instances of an ALMA-SZ observation in a galaxy cluster. It shows the tremendous potential for future ALMA-SZ observations to detect merger shocks and other cluster substructures out to the highest redshifts.

  8. Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1332 from ALMA Observations at 0.044 Arcsecond Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Aaron J; Darling, Jeremy; Baker, Andrew J; Buote, David A; Ho, Luis C; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2016-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 3 observations of CO(2-1) emission from the circumnuclear disk in the E/S0 galaxy NGC 1332 at 0.044" resolution. The disk exhibits regular rotational kinematics and central high-velocity emission (+/-500 km/s) consistent with the presence of a compact central mass. We construct models for a thin, dynamically cold disk in the gravitational potential of the host galaxy and black hole, and fit the beam-smeared model line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Model fits successfully reproduce the disk kinematics out to r=200 pc. Fitting models just to spatial pixels within projected r=50 pc of the nucleus (two times larger than the black hole's gravitational radius of influence), we find M_BH=6.64(-0.63,+0.65)*10^8 solar masses. This observation demonstrates ALMA's powerful capability to determine the masses of supermassive black holes by resolving gas kinematics on small angular scales in galaxy nuclei.

  9. Modeling the thermal emission from asteroid 3 Juno using ALMA observations and the KRC thermal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Li, Jian-Yang; Moullet, Arielle; Sykes, Mark V.

    2015-11-01

    Asteroid 3 Juno (hereafter referred to as Juno), discovered 1 September 1804, is the 11th largest asteroid in the Main Asteroid Belt (MAB). Containing approximately 1% of the mass in the MAB [1], Juno is the second largest S-type [2].As part of the observations acquired from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [3], 10 reconstructed images at ~60km/pixel resolution were acquired of Juno [4] that showed significant deviations from the Standard Thermal Model (STM) [5]. These deviations could be a result of surface topography, albedo variations, emissivity variations, thermal inertia variations, or any combination.The KRC thermal model [6, 7], which has been extensively used for Mars [e.g. 8, 9] and has been applied to Vesta [10] and Ceres [11], will be used to compare model thermal emission to that observed by ALMA at a wavelength of 1.33 mm [4]. The 10 images, acquired over a four hour period, captured ~55% of Juno’s 7.21 hour rotation. Variations in temperature as a function of local time will be used to constrain the source of the thermal emission deviations from the STM.This work is supported by the NASA Solar System Observations Program.References:[1] Pitjeva, E. V. (2005) Solar System Research 39(3), 176. [2] Baer, J. and S. R. Chesley (2008) Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy, 100, 27-42. [3] Wootten A. et al. (2015) IAU General Assembly, Meeting #29, #2237199 [4] arXiv:1503.02650 [astro-ph.EP] doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/808/1/L2 [5] Lebofsky, L.A. eta al. (1986) Icarus, 68, 239-251. [6] Kieffer, H. H., et al. (1977) J. Geophys. Res., 82, 4249-4291. [7] Kieffer, Hugh H., (2013) Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Volume 118, Issue 3, pp. 451-470 [8] Titus, T. N., H. H. Kieffer, and P. N. Christensen (2003) Science, 299, 1048-1051. [9] Fergason, R. L. et al. (2012) Space Sci. Rev, 170, 739-773, doi:10.1007/s11214-012-9891-3. [10] Titus, T. N. et al. (2012) 43rd LPSC, held March 19-23, 2012 at The Woodlands, Texas. LPI Contribution No

  10. Terahertz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz DES) – ‘ALMA in the Lab’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Auriacombe, Olivier Bruno Jacques; Fraser, Helen; Ellison, Brian; Ioppolo, Sergio; Rea, Simon

    2016-06-01

    ALMA is revolutionising our scope to identify and locate molecules that have been desorbed from ices, particularly complex organic molecules (COMS), which provide a vital link between interstellar and prebiotic chemistry. Explaining the existence of these molecules in star-forming regions relies on an empirical understanding of the chemistry that underpins their formation:- do COMS form predominantly in the solid-phase and then desorb to the gas phase, or do only “smaller” species, radials or ions desorb and then undergo gas-phase chemical reactions to generate larger COMS?-are the rotational state populations in COMS only attributable to equilibrium chemistry, or could their formation mechanisms and desorption processes affect the rotational state occupancy of these molecules, thereby directly tying certain species to solid-state origins?We have developed a novel laboratory method - THz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz-DES) that combines “traditional” laboratory astrophysics high-vacuum ice experiments with a sensitive high-spectral-resolution terahertz total-power heterodyne radiometer 1,2, partially mirroring the spectral range of ALMA band 7 (275– 373 GHz). Ices are grown in situ on a cold-plate, situated in a vacuum cell, then (thermally) desorbed. The sub-mm emission spectra of the resultant gas-phase molecules are detected as a function of time, temperature, or distance from the surface. Our first THz DES results will be shown for pure and binary ice systems including H2O, N2O and CH3OH. They show good correlation with established methods e.g. TPD, with the advantage of exploiting the molecular spectroscopy to unravel surface dynamics, state-occupancy, and unequivocal molecular identification, as well as concurrently measuring desorption barriers and molecular yields. We will extend our technique to a broader frequency range, enabling us to detect radical and ion desorption, to differentiate between A and E populations of CH3OH or ortho

  11. Peri physeos psyches: sobre a natureza da alma no Fedro de Platão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Paiva Montenegro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No passo 245c do Fedro de Platão, no contexto do segundo discurso de Sócrates (no qual ele compõe sua palinodia dirigida a Eros, o filósofo chama atenção para a importância de "se tornar explícita a natureza da alma, dos seus estados e atos, assim como indagar se esta natureza é humana ou divina". Pretendo mostrar que Platão, nesse diálogo, tenta fundamentar a natureza mista da alma: em parte racional em parte passional. Essa ambiguidade constitutiva mostra-se diretamente correlacionada àquelas referentes às formas de Amor, Loucura e Retórica abordadas ao longo do diálogo, à medida que estas podem ser tanto perniciosas quanto prodigiosas, a depender do modo como se as conduz. Nessa perspectiva, meu propósito é defender a presença, na filosofia pensada por Platão, de elementos passionais imprescindíveis ao sucesso de sua atividade, cabendo ao filósofo alcançar, por meio de uma formação apropriada, a maestria para reverter aquilo que pode mergulhá-lo na ignorância e, consequentemente, na escravidão e na infelicidade, naquilo que justamente irá conduzi-lo na direção oposta: a do amor à Sabedoria.In Plato's Phaedrus 245-c, when Socrates delivers his second speech (in which he composes his palinodia addressed to Eros, the philosopher calls attention to the importance of "first understanding the truth about the nature of the soul, divine or human, by examining what it does and what is done to it". I intend to point out that in this dialogue, Plato tries to found the mixed composition of the soul: partly rational, partly passionate. This constitutive ambiguity seems to be directly related to those different kinds of Love, Madness and Rhetoric examined in the dialogue, inasmuch as they could be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the way they are managed. Therefore, my purpose is to point that regarding philosophy as conceived by Plato, the appealing of passionate elements are quite indispensable for its successful

  12. Thermal structure and minor species distribution of Venus mesosphere by ALMA submm observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccialli, Arianna; Moreno, Raphael; Encrenaz, Therese; Fouchet, Thierry; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Moullet, Arielle; Widemann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Venus upper atmosphere (70-150 km altitude) is a transition region characterized by a complex dynamics: strong retrograde zonal winds dominate the lower mesosphere while a solar-to-antisolar circulation is observed in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. In addition, photochemical processes play an important role at these altitudes and affect the thermal structure and chemical stability of the entire atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide and water vapor are key species in the photochemical cycles taking place in the troposphere and mesosphere of Venus. They are carried by convective transport, together with the Hadley circulation, up to about 60 km where SO2 is photodissociated and oxydated, leading to the formation of H2SO4 which condenses in the clouds enshrouding the planet. Previous observations obtained by several instruments on board Venus Express and during ground-based campaigns have shown evidence of strong temporal variations, both on day-to-day as well as longer timescales, of density, temperature and SO2 abundance. Such strong variability is still not well understood.Submillimeter observations obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) offer the possibility of probing Venus upper mesosphere and of monitoring minor species, winds and the thermal structure. A first set of observations was obtained on November 14, 15, 26 and 27, 2011 during the first ALMA Early Science observation cycle. These observations targeted SO2, SO, HDO and CO transitions around 345 GHz during four sequences of 30 minutes each. The Venus’ disk was about 11” with an illumination factor of 90%, so that mostly the dayside of the planet was mapped.Assuming nominal night-time and dayside CO abundance profiles from Clancy et al. 2013, we retrieved vertical temperature profiles over the entire disk as a function of latitude and local time for the four days of observation. Temperature profiles were later used to derive the abundances of minor species (HDO, SO, SO2) in each pixel

  13. The ALMA detection of CO rotational line emission in AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, M A T; Marigo, P; Sloan, G C; Decin, L; Feast, M W; Goldman, S R; Justtanont, K; Kerschbaum, F; Matsuura, M; McDonald, I; Olofsson, H; Sahai, R; van Loon, J Th; Wood, P R; Zijlstra, A A; Bernard-Salas, J; Boyer, M L; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Jones, O C; Lagadec, E; Meixner, M; Rawlings, M G; Srinivasan, S

    2016-01-01

    Context: Low- and intermediate-mass stars lose most of their stellar mass at the end of their lives on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Determining gas and dust mass-loss rates (MLRs) is important in quantifying the contribution of evolved stars to the enrichment of the interstellar medium. Aims: Attempt to, for the first time, spectrally resolve CO thermal line emission in a small sample of AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Methods: ALMA was used to observe 2 OH/IR stars and 4 carbon stars in the LMC in the CO J= 2-1 line. Results: We present the first measurement of expansion velocities in extragalactic carbon stars. All four C-stars are detected and wind expansion velocities and stellar velocities are directly measured. Mass-loss rates are derived from modelling the spectral energy distribution and Spitzer/IRS spectrum with the DUSTY code. Gas-to-dust ratios are derived that make the predicted velocities agree with the observed ones. The expansion velocities and MLRs are compared to a Galactic sam...

  14. ALMA observations of TiO$_2$ around VY Canis Majoris

    CERN Document Server

    De Beck, E; Muller, S; Black, J H; O'Gorman, E; Richards, A M S; Baudry, A; Maercker, M; Decin, L; Humphreys, E M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide, TiO$_2$, is a refractory species that could play a crucial role in the dust-condensation sequence around oxygen-rich evolved stars. To date, gas phase TiO$_2$ has been detected only in the complex environment of the red supergiant VY CMa. We aim to constrain the distribution and excitation of TiO$_2$ around VY CMa in order to clarify its role in dust formation. We analyse spectra and channel maps for TiO$_2$ extracted from ALMA science verification data. We detect 15 transitions of TiO$_2$, and spatially resolve the emission for the first time. The maps demonstrate a highly clumpy, anisotropic outflow in which the TiO$_2$ emission likely traces gas exposed to the stellar radiation field. A roughly east-west oriented, accelerating bipolar-like structure is found, of which the blue component runs into and breaks up around a solid continuum component. A distinct tail to the south-west is seen for some transitions, consistent with features seen in the optical and near-infrared. We find that a si...

  15. ALMA detection of the rotating molecular disk wind drom the young star HD 163296

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Mathews, G S; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, J C Mottram I; van Dishoeck, E F; Takahashi, S; Akiyama, E; Chapillon, E; Espada, D; Hales, A; Hogerheijde, M R; Rawlings, M; Schmalzl, M; Testi, L

    2013-01-01

    Disk winds have been postulated as a mechanism for angular momentum release in protostellar systems for decades. HD 163296 is a Herbig Ae star surrounded by a disk and has been shown to host a series of HH knots (HH 409) with bow shocks associated with the farthest knots. Here we present ALMA Science Verification data of CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 emission which are spatially coincident with the blue shifted jet of HH knots, and offset from the disk by -18.6 km/s. The emission has a double corkscrew morphology and extends more than 10" from the disk with embedded emission clumps coincident with jet knots. We interpret this double corkscrew as emission from material in a molecular disk wind, and that the compact emission near the jet knots is being heated by the jet which is moving at much higher velocities. We show that the J=3-2 emission is likely heavily filtered by the interferometer, but the J=2-1 emission suffers less due to the larger beam and measurable angular scales. Excitation analysis suggests temperatures...

  16. ALMA CO J=6-5 observations of IRAS16293-2422: Shocks and entrainment

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensen, L E; Mottram, J C; Schmalzl, M; Hogerheijde, M R

    2012-01-01

    Observations of higher-excited transitions of abundant molecules such as CO are important for determining where energy in the form of shocks is fed back into the parental envelope of forming stars. The nearby prototypical and protobinary low-mass hot core, IRAS16293-2422 (I16293) is ideal for such a study. The source was targeted with ALMA for science verification purposes in band 9, which includes CO J=6-5 (E_up/k_B ~ 116 K), at an unprecedented spatial resolution (~0.2", 25 AU). I16293 itself is composed of two sources, A and B, with a projected distance of 5". CO J=6-5 emission is detected throughout the region, particularly in small, arcsecond-sized hotspots, where the outflow interacts with the envelope. The observations only recover a fraction of the emission in the line wings when compared to data from single-dish telescopes, with a higher fraction of emission recovered at higher velocities. The very high angular resolution of these new data reveal that a bow shock from source A coincides, in the plane...

  17. Unveiling the gas and dust disk structure in HD 163296 using ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Dent, W; Pinte, C; López, C; Klaassen, P; Hales, A; Cortés, P; Rawlings, M G; Tachihara, K; Testi, L; Takahashi, S; Chapillon, E; Mathews, G; Juhasz, A; Akiyama, E; Higuchi, A E; Saito, M; Nyman, L - Å; Phillips, N; Rodń, J; Corder, S; Van Kempen, T

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to study the structure of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. Methods: We have used high-resolution and high-sensitivity ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) emission line and the continuum at 850 microns, as well as the 3- dimensional radiative transfer code MCFOST to model the data presented in this work. Results: The CO(3-2) emission unveils for the first time at sub-millimeter frequencies the vertical structure details of a gaseous disk in Keplerian rotation, showing the back- and the front-side of a flared disk. Continuum emission at 850 microns reveals a compact dust disk with a 240 AU outer radius and a surface brightness profile that shows a very steep decline at radius larger than 125 AU. The gaseous disk is more than two times larger than the dust disk, with a similar critical radius but with a shallower radial profile. Radiative transfer models of the continuum data confirms the need for a sharp outer edge to the dust disk. The models for the ...

  18. The Molecular Wind in the Nearest Seyfert Galaxy Circinus Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Zschaechner, Laura K; Bolatto, Alberto; Farina, Emanuele P; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Leroy, Adam; Meier, David S; Ott, Jürgen; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the inner 1' (1.2 kpc) of the Circinus galaxy, the nearest Seyfert. We target CO (1-0) in the region associated with a well-known multiphase outflow driven by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). While the geometry of Circinus and its outflow make disentangling the latter difficult, we see indications of outflowing molecular gas at velocities consistent with the ionized outflow. We constrain the mass of the outflowing molecular gas to be 1.5e5 -5.1e6 solar masses, yielding a molecular outflow rate of 0.35-12.3 solar masses per year. The values within this range are comparable to the star formation rate in Circinus, indicating that the outflow indeed regulates star formation to some degree. The molecular outflow in Circinus is considerably lower in mass and energetics than previously-studied AGN-driven outflows, especially given its high ratio of AGN luminosity to bolometric luminosity. The molecular outflow in Circinus is, however, consistent with some trends put forth in...

  19. Constraining turbulence mixing strength in transitional discs with planets using SPHERE and ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Ovelar, M de Juan; Min, M; Dominik, C; Birnstiel, T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect that the turbulent mixing strength parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ plays on near-infrared polarimetric and sub-millimetre interferometric imaging observations of transitional discs (TDs) with a gap carved by a planet. We generate synthetic observations of these objects with ALMA and VLT/SPHERE-ZIMPOL by combining hydrodynamical, dust evolution, radiative transfer and instrument models for values of $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}=[10^{-4}, 10^{-3}, 10^{-2}]$. We find that, through a combination of effects on the viscosity of the gas, the turbulent mixing and dust evolution processes, $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ strongly affects the morphology of the dust distribution that can be traced with these observations. We constrain the value of $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ to be within an order of magnitude of $10^{-3}$ in TD sources that show cavities in sub-mm continuum images while featuring continuous distribution of dust or smaller cavities in NIR-polarimetric images.

  20. Three-dimensional mapping of the water cycle and D/H on Mars with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Clarke, John T.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Khayat, Alain; Hecht, Michael; Fisher, David Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Using ALMA, we mapped the vertical distribution of the water D/H across a broad range of terrains and times of days and local seasons on Mars. The observations were done in March/2016 and targeted four lines of isotopic water (H2O, HDO, H218O, H217O), and one line of isotopic carbon monoxide (C17O) used for establishing the thermal structure. The observations allowed us to investigate and separate how the D/H evolves on the planet, since fractionation processes induced by cloud formation would lead to notable variations of D/H along the column.Isotopic measurements are per-se excellent tracers of water loss/evolution on Mars (Villanueva et al. 2015), yet some of the recently observed variations are striking and reveal a far more complex scenario for the processes acting on the Martian water cycle. They are perhaps indicative of sub-surface water reservoirs interacting with the atmosphere, but the IR measurements did not resolve the vertical structure, limiting the untangling of climatological effects (e.g., cloud formation, Rayleigh distillation).We will present 3D maps of water and D/H and will discuss possible scenarios to explain the observations, in particular, in the context of the upper-atmosphere D/H MAVEN measurements.Villanueva, G. L., Mumma, M. J., Novak, R. E., et al. 2015, Science, 348, 218

  1. High resolution observations of the outer disk around T Cha: the view from ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Huelamo, N; Macias, E; Pinte, C; Ireland, M; Tuthill, P; Lacour, S

    2015-01-01

    T Cha is a young star surrounded by a transitional disk with signatures of planet formation. We have obtained high-resolution and high-sensitivity ALMA observations of T Cha in the ${\\rm CO}(3$--$2)$, ${\\rm ^{13}CO}(3$--$2)$, and ${\\rm CS}(7$--$6)$ emission lines to reveal the spatial distribution of the gaseous disk around the star. In order to study the dust within the disk we have also obtained continuum images at 850$\\mu$m from the line-free channels. We have spatially resolved the outer disk around T Cha. Using the CO(3-2) emission we derive a radius of $\\sim$230 AU. We also report the detection of the $^{13}$CO(3-2) and the CS(7-8) molecular emissions, which show smaller radii than the CO(3-2) detection. The continuum observations at 850$\\mu$m allow the spatial resolution of the dusty disk, which shows two emission bumps separated by $\\sim$40AU, consistent with the presence of a dust gap in the inner regions of the disk, and an outer radius of $\\sim$80AU. Therefore, T Cha is surrounded by a compact dust...

  2. ALMA Reveals Weak [NII] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z=5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Capak, Peter L; Carilli, Christopher L; Sharon, Chelsea E; Stacey, Gordon J; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [NII] 205 um fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z=5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [CII] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized inter-stellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L_[CII]/L_[NII] ratio. We find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] (L_ [CII]/L_[NII]=68 [+200/-28]) from a "typical" L*_UV star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction (L_[CII]/L_[NII]<=20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations i...

  3. Merger-induced Shocks in the Nearby LIRG VV 114 through Methanol Observations with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Toshiki; Espada, Daniel; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ueda, Junko; Sugai, Hajime; Takano, Shuro; Yun, Min S; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Ohashi, Satoshi; Lee, Minju; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Motohara, Kentaro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of two CH$_3$OH lines (J$_K$ = 2$_K$-1$_K$ and 3$_K$-2$_K$) between the progenitor's disks ("Overlap") of the mid-stage merging galaxy VV 114 obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3 and Band 4. The detected CH$_3$OH emission show an extended filamentary structure (~ 3 kpc) across the progenitor's disks with relatively large velocity width (FWZI ~ 150 km/s). The emission is only significant in the "overlap" and not detected in the two merging nuclei. Assuming optically-thin emission and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), we found the CH$_3$OH column density relative to H$_2$ ($X_{\\rm CH_3OH}$) peaks at the "Overlap" (~ 8 $\\times$ 10$^{-9}$), which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that at the eastern nucleus. We suggest that kpc-scale shocks driven by galaxy-galaxy collision may play an important role to enhance the CH$_3$OH abundance at the "Overlap". This scenario is consistent with that shock-induced large velocity dispersion compon...

  4. The ALMA Patchy Deep Survey: A blind search for [CII] emitters at z~4.5

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Y; Iono, D; Hatsukade, B; Kohno, K; Tamura, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Shimizu, I

    2015-01-01

    We present a result of a blind search for [CII] 158 $\\mu$m emitters at $z\\sim 4.5$ using ALMA Cycle~0 archival data. We collected extra-galactic data covering at 330-360 GHz (band~7) from 8 Cycle~0 projects from which initial results have been already published. The total number of fields is 243 and the total on-source exposure time is 19.2 hours. We searched for line emitters in continuum-subtracted data cubes with spectral resolutions of 50, 100, 300 and 500 km/s. We could not detect any new line emitters above a 6-$\\sigma$ significance level. This result provides upper limits to the [CII] luminosity function at $z\\sim 4.5$ over $L_{\\rm [CII]} \\sim 10^8 - 10^{10} L_{\\odot}$ or star formation rate, SFR $\\sim$ 10-1000 M$_{^\\odot}$/yr. These limits are at least 2 orders of magnitude larger than the [CII] luminosity functions expected from the $z \\sim 4$ UV luminosity function or from numerical simulation. However, this study demonstrates that we would be able to better constrain the [CII] luminosity function a...

  5. Pre-ALMA observations of GRBs in the mm/submm range

    CERN Document Server

    Postigo, A de Ugarte; Martín, S; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio; Michałowski, M J; Thöne, C C; Campana, S; Gorosabel, J; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; Castro-Tirado, A J; Schulze, S; De Breuck, C; Petitpas, G; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Covino, S; Fynbo, J P U; Winters, J M; Bremer, M; Levan, A J; Salvaterra, R

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that GRBs generate an afterglow emission that can be detected from radio to X-rays during days, or even weeks after the initial explosion. The peak of this emission crosses the mm/submm range during the first hours to days, making their study in this range crucial for constraining the models. Observations have been limited until now due to the low sensitivity of the observatories in this range. We present observations of 10 GRB afterglows obtained from APEX and SMA at 230 and 345GHz and put them into context with a catalogue of all the observations that have been published until now in the spectral range that will be covered by ALMA. The catalogue of mm/submm observations collected here is the largest to date and is composed of 77 GRBs, of which 65 had afterglow observations, whereas the rest are host galaxy searches. With our programmes, we contributed with data of 10 GRBs and the discovery of 2 submm counterparts. In total, the full sample, including data from the literature, has 19 aftergl...

  6. Protoplanetary Disks in the Orion OMC1 Region Imaged with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, J A; Ginsburg, A; Sheehan, P D

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the Orion Nebula that cover the OMC1 outflow region. Our focus in this paper is on compact emission from protoplanetary disks. We mosaicked a field containing $\\sim 600$ near-IR-identified young stars, around which we can search for sub-mm emission tracing dusty disks. Approximately 100 sources are known proplyds identified with HST. We detect continuum emission at 1 mm wavelengths towards $\\sim 20\\%$ of the proplyd sample, and $\\sim 8\\%$ of the larger sample of near-IR objects. The noise in our maps allows 4$\\sigma$ detection of objects brighter than $\\sim 1.5$ mJy, corresponding to protoplanetary disk masses larger than 1.5 M$_{\\rm J}$ (using standard assumptions about dust opacities and gas-to-dust ratios). None of these disks are detected in contemporaneous CO(2-1) or C$^{18}$O(2-1) observations, suggesting that the gas-to-dust ratios may be substantially smaller than the canonical value of 100. Furthermore, since dust grains may already be sequestered in large bodies in ON...

  7. Isotopic Ratios of Carbon and Oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Serigano, Joseph; Cordiner, Martin A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Teanby, Nicholas A; Charnley, Steven B; Lindberg, Johan E

    2016-01-01

    We report interferometric observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues in Titan's atmosphere using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The following transitions were detected: CO (J = 1-0, 2-1, 3-2, 6-5), $^{13}$CO (J = 2-1, 3-2, 6-5), C$^{18}$O (J = 2-1, 3-2), and C$^{17}$O (J = 3-2). Molecular abundances and the vertical atmospheric temperature profile were derived by modeling the observed emission line profiles using NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code. We present the first spectroscopic detection of $^{17}$O in the outer solar system with C$^{17}$O detected at > 8$\\sigma$ confidence. The abundance of CO was determined to be 49.6 ${\\pm}$ 1.8 ppm, assumed to be constant with altitude, with isotopic ratios $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C = 89.9 ${\\pm}$ 3.4, $^{16}$O/$^{18}$O = 486 ${\\pm}$ 22, and $^{16}$O/$^{17}$O = 2917${\\pm}$359. The measurements of $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C and $^{16}$O/$^{18}$O ratios are the most precise values obtained in Titan's atmospheric CO to date. Our res...

  8. Galactic Center Mini-spiral by ALMA - Possible Origin of the Central Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuboi, Masato; Miyoshi, Makoto; Uehara, Kenta; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We present continuum images of the "Galactic Center Mini-spiral" of 100, 250, and 340 GHz bands with the analysis of the Cy.0 data acquired from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) archive. Pretty good UV coverage of the data and the "self-calibration" method give us an opportunity to obtain dynamic ranges of over 2x10^4 in the resultant maps of the 250 and 340 GHz bands. In particular the image of the 340 GHz band has high dynamic ranges unprecedented in sub-millimeter wave. The angular resolutions attain to 1.57"x1.33" in the 100 GHz band, 0.63"x0.53" in the 250 GHz band, and 0.44"x0.38" in the 340 GHz band, respectively. The continuum images clearly depict the "Mini-spiral", which is an ionized gas stream in the vicinity of Sgr A*. We found the tight correlation between the dust emission peaks and the OB/WR stars in the Northern-arm of the "Mini-spiral". The core mass function of the dust core identified by the clumpfind algorithm would obey the flat power-law dN/dM=aM^-1.5+/-0.4 on the...

  9. ALMA reveals a chemically evolved submillimeter galaxy at z=4.76

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Tohru; De Breuck, Carlos; Caselli, Paola; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Saigo, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    The chemical properties of high-z galaxies provide important information to constrain galaxy evolutionary scenarios. However, widely-used metallicity diagnostics based on rest-frame optical emission lines are not usable for heavily dust-enshrouded galaxies (such as Sub-Millimeter Galaxies; SMGs), especially at z>3. Here we focus on the flux ratio of the far-infrared fine-structure emission lines [NII]205um and [CII]158um to assess the metallicity of high-z SMGs. Through ALMA cycle 0 observations, we have detected the [NII]205um emission in a strongly [CII]-emitting SMG, LESS J033229.4-275619 at z=4.76. The velocity-integrated [NII]/[CII] flux ratio is 0.043 +/- 0.008. This is the first measurement of the [NII]/[CII] flux ratio in high-z galaxies, and the inferred flux ratio is similar to the ratio observed in the nearby universe (~0.02-0.07). The velocity-integrated flux ratio and photoionization models suggest that the metallicity in this SMG is consistent with solar, implying the chemical evolution has prog...

  10. ALMA observations of the supergiant B[e] star Wd1-9

    CERN Document Server

    Fenech, D; Prinja, R K; Morford, J C; Dougherty, S; Blomme, R

    2016-01-01

    Mass-loss in massive stars plays a critical role in their evolution, although the precise mechanism(s) responsible - radiatively driven winds, impulsive ejection and/or binary interaction -remain uncertain. In this paper we present ALMA line and continuum observations of the supergiant B[e] star Wd1-9, a massive post-Main Sequence object located within the starburst cluster Westerlund 1. We find it to be one of the brightest stellar point sources in the sky at millimetre wavelengths, with (serendipitously identified) emission in the H41alpha radio recombination line. We attribute these properties to a low velocity (~100 km/s) ionised wind, with an extreme mass-loss rate 6.4x10^-5(d/5kpc)^1.5 Msol/yr. External to this is an extended aspherical ejection nebula indicative of a prior phase of significant mass-loss. Taken together, the millimetre properties of Wd1-9 show a remarkable similarity to those of the highly luminous stellar source MWC349A.We conclude that these objects are interacting binaries evolving a...

  11. ALMA View of the Galactic Center Mini-spiral: Ionized Gas Flows around Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuboi, Masato; Uehara, Kenta; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have performed the observation of the "Galactic Center Mini-spiral(GCMS)" in H42alpha recombination line as a part of the first large-scale mosaic observation in the Sagittarius A complex using Atacama Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). We revealed the kinematics of the ionized gas streamers of the GCMS. Especially we found that the streamer corresponding to the Bar of the GCMS has a Keplerian orbit with high eccentricity which is independent from the Keplerian orbits of the other streamers of the GCMS. The periastron is probably located within the Bondi accretion radius derived from X-ray observation. In addition, we estimated the LTE electron temperature in the sub-structures of the GCMS from the line-continuum flux density ratio. The electron temperatures are in the range of T* e=(6-13)x10^3 K. We confirmed the previously claimed tendency that the electron temperatures increase toward Sgr A*. We also found that the electron temperature at the positive velocity end of the Bar is twice as high as tha...

  12. Measuring the Distribution and Excitation of Cometary CH3OH Using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Cordiner, M A; Mumma, M J; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Villanueva, G; Paganini, L; Milam, S N; Remijan, A J; Lis, D C; Crovisier, J; Boissier, J; Kuan, Y -J; Coulson, I M

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was used to obtain measurements of spatially and spectrally resolved CH$_3$OH emission from comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) on 28-29 June 2014. Detection of 12-14 emission lines of CH$_3$OH on each day permitted the derivation of spatially-resolved rotational temperature profiles (averaged along the line of sight), for the innermost 5000 km of the coma. On each day, the CH$_3$OH distribution was centrally peaked and approximately consistent with spherically symmetric, uniform outflow. The azimuthally-averaged CH$_3$OH rotational temperature ($T_{rot}$) as a function of sky-projected nucleocentric distance ($\\rho$), fell by about 40 K between $\\rho=0$ and 2500 km on 28 June, whereas on 29 June, $T_{rot}$ fell by about 50 K between $\\rho=$0 km and 1500 km. A remarkable ($\\sim50$ K) rise in $T_{rot}$ at $\\rho=$1500-2500 km on 29 June was not present on 28 June. The observed variations in CH$_3$OH rotational temperature are interpreted primarily as a result of v...

  13. Multi-molecule ALMA observations towards the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, S; Izumi, T; Krips, M; Meier, D S; Aladro, R; Matsushita, S; Takano, S; Turner, J L; Espada, D; Nakajima, T; Terashima, Y; Fathi, K; Hsieh, P -Y; Imanishi, M; Lundgren, A; Nakai, N; Schinnerer, E; Sheth, K; Wiklind, T

    2014-01-01

    The nearby Sy 1 galaxy NGC 1097 represents an ideal laboratory to explore the molecular chemistry in the presence and surroundings of an active galactic nucleus. Exploring the distribution of different molecular species allows us to understand the physical processes affecting the ISM both in the AGN vicinity as well as in the outer star forming molecular ring. We carried out 3 mm ALMA observations of HCN, HCO+, CCH, CS, HNCO, SiO, HC3N, and SO as well as the 13C isotopologues. All species were imaged over the central 2 kpc (~30") of the galaxy at a resolution of ~2.2"x1.5 (150 pc x 100 pc). HCO+ and CS appear to be slightly enhanced in the star forming ring. CCH, showing the largest variations across NGC 1097, is suggested to be a good tracer of both obscured and early stage star formation. HNCO, SiO and HC3N are significantly enhanced in the inner circumnuclear disk surrounding the AGN. Differences in the molecular abundances are observed between the star forming ring and the inner circumnuclear disk. We con...

  14. Measures of galaxy dust and gas mass with Herschel photometry and prospects for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Genzel, R; Foerster-Schreiber, N M; Tacconi, L J

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) Combining the deepest Herschel extragalactic surveys (PEP, GOODS-H, HerMES), and Monte Carlo mock catalogs, we explore the robustness of dust mass estimates based on modeling of broad band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with two popular approaches: Draine & Li (2007, DL07) and a modified black body (MBB). As long as the observed SED extends to at least 160-200 micron in the rest frame, M(dust) can be recovered with a >3 sigma significance and without the occurrence of systematics. An average offset of a factor ~1.5 exists between DL07- and MBB-based dust masses, based on consistent dust properties. At the depth of the deepest Herschel surveys (in the GOODS-S field) it is possible to retrieve dust masses with a S/N>=3 for galaxies on the main sequence of star formation (MS) down to M(stars)~1e10 [M(sun)] up to z~1. At higher redshift (z1, the delta(GDR) dependence on metallicity is consistent with the local relation. We combine far-IR Herschel data and sub-mm ALMA expected fluxes to study ...

  15. CO gas inside the protoplanetary disk cavity in HD 142527: disk structure from ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Sebastian; Ménard, F; Roman, P; van der Plas, G; Cieza, L; Pinte, C; Christiaens, V; Hales, A S

    2014-01-01

    Inner cavities and annular gaps in circumstellar disks are possible signposts of giant planet formation. The young star HD 142527 hosts a massive protoplanetary disk with a large cavity that extends up to 140 au from the central star, as seen in continuum images at infrared and millimeter wavelengths. Estimates of the survival of gas inside disk cavities are needed to discriminate between clearing scenarios. We present a spatially and spectrally resolved carbon monoxide isotopologue observations of the gas-rich disk HD 142527, in the J=2-1 line of 12CO, 13CO and C18O, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect emission coming from inside the dust-depleted cavity in all three isotopologues. Based on our analysis of the gas in the dust cavity, the 12CO emission is optically thick, while 13CO and C18O emission are both optically thin. The total mass of residual gas inside the cavity is about 1.5-2 Jupiter masses. We model the gas with an axisymmetric disk model. Our best fit model shows t...

  16. Chemical complexity in protoplanetary disks in the era of ALMA and Rosetta

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Comets provide a unique insight into the molecular composition and complexity of the material in the primordial solar nebula. Recent results from the Rosetta mission, currently monitoring comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in situ, and ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), have demonstrated a tantalising link between the chemical complexity now confirmed in disks (via the detection of gas-phase CH3CN; Oberg et al. 2015) and that confirmed on the surface of 67P (Goesmann et al. 2015), raising questions concerning the chemical origin of such species (cloud or inheritance versus disk synthesis). Results from an astrochemical model of a protoplanetary disk are presented in which complex chemistry is included and in which it is assumed that simple ices only are inherited from the parent molecular cloud. The model results show good agreement with the abundances of several COMs observed on the surface of 67P with Philae/COSAC. Cosmic-ray and X-ray-induced photoprocessing of predominantly simple ices ...

  17. An ALMA Disk Mass for the Candidate Protoplanetary Companion to FW Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Adam L; Bowler, Brendan P; Herczeg, Gregory; Ireland, Michael J; Liu, Michael C; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle L

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the FW Tau system, a close binary pair of M5 stars with a wide-orbit (300 AU projected separation) substellar companion. The companion is extremely faint and red in the optical and near-infrared, but boasts a weak far-infrared excess and optical/near-infrared emission lines indicative of a primordial accretion disk of gas and dust. The component-resolved 1.3 mm continuum emission is found to be associated only with the companion, with a flux (1.78 +/- 0.03 mJy) that indicates a dust mass of 1-2 M_Earth. While this mass reservoir is insufficient to form a giant planet, it is more than sufficient to produce an analog of the Kepler-42 exoplanetary system or the Galilean satellites. The mass and geometry of the disk-bearing FW Tau companion remains unclear. Near-infrared spectroscopy shows deep water bands that indicate a spectral type later than M5, but substantial veiling prevents a more accurate determination of the effective temperature (and hence mass). Both a disk-bearing "pl...

  18. ALMA Imaging of HCN, CS and dust in Arp 220 and NGC 6240

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Manohar, Swarnima; Zschaechner, Laura; Yun, Min; Koda, Jin; Sanders, David; Murchikova, Lena; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Genzel, Reinhard; Hernquist, Lars; Tacconi, Linda; Brown, Robert; Narayanan, Desika; Hayward, Christopher C; Barnes, Joshua; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Davies, Richard; van der Werf, Paul; Fomalont, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.4 - 0.6arcsec resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ~0.25arcsec resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate ISM masses for Arp 220 East, West and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2 and 1.6x10^9 msun within radii of 69, 65 and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n_H2 ~10^5 cm^-3 at R < 50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n_H2 ~2x10^...

  19. VLA and ALMA Imaging of Intense, Galaxy-Wide Star Formation in z ~ 2 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rujopakarn, W; Rieke, G H; Ivison, R J; Cibinel, A; Nyland, K; Jagannathan, P; Silverman, J D; Alexander, D M; Biggs, A D; Bhatnagar, S; Ballantyne, D R; Dickinson, M; Elbaz, D; Geach, J E; Hayward, C C; Kirkpatrick, A; McLure, R J; Michalowski, M J; Miller, N A; Narayanan, D; Owen, F N; Pannella, M; Papovich, C; Pope, A; Rau, U; Robertson, B E; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; van der Werf, P; van Kampen, E; Windhorst, R A

    2016-01-01

    We present $\\simeq$0$.\\!\\!^{\\prime\\prime}4$-resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at $z = 1.3-3.0$. These galaxies are selected from sensitive, blank-field surveys of the $2' \\times 2'$ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at $\\lambda = 5$ cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). They have star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at $z \\sim 2$. Morphological classification performed on spatially-resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN), thereby representing a diversity of $z \\sim 2$ SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distrib...

  20. ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Capak, Peter L; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [CII] and OH emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z=5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [CII], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 um continuum emission toward the SMG. The [CII] emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 x 10^10 Msun, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Sigma_SFR = 530 Msun/yr/kpc2. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Sigma_SFR approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [CII] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [CII] emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ~95kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not dete...

  1. Compact starbursts in z~3-6 submillimeter galaxies revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Ikarashi, Soh; Caputi, Karina I; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, DavidH; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, ClaudiaD P; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Koichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, GrantG; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S

    2014-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) believed to lie at z_photo ~ 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star-formation rates (SFR) are L_IR ~ 2-6 x 10^12 L_sun and ~ 200-500 M_sun yr-1, respectively. The size of z ~ 3-6 SMGs ranges from 0''.10 to 0''.38 with a median of 0''.22 (FWHM), corresponding to a median effective radius (Re) of ~ 0.8 kpc, comparable to the typical size of the stellar component measured in compact quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 (cQGs) --- R ~ 1 kpc. The surface SFR density of our z ~ 3-6 SMGs is 160+610-82 M_sun yr-1 kpc-2, comparable to that seen in local merger-driven (U)LIRGs, which implies that these SMGs are also likely to be merger-driven. The discovery of compact starbursts in z >~ 3 SMGs strongly supports a massive galaxy formation scenario wherein z ~ 3-6 SMGs evolve into the compact stellar components of z ~ 2 cQGs. These cQGs are then thought to evolve into the mos...

  2. ORIGIN AND KINEMATICS OF THE ERUPTIVE FLOW FROM XZ TAU REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Palau, Aina; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Tafoya, Daniel; Loinard, Laurent [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Curiel, Salvador [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-264, 04510 DF, México (Mexico)

    2015-09-20

    We present high angular resolution (∼0.″94) {sup 12}CO(1-0) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations obtained during the 2014 long baseline campaign from the eruptive bipolar flow from the multiple XZ Tau stellar system discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These observations reveal, for the first time, the kinematics of the molecular flow. The kinematics of the different ejections close to XZ Tau reveal a rotating and expanding structure with a southeast–northwest velocity gradient. The youngest eruptive bubbles unveiled in the optical HST images are inside of this molecular expanding structure. Additionally, we report a very compact and collimated bipolar outflow emanating from XZ Tau A, which indicates that the eruptive outflow is indeed originating from this object. The mass (3 × 10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙}) and energetics (E{sub kin} = 3 × 10{sup 37} erg) for the collimated outflow are comparable to those found in molecular outflows associated with young brown dwarfs.

  3. GRB 110715A: The peculiar multiwavelength evolution of the first afterglow detected by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Jóhannesson, G; Murphy, Tara; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Gorosabel, J; Kann, D A; Krühler, T; Oates, S R; Japelj, J; Thöne, C C; Lundgren, A; Perley, D A; Malesani, D; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio; Castro-Tirado, A J; D'Elia, V; Fynbo, J P U; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hu, Y -D; Jelínek, M; Jeong, S; Kamble, A; Klose, S; Kuin, N P M; Llorente, A; Martín, S; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Rossi, A; Schady, P; Sparre, M; Sudilovsky, V; Tello, J C; Updike, A; Wiersema, K; Zhang, B -B

    2016-01-01

    We present the extensive follow-up campaign on the afterglow of GRB 110715A at 17 different wavelengths, from X-ray to radio bands, starting 81 seconds after the burst and extending up to 74 days later. We performed for the first time a GRB afterglow observation with the ALMA observatory. We find that the afterglow of GRB 110715A is very bright at optical and radio wavelengths. We use optical and near infrared spectroscopy to provide further information about the progenitor's environment and its host galaxy. The spectrum shows weak absorption features at a redshift $z$ = 0.8225, which reveal a host galaxy environment with low ionization, column density and dynamical activity. Late deep imaging shows a very faint galaxy, consistent with the spectroscopic results. The broadband afterglow emission is modelled with synchrotron radiation using a numerical algorithm and we determine the best fit parameters using Bayesian inference in order to constrain the physical parameters of the jet and the medium in which the ...

  4. Implementing Kanban for agile process management within the ALMA Software Operations Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveco, Johnny; Mora, Matias; Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Sepulveda, Jorge; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    After the inauguration of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Software Operations Group in Chile has refocused its objectives to: (1) providing software support to tasks related to System Integration, Scientific Commissioning and Verification, as well as Early Science observations; (2) testing the remaining software features, still under development by the Integrated Computing Team across the world; and (3) designing and developing processes to optimize and increase the level of automation of operational tasks. Due to their different stakeholders, each of these tasks presents a wide diversity of importances, lifespans and complexities. Aiming to provide the proper priority and traceability for every task without stressing our engineers, we introduced the Kanban methodology in our processes in order to balance the demand on the team against the throughput of the delivered work. The aim of this paper is to share experiences gained during the implementation of Kanban in our processes, describing the difficulties we have found, solutions and adaptations that led us to our current but still evolving implementation, which has greatly improved our throughput, prioritization and problem traceability.

  5. ALMA Observations of a Candidate Molecular Outflow in an Obscured Quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ai-Lei; Zakamska, Nadia L; Nesvadba, Nicole P H

    2014-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) CO (1-0) and CO (3-2) observations of SDSS J135646.10+102609.0, an obscured quasar and ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) with two merging nuclei and a known 20-kpc-scale ionized outflow. The total molecular gas mass is M_{mol} ~ 9^{+19}_{-6} x 10^8 Msun, mostly distributed in a compact rotating disk at the primary nucleus (M_{mol} ~ 3 x 10^8 Msun) and an extended tidal arm (M_{mol} ~ 5 x 10^8 Msun). The tidal arm is one of the most massive molecular tidal features known; we suggest that it is due to the lower chance of shock dissociation in this elliptical/disk galaxy merger. In the spatially resolved CO (3-2) data, we find a compact (r ~ 0.3 kpc) high velocity (v ~ 500 km/s) red-shifted feature in addition to the rotation at the N nucleus. We propose a molecular outflow as the most likely explanation for the high velocity gas. The outflowing mass of M_{mol} ~ 7 x 10^7 Msun and the short dynamical time of t_{dyn} ~ 0.6 Myr yield a very high o...

  6. ALMA reveals sunburn: CO dissociation around AGB stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, Iain; Lagadec, Eric; Sloan, Gregory C; Boyer, Martha L; Matsuura, Mikako; Smith, Rowan J; Smith, Christina L; Yates, Jeremy A; van Loon, Jacco Th; Jones, Olivia C; Ramstedt, Sofia; Avison, Adam; Justtanont, Kay; Olofsson, Hans; Blommaert, Joris A D L; Goldman, Steven R; Groenewegen, Martin A T

    2015-01-01

    ALMA observations show a non-detection of carbon monoxide around the four most luminous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Stellar evolution models and star counts show that the mass-loss rates from these stars should be ~1.2-3.5 x 10^-7 solar masses per year. We would naively expect such stars to be detectable at this distance (4.5 kpc). By modelling the ultraviolet radiation field from post-AGB stars and white dwarfs in 47 Tuc, we conclude CO should be dissociated abnormally close to the stars. We estimate that the CO envelopes will be truncated at a few hundred stellar radii from their host stars and that the line intensities are about two orders of magnitude below our current detection limits. The truncation of CO envelopes should be important for AGB stars in dense clusters. Observing the CO (3-2) and higher transitions and targeting stars far from the centres of clusters should result in the detections needed to measure the outflow velocities from these stars.

  7. ALMA Multi-line Imaging of the Nearby Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, David S; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Ott, Jürgen; Rosolowsky, Erik; Veilleux, Sylvain; Warren, Steven R; Weiss, Axel; Zwaan, Martin A; Zschaechner, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially resolved ($\\sim$50 pc) imaging of molecular gas species in the central kiloparsec of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, based on observations taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). A total of 50 molecular lines are detected over a 13 GHz bandwidth imaged in the 3 mm band. Unambiguous identifications are assigned for 27 lines. Based on the measured high CO/C$^{17}$O isotopic line ratio ($\\gtrsim$350), we show that $^{12}$CO(1-0) has moderate optical depths. A comparison of the HCN and HCO$^{+}$ with their $^{13}$C-substituted isotopologues shows that the HCN(1-0) and HCO$^{+}$(1-0) lines have optical depths at least comparable to CO(1-0). H$^{13}$CN/H$^{13}$CO$^{+}$ (and H$^{13}$CN/HN$^{13}$C) line ratios provide tighter constraints on dense gas properties in this starburst. SiO has elevated abundances across the nucleus. HNCO has the most distinctive morphology of all the bright lines, with its global luminosity dominated by the outer parts of the central re...

  8. Unveiling the Early-Stage Anatomy of a Protocluster Hub with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Henshaw, J D; Longmore, S N; Caselli, P; Pineda, J E; Avison, A; Barnes, A T; Tan, J C; Fontani, F

    2016-01-01

    High-mass stars shape the interstellar medium in galaxies, and yet, largely because the initial conditions are poorly constrained, we do not know how they form. One possibility is that high-mass stars and star clusters form at the junction of filamentary networks, referred to as "hubs". In this letter we present the complex anatomy of a protocluster hub within an Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC), G035.39-00.33, believed to be in an early phase of its evolution. We use high-angular resolution ($\\{\\theta_{\\rm maj}, \\theta_{\\rm min}\\}=\\{1.''4, 0.''8\\}\\sim\\{0.02\\,{\\rm pc}, 0.01\\,{\\rm pc}\\}$) and high-sensitivity ($0.2$ mJy beam$^{-1}$; $\\sim0.2$ M$_{\\odot}$) 1.07 mm dust continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to identify a network of narrow, $0.028\\,\\pm\\,0.005$ pc wide, filamentary structures. These are a factor of $\\gtrsim3$ narrower than the proposed "quasi-universal" $\\sim0.1$ pc width of interstellar filaments. Additionally, 28 compact objects are reported, spanning a mass range $0.3\\...

  9. Anatomy of a blazar in the (sub-)millimeter: ALMA Observations of PKS 0521-365

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Guerard, M; Villard, E; Hidayat, T; Flaquer, B Ocana; Vila-Vilaro, B

    2015-01-01

    We aim at analyzing the (sub-)millimeter emission in a nearby blazar, PKS 0521-365 , to study the synchrotron and thermal emission in the different components detected at low frequency. We analyze the archive public data of the ALMA Cycle 0 where PKS 0521-365 is used as a calibrator. A total of 13 projects with 23 dataset is analyzed in band 3, 6 and 7 and combined. The whole set of data is combined and wavelet filtered to obtain a deep image reaching a dynamic range of 47000. The individual emission flux is measured at different date over a period of 11 months in various components. Finally we analyze the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) in each different component, including the radio jet and counter jet. The point sources detected in the field follow a similar distribution to previous studies. The blazar flux shows large variation especially in band 3. Different components are observed: core, radio jet and newly detected counter jet, Hot Spot (HS) and a disky structure roughly perpendicular to the jet. T...

  10. ALMA [CII] detection of a redshift 7 lensed galaxy behind RXJ1347.1-1145

    CERN Document Server

    Bradač, Maruša; Huang, Kuang-Han; Vallini, Livia; Finney, Emily; Hoag, Austin; Lemaux, Brian; Schmidt, Kasper; Treu, Tommaso; Carilli, Chris; Dijkstra, Mark; Ferrara, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Jones, Tucker; Ryan, Russell; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of ALMA spectroscopic follow-up of a $z=6.765$ Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitting galaxy behind the cluster RXJ1347-1145. We report the detection of {\\ctf} line fully consistent with the Lyman-$\\alpha$ redshift and with the peak of the optical emission. Given the magnification of $\\mu=5.0 \\pm 0.3$ the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) luminosity of the [CII] line is $L_{[CII]} =1.4^{+0.2}_{-0.3} \\times 10^7L_{\\odot}$, which is ${\\sim}5$ times fainter than other detections of $z\\sim 7$ galaxies. The result indicates that low $L_{[CII]}$ in $z\\sim 7$ galaxies compared to the local counterparts are likely caused by their low metallicities and/or feedback. The small velocity off-set ($\\Delta v = 20_{-40}^{+140}\\mbox{km/s}$) between the Lyman-$\\alpha$ and [CII] line is unusual, and may be indicative of ionizing photons escaping.

  11. Alma observations of nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various agn energetic contributions using dense gas tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of our ALMA Cycle 0 observations, using HCN/HCO+/HNC J = 4-3 lines, of six nearby luminous infrared galaxies with various energetic contributions from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) estimated from previous infrared spectroscopy. These lines are very effective for probing the physical properties of high-density molecular gas around the hidden energy sources in the nuclear regions of these galaxies. We find that HCN to HCO+ J = 4-3 flux ratios tend to be higher in AGN-important galaxies than in starburst-dominated regions, as was seen at the J = 1-0 transition, while there is no clear difference in the HCN-to-HNC J = 4-3 flux ratios among observed sources. A galaxy with a starburst-type infrared spectral shape and very large molecular line widths shows a high HCN-to-HCO+ J = 4-3 flux ratio, which could be due to turbulence-induced heating. We propose that enhanced HCN J = 4-3 emission relative to HCO+ J = 4-3 could be used to detect more energetic activity than normal starbursts, including deeply buried AGNs, in dusty galaxy populations.

  12. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS 0745-191

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Combes, F.; Murray, N. W.; Parrish, I. J.; Salomé, P.; Sanders, J. S.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; Main, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-05-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS 0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6± 0.3× 109 M_{⊙}, assuming a Galactic XCO factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament ˜ 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within ± 100 { km s^{-1}} of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their full width at half-maximum (FWHM) are less than 150 { km s^{-1},} which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on bright optical line emission and dust lanes indicating that the molecular gas could have formed from lifted warmer gas that cooled in situ.

  13. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Barenfeld, Scott A; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and $^{12}$CO $J = 3-2$ line fluxes of disks around low mass ($0.14-1.66$ $M_{\\odot}$) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, 5 are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area ($\\lesssim 40$ AU), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least $\\sim1000$ relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of $M_{dust}\\propto M_*^...

  14. Detection of a hot molecular core in the Large Magellanic Cloud with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Kawamura, Akiko; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We report the first detection of a hot molecular core outside our Galaxy based on radio observations with ALMA toward a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) in a nearby low metallicity galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Molecular emission lines of CO, C17O, HCO+, H13CO+, H2CO, NO, SiO, H2CS, 33SO, 32SO2, 34SO2, and 33SO2 are detected from a compact region (0.1 pc) associated with a high-mass YSO, ST11. The temperature of molecular gas is estimated to be higher than 100 K based on rotation diagram analysis of SO2 and 34SO2 lines. The compact source size, warm gas temperature, high density, and rich molecular lines around a high-mass protostar suggest that ST11 is associated with a hot molecular core. We find that the molecular abundances of the LMC hot core are significantly different from those of Galactic hot cores. The abundances of CH3OH, H2CO, and HNCO are remarkably lower compared with Galactic hot cores by at least 1-3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that these abundances are characterized by the...

  15. ALMA maps the Star-Forming Regions in a Dense Gas Disk at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Nightgale, James; Furlanetto, Christina; Smail, Ian; Cooray, Asantha; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve; Gavazzi, Raphael; Hunter, Todd; Ivison, Rob; Negrello, Mattia; Oteo, Ivan; Smit, Renske; van der Werf, Paul; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We exploit long-baseline ALMA sub-mm observations of the lensed star-forming galaxy SDP 81 at z=3.042 to investigate the properties of inter-stellar medium on scales of 50-100pc. The kinematics of the CO gas within this system are well described by a rotationally-supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, v=320+/-20km/s and a dynamical mass of M=(3.5+/-1.0)x10^10Mo within a radius of 1.5 kpc. The disk is gas rich and unstable, with a Toomre parameter, Q=0.30+/-0.10 and so should collapse in to star-forming regions with Jeans length L_J~130pc. We identify five star-forming regions within the ISM on these scales and show that their scaling relations between luminosity, line-widths and sizes are significantly offset from those typical of molecular clouds in local Galaxies (Larson's relations). These offsets are likely to be caused by the high external hydrostatic pressure for the interstellar medium (ISM), P/kB=(40+/-20)x10^7K/cm3, which is ~10,000x higher than the typical ISM pressure in the M...

  16. Relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll a concentration in the international Alma Gol Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Balali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll, a concentration in the International Alma Gol Wetland. Chlorophyll a is the major photosynthetic pigment in lots of phytoplanktons and has been used as a trophy index in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples were collected fortnightly from five stations in the wetland during summer and autumn. Chlorophyll-a ranged between 4.38 to 156.55 mg/m3, sulfate ranged between 138 to 190 mg/l, total alkalinity ranged between 80 to 280 mg/l, silica ranged between 3.80 to 35.00 mg/l, phosphate ranged between 0.02 to 3.70 mg/l, ammonia ranged between 0.10 to 11.90 mg/l, nitrate ranged between 0.01 to 2.75 mg/l and nitrite ranged between 0.01 to 0.39 mg/l. There was a significant correlation between chlorophyll a and nitrate, nitrite and ammonia but there was no significant correlation between chlorophyll a and silica, total alkalinity, sulfate and phosphorus.

  17. ALMA data suggest the presence of a spiral structure in the inner wind of CW Leo

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, L; Neufeld, D; Steffen, W; Melnick, G; Lombaert, R

    2014-01-01

    (abbreviated) We aim to study the inner wind of the well-known AGB star CW Leo. Different diagnostics probing different geometrical scales have pointed toward a non-homogeneous mass-loss process: dust clumps are observed at milli-arcsec scale, a bipolar structure is seen at arcsecond-scale and multi-concentric shells are detected beyond 1". We present the first ALMA Cycle 0 band 9 data around 650 GHz. The full-resolution data have a spatial resolution of 0".42x0".24, allowing us to study the morpho-kinematical structure within ~6". Results: We have detected 25 molecular lines. The emission of all but one line is spatially resolved. The dust and molecular lines are centered around the continuum peak position. The dust emission has an asymmetric distribution with a central peak flux density of ~2 Jy. The molecular emission lines trace different regions in the wind acceleration region and suggest that the wind velocity increases rapidly from about 5 R* almost reaching the terminal velocity at ~11 R*. The channel...

  18. ALMA Observations of the Debris Disk of Solar Analogue Tau Ceti

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Meredith A; Wilner, David J; Matthews, Brenda C; Kennedy, Grant M; Booth, Mark; Di Francesco, James

    2016-01-01

    We present 1.3 mm observations of the Sun-like star $\\tau$ Ceti with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) that probe angular scales of $\\sim1$'' (4 AU). This first interferometric image of the $\\tau$ Ceti system, which hosts both a debris disk and possible multiplanet system, shows emission from a nearly face-on belt of cold dust with a position angle of $90^\\circ$ surrounding an unresolved central source at the stellar position. To characterize this emission structure, we fit parametric models to the millimeter visibilities. The resulting best-fit model yields an inner belt edge of $6.2^{+9.8}_{-4.6}$ AU, consistent with inferences from lower resolution, far-infrared Herschel observations. While the limited data at sufficiently short baselines preclude us from placing stronger constraints on the belt properties and its relation to the proposed five planet system, the observations do provide a strong lower limit on the fractional width of the belt, $\\Delta R/R > 0.75$ with $99\\%$ confidence...

  19. A submillimeter line survey of low-mass protostars: prelude to ALMA and Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dishoeck, E F; Maret, S; Ceccarelli, C; Caux, E; Schöier, F L; Castets, A; Tielens, A G G M

    2004-01-01

    The results from a single-dish molecular line survey of a set of 18 deeply embedded young stellar objects are summarized. More than 40 lines from 16 different species were observed with the JCMT, Onsala, IRAM 30m and SEST telescopes. The multi-transition data are analyzed using a temperature and density structure derived from models of the dust continuum emission. For the outer envelope (>300 AU), the data indicate a `drop' abundance profile for many species, with normal abundances in the outer- and innermost regions and highly depleted abundances in an intermediate zone. This zone is bounded at the outer than the lifetime of the core, and at the inner edge by the evaporation temperature of the species involved. In the innermost envelope (<300 AU), all ices evaporate resulting in jumps in the abundances of complex organic molecules such as CH3OH. A key project for Herschel will be to survey gas-phase water in these objects, whose abundance shows extreme variations with temperature. ALMA wil be able to dire...

  20. Resolved gas cavities in transitional disks inferred from CO isotopologues with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Nienke; Bruderer, Simon; Andrews, Sean M; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Herczeg, Greg J; van Kempen, Tim; Miotello, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Transitional disks around young stars are promising candidates to look for recently formed, embedded planets. Planet-disk interaction models predict that planets clear a gap in the gas while trapping dust at larger radii. Other physical mechanisms could be responsible for cavities as well. Previous observations have revealed that gas is still present inside these cavities, but the spatial distribution of this gas remains uncertain. We present high spatial resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of 13CO and C18O lines of four well-studied transitional disks. The observations are used to set constraints on the gas surface density, specifically cavity size and density drop inside the cavity. The physical-chemical model DALI is used to analyze the gas images of SR21, HD135344B, DoAr44 and IRS48. The main parameters of interest are the size, depth and shape of the gas cavity. CO isotope-selective photodissociation is included to properly constrain the surface density in...

  1. Debris Disks in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association Resolved by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Carpenter, John M; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Flaherty, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    We present a CO(2-1) and 1240 um continuum survey of 23 debris disks with spectral types B9-G1, observed at an angular resolution of 0.5-1 arcsec with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The sample was selected for large infrared excess and age ~10 Myr, to characterize the prevalence of molecular gas emission in young debris disks. We identify three CO-rich debris disks, plus two additional tentative (3-sigma) CO detections. Twenty disks were detected in the continuum at the >3-sigma level. For the 12 disks in the sample that are spatially resolved by our observations, we perform an independent analysis of the interferometric continuum visibilities to constrain the basic dust disk geometry, as well as a simultaneous analysis of the visibilities and broad-band spectral energy distribution to constrain the characteristic grain size and disk mass. The gas-rich debris disks exhibit preferentially larger outer radii in their dust disks, and a higher prevalence of characteristic grain sizes sma...

  2. Weak Turbulence in the HD 163296 Protoplanetary Disk Revealed by ALMA CO Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Flaherty, Kevin M; Rosenfeld, Katherine A; Andrews, Sean M; Chiang, Eugene; Simon, Jacob B; Kerzner, Skylar; Wilner, David J

    2015-01-01

    Turbulence can transport angular momentum in protoplanetary disks and influence the growth and evolution of planets. With spatially and spectrally resolved molecular emission line measurements provided by (sub)millimeter interferometric observations, it is possible to directly measure non-thermal motions in the disk gas that can be attributed to this turbulence. We report a new constraint on the turbulence in the disk around HD 163296, a nearby young A star, determined from ALMA Science Verification observations of four CO emission lines (the CO(3-2), CO(2-1), 13CO(2-1), and C18O(2-1) transitions). The different optical depths for these lines permit probes of non-thermal line-widths at a range of physical conditions (temperature and density) and depths into the disk interior. We derive stringent limits on the non-thermal motions in the upper layers of the outer disk such that any contribution to the line-widths from turbulence is 30AU) disk than has been previously considered.

  3. Gas density drops inside dust cavities of transitional disks around young stars observed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Nienke; Bruderer, Simon; Perez, Laura M; Isella, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Transitional disks with large dust cavities are important laboratories to study planet formation and disk evolution. Cold gas may still be present inside these cavities, but the quantification of this gas is challenging. The gas content is important to constrain the origin of the dust cavity. We use Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of 12CO 6--5 and 690 GHz (Band 9) continuum of five well-studied transitional disks. In addition, we analyze previously published Band 7 observations of a disk in 12CO 3--2 line and 345 GHz continuum. The observations are used to set constraints on the gas and dust surface density profiles, in particular the drop delta-gas of the gas density inside the dust cavity. The physical-chemical modeling code DALI is used to analyze the gas and dust images simultaneously. We model SR21, HD135344B, LkCa15, SR24S and RXJ1615-3255 (Band 9) and J1604-2130 (Band 7). The SED and continuum visibility curve constrain the dust surface density. Subsequently, the same m...

  4. Origin and kinematics of the eruptive flow from XZ Tau revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, Luis A; Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos; Curiel, Salvador; Palau, Aina; Rodriguez, Luis F; Kurtz, Stan E; Tafoya, Daniel; Loinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present high angular resolution ($\\sim$0.94$"$) $^{12}$CO(1-0) Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations obtained during the 2014 long baseline campaign from the eruptive bipolar flow from the multiple XZ Tau stellar system discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These observations reveal, for the first time, the kinematics of the molecular flow. The kinematics of the different ejections close to XZ Tau reveal a rotating and expanding structure with a southeast-northwest velocity gradient. The youngest eruptive bubbles unveiled in the optical HST images are inside of this molecular expanding structure. Additionally, we report a very compact and collimated bipolar outflow emanating from XZ Tau A, which indicates that the eruptive outflow is indeed originating from this object. The mass (3 $\\times$ 10$^{-7}$ $M_\\odot$) and energetics (E$_{kin}$ $=$ 3 $\\times$ 10$^{37}$ ergs) for the collimated outflow are comparable with those found in molecular outflows associated with young b...

  5. A Community-Engaged Research Approach to Improve Mental Health Among Latina Immigrants: ALMA Photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Georgina; Della Valle, Pamela; Paraghamian, Sarah; Page, Rachel; Ochoa, Janet; Palomo, Fabiana; Suarez, Emilia; Thrasher, Angela; Tran, Anh N; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-05-01

    Recent Latina immigrants are at increased risk of poor mental health due to stressors associated with adapting to life in the United States. Existing social and health care policies often do not adequately address the mental health concerns of new Latino populations. Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma, a community-partnered research project, seeks to improve immigrant Latinas' mental health outcomes. Using Photovoice methodology, promotoras (lay health advisors) reflected on community factors affecting mental health through photography and guided discussion. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using content analysis to identify salient themes. Promotoras reviewed codes to develop themes that they presented in community forums to reach local policy makers and to increase community awareness. These forums included an exhibit of the promotoras' photographs and discussion of action steps to address community concerns. Themes included transitioning to life in the United States, parenting, education, and combating racism. Nearly 150 stakeholders attended the community forums and proposed responses to promotoras' photographic themes. Our findings suggest that Photovoice provides an opportunity for Latinas and the larger community to identify issues that they find most important and to explore avenues for action and change by creating sustainable partnerships between the community and forum attendees. PMID:26202773

  6. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks I: Dust and Gas Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; van der Marel, Nienke; Carpenter, John M; Guidi, Greta; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Mathews, Geoff S; Manara, Carlo F; Miotello, Anna; Natta, Antonella; Oliveira, Isa; Tazzari, Marco; Testi, Leonardo; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; van Terwisga, Sierk E

    2016-01-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-mm survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use ALMA to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with $M_{\\ast}>0.1$ $M_{\\odot}$ in the young ($\\sim$1-3 Myr), nearby ($\\sim$150-200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 $\\mu$m continuum and the $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O 3-2 lines. We use the sub-mm continuum to constrain $M_{\\rm dust}$ to a few Martian masses (0.2-0.4 $M_{\\oplus}$) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain $M_{\\rm gas}$ to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming ISM-like $\\rm {[CO]/[H_2]}$ abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in the continuum, 36 in $^{13}$CO, and 11 in C$^{18}$O at $>3\\sigma$ significance. Several new "transition disks" are found with relatively bright continuum and CO isotopologue emission. Stacking the individually unde...

  7. The Mysterious Morphology of MRC0943-242 as Revealed by ALMA and MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Gullberg, Bitten; Lehnert, Matthew D; Vernet, Joel; Bacon, Roland; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Galametz, Audrey; Ivison, Rob; Nesvadba, Nicole P H; Richard, Johan; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    We present a pilot study of the z=2.923 radio galaxy MRC0943-242, where we for the first time combine information from ALMA and MUSE data cubes. Even with modest integration times, we disentangle an AGN and a starburst dominated set of components. These data reveal a highly complex morphology, as the AGN, starburst, and molecular gas components show up as widely separated sources in dust continuum, optical continuum and CO line emission observations. CO(1-0) and CO(8-7) line emission suggest that there is a molecular gas reservoir offset from both the dust and the optical continuum that is located ~90kpc from the AGN. The UV line emission has a complex structure in emission and absorption. The line emission is mostly due to i) a large scale ionisation cone energised by the AGN, ii) a Ly-alpha emitting bridge of gas between the radio galaxy and a heavily star-forming set of components. Strangely, the ionisation cone has no Ly-alpha emission. We find this is due to an optically thick layer of neutral gas with u...

  8. Detection of the simplest sugar, glycolaldehyde, in a solar-type protostar with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Jes K; Bisschop, Suzanne E; Bourke, Tyler L; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Schmalzl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this paper we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH3), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show red-shifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS16293B) indicative of infall an...

  9. First Results from High Angular Resolution ALMA Observations Toward the HL Tau Region

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Perez, L M; Hunter, T R; Dent, W R F; Hales, A S; Hills, R; Corder, S; Fomalont, E B; Vlahakis, C; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Matsushita, S; Nakanishi, K; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodon, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Akiyama, E; Chapillon, E; de Gregorio, I; Di Francesco, J; Gueth, F; Kawamura, A; Lee, C -F; Luong, Q Nguyen; Mangum, J; Pietu, V; Sanhueza, P; Saigo, K; Takakuwa, S; Ubach, C; van Kempen, T; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Kurono, Y; Liu, H -Y; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Andreani, P; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0.075 arcseconds (10 AU) to 0.025 arcseconds (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analogue HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings observed at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination (46.72pm0.05 degrees) and position angle (+138.02pm0.07 degrees). We obtain a high-fidelity image of the 1.0 mm spectral index ($\\alpha$), which ranges from $\\alpha\\sim2.0$ in the optically-thick central peak and two brightest rings, increasing to 2.3-3.0 in the dark rings. The dark rings are not devoid of emission, we estimate a grain emissivity index of 0.8 for the innermost dark ring and lower for ...

  10. The fast molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy IC5063 as seen by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Morganti, Raffaella; Oonk, J B R; Frieswijk, Wilfred; Tadhunter, Clive

    2015-01-01

    We use high-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with ALMA to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC5063. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet, with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot-spot in the W lobe. The data show that a massive, fast outflow with velocities up to 650 km/s of cold molecular gas is present, in addition to one detected earlier in warm H2, HI and ionised gas. Both the central AGN and the radio jet could energetically drive the outflow. However, the characteristics of the outflowing gas point to the radio jet being the main driver. This is important, because IC5063, although one of the most powerful Seyfert galaxies, is a relatively weak radio source (P = 3x10^23 W/Hz). All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that driv...

  11. Si-bearing molecules towards IRC+10216: ALMA unveils the molecular envelope of CWLeo

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, L Velilla; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Agúndez, M; Castro-Carrizo, A; Fonfría, J P; Marcelino, N; Zúñiga, J; Requena, A; Bastida, A; Lique, F; Guélin, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection during the ALMA Cycle 0 of SiS rotational lines in high-vibrational states as well as SiO and SiC$_2$ lines in their ground vibrational state, towards IRC+10216. The spatial distribution of these molecules shows compact emission for SiS and a more extended emission for SiO and SiC$_2$ , and also proves the existence of an increase in the SiC$_2$ emission at the outer shells of the circumstellar envelope. We analyze the excitation conditions of the vibrationally excited SiS using the population diagram technique and we used a large velocity gradient model to compare with the observations. We found moderate discrepancies between the observations and the models that could be explained if SiS lines detected are optically thick. Additionally, the line profiles of the detected rotational lines in the high energy vibrational states show a decreasing linewidth with increasing energy levels. This may evidence that these lines could be excited only in the inner shells, i.e. the densest and hotte...

  12. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS 0745-191

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. R.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Edge, A. C.; Combes, F.; Murray, N. W.; Parrish, I. J.; Salomé, P.; Sanders, J. S.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; Main, R. A.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Tremblay, G.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-05-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS 0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6± 0.3× 109 M_{⊙}, assuming a Galactic XCO factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament ˜ 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within ± 100 { km s^{-1}} of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their full width at half-maximum (FWHM) are less than 150 { km s^{-1},} which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on observed. Instead, the projection of the N and SE filaments underneath X-ray cavities suggests they formed in the updraft behind bubbles buoyantly rising through the cluster atmosphere. Direct uplift of the dense gas by the radio bubbles appears to require an implausibly high coupling efficiency. The filaments are coincident with low temperature X-ray gas, bright optical line emission and dust lanes indicating that the molecular gas could have formed from lifted warmer gas that cooled in situ.

  13. Gas Dynamics and Outflow in the Barred Starburst Galaxy NGC 1808 Revealed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Salak, Dragan; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Miyamoto, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    NGC 1808 is a nearby barred starburst galaxy with an outflow from the nuclear region. To study the inflow and outflow processes related to star formation and dynamical evolution of the galaxy, we have carried out \\(^{12}\\)CO (\\(J=1-0\\)) mapping observations of the central \\(r\\sim4\\) kpc of NGC 1808 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Four distinct components of molecular gas are revealed at high spatial resolution of 2\\arcsec (\\(\\sim100\\) pc): (1) a compact (\\(r<200\\) pc) circumnuclear disk (CND), (2) \\(r\\sim500\\) pc ring, (3) gas-rich galactic bar, and (4) spiral arms. Basic geometric and kinematic parameters are derived for the central 1-kpc region using tilted-ring modeling. The derived rotation curve reveals multiple mass components that include (1) a stellar bulge, (2) nuclear bar and molecular CND, and (3) unresolved massive (\\(\\sim10^7~M_\\sun\\)) core. Two systemic velocities, 998 km s\\(^{-1}\\) for the CND and 964 km s\\(^{-1}\\) for the 500-pc ring, are revealed, indicating ...

  14. Galactic center mini-spiral by ALMA: Possible origin of the central cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masato; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Uehara, Kenta; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    We present continuum images of the "Galactic center mini-spiral" in the 100, 250, and 340 GHz bands with analysis of the Cy.0 data acquired from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) archive. Good u-v coverage of the data and the "self-calibration" method give us the opportunity to obtain dynamic ranges of over 2 × 104 in the resultant maps of the 250 and 340 GHz bands. In particular, the image of the 340 GHz band has high dynamic ranges unprecedented in sub-millimeter waves. The angular resolutions attained are 1{^''.}57 × 1{^''.}33 in the 100 GHz band, 0{^''.}63 × 0{^''.}53 in the 250 GHz band, and 0{^''.}44 × 0{^''.}38 in the 340 GHz band, respectively. The continuum images clearly depict the "mini-spiral," which is an ionized gas stream in the vicinity of Sgr A*. We found a tight correlation between the dust emission peaks and the OB/WR stars in the northern arm of the "mini-spiral." The core mass function of the dust cores identified by the clumpfind algorithm would obey the flat power-law dN/dM ∝ M-1.5±0.4 on the high-mass side. These support the scenario that the star-forming cloud has fallen into the immediate vicinity of Sgr A* for the origin of the central cluster.

  15. On the nature of the tertiary companion to FW Tau: ALMA CO observations and SED modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, Claudio; Schreiber, Matthias R; Canovas, Hector; Cieza, Lucas A; Williams, Jonathan P; Hales, Antonio; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FWTau system. We here present ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak 12CO(2-1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with a planetary mass object embedded in a disk which is externally irradiated by the binary companion and seen at an inclination of i<15 deg. However, we also find that a near edge-on disk around a more massive substellar object can explain the obse...

  16. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS0745-191

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Nulsen, P E J; Edge, A C; Combes, F; Murray, N W; Parrish, I J; Salome, P; Sanders, J S; Baum, S A; Donahue, M; Main, R A; O'Connell, R W; O'Dea, C P; Oonk, J B R; Tremblay, G; Vantyghem, A N; Voit, G M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6 +/- 0.3 x 10^9 solar masses, assuming a Galactic X_{CO} factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament roughly 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within +/-100 km/s of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their FWHMs are less than 150 km/s, which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on <10^7 yr timescales unless supported, likely by the indirect effect of magnetic fields. The velocity structure is inconsistent with a merger origin or gravitational ...

  17. SXDF-ALMA 2 Arcmin^2 Deep Survey: Resolving and Characterizing the Infrared Extragalactic Background Light Down to 0.5 mJy

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S_1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1-mm-deep continuum survey in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin^2, 1sigma = 0.055 mJy beam^-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ~ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0} Jy deg^{-2}, which corresponds to ~ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multi-wavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region...

  18. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin2 deep survey: Resolving and characterizing the infrared extragalactic background light down to 0.5 mJy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J.; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1 mm deep continuum survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF)-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin2, 1σ = 0.055 mJy beam-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ˜ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0}Jy deg-2, which corresponds to ˜ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multiwavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region despite its infrared luminosity (L_IR˜eq 1× 10^{12} L_{⊙} or SFR ≃ 100 M⊙ yr-1). By fitting the spectral energy distributions at the optical-to-near-infrared wavelengths of the remaining four ALMA sources, we obtained the photometric redshifts (zphoto) and stellar masses (M*): zphoto ≃ 1.3-2.5, M* ≃ (3.5-9.5) × 1010 M⊙. We also derived their star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs as ≃30-200 M⊙ yr-1 and ≃0.8-2 Gyr-1, respectively. These values imply that they are main sequence star-forming galaxies.

  19. Direct Imaging of the Water Snow Line at the Time of Planet Formation using Two ALMA Continuum Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzatti, A.; Pinilla, P.; Ricci, L.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Birnstiel, T.; Ciesla, F.

    2015-12-01

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at ≲10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint on the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor of 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index αmm due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplanetary disks using spatially resolved ALMA images in two continuum bands. We explore the model dependence on the disk viscosity and find that the spectral index reveals the water snow line for a wide range of conditions, with opposite trends when the emission is optically thin rather than thick. If the disk viscosity is low (αvisc < 10-3), the snow line produces a ringlike structure with a minimum at αmm ˜ 2 in the optically thick regime, possibly similar to what has been measured with ALMA in the innermost region of the HL Tau disk.

  20. Star formation and chemical complexity in the Orion nebula: A new view with the IRAM and ALMA interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Alain; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier

    2016-11-01

    The Orion nebula is one of the most observed celestial regions in the Milky Way. It is an active massive star-forming region, especially well studied in the millimeter and submillimeter domains that allow us to unveil the cool and obscured regions in which stars are being formed. After a brief introduction to the main properties of a radio telescope, we recall that the most sensitive radio interferometers, the IRAM mm array and, especially, the recently built ALMA millimeter/submillimeter array, offer an outstanding spatial resolution reaching the sub-arcsecond scale, or even about 10 milli-arcseconds for ALMA (about four times the Earth's orbit radius at the Orion distance). These interferometers can reveal the fine spatial details of the Orion clouds of gas and dust within which new stars and associated planetary systems are being formed. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity of both interferometers and the broad instantaneous bandwidth offered by ALMA allowed us to map the emission from a number of complex organic molecules, to estimate the molecular abundances, and to address some important aspects of the molecular complexity in Orion. Our observations do not lead to a unique molecular formation and excitation scheme, but the chemistry at work in the proto-stellar 'fragments' at the center of the Orion nebula can be compared with the chemistry prevailing in comets of the Solar system. We have underlined the possible links between the prebiotic molecules observed in space and the chemistry leading to the early terrestrial life. xml:lang="fr"

  1. 30 Doradus - Relating Young Stars Imaged by Spitzer and Hubble to the CO Molecular Gas Observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret; Indebetouw, Remy; Sabbi, Elena; De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    The majority of star have masses less than 8 solar mass and form in clumps that are less than 1 pc in size. The sub-parsec scales in which star formation takes place makes it difficult to resolve the effects star formation and the surrounding dense gas have on each other. The Magellanic Clouds are more active in forming high mass stars as compared to the Milky Way. The SAGE and Heritage surveys combined with the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project provide us the opportunity to study high-mass (>15 solar masses) and low-mass (<1 solar mass) star formation. ALMA observations cover a 60 pc x 30 pc region of CO gas slightly north of the R136 cluster in 30 Doradus. We find 16 young stellar objects and about a 100 pre-main-sequence stars within the ALMA footprint. We define young stellar objects to be very early stage stars that are about 10,000 years old and whose SEDs peak in the infrared, and we use pre-main-sequence-stars to refer to slightly older stars that can be seen in the optical. I will use dendrograms to analyze both the high- and low-mass star properties with respect to the CO gas structure observed with ALMA. Preliminary results show that not all massive young stellar objects are associated with CO gas, higher mass clumps tend to form higher mass stars and are more likely to have multiple young stars, and lower mass clumps tend to not be gravitationally bound however the larger clouds are bound. Looking at the interplay between dense molecular gas and the newly forming stars in a stellar nursery will shed light on how these stars formed: monolithic collapse or competitive accretion.

  2. Chemical complexity in protoplanetary disks in the era of ALMA and Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, C.

    2016-05-01

    Comets provide a unique insight into the molecular composition and complexity of the material in the primordial solar nebula. Recent results from the Rosetta mission, currently monitoring comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in situ, and ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) have demonstrated a tantalising link between the chemical complexity now confirmed in disks (via the detection of gas-phase cf.CH3CN Öberg et al. [13]) and that confirmed on the surface of 67P (Goesmann et al. [3]), raising questions concerning the chemical origin of such species (cloud or inheritance versus disk synthesis). Results from an astrochemical model of a protoplanetary disk are presented in which complex chemistry is included and in which it is assumed that simple ices only are inherited from the parent molecular cloud. The model results show good agreement with the abundances of several COMs observed on the surface of 67P with Philae/COSAC. Cosmic-ray and X-ray-induced photoprocessing of predominantly simple ices inherited by the protoplanetary disk is sufficient to generate a chemical complexity similar to that observed in comets. This indicates that the icy COMs detected on the surface of 67P may have a disk origin. The results also show that gas-phase cf.CH3CN is abundant in the inner warm disk atmosphere where hot gas-phase chemistry dominates and potentially erases the ice chemical signature. Hence, cf.CH3CN may not be an unambiguous tracer of the complex organic ice reservoir. However, a better understanding of the hot gas-phase chemistry of cf.CH3CN is needed to confirm this preliminary conclusion.

  3. ALMA IMAGING OF HCN, CS, AND DUST IN ARP 220 AND NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoville, Nick; Manohar, Swarnima; Murchikova, Lena [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Zschaechner, Laura [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sanders, David; Barnes, Joshua [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, Todd [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Robertson, Brant; Tacconi, Linda; Narayanan, Desika [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Genzel, Reinhard; Davies, Richard [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, Robert [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [TAPIR 350-17, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.''4-0.''6 resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ∼0.''25 resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate interstellar medium masses for Arp 220 east and west and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2, and 1.6 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}within radii of 69, 65, and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220 estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n{sub H{sub 2}}∼10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} at R <50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n {sub H2} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}. The agreement of the mean density from the total mass and size with that required for excitation suggests that the volume is essentially filled with dense gas, i.e., it is not cloudy or like swiss cheese.

  4. The mysterious morphology of MRC0943-242 as revealed by ALMA and MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Bitten; De Breuck, Carlos; Lehnert, Matthew D.; Vernet, Joël; Bacon, Roland; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Galametz, Audrey; Ivison, Rob; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Richard, Johan; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2016-02-01

    We present a pilot study of the z = 2.923 radio galaxy MRC0943-242, where we combine information from ALMA and MUSE data cubes for the first time. Even with modest integration times, we disentangle the AGN and starburst dominated components. These data reveal a highly complex morphology as the AGN, starburst, and molecular gas components show up as widely separated sources in dust continuum, optical continuum, and CO line emission observations. CO(1-0) and CO(8-7) line emission suggest that there is a molecular gas reservoir offset from both the dust and the optical continuum that is located ~90 kpc from the AGN. The UV line emission has a complex structure in emission and absorption. The line emission is mostly due to a large scale ionisation cone energised by the AGN, and a Lyα emitting bridge of gas between the radio galaxy and a heavily star-forming set of components. Strangely, the ionisation cone has no Lyα emission. We find this is due to an optically thick layer of neutral gas with unity covering fraction spread out over a region of at least ~100 kpc from the AGN. Other less thick absorption components are associated with Lyα emitting gas within a few tens of kpc from the radio galaxy and are connected by a bridge of emission. We speculate that this linear structure of dust, Lyα and CO emission, and the redshifted absorption seen in the circum nuclear region may represent an accretion flow feeding gas into this massive AGN host galaxy.

  5. The Detection of a Hot Molecular Core in the Large Magellanic Cloud with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kawamura, Akiko; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-08-01

    We report the first detection of a hot molecular core outside our Galaxy based on radio observations with ALMA toward a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) in a nearby low metallicity galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Molecular emission lines of CO, C17O, HCO+, H13CO+, H2CO, NO, SiO, H2CS, 33SO, 32SO2, 34SO2, and 33SO2 are detected from a compact region (˜0.1 pc) associated with a high-mass YSO, ST11. The temperature of molecular gas is estimated to be higher than 100 K based on rotation diagram analysis of SO2 and 34SO2 lines. The compact source size, warm gas temperature, high density, and rich molecular lines around a high-mass protostar suggest that ST11 is associated with a hot molecular core. We find that the molecular abundances of the LMC hot core are significantly different from those of Galactic hot cores. The abundances of CH3OH, H2CO, and HNCO are remarkably lower compared to Galactic hot cores by at least 1-3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that these abundances are characterized by the deficiency of molecules whose formation requires the hydrogenation of CO on grain surfaces. In contrast, NO shows a high abundance in ST11 despite the notably low abundance of nitrogen in the LMC. A multitude of SO2 and its isotopologue line detections in ST11 imply that SO2 can be a key molecular tracer of hot core chemistry in metal-poor environments. Furthermore, we find molecular outflows around the hot core, which is the second detection of an extragalactic protostellar outflow. In this paper, we discuss the physical and chemical characteristics of a hot molecular core in the low metallicity environment.

  6. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and 12CO J = 3-2 line fluxes of disks around low-mass (0.14-1.66 M ⊙) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, five are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area (≲40 au), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least ˜1000 relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of {M}{dust}\\propto {M}* 1.67+/- 0.37. Disk dust masses in Upper Sco are compared to those measured in the younger Taurus star-forming region to constrain the evolution of disk dust mass. We find that the difference in the mean of {log}({M}{dust}/{M}* ) between Taurus and Upper Sco is 0.64 ± 0.09, such that M dust/M * is lower in Upper Sco by a factor of ˜4.5.

  7. THE PECULIAR DISTRIBUTION OF CH{sub 3}CN IN IRC +10216 SEEN BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Prieto, L. Velilla [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Castro-Carrizo, A.; Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d’Héres (France); Marcelino, N. [INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    IRC +10216 is a circumstellar envelope around a carbon-rich evolved star which contains a large variety of molecules. According to interferometric observations, molecules are distributed either concentrated around the central star or as a hollow shell with a radius of ∼15″. We present ALMA Cycle 0 band 6 observations of the J = 14 – 13 rotational transition of CH{sub 3}CN in IRC +10216, obtained with an angular resolution of 0.″76 × 0.″61. The bulk of the emission is distributed as a hollow shell located at just ∼2″ from the star, with a void of emission in the central region up to a radius of ∼1″. This spatial distribution is markedly different from those found to date in this source for other molecules. Our analysis indicates that methyl cyanide is not formed in either the stellar photosphere or far in the outer envelope, but at radial distances as short as 1″–2″, reaching a maximum abundance of ∼0.02 molecules cm{sup −3} at 2″ from the star. Standard chemical models of IRC +10216 predict that the bulk of CH{sub 3}CN molecules should be present at a radius of ∼15″ where other species such as polyyne radicals and cyanopolyynes are observed, with an additional inner component within 1″ from the star. The non-uniform structure of the circumstellar envelope and grain surface processes are discussed as possible causes of the peculiar distribution of methyl cyanide in IRC +10216.

  8. Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422 The high-resolution ALMA and SMA view

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Magnus V.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter. Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 5(3,2)-4(4,1) transition of H2-18O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) as...

  9. Cuidadanos de ficción: discursos y derechos cuidadanos en las telenovelas mexicanas. El caso Alma de Hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARWIN FRANCO MIGUES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las telenovelas mexicanas han comenzado a "naturalizar" diversos derechos ciudadanos para construir un discurso social que, anclado al debate, busca promover la inhibición tanto del derecho como del ciudadano que lo ejerce. Este artículo aborda el análisis de la telenovela Alma de Hierro y la forma en cómo ésta representó la Ley de Interrupción Legal del Embarazo y la Ley de Sociedad de Convivencia.

  10. O estatuto político da amizade: A Alma do Osso, de Cao Guimarães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir do conceito de amizade proposto por Giorgio Agamben, este ensaio reflete, em uma interface entre estética e política, acerca das relações de poder presentes em A Alma do Osso (Cao Guimarães, 2004. O maior relevo é dado ao modo que o cineasta partilha, por meio do filme, sua existência com o ermitão Dominguinhos da Pedra, bem como as reverberações que isso garante à forma do documentário.

  11. Leibniz acerca de almas, corpos, agregados e substâncias na discussão com Fardella (1690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Defendo neste artigo, contra a interpretação de Robert Adams, a tese de que, na discussão com Fardella (1690, Leibniz adota uma ontologia realista, segundo a qual seres vivos, e não almas, são substâncias.In this article, I sustain, against Robert Adam's interpretation, the thesis that Leibniz, in the discussion with Fardella (1690, adopts a realistic ontology, according to which live beings, instead of souls, are substances.

  12. El surgimiento de la doctrina de la transmigración de las almas en la India

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle Armbruster, Marcos David

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se estudia el complejo proceso de configuración de la doctrina de la transmigración de las almas en la literatura védica. Después de una parte introductoria en la que se revisan los diferentes textos, sus escuelas y su localización, se estudian aquellos elementos de los himnos védicos que se pueden considerar antecedentes de esta doctrina y que han conducido o contribuido a su formulación. En los brāhmanas, los comentarios rituales, se desarrollan las distintas teorías que con...

  13. Estética y lógica social en las mesas para las almas maya-chortís

    OpenAIRE

    López García, Julián

    2000-01-01

    Los mayas-chortís del oriente de Guatemala preparan mesas para los difuntos en unas celebraciones rituales llamadas sikines. El presente artículo trata de la estética y la lógica social asociada a la preparación de esas mesas donde llegan a comer las almas de los difuntos. En las mesas para las almas se dispone una amplia gama de alimentos pero hay que observar algunas restricciones: no se podrá poner carne grasienta (como la de cerdo), no se podrán colocar bebidas esp...

  14. Solar ALMA: Observation-Based Simulations of the mm and sub-mm Emissions from Active Regions

    CERN Document Server

    Fleishman, Gregory; Nita, Gelu

    2015-01-01

    We developed an efficient algorithm integrated in our 3D modeling tool, GX Simulator (Nita et al. 2015), allowing quick computation of the synthetic intensity and polarization maps of solar active regions (AR) in the ALMA spectral range. The algorithm analyzes the photospheric input (white light and magnetogram) to classify a given photospheric pixel to belong to a given photospheric structure. Then, a 1D chromospheric model (Fontenla et al. 2009) is added on top of each pixel, which forms a chromospheric model of the AR. Next step is computation of the mm and sub-mm emission produced from this chromosphere model. A huge advantage of this approach is that emission from any given AR can be synthesized very fast, on the order of a few minutes after the AR selection. Using the GX Simulator tool it is also possible to produce synthetic maps of the microwave (gyroresonance) and EUV emission from the same AR model and compare them with the ALMA synthetic maps and with the corresponding observed microwave and/or EUV...

  15. ALMA observations of the vibrationally excited rotational CO transitionv= 1,J= 3 - 2 towards five AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, T.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Ramstedt, S.; Lombaert, R.; Maercker, M.; De Beck, E.

    2016-11-01

    We report the serendipitous detection with ALMA of the vibrationally-excited pure-rotational CO transition $v=1, J=3-2$ towards five asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, $o$ Cet, R Aqr, R Scl, W Aql, and $\\pi^1$ Gru. The observed lines are formed in the poorly-understood region located between the stellar surface and the region where the wind starts, the so-called warm molecular layer. We successfully reproduce the observed lines profiles using a simple model. We constrain the extents, densities, and kinematics of the region where the lines are produced. R Aqr and R Scl show inverse P-Cygni line profiles which indicate infall of material onto the stars. The line profiles of $o$ Cet and R Scl show variability. The serendipitous detection towards these five sources shows that vibrationally-excited rotational lines can be observed towards a large number of nearby AGB stars using ALMA. This opens a new possibility for the study of the innermost regions of AGB circumstellar envelopes.

  16. Outflow Structure and Velocity Field of Orion Source I: ALMA Imaging of SiO Isotopologue Maser and Thermal Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Niederhofer, Florian; Goddi, Ciriaco

    2012-01-01

    Using Science Verification data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have identified and imaged five rotational transitions (J=5-4 and J=6-5) of the three silicon monoxide isotopologues 28SiO v=0, 1, 2 and 29SiO v=0 and 28Si18O v=0 in the frequency range from 214 to 246 GHz towards the Orion BN/KL region. The emission of the ground-state 28SiO, 29SiO and 28Si18O shows an extended bipolar shape in the northeast-southwest direction at the position of Radio Source I, indicating that these isotopologues trace an outflow (~18 km/s, P.A. ~50deg, ~5000 AU in diameter) that is driven by this embedded high-mass young stellar object (YSO). Whereas on small scales (10-1000 AU) the outflow from Source I has a well-ordered spatial and velocity structure, as probed by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) imaging of SiO masers, the large scales (500-5000 AU) probed by thermal SiO with ALMA reveal a complex structure and velocity field, most likely related to the effects of the environment of ...

  17. The ALMA Early Science view of FUor/EXor objects. I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, Alice; Williams, Jonathan P; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ALMA survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circumstellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25\\as (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circumstellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of $106 \\pm 2$ mJy, characteristic radius of $\\sim$ 30 au, inclination of $14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5}$ deg, and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The \\co~emission is separated into distinct blue and red-shifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line-of-sight. The $^{13}$C...

  18. ALMA observations of the submillimetre hydrogen recombination line from the type 2 active nucleus of NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Takuma; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kohno, Kotaro

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen recombination lines at the submillimetre band (submm-RLs) can serve as probes of ionized gas without dust extinction. One therefore expects to probe the broad-line region (BLR) of an obscured (type 2) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with those lines. However, admitting the large uncertainty in the continuum level, here we report on the non-detection of both broad and narrow H26 α emission line (rest frequency = 353.62 GHz) towards the prototypical type 2 AGN of NGC 1068 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We also investigate the nature of BLR clouds that can potentially emit submm-RLs with model calculations. As a result, we suggest that clouds with an electron density (Ne) of ˜109 cm-3 can mainly contribute to broad submm-RLs in terms of the line flux. On the other hand, line flux from other density clouds would be insignificant considering their too large or too small line optical depths. However, even for the case of Ne ˜ 109 cm-3 clouds, we also suggest that the expected line flux is extremely low, which is impractical to detect even with ALMA.

  19. Macromineral Profile of Four Species of Earthworm Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudrilus eugeniae, Libyodrilus violaceus and Alma millsoni from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Dedeke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The macro mineral profile of four Nigerian species of earthworm; Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudriluseugeniae, Libyodrilus violaceus and Alma millsoni was conducted. using the atomic absorptionspectrophotometer. Five macro minerals calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and phosphorus weredetermined. Comparatively H. africanus recorded the highest mean Ca (0.494 ±0.038% while A. millsonirecorded the lowest (0.318±0.034%. Hyperiodrilus africanus also recorded the highest mean Mg(0.154±0.015% whereas L. violaceus recorded the lowest (0.118±0.017%. Alma millsoni recorded the highestmean K (0.045±0.003% whereas H. africanus recorded the lowest (0.027±0.002%. The highest mean Na(74.209±13.699 ppm was recorded by A. millsoni while the lowest (19.813±2.087 ppm was recorded byH. africanus. Also A. millsoni recorded the highest mean P (0.701±0.022% while H.africanus recorded thelowest (0.456±0.034%. A significant difference was observed in the mean % Ca, % M g, % K, ppmNa and %P between the four species of earthworms (p<0.01. The study revealed that these five macro minerals whichare requirements of animals w ere well represented and adequate in the earthworms. Therefore, the use of mealprepared from these species as mineral supplement in fish diets could be encouraged.

  20. ALMA Observations of Anisotropic Dust Mass-loss in the Inner Circumstellar Environment of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, E; Richards, A M S; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L; Harper, G M; Humphreys, E M; Kervella, P; Khouri, T; Muller, S

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass-loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here, we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R$_{\\star}$ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R$_{\\star}$) south-east of the star and has a dust mass of at least $2.5\\times 10^{-4} $M$_{\\odot}$. It has an emissivity spectral index of $\\beta =-0.1$ at its peak, implying that it is either optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of $T_{d}\\lesssim 100$ K, and/or contains very large dust grains. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to th...

  1. ALMA observations of the vibrationally-excited rotational CO transition $v=1, J=3-2$ towards five AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Khouri, T; Ramstedt, S; Lombaert, R; Maercker, M; De Beck, E

    2016-01-01

    We report the serendipitous detection with ALMA of the vibrationally-excited pure-rotational CO transition $v=1, J=3-2$ towards five asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, $o$ Cet, R Aqr, R Scl, W Aql, and $\\pi^1$ Gru. The observed lines are formed in the poorly-understood region located between the stellar surface and the region where the wind starts, the so-called warm molecular layer. We successfully reproduce the observed lines profiles using a simple model. We constrain the extents, densities, and kinematics of the region where the lines are produced. R Aqr and R Scl show inverse P-Cygni line profiles which indicate infall of material onto the stars. The line profiles of $o$ Cet and R Scl show variability. The serendipitous detection towards these five sources shows that vibrationally-excited rotational lines can be observed towards a large number of nearby AGB stars using ALMA. This opens a new possibility for the study of the innermost regions of AGB circumstellar envelopes.

  2. Sub-mm free-free emission from the winds of massive stars in the age of ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Yates, S.; Stevens, I. R.; Crossland, T. D.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal radio and sub-mm emission from the winds of massive stars is investigated and the contribution to the emission due to the stellar wind acceleration region and clumping of the wind is quantified. Building upon established theory, a method for calculating the thermal radio and sub-mm emission using results for a line-driven stellar outflow according to Castor, Abbott & Klein (1975) is presented. The results show strong variation of the spectral index for 102 GHz wind acceleration region and clumping of the wind, leading to a strong dependence on the wind velocity law and clumping parameters. The Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-mm Array (ALMA) is the first observatory to have both the spectral window and sensitivity to observe at the high frequencies required to probe the acceleration regions of massive stars. The deviations in the predicted flux levels as a result of the inclusion of the wind acceleration region and clumping are sufficient to be detected by ALMA, through deviations in the spectral index in different portions of the radio/sub-mm spectra of massive stars, for a range of reasonable mass-loss rates and distances. Consequently both mechanisms need to be included to fully understand the mass-loss rates of massive stars.

  3. ALMA-SZ Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock at Half the Age of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Kaustuv; Erler, Jens; Eckert, Dominique; Vazza, Franco; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Tozzi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA measurement of a merger shock using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signal, at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at $z \\approx 0.9$. Multi-wavelength analysis in combination with the archival Chandra data and a high-resolution radio image provides a consistent picture of the thermal and non-thermal signal variation across the shock front, and helps to put robust constraints on the shock Mach number as well as the relic magnetic field. We employ a Bayesian analysis technique for modeling the SZ and X-ray data self-consistently, illustrating respective parameter degeneracies. Combined results indicate a shock with Mach number ${\\cal M} = 2.4^{+1.3}_{-0.6}$, which in turn suggests a high value of the magnetic field (of the order $4-10 ~\\mu$G) to account for the observed relic width at 2 GHz. At roughly half the current age of the universe, this is the highest redshift direct detection of a cluster shock to-date, and one of the first instances of ALMA S...

  4. Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1332 from ALMA Observations at 0.044 arcsecond Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Boizelle, Benjamin D.; Darling, Jeremy; Baker, Andrew J.; Buote, David A.; Ho, Luis C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.

    2016-05-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 3 observations of CO(2–1) emission from the circumnuclear disk in the E/S0 galaxy NGC 1332 at 0.″044 resolution. The disk exhibits regular rotational kinematics and central high-velocity emission (±500 km s‑1) consistent with the presence of a compact central mass. We construct models for a thin, dynamically cold disk in the gravitational potential of the host galaxy and black hole and fit the beam-smeared model line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Model fits successfully reproduce the disk kinematics out to r = 200 pc. Fitting models just to spatial pixels within projected r = 50 pc of the nucleus (two times larger than the black hole’s gravitational radius of influence), we find {M}{BH}=({6.64}-0.63+0.65)× {10}8 {M}ȯ . This observation demonstrates ALMA’s powerful capability to determine the masses of supermassive black holes by resolving gas kinematics on small angular scales in galaxy nuclei.

  5. Distributions of molecules in the circumnuclear disk and surrounding starburst ring in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 observed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Shuro; Kohno, Kotaro; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric; Tamura, Yoichi; Izumi, Takuma; Taniguchi, Akio; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive observations with ALMA allow astronomers to observe the detailed distributions of molecules with relatively weak intensity in nearby galaxies. In particular, we report distributions of several molecular transitions including shock and dust related species ($^{13}$CO $J$ = 1--0, C$^{18}$O $J$ = 1--0, $^{13}$CN $N$ = 1--0, CS $J$ = 2--1, SO $J_N$ = 3$_2$--2$_1$, HNCO $J_{Ka,Kc}$ = 5$_{0,5}$--4$_{0,4}$, HC$_3$N $J$ = 11--10, 12--11, CH$_3$OH $J_K$ = 2$_K$--1$_K$, and CH$_3$CN $J_K$ = 6$_K$--5$_K$) in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 observed with the ALMA early science program. The central $\\sim$1 arcmin ($\\sim$4.3 kpc) of this galaxy was observed in the 100 GHz region covering $\\sim$96--100 GHz and $\\sim$108--111 GHz with an angular resolution of $\\sim4"\\times2"$ (290 pc$\\times$140 pc) to study the effects of an active galactic nucleus and its surrounding starburst ring on molecular abundances. Here, we present images and report a classification of molecular distributions into three main categorie...

  6. Exocometary gas structure, origin and physical properties around $\\beta$ Pictoris through ALMA CO multi-transition observations

    CERN Document Server

    Matrà, L; Wyatt, M C; Kral, Q; Wilner, D J; Panić, O; Hughes, A M; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Hales, A; Augereau, J -C; Greaves, J; Roberge, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations unveiled the structure of CO gas in the 23 Myr-old $\\beta$ Pictoris planetary system, a component that has been discovered in many similarly young debris disks. We here present ALMA CO J=2-1 observations, at an improved spectro-spatial resolution and sensitivity compared to previous CO J=3-2 observations. We find that 1) the CO clump is radially broad, favouring the resonant migration over the giant impact scenario for its dynamical origin, 2) the CO disk is vertically tilted compared to the main dust disk, at an angle consistent with the scattered light warp. We then use position-velocity diagrams to trace Keplerian radii in the orbital plane of the disk. Assuming a perfectly edge-on geometry, this shows a CO scale height increasing with radius as $R^{0.75}$, and an electron density (derived from CO line ratios through NLTE analysis) in agreement with thermodynamical models. Furthermore, we show how observations of optically thin line ratios can solve the primordial versus secondary ...

  7. Dense core properties in the Infrared Dark cloud G14.225-0.506 revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Zhang, Qizhou; Busquet, Gemma; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Palau, Aina; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a dense core survey toward the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506 at 3 mm continuum emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). This survey covers the two hub-filament systems with an angular resolution of $\\sim3$\\arcsec ($\\sim0.03$ pc). We identified 48 dense cores. Twenty out of the 48 cores are protostellar due to their association with young stellar objects (YSOs) and/or X-ray point-sources, while the other 28 cores are likely prestellar and unrelated with known IR or X-ray emission. Using APEX 870 $\\mu$m continuum emission, we also identified the 18 clumps hosting these cores. Through virial analysis using the ALMA N$_2$H$^+$ and VLA/Effelsberg NH$_3$ molecular line data, we found a decreasing trend in the virial parameter with decreasing scales from filaments to clumps, and then to cores. The virial parameters of $0.1-1.3$ in cores, indicate that cores are likely undergoing dynamical collapse. The cumulative Core Mass Function (CMF) for the prestellar cores ca...

  8. SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin^2 Deep Survey: Stacking of Rest-Frame Near-Infrared Selected Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina I; Dunlop, James S; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanish, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tamura, Yoichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Wilson, Grant W; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Foucaud, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    We present stacking analyses on our ALMA deep 1.1 mm imaging in the SXDF using 1.6 {\\mu}m and 3.6 {\\mu}m selected galaxies in the CANDELS WFC3 catalog. We detect a stacked flux of ~0.03-0.05 mJy, corresponding to LIR < 10^11 Lsun and a star formation rate (SFR) of ~ 15 Msun/yr at z = 2. We find that galaxies brighter in the rest-frame near-infrared tend to be also brighter at 1.1 mm, and galaxies fainter than m[3.6um] = 23 do not produce detectable 1.1 mm emission. This suggests a correlation between stellar mass and SFR, but outliers to this correlation are also observed, suggesting strongly boosted star formation or extremely large extinction. We also find tendencies that redder galaxies and galaxies at higher redshifts are brighter at 1.1 mm. Our field contains z ~ 2.5 H-alpha emitters and a bright single-dish source. However, we do not find evidence of bias in our results caused by the bright source. By combining the fluxes of sources detected by ALMA and fluxes of faint sources detected with stacking,...

  9. ALMA-resolved salt emission traces the chemical footprint and inner wind morphology of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decin, L.; Richards, A. M. S.; Millar, T. J.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Homan, W.; Smith, N.; Van de Sande, M.; Walsh, C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. At the end of their lives, most stars lose a significant amount of mass through a stellar wind. The specific physical and chemical circumstances that lead to the onset of the stellar wind for cool luminous stars are not yet understood. Complex geometrical morphologies in the circumstellar envelopes prove that various dynamical and chemical processes are interlocked and that their relative contributions are not easy to disentangle. Aims: We aim to study the inner-wind structure (Rdensity structure in the inner envelope and to examine the chemical interaction between gas and dust species. Methods: We analyse high spatial resolution (~0.̋24×0.̋13) ALMA science verification (SV) data in band 7, in which four thermal emission lines of gaseous sodium chloride (NaCl) are present at high signal-to-noise ratio. Results: For the first time, the NaCl emission in the inner wind region of VY CMa is spatially resolved. The ALMA observations reveal the contribution of up to four different spatial regions. The NaCl emission pattern is different compared to the dust continuum and TiO2 emission already analysed from the ALMA SV data. The emission can be reconciled with an axisymmetric geometry, where the lower density polar/rotation axis has a position angle of ~50° measured from north to east. However, this picture cannot capture the full morphological diversity, and discrete mass ejection events need to be invoked to explain localized higher-density regions. The velocity traced by the gaseous NaCl line profiles is significantly lower than the average wind terminal velocity, and much slower than some of the fastest mass ejections, signalling a wide range of characteristic speeds for the mass loss. Gaseous NaCl is detected far beyond the main dust condensation region. Realising the refractory nature of this metal halide, this hints at a chemical process that prevents all NaCl from condensing onto dust grains. We show that in the case of the ratio of the surface binding

  10. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. I. Dust and Gas Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-millimeter survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with {M}* \\gt 0.1 {M}ȯ in the young (1–3 Myr), nearby (150–200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 μm continuum and the 13CO and C18O 3–2 lines. We use the sub-millimeter continuum to constrain {M}{{dust}} to a few Martian masses (0.2–0.4 M ⊕) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain {M}{{gas}} to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming an interstellar medium (ISM)-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in continuum, 36 in 13CO, and 11 in C18O at \\gt 3σ significance. Stacking individually undetected sources limits their average dust mass to ≲ 6 Lunar masses (0.03 M ⊕), indicating rapid evolution once disk clearing begins. We find a positive correlation between {M}{{dust}} and M *, and present the first evidence for a positive correlation between {M}{{gas}} and M *, which may explain the dependence of giant planet frequency on host star mass. The mean dust mass in Lupus is 3× higher than in Upper Sco, while the dust mass distributions in Lupus and Taurus are statistically indistinguishable. Most detected disks have {M}{{gas}}≲ 1 {M}{{Jup}} and gas-to-dust ratios \\lt 100, assuming an ISM-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance; unless CO is very depleted, the inferred gas depletion indicates that planet formation is well underway by a few Myr and may explain the unexpected prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  11. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. I. Dust and Gas Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-millimeter survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with {M}* \\gt 0.1 {M}⊙ in the young (1-3 Myr), nearby (150-200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 μm continuum and the 13CO and C18O 3-2 lines. We use the sub-millimeter continuum to constrain {M}{{dust}} to a few Martian masses (0.2-0.4 M ⊕) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain {M}{{gas}} to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming an interstellar medium (ISM)-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in continuum, 36 in 13CO, and 11 in C18O at \\gt 3σ significance. Stacking individually undetected sources limits their average dust mass to ≲ 6 Lunar masses (0.03 M ⊕), indicating rapid evolution once disk clearing begins. We find a positive correlation between {M}{{dust}} and M *, and present the first evidence for a positive correlation between {M}{{gas}} and M *, which may explain the dependence of giant planet frequency on host star mass. The mean dust mass in Lupus is 3× higher than in Upper Sco, while the dust mass distributions in Lupus and Taurus are statistically indistinguishable. Most detected disks have {M}{{gas}}≲ 1 {M}{{Jup}} and gas-to-dust ratios \\lt 100, assuming an ISM-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance; unless CO is very depleted, the inferred gas depletion indicates that planet formation is well underway by a few Myr and may explain the unexpected prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  12. ALMA Long Baseline Observations of the Strongly Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy HATLAS J090311.6+003906 at z=3.042

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Hunter, T R; Hodge, J A; Pérez, L M; Andreani, P; Brogan, C L; Cox, P; Martin, S; Zwaan, M; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Impellizzeri, C M V; Fomalont, E B; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Hills, R E; Hirota, A; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Nakanishi, K; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Hales, A S; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Ao, Y; Di Francesco, J; Hatsukade, B; Hatziminaoglou, E; Mangum, J; Matsuda, Y; van Kampen, E; Wootten, A; de Gregorio, I; Dumas, G; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Iono, D; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lonsdale, A; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Videla, L; Villard, E; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present initial results of very high resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the $z$=3.042 gravitationally lensed galaxy HATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81). These observations were carried out using an extended configuration as part of Science Verification for the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, with baselines of up to 15 km. We present continuum imaging at 151, 236 and 290 GHz, at angular resolutions as fine as 23 milliarcseconds (mas; corresponding to an un-magnified spatial scale of 180 pc at z=3.042). The ALMA images clearly show two main gravitational arc components with emission tracing a radius of 1.5". We also present imaging of CO(10-9), CO(8-7), CO(5-4) and H2O line emission. The CO data has an angular resolution of 170 mas and the emission is found to broadly trace the gravitational arc structures. We detect H2O line emission but only using the shortest baselines. The ALMA continuum and spectral line fluxes are consistent with previous Plateau de Bure Inter...

  13. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters

  14. ALMA observations of a z ≈ 3.1 protocluster: star formation from active galactic nuclei and Lyman-alpha blobs in an overdense environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D. M.; Simpson, J. M.; Harrison, C. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Smail, I.; Geach, J. E.; Hickox, R. C.; Hine, N. K.; Karim, A.; Kubo, M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Matsuda, Y.; Rosario, D. J.; Stanley, F.; Swinbank, A. M.; Umehata, H.; Yamada, T.

    2016-09-01

    We exploit Atacama Large Interferometer Array (ALMA) 870 μm observations to measure the star formation rates (SFRs) of eight X-ray detected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a z ≈ 3.1 protocluster, four of which reside in extended Lyα haloes (often termed Lyman-alpha blobs: LABs). Three of the AGNs are detected by ALMA and have implied SFRs of ≈220-410 M⊙ yr-1; the non-detection of the other five AGNs places SFR upper limits of ≲210 M⊙ yr-1. The mean SFR of the protocluster AGNs (≈110-210 M⊙ yr-1) is consistent (within a factor of ≈0.7-2.3) with that found for co-eval AGNs in the field, implying that the galaxy growth is not significantly accelerated in these systems. However, when also considering ALMA data from the literature, we find evidence for elevated mean SFRs (up-to a factor of ≈5.9 over the field) for AGNs at the protocluster core, indicating that galaxy growth is significantly accelerated in the central regions of the protocluster. We also show that all of the four protocluster LABs are associated with an ALMA counterpart within the extent of their Lyα emission. The SFRs of the ALMA sources within the LABs (≈150-410 M⊙ yr-1) are consistent with those expected for co-eval massive star-forming galaxies in the field. Furthermore, the two giant LABs (with physical extents of ≳100 kpc) do not host more luminous star formation than the smaller LABs, despite being an order of magnitude brighter in Lyα emission. We use these results to discuss star formation as the power source of LABs.

  15. Composição florística da floresta estacional decídua montana de Serra das Almas, CE, Brasil Flora of seasonal deciduous montane forest at Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacira Rabelo Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available No domínio semi-árido brasileiro, a flora das bacias sedimentares ainda é pouco conhecida, mas os levantamentos já existentes indicam que há grande heterogeneidade florística e fisionômica. Mesmo áreas geográficas próximas podem apresentar dissimilaridade florística. Visando testar esta hipótese, a composição florística e o espectro biológico da floresta estacional decídua de Serra das Almas, estado do Ceará, foram analisados e comparados com os de 14 áreas sedimentares no Nordeste. Foram encontradas 104 espécies e 39 famílias em 1 ha analisado. Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Erythroxylaceae e Myrtaceae foram as famílias com maior riqueza e fanerófitos a forma de vida predominante (87%. Arbóreas e arbustivas representaram 72% das espécies, trepadeiras 15%, subarbustos 6% e herbáceas 7%. A análise de agrupamento da composição dos fanerófitos, usando o índice de Jaccard e as médias de grupo a posteriori, indicou a formação de grupos florísticos entre áreas geográficas mais próximas. Porém, não foi significativo pelo teste de Mantel, o que demonstra a ocorrência de alta heterogeneidade florística mesmo entre áreas geográficas próximas. A flora da floresta da Serra das Almas apresentou maior semelhança com as formações encontradas no planalto da Ibiapaba.In the Brazilian semi-arid region, the flora in the sedimentary basins has been poorly studied, but the few surveys already done indicate great floristic and physiognomic heterogeneity. Even neighboring sites may be floristically different. To test this hypothesis, the floristic composition and the biological spectrum of the seasonal deciduous forest at Serra das Almas, Ceará, was analyzed and compared to those of 14 other northeastern Brazil sedimentary areas. A total of 104 species belonging to 40 families were found at the 1 ha site. Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Erythroxylaceae and Myrtaceae were the families with the most species and phanerophytes the main

  16. Exploring molecular complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Alkanethiols and alkanols in Sagittarius B2(N2)

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H S P; Xu, L -H; Lees, R M; Garrod, R T; Walters, A; van Wijngaarden, J; Lewen, F; Schlemmer, S; Menten, K M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five decades, radio astronomy has shown that molecular complexity is a natural outcome of interstellar chemistry, in particular in star forming regions. However, the pathways that lead to the formation of complex molecules are not completely understood and the depth of chemical complexity has not been entirely revealed. In addition, the sulfur chemistry in the dense interstellar medium is not well understood. We want to know the relative abundances of alkanethiols and alkanols in the Galactic Center source Sagittarius B2(N2), the northern hot molecular core in Sgr B2(N), whose relatively small line widths are favorable for studying the molecular complexity in space. We investigated spectroscopic parameter sets that were able to reproduce published laboratory rotational spectra of ethanethiol and studied effects that modify intensities in the predicted rotational spectrum of ethanol. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in its Cycles~0 and 1 for a spectral line survey of Sagittarius ...

  17. Bright [CII] and dust emission in three z>6.6 quasar host galaxies observed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Venemans, B P; Zschaechner, L; Decarli, R; De Rosa, G; Findlay, J R; McMahon, R G; Sutherland, W J

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [CII] 158 micron emission line and the underlying far-infrared continuum of three quasars at 6.6~6 quasar hosts correlate with the quasar's bolometric luminosity. In one quasar, the [CII] line is significantly redshifted by ~1700 km/s with respect to the MgII broad emission line. Comparing to values in the literature, we find that, on average, the MgII is blueshifted by 480 km/s (with a standard deviation of 630 km/s) with respect to the host galaxy redshift, i.e. one of our quasars is an extreme outlier. Through modeling we can rule out a flat rotation curve for our brightest [CII] emitter. Finally, we find that the ratio of black hole mass to host galaxy (dynamical) mass is higher by a factor 3-4 (with significant scatter) than local relations.

  18. ALMA redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey: The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, A; Marrone, D P; Vieira, J D; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A D; Bleem, L E; Bock, J J; Bothwell, M; Bradford, C M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Downes, T P; Fassnacht, C D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Halverson, N W; Hezaveh, Y D; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Husband, K; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Murphy, E J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Rosenman, M; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-01-01

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensd dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The sources were selected to have S_1.4mm>20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S_843MHz=3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of =2.3 and for which only 10-15% of the population is expected to be at z>3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

  19. revealing H{sub 2}D{sup +} depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, R. K. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Di Francesco, J. [National Research Council Canada, Radio Astronomy Program, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Bourke, T. L. [Radio and Geoastronomy Division, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, MS-42, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Caselli, P. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Jørgensen, J. K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø. (Denmark); Pineda, J. E. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Wong, M., E-mail: friesen@dunlap.utoronto.ca [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2014-12-10

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H{sub 2}D{sup +} 1{sub 10}-1{sub 11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M ≲ 0.02 M {sub ☉} (∼20 M {sub Jup}). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates that these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H{sub 2}D{sup +} is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ∼150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low-luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H{sub 2}D{sup +}) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ∼ 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless, but we cannot rule out the presence of a low-luminosity source, perhaps surrounded by a pseudodisk. These data observationally reveal the earliest stages of the formation of circumstellar accretion regions and agree with theoretical predictions that disk formation can occur very early in the star formation process, coeval with or just after the formation of a first hydrostatic core or protostar.

  20. ALMA and VLA measurements of frequency-dependent time lags in Sagittarius A*: evidence for a relativistic outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Falcke, Heino; Law, Casey J.; Barkats, Denis; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Brunthaler, Andreas; Gammie, Charles; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Markoff, Sera; Menten, Karl M.; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Peck, Alison; Rushton, Anthony P.; Schaaf, Reinhold; Wright, Melvyn

    2015-04-01

    Context. Radio and mm-wavelength observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the radio source associated with the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy, show that it behaves as a partially self-absorbed synchrotron-emitting source. The measured size of Sgr A* shows that the mm-wavelength emission comes from a small region and consists of the inner accretion flow and a possible collimated outflow. Existing observations of Sgr A* have revealed a time lag between light curves at 43 GHz and 22 GHz, which is consistent with a rapidly expanding plasma flow and supports the presence of a collimated outflow from the environment of an accreting black hole. Aims: Here we wish to measure simultaneous frequency-dependent time lags in the light curves of Sgr A* across a broad frequency range to constrain direction and speed of the radio-emitting plasma in the vicinity of the black hole. Methods: Light curves of Sgr A* were taken in May 2012 using ALMA at 100 GHz using the VLA at 48, 39, 37, 27, 25.5, and 19 GHz. As a result of elevation limits and the longitude difference between the stations, the usable overlap in the light curves is approximately four hours. Although Sgr A* was in a relatively quiet phase, the high sensitivity of ALMA and the VLA allowed us to detect and fit maxima of an observed minor flare where flux density varied by ~10%. Results: The fitted times of flux density maxima at frequencies from 100 GHz to 19 GHz, as well as a cross-correlation analysis, reveal a simple frequency-dependent time lag relation where maxima at higher frequencies lead those at lower frequencies. Taking the observed size-frequency relation of Sgr A* into account, these time lags suggest a moderately relativistic (lower estimates: 0.5c for two-sided, 0.77c for one-sided) collimated outflow.

  1. Towards detecting methanol emission in low-mass protoplanetary discs with ALMA: the role of non-LTE excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, S. Yu.; Semenov, D. A.; Sobolev, A. M.; Gray, M. D.

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of organic content of protoplanetary discs is one of the main goals of the planet formation studies. As an attempt to guide the observational searches for weak lines of complex species in discs, we modelled the (sub)millimetre spectrum of gaseous methanol (CH3OH), one of the simplest organic molecules, in the representative T Tauri system. We used 1+1D disc physical model coupled to the gas-grain ALCHEMIC chemical model with and without 2D-turbulent mixing. The computed CH3OH abundances along with the CH3OH scheme of energy levels of ground and excited torsional states were used to produce model spectra obtained with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) 3D line radiative transfer code LIME. We found that the modelled non-LTE intensities of the CH3OH lines can be lower by factor of >10-100 than those calculated under assumption of LTE. Though population inversion occurs in the model calculations for many (sub)millimetre transitions, it does not lead to the strong maser amplification and noticeably high line intensities. We identify the strongest CH3OH (sub)millimetre lines that could be searched for with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in nearby discs. The two best candidates are the CH3OH 50 - 40A+ (241.791 GHz) and 5-1 - 4-1E (241.767 GHz) lines, which could possibly be detected with the ˜5σ signal-to-noise ratio after ˜3 h of integration with the full ALMA array.

  2. Vliv legislativního prostředí ČR-upravující prodej léčiv- na věrnostní program lékárny Alma

    OpenAIRE

    SKÁLOVÁ, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis has been prepared on the theme: The influence of the legislative environment governing the sale of pharmaceuticals in ČR - on the loyalty program of Pharmacy ALMA. In the first part was performed an analysis of the legislative environment. In another part of thesis the loyalty program was evaluated. Loyalty program was evaluated as a whole. Were also evaluated marketing events held in the Pharmacy ALMA during 2010 and 2011. The result of thesis was that the loyalty program...

  3. ALMA observations of a z~3.1 Protocluster: Star Formation from Active Galactic Nuclei and Lyman-Alpha Blobs in an Overdense Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, D M; Harrison, C M; Mullaney, J R; Smail, I; Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Hine, N K; Karim, A; Kubo, M; Lehmer, B D; Matsuda, Y; Rosario, D J; Stanley, F; Swinbank, A M; Umehata, H; Yamada, T

    2016-01-01

    We exploit ALMA 870um observations to measure the star-formation rates (SFRs) of eight X-ray detected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) in a z~3.1 protocluster, four of which reside in extended Ly-alpha haloes (often termed Ly-alpha blobs: LABs). Three of the AGNs are detected by ALMA and have implied SFRs of ~220-410~M_sun/yr; the non detection of the other five AGNs places SFR upper limits of 100 kpc) do not host more luminous star formation than the smaller LABs, despite being an order of magnitude brighter in Ly-alpha emission. We use these results to discuss star formation as the power source of LABs.

  4. ALMA Observations of the Host Galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23: Deep Limits on Obscured Star Formation 630 Million Years After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Chary, R -R; Laskar, T; Chornock, R; Tanvir, N R; Stanway, E R; Levan, A J; Levesque, E M; Davies, J E

    2014-01-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3-sigma limits of Fnu(222 GHz)4 (Lyman break galaxies, Ly-alpha emitters, and submillimeter galaxies), and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z>4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  5. A new submm source within a few arcseconds of $\\alpha$ Centauri: ALMA discovers the most distant object of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; O'Gorman, E; Bertone, E; Chavez, M; De la Luz, V

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the formation of stellar and planetary systems requires the understanding of the structure and dynamics of their outmost regions, where large bodies are not expected to form. Serendipitous searches for Sedna-like objects allows the observation of regions that are normally not surveyed. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is particularly sensitive to point sources and it presents currently the only means to detect Sedna-like objects far beyond their perihelia. ALMA observations 10 months apart revealed a new blackbody point source that is apparently comoving with $\\alpha$ Cen B. We exclude that source to be a sub-/stellar member of the $\\alpha$ Centauri system, but argue that it is either an extreme TNO, a Super-Earth or a very cool brown dwarf in the outer realm of the solar system.

  6. Software as a Service: Herausforderungen bei der Einführung des Bibliothekssystems Alma in der Freien Universität Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderne Bibliothekssysteme werden zunehmend als Software as a Service (SaaS angeboten. Die Berliner Bibliotheken der Freien Universität Berlin, der Humboldt Universität, der Technischen Universität und der Universität der Künste haben für 2016 gemeinsam den Umstieg auf das cloudbasierte Bibliothekssystem Alma beschlossen. Der Aufsatz berichtet über die Herausforderungen während der zweijährigen Vertragsverhandlungen mit besonderem Augenmerk auf den Datenschutz.  Modern library management systems are increasingly offered as Software as a Service (SaaS.The libraries of the Free University Berlin, the Humboldt university, the Technical university and the University of Arts decided concertedly to move in 2016 to the cloud based next generation library management system Alma. The article reviews the challenges during the contract negotiations with a special focus on data protection.

  7. ALMA Investigation of Vibrationally Excited HCN/HCO+/HNC Emission Lines in the AGN-Hosting Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 20551-4250

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Izumi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy, IRAS 20551-4250, at HCN/HCO+/HNC J=3-2 lines at both vibrational-ground (v=0) and vibrationally excited (v2=1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v2=1f J=4-3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO+/HNC J=3-2 emission lines at v=0 are clearly detected. The HCN and HNC v2=1f J=3-2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO+ v2=1f J=3-2 emission line is not. Given the high-energy level of v2=1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5-35 micron spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced, if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO+ and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation ...

  8. The ALMA Frontier Fields Survey I: 1.1 mm Continuum Detections in Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403 and MACSJ1149.5+2223

    CERN Document Server

    González-López, J; Romero-Cañizales, C; Kneissl, R; Villard, E; Carvajal, R; Kim, S; Laporte, N; Anguita, T; Aravena, M; Bouwens, R J; Bradley, L; Carrasco, M; Demarco, R; Ford, H; Ibar, E; Infante, L; Messias, H; Arancibia, A M Muñoz; Nagar, N; Padilla, N; Treister, E; Troncoso, P; Zitrin, A

    2016-01-01

    Dusty star-forming galaxies are among the most prodigious systems at high redshift (z>1), characterized by high star formation rates and huge dust reservoirs. The bright end of this population has been well characterized in recent years, but considerable uncertainties remain for fainter dusty star-forming galaxies, which are responsible for the bulk of star formation at high redshift and thus play a key role in galaxy growth and evolution. In this first paper of our series, we describe our methods for finding high redshift faint dusty galaxies using millimeter observations with ALMA. We obtained ALMA 1.1 mm mosaic images for three strong-lensing galaxy clusters from the Frontier Fields survey. The 2'x2' mosaics overlap with the deep HST WFC3/IR footprints and encompass the high magnification regions of each cluster. The combination of extremely high ALMA sensitivity and the magnification power of these clusters allows us to systematically probe the sub-mJy population of dusty star-forming galaxies over a larg...

  9. Hygienic sanitary conditions of sun dried meat marketed in Cruz das Almas, Bahia and detection of strains with antimicrobial resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Suely Evangelista-Barreto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological, physical and chemical qualities of sun dried meat marketed in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, as well as trace the resistance profile of the isolated strains against different commercial pharmacos. There were collected and analysed 36 samples of sun dried meat, acquired in 12 different establishment (supermarkets, mini-markets, butchers and a municipal market, and quantified mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, E. coli and presence of Salmonella spp., as well as specific content humidity, water activity (Aw and chloride. In 83% of the establishments, mesophilic bacteria counted > 105 CFU.g-1 and 58% coliforms at 35º C > 105 NMP.g- 1 and coliforms at 45ºC > 103 NMP.g-1. Escherichia coli was isolated in 75% of the establishments. Staphylococcus spp. ranged from 4.8 x 104 to 9.0 x 108 UFC.g-1, not being isolated Staphylococcus coagulase positive. Salmonella was found in 25% of the establishments. The humidity in the sun dried meat samples ranged from 52.37% to 74.69%, the Aw from 0.87 to 0.95 and the chloride from 3.16% to 5.98%. Salmonella was 100% resistant to tetracycline, acid nalidixic, cephalothin and erythromycin, with intermediate resistance to ampicillin and gentamicin. Escherichia coli was resistant to erythromycin (100%, ampicillin (68.7%, cephalothin (71.4%, tetracycline (64.2%, nalidixic acid (35.7% and gentamicin (12.5%. Multiresistant strains of E. coli were observed in 87.5% of the isolates, and it happened that in 28.6% of the resistance it was mediated by plasmids. Multidrug resistance profile was observed in all Salmonella, with a strain showing plasmid resistance. The marketing of sun dried meat in Cruz das Almas presents hygienic and sanitary failures due to it’s high microbial loads. This fact undermines the safety and product lifetime, and may also pose risk to public health since it markets strains with antimicrobial.

  10. ALMA observations of infalling flows toward the Keplerian disk around the class I protostar L1489 IRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Ohashi, Nagayoshi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Aikawa, Yuri [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Aso, Yusuke [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Koyamatsu, Shin [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Saigo, Kazuya [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saito, Masao [Joint ALMA Observatory, Ave. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Tomida, Kengo [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Tomisaka, Kohji, E-mail: hwyen@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-09-20

    We have conducted ALMA observations in the 1.3 mm continuum and {sup 12}CO (2-1), C{sup 18}O (2-1), and SO (5{sub 6}-4{sub 5}) lines toward L1489 IRS, a Class I protostar surrounded by a Keplerian disk and an infalling envelope. The Keplerian disk is clearly identified in the {sup 12}CO and C{sup 18}O emission, and its outer radius (∼700 AU) and mass (∼0.005 M {sub ☉}) are comparable to those of disks around T Tauri stars. The protostellar mass is estimated to be 1.6 M {sub ☉} with the inclination angle of 66°. In addition to the Keplerian disk, there are blueshifted and redshifted off-axis protrusions seen in the C{sup 18}O emission pointing toward the north and the south, respectively, adjunct to the middle part of the Keplerian disk. The shape and kinematics of these protrusions can be interpreted as streams of infalling flows with a conserved angular momentum following parabolic trajectories toward the Keplerian disk, and the mass infalling rate is estimated to be ∼5 × 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. The specific angular momentum of the infalling flows (∼2.5 × 10{sup –3} km s{sup –1} pc) is comparable to that at the outer radius of the Keplerian disk (∼4.8 × 10{sup –3} km s{sup –1} pc). The SO emission is elongated along the disk major axis and exhibits a linear velocity gradient along the axis, which is interpreted to mean that the SO emission primarily traces a ring region in the flared Keplerian disk at radii of ∼250-390 AU. The local enhancement of the SO abundance in the ring region can be due to the accretion shocks at the centrifugal radius where the infalling flows fall onto the disk. Our ALMA observations unveiled both the Keplerian disk and the infalling gas onto the disk, and the disk can further grow by accreting material and angular momenta from the infalling gas.

  11. Malaria control in the African Region: perceptions and viewspoints on proceedings of the Africa Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009 a total of 153,408 malaria deaths were reported in Africa. Eleven countries showed a reduction of more than 50% in either confirmed malaria cases or malaria admissions and deaths in recent years. However, many African countries are not on track to achieve the malaria component of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 6. The African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA working session at the 15th African Union Summit discussed the bottlenecks to achieving MDG 6 (specifically halting and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria by 2015, success factors, and what countries needed to do to accelerate achievement of the MDG. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the ALMA working session. Methods Working methods of the session included speeches and statements by invited speakers and high-level panel discussions. Discussion The main bottlenecks identified related to the capacity of the health systems to deliver quality care and accessibility issues; need for strong, decentralized malaria-control programmes with linkages with other health and development sectors, the civil society and private sector entities; benefits of co-implementation of malaria control programmes with child survival or other public health interventions; systematic application of integrated promotive, preventive, diagnostic and case management interventions with full community participation; adapting approaches to local political, socio-cultural and administrative environments. The following prerequisites for success were identified: a clear vision and effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; high level political commitment to ensure adequate capacity in expertise, skill mix and number of managers, technicians and service providers; national ownership, intersectoral collaboration and accountability, as well as strong civil society and private sector involvement; functional epidemiological surveillance systems

  12. ALMA Observations of the Molecular Gas in the Debris Disk of the 30 Myr Old Star HD 21997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kospal, A.; Moor, A.; Juhasz, A.; Abraham, P.; Apai, D.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C. A.; Henning, Th.; Hughes, A. M.; Kiss, Cs.; Pascucci, I.; Schmalzl, M.

    2013-01-01

    The 30 Myr old A3-type star HD 21997 is one of the two known debris dust disks having a measurable amount of cold molecular gas. With the goal of understanding the physical state, origin, and evolution of the gas in young debris disks, we obtained CO line observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Here, we report on the detection of (12)CO and (13)CO in the J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 transitions and C(18)O in the J = 2-1 line. The gas exhibits a Keplerian velocity curve, one of the few direct measurements of Keplerian rotation in young debris disks. The measured CO brightness distribution could be reproduced by a simple star+disk system, whose parameters are r(sub in) star. We explore two possible scenarios for the origin of the gas. A secondary origin, which involves gas production from colliding or active planetesimals, would require unreasonably high gas production rates and would not explain why the gas and dust are not colocated. We propose that HD 21997 is a hybrid system where secondary debris dust and primordial gas coexist. HD 21997, whose age exceeds both the model predictions for disk clearing and the ages of the oldest T Tauri-like or transitional gas disks in the literature, may be a key object linking the primordial and the debris phases of disk evolution.

  13. Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422 - The high-resolution ALMA and SMA view

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Magnus V; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter. Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 5(3,2)-4(4,1) transition of H2-18O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) as well as the 3(1,3)-2(2,0) of H2-18O at 203.40752 GHz and the 3(1,2)-2(2,1) transition of HDO at 225.89672 GHz from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) are presented. The 692 GHz H2-18O line is seen toward both components of the binary protostar. Toward one of the components, "source B", the line is seen in absorption toward the continuum, slightly red-shifted from the systemic velocity, whereas emission is seen off-source at the systemic velocity. Toward the other component, "source A", the two HDO and H2-18O lines are detecte...

  14. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular gas reservoirs in high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-$z$ galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets a $\\sim1$ arcmin$^2$ region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3mm and 1mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities $L_{\\rm{}IR}>10^{11}$ L$_\\odot$, i.e. a detection in CO emission was expected. Out these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than typically found in starburst/SMG/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star-formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): The CO-detected galaxies in the U...

  15. A recent accretion burst in the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA imaging of its related chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Jes K; Sakai, Nami; Bergin, Edwin A; Brinch, Christian; Harsono, Daniel; Lindberg, Johan E; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Bisschop, Suzanne E; Persson, Magnus V

    2013-01-01

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates through-out their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C17O, H13CO+, CH3OH, C34S and C2H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.5" (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H13CO+ is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.5" (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO+ is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 years increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity....

  16. ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: A concentration of dusty starbursts in a z=3.09 protocluster core

    CERN Document Server

    Umehata, H; Kohno, K; Ivison, R J; Alexander, D M; Geach, J; Hatsukade, B; Hughes, D H; Ikarashi, S; Kato, Y; Izumi, T; Kawabe, R; Kubo, M; Lee, M; Lehmer, B; Makiya, R; Matsuda, Y; Nakanishi, K; Saito, T; Smail, I; Yamada, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yun, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of $1^{\\prime}.5 \\times3^{\\prime}$ mapping at 1.1~mm with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward the central region of the $z=3.09$ SSA22 protocluster. By combining our source catalog with archival spectroscopic redshifts, we find that eight submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with flux densities, $S_{\\rm 1.1~mm}=0.7-6.4$~mJy ($L_{\\rm IR}\\sim10^{12.1}-10^{13.1}L_\\odot$) are at $z=3.08-3.10$. Not only are these SMGs members of the protocluster but they in fact reside within the node at the junction of the 50 Mpc-scale filamentary three-dimensional structure traced by Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitters (LAEs) in this field. The eight SMGs account for a star formation rate density (SFRD) $\\sim$10 $M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ in the node, which is two orders of magnitudes higher than the global SFRD at this redshift. We find that four of the eight SMGs host a X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei (AGN). Our results suggest that the vigorous star formation activity and the growth of ...

  17. Exploring Molecular Complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Deuterated complex organic molecules in Sagittarius B2(N2)

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, A; Garrod, R T; Menten, K M

    2015-01-01

    Deuteration is a powerful tracer of the history of the cold prestellar phase in star forming regions. Apart from methanol, little is known about deuterium fractionation of complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium, especially in high mass star forming regions. We use a spectral line survey performed with ALMA to search for deuterated complex organic molecules toward the hot molecular core Sgr B2(N2). Population diagrams and integrated intensity maps are constructed to fit rotational temperatures and emission sizes for each molecule. Column densities are derived by modelling the full spectrum under the LTE assumption. The results are compared to predictions of two astrochemical models that treat the deuteration process. We report the detection of CH2DCN toward Sgr B2(N2) with a deuteration level of 0.4%, and tentative detections of CH2DOH, CH2DCH2CN, the chiral molecule CH3CHDCN, and DC3N with levels in the range 0.05%-0.12%. A stringent deuteration upper limit is obtained for CH3OD (<0.07%). Upp...

  18. The first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in Orion KL with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the ALMA science verification data of Orion KL and found a spectral signature of the vibrationally excited H2O maser line at 232.68670 GHz (nu2=1, 5,5,0-6,4,3). This line has been detected in circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars so far but not in young stellar objects including Orion KL. Thus, this is the first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in star-forming regions. The distribution of the 232 GHz maser is concentrated at the position of the radio Source I, which is remarkably different from other molecular lines. The spectrum shows a double-peak structure at the peak velocities of -2.1 and 13.3 km s-1. It appears to be consistent with the 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers observed around Source I. Thus, the 232 GHz H2O maser around Source I would be excited by the internal heating by an embedded protostar, being associated with either the root of the outflows/jets or the circumstellar disk around Source I, as traced by the 22 GHz H2O masers or 43 GHz SiO ...

  19. THE FIRST DETECTION OF THE 232 GHz VIBRATIONALLY EXCITED H2O MASER IN ORION KL WITH ALMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the ALMA science verification data of Orion KL and found a spectral signature of the vibrationally excited H2O maser line at 232.68670 GHz (ν2 = 1, 55,0-64,3). This line has been detected previously in circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars but not in young stellar objects such as Orion KL. Thus, this is the first detection of the 232 GHz vibrationally excited H2O maser in star-forming regions. The distribution of the 232 GHz maser is concentrated at the position of the radio Source I, which is remarkably different from other molecular lines. The spectrum shows a double-peak structure at the peak velocities of –2.1 and 13.3 km s–1. It appears to be consistent with the 22 GHz H2O masers and 43 GHz SiO masers observed around Source I. Thus, the 232 GHz H2O maser around Source I would be excited by the internal heating by an embedded protostar, being associated with either the root of the outflows/jets or the circumstellar disk around Source I, as traced by the 22 GHz H2O masers or 43 GHz SiO masers, respectively.

  20. Properties of Interstellar Medium in Star-Forming Galaxies at z~1.4 revealed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Seko, Akifumi; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Akiyama, Masayuki; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Tamura, Naoyuki; Dalton, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    We conducted observations of 12CO(J=5-4) and dust thermal continuum emission toward twenty star-forming galaxies on the main sequence at z~1.4 using ALMA to investigate the properties of the interstellar medium. The sample galaxies are chosen to trace the distributions of star-forming galaxies in diagrams of stellar mass-star formation rate and stellar mass-metallicity. We detected CO emission lines from eleven galaxies. The molecular gas mass is derived by adopting a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and assuming a CO(5-4)/CO(1-0) luminosity ratio of 0.23. Molecular gas masses and its fractions (molecular gas mass/(molecular gas mass + stellar mass)) for the detected galaxies are in the ranges of (3.9-12) x 10^{10} Msun and 0.25-0.94, respectively; these values are significantly larger than those in local spiral galaxies. The molecular gas mass fraction decreases with increasing stellar mass; the relation holds for four times lower stellar mass than that covered in previous studies, and that t...

  1. ALMA Observations of Infalling Flows toward the Keplerian Disk around the Class I Protostar L1489 IRS

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aikawa, Yuri; Aso, Yusuke; Koyamatsu, Shin; Machida, Masahiro N; Saigo, Kazuya; Saito, Masao; Tomida, Kengo; Tomisaka, Kohji

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted ALMA observations in the 1.3 mm continuum and 12CO (2-1), C18O (2-1) and SO (5_6-4_5) lines toward L1489 IRS, a Class I protostar surrounded by a Keplerian disk and an infalling envelope. The Keplerian disk is clearly identified in the 12CO and C18O emission, and its outer radius (~700 AU) and mass (~0.005 Msun) are comparable to those of disks around T Tauri stars. The protostellar mass is estimated to be 1.6 Msun with the inclination angle of 66 deg. In addition to the Keplerian disk, there are blueshifted and redshifted off-axis protrusions seen in the C18O emission pointing toward the north and the south, respectively, adjunct to the middle part of the Keplerian disk. The shape and kinematics of these protrusions can be interpreted as streams of infalling flows with a conserved angular momentum following parabolic trajectories toward the Keplerian disk, and the mass infalling rate is estimated to be ~5E-7 Msun/yr. The specific angular momentum of the infalling flows (~2.5E-3 km/s*pc) is ...

  2. Herschel-ATLAS and ALMA: HATLAS J142935.3-002836, a lensed major merger at redshift 1.027

    CERN Document Server

    Messias, Hugo; Nagar, Neil; Orellana, Gustavo; Bussmann, R Shane; Calanog, Jae; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Fu, Hai; Ibar, Edo; Inohara, Andrew; Ivison, R J; Negrello, Mattia; Riechers, Dominik A; Sheen, Yun-Kyeong; Amber, Simon; Birkinshaw, Mark; Bourne, Nathan; Clements, Dave L; Cooray, Asantha; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Demarco, Ricardo; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Stephen; Fleuren, Simone; Lupu, Roxana E; Maddox, Steve J; Michalowski, Michal J; Omont, Alain; Rowlands, Kate; Smith, Dan; Smith, Matt; Valiante, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] Aims: This work focuses on one lensed system, HATLAS J142935.3-002836 (H1429-0028), selected in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Gathering a rich, multi-wavelength dataset, we aim to confirm the lensing hypothesis and model the background source's morphology and dynamics, as well as to provide a full physical characterisation. Methods: Multi-wavelength high-resolution data is utilised to assess the nature of the system. A lensing-analysis algorithm which simultaneously fits different wavebands is adopted to characterise the lens. The background galaxy dynamical information is studied by reconstructing the 3-D source-plane of the ALMA CO(J:4-3) transition. Near-IR imaging from HST and Keck-AO allows to constrain rest-frame optical photometry independently for the foreground and background systems. Physical parameters (such as stellar and dust masses) are estimated via modelling of the spectral energy distribution taking into account source blending, foreground obscuration, and differential magnification. R...

  3. Sub-kpc star-formation law in the local luminous infrared galaxy IC 4687 as seen by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira-Santaella, M; García-Burillo, S; Planesas, P; Usero, A; Alonso-Herrero, A; Arribas, S; Cazzoli, S; Emonts, B; López, J Piqueras; Villar-Martín, M

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the spatially resolved (250 pc scales) and integrated star-formation (SF) law in the local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IC4687. This is one of the first studies of the SF law on a starburst LIRG at these small spatial scales. We combined new interferometric ALMA CO(2-1) data with existing HST/NICMOS Pa$\\alpha$ narrow-band imaging and VLT/SINFONI near-IR integral field spectroscopy to obtain accurate extinction corrected SF rate (SFR) and cold molecular gas surface densities ($\\Sigma_{gas}$ and $\\Sigma_{SFR}$). We find that IC4687 forms stars very efficiently with an average depletion time ($t_{dep}$) of 160 Myr for the individual 250 pc regions. This is approximately one order of magnitude shorter than the $t_{dep}$ of local normal spirals and also shorter than that of main-sequence high-z objects, even when we use a Galactic $\\alpha_{CO}$ conversion factor. This result suggests a bimodal SF law in the $\\Sigma_{SFR} \\propto \\Sigma_{gas}^{N}$ representation. A universal SF law is recovered if we ...

  4. Properties of Molecular Gas in Star-Forming Galaxies at z˜1.4 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, A.; Ohta, K.; Hatsukade, B.; Yabe, K.

    2015-12-01

    We made CO(J=5-4) observations of 20 star-forming galaxies at z˜1.4 with ALMA to study properties of molecular gas with respect to the stellar mass and metallicity. Almost all of our sample galaxies are on the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at this redshift. Uniqueness of the sample is gas phase metallicity is known for each galaxy. The metallicities of our sample galaxies are derived from near-infrared spectroscopic observations with Subaru/FMOS. The ranges of metallicity (12+log(O/H)) and stellar mass are 8.2-8.9 and 4×10 9-4×1011 M⊙, respectively. The stellar mass range covers lower mass than that in previous studies. We detected CO emission lines from 11 galaxies. Molecular gas mass is derived by adopting metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor. The derived molecular gas masses of detected galaxies are (3-11)×1010 M⊙. The molecular gas mass fractions are 0.25-0.94, and the fraction is lower in a more massive galaxy or a galaxy with higher metallicity. However, it is difficult to conclude which of stellar mass and metallicity is a main cause for the relations. We try to constrain the inflow and outflow rate by using an analytic chemical evolution model.

  5. ALMA reveals optically thin, highly excited CO gas in the jet-driven winds of the galaxy IC5063

    CERN Document Server

    Dasyra, K M; Oosterloo, T; Oonk, J B R; Morganti, R; Salome, P; Vlahakis, N

    2016-01-01

    Using CO (4-3) and (2-1) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) data, we prove that the molecular gas in the jet-driven winds of the galaxy IC5063 is more highly excited than the rest of the molecular gas in the disk of the same galaxy. On average, the CO (4-3) / CO (2-1) flux ratio is 1 for the disk and 5 for the jet accelerated or impacted gas. Spatially-resolved maps reveal that in regions associated with winds, the CO (4-3) / CO (2-1) flux ratio significantly exceeds the upper limit of 4 for optically thick gas. It frequently takes values between 5 and 11, and it occasionally further approaches the upper limit of 16 for optically thin gas. Excitation temperatures of 30-100 K are common for the molecules in these regions. If all of the outflowing molecular gas is optically thin, at 30-50 K, then its mass is 2*10^6 M_sun. This lower mass limit is an order of magnitude below the mass derived from the CO (2-1) flux in case of optically thick gas. Our result suggests that molecular wind masses may be overestima...

  6. ALMA observations of the Th 28 protostellar disk - A new exemple of counter-rotation between disk and optical jet

    CERN Document Server

    Louvet, F; Cabrit, S; Hales, A; Pinte, C; Menard, F; Bacciotti, F; Coffey, D; Mardones, D; Bronfman, L; Gueth, F

    2016-01-01

    Differences in Doppler shifts across the base of four close classical T-Tauri star jets have been detected with the HST in optical and NUV emission lines, and interpreted as rotation signatures under the assumption of steady state flow. To support this interpretation, it is necessary that the underlying disks rotate in the same sense. Agreement between disk rotation and jet rotation determined from optical lines has been verified in two cases and rejected in one. We propose here to perform this test on the fourth system, Th 28. We present ALMA high angular resolution Band 7 continuum, 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) observations of the circumstellar disk around the T-Tauri star Th 28. The sub-arcsecond angular resolution (0.46"x0.37") and high-sensitivity reached enable us to detect in CO and continuum clear signatures of a disk in Keplerian rotation around Th28. The 12CO emission allows us to derive estimates of disk position angle and inclination. The large velocity separation of the peaks in 12CO combined with the...

  7. Deep ALMA imaging of the merger NGC1614 - Is CO tracing a massive inflow of non-starforming gas?

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Muller, S; Gallagher, J S; Beswick, R J; Xu, C K; Evans, A

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the molecular gas over scales of ~0.5 to several kpc provide crucial information on how the gas moves through galaxies, especially in mergers and interacting systems, where it ultimately reaches the galaxy center, accumulates and feeds nuclear activity. To understand the processes involved in gas transport is one of the important steps forward to understand galaxy evolution. 12CO and 13CO1-0 high-sensitivity ALMA observations are used to assess properties of the large-scale molecular gas reservoir and its connection to the circumnuclear molecular ring in NGC1614. The role of excitation and abundances are studied in this context. Spatial distributions of the 12CO and 13CO 1-0 emission show significant differences. 12CO is tracing large-scale molecular gas reservoir associated with a dust lane associated with infalling gas and extends into the southern tidal tails. 13CO emission peaks at the connection between the dust lane and the circumnuclear molecular ring found in previous observations and ...

  8. ALMA 690 GHz observations of IRAS 16293-2422B: Infall in a highly optically-thick disk

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, Luis A; Rodriguez, Luis F; Hernandez-Hernandez, Vicente; Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso; Parise, Berengere

    2013-01-01

    We present sensitive, high angular resolution ($\\sim$ 0.2 arcsec) submillimeter continuum and line observations of IRAS 16293-2422B made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 0.45 mm continuum observations reveal a single and very compact source associated with IRAS 16293-2422B. This submillimeter source has a deconvolved angular size of about 400 {\\it milli-arcseconds} (50 AU), and does not show any inner structure inside of this diameter. The H$^{13}$CN, HC$^{15}$N, and CH$_{3}$OH line emission regions are about twice as large as the continuum emission and reveal a pronounced inner depression or "hole" with a size comparable to that estimated for the submillimeter continuum. We suggest that the presence of this inner depression and the fact that we do not see inner structure (or a flat structure) in the continuum is produced by very optically thick dust located in the innermost parts of IRAS 16293-2422B. All three lines also show pronounced inverse P-Cygni profiles with infall an...

  9. ALMA resolves the spiraling accretion flow in the luminous OB cluster forming region G33.92+0.11

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Zhang, Qizhou; Li, Zhiyun; Chen, Huei-Ru

    2015-01-01

    How rapidly collapsing parsec-scale massive molecular clumps feed high-mass stars, and how they fragment to form OB clusters, have been outstanding questions in the field of star-formation. In this work, we report the resolved structures and kinematics of the approximately face-on, rotating massive molecular clump, G33.92+0.11. Our high resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images show that the spiral arm-like gas overdensities form in the eccentric gas accretion streams. First, we resolved that the dominant part of the $\\sim$0.6 pc scale massive molecular clump (3.0$^{+2.8}_{-1.4}$$\\cdot$10$^{3}$ $M_{\\odot}$) G33.92+0.11 A is tangled with several 0.5-1 pc size molecular arms spiraling around it, which may be connected further to exterior gas accretion streams. Within G33.92+0.11 A, we resolved the $\\sim$0.1 pc width gas mini-arms connecting with the two central massive (100-300 $M_{\\odot}$) molecular cores. The kinematics of arms and cores elucidate a coherent accretion flow continui...

  10. ALMA and VLA measurements of frequency-dependent time lags in Sagittarius A*: evidence for a relativistic outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Law, Casey J; Barkats, Denis; Bower, Geoffrey C; Brunthaler, Andreas; Gammie, Charles; Impellizzeri, C M Violette; Markoff, Sera; Menten, Karl M; Moscibrodzka, Monika; Peck, Alison; Rushton, Anthony P; Schaaf, Reinhold; Wright, Melvyn

    2015-01-01

    Radio and mm-wavelength observations of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the radio source associated with the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy, show that it behaves as a partially self-absorbed synchrotron-emitting source. The measured size of Sgr A* shows that the mm-wavelength emission comes from a small region and consists of the inner accretion flow and a possible collimated outflow. Existing observations of Sgr A* have revealed a time lag between light curves at 43 GHz and 22 GHz, which is consistent with a rapidly expanding plasma flow and supports the presence of a collimated outflow from the environment of an accreting black hole. Here we wish to measure simultaneous frequency-dependent time lags in the light curves of Sgr A* across a broad frequency range to constrain direction and speed of the radio-emitting plasma in the vicinity of the black hole. Light curves of Sgr A* were taken in May 2012 using ALMA at 100 GHz using the VLA at 48, 39, 37, 27, 25.5, and 19 GHz. As a result of elevati...

  11. A Multi-Transition Study of Molecules toward NGC 1068 based on High-Resolution Imaging Observations with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Taku; Kohno, Kotaro; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric; Tamura, Yoichi; Izumi, Takuma; Taniguchi, Akio; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2014-01-01

    We present 0.8-mm band molecular images and spectra obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward one of the nearest galaxies with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), NGC 1068. Distributions of CO isotopic species ($^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O) $\\it{J}$ = 3--2, CN $\\it{N}$ = 3--2 and CS $\\it{J}$ = 7--6 are observed toward the circumnuclear disk (CND) and a part of the starburst ring with an angular resolution of $\\sim$1.$^{\\prime\\prime}$3 $\\times$ 1.$^{\\prime\\prime}$2. The physical properties of these molecules and shock-related molecules such as HNCO, CH$_{3}$CN, SO, and CH$_{3}$OH detected in the 3-mm band were estimated using rotation diagrams under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The rotational temperatures of the CO isotopic species and the shock-related molecules in the CND are, respectively, 14--22 K and upper limits of 20--40 K. Although the column densities of the CO isotopic species in the CND are only from one-fifth to one-third of that in the starburst ri...

  12. Tentative planetary orbital constraints of some scenarios for the possible new Solar System object recently discovered with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Some of the scenarios envisaged for the possible new Solar System object, whose discovery with the ALMA facility has been recently claimed in the literature, are preliminarily put to the test by means of the orbital motions of some planets of the Solar System. It turns out that the current ranges of admissible values for any anomalous secular precession of the perihelion of Saturn, determined in the recent past with either the EPM2011 and the INPOP10a planetary ephemerides without modeling the action of such a potential new member of the Solar System, do not rule out the existence of a putative Neptune-like pointlike perturber at about 2500 au. Instead, both a super-Earth at some hundreds of au and a Jovian-type planet up to 4000 au are strongly disfavored. An Earth-sized body at 100 au would have a density as little as $\\sim 0.1-0.01~\\textrm{g}~\\textrm{cm}^{-3}$, while an unusually large Centaur or (Extreme) Trans Neptunian Object with linear size of $220-880~\\textrm{km}$ at $12-25~\\textrm{au}$ would have de...

  13. Faint Submillimeter Galaxies Revealed by Multifield Deep ALMA Observations: Number Counts, Spatial Clustering, and Dark Submillimeter Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Kurono, Yasutaka; Momose, Rieko

    2014-01-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of submillimeter/millimeter emitters (SMEs) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band 6 and Band 7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR_IR ~ 30-300 Msun/yr) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of 1 mJy) SMGs, but comparable with abundant high-z star-forming populations such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detections of SMEs with continuum counterparts neither in our 1.2 mm-band nor multi-wavelength images including ultra de...

  14. ALMA observations of the variable 12CO/13CO ratio around the asymptotic giant branch star R Sculptoris

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; Lindqvist, M; Mohamed, S; Olofsson, H; Ramstedt, S; Brunner, M; Groenewegen, M A T; Kerschbaum, F; Wittkowski, M

    2013-01-01

    [abridged] The 12CO/13CO ratio is often used as a measure of the 12C/13C ratio in the circumstellar environment, carrying important information about the stellar nucleosynthesis. External processes can change the 12CO and 13CO abundances, and spatially resolved studies of the 12CO/13CO ratio are needed to quantify the effect of these processes on the globally determined values. Additionally, such studies provide important information on the conditions in the circumstellar environment. The detached-shell source R Scl, displaying CO emission from recent mass loss, in a binary-induced spiral structure as well as in a clumpy shell produced during a thermal pulse, provides a unique laboratory for studying the differences in CO isotope abundances throughout its recent evolution. We observed both the 12CO(J=3-2) and the 13CO(J=3-2) line using ALMA. We find significant variations in the 12CO/13CO intensity ratios and consequently in the abundance ratios. The average CO isotope abundance ratio is at least a factor thr...

  15. ALMA Resolves 30 Doradus: Sub-parsec Molecular Cloud Structure Near the Closest Super-Star Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Indebetouw, Remy; Chen, C -H Rosie; Leroy, Adam; Johnson, Kelsey; Muller, Erik; Madden, Suzanne; Cormier, Diane; Galliano, Frederic; Hughes, Annie; Hunter, Todd; Kawamura, Akiko; Kepley, Amanda; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Meixner, Margaret; Oliveira, Joana M; Onishi, Toshikazu; Vasyunina, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of 30 Doradus -- the highest resolution view of molecular gas in an extragalactic star formation region to date (~0.4pc x 0.6pc). The 30Dor-10 cloud north of R136 was mapped in 12CO 2-1, 13CO 2-1, C18O 2-1, 1.3mm continuum, the H30alpha recombination line, and two H2CO 3-2 transitions. Most 12CO emission is associated with small filaments and clumps (<1pc, ~1000 Msun at the current resolution). Some clumps are associated with protostars, including "pillars of creation" photoablated by intense radiation from R136. Emission from molecular clouds is often analyzed by decomposition into approximately beam-sized clumps. Such clumps in 30 Doradus follow similar trends in size, linewidth, and surface density to Milky Way clumps. The 30 Doradus clumps have somewhat larger linewidths for a given size than predicted by Larson's scaling relation, consistent with pressure confinement. They extend to higher surface density at a given size and linewidth compared to clouds studied at 10pc res...

  16. The Radial Distribution of H2 and CO in TW Hya as Revealed by Resolved ALMA Observations of CO Isotopologues

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, Kamber R; Cleeves, L Ilsedore; Blake, Geoffrey A; Zhang, Ke; Öberg, Karin I; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Qi, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    CO is widely used as a tracer of molecular gas. However, there is now mounting evidence that gas phase carbon is depleted in the disk around TW Hya. Previous efforts to quantify this depletion have been hampered by uncertainties regarding the radial thermal structure in the disk. Here we present resolved ALMA observations of 13CO 3-2, C18O 3-2, 13CO 6-5, and C18O 6-5 emission in TW Hya, which allow us to derive radial gas temperature and gas surface density profiles, as well as map the CO abundance as a function of radius. These observations provide a measurement of the surface CO snowline at ~30 AU and show evidence for an outer ring of CO emission centered at 53 AU, a feature previously seen only in less abundant species. Further, the derived CO gas temperature profile constrains the freeze-out temperature of CO in the warm molecular layer to < 21 K. Combined with the previous detection of HD 1-0, these data constrain the surface density of the warm H2 gas in the inner ~30 AU. We find that CO is depleted...

  17. An ALMA Early Science survey of molecular absorption lines toward PKS1830-211 -- Analysis of the absorption profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Guelin, M; Gerin, M; Aalto, S; Beelen, A; Black, J H; Curran, S J; Darling, J; Dinh-V-Trung,; Garcia-Burillo, S; Henkel, C; Horellou, C; Martin, S; Marti-Vidal, I; Menten, K M; Murphy, M T; Ott, J; Wiklind, T; Zwaan, M A

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an ALMA spectral survey of strong absorption lines for common interstellar species in the z=0.89 molecular absorber toward the lensed blazar PKS1830-211. The dataset brings essential information on the structure and composition of the absorbing gas in the foreground galaxy. In particular, we find absorption over large velocity intervals (gtrsim 100 km/s) toward both lensed images of the blazar. This suggests either that the galaxy inclination is intermediate and that we sample velocity gradients or streaming motions in the disk plane, that the molecular gas has a large vertical distribution or extraplanar components, or that the absorber is not a simple spiral galaxy but might be a merger system. The number of detected species is now reaching a total of 42 different species plus 14 different rare isotopologues toward the SW image, and 14 species toward the NE line-of-sight. The abundances of CH, H2O, HCO+, HCN, and NH3 relative to H2 are found to be comparable to those in the G...

  18. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured Quasars at Redshifts ~0.3-3, I: ALMA Obseravtions

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, Carol J; Kimball, Amy E; Blain, Andrew; Whittle, Mark; Wilkes, Belinda; Stern, Dan; Condon, Jim; Kim, Minjin; Assef, Roberto J; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Efstathiou, Andreas; Jones, Suzy; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jinwen; Lonsdale, Colin J; Jones, Kristen; Jarrett, Tom; Smith, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA 870 micron (345 GHz) data for 49 high redshift (0.47

  19. 30 Doradus - Relating Young Stars Imaged by Spitzer and Hubble to the CO Molecular Gas Observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Omnarayani; Meixner, Margaret; Indebetouw, Remy; Sabbi, Elena; De Marchi, Guido; Panagia, Nino

    2016-01-01

    The majority of star have masses less than 8 solar mass and form in clumps that are less than 1 pc in size. The sub-parsec scales in which star formation takes place makes it difficult to resolve the effects star formation and the surrounding dense gas have on each other. The Magellanic Clouds are more active in forming high mass stars as compared to the Milky Way. The SAGE and Heritage surveys combined with the Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project provide us the opportunity to study high-mass (>15 solar masses) and low-mass (properties with respect to the CO gas structure observed with ALMA. Preliminary results show that not all massive young stellar objects are associated with CO gas, higher mass clumps tend to form higher mass stars and are more likely to have multiple young stars, and lower mass clumps tend to not be gravitationally bound however the larger clouds are bound. Looking at the interplay between dense molecular gas and the newly forming stars in a stellar nursery will shed light on how these stars formed: monolithic collapse or competitive accretion.

  20. ALMA observations of the molecular gas in the debris disk of the 30 Myr old star HD 21997

    CERN Document Server

    Kóspál, Á; Juhász, A; Ábrahám, P; Apai, D; Csengeri, T; Grady, C A; Henning, Th; Hughes, A M; Kiss, Cs; Pascucci, I; Schmalzl, M

    2013-01-01

    The 30 Myr old A3-type star HD 21997 is one of the two known debris dust disks having a measurable amount of cold molecular gas. With the goal of understanding the physical state, origin, and evolution of the gas in young debris disks, we obtained CO line observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Here we report on the detection of 12CO and 13CO in the J=2-1 and J=3-2 transitions and C18O in the J=2-1 line. The gas exhibits a Keplerian velocity curve, one of the few direct measurements of Keplerian rotation in young debris disks. The measured CO brightness distribution could be reproduced by a simple star+disk system, whose parameters are r_in < 26 AU, r_out = 138 +/- 20 AU, M_*=1.8 +0.5 -0.2 M_Sun, and i = 32.6 +/- 3.1 degrees. The total CO mass, as calculated from the optically thin C18O line, is about (4-8) x 10^-2 M_Earth, while the CO line ratios suggest a radiation temperature on the order of 6-9 K. Comparing our results with those obtained for the dust component of th...

  1. Studying the Outflow-Core Interaction with ALMA Cycle 1 Observations of the HH 46/47 Molecular Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yichen; Mardones, Diego; Cabrit, Sylvie; Dunham, Michael M; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Offner, Stella S R; Raga, Alejandro C; Corder, Stuartt A

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow using combined 12m array and 7m array observations. We use 13CO and C18O emission to correct for the 12CO optical depth, to accurately estimate the outflow mass, momentum and kinetic energy. Applying the optical depth correction increases the mass estimate by a factor of 14, the momentum by a factor of 6, and the kinetic energy by a factor of about 2. The new 13CO(1-0) and C18O(1-0) data also allow us to trace denser and slower outflow material than that traced by 12CO. These species are only detected within about 1~2 km/s from the cloud velocity. The cavity wall of the red lobe appears at very low velocities (~0.2 km/s). Combing the material traced only by 13CO and C18O, the measured total mass of the CO outflow is 1.4 Msun, the total momentum is 1.7 Msun km/s and the total energy is 4.7e43 erg, assuming Tex=15 K. The improved angular resolution and sensitivity in 12CO reveal more details of the outflow structure. Specifically, we find th...

  2. The ALMA-PILS survey: First detections of deuterated formamide and deuterated isocyanic acid in the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Coutens, A; van der Wiel, M H D; Müller, H S P; Lykke, J M; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Calcutt, H; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Garrod, R T; Jacobsen, S K; Ligterink, N F W; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; van Dishoeck, E F; Wampfler, S F

    2016-01-01

    Formamide (NH$_2$CHO) has previously been detected in several star-forming regions and is thought to be a precursor for different prebiotic molecules. Its formation mechanism is still debated, however. Observations of formamide, related species and their isopotologues may provide useful clues to the chemical pathways leading to their formation. The Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS) represents an unbiased high angular resolution and sensitivity spectral survey of the low-mass protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We detect for the first time the three singly deuterated forms of NH$_2$CHO (NH$_2$CDO, cis- and trans-NHDCHO) as well as DNCO towards the component B of this binary source. The images reveal that the different isotopologues all are present in the same region. Based on the observations of the $^{13}$C isotopologues of formamide and a standard $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C ratio, the deuterium fractionation is found to be similar for the thr...

  3. ALMA Observations of the Largest Proto-Planetary Disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426: A CO Silhouette

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, John; Eisner, Josh; Andrews, Sean M; Di Francesco, James; Hughes, Meredith; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda; Ricci, Luca; Williams, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the largest protoplanetary disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426. Detectable 345 GHz (856 micron) dust continuum is produced only in the 350 AU central region of the ~1000 AU diameter silhouette seen against the bright H-alpha background in HST images. Assuming optically thin dust emission at 345 GHz, a gas-to-dust ratio of 100, and a grain temperature of 20 K, the disk gas-mass is estimated to be 3.1 +/- 0.6 Jupiter masses. If most solids and ices have have been incorporated into large grains, however, this value is a lower limit. The disk is not detected in dense-gas tracers such as HCO+ J=4-3, HCN J=4-3, or CS =7-6. These results may indicate that the 114-426 disk is evolved and depleted in some light organic compounds found in molecular clouds. The CO J=3-2 line is seen in absorption against the bright 50 to 80 K background of the Orion A molecular cloud over the full spatial extent and a little beyond the dust continuum emission. The CO absorption reaches a depth of 27 K below...

  4. ALMA and Herschel reveal that AGN and main-sequence galaxies have different star formation rate distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, J R; Aird, J; Bernhard, E; Daddi, E; Del Moro, A; Dickinson, M; Elbaz, D; Harrison, C M; Juneau, S; Liu, D; Pannella, M; Rosario, D; Santini, P; Sargent, M; Schreiber, C; Simpson, J; Stanley, F

    2015-01-01

    Using deep Herschel and ALMA observations, we investigate the star formation rate (SFR) distributions of X-ray AGN host galaxies at 0.5

  5. Direct imaging of the water snow line at the time of planet formation using two ALMA continuum bands

    CERN Document Server

    Banzatti, Andrea; Ricci, Luca; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Birnstiel, Til; Ciesla, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at < 10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially-unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint in the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index {\\alpha}_mm, due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplaneta...

  6. Planck's Dusty GEMS. II. Extended [CII] emission and absorption in the Garnet at z=3.4 seen with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvadba, N; Canameras, R; Boone, F; Falgarone, E; Frye, B; Gerin, M; Koenig, S; Lagache, G; Floc'h, E Le; Malhotra, S; Scott, D

    2016-01-01

    We present spatially resolved ALMA [CII] observations of the bright (flux density S=400 mJy at 350 microns), gravitationally lensed, starburst galaxy PLCK G045.1+61.1 at z=3.427, the "Garnet". This source is part of our set of "Planck's Dusty GEMS", discovered with the Planck's all-sky survey. Two emission-line clouds with a relative velocity offset of ~600 km/s extend towards north-east and south-west, respectively, of a small, intensely star-forming clump with a star-formation intensity of 220 Msun/yr/kpc^2, akin to maximal starbursts. [CII] is also seen in absorption, with a redshift of +350 km/s relative to the brightest CO component. [CII] absorption has previously only been found in the Milky Way along sightlines toward bright high-mass star-forming regions, and this is the first detection in another galaxy. Similar to Galactic environments, the [CII] absorption feature is associated with [CI] emission, implying that this is diffuse gas shielded from the UV radiation of the clump, and likely at large di...

  7. Characterizing elusive, faint dusty star-forming galaxies: a lensed, optically-undetected ALMA galaxy at z~3.3

    CERN Document Server

    Santini, P; Fontana, A; Merlin, E; Maiolino, R; Mason, C; Mignano, A; Pilo, S; Amorin, R; Berta, S; Bourne, N; Calura, F; Daddi, E; Elbaz, D; Grazian, A; Magliocchetti, M; Michalowski, M J; Pentericci, L; Pozzi, F; Rodighiero, G; Schreiber, C; Valiante, R

    2016-01-01

    We present the serendipitous ALMA detection of a faint submillimeter galaxy (SMG) lensed by a foreground z~1 galaxy. By optimizing the source detection to deblend the system, we accurately build the full spectral energy distribution of the distant galaxy from the I814 band to radio wavelengths. It is extremely red, with a I-K colour larger than 2.5. We estimate a photometric redshift of 3.28 and determine the physical parameters. The distant galaxy turns out to be magnified by the foreground lens by a factor of ~1.5, which implies an intrinsic Ks-band magnitude of ~24.5, a submillimeter flux at 870um of ~2.5 mJy and a SFR of ~150-300Msun/yr, depending on the adopted tracer. These values place our source towards the faint end of the distribution of observed SMGs, and in particular among the still few faint SMGs with a fully characterized spectral energy distribution, which allows us not only to accurately estimate its redshift but also to measure its stellar mass and other physical properties. The galaxy studi...

  8. Spectroscopic FITS to the Alma Science Verification Band 6 Survey of the Orion Hot Core and Compact Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Satyakumar; McMillan, James P.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Remijan, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Individual spectral lines in astrophysical data are ordinarily assigned by comparison with line frequency and intensities predicted by catalogs. Here we seek to fit the spectra of specific sources within Orion KL that are first selected by ALMA's angular resolution and then by Doppler velocity class. For each molecule in this study, astrophysical reference lines are selected. Subsequent analyses of individual velocity components provide the astrophysical column density and temperature for these velocity regimes. These column densities and temperatures are then combined with results from the complete experimental spectra obtained from our laboratory spectra to model the molecule's contribution to the entire astrophysical spectrum [1]. Effects due to optical thickness and spectral overlap are included in the analyses. Examples for ethyl cyanide in the hot core and methanol in the compact ridge will be presented. [1] J. P. McMillan, S. M. Fortman, C. F. Neese, and F. C. De Lucia, "The Complete, Temperature Resolved Experi- mental Spectrum of Methanol (CH3OH) between 214.6 and 265.4 GHz," Astrophys. J., vol. 795, pp. 56(1-9), 2014.

  9. Morphology and Kinematics of Warm Molecular Gas in the Nuclear Region of Arp 220 as Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Rangwala, Naseem; Wilson, Christine; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-0 observations of the CO J = 6-5 line in the advanced galaxy merger Arp 220. This line traces warm molecular gas, which dominates the total CO luminosity. The CO emission from the two nuclei is well resolved by the 0.39" x 0.22" beam and the exceptional sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution reveal new complex features in the morphology and kinematics of the warm gas. The line profiles are asymmetric between the red and blue sides of the nuclear disks and the peak of the line emission is offset from the peak of the continuum emission in both nuclei by about 100 pc in the same direction. CO self-absorption is detected at the centers of both nuclei but it is much deeper in the eastern nucleus. We also clearly detect strong, highly redshifted CO absorption located near the southwest side of each nucleus. For the eastern nucleus, we reproduce the major line profile features with a simple kinematic model of a highly turbulent, rotating disk with a substan...

  10. ALMA reveals the anatomy of the mm-sized dust and molecular gas in the HD 97048 disk

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Dent, William R F; Maud, Luke; Aikawa, Yuri; Millar, Tom J; Nomura, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    Transitional disks show a lack of excess emission at infrared wavelengths due to a large dust cavity, that is often corroborated by spatially-resolved observations at ~ mm wavelengths. We present the first spatially-resolved ~ mm-wavelength images of the disk around the Herbig Ae/Be star, HD 97048. Scattered light images show that the disk extends to ~ 640 au. The ALMA data reveal a circular-symmetric dusty disk extending to ~ 350 au, and a molecular disk traced in CO J=3-2 emission, extending to ~ 750 au. The CO emission arises from a flared layer with an opening angle ~ 30 deg - 40 deg. HD 97048 is another source for which the large (~ mm-sized) dust grains are more centrally concentrated than the small (~ {\\mu}m-sized) grains and molecular gas, likely due to radial drift. The images and visibility data modelling suggests a decrement in continuum emission within ~ 50 au, consistent with the cavity size determined from mid-infrared imaging (34 +/- 4 au). The extracted continuum intensity profiles show ring-l...

  11. Molecular Gas Along a Bright H-alpha Filament in 2A 0335+096 Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Vantyghem, A N; Russell, H R; Hogan, M T; Edge, A C; Nulsen, P E J; Fabian, A C; Combes, F; Salome, P; Baum, S A; Donahue, M; Main, R A; Murray, N W; O'Connell, R W; O'Dea, C P; Oonk, J B R; Parrish, I J; Sanders, J S; Tremblay, G

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the 2A 0335+096 galaxy cluster (z = 0.0346). The total molecular gas mass of (1.13+/-0.15) x 10^9 M_sun is divided into two components: a nuclear region and a 7 kpc long dusty filament. The central molecular gas component accounts for (3.2+/-0.4) x 10^8 M_sun of the total supply of cold gas. Instead of forming a rotationally-supported ring or disk, it is composed of two distinct, blueshifted clumps south of the nucleus and a series of low-significance redshifted clumps extending toward a nearby companion galaxy. The velocity of the redshifted clouds increases with radius to a value consistent with the companion galaxy, suggesting that an interaction between these galaxies <20 Myr ago disrupted a pre-existing molecular gas reservoir within the BCG. Most of the molecular gas, (7.8+/-0.9) x 10^8 M_sun, is located in the filament. The CO emission is co-spatial with a 10^4 K emission-line nebula and soft X-rays from 0.5 ke...

  12. ALMA Observations of the Transition from Infall Motion to Keplerian Rotation around the Late-phase Protostar TMC-1A

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, Yusuke; Saigo, Kazuya; Koyamatsu, Shin; Aikawa, Yuri; Hayashi, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiro N; Saito, Masao; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Tomida, Kengo; Tomisaka, Kohji; Yen, Hsi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the Class I protostar TMC-1A with Atacama Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in 12CO and C18O (J=2-1), and 1.3-mm dust continuum emission. Continuum emission with a deconvolved size of 0.50"x0.37", perpendicular to the 12CO outflow, is detected. It most likely traces a circumstellar disk around TMC-1A, as previously reported. In contrast, a more extended structure is detected in C18O although it is still elongated with a deconvolved size of 3.3"x2.2", indicating that C18O traces mainly a flattened envelope surrounding the disk and the central protostar. C18O shows a clear velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow at higher velocities, indicative of rotation, while an additional velocity gradient along the outflow is found at lower velocities. The radial profile of the rotational velocity is analyzed in detail, finding that it is given as a power-law \\propto r^{-a} with an index of ~0.5 at higher velocities. This suggests that the rotation at higher velocities can be explained as Keple...

  13. Fragmentation of high line-mass filaments as revealed by ALMA: the integral shaped filament in Orion A

    CERN Document Server

    Kainulainen, Jouni; Stanke, Thomas; Abreu-Vicente, Jorge; Beuther, Henrik; Henning, Thomas; Johnston, Katharine G; Megeath, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study the fragmentation of the most nearby high line-mass filament, the integral shaped filament (ISF) in the Orion A molecular cloud. We have observed a 1.6 pc long section of the ISF with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 3 mm continuum emission, at a resolution of $\\sim$3" (1$\\,$200 AU). We identify from the region 40 dense cores with masses on the order of a solar mass. The nearest neighbour separation distribution of the cores does not show a preferred fragmentation scale; the frequency of short separations increases down to our resolution limit. We apply a two-point correlation analysis on the dense core separations and show that the cores are significantly grouped at separations below $\\sim$17$\\,$000 AU and strongly grouped below $\\sim$6$\\,$000 AU. In addition, the two-point correlation function indicates periodic grouping of the cores into groups of $\\sim$30$\\,$000 AU in size, separated by $\\sim$55$\\,$000 AU. The groups coincide with dust column density peaks detected by He...

  14. Microbiological quality and antimicrobial susceptibility of informally traded milk in Cruz das Almas county, Bahia Qualidade microbiológica e suscetibilidade antimicrobiana do leite in natura comercializado em Cruz das Almas, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Suely Evangelista Barreto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality as well as the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from raw milk obtained from 25 food stores in Cruz das Almas, Bahia were evaluated. The analysis included counts of mesophilic and psicrotrophic microorganisms, molds and yeast, Staphylococcus spp., coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms (at 35ºC and 45ºC, and the presence of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. The average count for mesophilic and psicrotrophic microorganisms, molds and yeast, and coliforms at 35°C and 45°C were 1.6 x 109 CFU.mL-1, 9.6 x 104 CFU.mL-1, 3.8 x 108 CFU. mL-1, 4.0 x 105 MPN.mL-1 and 3.8 x 105 MPN.mL-1, respectively. Coagulase positive Staphylococcus was found in 44% of the samples (mean value of 7.3 x 105 CFU.mL-1, and E. coli was present in 76% of them. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. E. coli showed resistance (57.9% to tetracycline, to ampicillin and chloramphenicol (10.5%, and cephalotin (5.3%, while coagulase-positive Staphylococcus strains were resistant to amicacin (18% and vancomicin (18%. The raw milk besides to present poor microbiological quality, becoming a health risk of the consumers, it may contribute to the dissemination of resistant bacteria to various antimicrobial agents. Para a avaliação da qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura, bem como a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana das bactérias isoladas, foram analisados 25 estabelecimentos comerciais em Cruz das Almas, Ba. Para isso realizou-se a quantificação de micro-organismos heterotróficos mesófilos e psicrotróficos aeróbios, bolores e leveduras, Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus coagulase positiva, coliformes (35ºC e 45ºC e presença de Salmonella spp. e Escherichia coli. A contagem média de micro-organismos heterotróficos mesófilos foi de 1,6 x 109 UFC.mL-1, psicrotróficos 9,6 x 104 UFC. mL-1, bolores e leveduras 3,8 x 108 UFC.mL-1, coliformes a 35°C 4 x 105 NMP.mL-1 e a 45°C 3,8 x 105 NMP.mL-1

  15. Avaliação de modelos de estimativa da radiação solar incidente em Cruz das Almas, Bahia Evaluating models for estimation of incoming solar radiation in Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria P. Borges

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos agroambientais a radiação solar incidente (Rs é uma das mais importantes variáveis meteorológicas. Na ausência de dados observados de Rs é possível estimá-los mediante modelos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar modelos baseados na temperatura do ar para estimativa diária de Rs nas condições do Recôncavo Sul da Bahia. Utilizaram-se dados de Rs do período de 2004 a 2006, medidos por uma estação meteorológica automática pertencente ao INMET, instalada em Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Como etapa preliminar, verificou-se a qualidade dos dados de Rs tomando-se como referência curvas de radiação esperada em dias claros. Os seguintes modelos foram avaliados: Hargreaves-Samani para regiões interiores e regiões costeiras, Thornton-Running e o de Weiss. O desempenho de cada método foi avaliado através dos seguintes indicadores: coeficiente de determinção (R², razão média (RM, erro absoluto médio (EAM, raiz quadrada do quadrado médio do erro (RQME e índice de concordância de Wilmott (dW. Os resultados obtidos recomendam o modelo de Hargreaves-Samani para regiões costeiras por apresentar o valor de RM mais próximo de 1 (1,01, menor EAM (2,54 MJ m-2 d-1, menor RQME (3,13 MJ m-2 d-1 e o maior dW (0,90.Solar radiation at the earth's surface (Rs is one of the essential weather variables for several agro-environmental studies. In the absence of measured Rs, it's possible to simulate them by models. Using three years of daily Rs data (2004-2006 collected by an INMET (Brazilian Meteorological Service automatic weather station installed in the municipality of Cruz das Almas, BA, three air temperature-based Rs simulation models were evaluated. As a preliminary step, data quality was investigated and, when needed, adjustments were made based on clear sky solar radiation envelopes. The following models were evaluated: Hargreaves-Samani for both interior and coastal regions, Thornton-Running, and the Weiss model. Linear

  16. La metáfora de la luz como expresión del alma en “Livia y los sueños” de Jesús Gardea

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rosario Lara

    2014-01-01

    En el presente artículo exploramos la expresión artística de la idea de alma a través de la metáfora de la luz tal y como aparece en “Livia y los sueños” . Para ello, nos basare - mos en los postulados filosóficos de María Zambrano referentes a las concepciones de alma, ser humano y destino. En nuestra investigación también abordaremos la forma como tiempo y espacio en la obra de Gardea integran un cronotopo específico, como base donde la idea de alma puede desplegarse en toda su plenitud....

  17. The evolution of interstellar medium mass probed by dust emission: Alma observations at z = 0.3-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of submillimeter dust continuum emission to probe the mass of interstellar dust and gas in galaxies is empirically calibrated using samples of local star-forming galaxies, Planck observations of the Milky Way, and high-redshift submillimeter galaxies. All of these objects suggest a similar calibration, strongly supporting the view that the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the dust emission can be used as an accurate and very fast probe of the interstellar medium (ISM) in galaxies. We present ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the Band 7 (350 GHz) dust emission in 107 galaxies from z = 0.2 to 2.5. Three samples of galaxies with a total of 101 galaxies were stellar-mass-selected from COSMOS to have M * ≅ 1011 M ☉: 37 at z ∼ 0.4, 33 at z ∼ 0.9, and 31 at z = 2. A fourth sample with six infrared-luminous galaxies at z = 2 was observed for comparison with the purely mass-selected samples. From the fluxes detected in the stacked images for each sample, we find that the ISM content has decreased by a factor ∼6 from 1 to 2 × 1010 M ☉ at both z = 2 and 0.9 down to ∼2 × 109 M ☉ at z = 0.4. The infrared-luminous sample at z = 2 shows a further ∼4 times increase in M ISM compared with the equivalent non-infrared-bright sample at the same redshift. The gas mass fractions are ∼2% ± 0.5%, 12% ± 3%, 14% ± 2%, and 53% ± 3% for the four subsamples (z = 0.4, 0.9, and 2 and infrared-bright galaxies).

  18. Properties of the Interstellar Medium in Star-Forming Galaxies at z ~ 1.4 Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Akifumi; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Akiyama, Masayuki; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Tamura, Naoyuki; Dalton, Gavin

    2016-03-01

    We conducted observations of 12CO(J = 5-4) and dust thermal continuum emission toward 20 star-forming galaxies on the main sequence at z ˜ 1.4 using ALMA to investigate the properties of the interstellar medium. The sample galaxies are chosen to trace the distributions of star-forming galaxies in diagrams of stellar mass versus star formation rate and stellar mass versus metallicity. We detected CO emission lines from 11 galaxies. The molecular gas mass is derived by adopting a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor and assuming a CO(5-4)/CO(1-0) luminosity ratio of 0.23. Masses of molecular gas and its fractions (molecular gas mass/(molecular gas mass + stellar mass)) for the detected galaxies are in the ranges of (3.9-12) × 1010 M⊙ and 0.25-0.94, respectively; these values are significantly larger than those in local spiral galaxies. The molecular gas mass fraction decreases with increasing stellar mass; the relation holds for four times lower stellar mass than that covered in previous studies, and the molecular gas mass fraction decreases with increasing metallicity. Stacking analyses also show the same trends. Dust thermal emissions were clearly detected from two galaxies and marginally detected from five galaxies. Dust masses of the detected galaxies are (3.9-38) × 107 M⊙. We derived gas-to-dust ratios and found they are 3-4 times larger than those in local galaxies. The depletion times of molecular gas for the detected galaxies are (1.4-36) × 108 yr while the results of the stacking analysis show ˜3 × 108 yr. The depletion time tends to decrease with increasing stellar mass and metallicity though the trend is not so significant, which contrasts with the trends in local galaxies.

  19. Sub-kpc star formation law in the local luminous infrared galaxy IC 4687 as seen by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Santaella, M.; Colina, L.; García-Burillo, S.; Planesas, P.; Usero, A.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Arribas, S.; Cazzoli, S.; Emonts, B.; Piqueras López, J.; Villar-Martín, M.

    2016-03-01

    We analyze the spatially resolved (250 pc scales) and integrated star formation (SF) law in the local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IC 4687. This is one of the first studies of the SF law on a starburst LIRG at these small spatial scales. We combined new interferometric ALMA CO(2-1) data with existing HST/NICMOS Paα narrowband imaging and VLT/SINFONI near-IR integral field spectroscopy to obtain accurate extinction-corrected SF rate (SFR) and cold molecular gas surface densities (Σgas and ΣSFR). We find that IC 4687 forms stars very efficiently with an average depletion time (tdep) of 160 Myr for the individual 250 pc regions. This is approximately one order of magnitude shorter than the tdep of local normal spirals and also shorter than that of main-sequence high-z objects, even when we use a Galactic αCO conversion factor. This result suggests a bimodal SF law in the ΣSFR∝ΣgasN representation. A universal SF law is recovered if we normalize the Σgas by the global dynamical time. However, at the spatial scales studied here, we find that the SF efficiency (or tdep) does not depend on the local dynamical time for this object. Therefore, an alternative normalization (e.g., free-fall time) should be found if a universal SF law exists at these scales. A FITS file for the reduced datacube is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A44

  20. ALMA Observations of the Transition from Infall Motion to Keplerian Rotation around the Late-phase Protostar TMC-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Yusuke; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Saigo, Kazuya; Koyamatsu, Shin; Aikawa, Yuri; Hayashi, Masahiko; Machida, Masahiro N.; Saito, Masao; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Tomida, Kengo; Tomisaka, Kohji; Yen, Hsi-Wei

    2015-10-01

    We have observed the Class I protostar TMC-1A with the Atacama Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the emissions of 12CO and C18O (J = 2–1) and 1.3 mm dust continuum. Continuum emission with a deconvolved size of 0.″50 × 0.″37, perpendicular to the 12CO outflow, is detected. It most likely traces a circumstellar disk around TMC-1A, as previously reported. In contrast, a more extended structure is detected in C18O, although it is still elongated with a deconvolved size of 3.″3 × 2.″2, indicating that C18O traces mainly a flattened envelope surrounding the disk and the central protostar. C18O shows a clear velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow at higher velocities, indicative of rotation, while an additional velocity gradient along the outflow is found at lower velocities. The radial profile of the rotational velocity is analyzed in detail, finding that it is given as a power law ∝r‑a with an index of ∼0.5 at higher velocities. This indicates that the rotation at higher velocities can be explained as Keplerian rotation orbiting a protostar with a dynamical mass of 0.68 {M}ȯ (inclination corrected). The additional velocity gradient of C18O along the outflow is considered to be mainly infall motions in the envelope. Position–velocity diagrams made from models consisting of an infalling envelope and a Keplerian disk are compared with the observations, revealing that the observed infall velocity is ∼0.3 times smaller than the free-fall velocity yielded by the dynamical mass of the protostar. Magnetic fields could be responsible for the slow infall velocity. A possible scenario of Keplerian disk formation is discussed.

  1. An ALMA Survey of Submillimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The AGN Fraction and X-ray Properties of Submillimeter Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, S X; Luo, B; Smail, I; Alexander, D M; Danielson, A L R; Hodge, J A; Karim, A; Lehmer, B D; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Walter, F; Wardlow, J L; Xue, Y Q; Chapman, S C; Coppin, K E K; Dannerbauer, H; De Breuck, C; Menten, K M; van der Werf, P

    2013-01-01

    The large gas and dust reservoirs of submm galaxies (SMGs) could potentially provide ample fuel to trigger an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), but previous studies of the AGN fraction in SMGs have been controversial largely due to the inhomogeneity and limited angular resolution of the available submillimeter surveys. Here we set improved constraints on the AGN fraction and X-ray properties of the SMGs with ALMA and Chandra observations in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (E-CDF-S). This study is the first among similar works to have unambiguously identified the X-ray counterparts of SMGs; this is accomplished using the fully submm-identified, statistically reliable SMG catalog with 99 SMGs from the ALMA LABOCA E-CDF-S Submillimeter Survey (ALESS). We found 10 X-ray sources associated with SMGs (median redshift z = 2.3), of which 8 were identified as AGNs using several techniques that enable cross-checking. The other 2 X-ray detected SMGs have levels of X-ray emission that can be plausibly explained by the...

  2. SXDF-ALMA 1.5 arcmin^2 deep survey. A compact dusty star-forming galaxy at z=2.5

    CERN Document Server

    Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Ikarashi, Soh; Aretxaga, Itziar; Berta, Stefano; Caputi, Karina I; Dunlop, James S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hayashi, Masao; Hughes, David H; Ivison, Rob; Izumi, Takuma; Koyama, Yusei; Lutz, Dieter; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W; Wuyts, Stijn; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S

    2015-01-01

    We present first results from the SXDF-ALMA 1.5 arcmin^2 deep survey at 1.1 mm using Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The map reaches a 1sigma depth of 55 uJy/beam and covers 12 Halpha-selected star-forming galaxies at z = 2.19 or z=2.53. We have detected continuum emission from three of our Halpha-selected sample, including one compact star-forming galaxy with high stellar surface density, NB2315-07. They are all red in the rest-frame optical and have stellar masses of log (M*/Msun)>10.9 whereas the other blue, main-sequence galaxies with log(M*/Msun)=10.0-10.8 are exceedingly faint, <290 uJy (2sigma upper limit). We also find the 1.1 mm-brightest galaxy, NB2315-02, to be associated with a compact (R_e=0.7+-0.1 kpc), dusty star-forming component. Given high gas fraction (44^{+20}_{-8}% or 37^{+25}_{-3}%) and high star formation rate surface density (126^{+27}_{-30} Msun yr^{-1}kpc^{-2}), the concentrated starburst can within less than 50^{+12}_{-11} Myr build up a stellar surface density matching th...

  3. High-resolution ALMA observations of SDP.81. I. The innermost mass profile of the lensing elliptical galaxy probed by 30 milli-arcsecond images

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Yoichi; Iono, Daisuke; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hayashi, Masao

    2015-01-01

    We report a detailed modeling of a mass profile of a $z = 0.2999$ massive elliptical galaxy using 30 milli-arcsecond resolution 1-mm Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images of the galaxy-galaxy lensing system SDP.81. The detailed morphology of the lensed multiple images of the $z = 3.042$ infrared-luminous galaxy, which is found to consist of tens of $\\lesssim 100$-pc-sized star-forming clumps embedded in a $\\sim 2$ kpc disk, are well reproduced by a lensing galaxy modeled by an isothermal ellipsoid with a 400 pc core. The core radius is consistent with that of the visible stellar light, and the mass-to-light ratio of $\\sim 2\\,M_{\\odot}\\,L_{\\odot}^{-1}$ is comparable to the locally measured value, suggesting that the inner 1 kpc region is dominated by luminous matter. The position of the predicted mass centroid is consistent to within $\\simeq 30$ mas with that of a non-thermal source detected with ALMA, which likely traces an active galactic nucleus of the foreground elliptical galaxy. A po...

  4. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Continuum number counts, resolved 1.2-mm extragalactic background, and properties of the faintest dusty star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Bauer, Franz E; Carilli, Christopher; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto J; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Bacon, Roland; Bouwens, Rychard; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; Sheth, Kartik; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of a deep (1$\\sigma$=13 $\\mu$Jy) cosmological 1.2-mm continuum map based on ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. In the 1 arcmin$^2$ covered by ASPECS we detect nine sources at $>3.5\\sigma$ significance at 1.2-mm. Our ALMA--selected sample has a median redshift of $z=1.6\\pm0.4$, with only one galaxy detected at z$>$2 within the survey area. This value is significantly lower than that found in millimeter samples selected at a higher flux density cut-off and similar frequencies. Most galaxies have specific star formation rates similar to that of main sequence galaxies at the same epoch, and we find median values of stellar mass and star formation rates of $4.0\\times10^{10}\\ M_\\odot$ and $\\sim40~M_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, respectively. Using the dust emission as a tracer for the ISM mass, we derive depletion times that are typically longer than 300 Myr, and we find molecular gas fractions ranging from $\\sim$0.1 to 1.0. As noted by previous studies, these values ar...

  5. A necklace of dense cores in the high-mass star forming region G35.20-0.74N: ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Monge, Á; Cesaroni, R; Etoka, S; Galli, D; Kumar, M S N; Moscadelli, L; Stanke, T; van der Tak, F F S; Vig, S; Walmsley, C M; Wang, K -S; Zinnecker, H; Elia, D; Molinari, S; Schisano, E

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at characterizing the massive star forming region G35.20N, which is found associated with at least one massive outflow and contains multiple dense cores, one of them recently found associated with a Keplerian rotating disk. We used ALMA to observe the G35.20N region in the continuum and line emission at 350 GHz. The observed frequency range covers tracers of dense gas (e.g. H13CO+, C17O), molecular outflows (e.g. SiO), and hot cores (e.g. CH3CN, CH3OH). The ALMA 870 um continuum emission map reveals an elongated dust structure (0.15 pc long and 0.013 pc wide) perpendicular to the large-scale molecular outflow detected in the region, and fragmented into a number of cores with masses 1-10 Msun and sizes 1600 AU. The cores appear regularly spaced with a separation of 0.023 pc. The emission of dense gas tracers such as H13CO+ or C17O is extended and coincident with the dust elongated structure. The three strongest dust cores show emission of complex organic molecules characteristic of hot c...

  6. ALMA's view of the Sun's nearest neighbours: The submm/mm SEDs of the alpha Centauri binary and a new source

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; O'Gorman, E; Bertone, E; Chavez, M; Tapia, F

    2016-01-01

    The precise mechanisms that provide the non-radiative energy for heating the chromosphere and the corona of the Sun and other stars are at the focus of intense contemporary research. Observations at submm/mm wavelengths are particularly useful to obtain information about the run of the temperature in the upper atmosphere of Sun-like stars. We used ALMA to study the chromospheric emission of the aCen binary system in all six available frequency bands during Cycle2 in 2014/15. Since ALMA is an interferometer, the multi-telescope array is particularly suited for the observation of point sources. With its large collecting area, the sensitivity is high enough to allow the observation of nearby main-sequence stars at submm/mm wavelengths for the first time. The comparison of the observed spectral energy distributions with theoretical model computations provides the chromospheric structure in terms of temperature and density above the stellar photosphere and the quantitative understanding of the primary emission pro...

  7. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured, Hyperluminous Quasars at Redshifts ˜ 0.5-3. I. ALMA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lacy, M.; Kimball, A. E.; Blain, A.; Whittle, M.; Wilkes, B.; Stern, D.; Condon, J.; Kim, M.; Assef, R. J.; Tsai, C.-W.; Efstathiou, A.; Jones, S.; Eisenhardt, P.; Bridge, C.; Wu, J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Jones, K.; Jarrett, T.; Smith, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 870 μm (345 GHz) data for 49 high-redshift (0.47 red) mid-infrared colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 μm, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios, consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7\\lt {log}({P}\\text{3.0 GHz}/{{{W}} {Hz}}-1)\\lt 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 DOGs” (hot dust-obscured galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estimated for the ALMA-detected sources are 9.9 < log (MISM/M⊙) < 11.75 assuming a dust temperature of 30 K. The cool dust emission is consistent with star formation rates reaching several thousand M⊙ yr-1, depending on the assumed dust temperature, but we cannot rule out the alternative that the AGN powers all the emission in some cases. Our best constrained source has radiative transfer solutions with approximately equal contributions from an obscured AGN and a young (10-15 Myr) compact starburst.

  8. The First ALMA view of IRAS 16293-2422: Direct detection of infall onto source B and high-resolution kinematics of source A

    CERN Document Server

    Pineda, Jaime E; Fuller, Gary A; Testi, Leonardo; García-Appadoo, Diego; Peck, Alison B; Villard, Eric; Corder, Stuartt A; van Kempen, Tim A; Turner, Jean L; Tachihara, Kengo; Dent, William

    2012-01-01

    Aims: In this paper, we focus on the kinematical properties of a proto-binary to study the infall and rotation of gas towards its two protostellar components. Methods: We present ALMA Science Verification observations with high-spectral resolution of IRAS 16293-2422 at 220.2 GHz. The wealth of molecular lines in this source and the very high spectral resolution offered by ALMA allow us to study the gas kinematics with unprecedented detail. Results: We present the first detection of an inverse P-Cygni profile towards source B in the three brightest lines. The line profiles are fitted with a simple two-layer model to derive an infall rate of 4.5x10^-5 Msun/yr. This infall detection would rule-out the previously suggested possibility of source B being a T Tauri star. A position velocity diagram for source A shows evidence for rotation with an axis close to the line-of-sight.

  9. ALMA: the completion of the 25 Europeans antennas: focus on main performances, problems found during erection and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, Gianpietro; Rampini, Francesco; Giacomel, Luigino; Giacomel, Stefano; Marcuzzi, Enrico; Formentin, Federico

    2014-07-01

    The 2013 saw the completion of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The array consists of 66 antennas and operates in Chile at the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude. 25 of the 12 meter diameter antennas have been delivered by the AEM consortium constituted by Thales Alenia Space France, Thales Alenia Space Italy, European Industrial Engineering (EIE GROUP), and MT Mechatronics. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of the results obtained by the antennas during the different test campaign and a summary of the problems aroused during the erection and the assembly phases and the relative lesson learned. The results of the engineering performances and antenna systems, performed during the acceptance phases of the first antennas, have shown the full correspondence between what was expected during the design phase and what has been achieved in the final product, with a difference of less than 10% and the trend tends to be conservative. As for "on sky antennas performances", all the tests done in the 25 antennas showed excellent results. The antenna All Sky Pointing Error and Offset Pointing Error with and without metrology correction turned to be always excellent. The Fast Motion Capability with the tracking requirements after a step motion was better than an order of magnitude compared to the requests. Four years of on-site activities and the various phases of construction and assembly of 25 antennas have been a major challenge for the European Consortium. The problems encountered in this phase were many and varied: interfaces issues, design and foundation problems, manufacturing and assembly errors, electrical installation, shipment delays, human errors, adverse weather conditions, financial aspects, schedule, etc. The important is being prepared with an "a priori", that is a risk assessment which helps ensuring the best solution for the complete customer satisfaction of the scientific and technical requests. Despite the already excellent

  10. As potencialidades da personalidade-alma na reabilitação da linguagem e do pensamento: um estudo transdisciplinar de caso no SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Paes de Barros

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A clínica fonoaudiológica dentro do SUS, no interior paulista, é ainda muito pautada por um referencial reducionista, próprio da medicina convencional. A Antiga e Mística Ordem Rosae Crucis, AMORC, é uma escola do esoterismo ocidental, que veicula a Tradição Rosacruz. Nesta Tradição, “personalidade-alma” é a identidade psíquica da pessoa, uma “manifestação objetiva da reação individual à parte integrante da Alma Universal”. Este “Eu Interior” é dotado de grande potencial que pode ser atualizado à medida que se eleve a consciência de modo a torná-la mais sensível aos influxos da Alma. (LEWIS, 1988. O processo de desenvolvimento, ou evolução através das existências propicia à pessoa a transcendência dos níveis de percepção e de realidade (NICOLESCU, 2000 de forma a promover sua evolução. Na atuação clínica em saúde, a abordagem sócio-interacionista (VIGOSTSKY, 2007 aliada à compreensão mística da personalidade-alma possibilita uma prática clínica ampliada orientada para a reorganização dos processos psíquicos. Objetivos: Contribuir para uma Clínica Fonoaudiológica Ampliada no SUS, a partir de uma leitura Integrativa de conhecimentos tradicionais e contemporâneos. Método: Estudo de Caso com enfoque na metodologia de pesquisa social do tipo participante (RICHARDSON, s.d., isto é, onde pesquisador (observador e sujeito (observado interagem no mesmo contexto a partir de uma realidade construída entre ambos, num campo fenomênico de significado comum. Resultados: O paciente foi capaz de recuperar sua condição de estudante a partir do estabelecimento de uma nova consciência de si promovida pela autotranscendência das limitações impostas pelo quadro clínico. Conclusão: Os resultados sugerem ser a abordagem transdisciplinar adequada para o estabelecimento de pontes dialógicas entre os conhecimentos tradicionais e perspectivas contemporâneas de conhecimento.

  11. Avaliação de clones de bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish (Musa acuminata, AAA em Cruz das Almas-BA Evaluation of banana Cavendish clones in Cruz das Almas City, Bahia State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Oliveira e Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados em Cruz das Almas-BA, em dois ciclos, 69 clones Cavendish coletados em São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia e Santa Catarina, sendo 49 do tipo Nanicão e 20 do tipo Grande Naine. Os clones foram estabelecidos em área experimental da Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura utilizando-se um delineamento em blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições e cinco plantas por parcela. Foram utilizados a irrigação por microaspersão, o espaçamento de 3,0 m x 2,0 m e um sistema de condução com três plantas/touceira. Os requerimentos agronômicos foram aplicados conforme preconizados para o cultivo. Na avaliação dos clones, foram consideradas as seguintes variáveis: altura da planta em centímetros (AP; número de dias do plantio à colheita (ND; peso do cacho em quilogramas (PC; número de frutos por cacho (NF; e comprimento do fruto em centímetros (CF. Pelos resultados obtidos, verificou-se uma variabilidade média em todas as variáveis avaliadas. Por apresentarem caracteres superiores, foram selecionados cinco clones de Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N.Rossete, G.N. Willians, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074 e quatro de Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbada Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063.Sixty-nine clones of Cavendish type bananas (49 Nanicão and 20 Grande Naine collected in the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Bahia and Santa Catarina were evaluated. The clones were established in an experimental area at the Cassava and Fruit Crops Research Center - EMBRAPA, using micro-aspersion irrigation, in plants spaced at 3.0 m x 2.0 m, and conducted with three plants/bushes. Random blocks were used with five replications and five plants per plot. All cultural requirements for the crop were carried out. For the clone evaluations, the following variables were considered: plant height in centimeters (PH; number of days from planting to yield (ND; weight of bunch in kilograms (WB; number of fruits per bunch (FB and length of fruit in centimeters (LF. The

  12. A desmaterialização do corpo: da alma (analógica à informação (digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sibilia

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se aqui uma reflexão acerca da persistência da visão dualista do ser humano: a possibilidade de uma subjetividade descarnada, uma idéia perfeitamente datada, parece continuar vigente na sociedade contemporânea. Se até pouco tempo atrás os corpos eram aprisionados pela alma (uma entidade opaca e analógica, hoje é a informação digital que os amordaça e os torna manipuláveis. Essa informação imaterial que comanda os corpos assume diversas formas: do código genético aos circuitos cerebrais e à imagem do “corpo perfeito”.

  13. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F ν(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F ν(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L IR(8-1000 μm) ≲ 3 × 1010 L ☉, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFRIR≲5 M ☉ yr–1. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFRUV ≲ 1 M ☉ yr–1. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M * ≲ 5 × 107 M ☉ (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  14. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF WARM DENSE GAS IN NGC 1614—BREAKING OF THE STAR FORMATION LAW IN THE CENTRAL KILOPARSEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, C. K.; Cao, C.; Lu, N.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Zhao, Y.-H.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Murphy, E. J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Herrero-Illana, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía - CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía, s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Privon, G.; Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); König, S. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Onsala Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Chu, J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF, P.O. Box 76, Epping 1710 (Australia); Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2015-01-20

    We present ALMA Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and of the 435 μm dust continuum emission in the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614, a local luminous infrared galaxy at a distance of 67.8 Mpc (1{sup ′′}=329 pc). The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0.''26 × 0.''20) into a circumnuclear ring, with an integrated flux of f {sub CO(6-5)} = 898 (± 153) Jy km s{sup –1}, which is 63(± 12)% of the total CO (6-5) flux measured by Herschel. The molecular ring, located between 100 pc

  15. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Davies, J. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Levesque, E. M. [CASA, University of Colorado UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F {sub ν}(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F {sub ν}(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L {sub IR}(8-1000 μm) ≲ 3 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR{sub IR}≲5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFR{sub UV} ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M {sub *} ≲ 5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  16. Cuerpo y alma en el Carmelo descalzo femenino. Una aproximación a la alimentación conventual en la Cataluña moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercé GRAS I CASANOVAS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Cuerpo y alma en el Carmelo descalzo femenino. Unaaproximación a la alimentación conventual en la Cataluña moderna. A través del análisis de un conjunto de fuentes diversas: regla y cosntituciones, ceremoniales, cartas pastorales, hagiografías, epistolarios, polémicas internas, cuentas conventuales y libros de cocina, hemos pretendido reconstruir el marco teórico, la realidad material, el ritual y la contradictoria vivencia de la experencia alimentaria en un colectivo social específico.ABSTRACT: Body and soul in the feminine Discalced Carmel. An approach to the conventual alimentation in modern Catalonia. Through the analysis of an ensemble of sources of different kinds: Rule ans constitutions, ceremonials, pastoral letters, hagiographies, internal polemics, conventual account-books and kitchen's books, we have tried to recreate the theoretical archetype, the material reality, the ritual, and the contradictory experience of the alimentary life in a specific social collectivity.

  17. The jet and the disk of the HH 212 low-mass protostar imaged by ALMA: SO and SO2 emission

    CERN Document Server

    Podio, L; Gueth, F; Cabrit, S; Bachiller, R; Gusdorf, A; Lee, C -F; Lefloch, B; Leurini, S; Nisini, B; Tafalla, M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the disk formation and jet launch in protostars is crucial to comprehend the earliest stages of star and planet formation. We aim to constrain the properties of the molecular jet and the disk of the HH 212 protostellar system at unprecedented angular scales through ALMA observations of sulfur-bearing molecules, SO 9(8)-8(7), SO 10(11)-10(10), SO2 8(2,6)-7(1,7). SO 9(8)-8(7) and SO2 8(2,6)-7(1,7) show broad velocity profiles. At systemic velocity they probe the circumstellar gas and the cavity walls. Going from low to high blue-/red-shifted velocities the emission traces the wide-angle outflow and the fast (~100-200 km/s) and collimated (~90 AU) molecular jet revealing the inner knots with timescales 0.2-2e-6 Msun/yr, implying high ejection efficiency (>0.03-0.3). The SO and SO2 abundances in the jet are ~1e-7-1e-6. SO 10(11)-10(10) emission is compact and shows small-scale velocity gradients indicating that it originates partly from the rotating disk previously seen in HCO+ and C17O, and partly...

  18. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF A HIGH-DENSITY CORE IN TAURUS: DYNAMICAL GAS INTERACTION AT THE POSSIBLE SITE OF A MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starless dense cores eventually collapse dynamically, forming protostars inside them, and the physical properties of the cores determine the nature of the forming protostars. We report ALMA observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward MC27 or L1521F, which is considered to be very close to the first protostellar core phase. We found a few starless high-density cores, one of which has a very high density of ∼107 cm–3, within a region of several hundred AU around a very low-luminosity protostar detected by Spitzer. A very compact bipolar outflow with a dynamical timescale of a few hundred years was found toward the protostar. The molecular line observation shows several cores with an arc-like structure, possibly due to the dynamical gas interaction. These complex structures revealed in the present observations suggest that the initial condition of star formation is highly dynamical in nature, which is considered to be a key factor in understanding fundamental issues of star formation such as the formation of multiple stars and the origin of the initial mass function of stars

  19. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA resolves the rest-frame far-infrared emission of sub-millimeter galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Almaini, O; Blain, A W; Bremer, M N; Chapman, S C; Chen, Chian-Chou; Conselice, C; Coppin, K E K; Danielson, A L R; Dunlop, J S; Edge, A C; Farrah, D; Geach, J E; Hartley, W G; Ivison, R J; Karim, A; Lani, C; Ma, C -J; Meijerink, R; Michalowski, M J; Mortlock, A; Scott, D; Simpson, C J; Spaans, M; Thomson, A P; van Kampen, E; van der Werf, P P

    2014-01-01

    We present high-resolution (0.3'') ALMA 870um imaging of 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) in the Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field and investigate the size and morphology of the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) emission on 2-10kpc scales. We derive a median intrinsic angular size of FWHM=0.30$\\pm$0.04'' for the 23 SMGs in the sample detected at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) >10. Using the photometric redshifts of the SMGs we show that this corresponds to a median physical half-light diameter of 2.4$\\pm$0.2kpc. A stacking analysis of the SMGs detected at an SNR <10 shows they have sizes consistent with the 870um-bright SMGs in the sample. We compare our results to the sizes of SMGs derived from other multi-wavelength studies, and show that the rest-frame ~250um sizes of SMGs are consistent with studies of resolved 12CO (J=3-2 to 7-6) emission lines, but that sizes derived from 1.4GHz imaging appear to be approximately two times larger on average, which we attribute to cosmic ray diffusion. The rest-frame optical sizes ...

  20. Morphology and kinematics of the gas envelope of protostar L1527 as obtained from ALMA observations of the C$^{18}$O(2-1) line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Tuan-Anh, P; Hoai, D T; Diep, P N; Phuong, N T; Thao, N T; Darriulat, P

    2016-01-01

    Using ALMA observations of the C$^{18}$O(2-1) line emission of the gas envelope of protostar L1527, we have reconstructed in space its morphology and kinematics under the assumption of axisymmetry about the west-east axis. We present evidence for rotation with a power law requiring an index increasing with decreasing distance from the star, as expected from a transition to Keplerian. The total velocity, interpreted as free-fall velocity, corresponds to a protostar mass of 0.2 solar masses. The very strong absorption slightly above systemic velocity prevents a reliable exploration at distances from the protostar smaller than $\\sim$100 AU. The in-fall velocity, evaluated from the kinematics of the envelope without reference to this absorption, is found to be small and its variation over the explored range is poorly constrained. The accretion rate is evaluated at the scale of 2.5$\\pm$1.0 10$^{-7}$ M$_{\\odot}$. Deviations from a simple isothermal, stationary description are quantified. The overall morphology leav...

  1. High-resolution ALMA Observations of SDP.81. II. Molecular Clump Properties of a Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy at z=3.042

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Iono, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yuichi; Hayashi, Masao; Oguri, Masamune

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially-resolved properties of molecular gas and dust in a gravitationally-lensed submillimeter galaxy H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81) at $z=3.042$ revealed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We identified 14 molecular clumps in the CO(5-4) line data, all with a spatial scale of $\\sim$50-300 pc in the source plane. The surface density of molecular gas ($\\Sigma_{\\rm H_2}$) and star-formation rate ($\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$) of the clumps are more than three orders of magnitude higher than those found in local spiral galaxies. The clumps are placed in the `burst' sequence in the $\\Sigma_{\\rm H_2}$-$\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$ plane, suggesting that $z \\sim 3$ molecular clumps follow the star-formation law derived for local starburst galaxies. With our gravitational lens model, the positions in the source plane are derived for the molecular clumps, dust clumps, and stellar components identified in the {\\sl Hubble Space Telescope} image. The molecular and dust clumps coexist in a similar re...

  2. Witnessing the birth of the red sequence: ALMA high-resolution imaging of [CII] and dust in two interacting ultra-red starbursts at z = 4.425

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Dunne, L; Smail, I; Swinbank, M; Zhang, Z-Y; Lewis, A; Maddox, S; Riechers, D; Serjeant, S; Van der Werf, P; Bremer, M; Cigan, P; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Dannerbauer, H; Eales, S; Ibar, E; Messias, H; Michałowski, M J; Pérez-Fournon, I; van Kampen, E

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the sensitivity and spatial resolution of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have studied the morphology and the physical scale of the interstellar medium - both gas and dust - in SGP38326, an unlensed pair of interacting starbursts at $z= 4.425$. SGP38326 is the most luminous star bursting system known at $z > 4$ with an IR-derived ${\\rm SFR \\sim 4300 \\,} M_\\odot \\, {\\rm yr}^{-1}$. SGP38326 also contains a molecular gas reservoir among the most massive ever found in the early Universe, and it is the likely progenitor of a massive, red-and-dead elliptical galaxy at $z \\sim 3$. Probing scales of $\\sim 0.1"$ or $\\sim 800 \\, {\\rm pc}$ we find that the smooth distribution of the continuum emission from cool dust grains contrasts with the more irregular morphology of the gas, as traced by the [CII] fine structure emission. The gas is also extended over larger physical scales than the dust. The velocity information provided by the resolved [CII] emission reveals that the dynamics...

  3. ALMA observations of the $\\eta$ Corvi debris disc: inward scattering of CO-rich exocomets by a chain of 3-30 M$_\\oplus$ planets?

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, S; Panic, O; Matra, L; Kennedy, G M; Bonsor, A; Kral, Q; Dent, W R F; Duchene, G; Wilner, D; Lisse, C M; Lestrade, J -F; Matthews, B

    2016-01-01

    While most of the known debris discs present cold dust at tens of AU, a few young systems exhibit hot dust analogous to the Zodiacal dust. $\\eta$ Corvi is particularly interesting as it is old and it has both, with its hot dust significantly exceeding the maximum luminosity of an in-situ collisional cascade. Previous work suggested that this system could be undergoing an event similar to the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) soon after or during a dynamical instability. Here we present ALMA observations of $\\eta$ Corvi with a resolution of 1."2 (~22au) to study its outer belt. The continuum emission is consistent with an axisymmetric belt, with a mean radius of 152au and radial FWHM of 46au, which is too narrow compared to models of inward scattering of an LHB-like scenario. Instead, the hot dust could be explained as material passed inwards in a rather stable planetary configuration. We also report a 4sigma detection of CO at ~ 20au. CO could be released in situ from icy planetesimals being passed in when crossin...

  4. ALMACAL II: Extreme star-formation-rate densities in a pair of dusty starbursts at $z = 3.442$ revealed by ALMA 20-milliarcsec resolution imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Ivison, R J; Smail, I; Biggs, A D

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA ultra-high-spatial resolution ($\\sim 20 \\, {\\rm mas}$) observations of dust continuum at $920 \\, {\\rm \\mu m}$ and $1.2 \\, {\\rm mm}$ in a pair of submm galaxies (SMGs) at $z = 3.442$, ALMACAL-1 (A-1: $S_{\\rm 870 \\mu m} = 6.5 \\pm 0.2 \\, {\\rm mJy}$) and ALMACAL-2 (A-2: $S_{\\rm 870 \\mu m} = 4.4 \\pm 0.2 \\, {\\rm mJy}$). The spectroscopic redshifts of A-1 and A-2 have been confirmed via serendipitous detection of up to nine emission lines. Our ultra-high-spatial resolution data reveal that about half of the star formation in each of these starbursts is dominated by a single compact clump (FWHM size of $\\sim 350 \\, {\\rm pc}$). This structure is confirmed by independent datasets at $920 \\, {\\rm \\mu m}$ and $1.2 \\, {\\rm mm}$. The star-formation rate (SFR) surface densities of all these clumps are extremely high, $\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR} \\sim 1200$ to $\\sim 3000 \\, {M_\\odot \\, {\\rm yr}^{-1} \\, {\\rm kpc}^{-2}}$, the highest found in high-redshift galaxies. There is a small probability that A-1 and A-2 are the le...

  5. CO mass upper limits in the Fomalhaut ring - the importance of NLTE excitation in debris discs and future prospects with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Matrà, L; Wyatt, M C; Dent, W R F

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, gas has been observed in an increasing number of debris discs, though its nature remains to be determined. Here, we analyse CO molecular excitation in optically thin debris discs, and search ALMA Cycle-0 data for CO J=3-2 emission in the Fomalhaut ring. No significant line emission is observed; we set a 3-$\\sigma$ upper limit on the integrated line flux of 0.16 Jy km s$^{-1}$. We show a significant dependency of the CO excitation on the density of collisional partners $n$, on the gas kinetic temperature $T_k$ and on the ambient radiation field $J$, suggesting that assumptions widely used for protoplanetary discs (e.g. LTE) do not necessarily apply to their low density debris counterparts. When applied to the Fomalhaut ring, we consider a primordial origin scenario where H$_2$ dominates collisional excitation of CO, and a secondary origin scenario dominated by e$^-$ and H$_2$O. In either scenario, we obtain a strict upper limit on the CO mass of 4.9 $\\times$ 10$^{-4}$ M$_{\\oplus}$. This arises...

  6. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: implications for spectral line intensity mapping at millimeter wavelengths and CMB spectral distortions

    CERN Document Server

    Carilli, C L; Decarli, R; Walter, F; Aravena, M; Wagg, J; Popping, G; Cortes, P; Hodge, J; Weiss, A; Bertoldi, F; Riechers, D

    2016-01-01

    We present direct estimates of the mean sky brightness temperature in observing bands around 99GHz and 242GHz due to line emission from distant galaxies. These values are calculated from the summed line emission observed in a blind, deep survey for specrtal line emission from high redshift galaxies using ALMA (the 'ASPECS' survey). In the 99 GHz band, the mean brightness will be dominated by rotational transitions of CO from intermediate and high redshift galaxies. In the 242GHz band, the emission could be a combination of higher order CO lines, and possibly [CII] 158$\\mu$m line emission from very high redshift galaxies ($z \\sim 6$ to 7). The mean line surface brightness is a quantity that is relevant to measurements of spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background, and as a potential tool for studying large-scale structures in the early Universe using intensity mapping. While the cosmic volume and the number of detections are admittedly small, this pilot survey provides a direct measure of the mean...

  7. An ALMA view of the interstellar medium of the z=4.77 lensed starburst SPT-S J213242-5802.9

    CERN Document Server

    Béthermin, M; Gullberg, B; Aravena, M; Bothwell, M S; Chapman, S C; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Litke, K; Ma, J; Malkan, M; Marrone, D P; Murphy, E J; Spilker, J S; Stark, A A; Strandet, M; Vieira, J D; Weiß, A; Welikala, N

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [NII] 205$\\mu$m and CO(12-11) emission lines, and the tentative detection of [CI] $^3$P$_1$ - $^3$P$_0$ for the strongly lensed ($\\mu$=5.7$\\pm$0.5) dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J213242-5802.9 (hereafter SPT2132-58) at z=4.77. The [NII] and CO(12-11) lines are detected at 11.5 and 8.5 $\\sigma$ level, respectively, by our band-6 observations. The [CI] line is detected at 3.2 $\\sigma$ after a re-analysis of existing band-3 data. The [CI] luminosity implies a gas mass of 3.8$\\pm$1.2$\\times$10$^{10}$ M$_\\odot$, and consequently a very short depletion timescale of 3$\\pm$6 Myr and a CO-luminosity-to-gas-mass conversion factor $\\alpha_{\\rm CO}$ of 1.0$\\pm$0.3 M$_\\odot$ (K km s$^{-1}$ pc$^{2}$)$^{-1}$. SPT2132-58 is an extreme starburst with an intrinsic star formation rate of 1100$\\pm$200 M$_\\odot$/yr. We find a [CII]/[NII] ratio of 34$\\pm$13, which is the highest reported at z$>$4. This suggests that SPT2132-58 hosts an evolved interstellar medium (0.5 Z$_\\odot$

  8. An ALMA view of the interstellar medium of the z = 4.77 lensed starburst SPT-S J213242-5802.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthermin, M.; De Breuck, C.; Gullberg, B.; Aravena, M.; Bothwell, M. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Greve, T. R.; Litke, K.; Ma, J.; Malkan, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Murphy, E. J.; Spilker, J. S.; Stark, A. A.; Strandet, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Weiß, A.; Welikala, N.

    2016-02-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [NII] 205 μm and CO(12-11) emission lines, and the tentative detection of [CI] - for the strongly lensed (μ = 5.7 ± 0.5) dusty, star-forming galaxy SPT-S J213242-5802.9 (hereafter SPT2132-58) at z = 4.77. The [NII] and CO(12-11) lines are detected at 11.5 and 8.5σ levels, respectively, by our band 6 observations. The [CI] line is detected at 3.2σ after a reanalysis of existing band 3 data. The [CI] luminosity implies a gas mass of (3.8 ± 1.2) × 1010M⊙, and, consequently, a very short depletion timescale of 34 ± 13 Myr and a CO luminosity to gas mass conversion factor αCO of 1.0 ± 0.3 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1. SPT2132-58 is an extreme starburst with an intrinsic star formation rate of 1100 ± 200 M⊙/yr. We find a [CII]/[NII] ratio of 26 ± 6, which is the highest ratio reported at z > 4. This suggests that SPT2132-58 hosts an evolved interstellar medium (0.5 Z⊙samples, while CO(12-11) is similar to these samples, suggesting the presence of an additional very excited component or an active galactic nucleus.

  9. Infalling-Rotating Motion and Associated Chemical Change in the Envelope of IRAS 16293-2422 Source A Studied with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Oya, Yoko; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Lefloch, Bertrand; Favre, Cécile; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed rotational spectral line emission of OCS, CH3OH, HCOOCH3, and H2CS observed toward the low-mass Class 0 protostellar source IRAS 16293-2422 Source A at a sub-arcsecond resolution (~0".6 x 0".5) with ALMA. Significant chemical differentiation is found at a 50 AU scale. The OCS line is found to well trace the infalling-rotating envelope in this source. On the other hand, the CH3OH and HCOOCH3 distributions are found to be concentrated around the inner part of the infalling-rotating envelope. With a simple ballistic model of the infalling-rotating envelope, the radius of the centrifugal barrier (a half of the centrifugal radius) and the protostellar mass are evaluated from the OCS data to be from 40 to 60 AU and from 0.5 to 1.0 Msun, respectively, assuming the inclination angle of the envelope/disk structure to be 60 degrees (90 degrees for the edge-on configuration). Although the protostellar mass is correlated with the inclination angle, the radius of the centrifugal barrier is not. This is th...

  10. Humoral responses of broiler chickens challenged with NDV following supplemental treatment with extracts of Aloe vera, Alma millsoni, Ganoderma lucidum and Archachatina marginata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghafona, Nosahkare'Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The significance of nutritional supplements for immunity has been documented. Locally sourced extracts used in alternative medicine were studied to determine their potential effects on antibody production and humoral responses in viral challenged birds. Method Three hundred and eighty birds were distributed into 19 groups of 20 birds each. Following acclimatization for 16 days, they were fed with standard broilers feed and water ad libitum. Group A was supplemented with Aloe vera (AV) extract, group B was given Alma millsoni (AM) extract, group C was given Archachatina marginata (AMS) extract and group D was given Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, and group E was the control group. Extract concentrations of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were given to three subsets of each treatment group for 30 days. Birds were then challenged with intramuscular administration of 0.2 ml of 50% Embryo Lethal Dose of saline suspension of the challenge strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on the 30th day, and were examined for clinical signs and symptoms. Serum from venous blood was used for antibody and immunological assay. Results Aloe vera at 50 µg and A. millsoni extracts supplementations yielded a significant antibody titre (p extract of Ganoderma and A. marginata, pretreatment with A. millsoni extract and a lower dosage of Aloe vera enhanced the ability to mount humoral responses against viral infection in broiler chickens. PMID:26648773

  11. ALMA HCN and HCO+ J=3-2 observations of optical Seyfert and luminous infrared galaxies -- Confirmation of elevated HCN-to-HCO+ flux ratios in AGNs --

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Izumi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of our ALMA observations of three AGN-dominated nuclei in optical Seyfert 1 galaxies (NGC 7469, I Zw 1, and IC 4329 A) and eleven luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with various levels of infrared estimated energetic contributions by AGNs at the HCN and HCO+ J=3-2 emission lines. The HCN and HCO+ J=3-2 emission lines are clearly detected at the main nuclei of all sources, except for IC 4329 A. The vibrationally excited (v2=1f) HCN J=3-2 and HCO+ J=3-2 emission lines are simultaneously covered, and HCN v2=1f J=3-2 emission line signatures are seen in the main nuclei of two LIRGs, IRAS 12112+0305 and IRAS 22491-1808, neither of which show clear buried AGN signatures in the infrared. If the vibrational excitation is dominated by infrared radiative pumping, through the absorption of infrared 14 um photons, primarily originating from AGN-heated hot dust emission, then these two LIRGs may contain infrared-elusive, but (sub)millimeter-detectable, extremely deeply buried AGNs. These vibrational...

  12. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Search for [CII] line and dust emission in $6

    CERN Document Server

    Aravena, Manuel; Walter, Fabian; Bouwens, Rychard; Oesch, Pascal; Carilli, Christopher; Bauer, Franz E; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian R; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Bacon, Roland; Bell, Eric; Bertoldi, Frank; Cortes, Paulo; Cox, Pierre; Hodge, Jacqueline; Ibar, Eduardo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Karim, Alexander; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kauzuaki; Popping, Gergö; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for [CII] line and dust continuum emission from optical dropout galaxies at $z>6$ using ASPECS, our ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF). Our observations, which cover the frequency range $212-272$ GHz, encompass approximately the range $6$4.5 $\\sigma$, two of which correspond to blind detections with no optical counterparts. At this significance level, our statistical analysis shows that about 60\\% of our candidates are expected to be spurious. For one of our blindly selected [CII] line candidates, we tentatively detect the CO(6-5) line in our parallel 3-mm line scan. None of the line candidates are individually detected in the 1.2 mm continuum. A stack of all [CII] candidates results in a tentative detection with $S_{1.2mm}=14\\pm5\\mu$Jy. This implies a dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) of $(3\\pm1)$ M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. We find that the two highest--SFR objects have candidate [CII] lines with luminosities that are consistent with the low-redshift $L_{\\rm [C...

  13. ALMA spectroscopic survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: CO luminosity functions and the evolution of the cosmic density of molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Popping, Gergö; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use ASPECS, the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the {\\em Hubble} Ultra Deep Field (UDF) in band 3 and band 6, to place blind constraints on the CO luminosity function and the evolution of the cosmic molecular gas density as a function of redshift up to $z\\sim 4.5$. This study is based on galaxies that have been solely selected through their CO emission and not through any other property. In all of the redshift bins the ASPECS measurements reach the predicted `knee' of the CO luminosity function (around $5\\times10^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$). We find clear evidence of an evolution in the CO luminosity function with respect to $z\\sim 0$, with more CO luminous galaxies present at $z\\sim 2$. The observed galaxies at $z\\sim 2$ also appear more gas-rich than predicted by recent semi-analytical models. The comoving cosmic molecular gas density within galaxies as a function of redshift shows a factor 3-10 drop from $z \\sim 2$ to $z \\sim 0$ (with significant error bars), and possibly a decline at $z>3$. This tre...

  14. Exploring the molecular chemistry and excitation in obscured luminous infrared galaxies: An ALMA mm-wave spectral scan of NGC 4418

    CERN Document Server

    Costagliola, F; Muller, S; Martín, S; Aalto, S; Harada, N; van der Werf, P; Viti, S; Garcia-Burillo, S; Spaans, M

    2015-01-01

    We obtained an ALMA Cycle 0 spectral scan of the dusty LIRG NGC 4418, spanning a total of 70.7 GHz in bands 3, 6, and 7. We use a combined local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE (NLTE) fit of the spectrum in order to identify the molecular species and derive column densities and excitation temperatures. We derive molecular abundances and compare them with other Galactic and extragalactic sources by means of a principal component analysis. We detect 317 emission lines from a total of 45 molecular species, including 15 isotopic substitutions and six vibrationally excited variants. Our LTE/NLTE fit find kinetic temperatures from 20 to 350 K, and densities between 10$^5$ and 10$^7$ cm$^{-3}$. The spectrum is dominated by vibrationally excited HC$_3$N, HCN, and HNC, with vibrational temperatures from 300 to 450 K. We find high abundances of HC$_3$N, SiO, H$_2$S, and c-HCCCH and a low CH$_3$OH abundance. A principal component analysis shows that NGC 4418 and Arp 220 share very similar molecular abundances and ...

  15. The Structure and Dynamics of an AGN Torus: CO Line Predictions for ALMA from 3D Hydrodynamical Simulations with X-ray Driven Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Beaupuits, Juan-Pablo; Spaans, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to model the mass distribution and dynamical evolution of the circumnuclear gas in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, chemical evolution is not included in detail in three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic simulations. The X-ray radiation from the AGN can drive the gas chemistry and affect the thermodynamics, as well as the excitation of the interstellar medium (ISM). Therefore, we estimate the effects (on chemical abundances and excitation) of X-ray irradiation by the AGN, for atomic and molecular gas in a 3-D hydrodynamic model of an AGN torus. We obtain the abundances of various species from an X-ray chemical model. A 3-D radiative transfer code estimates the level populations, which result in line intensity maps. Predictions for the CO J=1-0 to J=9-8 lines indicate that mid-J CO lines are excellent probes of density and dynamics in the central (1000m K) central (1) AGNs. The spatial scales (>0.25 pc) probed with our simulations match the size of the structures that ALMA will ...

  16. AVALIAÇÃO DAS CONDIÇÕES HIGIÊNICO-SANITÁRIAS DO PESCADO COMERCIALIZADO NO MUNICÍPIO DE CRUZ DAS ALMAS, BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORMA SUELY EVANGELISTA BARRETO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of paper was to evaluate the quality of fish commercialized in supermarkets and marketplace stalls in Cruz das Almas, Bahia. Sensorial, physicochemical and microbiological analysis were performed in 11 fish samples (three fresh fish samples, four frozen fish samples, and four dry salted fish samples. Supermarkets presented better hygiene conditions and facilities, and offered staff training. In the market stalls the facilities were in disagreement with food legislation. The sensorial analysis indicated tha 60% of the samples were in accordance with the concept of freshness. Hundred percent of the fresh and frozen fish samples were negative for sulphydric gas reaction, and humidity varied from 65.79 to 81.59%. Humidity in all the dry salted fish samples was higher than the maximum values allowed, and the chloride test was 1.1 × 103 MPN g-1. Escherichia coli (08 was isolated only from fish samples collected in the marketplace stalls and was resistant to eritromicine 08 (100%, amicacyn 02 (25%, ampicillin, cephalotin and tetracycline 01 (12.5%. Multiresistance profile was observed in 62.5% of the isolates.

  17. An ALMA survey of Sub-millimeter Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Physical properties derived from ultraviolet-to-radio modelling

    CERN Document Server

    da Cunha, Elisabete; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Simpson, James; Decarli, Roberto; Hodge, Jacqueline; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Cox, Pierre; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Karim, Alexander; Thomson, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    [abridged] The ALESS survey has followed-up a sample of 122 sub-millimeter sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South at 870um with ALMA, allowing to pinpoint the positions of sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) to 0.3'' and to find their precise counterparts at different wavelengths. This enabled the first compilation of the multi-wavelength spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a statistically reliable survey of SMGs. In this paper, we present a new calibration of the MAGPHYS modelling code that is optimized to fit these UV-to-radio SEDs of z>1 star-forming galaxies using an energy balance technique to connect the emission from stellar populations, dust attenuation and dust emission in a physically consistent way. We derive statistically and physically robust estimates of the photometric redshifts and physical parameters for the ALESS SMGs. We find that they have a median stellar mass $M_\\ast=(8.9\\pm0.1)\\times10^{10} M_\\odot$, SFR$=280\\pm70 M_\\odot$/yr, overall V-band dust attenuation $A_V=1.9\\pm0.2$ mag...

  18. ALMA unveils a triple merger and gas exchange in a hyper-luminous radio galaxy at z=2: the Dragonfly Galaxy (II)

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Lehnert, M D; Vernet, J; Gullberg, B; Villar-Martín, M; Nesvadba, N; Drouart, G; Ivison, R; Seymour, N; Wylezalek, D; Barthel, P

    2015-01-01

    The Dragonfly Galaxy (MRC0152-209), at redshift z~2, is one of the most vigorously star-forming radio galaxies in the Universe. What triggered its activity? We present ALMA Cycle 2 observations of cold molecular CO(6-5) gas and dust, which reveal that this is likely a gas-rich triple merger. It consists of a close double nucleus (separation ~4 kpc) and a weak CO-emitter at ~10 kpc distance, all of which have counterparts in HST/NICMOS imagery. The hyper-luminous starburst and powerful radio-AGN were triggered at this precoalescent stage of the merger. The CO(6-5) traces dense molecular gas in the central region, and complements existing CO(1-0) data, which revealed more widespread tidal debris of cold gas. We also find ~10$^{10}$ M(sun) of molecular gas with enhanced excitation at the highest velocities. At least 20-50% of this high-excitation, high-velocity gas shows kinematics that suggests it is being displaced and redistributed within the merger, although with line-of-sight velocities of |v| < 500 km/s...

  19. The Discovery of Gas-Rich, Dusty Starbursts in Luminous Reddened Quasars at $z\\sim2.5$ with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Manda; Jones, G; Wagg, J; McMahon, R G; Hewett, P C; Alaghband-Zadeh, S; Feruglio, C

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of cold dust and molecular gas in four high-luminosity, heavily reddened (A$_{\\rm{V}} \\sim 2.5-6$ mag) Type 1 quasars at $z\\sim2.5$ with virial M$_{\\rm{BH}} \\sim 10^{10}$M$_\\odot$, to test whether dusty, massive quasars represent the evolutionary link between submillimetre bright galaxies (SMGs) and unobscured quasars. All four quasars are detected in both the dust continuum and in the $^{12}$CO(3-2) line. The mean dust mass is 6$\\times$10$^{8}$M$_\\odot$ assuming a typical high redshift quasar spectral energy distribution (T=41K, $\\beta$=1.95 or T=47K, $\\beta$=1.6). The implied star formation rates are very high - $\\gtrsim$1000 M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$ in all cases. Gas masses estimated from the CO line luminosities cover $\\sim$1-5$\\times10^{10}$($\\alpha_{\\rm{CO}} / 0.8$)M$_\\odot$ and the gas depletion timescales are very short - $\\sim5-20$Myr. A range of gas-to-dust ratios is observed in the sample. We resolve the molecular gas in one quasar - ULASJ2315$+$0143 ($z=2.561$) - which show...

  20. Morphology and kinematics of the gas envelope of protostar L1527 as obtained from ALMA observations of the C18O(2-1) line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan-Anh, P.; Nhung, P. T.; Hoai, D. T.; Diep, P. N.; Phuong, N. T.; Thao, N. T.; Darriulat, P.

    2016-09-01

    Using ALMA observations of the C18O(2-1) line emission of the gas envelope of protostar L1527, we have reconstructed its morphology and kinematics under the assumption of axisymmetry about the west-east axis. The main original contribution to our understanding of the formation process of L1527 is the presentation of a simple 3D parameterisation based solely on regions that are not dominated by absorption. In the explored range (˜0.7 to 5 arcsec from the star) the model reproduces observations better than earlier attempts. The main results include: a measurement of the rotation velocity that confirms its evolution to Keplerian toward short distances; a measurement of the mean in-fall velocity, 0.43±0.10 km s-1, lower than free fall velocity, with no evidence for the significant r-dependence suggested by an earlier analysis; a measurement of the central mass, 0.23±0.06 M⊙ within a distance of 1.5 arcsec from the star, in agreement with earlier estimates obtained from a different range of distances; evidence for a strong disc plane depression of the in-falling flux resulting in an X shaped flow possibly caused by the freeze-out of CO molecules on dust grains; a measurement of the accretion rate, 3.5±1.0 10-7M⊙ yr-1at a distance of 1 arcsec (140 au) from the star; evidence for a 10° tilt of the symmetry plane of the envelope about the line of sight, cancelling below ˜3 arcsec from the star, but matching infrared observations and being also apparent on the sky map of the mean Doppler velocity.