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Sample records for alma senoidal sujeitas

  1. Perceptions and electric senoidal current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Julia Manzano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between perceptions and electrical senoidal current stimulation (ESCS. METHOD: The study population comprise 100 healthy volunteers. ESCS of 5 Hz and 2 kHz were applied to the left index finger at one and 1.5 sensory threshold. Following each stimulus train a list of eight words (four related to thin fiber sensations and four related to thick fiber sensations was presented to the subjects who were asked to choose the three words closer to the experienced sensation. Each chosen word was given a score 1; final results were obtained by the sum of the scores for the words related to thin and thick fiber systems for each situation. RESULTS: For 5 Hz ESCS at one and 1.5 sensory threshold thin fibers had significantly higher scores than thick fibers; for 2 kHz ESCS, thick fibers had significantly higher scores. CONCLUSION: These results show that there is a relation between different sensations and ESCS of different frequencies.

  2. Percepção visual de grade senoidal radial após o consumo de álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyssa Kellyane Cavalcanti Galdino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a percepção visual de contraste de adultos sem a ingestão de álcool e após a ingestão moderada de álcool - 0,09% Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC, através da Função de Sensibilidade ao Contraste (FSC. Participaram dos experimentos cinco voluntárias, na faixa etária de 21 a 30 anos, com acuidade visual normal ou corrigida. Para medir a FSC, foram usados estímulos de grade senoidal radial de frequências de 0,25; 2 e 8 ciclos por grau de ângulo visual. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental com medidas repetidas e o método psicofísico da escolha forçada. Os resultados demonstraram efeito significante de participantes (F4, 55 = 25,518; p < 0,001, de frequências (F2, 110 = 172,288; p < 0,001 e de interação entre frequências x condições x participantes (F8, 110 = 26,806; p < 0,001. Este estudo preliminar sugere alterações na FSC relacionadas à ingestão moderada de álcool.

  3. ALMA science data management

    OpenAIRE

    Stoehr, Felix

    2015-01-01

    ALMA has transitioned now from the construction to the operation phase. We review the Science Data Management of ALMA including the concepts of Data Reduction, Quality Assurance as well as of the Science Archive. We also place the Science Data Management of ALMA into the larger context.

  4. ALMA measures Calama earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, R.; Shillue, B.

    2010-04-01

    On 4 March 2010, the ALMA system response to an extraordinarily large disturbance was measured when a magnitude 6.3 earthquake struck near Calama, Chile, relatively close to the ALMA site. Figures 1 through 4 demonstrate the remarkable performance of the ALMA system to a huge disturbance that was more than 100 times the specification for correction accuracy.

  5. ALMA Pipeline: Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, H.; Humphreys, E.; Indebetouw, R.; Villard, E.; Kern, J.; Davis, L.; Miura, R. E.; Nakazato, T.; Sugimoto, K.; Kosugi, G.; Akiyama, E.; Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Williams, S.; Lightfoot, J.; Kent, B.; Momjian, E.; Hunter, T.; ALMA Pipeline Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA Pipeline is the automated data reduction tool that runs on ALMA data. Current version of the ALMA pipeline produces science quality data products for standard interferometric observing modes up to calibration process. The ALMA Pipeline is comprised of (1) heuristics in the form of Python scripts that select the best processing parameters, and (2) contexts that are given for book-keeping purpose of data processes. The ALMA Pipeline produces a "weblog" that showcases detailed plots for users to judge how each step of calibration processes are treated. The ALMA Interferometric Pipeline was conditionally accepted in March 2014 by processing Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data sets. From Cycle 2, ALMA Pipeline is used for ALMA data reduction and quality assurance for the projects whose observing modes are supported by the ALMA Pipeline. Pipeline tasks are available based on CASA version 4.2.2, and the first public pipeline release called CASA 4.2.2-pipe has been available since October 2014. One can reduce ALMA data both by CASA tasks as well as by pipeline tasks by using CASA version 4.2.2-pipe.

  6. Resposta de estruturas lineares sujeitas a carregamento dinâmico Response of linear structures subjected to dynamic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Faustino Pereira

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Demonstração do emprego da Transformada de Fourier no cálculo da resposta de estruturas de comportamento linear sujeitas a carregamento dinâmico. O emprego desta técnica é vantajoso quando a resposta é obtida numericamente graças ao algoritmo de Transformada Rápida de Fourier. The objective of this work is to show the use of Fourier Transform in the evaluation of the response of linear structures subjected to dynamic loading. The use of this technique is advantageous when the response is obtained numerically due to the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm.

  7. ALMA science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Lars-Åke; Andreani, Paola; Hibbard, John; Okumura, Sachiko K.

    2010-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) project is an international collaboration between Europe, East Asia and North America in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The ALMA Array Operations Site (AOS) is located at Chajnantor, a plateau at an altitude of 5000 m in the Atacama desert in Chile, and the ALMA Operations Support Facility (OSF) is located near the AOS at an altitude of 2900 m. ALMA will consist of an array of 66 antennas, with baselines up to 16 km and state-of-the-art receivers that cover all the atmospheric windows up to 1 THz. An important component of ALMA is the compact array of twelwe 7-m and four 12-m antennas (the Atacama Compact Array, ACA), which will greatly enhance ALMA's ability to image extended sources. Construction of ALMA started in 2003 and will be completed in 2013. Commissioning started in January 2010 and Early Science Operations is expected to start during the second half of 2011. ALMA science operations is provided by the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) in Chile, and the three ALMA Regional Centers (ARCs) located in each ALMA region - Europe, North America and East Asia. ALMA observations will take place 24h per day, interrupted by maintenance periods, and will be done in service observing mode with flexible (dynamic) scheduling. The observations are executed in the form of scheduling blocks (SBs), each of which contains all information necessary to schedule and execute the observations. The default output to the astronomer will be pipeline-reduced images calibrated according to the calibration plan. The JAO is responsible for the data product quality. All science and calibration raw data are captured and archived in the ALMA archive, a distributed system with nodes at the OSF, the Santiago central office and the ARCs. Observation preparation will follow a Phase 1/Phase 2 process. During Phase 1, observation proposals will be created using software tools provided by the JAO and submitted for scientific and

  8. ALMA Pipeline Heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, J.; Wyrowski, F.; Muders, D.; Boone, F.; Davis, L.; Shepherd, D.; Wilson, C.

    2006-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed to automatically reduce data taken with the standard observing modes. The goal is to make ALMA user-friendly to astronomers who are not experts in radio interferometry. The Pipeline Heuristics system must capture the expert knowledge required to provide data products that can be used without further processing. Observing modes to be processed by the system include single field interferometry, mosaics and single dish `on-the-fly' maps, and combinations of these modes. The data will be produced by the main ALMA array, the ALMA Compact Array (ACA) and single dish antennas. The Pipeline Heuristics system is being developed as a set of Python scripts. For interferometry these use as data processing engines the CASA/AIPS++ libraries and their bindings as CORBA objects within the ALMA Common Software (ACS). Initial development has used VLA and Plateau de Bure data sets to build and test a heuristic script capable of reducing single field data. In this paper we describe the reduction datapath and the algorithms used at each stage. Test results are presented. The path for future development is outlined.

  9. ACS: ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Šekoranja, Matej

    2013-02-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all ALMA partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns and components which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is based on a distributed Component-Container model, with ACS Components implemented as CORBA objects in any of the supported programming languages. ACS provides common CORBA-based services such as logging, error and alarm management, configuration database and lifecycle management. Although designed for ALMA, ACS can and is being used in other control systems and distributed software projects, since it implements proven design patterns using state of the art, reliable technology. It also allows, through the use of well-known standard constructs and components, that other team members whom are not authors of ACS easily understand the architecture of software modules, making maintenance affordable even on a very large project.

  10. Solar ALMA predictions: tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    I have proposed that long Halpha fibrils are caused by heating events of which the tracks are afterwards outlined by contrails of cooling gas with extraordinary Halpha opacity and yet larger opacity at the ALMA wavelengths. Here I detail the radiative transfer background.

  11. Alma Data Mining Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Douglas; Looney, Leslie; Teuben, Peter J.; Pound, Marc W.; Rauch, Kevin P.; Mundy, Lee; Harris, Robert J.; Xu, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    ADMIT (ALMA Data Mining Toolkit) is a Python based pipeline toolkit for the creation and analysis of new science products from ALMA data. ADMIT quickly provides users with a detailed overview of their science products, for example: line identifications, line 'cutout' cubes, moment maps, and emission type analysis (e.g., feature detection). Users can download the small ADMIT pipeline product (web browser and command line interface available for this purpose. By analyzing multiple data cubes simultaneously, data mining between many astronomical sources and line transitions are possible. Users are also able to enhance the capabilities of ADMIT by creating customized ADMIT tasks satisfying any special processing needs. We will present some of the salient features of ADMIT and example use cases.

  12. ALMA correlator computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Jim; Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus

    2004-09-01

    We present a design for the computer systems which control, configure, and monitor the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) correlator and process its output. Two distinct computer systems implement this functionality: a rack- mounted PC controls and monitors the correlator, and a cluster of 17 PCs process the correlator output into raw spectral results. The correlator computer systems interface to other ALMA computers via gigabit Ethernet networks utilizing CORBA and raw socket connections. ALMA Common Software provides the software infrastructure for this distributed computer environment. The control computer interfaces to the correlator via multiple CAN busses and the data processing computer cluster interfaces to the correlator via sixteen dedicated high speed data ports. An independent array-wide hardware timing bus connects to the computer systems and the correlator hardware ensuring synchronous behavior and imposing hard deadlines on the control and data processor computers. An aggregate correlator output of 1 gigabyte per second with 16 millisecond periods and computational data rates of approximately 1 billion floating point operations per second define other hard deadlines for the data processing computer cluster.

  13. ALMA Observations of TNOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Bryan J.; Brown, Michael E.

    2016-10-01

    Some of the most fundamental properties of TNOs are still quite poorly constrained, including diameter and density. Observations at long thermal wavelengths, in the millimeter and submillimeter, hold promise for determining these quantities, at least for the largest of these bodies (and notably for those with companions). Knowing this information can then yield clues as to the formation mechanism of these bodies, allowing us to distinguish between pairwise accretion and other formation scenarios.We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to observe Orcus, Quaoar, Salacia, and 2002 UX25 at wavelengths of 1.3 and 0.8 mm, in order to constrain the sizes of these bodies. We have also used ALMA to make astrometric observations of the Eris-Dysnomia system, in an attempt to measure the wobble of Eris and hence accurately determine its density. Dysnomia should also be directly detectable in those data, separate from Eris (ALMA has sufficient resolution in the configuration in which the observations were made). Results from these observations will be presented and discussed.

  14. Lupus Alma Disk Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, Megan

    2016-07-01

    We present the first unbiased ALMA survey of both dust and gas in a large sample of protoplanetary disks. We surveyed 100 sources in the nearby (150-200 pc), young (1-2 Myr) Lupus region to constrain M_dust to 2 M_Mars and M_gas to 1 M_Jup. Most disks have masses < MMSN and gas-to-dust ratios < ISM. Such rapid gas depletion may explain the prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  15. The ALMA software architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Joseph; Farris, Allen; Sommer, Heiko

    2004-09-01

    The software for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is being developed by many institutes on two continents. The software itself will function in a distributed environment, from the 0.5-14 kmbaselines that separate antennas to the larger distances that separate the array site at the Llano de Chajnantor in Chile from the operations and user support facilities in Chile, North America and Europe. Distributed development demands 1) interfaces that allow separated groups to work with minimal dependence on their counterparts at other locations; and 2) a common architecture to minimize duplication and ensure that developers can always perform similar tasks in a similar way. The Container/Component model provides a blueprint for the separation of functional from technical concerns: application developers concentrate on implementing functionality in Components, which depend on Containers to provide them with services such as access to remote resources, transparent serialization of entity objects to XML, logging, error handling and security. Early system integrations have verified that this architecture is sound and that developers can successfully exploit its features. The Containers and their services are provided by a system-orienteddevelopment team as part of the ALMA Common Software (ACS), middleware that is based on CORBA.

  16. The ALMA Frontier Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz E.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jorge; Laporte, Nicolas; Muñoz Arancibia, Alejandra; Villard, Eric; Kneissl, Ruediger; Kim, Sam; ALMA Frontier Fields Team

    2017-01-01

    The Frontier Fields Legacy Program targets six strong lensing clusters with deep HST and Spitzer imaging to detect and characterize the faint background galaxy population, particularly the first galaxies at z~6-10. We initiated an ALMA survey to produce “shallow” ~2'x2' maps of the Frontier Field cluster fields at 1.1mm to study intrinsically faint dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and place constraints on the star formation from a variety of interesting extragalactic source populations. Five of the six clusters have now been completed, yielding relatively uniform maps that pinpoint cool dust emission from powerful DSFGs at z>1. I will present a census of the detected objects thus far, as well as some stacking constraints on the average emission from undetected source populations.

  17. From Virgil to Alma Mater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Ellen Handler

    2007-01-01

    For a college to become an alma mater in the hearts of its students, it must show, true to the Latin meaning, the wisdom and comfort of a good foster mother. Since "alma mater" is Latin, and since the study of Latin has waned on all educational levels in both pious and secular milieus, the author wonders whether folks who use that term really know…

  18. Avaliação da dor aguda em mulheres sujeitas a histeroscopia diagnóstica em regime de ambulatório

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, AM; F. Ferreira; Dantas, F

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos Avaliar a dor aguda em utentes sujeitas a histeroscopia diagnóstica em regime de ambulatório no Hospital Fernando Fonseca. Contribuir para a definição de estratégias de redução da intensidade da dor aguda na realização de histeroscopias diagnósticas em regime de ambulatório. Introdução: A dor é uma experiência única, pessoal e subjectiva. Segundo a circular normativa n.º 11/DSCS/DPCD de 18 de Junho de 2008 da Direcção Geral da Saúde (DGS)o controlo da dor deve ser encarad...

  19. ALMA telescope reaches new heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) astronomical observatory has taken another step forward - and upwards. One of its state-of-the-art antennas was carried for the first time to the 5000m plateau of Chajnantor, in the Chilean Andes, on the back of a custom-built giant transporter. The antenna, which weighs about 100 tons and has a diameter of 12 metres, was transported up to the high-altitude Array Operations Site, where the extremely dry and rarefied air is ideal for ALMA's observations of the Universe. The conditions at the Array Operations Site on Chajnantor, while excellent for astronomy, are also very harsh. Only half as much oxygen is available as at sea level, making it very difficult to work there. This is why ALMA's antennas are assembled and tested at the lower 2900 m altitude of the ALMA Operations Support Facility. It was from this relatively hospitable base camp that the ALMA antenna began its journey to the high Chajnantor site. "This is an important moment for ALMA. We are very happy that the first transport of an antenna to the high site went flawlessly. This achievement was only possible through contributions from all international ALMA partners: this particular antenna is provided by Japan, the heavy-lift transporter by Europe, and the receiving electronics inside the antenna by North America, Europe, and Asia", said Wolfgang Wild, European ALMA Project Manager. The trip began when one of the two ALMA transporters, named Otto, lifted the antenna onto its back. It then carried its heavy load along the 28 km road from the Operations Support Facility up to the Array Operations Site. While the transporter is capable of speeds of up to 12 km/hour when carrying an antenna, this first journey was made more slowly to ensure that everything worked as expected, taking about seven hours. The ALMA antennas are the most advanced submillimetre-wavelength antennas ever made. They are designed to operate fully exposed in the harsh conditions

  20. O livro da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Tolle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de compreender os pressupostos da filosofia concreta pretendida por Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803 em uma série de textos redigidos durante as décadas de 1760-70. Se, por um lado, Herder demonstra afinidade com a mesma harmonia preestabelecida que está na base de leibnizianos como Gottsched e Baumgarten, por outro, ele aprofunda a discussão sobre a origem do conhecimento humano ao reduzir a importância de juízos de valor universal e acentuar a necessidade de uma aproximação constante das sensações que se agitam obscuramente no fundo da alma. Disso resulta uma concepção inusitada de sabedoria, a qual depende de uma renúncia à posse confortável de conhecimentos abstratos e da aceitação da natureza cambiante e apenas parcialmente perscrutável daquilo que nos move. Se com isso perde-se a certeza, abre-se em contrapartida uma dimensão essencialmente ativa e sensível de realização no mundo.

  1. The ALMA Observation Support Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Heywood, I; Williams, C J

    2011-01-01

    The ALMA Observation Support Tool (OST) is an ALMA simulator which is interacted with solely via a standard web browser. It is aimed at users who may or may not be experts in interferometry, or those that do not wish to familarise themselves with the simulation components of a data reduction package. It has been designed to offer full imaging simulation capability for an arbitrary ALMA observation while maintaining the accessibility of other online tools such as the ALMA Sensitivity Calculator. Simulation jobs are defined by selecting and entering options on a standard web form. The user can specify the standard parameters that would need to be considered for an ALMA observation (e.g. pointing direction, frequency set up, duration), and there is also the option to upload arbitrary sky models in FITS format. Once submitted, jobs are sequentially processed by a remote server running a CASA-based back-end system. The user is notified by email when the job is complete, and directed to a standard web page which co...

  2. ALMA Cycle 0 Publication Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Stoehr, Felix; Meakins, Silvia; Bishop, Marsha; Uchida, Ayako; Testi, Leonardo; Iono, Daisuke; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Wootten, Al

    2016-01-01

    The scientific impact of a facility is the most important measure of its success. Monitoring and analysing the scientific return can help to modify and optimise operations and adapt to the changing needs of scientific research. The methodology that we have developed to monitor the scientific productivity of the ALMA Observatory, as well as the first results, are described. We focus on the outcome of the first cycle (Cycle 0) of ALMA Early Science operations. Despite the fact that only two years have passed since the completion of Cycle 0 and operations have already changed substantially, this analysisconfirms the effectiveness of the underlying concepts. We find that ALMA is fulfilling its promise as a transformational facility for the observation of the Universe in the submillimetre.

  3. The North American ALMA Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hibbard, J. E.; Staff, NAASC

    2010-01-01

    The North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, in Charlottesville, Virginia, in partnership with the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, will support the North American community in their observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA. Our goal is to promote successful observations with ALMA for both novice users, with no experience in either interferometry or millimeter astronomy, and experts alike. We will describe the services that the Science Center will provide for the community, from education about the capabilities of ALMA, though proposal preparation to data analysis. The Science Center will host a website with a Helpdesk that includes FAQs and a growing knowledgebase of ALMA expertise, and will support extensive demos and tutorials on observation preparation and data reduction with ALMA. The Science Center also promotes science-themed meetings. The staff of the Science Center will provide expert assistance for observers at all stages of development and execution of their program. There are visitor and postdoc opportunities at the Science Center. The North American ALMA Science Center is one of three regional centers around the globe that will support ALMA observations. Our partners are the European ALMA Regional Center at ESO in Garching, Germany, and the East Asian ALMA Region Center in Tokyo, Japan.

  4. A Look Inside Hurricane Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Hurricane season in the eastern Pacific started off with a whimper late last month as Alma, a Category 2 hurricane, slowly made its way up the coast of Baja California, packing sustained winds of 110 miles per hour and gusts of 135 miles per hour. The above image of the hurricane was acquired on May 29, 2002, and displays the rainfall rates occurring within the storm. Click the image above to see an animated data visualization (3.8 MB) of the interior of Hurricane Alma. The images of the clouds seen at the beginning of the movie were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's (NOAA's) Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite (GOES) network. As the movie continues, the clouds are peeled away to reveal an image of rainfall levels in the hurricane. The rainfall data were obtained by the Precipitation Radar aboard NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The Precipitation Radar bounces radio waves off of clouds to retrieve a reading of the number of large, rain-sized droplets within the clouds. Using these data, scientists can tell how much precipitation is occurring within and beneath a hurricane. In the movie, yellow denotes areas where 0.5 inches of rain is falling per hour, green denotes 1 inch per hour, and red denotes over 2 inches per hour. (Please note that high resolution still images of Hurricane Alma are available in the NASA Visible Earth in TIFF format.) Image and animation courtesy Lori Perkins, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

  5. The ALMA Telescope Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, A.; Marson, Ralph; Kern, Jeff

    2005-10-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between North America, Europe and Japan. ALMA is an aperture synthesis radio telescope consisting of 50 12-meter antennas located at an elevation of 5,000 meters in Llano de Chajnantor, Chile. These antennas will operate at frequencies ranging from 31.3 GHz to 950 GHz. The antennas can be moved and placed in different configurations, with baselines between the antennas varying from 150 meters to 20 km. The 50 antennas are supplemented by sixteen additional ones, known as the ALMA Compact Array (ACA): 12 7-meter antennas and 4 12-meter antennas. The ALMA control system will consist of over 70 computers separated by distances of over 20 km. Two aspects of the system are apparent: its distributed nature and its need to accurately synchronize events across many computers separated by large distances. In this paper we describe key features of the architecture of the ALMA Control System, focusing on its properties as a distributed system and on the mechanisms employed to achieve its time synchronization goals. This control system is a distributed system that uses the ALMA Common Software (ACS) as a middleware system layered on top of CORBA. The architecture of the control system extensively employs the component/container model in ACS. In addition, the use of CORBA allows us to employ Java in the higher levels of the control system, leaving C++ to the lower time-critical levels. Python as a scripting language is used by astronomers, to craft standard observing programs, and engineers, in a testing and debugging mode. Key to the concept of an aperture synthesis telescope is a special purpose hardware system known as a correlator, responsible for making various delay model corrections and correlating the signals from the antennas. There are two correlators in ALMA, one for the array of 50 antennas and one for the ACA. This entire system operates under a control system that must synchronize events across the

  6. ALMA Band 5 Cartridge Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billade, Bhushan; Lapkin, I.; Nystrom, O.; Sundin, E.; Fredrixon, M.; Finger, R.; Rashid, H.; Desmaris, V.; Meledin, D.; Pavolotsky, A.; Belitsky, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Work presented here concerns the design and performance of the ALMA Band 5 cold cartridge, one of the 10 frequency channels of ALMA project, a radio interferometer under construction at Atacama Desert in Chile. The Band 5 cartridge is a dual polarization receiver with the polarization separation performed by orthomode transducer (OMT). For each polarization, Band 5 receiver employs sideband rejection (2SB) scheme based on quadrature layout, with SIS mixers covering 163-211 GHz with 4-8 GHz IF. The LO injection circuitry is integrated with mixer chip and is implemented on the same substrate, resulting in a compact 2SB assembly. Amongst the other ALMA bands, the ALMA Band 5 being the lowest frequency band that uses all cold optics, has the largest mirror. Consequently, ALMA Band 5 mirror along with its support structure leaves very little room for placing OMT, mixers and IF subsystems. The constraints put by the size of cold optics and limited cartridge space, required of us to revise the original 2SB design and adopt a design where all the components like OMT, mixer, IF hybrid, isolators and IF amplifier are directly connected to each other without using any co-ax cables in-between. The IF subsystem uses the space between 4 K and 15 K stage of the cartridge and is thermally connected to 4 K stage. Avoiding co-ax cabling required use of custom designed IF hybrid, furthermore, due to limited cooling capacity at 4 K stage, resistive bias circuitry for the mixers is moved to 15 K stage and the IF hybrid along with an integrated bias-T is implemented using superconducting micro-strip lines. The E-probes for both LO and RF waveguide-to-microstrip transitions are placed perpendicular to the wave direction (back-piece configuration). The RF choke at the end of the probes provides a virtual ground for the RF/LO signal, and the choke is DC grounded to the chassis. The on-chip LO injection is done using a microstrip line directional coupler with slot-line branches in the

  7. Probing Cometary Chemistry with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milam, Stefanie N.

    2010-01-01

    Comets are considered to bear the record of the primitive Solar nebula as remnants of planetesimals that formed the outer planets. To date there are just over two dozen known cometary species compared to the >150 known interstellar molecules. This is likely due to the challenges posed when attempting to measure the composition of these small bodies. With the significant improvement in sensitivity, ALMA will likely enable the detection of new molecules to help us gain better understanding of the chemical complexity found in comets. This advancement in sensitivity will also assist in the measurement of isotope ratios in various species. These values are imperative for determining the conditions during cometary formation as well as provide insight into ongoing speculations of parent species, the possible delivery of H2O to Earth, and a direct comparison to protostellar disk chemistry. The high angular resolution obtained with ALMA will be capable of resolving any compact distributions or density enhancements in the more extended distribution that may lead to a better understanding of the formation of these species in the outer coma. By studying comet compositions we gain insight into the composition of the early Solar System as well as their astrobiological implications.

  8. Morphologies of protostellar outflows: An ALMA view

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Seifried, Daniel; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of stars is usually accompanied by the launching of protostellar outflows. Observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) will soon revolutionalise our understanding of the morphologies and kinematics of these objects. In this paper, we present synthetic ALMA observations of protostellar outflows based on numerical magnetohydrodynamic collapse simulations. We find significant velocity gradients in our outflow models and a very prominent helical structure within the outflows. We speculate that the disk wind found in the ALMA Science Verification Data of HD 163296 presents a first instance of such an observation.

  9. First two ALMA antennas successfully linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Scientists and engineers working on the world's largest ground-based astronomical project, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), have achieved another milestone -- the successful linking of two ALMA astronomical antennas, synchronised with a precision of one millionth of a millionth of a second -- to observe the planet Mars. ALMA is under construction by an international partnership in the Chilean Andes. ESO PR Photo 18a/09 The two ALMA antennas On 30 April, the team observed the first "interferometric fringes" of an astronomical source by linking two 12-metre diameter ALMA antennas, together with the other critical parts of the system. Mars was chosen as a suitable target for the observations, which demonstrate ALMA's full hardware functionality and connectivity. This important milestone was achieved at the ALMA Operations Support Facility, high in Chile's Atacama region, at an altitude of 2900 metres. "We're very proud and excited to have made this crucial observation, as it proves that the various hardware components work smoothly together. This brings us another step closer to full operations for ALMA as an astronomical observatory," says Wolfgang Wild, the European ALMA Project Manager. The two antennas used in this test will be part of ALMA's array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas that will observe in unison as a single giant telescope, under construction on the Chajnantor plateau above the Operations Support Facility, at an altitude of 5000 metres. ALMA will operate as an interferometer, capturing millimetre and submillimetre wavelength signals from the sky with multiple antennas, and combining them to create extremely high resolution images, similar to those that would be obtained by a single, giant antenna with a diameter equal to the distance between the antennas used. "This can only be achieved with the perfect synchronisation of the antennas and the electronic equipment: a precision much better than one millionth of

  10. ALMA quality assurance: concepts, procedures, and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, A. M.; Tanne, S. L.; Akiyama, E.; Kurowski, R.; Randall, S.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Villard, E.

    2016-07-01

    Data produced by ALMA for the community undergoes a rigorous quality assurance (QA) process, from the initial observation ("QA0") to the final science-ready data products ("QA2"), to the QA feedback given by the Principal Investigators (PIs) when they receive the data products ("QA3"). Calibration data is analyzed to measure the performance of the observatory and predict the trend of its evolution ("QA1"). The procedure develops over different steps and involves several actors across all ALMA locations; it is made possible by the support given by dedicated software tools and a complex database of science data, meta-data and operational parameters. The life-cycle of each involved entity is well-defined, and it prevents for instance that "bad" data (that is, data not meeting the minimum quality standards) is ever processed by the ALMA pipeline. This paper describes ALMA's quality assurance concepts and procedures, including the main enabling software components.

  11. Two years of ALMA bibliography - lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Meakins, Silvia; Bishop, Marsha J; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  12. Two years of ALMA bibliography: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meankins, Silvia; Grothkopf, Uta; Bishop, Marsha J.; Stoehr, Felix; Tatematsu, Ken

    2014-08-01

    Telescope bibliographies are integral parts of observing facilities. They are used to associate the published literature with archived observational data, to measure an observatory's scientific output through publication and citation statistics, and to define guidelines for future observing strategies. The ESO and NRAO librarians as well as NAOJ jointly maintain the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) bibliography, a database of refereed papers that use ALMA data. In this paper, we illustrate how relevant articles are identified, which procedures are used to tag entries in the database and link them to the correct observations, and how results are communicated to ALMA stakeholders and the wider community. Efforts made to streamline the process will be explained and evaluated, and a first analysis of ALMA papers published after two years of observations will be given.

  13. Interstellar Isotopes: Prospects with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley Steven B.

    2010-01-01

    Cold molecular clouds are natural environments for the enrichment of interstellar molecules in the heavy isotopes of H, C, N and O. Anomalously fractionated isotopic material is found in many primitive Solar System objects, such as meteorites and comets, that may trace interstellar matter that was incorporated into the Solar Nebula without undergoing significant processing. Models of the fractionation chemistry of H, C, N and O in dense molecular clouds, particularly in cores where substantial freeze-out of molecules on to dust has occurred, make several predictions that can be tested in the near future by molecular line observations. The range of fractionation ratios expected in different interstellar molecules will be discussed and the capabilities of ALMA for testing these models (e.g. in observing doubly-substituted isotopologues) will be outlined.

  14. The enduring legacy of Alma Ata: 30 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exworthy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata conference and declaration was a landmark in defining and providing a direction for primary healthcare. Despite the initial enthusiasm for Alma Ata, its impact appeared to have declined in the 1990s. However, in recent years, there has been a revitalisation of primary healthcare. This article reviews the Alma Ata conference and declaration, assesses its waxing and waning, and examines its recent revival. The paper draws conclusions about the relevance of Alma Ata, 30 years on.

  15. Common Software for the ALMA project

    CERN Document Server

    Chiozzi, G; Jeram, B; Sivera, P; Plesko, M; Sekoranja, M; Tkacik, G; Dovc, J; Kadunc, M; Milcinski, G; Verstovsek, I; Zagar, K

    2001-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, USA and Japan. ALMA will consist of at least 64 12-meter antennas operating in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range, with baselines up to 10 km. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert[1]. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a software infrastructure common to all partners and consists of a documented collection of common patterns in control systems and of components, which implement those patterns. The heart of ACS is an object model of controlled devices, called Distributed Objects (DOs), implemented as CORBA network objects. Components such as antenna mount, power supply, etc. are defined by means of DOs. A code generator creates Java Bean components for each DO. Programmers can write Java client applications by connecting those Beans with data-manipulation and visualization Beans using commercial visual development tools or programmatically. ACS i...

  16. The First Six ALMA Band 10 Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kroug, M.; Kaneko, K.; Miyachi, A.; Yokoshima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Ogawa, H.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Uzawa, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The first six Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers have been developed and characterized during the receiver preproduction phase. State-of-the-art measurement systems at THz frequencies have been implemented and successfully used to measure the performance of the first six receivers. Extensive tests ranging from receiver sensitivity and stability to optical aperture efficiency on the secondary antenna have been performed. Performance of all six receivers is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. Moreover, our extensive tests have shown that there are no big performance differences between receivers. These results indicate that the ALMA Band 10 receiver is ready for the production phase, during which an additional 67 receivers will be produced and characterized.

  17. ALMA Polarization Science Verification: 3C 286

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Nakanishi, K.; Paladino, R.; Moellenbrock, G.; Fomalont, E.; Amigano, A.; Vlahakis, C.; Remijan, A.; ALMA Polarization Team

    2015-12-01

    The ALMA polarization science verification results on 3C 286 are presented. The measured polarization percentage and polarization position angle of the continuum emission at 1.3 mm are about 16% and 39 degrees, respectively. They are quite similar to those at longer wavelength, but seem to increase slightly. Similar trends were also found in the previous measurement using the IRAM 30-m telescope (Agudo et al. 2012). The final image rms on the polarization image is better than 0.1% of the total intensity, demonstrating the very high polarization sensitivity of ALMA.

  18. ALMA Observatory Equipped with its First Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    High in the Atacama region of northern Chile one of the world’s most advanced telescopes has just passed a major milestone. The first of many state-of-the-art antennas has been handed over to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA is being built by a global partnership whose North American partners are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). With ALMA, astronomers will study the cool Universe, the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies and even life are formed. ALMA will provide new, much-needed insights into the formation of stars and planets, and will reveal distant galaxies in the early Universe, which we see as they were over ten billion years ago. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high-precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12-meter diameter antennas, acting together as a single giant telescope, and a compact array composed of 7-meter and 12-meter antennas. The first 12-meter antenna to be handed over to the observatory was built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, one of the ALMA partners. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. “Our Japanese colleagues have produced this state-of-the-art antenna to exacting specifications. We are very excited about the handover because now we can fully equip this antenna for scientific observations,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Antennas arriving at the ALMA site undergo a series of tests to ensure that they meet the strict requirements of the telescope. The antennas have surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick out a golf ball at a distance of 9 miles. “The handover of the first Japanese antenna is the crowning achievement of the ALMA Project to date,” said Adrian Russell, the North American ALMA Project Director at NRAO. The

  19. Serendipitous ALMA detections of faint submm galaxies in SERVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pallavi; Lacy, Mark; Nyland, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    We present a preliminary ALMA study of faint (ALMA observations. The high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and positional accuracy of ALMA have enabled us to probe the nature of the sub-mJy population by resolving their spatial extents and improving constraints on their SEDS and photometric redshifts. We are building a catalog of sources by searching the ALMA archive for moderate to deep observations in the area covered by SERVS. This study will help us begin to understand the contribution of obscured star formation to the total star formation rate at high redshift and guide future wide-area surveys of submm galaxies with ALMA.

  20. TELCAL: The On-line Calibration Software for ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broguière, D.; Lucas, R.; Pardo, J.; Roche, J.-C.

    2011-07-01

    The ALMA on-line calibration regroups all the operations needed to maintain the ALMA interferometer optimally tuned to successfully execute the planned observations. The results of the calibrations are used in quasi-real time by the ALMA Control System. Since the first ALMA antennas were put into operation in 2009, TELCAL has been used for all the basic calibration operations and is still being improved following the project advancement. We describe here the calibrations done by TELCAL, its relationships with the other ALMA software subsystems and, briefly, the architecture of the software based on CORBA.

  1. First ALMA Transporter Ready for Challenging Duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The first of two ALMA transporters -- unique vehicles designed to move high-tech radio-telescope antennas in the harsh, high-altitude environment of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array -- has been completed and passed its initial operational tests. The 130-ton machine moves on 28 wheels and will be able to transport a 115-ton antenna and set it down on a concrete pad within millimeters of a prescribed position. ALMA Transporter The ALMA Transporter on a Test Run CREDIT: ESO Click on image for high-resolution file (244 KB) The ALMA transporter rolled out of its hangar and underwent the tests at the Scheuerle Fahrzeugfabrik company site near Nuremberg, Germany. The machine is scheduled for delivery at the ALMA site in Chile by the end of 2007, and a second vehicle will follow about three months later. ALMA is a giant, international observatory under construction in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile at an elevation of 16,500 feet. Using at least 66 high-precision antennas, with the possibility of increasing the number in the future, ALMA will provide astronomers with an unprecedented ability to explore the Universe as seen at wavelengths of a few millimeters to less than a millimeter. By moving the antennas from configurations as compact as 150 meters to as wide as 15 kilometers, the system will provide a zoom-lens ability for scientists. "The ability to move antennas to reconfigure the array is vital to fulfilling ALMA's scientific mission. The operations plan calls for moving antennas on a daily basis to provide the flexibility that will be such a big part of ALMA's scientific value. That's why the transporters are so important and why this is such a significant milestone," said Adrian Russell, North American Project Manager for ALMA. "The ALMA antennas will be assembled and their functionality will be verified at a base camp, located at an altitude of 2900 meters (9500 feet) and the transporters will in a first step bring the telescopes up to the

  2. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  3. ALMA - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, W.; Cunningham, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a major ground based project for millimeter and submillimeter astronomy to be realized during this decade. It comprises an array of 64 telescopes of 12 meter diameter, each equipped with 10 receivers bands covering the atmospheric windows from 30 GHz to 9

  4. Alma Flor Ada: Writer, Translator, Storyteller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the work of children's author Alma Flor Ada, a Cuban native who has won awards honoring Latino writers and illustrators. Includes part of an interview that explores her background, describes activity ideas, and presents a bibliography of works written by her (several title published in both English and Spanish) as well as sources of…

  5. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  6. Detecting the First Quasars with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Spaans, Marco; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2010-05-01

    We show that ALMA is the first telescope that can probe the dust-obscured central region of quasars at z > 5 with a maximum resolution of ~ 30 pc employing the 18 km baseline. We explore the possibility of detecting the first quasars with ALMA (Schleicher, Spaans, & Klessen 2009). For this purpose, we adopt the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as a reference system and calculate the expected fluxes if this galaxy were placed at high redshift. This choice is motivated by the detailed observations available for this system and the absence of any indication for an evolution in metallicity in high-redshift quasars. It is a conservative choice due to the moderate column densities in NGC 1068, leading to moderate fluxes.

  7. CURA MÉDICA DE ALMAS (CMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancisar Restrepo Toro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La «Cura médica de almas» tiene como objetivo señalar otra zona de aplicación de la Logoterapia, el acercamiento al hombre que sufre, al homo patiens, pero no ya a su sufrimiento en sí mismo sino a su humanidad. Si la Logoterapia, en su sentido más estricto, es la terapia indicada para las neurosis noógenas o en otros casos es complementaria de las psicoterapias, en el caso de la «Cura médica de almas» ya no es intervención terapéutica sino, específicamente, ejercicio de la humanidad del terapeuta en contacto con la humanidad de su paciente.

  8. Application development using the ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, G.; Caproni, A.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Wang, V.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.; Zagar, K.; Fugate, D. W.; Harrington, S.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.

    2006-06-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides the software infrastructure used by ALMA and by several other telescope projects, thanks also to the choice of adopting the LGPL public license. ACS is a set of application frameworks providing the basic services needed for object oriented distributed computing. Among these are transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location based on a container/component model, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. ACS is based on CORBA and built on top of free CORBA implementations. Free software is extensively used wherever possible. The general architecture of ACS was presented at SPIE 2002. ACS has been under development for 6 years and it is midway through its development life. Many applications have been written using ACS; the ALMA test facility, APEX and other telescopes are running systems based on ACS. This is therefore a good time to look back and see what have been until now the strong and the weak points of ACS in terms of architecture and implementation. In this perspective, it is very important to analyze the applications based on ACS, the feedback received by the users and the impact that this feedback has had on the development of ACS itself, by favoring the development of some features with respect to others. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of this analysis and discuss what we would like to do in order to extend and improve ACS in the coming years, in particular to make application development easier and more efficient.

  9. Alma M. Karlin – in private

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Šučur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the Slovenian writer and traveler, Alma M. Karlin, from two perspectives—the public and the private. The author begins with a summary of the most well-known facts of Alma Karlin's life: She describes her journey around the world, her motivation for writing literary works and travel logs, she places herself into the linguistic and political milieu and uncovers her contribution to the deconstruction of the role a woman was expected to perform in the early 20th century. In this text, the author exposes the previously secret or intentionally hidden elements of Karlin's privacy, for example her relationships with love and the physical. She also brings to light Karlin's relationships with men. However, the author focuses especially on the relationship between Alma Karlin and Thea Gamelin and the related speculations about Karlin's lesbianism, offering a new insight through the concept of the romantic friendship. The article raises the question whether the researching that ignores all the possible interpretations of Karlin’s life and identity has also become an act of heteronormativity.

  10. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is the new name [2] for a giant millimeter-wavelength telescope project. As described in the accompanying joint press release by ESO and the U.S. National Science Foundation , the present design and development phase is now a Europe-U.S. collaboration, and may soon include Japan. ALMA may become the largest ground-based astronomy project of the next decade after VLT/VLTI, and one of the major new facilities for world astronomy. ALMA will make it possible to study the origins of galaxies, stars and planets. As presently envisaged, ALMA will be comprised of up to 64 12-meter diameter antennas distributed over an area 10 km across. ESO PR Photo 24a/99 shows an artist's concept of a portion of the array in a compact configuration. ESO PR Video Clip 03/99 illustrates how all the antennas will move in unison to point to a single astronomical object and follow it as it traverses the sky. In this way the combined telescope will produce astronomical images of great sharpness and sensitivity [3]. An exceptional site For such observations to be possible the atmosphere above the telescope must be transparent at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. This requires a site that is high and dry, and a high plateau in the Atacama desert of Chile, probably the world's driest, is ideal - the next best thing to outer space for these observations. ESO PR Photo 24b/99 shows the location of the chosen site at Chajnantor, at 5000 meters altitude and 60 kilometers east of the village of San Pedro de Atacama, as seen from the Space Shuttle during a servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope. ESO PR Photo 24c/99 and ESO PR Photo 24d/99 show a satellite image of the immediate vicinity and the site marked on a map of northern Chile. ALMA will be the highest continuously operated observatory in the world. The stark nature of this extreme site is well illustrated by the panoramic view in ESO PR Photo 24e/99. High sensitivity and sharp images ALMA

  11. Italian Science Case for ALMA Band 2+3

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, M T; Brand, J; Casasola, V; Cesaroni, R; Codella, C; Fontani, F; Gregorini, L; Guidi, G; Hunt, L; Liuzzo, E; Marconi, A; Massardi, M; Moscadelli, L; Paladini, R; Podio, L; Prandoni, I; Rygl, K L J; Rivilla, V; .,; Testi, L

    2015-01-01

    The Premiale Project "Science and Technology in Italy for the upgraded ALMA Observatory - iALMA" has the goal of strengthening the scientific, technological and industrial Italian contribution to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the largest ground based international infrastructure for the study of the Universe in the microwave. One of the main objectives of the Science Working Group (SWG) inside iALMA, the Work Package 1, is to develop the Italian contribution to the Science Case for the ALMA Band 2 or Band 2+3 receiver. ALMA Band 2 receiver spans from ~67 GHz (bounded by an opaque line complex of ozone lines) up to 90 GHz which overlaps with the lower frequency end of ALMA Band 3. Receiver technology has advanced since the original definition of the ALMA frequency bands. It is now feasible to produce a single receiver which could cover the whole frequency range from 67 GHz to 116 GHz, encompassing Band 2 and Band 3 in a single receiver cartridge, a so called Band 2+3 system. In addit...

  12. The ALMA Snooping Project Interface (SnooPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevin, Alexandros; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Chavan, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    In order to provide ALMA users with a comprehensive view of their observing projects, we developed the ALMA Snooping Project Interface (SnooPI) application. The simple and intuitive interface allows scientists to follow the status of their projects, broken down into observing unit sets and scheduling blocks. The application itself contains two separate parts: a Java back-end server and a JavaScript front-end client application. The application interacts with REST interfaces of other ALMA software components to get the necessary project reports, certain details describing the observations and to access statistics of the user's ALMA Helpdesk tickets. All this information allows to successfully trace all stages of observations, processing and delivery of the ALMA science projects.

  13. ALMA Nutator Design and Preliminary Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Koch, Patrick M; Ni, Chih-Wen; Chen, Wei-Long; Chen, Ming-Tang; Raffin, Philippe; Ong, Chin-Long; Ho, Paul T P; Symmes, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the past two years of collaboration between the di?erent actors on the ALMA nutator. Building on previous developments, the nutator has seen changes in much of the design. A high-modulus carbon ?fiber structure has been added on the back of the mirror in order to transfer the voice coils forces with less deformation, thus reducing delay problems due to flexing. The controller is now an off?-the-shelf National Instrument NI-cRIO, and the ampli?fier a class D servo drive from Advanced Motion Controls, with high peak power able to drive the coils at 300 Volts DC. The stow mechanism has been totally redesigned to improve on the repeatability and precision of the stow position, which is also the reference for the 26 bits Heidenhain encoders. This also improves on the accuracy of the stow position with wind loading. Finally, the software, written largely with National Instrument's LabView, has been developed. We will discuss these changes and the preliminary performances achieved to date. Keywords: ALMA, ...

  14. Quasi-optical attenuators for ALMA band 10 receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Fujii, Y.; Kaneko, K.; Uzawa, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Simple quasi-optical attenuators based on beam truncation have been designed, fabricated and tried on ALMA band 10 receivers (787-950 GHz) with optimal results. The design is based on physical-optics simulations considering effects of diffraction. The use of these attenuators allows flexibility in the design of the local oscillator (LO) quasi-optical injection scheme depending on the specific performance of components for each of the 73 ALMA band 10 receivers. In particular, they have proven very effective to keep system noise within the stringent ALMA requirements (230 K at 80% of 787-950 GHz band).

  15. ALMA Partners Break Ground on World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from North America, Europe, and Chile broke ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths. ALMA - the Atacama Large Millimeter Array - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located on the Chajnantor plain of the Chilean Andes in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, 16,500 feet (5,000 meters) above sea level. ALMA's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimeter portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. ALMA Array Artist's Conception of ALMA Array in Compact Configuration (Click on Image for Larger Version) Other Images Available: Artist's conception of the antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array Moonrise over ALMA test equipment near Cerro Chajnantor, Chile VertexRSI antenna at the VLA test site The Atacama Large Millimeter Array is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. "The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare for a spectacular new instrument," said Dr. Rita Colwell, director of the U.S. National Science Foundation. "The Atacama Large Millimeter Array will expand our vision of the Universe with "eyes" that pierce the shrouded mantles of

  16. ALMA Observations of the Sun in Cycle 4 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wedemeyer, S; Battaglia, M; Labrosse, N; Fleishman, G; Hudson, H; Antolin, P; Alissandrakis, C; Ayres, T; Ballester, J; Bastian, T; Black, J; Benz, A; Brajsa, R; Carlsson, M; Costa, J; DePontieu, B; Doyle, G; de Castro, G Gimenez; Gunár, S; Harper, G; Jafarzadeh, S; Loukitcheva, M; Nakariakov, V; Oliver, R; Schmieder, B; Selhorst, C; Shimojo, M; Simões, P; Soler, R; Temmer, M; Tiwari, S; Van Doorsselaere, T; Veronig, A; White, S; Yagoubov, P; Zaqarashvili, T

    2016-01-01

    This document was created by the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON) in preparation of the first regular observations of the Sun with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), which are anticipated to start in ALMA Cycle 4 in October 2016. The science cases presented here demonstrate that a large number of scientifically highly interesting observations could be made already with the still limited solar observing modes foreseen for Cycle 4 and that ALMA has the potential to make important contributions to answering long-standing scientific questions in solar physics. With the proposal deadline for ALMA Cycle 4 in April 2016 and the Commissioning and Science Verification campaign in December 2015 in sight, several of the SSALMON Expert Teams composed strategic documents in which they outlined potential solar observations that could be feasible given the anticipated technical capabilities in Cycle 4. These documents have been combined and supplemented w...

  17. Probing Sagittarius A* accretion with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchikova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The submm Hydrogen recombination line technique can be used as a probe of the Galactic Center. We present the results of our H30α observations of ionized gas from within 0.015 pc around SgrA*. The observations were obtained on ALMA in cycle 3. The line was not detected, but we were able to set a limit on the mass of the cool gas (T~ 104 K) at 2 × 10-3 M ⊙. This is the unique probe of gas cooler than T ~106 K traced by X-ray emission. The total amount of gas near SgrA* gives us clues to understanding the accretion rate of SgrA*.

  18. Astrochemical Modeling In the ALMA Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Interstellar chemistry provides a natural laboratory for studying exotic species and processes at densities, temperatures, and reaction rates, that are difficult or impractical to address in the laboratory. Thus, many chemical reactions considered too slow by the standards of terrestrial chemistry, can be observed' and modeled. Various proposals concerning the nature and chemistry of complex interstellar organic molecules will be described. Catalytic reactions on grain surfaces can, in principle, lead to a large variety of species and this has motivated many laboratory and theoretical studies. Gas phase processes may also build large species in molecular clouds. Future laboratory data and computational tools needed to construct accurate chemical models of various sources to be observed by ALMA will be outlined.

  19. Artificial calibration source for ALMA radio interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Hills, Richard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Asayama, Shinichiro; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Iguchi, Satoru; Corder, Stuartt A.

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) radio interferometer has some different types of antennas which have a variation of gain and leakages across the primary beam of an individual antenna. We have been developing an artificial calibration source which is used for compensation of individual difference of antennas. In a high-frequency antenna, using astronomical sources to do calibration measurement would be extremely time consuming, whereas with the artificial calibration source becomes a realistic possibility. Photonic techniques are considered to be superior to conventional techniques based on electronic devices in terms of wide bandwidth and high-frequency signals. Conversion from an optical signal to a millimeter/sub-millimeter wave signal is done by a photo-mixer.

  20. ALMA and RATIR observations of GRB 131030A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuiyun; Urata, Yuji; Takahashi, Satoko; Im, Myungshin; Yu, Po-Chieh; Choi, Changsu; Butler, Nathaniel; Watson, Alan M.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Lee, William H.; Klein, Chris; Fox, Ori D.; Littlejohns, Owen; Cucchiara, Nino; Troja, Eleonora; González, Jesús; Richer, Michael G.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Bloom, Josh; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Gehrels, Neil; Moseley, Harvey; Georgiev, Leonid; de Diego, José A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    We report on the first open-use based Atacama Large Millimeter/submm Array (ALMA) 345 GHz observation for the late afterglow phase of GRB 131030A. The ALMA observation constrained a deep limit at 17.1 d for the afterglow and host galaxy. We also identified a faint submillimeter source (ALMA J2300-0522) near the GRB 131030A position. The deep limit at 345 GHz and multifrequency observations obtained using Swift and RATIR yielded forward-shock modeling with a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation and described X-ray excess in the afterglow. The excess was inconsistent with the synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from the forward shock. The host galaxy of GRB 131030A and optical counterpart of ALMA J2300-0522 were also identified in the Subaru image. Based on the deep ALMA limit for the host galaxy, the 3σ upper limits of IR luminosity and the star formation rate (SFR) are estimated as LIR ALMA J2300-0522 may be one component of the GRB 131030A host galaxy, according to previous host galaxy cases.

  1. Constraining the orbits of young binary systems with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Natasha; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Akeson, Rachel L.

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the orbits of young binary systems can provide the stars' individual stellar masses as well as insight into the dynamical effects they should have on each others' protoplanetary disks. As a byproduct of our ALMA observations of disks in young binary systems, we are able to measure precise relative separations of binaries with separations of 0.22--0.35 arcsec (~ 30--50 AU at the distance of the Taurus star-forming region). Most of these systems were first resolved in the early 1990s, so our epoch 2015 observations add an additional point in the orbit that is 20--25 years after the discovery epoch. While this coverage does not yet yield a definitive orbit, the extended coverage allows improved constraints on the binary orbital parameters. We present updated orbital constraints on a number of young binary systems, including XZ Tau, GH Tau, GN Tau, IS Tau, V955 Tau, and JH 112.This work makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00150.S. and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00105.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  2. The Global ALMA EPO programme: Communicating astronomy with the public at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M.; Boffin, H. J.; Garnier, W.; Iono, D.

    2008-06-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a major 21st century international science research facility that will open new windows on celestial origins. ALMA construction is underway in the high-elevation Atacama Desert of northern Chile. Science operations will begin in 2010, and full science operations will start in 2013. The ALMA Education and Public Outreach (EPO) programme is a global collaboration that seeks to communicate the excitement and value of the ALMA mission, science, and technology to international audiences effectively. The ALMA EPO programme is the responsibility of the Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO), and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). This contribution provides an overview of the ALMA Project and the global ALMA EPO programme.

  3. The transition from construction to operations on the ALMA control software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Ralph; Hiriart, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a set of 66 millimeter wave antenna in the Andes in Northern Chile. All antennas are connected and operate as an interferometer making ALMA the most powerful millimeter telescope in the world. In 2013 ALMA formally marked the end of construction and the beginning of operations. This paper will focus on the impact, on the ALMA control software, of this transition from construction to operations.

  4. Exploring remote operation for ALMA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Ovando, Nicolás.; Velez, Gaston; Fuica, Soledad; Schemrl, Anton; Robles, Andres; Ibsen, Jorge; Filippi, Giorgio; Pietriga, Emmanuel

    2014-08-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. The observatory has another office located in Santiago of Chile, 1600 km from the Chajnantor plain. In the Atacama desert, the wonderful observing conditions imply precarious living conditions and extremely high operation costs: i.e: flight tickets, hospitality, infrastructure, water, electricity, etc. It is clear that a purely remote operational model is impossible, but we believe that a mixture of remote and local operation scheme would be beneficial to the observatory, not only in reducing the cost but also in increasing the observatory overall efficiency. This paper describes the challenges and experience gained in such experimental proof of the concept. The experiment was performed over the existing 100 Mbps bandwidth, which connects both sites through a third party telecommunication infrastructure. During the experiment, all of the existent capacities of the observing software were validated successfully, although room for improvement was clearly detected. Network virtualization, MPLS configuration, L2TPv3 tunneling, NFS adjustment, operational workstations design are part of the experiment.

  5. $\\eta$ Carinae Baby Homunculus Uncovered by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P B

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of $\\eta$ Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280 and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.88" to 0.45" for the lower and higher frequencies respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42$\\alpha$, He42$\\alpha$, H40$\\alpha$, He40$\\alpha$, H50$\\beta$, H28$\\alpha$, He28$\\alpha$, H21$\\alpha$ and He21$\\alpha$ were also detected and their intensities reveal non local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of $\\eta$ Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the hi...

  6. VIDEO AT OSF - Interview to David Rabanus, ESO, on the ALMA OSF site, at 2900 m

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In this interview, recorded on the ALMA OSF (Operations and Support Facilities) site, at 2900 m on the Chajnantor highlands, physicist David Rabanus of ESO/ ALMA takes us inside the heart of the ALMA antennas, to reveal how the antennas detect millimetric and submillimetric radiowaves.

  7. The Soul of Lupus with ALMA (SOLA) Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M.; de Gregorio, I.; Team SOLA

    2015-12-01

    The SOLA (Soul of Lupus with ALMA) project is conducting comprehensive studies of the Lupus Molecular Clouds and their star formation processes. Our goal is to exploit ALMA and other facilities over a wide wavelength range to establish a prototypical low-mass star forming scenario based on the Lupus region. We focus mainly on 10-104 au scale physics, kinematics, density, and temperature, together with detailed modelling of radiative transfer. Our unique source catalog so far contains more than 700 sources at various evolutionary stages and we have obtained complementary data with Mopra, APEX, etc. In the poster, we will report the latest status of SOLA and the expected outcome in observing runs in the near future, including ALMA Cycle 3.

  8. A Deep ALMA Image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Although primarily designed as a high-resolution imaging spectrometer at submillimetre/millimetre wavelengths, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has a vital role to play in producing the key deep, unconfused, submillimetre/millimetre continuum surveys required to bridge the current gap in our understanding of visible and dust-obscured star formation in the young Universe. The first such survey has now been completed, comprising a mosaic of 45 ALMA pointings at a wavelength of 1.3 mm, covering the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF). This deep, homogeneous ALMA survey, combined with the wealth of existing data in the HUDF, has already provided new clarity on the nature of dusty star-forming galaxies, and the relative evolution of dust-obscured and unobscured star formation over cosmic time.

  9. HST, ALMA, and revealing the throes of planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boley, Aaron C.

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, I will highlight some of the synergy between HST and ALMA. In particular, I will focus on the impact of these observatories in shaping our understanding of debris systems and planet-forming discs. Both HST and ALMA can resolve gas and dust distributions at very high resolution, but they each, e.g., probe very different dust grain sizes and gas line transitions. The observatories can thus provide complementary views of the dynamics, composition, and morphologies of discs during planet building and its aftermath. As examples, I will discuss new ALMA results for HD141569 and Fomalhaut, as well as discuss work from other groups on systems such as Beta Pic.

  10. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: zulema.abraham@iag.usp.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, R. Arlindo Bettio 1000, 03828-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  11. Por mi alma subiré a Dios. El concepto de alma de san Agustín de Hipona

    OpenAIRE

    Saeteros Pérez, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende recoger las claves fundamentales de la doctrina sobre el alma de san Agustín de Hipona. Magna natura et magna quaestio est (Hipona De; trad. 1968; 14; 4; 6); puesto que ocupará durante toda su vida el pensamiento y las obras del santo obispo. Buscar su propia alma; adentrarse en su santuario; descubrir la imagen de Dios en ella; su bondad; su grandeza; su vida para volverla luego a Dios; su origen y meta de todos sus esfuerzos. Tal es el itinerario que nos traza...

  12. The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign : An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALMA Partnership, [Unknown; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Lucas, R.; Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Asaki, Y.; Matsushita, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hills, R. E.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Cox, P.; Amestica, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cotton, W.; Hales, A. S.; Hiriart, R.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kern, J.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Marcelino, N.; Marson, R.; Mignano, A.; Nakanishi, K.; Nikolic, B.; Perez, J. E.; Pérez, L. M.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Butler, B.; Cortes, J.; Cortes, P.; Dhawan, V.; Di Francesco, J.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Mangum, J.; Marconi, G.; Nagai, H.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; van Kempen, T.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Gueth, F.; Tatematsu, K.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Chapillon, E.; Dumas, G.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hibbard, J. E.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Karim, A.; Krips, M.; Kurono, Y.; Lopez, C.; Martin, S.; Maud, L.; Morales, F.; Pietu, V.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Whyborn, N.; Alves, F.; Andreani, P.; Avison, A.; Barta, M.; Bedosti, F.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Bethermin, M.; Biggs, A.; Boissier, J.; Brand, J.; Burkutean, S.; Casasola, V.; Conway, J.; Cortese, L.; Dabrowski, B.; Davis, T. A.; Diaz Trigo, M.; Fontani, F.; Franco-Hernandez, R.; Fuller, G.; Galvan Madrid, R.; Giannetti, A.; Ginsburg, A.; Graves, S. F.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hogerheijde, M.; Jachym, P.; Jimenez Serra, I.; Karlicky, M.; Klaasen, P.; Kraus, M.; Kunneriath, D.; Lagos, C.; Longmore, S.; Leurini, S.; Maercker, M.; Magnelli, B.; Marti Vidal, I.; Massardi, M.; Maury, A.; Muehle, S.; Muller, S.; Muxlow, T.; O’Gorman, E.; Paladino, R.; Petry, D.; Pineda, J.; Randall, S.; Richer, J. S.; Rossetti, A.; Rushton, A.; Rygl, K.; Sanchez Monge, A.; Schaaf, R.; Schilke, P.; Stanke, T.; Schmalzl, M.; Stoehr, F.; Urban, S.; van Kampen, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Wang, K.; Wild, W.; Yang, Y.; Iguchi, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Saito, M.; Inatani, J.; Mizuno, N.; Asayama, S.; Kosugi, G.; Morita, K.-I.; Chiba, K.; Kawashima, S.; Okumura, S. K.; Ohashi, N.; Ogasawara, R.; Sakamoto, S.; Noguchi, T.; Huang, Y.-D.; Liu, S.-Y.; Kemper, F.; Koch, P. M.; Chen, M.-T.; Chikada, Y.; Hiramatsu, M.; Iono, D.; Shimojo, M.; Komugi, S.; Kim, J.; Lyo, A.-R.; Muller, E.; Herrera, C.; Miura, R. E.; Ueda, J.; Chibueze, J.; Su, Y.-N.; Trejo-Cruz, A.; Wang, K.-S.; Kiuchi, H.; Ukita, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Kawabe, R.; Hayashi, M.; Miyama, S.; Ho, P. T. P.; Kaifu, N.; Ishiguro, M.; Beasley, A. J.; Bhatnagar, S.; Braatz, J. A., III; Brisbin, D. G.; Brunetti, N.; Carilli, C.; Crossley, J. H.; D’Addario, L.; Donovan Meyer, J. L.; Emerson, D. T.; Evans, A. S.; Fisher, P.; Golap, K.; Griffith, D. M.; Hale, A. E.; Halstead, D.; Hardy, E. J.; Hatz, M. C.; Holdaway, M.; Indebetouw, R.; Jewell, P. R.; Kepley, A. A.; Kim, D.-C.; Lacy, M. D.; Leroy, A. K.; Liszt, H. S.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Matthews, B.; McKinnon, M.; Mason, B. S.; Moellenbrock, G.; Moullet, A.; Myers, S. T.; Ott, J.; Peck, A. B.; Pisano, J.; Radford, S. J. E.; Randolph, W. T.; Rao Venkata, U.; Rawlings, M. G.; Rosen, R.; Schnee, S. L.; Scott, K. S.; Sharp, N. K.; Sheth, K.; Simon, R. S.; Tsutsumi, T.; Wood, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried

  13. THE 2014 ALMA LONG BASELINE CAMPAIGN: AN OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partnership, ALMA [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Corder, S.; Remijan, A.; Barkats, D.; Dent, W. R. F.; Phillips, N.; Cox, P.; Hales, A. S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Lucas, R. [Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (UMR 5274), BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Hunter, T. R.; Brogan, C. L.; Amestica, R.; Cotton, W. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Asaki, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsushita, S. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Hills, R. E. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Richards, A. M. S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Broguiere, D., E-mail: efomalon@nrao.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millime´trique (IRAM), 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d’Hères (France); and others

    2015-07-20

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ∼15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from 2014 September to late November, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C 138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long baselines achieved angular resolutions as fine as 19 mas at ∼350 GHz. Observing with ALMA on baselines of up to 15 km is now possible, and opens up new parameter space for submm astronomy.

  14. Observaci\\'on de lentes gravitatorias con ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Bonilla, A; Fuentes, I; Motta, V

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a fundamental tool for cosmology. A recent instrument which will provide more information for models of these objects is ALMA. Our goal is to select lens candidates to observe with ALMA and then model them using GravLens Software. We had selected 12 quadruple images systems from the CASTLES database, which show a high probability of observing extended sources in the submillimetric range. These new data will allow us to improve existing models. Las lentes gravitatorias son una herramienta fundamental para la cosmolog\\'ia. Un nuevo instrumento que nos proporcionar\\'a mayor informaci\\'on para los modelos de estos objetos, es ALMA. Nuestro objetivo es seleccionar lentes candidatas para observar con ALMA y posteriormente modelarlas mediante el programa GravLens. Seleccionamos de la base de datos de CASTLES, 12 sistemas cu\\'adruples, los cuales tienen mayor probabilidad de observar fuentes extendidas en el rango submilim\\'etrico. Estos nuevos datos nos permitir\\'an mejorar los modelos exite...

  15. The Labour Market Effects of "Alma Mater": Evidence from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, Giorgio; Cappellari, Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    We use data from a nationally representative survey of Italian graduates to study whether "Alma Mater" matters for employment and earnings 3 years after graduation. We find that the attended college matters, and that there are important college-related differences, both among and within regions of the country. These differences, however,…

  16. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  17. Modeling Protostar Envelopes and Disks Seen With ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terebey, Susan; Flores-Rivera, Lizxandra; Willacy, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Thermal continuum emission from protostars comes from both the envelope and circumstellar disk. The dust emits on a variety of spatial scales, ranging from sub-arcseconds for disks to roughly 10 arcseconds for envelopes for nearby protostars. We present models of what ALMA should detect that incorporate a self-consistent collapse solution, radiative transfer, and realistic dust properties.

  18. ALMA North American Integration Center Front-End Test System

    CERN Document Server

    Ediss, Geoffrey A; Crady, Kirk; Gaines, Erik; McLeod, Morgan; Morris, Greg; Williams, Rick; Perfetto, Antonio; Webber, John; 10.1007/s10762-010-9688-y

    2010-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter (ALMA) Array Front End (FE) system is the first element in a complex chain of signal receiving, conversion, processing and recording. 70 Front Ends will be required for the project. The Front End is designed to receive signals in ten different frequency bands. In the initial phase of operations, the antennas will be fully equipped with six bands. These are Band 3 (84-116 GHz), Band 4 (125-163 GHz), Band 6 (211-275 GHz), Band 7 (275-373 GHz), Band 8 (385-500 GHz) and Band 9 (602-720 GHz). It is planned to equip the antennas with the missing bands at a later stage of ALMA operations, with a few Band 5 (163-211 GHz) and Band 10 (787-950 GHz) receivers in use before the end of the construction project. The ALMA Front End is far superior to any existing receiver systems; spin-offs of the ALMA prototypes are leading to improved sensitivities in existing millimeter and submillimeter observatories. The Front End units are comprised of numerous elements, produced at different...

  19. Fideísmo y racionalismo en las tres potencias del alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Calvo Rodríguez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentro de la gnoseología luliana, las tres potencias del alma racional (Voluntad, Memoria y Entendimiento adquieren una especial importancia por ser los instrumentos del alma que permiten el acceso y el conocimiento del amor divino. A este respecto escribe Cruz Hernández: «Las potencias del alma, además, tanto por su naturaleza como por su actividad, reflejan las virtudes divinas; y, de un modo eminente, la Trinidad personal».1 De esta manera, no hay mejor espejo de Dios en el hombre que el alma, donde reside la presencia divina. Por esto, el Libro de amigo y Amado, considerando la reiterativa presencia de las tres potencias del alma que presenta, simplemente propone un viaje errático por el interior del alma humana en busca de Dios y, en definitiva, en busca del propio yo del místico.

  20. Star and Stellar Cluster Formation: ALMA-SKA Synergies

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, G A; Rathborne, J M; Longmore, S; Molinari, S

    2015-01-01

    Over the next decade, observations conducted with ALMA and the SKA will reveal the process of mass assembly and accretion onto young stars and will be revolutionary for studies of star formation. Here we summarise the capabilities of ALMA and discuss recent results from its early science observations. We then review infrared and radio variability observations of both young low-mass and high-mass stars. A time domain SKA radio continuum survey of star forming regions is then outlined. This survey will produce radio light-curves for hundreds of young sources, providing for the first time a systematic survey of radio variability across the full range of stellar masses. These light-curves will probe the magnetospheric interactions of young binary systems, the origins of outflows, trace episodic accretion on the central sources and potentially constrain the rotation rates of embedded sources.

  1. ALMA software releases versus quality management: and the winner is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaert, Erik; Pasquato, Moreno; Soto, Rubén.

    2016-08-01

    After its inauguration and the formal completion of the construction phase, the software development effort at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) continues at roughly the same level as during construction - gradually adding capabilities as required by and offered to the scientific community. In the run-up to a new yearly Observing Cycle several software releases have to be prepared, incorporating this new functionality. However, the ALMA observatory is used on a daily basis to produce scientific data for the approved projects within the current Observing Cycle, and also by engineering teams to extend existing capabilities or to diagnose and fix problems - so the preparation of new software releases up to their deployment competes for resources with all other activities. Testing a new release and ensuring its quality is of course fundamental, but can on the other hand not monopolize the observatory's resources or jeopardize its commitments to the scientific community.

  2. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  3. Data products of the ALMA and NRAO archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Radio astronomy archives present particular challenges due to the complexity of the data processing. New radio telescopes such as the Jansky-VLA and ALMA also have much larger data volumes than the previous generation of instruments, requiring large amounts of storage and processing. Here we describe the approach taken by NRAO towards making the data products of the VLA and ALMA available to our users. This includes traditional approaches of pipelining and imaging, and also on-demand server side processing, visualization and analysis. We discuss how the size of the image products is related to that of the visibility data, and how this places variable demands on the data flow from the telescope and its data center as configurations are changed throughout the year. Finally, we look ahead to the next generation of radio telescopes such as the SKA and ngVLA.

  4. A psicopatologia como uma experiência da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Zanoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teórico apresenta a visão do psicólogo arquetípico James Hillman sobre a psicopatologia. Ele defende que "patologizar" é um movimento da psique válido, necessário e autêntico, que permite um encontro com a alma e com os sentidos e que deve ser compreendido metaforicamente. Sua visão se contrapõe ao modelo médico e nominalista dominante, que tem uma visão literal da psicopatologia e que acaba por afastá-la dos sentidos, da alma e do próprio sujeito. A crítica maior de Hillman é sobre a relação literal da psicologia com as palavras e termos psicopatológicos.

  5. A deep ALMA image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlop, J S; Biggs, A D; Geach, J E; Michalowski, M J; Ivison, R J; Rujopakarn, W; van Kampen, E; Kirkpatrick, A; Pope, A; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; Targett, T A; Aretxaga, I; Austermann, J E; Best, P N; Bruce, V A; Chapin, E L; Charlot, S; Cirasuolo, M; Coppin, K E K; Ellis, R S; Finkelstein, S L; Hayward, C C; Hughes, D H; Ibar, E; Khochfar, S; Koprowski, M P; Narayanan, D; Papovich, C; Peacock, J A; Robertson, B; Vernstrom, T; van der Werf, P P; Wilson, G W; Yun, M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of the first, deep ALMA imaging covering the full 4.5 sq arcmin of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) as previously imaged with WFC3/IR on HST. Using a mosaic of 45 pointings, we have obtained a homogeneous 1.3mm image of the HUDF, achieving an rms sensitivity of 35 microJy, at a resolution of 0.7 arcsec. From an initial list of ~50 >3.5sigma peaks, a rigorous analysis confirms 16 sources with flux densities S(1.3) > 120 microJy. All of these have secure galaxy counterparts with robust redshifts ( = 2.15), and 12 are also detected at 6GHz in new deep JVLA imaging. Due to the wealth of supporting data in this unique field, the physical properties of the ALMA sources are well constrained, including their stellar masses (M*) and UV+FIR star-formation rates (SFR). Our results show that stellar mass is the best predictor of SFR in the high-z Universe; indeed at z > 2 our ALMA sample contains 7 of the 9 galaxies in the HUDF with M* > 2 x 10^10 Msun and we detect only one galaxy at z > 3.5, re...

  6. Future mmVLBI Research with ALMA: A European vision

    CERN Document Server

    Tilanus, R P J; Zensus, J A; Baudry, A; Bremer, M; Falcke, H; Giovannini, G; Laing, R; van Langevelde, H J; Vlemmings, W; Abraham, Z; Afonso, J; Agudo, I; Alberdi, A; Alcolea, J; Altamirano, D; Asadi, S; Assaf, K; Augusto, P; Baczko, A-K; Boeck, M; Boller, T; Bondi, M; Boone, F; Bourda, G; Brajsa, R; Brand, J; Britzen, S; Bujarrabal, V; Cales, S; Casadio, C; Casasola, V; Castangia, P; Cernicharo, J; Charlot, P; Chemin, L; Clenet, Y; Colomer, F; Combes, F; Cordes, J; Coriat, M; Cross, N; D'Ammando, F; Dallacasa, D; Desmurs, J-F; Eatough, R; Eckart, A; Eisenacher, D; Etoka, S; Felix, M; Fender, R; Ferreira, M; Freeland, E; Frey, S; Fromm, C; Fuhrmann, L; Gabanyi, K; Galvan-Madrid, R; Giroletti, M; Goddi, C; Gomez, J; Gourgoulhon, E; Gray, M; di Gregorio, I; Greimel, R; Grosso, N; Guirado, J; Hada, K; Hanslmeier, A; Henkel, C; Herpin, F; Hess, P; Hodgson, J; Horns, D; Humphreys, E; Kramer, B Hutawarakorn; Ilyushin, V; Impellizzeri, V; Ivanov, V; Julião, M; Kadler, M; Kerins, E; Klaassen, P; Klooster, K van 't; Kording, E; Kozlov, M; Kramer, M; Kreikenbohm, A; Kurtanidze, O; Lazio, J; Leite, A; Leitzinger, M; Lepine, J; Levshakov, S; Lico, R; Lindqvist, M; Liuzzo, E; Lobanov, A; Lucas, P; Mannheim, K; Marcaide, J; Markoff, S; Martí-Vidal, I; Martins, C; Masetti, N; Massardi, M; Menten, K; Messias, H; Migliari, S; Mignano, A; Miller-Jones, J; Minniti, D; Molaro, P; Molina, S; Monteiro, A; Moscadelli, L; Mueller, C; Müller, A; Muller, S; Niederhofer, F; Odert, P; Olofsson, H; Orienti, M; Paladino, R; Panessa, F; Paragi, Z; Paumard, T; Pedrosa, P; Pérez-Torres, M; Perrin, G; Perucho, M; Porquet, D; Prandoni, I; Ransom, S; Reimers, D; Rejkuba, M; Rezzolla, L; Richards, A; Ros, E; Roy, A; Rushton, A; Savolainen, T; Schulz, R; Silva, M; Sivakoff, G; Soria-Ruiz, R; Soria, R; Spaans, M; Spencer, R; Stappers, B; Surcis, G; Tarchi, A; Temmer, M; Thompson, M; Torrelles, J; Truestedt, J; Tudose, V; Venturi, T; Verbiest, J; Vieira, J; Vielzeuf, P; Vincent, F; Wex, N; Wiik, K; Wiklind, T; Wilms, J; Zackrisson, E; Zechlin, H

    2014-01-01

    Very long baseline interferometry at millimetre/submillimetre wavelengths (mmVLBI) offers the highest achievable spatial resolution at any wavelength in astronomy. The anticipated inclusion of ALMA as a phased array into a global VLBI network will bring unprecedented sensitivity and a transformational leap in capabilities for mmVLBI. Building on years of pioneering efforts in the US and Europe the ongoing ALMA Phasing Project (APP), a US-led international collaboration with MPIfR-led European contributions, is expected to deliver a beamformer and VLBI capability to ALMA by the end of 2014 (APP: Fish et al. 2013, arXiv:1309.3519). This report focuses on the future use of mmVLBI by the international users community from a European viewpoint. Firstly, it highlights the intense science interest in Europe in future mmVLBI observations as compiled from the responses to a general call to the European community for future research projects. A wide range of research is presented that includes, amongst others: - Imagin...

  7. An Overview of the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Vlahakis, C; Corder, S; Remijan, A; Barkats, D; Lucas, R; Hunter, T R; Brogan, C L; Asaki, Y; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Hills, R E; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Cox, P; Amestica, R; Broguiere, D; Cotton, W; Hales, A S; Hiriart, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kern, J; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Marcelino, N; Marson, R; Mignano, A; Nakanishi, K; Nikolic, B; Perez, J E; Pérez, L M; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Butler, B; Cortes, J; Cortes, P; Dhawan, V; Di Francesco, J; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Mangum, J; Marconi, G; Nagai, H; Nyman, L -A; Perley, R; Radiszcz, M; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; van Kempen, T; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Gueth, F; Tatematsu, K; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Chapillon, E; Dumas, G; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hibbard, J E; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Martin, S; Maud, L; Morales, F; Pietu, V; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Whyborn, N; Zwaan, M A; Alves, F; Andreani, P; Avison, A; Barta, M; Bedosti, F; Bendo, G J; Bertoldi, F; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A; Boissier, J; Brand, J; Burkutean, S; Casasola, V; Conway, J; Cortese, L; Dabrowski, B; Davis, T A; Trigo, M Diaz; Fontani, F; Franco-Hernandez, R; Fuller, G; Madrid, R Galvan; Giannetti, A; Ginsburg, A; Graves, S F; Hatziminaoglou, E; Hogerheijde, M; Jachym, P; Serra, I Jimenez; Karlicky, M; Klaasen, P; Kraus, M; Kunneriath, D; Lagos, C; Longmore, S; Leurini, S; Maercker, M; Magnelli, B; Vidal, I Marti; Massardi, M; Maury, A; Muehle, S; Muller, S; Muxlow, T; O'Gorman, E; Paladino, R; Petry, D; Pineda, J; Randall, S; Richer, J S; Rossetti, A; Rushton, A; Rygl, K; Monge, A Sanchez; Schaaf, R; Schilke, P; Stanke, T; Schmalzl, M; Stoehr, F; Urban, S; van Kampen, E; Vlemmings, W; Wang, K; Wild, W; Yang, Y; Iguchi, S; Hasegawa, T; Saito, M; Inatani, J; Mizuno, N; Asayama, S; Kosugi, G; Morita, K -I; Chiba, K; Kawashima, S; Okumura, S K; Ohashi, N; Ogasawara, R; Sakamoto, S; Noguchi, T; Huang, Y -D; Liu, S -Y; Kemper, F; Koch, P M; Chen, M -T; Chikada, Y; Hiramatsu, M; Iono, D; Shimojo, M; Komugi, S; Kim, J; Lyo, A -R; Muller, E; Herrera, C; Miura, R E; Ueda, J; Chibueze, J; Su, Y -N; Trejo-Cruz, A; Wang, K -S; Kiuchi, H; Ukita, N; Sugimoto, M; Kawabe, R; Hayashi, M; Miyama, S; Ho, P T P; Kaifu, N; Ishiguro, M; Beasley, A J; Bhatnagar, S; Braatz, J A; Brisbin, D G; Brunetti, N; Carilli, C; Crossley, J H; D'Addario, L; Meyer, J L Donovan; Emerson, D T; Evans, A S; Fisher, P; Golap, K; Griffith, D M; Hale, A E; Halstead, D; Hardy, E J; Hatz, M C; Holdaway, M; Indebetouw, R; Jewell, P R; Kepley, A A; Kim, D -C; Lacy, M D; Leroy, A K; Liszt, H S; Lonsdale, C J; Matthews, B; McKinnon, M; Mason, B S; Moellenbrock, G; Moullet, A; Myers, S T; Ott, J; Peck, A B; Pisano, J; Radford, S J E; Randolph, W T; Venkata, U Rao; Rawlings, M; Rosen, R; Schnee, S L; Scott, K S; Sharp, N K; Sheth, K J; Simon, R S; Tsutsumi, T; Wood, S J

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is to make accurate images with resolutions of tens of milliarcseconds, which at submillimeter (submm) wavelengths requires baselines up to ~15 km. To develop and test this capability, a Long Baseline Campaign (LBC) was carried out from September to late November 2014, culminating in end-to-end observations, calibrations, and imaging of selected Science Verification (SV) targets. This paper presents an overview of the campaign and its main results, including an investigation of the short-term coherence properties and systematic phase errors over the long baselines at the ALMA site, a summary of the SV targets and observations, and recommendations for science observing strategies at long baselines. Deep ALMA images of the quasar 3C138 at 97 and 241 GHz are also compared to VLA 43 GHz results, demonstrating an agreement at a level of a few percent. As a result of the extensive program of LBC testing, the highly successful SV imaging at long...

  8. First ALMA Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the first ALMA measurement of a galaxy cluster merger shock, observed at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at redshift z 0.9. Located at about half the current age of the Universe, this is also the most distant example of a directly measured astrophysical shock. ALMA Band 3 was utilised to measure the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signature that confirms a small-scale change in pressure as expected from the passage of a shock in the intracluster medium. The results support a previous radio-based estimate of the shock Mach number and display similarities, and also some mild tensions, with the X-ray based results. Most importantly, these results show the potential of ALMA to detect galaxy cluster shocks, observations that will advance our knowledge of cluster formation, non-thermal particle acceleration and amplification of magnetic fields across the entire observable Universe where such relic shocks can be found.

  9. ALMA Binary Data Transport Mechanism using VOTable Headers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicenec, A.; Meuss, H.; Pisano, J.

    2006-07-01

    ALMA will produce very large data rates and volumes. In full operation the correlator will generate up to 60 MB/s of visibility data. These data have to be transported from the correlator on the high site (5000 m) to the ALMA archive, the telescope calibration and the quick-look subsystems, which are all located at the low site (2500 m) some 40 km away. A dedicated fiber connection between the sites is under construction and the interfaces between the subsystems are under development. The actual transport format produced by the correlator has been defined and implemented and is described in this paper in more detail. The format is derived from the SOAP with attachments [1], but instead of the SOAP XML envelope it is using a slightly modified VOTable [2] to keep the description of the binary data. The VOTable uses content ID pointers (CID, RFC2111 [3]) to refer to the binary parts contained in the same Multipart/Related (RFC2387 [4]) container. Such Multipart/Related containers are constructed for each ALMA integration and sent through a multimedia streaming connection implemented in CORBA (TAO[5, 6]).

  10. Experience with the operation of the European ALMA antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Stefano; Laing, Robert; Rossi, Silvio; Wild, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The 25 European antennas of ALMA were delivered by ESO to the ALMA project in Chile between April 2011 and September 2013. Their combined time of operation is already significant and allows us to draw conclusions regarding their ability to fulfil the original specification, in terms of both scientific performance and operational availability. In this paper, we will summarize the experience gained during the past five years of operation. We will characterize the performance of the antennas in routine operation and compare with the data obtained during acceptance testing. We will also describe the few technical issues experienced while operating at 5000m and the way in which these were treated during these first years of operation. We will evaluate the effective reliability obtained in service based on field data and draw some conclusions as to the way in which reliability and maintainability aspects were covered during the process which led to the final design of the antenna. We will discuss the smart use of software to handle redundancy in a flexible way and to exclude failed components without affecting overall antenna operability. The use of low-level diagnostics enabled by remote access allows us to shorten the trouble-shooting cycle and to optimise physical interventions on the antennas. Finally, the paper will cover Antenna maintenance manuals edited using an industrial interactive standard. It will be explained why this advanced and innovative concept has not achieved the success that was expected, and why the traditional form is preferred at the ALMA Observatory.

  11. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) astronomical project will not only enlarge our knowledge of the vast Universe beyond the imaginable. It will also help scientists learn more about the human body. Located 5000m above sea level, in the Chilean Atacama desert, ALMA is the highest site for ground-based astronomy. This property will be put to good use for academic institutions in Chile and in Europe in order to study the human response to extreme altitude conditions. During a ceremony held on 2 April in Antofagasta, the largest town close to ESO's Very Large Telescope, representatives from ALMA, ESO and the University of Antofagasta have officially launched a collaborative agreement that also involves the University of Chile and the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). The newly established cooperation aims at contributing to the promotion of teaching, scientific research, and the expansion of altitude physiology and medicine or other related areas considered appropriate. ESO PR Photo 20/07 ESO PR Photo 20/07 Working at 5000 metres "An increasing number of people are periodically exposed to brisk changes in altitude, and not only for astronomical research," said Jacques Lassalle, the ALMA Safety Manager. "Short stays at high altitude alternate with short stays at sea level but the corresponding shifts are very often established by agreement, and not based on scientific arguments. With this project, we aim at improving our knowledge and procedures in order to protect the long term health of the operators, engineers, and scientists as well as ALMA visitors of all ages and all physical conditions," he added. Around the world, a large number of people systematically commute between sea level and high altitude, for example when working in mountainous mines. This poses stringent conditions that may affect health, wellbeing and working performance. Some of the factors in question are the shift work regime, the perturbation of circadian rhythms, fatigue

  12. Design and development of a 600-720 GHz receiver for ALMA Band 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Jackson, B. D.; Adema, J.; Schaeffer, H.; Barkhof, J.; Wild, W.; Candotti, M.; Lodewijk, C.; Loudkov, D.; Zijlstra, T.; Noroozian, 0.; Klapwijk, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of the ALMA Band 9 receiver cartridges. The ALMA project is a collaboration between Europe, North America, and Japan to build an aperture synthesis telescope consisting of at least 64 12-m antennas located at 5000 m altitude in Chile. In its full confi

  13. The ALMA common software: dispatch from the trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, J.; Sommer, H.; Jeram, B.; Sekoranja, M.; Chiozzi, G.; Grimstrup, A.; Caproni, A.; Paredes, C.; Allaert, E.; Harrington, S.; Turolla, S.; Cirami, R.

    2008-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides both an application framework and CORBA-based middleware for the distributed software system of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. Building upon open-source tools such as the JacORB, TAO and OmniORB ORBs, ACS supports the development of component-based software in any of three languages: Java, C++ and Python. Now in its seventh major release, ACS has matured, both in its feature set as well as in its reliability and performance. However, it is only recently that the ALMA observatory's hardware and application software has reached a level at which it can exploit and challenge the infrastructure that ACS provides. In particular, the availability of an Antenna Test Facility(ATF) at the site of the Very Large Array in New Mexico has enabled us to exercise and test the still evolving end-to-end ALMA software under realistic conditions. The major focus of ACS, consequently, has shifted from the development of new features to consideration of how best to use those that already exist. Configuration details which could be neglected for the purpose of running unit tests or skeletal end-to-end simulations have turned out to be sensitive levers for achieving satisfactory performance in a real-world environment. Surprising behavior in some open-source tools has required us to choose between patching code that we did not write or addressing its deficiencies by implementing workarounds in our own software. We will discuss these and other aspects of our recent experience at the ATF and in simulation.

  14. The evolution of the simulation environment in the ALMA Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Saez, Norman; Velez, Gaston; Staig, Tomas; Sepulveda, Jorge; Saez, Alejandro; Ovando, Nicolas; Ibsen, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) has entered into operation phase since 2013. This transition changed the priorities within the observatory, in which, most of the available time will be dedicated to science observations at the expense of technical time. Therefore, it was planned to design and implement a new simulation environment, which must be comparable - or at least- be representative of the production environment. Concepts of model in the loop and hardware in the loop were explored. In this paper we review experiences gained and lessons learnt during the design and implementation of the new simulation environment.

  15. Model-based fault detection and diagnosis in ALMA subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, José; Carrasco, Rodrigo A.

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observatory, with its 66 individual telescopes and other central equipment, generates a massive set of monitoring data every day, collecting information on the performance of a variety of critical and complex electrical, electronic and mechanical components. This data is crucial for most troubleshooting efforts performed by engineering teams. More than 5 years of accumulated data and expertise allow for a more systematic approach to fault detection and diagnosis. This paper presents model-based fault detection and diagnosis techniques to support corrective and predictive maintenance in a 24/7 minimum-downtime observatory.

  16. Operational logs analysis at ALMA observatory based on ELK stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Juan P.; Reveco, Johnny; Shen, Tzu-Chiang

    2016-07-01

    During operations, the ALMA observatory generates a huge amount of logs which contain not only valuable information related to specific failures but also for long term performance analysis. We implemented a big data solution based on Elasticsearch, Logstash and Kibana. They are configured as decoupled system which causes zero impact on the existent operations. It is able to keep more than six months of operation logs online. In this paper, we'll describe this infrastructure, applications built on top of it, and the problems that we faced during its implementation.

  17. Evaluation of Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma (ALMA): a pilot promotora intervention focused on stress and coping among immigrant Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh N; Ornelas, India J; Perez, Georgina; Green, Melissa A; Lyn, Michelle; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2014-04-01

    Recent immigrant Latinas are at increased risk of poor mental health due to stressors associated with adapting to life in the United States. This study evaluated Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma, a promotora intervention to reduce stress and promote health and coping among recent immigrant Latinas. Using a pre- and post-test design, we evaluated mental health outcomes, specifically, in promotoras. Promotoras' knowledge levels related to role of promotora and stress management increased, depressive symptoms and stress levels decreased, and coping responses and perceived social support increased as well. Results suggest that promotora programs may be an effective way to improve mental health in recent immigrant Latinas.

  18. UNVEILING THE DUST NUCLEATION ZONE OF IRC+10216 WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernicharo, J.; Daniel, F.; Goicoechea, J. R. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Madrid (Spain); Castro-Carrizo, A.; Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406, Saint Martin dHères (France); Agundez, M. [Univ. Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France); Marcelino, N. [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22902 (United States); Joblin, C. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-12-01

    We report the detection in IRC+10216 of lines of HNC J = 3 – 2 pertaining to nine excited vibrational states with energies up to ∼5300 K. The spectrum, observed with ALMA, also shows a surprising large number of narrow, unidentified lines that arise in the vicinity of the star. The HNC data are interpreted through a 1D-spherical non-local radiative transfer model, coupled to a chemical model that includes chemistry at thermochemical equilibrium for the innermost regions and reaction kinetics for the external envelope. Although unresolved by the current early ALMA data, the radius inferred for the emitting region is ∼0.''06 (i.e., ≅ 3 stellar radii), similar to the size of the dusty clumps reported by IR studies of the innermost region (r < 0.''3). The derived abundance of HNC relative to H{sub 2} is 10{sup –8} < χ(HNC) <10{sup –6}, and drops quickly where the gas density decreases and the gas chemistry is dominated by reaction kinetics. Merging HNC data with that of molecular species present throughout the inner envelope, such as vibrationally excited HCN, SiS, CS, or SiO, should allow us to characterize the physical and chemical conditions in the dust formation zone.

  19. Unveiling the dust nucleation zone of IRC+10216 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Cernicharo, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Agundez, M; Marcelino, N; Joblin, C; Goicoechea, J R; Guélin, M

    2013-01-01

    We report the detection in IRC+10216 of lines of HNC $J$=3-2 pertaining to 9 excited vibrational states with energies up to $\\sim$5300 K. The spectrum, observed with ALMA, also shows a surprising large number of narrow, unidentified lines that arise in the vicinity of the star. The HNC data are interpreted through a 1D--spherical non--local radiative transfer model, coupled to a chemical model that includes chemistry at thermochemical equilibrium for the innermost regions and reaction kinetics for the external envelope. Although unresolved by the present early ALMA data, the radius inferred for the emitting region is $\\sim$0.06'' (i.e., $\\simeq$ 3 stellar radii), similar to the size of the dusty clumps reported by IR studies of the innermost region ($r <$ 0.3''). The derived abundance of HNC relative to H$_2$ is $10^{-8} <$ $\\chi$(HNC) $< 10^{-6}$, and drops quickly where the gas density decreases and the gas chemistry is dominated by reaction kinetics. Merging HNC data with that of molecular species...

  20. ALMA Band 8 Continuum Emission from Orion Source I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A.; Honma, Mareki

    2016-12-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  1. ALMA Observations of HD141569's Circumstellar Disk

    CERN Document Server

    White, J A; Hughes, A M; Flaherty, K M; Ford, E; Wilner, D; Corder, S; Payne, M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA band 7 (345 GHz) continuum and $^{12}$CO(J = 3-2) observations of the circumstellar disk surrounding HD141569. At an age of about 5 Myr, the disk has a complex morphology that may be best interpreted as a nascent debris system with gas. Our $870\\rm~\\mu m$ ALMA continuum observations resolve a dust disk out to approximately $ 56 ~\\rm au$ from the star (assuming a distance of 116 pc) with $0."38$ resolution and $0.07 ~ \\rm mJy~beam^{-1}$ sensitivity. We measure a continuum flux density for this inner material of $3.8 \\pm 0.4 ~ \\rm mJy$ (including calibration uncertainties). The $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas is resolved kinematically and spatially from about 30 to 210 au. The integrated $^{12}$CO(3-2) line flux density is $15.7 \\pm 1.6~\\rm Jy~km~s^{-1}$. We estimate the mass of the millimeter debris and $^{12}$CO(3-2) gas to be $\\gtrsim0.04~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$ and $\\sim2\\times 10^{-3}~\\rm M_{\\oplus}$, respectively. If the millimeter grains are part of a collisional cascade, then we infer that the inner disk ($&...

  2. La ciencia del alma en IBN Bayya (Avempace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomba, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es la interpretación de del más importante aspecto de la filosofía de Ibn Bayya (Avempace a base de la lectura de su Kitab al nafs, primer comentario del De anima de Aristóteles en Occidente. Este estudio sobre el alma es, para Avempace, constituye la principal ciencia porque sin el análisis de la propia alma es imposible conocer el resto de las ciencias y del mundo. Este autor, en todas sus obras encentra el ideal del filósofo y del hombre sabio, sobre todo, en la progresiva desmaterialización de toda su vida. Este objetivo se obtiene mediante el transcendeer de tres formas de vida, concretamente, las formas materiales, el primer nivel espiritual y, por fin, el segundo nivel espiritual. La culminación de este itinerario es alcanzar el segundo nivel espiritual, concretamente, la unión con el Intelecto Agente mediante un misticismo espiritual o «amor Dei intellectualis». Los materiales básicos de esta filosofía están conteniddos en este comentario al aristotélico al De anima

  3. An overview of the ALMA Common Software (ACS) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marcantonio, P.; Cirami, R.; Caproni, A.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.; Sommer, H.; Harrington, S.; Zagar, K.; Plesko, M.; Sekoranja, M.

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is an application framework designed to provide a common and homogeneous software architecture and infrastructure, spanning the end to end needs of an Astronomical observatory, from the Telescope Control system to high-level data flow management. ACS offers, at the lower level, several basic services needed for object-oriented distributed computing like transparent remote object invocation, object deployment and location, distributed error, alarm handling, logging and events. On top of this it provides an application architecture based on the Component/Container paradigm that fosters sharing and reusing of software components. Although developed for the ALMA project, ACS is now used by several other projects worldwide, among which the Italian Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). Besides, there is an active community that shares ideas, concepts and actual software components. Major drivers for this diffusion were the choice of adopting the LGPL public license and the adoption of CORBA, a free but reliable and widely used middleware software. In this paper we present an overview of the main features of ACS, emphasizing in particular the role of INAF-OAT in this project.

  4. Container-component model and XML in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Heiko; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Zagar, Klemen; Voelter, Markus

    2004-09-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. To meet the challenges of developing distributed software in distributed teams, ACS offers a container/component model that integrates the use of XML transfer objects. ACS containers are built on top of CORBA and are available for C++, Java, and Python, so that ALMA software can be written as components in any of these languages. The containers perform technical aspects of the software system, while components can focus on the implementation of functional requirements. Like Web services, components can use XML to exchange structured data by value. For Java components, the container seamlessly integrates the use of XML binding classes, which are Java classes that encapsulate access to XML data through type-safe methods. Binding classes are generated from XML schemas, allowing the Java compiler to enforce compliance of application code with the XML schemas. This presentation will explain the capabilities of the ACS container/component model, and how it relates to other middleware technologies that are popular in industry.

  5. A CORBA event system for ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, David W.

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software notification channel framework provides developers with an easy to use, high-performance, event-driven system supported across multiple programming languages and operating systems. It sits on top of the CORBA notification service and hides nearly all CORBA from developers. The system is based on a push event channel model where suppliers push events onto the channel and consumers process these asynchronously. This is a many-to-many publishing model whereby multiple suppliers send events to multiple consumers on the same channel. Furthermore, these event suppliers and consumers can be coded in C++, Java, or Python on any platform supported by ACS. There are only two classes developers need to be concerned with: SimpleSupplier and Consumer. SimpleSupplier was designed so that ALMA events (defined as IDL structures) could be published in the simplest manner possible without exposing any CORBA to the developer. Essentially all that needs to be known is the channel's name and the IDL structure being published. The API takes care of everything else. With the Consumer class, the developer is responsible for providing the channel's name as well as associating event types with functions that will handle them.

  6. Business Intelligence Applied to the ALMA Software Integration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, M.; Recabarren, C.; González, V.; Hoffstadt, A.; Soto, R.; Shen, T.-C.

    2012-09-01

    Software quality assurance and planning of an astronomy project is a complex task, specially if it is a distributed collaborative project such as ALMA, where the development centers are spread across the globe. When you execute a software project there is much valuable information about this process itself that you might be able to collect. One of the ways you can receive this input is via an issue tracking system that will gather the problem reports relative to software bugs captured during the testing of the software, during the integration of the different components or even worst, problems occurred during production time. Usually, there is little time spent on analyzing them but with some multidimensional processing you can extract valuable information from them and it might help you on the long term planning and resources allocation. We present an analysis of the information collected at ALMA from a collection of key unbiased indicators. We describe here the extraction, transformation and load process and how the data was processed. The main goal is to assess a software process and get insights from this information.

  7. Testing particle trapping in transition disks with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Pinilla, P; Pérez, L M; van Dishoeck, E F; Andrews, S; Birnstiel, T; Herczeg, G; Pontoppidan, K M; van Kempen, T

    2015-01-01

    We present new ALMA continuum observations at 336 GHz of two transition disks, SR 21 and HD 135344B. In combination with previous ALMA observations from Cycle 0 at 689 GHz, we compare the visibility profiles at the two frequencies and calculate the spectral index ($\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}$). The observations of SR 21 show a clear shift in the visibility nulls, indicating radial variations of the inner edge of the cavity at the two wavelengths. Notable radial variations of the spectral index are also detected for SR 21 with values of $\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}\\sim3.8-4.2$ in the inner region ($r\\lesssim35$ AU) and $\\alpha_{\\rm{mm}}\\sim2.6-3.0$ outside. An axisymmetric ring ("ring model") or a ring with the addition of an azimuthal Gaussian profile, for mimicking a vortex structure ("vortex model"), is assumed for fitting the disk morphology. For SR 21, the ring model better fits the emission at 336 GHz, conversely the vortex model better fits the 689 GHz emission. For HD 135344B, neither a significant shift in the null of the...

  8. Possibility of Terahertz Observations at the ALMA site

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Satoki

    2011-01-01

    Observational rates under terahertz (THz) opacities less than 3.0 and 2.0 at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) site have been calculated using the 225 GHz tipping radiometer monitoring data and the opacity correlation between 225 GHz and THz opacities. The observational rate with THz opacity condition less than 3.0 is 12.4% in a year, and in winter (November - April) it is about twice higher than in summer (May - October). This observational rate shows a large sinusoidal annual variation, and it seems to have relation with the El Ni\\~no and La Ni\\~na phenomena; the La Ni\\~na years tend to have high observational rates, but the El Ni\\~no years show low rates. On the other hand, the observational rate with the THz opacity condition less than 2.0 is only 1.9%, and no obvious annual and seasonal variations are observed. This indicates that THz observations under low opacity condition of less than 2.0 at the ALMA site are very difficult to be performed.

  9. ALMA Observations of Asteroid 3 Juno at 60 Kilometer Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Kneissl, R; Moullet, A; Brogan, C L; Fomalont, E B; Vlahakis, C; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Dent, W R F; Hills, R; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Matsushita, S; Nakanishi, K; Perez, L M; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Hales, A S; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodon, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; de Gregorio, I; Di Francesco, J; Mangum, J; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Kurono, Y; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Randall, S; van kempen, T; Videla, L; Villard, E; Andreani, P; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1.3 mm continuum images of the asteroid 3 Juno obtained with an angular resolution of 0.042 arcseconds (60 km at 1.97 AU). The data were obtained over a single 4.4 hr interval, which covers 60% of the 7.2 hr rotation period, approximately centered on local transit. A sequence of ten consecutive images reveals continuous changes in the asteroid's profile and apparent shape, in good agreement with the sky projection of the three-dimensional model of the Database of Asteroid Models from Inversion Techniques. We measure a geometric mean diameter of 259pm4 km, in good agreement with past estimates from a variety of techniques and wavelengths. Due to the viewing angle and inclination of the rotational pole, the southern hemisphere dominates all of the images. The median peak brightness temperature is 215pm13 K, while the median over the whole surface is 197pm15 K. With the unprecedented resolution of ALMA, we find that the brightness temperature varies ...

  10. Measuring protoplanetary disk gas surface density profiles with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    McPartland, Jonathan P Williams Conor

    2016-01-01

    The gas and dust are spatially segregated in protoplanetary disks due to the vertical settling and radial drift of large grains. A fuller accounting of the mass content and distribution in disks therefore requires spectral line observations. We extend the modeling approach presented in Williams & Best (2014) to show that gas surface density profiles can be measured from high fidelity 13CO integrated intensity images. We demonstrate the methodology by fitting ALMA observations of the HD 163296 disk to determine a gas mass, Mgas = 0.048 solar masse, and accretion disk characteristic size Rc = 213au and gradient gamma = 0.39. The same parameters match the C18O 2--1 image and indicates an abundance ratio [13CO]/[C18O] of 700 independent of radius. To test how well this methodology can be applied to future line surveys of smaller, lower mass T Tauri disks, we create a large 13CO 2--1 image library and fit simulated data. For disks with gas masses 3-10 Jupiter masses at 150pc, ALMA observations with a resolutio...

  11. ALMA band 8 continuum emission from Orion Source I

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Tomoya; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A; Honma, Mareki

    2016-01-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.1". The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au times 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelength. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick black-body spectral energy distribution (SED), and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright (2016), in which the continuum emission have been proposed to arise from the edge-on circum...

  12. Astronomers Break Ground on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) - World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Scientists and dignitaries from Europe, North America and Chile are breaking ground today (Thursday, November 6, 2003) on what will be the world's largest, most sensitive radio telescope operating at millimeter wavelengths . ALMA - the "Atacama Large Millimeter Array" - will be a single instrument composed of 64 high-precision antennas located in the II Region of Chile, in the District of San Pedro de Atacama, at the Chajnantor altiplano, 5,000 metres above sea level. ALMA 's primary function will be to observe and image with unprecedented clarity the enigmatic cold regions of the Universe, which are optically dark, yet shine brightly in the millimetre portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is an international astronomy facility. ALMA is an equal partnership between Europe and North America, in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, and is funded in North America by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC), and in Europe by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and Spain. ALMA construction and operations are led on behalf of North America by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), which is managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), and on behalf of Europe by ESO. " ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe" , said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA , also to young scientists and engineers" . " The U.S. National Science Foundation joins today with our North American partner, Canada, and with the European Southern Observatory, Spain, and Chile to prepare

  13. Catherine Pozzi y Marcelle Sauvageot: escribir la soledad del alma en un cuerpo de escritura

    OpenAIRE

    Peral-Crespo, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    La escritura de Catherine Pozzi y Marcelle Sauvageot está íntimamente ligada a la soledad que ha determinado sus vidas. La relación existente entre la soledad y la escritura como refugio del ser y a su vez como impulso escritural no se puede separar de los conceptos de alma y cuerpo presentes sobre todo en la obra de Catherine Pozzi. ¿Cómo separar el alma del cuerpo, y el cuerpo del alma? se preguntaba Pozzi en Peau d’Âme. ¿No sería acaso como separar la escritura de la soledad que la aliment...

  14. Os sete graus de atividade da alma humana no De quantitate animae de Santo Agostinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Ricardo Strefling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A alma é, sem dúvida, um dos problemas que mais interessou a Santo Agostinho; ele a define como uma substância partícipe da razão adequada ao governo de um corpo. A alma não tem quantidade corporal, contudo, é uma coisa grande. Este estudo pretende refletir sobre os sete graus de atividade da alma, os quais o autor apresenta na sua obra De quantitate animae. São eles: a animação, a sensação, a arte, a virtude, a tranquilidade, o ingresso e a contemplação.

  15. The Science Case for ALMA Band 2 and Band 2+3

    CERN Document Server

    Fuller, G A; Beltran, M; Casasola, V; Caselli, P; Cicone, C; Costagliola, F; De Breuck, C; Hunt, L; Jimenez-Serra, I; Laing, R; Longmore, S; Massardi, M; Paladino, R; Ramstedt, S; Richards, A; Testi, L; Vergani, D; Viti, S; Wagg, J

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the science drivers for ALMA Band 2 which spans the frequency range from 67 to 90 GHz. The key science in this frequency range are the study of the deuterated molecules in cold, dense, quiescent gas and the study of redshifted emission from galaxies in CO and other species. However, Band 2 has a range of other applications which are also presented. The science enabled by a single receiver system which would combine ALMA Bands 2 and 3 covering the frequency range 67 to 116 GHz, as well as the possible doubling of the IF bandwidth of ALMA to 16 GHz, are also considered.

  16. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R.; Longmore, Steven N.; Brinkerink, Christiaan D.; Falcke, Heino

    2016-09-01

    Aims: Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz. This frequency, well into the submillimeter bump where the emission is supposed to become optically thin, allows us to see down to the event horizon. Hence the reported observations contain potentially vital information on black hole properties. We have compared our measurements with previous, lower frequency observations, which provides information in the time domain. Methods: We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz, based on Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from the central fields of our ALMA mosaic observations. We used calibration observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan and the observations of Ci line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. Results: The flux density of 3.6 ± 0.72 Jy which we measured during our run is consistent with extrapolations from previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at ~492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle can be explained by a constant polarization position angle of ~158°± 3°. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14% ± 1.2%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed on the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9% ± 0.9% polarization at position angle PA = 14°± 4.2°. Conclusions: The observed polarization percentage and polarization position angle in the present work appear consistent with those expected from longer wavelength observations in the period of 1999-2005. In particular, the polarization position angle at 492 GHz expected from the previously fitted 167°± 7° intrinsic

  17. Oskar Kokoschka and Alma Mahler: art as diary and as therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Harold P

    2011-01-01

    The Austrian artist, Oskar Kokoschka, had an affair with Alma Mahler, widow of the composer Gustav Mahler, 1912-1914. This affair profoundly influenced his life and art. His palette at first brightened, with thick brush strokes and flashes of light and dark, indicating his psychological and emotional lability. Painting what he did not or could not express in words, his art of this period can be understood as an intimate visual diary of the vicissitudes of his relationship with Alma Mahler. For Kokoschka his work became a form of art therapy, following the crushing loss of Alma Mahler and near fatal physical injuries sustained in World War I. His gradual recovery was associated with his extraordinary attachment to and destruction of a lifelike effigy of Alma Mahler, thereby working through childhood trauma.

  18. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz Survey (MALT90) and ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Jonathan B; Jackson, James M; Longmore, Steve N; Whitaker, Scott; Hoq, Sadia

    2013-01-01

    ALMA will revolutionize our understanding of star formation within our galaxy, but before we can use ALMA we need to know where to look. The Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) Survey is a large international project to map the molecular line emission of over 2,000 dense clumps in the Galactic plane. MALT90 serves as a pathfinder for ALMA, providing a large public database of dense molecular clumps associated with high-mass star formation. In this proceedings, we describe the survey parameters and share early science highlights from the survey, including (1) a comparison between galactic and extragalactic star formation relations, (2) chemical trends in MALT90 clumps, (3) the distribution of high-mass star formation in the Milky Way, and (4) a discussion of the Brick, the target of successful ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 proposals.

  19. El alma colombiana. Idiosincrasia e identidades culturales en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pedro José Díaz Camacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene el propósito de averiguar sobre los rasgos anímicos y temperamentales que se expresan en el modo de ser y en la conducta de los colombianos, según las distintas regiones y grupos socioculturales; es decir, sobre cómo ha llegado a ser en el siglo XXI la índole y el alma del pueblo colombiano. Bajo este panorama, se indaga acerca de algunos factores que intervienen en la configuración y expresión del modo de ser, pensar, sentir, percibir y actuar de los colombianos, junto con la forma diversa como se manifiesta su idiosincrasia y la identidad cultural, según lo expuesto por algunos estudiosos de las cuestiones antropológicas, históricas y sociológicas del pueblo colombiano.

  20. ALMA Reveals the Molecular Medium Fueling the Nearest Nuclear Starburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Adam K.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Ostriker, Eve C.; Rosolowsky, Erik; Walter, Fabian; Warren, Steven R.; Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; Hodge, Jacqueline; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jürgen; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Veilleux, Sylvain; Zwaan, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We use ALMA observations to derive mass, length, and time scales associated with NGC 253's nuclear starburst. This region forms ~2 M ⊙ yr-1 of stars and resembles other starbursts in ratios of gas, dense gas, and star formation tracers, with star formation consuming the gas reservoir at a normalized rate 10 times higher than in normal galaxy disks. We present new ~35 pc resolution observations of bulk gas tracers (CO), high critical density transitions (HCN, HCO+, and CS), and their isotopologues. The starburst is fueled by a highly inclined distribution of dense gas with vertical extent factor implied by our cloud calculations is approximately Galactic, contrasting with results showing a low value for the whole starburst region. The contrast provides resolved support for the idea of mixed molecular ISM phases in starburst galaxies.

  1. ALMA Explores How Supermassive Black Holes Talk to Their Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-03-01

    We believe that supermassive black holes evolve in tandem with their host galaxies but how do the two communicate? Observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have revealed new clues about how a monster black hole talks to its galaxy.A Hubble image of the central galaxy in the Phoenix cluster. [Adapted from Russell et al. 2017]Observing FeedbackActive galactic nuclei (AGN), the highly luminous centers of some galaxies, are thought to radiate due to active accretion onto the supermassive black hole at their center.Its long been suspected that the radiation and outflowing material which often takes the form of enormous bipolar radio jets emitted into the surroundings influence the AGNs host galaxy, affecting star formation rates and the evolution of the galaxy. This AGN feedback has been alternately suggested to trigger star formation, quench it, and truncate the growth of massive galaxies.The details of this feedback process, however, have yet to be thoroughly understood in part because its difficult to obtain detailed observations of how AGN outflows interact with the galactic gas surrounding them. Now, a team of scientists led by Helen Russell (Institute of Astronomy in Cambridge, UK) has published the results of a new, high-resolution look at the gas in a massive galaxy in the center of the Phoenix cluster.Many Uses for FuelThe Phoenix cluster, a nearby (z = 0.596) group of star-forming galaxies, is the most luminous X-ray cluster known. The central galaxy in the cluster is especially active: it hosts a starburst of 500800 solar masses per year, the largest starburst found in any galaxy below a redshift of z= 1.The star formation in this galaxy is sustained by an enormous reservoir of cold molecular gas roughly 20 billion solar masses worth. This reservoir also powers the galaxys central black hole, fueling powerful radio jets that extend into the hot atmosphere of the galaxy and blow a giant bubble into the hot gas at each pole.ALMA

  2. The ALMA Front-end Archive Setup and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicenec, A.; Chen, A.; Checcucci, A.; Jeram, B.; Meuss, H.; Persson, A.; Burgos, P.; Cirami, R.

    2010-12-01

    The ALMA front-end archive system has to capture up to 64 MB/s for a period of several days plus the data of about 100,000 monitor points from all 66 antennas and the correlators. The main science data is delivered through corba based audio/video streams and finally stored on SATA disk arrays hosted on 6 computers and controlled by 12 daemons. All data is collected by software components running on computers in the antennas and then sent through dedicated fiber links to the Array Operations Site at 5000 m and from there to the Operations Support Facility (OSF) at 3000 m elevation. The various hardware and software components have been tuned and tested to be able to meet the performance requirements. This paper describes the setup and the various components in more detail and gives results of various test runs.

  3. 67-116 GHz optics development for ALMA band 2-3 receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoubov, Pavel; Gonzalez, A.; Tapia, V.; Reyes, N.; Mena, F. P.; Nesti, R.; Cuttaia, F.; Ricciardi, S.; Villa, F.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we report the first results of the optical components development and the overall optical design for a wideband receiver to simultaneously cover ALMA bands 2 and 3. Two types of feed horns and OMTs have been designed to couple to the ALMA telescope beam using a modified Fresnel lens. Both types of hardware have been manufactured and tested in a near field beam scanner. The measured beam patterns and optical efficiencies are in good agreement with simulations.

  4. ALMA / porten til det kolde, støvede og fjerne univers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linden-Vørnle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    I det nordlige Chile er det enorme ALMA-teleskop ved at tage form, men allerede nu giver det enestående astronomiske øje os et helt nyt syn på universet.......I det nordlige Chile er det enorme ALMA-teleskop ved at tage form, men allerede nu giver det enestående astronomiske øje os et helt nyt syn på universet....

  5. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira ($o$ Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, K T; Menten, K M; Wyrowski, F

    2016-01-01

    The prototypical Mira variable, $o$ Cet (Mira), has been observed as a Science Verification target in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign with a longest baseline of 15 km. ALMA clearly resolves the images of the continuum and molecular line emission/absorption at an angular resolution of ~30 mas at 220 GHz. We image the data of the $^{28}$SiO v=0, 2 $J$=5-4 and H$_2$O $\

  6. JCMT in the Post-Herschel ERA of Alma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Doug

    2013-07-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), with a 15m dish, is the largest single-dish astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the sub-mm wavelength regime. The JCMT is located close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. The most recent addition to the JCMT's suite of instruments is the 10,000 bolometer sub-mm continuum instrument: SCUBA-2. SCUBA-2 operates simultaneously with 7' x7' foot print sub-arrays at both 450 and 850-microns. SCUBA-2's wide field surveying potential, combined with a 65% shared view of the sky from both sites, makes it the ideal instrument to provide complementary data for the ALMA Project. Furthermore, the SCUBA-2 sub-millimetre wavelength coverage and angular resolution complement existing Herschel observations. A set of comprehensive surveys of the submillimetre sky is underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using SCUBA-2 and HARP, a heterodyne array receiver operating between 325 and 375 GHz. The JCMT Legacy Survey (JLS) is comprised of seven survey projects, and ranges in scope from the study of nearby debris disk systems, the study of star formation in nearby molecular cloud systems and more distant structures in our Galactic Plane, to the structure and composition of galaxies in our local neighbourhood and the number and evolution of submillimetre galaxies at high redshifts in the early Universe. In addition to the JLS, the COHR survey is imaging the Galactic plane in CO (3-2) and a JAC Staff-led project is using SCUBA-2 to survey the Galactic Centre. This poster highlights the significant survey capabilities of SCUBA-2 and HARP and reveals the continuing importance of the JCMT in a post-Herschel, ALMA world.

  7. ALMA 1.3 mm observations of the Fomalhaut System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew John; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.89 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  8. ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: Source Catalog and Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Umehata, Hideki; Kohno, Kotaro; Ivison, R J; Smail, Ian; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kato, Yuta; Ikarashi, Soh; Matsuda, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Seiji; Iono, Daisuke; Lee, Minju; Steidel, Charles C; Saito, Tomoki; Alexander, D M; Yun, Min S; Kubo, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a deep 2'x3' (comoving scale of 3.7 Mpc x 5.5 Mpc at z=3) survey at 1.1 mm taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the SSA22 field. We observe the core region of a z = 3.09 protocluster, achieving a typical rms sensitivity of 60 micro-Jy/beam at a spatial resolution of 0".7. We detect 18 robust ALMA sources at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) > 5. Comparison between the ALMA map and a 1.1 mm map taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) indicates that three submillimeter sources discovered by the AzTEC/ASTE survey are resolved into eight individual submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) by ALMA. At least ten of our 18 ALMA SMGs have spectroscopic redshifts of z = 3.09, placing them in the protocluster. This shows that a number of dusty starburst galaxies are forming simultaneously in the core of the protocluster. The nine brightest ALMA SMGs with SNR > 10 have a median intrinsic angular size of 0".32+0".13-0".06 (2.4+1.0-0.4 ...

  9. Software Development for ALMA in Chile: The ACS-UTFSM Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Brand, H. H.

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) provides a common software framework for ALMA, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array in Chile. ACS is a collection of well-documented patterns for controlling systems and a set of components written to those patterns. In its core, ACS is a distributed, object-oriented system, written on top of CORBA. The ACS-UTFSM Group started as some students of informatics did summer jobs at the La Silla Observatory of ESO, where they became acquainted with ACS. Their interest led them to continue working on ACS on their own, and they eventually became official developers of the package. Now the group is being funded by project ALMA-CONICYT 31060008 ``Software Development for ALMA: Building Up Expertise to Meet ALMA Software Requirements within a Chilean University''. Several members of the original group are now working for ALMA, which fullfills one of the goals of the project. Some parts of ACS developed by the ACS-UTFSM Group include H3E (Hardware End-to-End Example), a Lego model of a telescope and its controlling software for training and demonstration purposes; and CDBChecker, a tool to verify the consistency of the configuration database for a ACS deployment. Currently we are working towards a general framework for telescope control using ACS, in order to simplify the deployment of new instruments; and repackaging ACS so it is easier to install and use. A master's thesis is exploring the real-time requirements of ACS.

  10. Demonstrating A New Census of INfrared Galaxies with ALMA (DANCING-ALMA). I. FIR Size and Luminosity Relation at z = 0-6

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimoto, Seiji; Ouchi, Masami; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We present the large statistics of the galaxy effective radius in the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) wavelength Re(FIR) obtained from 1258 deep Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 1-mm band maps that are open for public by 2016 December. Our ALMA sample consists of 736 sources at z=0-6 that typically have the star-formation rate of ~50-1000 M$_{\\odot}$/yr and the stellar mass of ~10$^{10}$-10$^{11.5}$ M$_{\\odot}$. We homogeneously derive Re(FIR) and FIR luminosity L_FIR of our ...

  11. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Timothy S.

    2015-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian project that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high-resolution imaging in frequency bands currently ranging from 84 GHz to 950 GHz (300 microns to 3 mm). Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of matter and energy, and the in heating the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of research, the solar chromosphere remains a significant challenge: both to observe, owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics; and to understand, as a result of the complex nature of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere. ALMA has the potential to change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.In this paper we describe recent efforts to ensure that ALMA can be usefully exploited by the scientific community to address outstanding questions in solar physics. We summarize activities by the ALMA solar development team comprised of scientists from the East Asia, North America, and Europe. These activities include instrument testing, development of calibration and imaging strategies, software requirements development, and science simulations. Opportunities for the wider community to contribute to these efforts will be highlighted.

  12. El (reconocimiento de la madre en La mitad del alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J. Schumm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La mitad del alma de Carme Riera, en que C rememora a su madre, enfatiza la importancia del reconocimiento de las mujeres en la memoria histórica. Desde el mito griego de Atena, quien ignoraba a su madre Metis, la sociedad patriarcal ha excluido a la madre, lo cual promete que la hija conlleve negación también, según Amber Jacobs en On Matricide. Jacobs observa que en La Oresteia hay crímenes sancionados contra las mujeres, las hijas están deprimidas, existe incesto contra la hija, la reproducción familiar se paraliza, toda la sociedad sufre y la hija se desperdicia también cuando la madre es menospreciada. Jacobs afirma que este desprecio de la madre que transcurría en los mitos griegos continúa en la sociedad y la psicología hoy en día. En esta novela de Riera, la hija protagonista, quien desconoce a su madre, sufre de un estado depresivo, la falta de creatividad y una conexión demasiado fuerte con su padre, semejante a lo que Jacobs observa en los mitos, pero la escritura de C sobre su madre la integrará en la consciencia y mejorará la situación de la hija y, últimamente, la de toda la civilización.Summary: Carme Riera‟s La mitad del alma, in which C recollects her mother, emphasizes the importance of the recognition of women in historic memory. Ever since the Greek myth of Athena, who was ignorant of the existence of her mother, Metis, patriarchal society has excluded the mother, a fact which promises that the daughter will also experience negation, according to Amber Jacobs in On Matricide. Jacobs observes that in La Oresteia there are sanctioned crimes against women, the daughters are depressed, there is incest against the daughter, she is dishonored, family reproduction stops, and all of society suffers when the mother is not appreciated. Jacobs affirms that the distain of the mother that took place in Greek myths continues in society and psychology today. In this novel by Riera, the protagonist/daughter, who

  13. A code generation framework for the ALMA common software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troncoso, Nicolás; von Brand, Horst H.; Ibsen, Jorge; Mora, Matias; Gonzalez, Victor; Chiozzi, Gianluca; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Zamora, Gabriel; Tejeda, Alexis

    2010-07-01

    Code generation helps in smoothing the learning curve of a complex application framework and in reducing the number of Lines Of Code (LOC) that a developer needs to craft. The ALMA Common Software (ACS) has adopted code generation in specific areas, but we are now exploiting the more comprehensive approach of Model Driven code generation to transform directly an UML Model into a full implementation in the ACS framework. This approach makes it easier for newcomers to grasp the principles of the framework. Moreover, a lower handcrafted LOC reduces the error rate. Additional benefits achieved by model driven code generation are: software reuse, implicit application of design patterns and automatic tests generation. A model driven approach to design makes it also possible using the same model with different frameworks, by generating for different targets. The generation framework presented in this paper uses openArchitectureWare1 as the model to text translator. OpenArchitectureWare provides a powerful functional language that makes this easier to implement the correct mapping of data types, the main difficulty encountered in the translation process. The output is an ACS application readily usable by the developer, including the necessary deployment configuration, thus minimizing any configuration burden during testing. The specific application code is implemented by extending generated classes. Therefore, generated and manually crafted code are kept apart, simplifying the code generation process and aiding the developers by keeping a clean logical separation between the two. Our first results show that code generation improves dramatically the code productivity.

  14. ALMA observations of the kinematics and chemistry of disc formation

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg, Johan E; Brinch, Christian; Haugbølle, Troels; Bergin, Edwin A; Harsono, Daniel; Persson, Magnus V; Visser, Ruud; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Context: The R CrA cloud hosts a handful of Class 0/I low-mass young stellar objects. The chemistry and physics at scales $>500$ AU in this cloud are dominated by the irradiation from the nearby Herbig Be star R CrA. The luminous large-scale emission makes it necessary to use high-resolution spectral imaging to study the chemistry and dynamics of the inner envelopes and discs of the protostars. Aims: We aim to better understand the structure of the inner regions of these protostars and in particular the interplay between the chemistry and the presence of discs. Methods: Using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) high-resolution spectral imaging interferometry observations, we study the molecular line and dust continuum emission at submillimetre wavelengths. Results: We detect dust continuum emission from four circumstellar discs around Class 0/I objects within the R CrA cloud. Towards IRS7B we detect C$^{17}$O emission showing a rotation curve consistent with a Keplerian disc with a well-define...

  15. ALMA Finds Dew Drops in the Dusty Spider's Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gullberg, B; De Breuck, C; Branchu, S; Dannerbauer, H; Drouant, G; Emonts, B; Guillard, P; Hatch, N; Nesvadba, N P H; Omont, A; Seymour, N; Vernet, J

    2016-01-01

    We present 0."5 resolution ALMA detections of the observed 246GHz continuum, [CI]^3P_2-^3P_1 fine structure line ([CI]2-1), CO(7-6) and H2O lines in the z=2.161 radio galaxy MRC1138-262, the 'Spiderweb Galaxy'. We detect strong [CI]2-1 emission both at the position of the radio core, and in a second component ~4kpc away from it. The 1100km/s broad [CI]2-1 line in this latter component, combined with its H2 mass of 1.6x10^10Msun implies this emission must come from a compact region <60pc, possibly containing a second AGN. The combined H2 mass derived for both objects using the [CI]2-1 emission is 3.3x10^10Msun. The total CO(7-6)/[CI]2-1 line flux ratio of 0.2 suggests a low excitation molecular gas reservoir and/or enhanced atomic carbon in cosmic-ray dominated regions. We detect spatially-resolved H2O 2_{11}-2_{02} emission - for the first time in a high-z un-lensed galaxy - near the outer radio lobe to the east, and near the bend of the radio jet to the west of the radio galaxy. No underlying 246GHz conti...

  16. Overall performance of the ALMA antenna during solar observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatta, A.; Brunelli, A.; Rampini, F.; Marchiori, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) consists of a large number of 12m diameter antennas that will operate up to 950GHz. The antenna must meet all primary operational performances also during solar observation. When the antenna is pointing directly the sun or when the sun is close to the boresight axis, the solar power concentrated by the mirrors cannot damage any part of the antenna. When the antenna is pointing toward the sun, the power absorbed by a black body positioned in the secondary focal area shall not exceed 0.3 W/cm2. To achieve these requirements, the primary surface of the antenna has a suitable surface scattering treatment. The same thing was done for the surface of the subreflector. Specific tests were performed on the panels surface and secondary mirror during the prototype and production phase in order to optimize the best behaviour. A particular care must be applied in the control of the secondary area, where the entire solar power spectrum, from the UV to the infrared, reflected by the primary mirror, can contribute to overheat reflecting areas support structures. In this report we provide a series of analysis and results obtained during the solar observation.

  17. ALMA - The March to Early Science and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Alwyn

    2011-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is rapidly proceeding through its commissioning stages in Chile. Tests at the atmospherically superb 5050m Array Operations Site and readiness reviews held during the Fall of 2010 will result in a decision to issue a call for proposals to use the instrument during its 'Early Science' phase. At the beginning of Early Science, projected for later in 2011, 16 antennas of the final 66 will stand ready to produce the deepest integrations ever achieved in the cool thermal spectral region. The array will be equipped with at least three of its eventual complement of ten receivers operating over a decade of bandwidth from 3.6mm to 0.42mm. At this point, its sensitivity will be on the order of 0.5mJy in a minute's integration. Operating at this stage baselines of at least .25km, ALMA will provide a beam as small as 0".3 on the little-explored southern skies from its Chilean site near the Tropic of Capricorn. By one year later, the array will have grown to more than fifty antennas; at the second call for proposals the array will reach 0.2 mJy in a minute and baselines will extend to the full set of array configurations, effectively about 14 km. Observations which will be made possible by these transformative capabilities will be presented.

  18. ALMA: The March to Early Science and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootten, Al

    2010-05-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array is rapidly proceeding through its commissioning stages in Chile. Within a short time, equipment from all over the world will be installed at the 5050m altitude Array Operations Site and a call will go out for proposals to use the instrument during its 'Early Science' phase. At the beginning of Early Science, a little over a year from now, 16 antennas of the final 66 will stand ready to produce the deepest images ever achieved in the cool thermal spectral region. The array will be equipped with at least three of its eventual complement of ten receivers; even now operating over a decade of bandwidth from 3.6mm to 0.42mm. At this point, its sensitivity will be on the order of 0.5mJy in a minute's integration. Operating at this stage baselines of at least .25km, ALMA will provide a beam as small as 0".3 on the little-explored southern skies from its Chilean site near the Tropic of Capricorn. By one year later, the array will have grown to more than fifty antennas; at the second call for proposals the array will reach 0.2 mJy in a minute and baselines will extend to the full set of array configurations, effectively about 14 km. Illustrative examples of observations which will be made possible by these transformative capabilities will be presented.

  19. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Bout, Paul Vanden; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well-resolved for the first time.In the more luminous West nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends to 0.2\\arcsec radius (80 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ($\\tau_{\\rm 2.6mm} \\sim1$) at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm with a dust emission brightness temperature $\\sim120$ K. The column of ISM at this nucleus is $\\rm N_{H2} \\geq 2\\times10^{26}$ cm$^{-2}$, corresponding to A$_V = 10^6$ mag and 1000 gr cm$^{-2}$. The East nucleus is somewhat more elongated with radial extent 0.3\\arcsec or $\\sim120$ pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles sampled every 50 mas, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves and velocity dispersio...

  20. Exploring No-SQL alternatives for ALMA monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Merino, Patricio; Peña, Leonel; Bartsch, Marcelo; Aguirre, Alvaro; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter /submillimeter Array (ALMA) will be a unique research instrument composed of at least 66 reconfigurable high-precision antennas, located at the Chajnantor plain in the Chilean Andes at an elevation of 5000 m. This paper describes the experience gained after several years working with the monitoring system, which has a strong requirement of collecting and storing up to 150K variables with a highest sampling rate of 20.8 kHz. The original design was built on top of a cluster of relational database server and network attached storage with fiber channel interface. As the number of monitoring points increases with the number of antennas included in the array, the current monitoring system demonstrated to be able to handle the increased data rate in the collection and storage area (only one month of data), but the data query interface showed serious performance degradation. A solution based on no-SQL platform was explored as an alternative to the current long-term storage system. Among several alternatives, mongoDB has been selected. In the data flow, intermediate cache servers based on Redis were introduced to allow faster streaming of the most recently acquired data to web based charts and applications for online data analysis.

  1. Water around IRAS15398-3359 observed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Bjerkeli, P; Bergin, E A; Frimann, S; Harsono, D; Jacobsen, S K; Lindberg, J E; Persson, M; Sakai, N; van Dishoeck, E F; Visser, R; Yamamoto, S

    2016-01-01

    How protostars accrete mass is one of the fundamental problems of star formation. High column densities and complex kinematical structures make direct observations challenging and they only provide a snapshot. Chemical tracers provide an interesting alternative to characterise the infall histories of protostars. Previous observations of H13CO+ towards the low-mass protostar IRAS15398-3359 showed a depression in the abundance. This is a sign of destruction of HCO+ by an enhanced presence of gaseous water in an extended region, possibly related to a recent burst in the accretion. Direct observations of water vapour can determine the exact extent of the emission and confirm the hypothesis that HCO+ is indeed a good tracer of the water snow-line. IRAS15398 was observed using ALMA at 0.5" resolution. Maps of HDO(101-000) and H218O(414-321) were taken simultaneously with observations of the CS(8-7) and N2H+(5-4) lines and continuum at 0.65 and 0.75 mm. The maps were interpreted using dust radiative transfer calcula...

  2. Detection of Infall in the Protostar B335 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Neal J; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Jørgensen, Jes K; Choi, Minho; Myers, Philip C; Mardones, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the isolated globule B335 with ALMA have yielded absorption features against the continuum that are redshifted from the systemic velocity in both HCN and HCO$^+$ lines. These features provide unambiguous evidence for infall toward a central luminosity source. Previously developed models of inside-out collapse can match the observed line profiles of HCN and HCO$^+$ averaged over the central 50 AU. At the new distance of 100 pc, the inferred infall radius is 0.012 pc, the mass infall rate is $3 \\times 10^{-6}$ solar masses per year, the age is 50,000 years, and the accumulated mass in the central zone is 0.15 solar masses, most of which must be in the star or in parts of a disk that are opaque at 0.8 mm. The continuum detection indicates an optically thin mass (gas and dust) of only $7.5\\times 10^{-4}$ solar masses in the central region, consistent with only a very small disk mass.

  3. Detection of CO and HCN in Pluto's atmosphere with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Lellouch, E; Butler, B; Fouchet, T; Lavvas, P; Strobel, D F; Sicardy, B; Moullet, A; Moreno, R; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Young, L; Lis, D; Stansberry, J; Stern, A; Weaver, H; Young, E; Zhu, X; Boissier, J

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the Pluto-Charon system, acquired with the ALMA interferometer on June 12-13, 2015, have yielded a detection of the CO(3-2) and HCN(4-3) rotational transitions from Pluto, providing a strong confirmation of the presence of CO, and the first observation of HCN, in Pluto's atmosphere. The CO and HCN lines probe Pluto's atmosphere up to ~450 km and ~900 km altitude, respectively. The CO detection yields (i) a much improved determination of the CO mole fraction, as 515+/-40 ppm for a 12 ubar surface pressure (ii) clear evidence for a well-marked temperature decrease (i.e., mesosphere) above the 30-50 km stratopause and a best-determined temperature of 70+/-2 K at 300 km, in agreement with recent inferences from New Horizons / Alice solar occultation data. The HCN line shape implies a high abundance of this species in the upper atmosphere, with a mole fraction >1.5x10-5 above 450 km and a value of 4x10-5 near 800 km. The large HCN abundance and the cold upper atmosphere imply supersaturation of HCN...

  4. Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S; Dent, William R F; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orb...

  5. Fast single-dish scans of the Sun using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Neil; Bastian, Tim; Hudson, Hugh; Marson, Ralph; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2015-01-01

    We have implemented control and data-taking software that makes it possible to scan the beams of individual ALMA antennas to perform quite complex patterns while recording the signals at high rates. We conducted test observations of the Sun in September and December, 2014. The data returned have excellent quality; in particular they allow us to characterize the noise and signal fluctuations present in this kind of observation. The fast-scan experiments included both Lissajous patterns covering rectangular areas, and double-circle patterns of the whole disk of the Sun and smaller repeated maps of specific disk-shaped targets. With the latter we find that we can achieve roughly Nyquist sampling of the Band~6 (230~GHz) beam in 60~s over a region 300$"$ in diameter. These maps show a peak-to-peak brightness-temperature range of up to 1000~K, while the time-series variability at any given point appears to be of order 0.5 percent RMS over times of a few minutes. We thus expect to be able to separate the noise contr...

  6. Further ALMA observations and detailed modeling of the Red Rectangle

    CERN Document Server

    Bujarrabal, V; Alcolea, J; Santander-Garcia, M; Van Winckel, H; Contreras, C Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    We present new high-quality ALMA observations of the Red Rectangle (a well known post-AGB object) in C17O J=6-5 and H13CN J=4-3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published 13CO J=3-2 data. A detailed model fitting of all the molecular line data, including previous maps and single-dish spectra, was performed using a sophisticated code. These observations and the corresponding modeling allowed us to deepen the analysis of the nebular properties. We also stress the uncertainties in the model fitting. We confirm the presence of a rotating equatorial disk and an outflow, which is mainly formed of gas leaving the disk. The mass of the disk is ~ 0.01 Mo, and that of the CO-rich outflow is ~ 10 times smaller. High temperatures of ~ 100 K are derived for most components. From comparison of the mass values, we roughly estimate the lifetime of the rotating disk, which is found to be of about 10000 yr. Taking data of a few other post-AGB composite nebulae into account, we find that the lifetimes o...

  7. ALMA and VLA Observations of Proplyd Candidates near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Cotton, William D.; Royster, Marc; Kunneriath, Devaky; Wardle, M.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, Al; Schoedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows. To confirm this interpretation, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We determine the mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  8. ALMA Reveals the Molecular Medium Fueling the Nearest Nuclear Starburst

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Adam K; Ostriker, Eve C; Rosolowsky, Erik; Walter, Fabian; Warren, Steven R; Meyer, Jennifer Donovan; Hodge, Jacqueline; Meier, David S; Ott, Jürgen; Sandstrom, Karin; Schruba, Andreas; Veilleux, Sylvain; Zwaan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We use ALMA to derive the mass, length, and time scales associated with the nuclear starburst in NGC 253. This region forms ~2 M_sun/yr of stars and resembles other starbursts in scaling relations, with star formation consuming the gas reservoir 10 times faster than in galaxy disks. We present observations of CO, the high effective density transitions HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), and their isotopologues. We identify ten clouds that appear as peaks in line emission and enhancements in the HCN-to-CO ratio. These clouds are massive (~10^7 M_sun) structures with sizes (~30 pc) similar to GMCs in other systems. Compared to disk galaxy GMCs, they show high line widths (~20-40 km/s) given their size, with implied Mach numbers ~90. The clouds also show high surface (~6,000 M_sun/pc^2) and volume densities (n_H2~2,000 cm^-3). Given these, self-gravity can explain the line widths. This short free fall time (~0.7 Myr) helps explain the more efficient star formation in NGC 253. We also consider the starburst region as a...

  9. The 492 GHz emission of Sgr A* constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Requena-Torres, Miguel A; Matsushita, Satoki; Martín, Sergio; Ott, Jürgen; Morris, Mark R; Longmore, Steven N; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Falcke, Heino

    2016-01-01

    We report linearly polarized continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at $\\sim$492 GHz, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We used the observations of the likely unpolarized continuum emission of Titan, and the observations of C\\textsc{i} line emission, to gauge the degree of spurious polarization. The Stokes I flux of 3.6$\\pm$0.72 Jy during our run is consistent with extrapolations from the previous, lower frequency observations. We found that the continuum emission of Sgr A* at $\\sim$492 GHz shows large amplitude differences between the XX and the YY correlations. The observed intensity ratio between the XX and YY correlations as a function of parallactic angle may be explained by a constant polarization position angle of $\\sim$158$^{\\circ}$$\\pm$3$^{\\circ}$. The fitted polarization percentage of Sgr A* during our observational period is 14\\%$\\pm$1.2\\%. The calibrator quasar J1744-3116 we observed at the same night can be fitted to Stokes I = 252 mJy, with 7.9\\%$\\pm$0.9\\% polariz...

  10. ALMA Observations of HCN and its Isotopologues on Titan

    CERN Document Server

    Molter, Edward M; Cordiner, Martin A; Serigano, Joseph; Irwin, Patrick G J; Teanby, Nicholas A; Charnley, Steven B; Lindberg, Johan E

    2016-01-01

    We present sub-millimeter spectra of HCN isotopologues on Titan, derived from publicly available ALMA flux calibration observations of Titan taken in early 2014. We report the detection of a new HCN isotopologue on Titan, H$^{13}$C$^{15}$, and confirm an earlier report of detection of DCN. We model high signal-to-noise observations of HCN, H$^{13}$CN, HC$^{15}$N, DCN, and H$^{13}$C$^{15}$ to derive abundances and infer the following isotopic ratios: $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C = 89.8 $\\pm$ 2.8, $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N = 72.3 $\\pm$ 2.2, D/H = (2.5 $\\pm$ 0.2)$\\times$10$^{-4}$, and HCN/H$^{13}$C$^{15}$ = 5800 $\\pm$ 270 (1$\\sigma$ errors). The carbon and nitrogen ratios are consistent with and improve on the precision of previous results, confirming a factor of $\\sim$2.3 elevation in $^{14}$N/$^{15}$N in HCN compared to N$_2$ and a lack of fractionation in $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C from the protosolar value. This is the first published measurement of D/H in a nitrile species on Titan, and we find evidence for a factor of $\\sim$2 deuteri...

  11. ALMA Measurements of Circumstellar Material in the GQ Lup System

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Meredith A; Czekala, Ian; Andrews, Sean M; Dai, Y Sophia; Herczeg, Gregory J; Kratter, Kaitlin M; Kraus, Adam L; Ricci, Luca; Testi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the GQ Lup system, a young Sun-like star with a substellar mass companion in a wide-separation orbit. These observations of 870 $\\mu$m continuum and CO J=3-2 line emission with beam size $\\sim0.3''$ ($\\sim45$ AU) resolve the disk of dust and gas surrounding the primary star, GQ Lup A, and provide deep limits on any circumplanetary disk surrounding the companion, GQ Lup b. The circumprimary dust disk is compact with a FWHM of $59\\pm12$ AU, while the gas has a larger extent with a characteristic radius of $46.5\\pm1.8$ AU. By forward-modeling the velocity field of the circumprimary disk based on the CO emission, we constrain the mass of GQ Lup A to be $M_* = (1.03\\pm0.05)*(d/156\\text{ pc})$ $M_\\odot$, where $d$ is a known distance, and determine that we view the disk at an inclination angle of $60.5^\\circ\\pm0.5^\\circ$ and a position angle of $346^\\circ \\pm1^\\circ$. The $3\\sigma$ upper limit on the 870 $\\mu$m flux density of any circumplanetary disk associated with GQ Lup b of $<...

  12. Signs of Early-Stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars, Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398-3559, and IRAS 16253-2429 at resolutions of ~100 AU. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 AU Keplerian disk around a 0.3 Msun protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 AU Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398-3559 and IRAS 16253-2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 AU) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398-3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253-2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 Msun and 20 AU in IRAS 15398-3559, and 0.03 Msun and 6 AU in IRAS 16253-2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 to 100 AU in 8 Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventio...

  13. Measuring Turbulence in TW Hya with ALMA: Methods and Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Teague, Richard; Semenov, Dmitry; Henning, Thomas; Dutrey, Anne; Pietu, Vincent; Birnstiel, Tilman; Chapillon, Edwige; Hollenbach, David; Gorti, Uma

    2016-01-01

    We obtain high spatial and spectral resolution images of the CO J=2-1, CN N=2-1 and CS J=5-4 emission with ALMA in Cycle~2. The radial distribution of the turbulent broadening is derived with three approaches: two `direct' and one modelling. The first requires a single transition and derives \\Tex{} directly from the line profile, yielding a \\vturb{}. The second assumes two different molecules are co-spatial thus their relative linewidths allow for a calculation of \\Tkin{} and \\vturb{}. Finally we fit a parametric disk model where physical properties of the disk are described by power laws, to compare our `direct' methods with previous values. The two direct methods were limited to the outer $r > 40$~au disk due to beam smear. The direct method found \\vturb{} ranging from $\\approx$~\\vel{130} at 40~au, dropping to $\\approx$~\\vel{50} in the outer disk, qualitatively recovered with the parametric model fitting. This corresponds to roughly $0.2 - 0.4~c_s$. CN was found to exhibit strong non-LTE effects outside $r ...

  14. Primary health care: making Alma-Ata a reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, John; Lawn, Joy E; Tinker, Anne; de Francisco, Andres; Chopra, Mickey; Rudan, Igor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Black, Robert E

    2008-09-13

    The principles agreed at Alma-Ata 30 years ago apply just as much now as they did then. "Health for all" by the year 2000 was not achieved, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015 will not be met in most low-income countries without substantial acceleration of primary health care. Factors have included insufficient political prioritisation of health, structural adjustment policies, poor governance, population growth, inadequate health systems, and scarce research and assessment on primary health care. We propose the following priorities for revitalising primary health care. Health-service infrastructure, including human resources and essential drugs, needs strengthening, and user fees should be removed for primary health-care services to improve use. A continuum of care for maternal, newborn, and child health services, including family planning, is needed. Evidence-based, integrated packages of community and primary curative and preventive care should be adapted to country contexts, assessed, and scaled up. Community participation and community health workers linked to strengthened primary-care facilities and first-referral services are needed. Furthermore, intersectoral action linking health and development is necessary, including that for better water, sanitation, nutrition, food security, and HIV control. Chronic diseases, mental health, and child development should be addressed. Progress should be measured and accountability assured. We prioritise research questions and suggest actions and measures for stakeholders both locally and globally, which are required to revitalise primary health care.

  15. An ALMA Survey of Planet Forming Disks in Rho Ophiuchus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoil Cox, Erin; Looney, Leslie; Harris, Robert J.; Dong, Jiayin; Segura-Cox, Dominique; Tobin, John J.; Sadavoy, Sarah; Li, Zhi-Yun; Dunham, Michael; Perez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.; Melis, Carl; Chiang, Hsin-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Relatively evolved (~ 1 Myr old) protostars with little residual natal envelope, but massive disks, are commonly assumed to be the sites of ongoing planet formation. Critical to our study of these objects is information about the available mass reservior and dust structure, as they directly tie in to how much mass is available for planets as well as the modes of planet formation that occur (i.e., core-accretion vs. gravitational instability). Millimeter-wave observations provide this critical information as continuum emission is relatively optically thin, allowing for mass estimates, and the availability of high-resolution interferometry, allowing structure constraints. We present high-resolution observations of the population of Class II protostars in the Rho-Ophiuchus cloud (d ~ 130 pc). Our survey observed ~50 of these older protostars at 870µm, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Out of these sources, there are ~10 transition disks, where we see a ring of dust emission surrounding the central protostar -- indicative of ongoing planet formation -- as well as many binary systems. Both of these stages have implications for star and planet formation. We present results from both 1-D and 2-D disk modeling, where we try to understand disk substructure that might indicate on-going planet formation, in particular, transition disk cavities, disk gaps, and asymmetries in the dust emission.

  16. The ALMA View of Dense Molecular Gas in 30 Doradus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittle, Lauren E.; Indebetouw, Remy; Brogan, Crystal L.; Hunter, Todd R.; Leroy, Adam

    2017-01-01

    At a distance of 50 kpc, the 30 Doradus region within the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) hosts several sites of star formation including R136, a starburst region home to dozens of evolved O stars. The intense radiation from R136 creates an extreme environment for nearby star formation in such a low-metallicity, low mass galaxy. We have targeted a star-forming region ~15 pc away from R136 within 30 Doradus using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to map the molecular gas to study the sites of star formation. We are conducting a clump-by-clump analysis of the intensities and line ratios of dense gas (HCO+, HCN, CS, H13CO+, H13CN) and diffuse gas (CO, 13CO, C18O) tracers at sub-parsec resolution. We identify and characterize ~100 molecular clumps within the region. With the observed molecular species, we aim to determine the physical conditions of each clump (e.g. size, internal turbulence, molecular abundance). We compare the intensities and line ratios to non-LTE Radex model grids of the excitation temperature, molecular column density, and volume density of the H2 collider to determine the physical excitation conditions within the clumps. We compare these properties of each clump to both associated and embedded star formation properties to quantify the relative importance of internal feedback from the star formation itself versus external feedback processes from R136 and determine which process dominates in this region.

  17. New architectures support for ALMA common software: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menay, Camilo E.; Zamora, Gabriel A.; Tobar, Rodrigo J.; Avarias, Jorge A.; Dahl-skog, Kevin R.; von Brand, Horst H.; Chiozzi, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a distributed control framework based on CORBA that provides communication between distributed pieces of software. Because of its size and complexity it provides its own compilation system, a mix of several technologies. The current ACS compilation process depends on specific tools, compilers, code generation, and a strict dependency model induced by the large number of software components. This document presents a summary of several porting and compatibility attempts at using ACS on platforms other than the officially supported one. A porting of ACS to the Microsoft Windows Platform and to the ARM processor architecture were attempted, with different grades of success. Also, support for LINUX-PREEMPT (a set of real-time patches for the Linux kernel) using a new design for real-time services was implemented. These efforts were integrated with the ACS building and compilation system, while others were included in its design. Lessons learned in this process are presented, and a general approach is extracted from them.

  18. ALMA Observations of the HH 46/47 Molecular Outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Arce, Hector G; Corder, Stuartt; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29-point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3", detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model may describe the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the integrated intensity map. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence tha...

  19. ALMA reveals VYCMa's sub-mm maser and dust distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, A M S; Humphreys, E M; Vlahakis, C; Vlemmings, W; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L; Etoka, S; Gray, M D; Harper, G M; Hunter, T R; Kervella, P; Kerschbaum, F; McDonald, I; Melnick, G; Muller, S; Neufeld, D; O'Gorman, E; Parfenov, S Yu; Peck, A B; Shinnaga, H; Sobolev, A M; Testi, L; Uscanga, L; Wootten, A; Yates, J A; Zijlstra, A

    2014-01-01

    Cool, evolved stars have copious, enriched winds. The structure of these winds and the way they are accelerated is not well known. We need to improve our understanding by studying the dynamics from the pulsating stellar surface to about 10 stellar radii, where radiation pressure on dust is fully effective. Some red supergiants have highly asymmetric nebulae, implicating additional forces. We retrieved ALMA Science Verification data providing images of sub-mm line and continuum emission from VY CMa. This enables us to locate water masers with milli-arcsec precision and resolve the dusty continuum. The 658-, 321- and 325-GHz masers lie in irregular, thick shells at increasing distances from the centre of expansion. For the first time this is confirmed as the stellar position, coinciding with a compact peak offset to the NW of the brightest continuum emission. The maser shells (and dust formation zone) overlap but avoid each other on tens-au scales. Their distribution is broadly consistent with excitation models...

  20. The Database for Astronomical Spectroscopy - Updates, Additions and Plans for Splatalogue for Alma Full Science Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remijan, Anthony; Seifert, Nathan A.; McGuire, Brett A.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 10 years, Splatalogue has been constantly updated, modified and enhanced in order to make molecular spectroscopy data readily available to the astronomical community. Splatalogue is fully integrated into the ALMA Observing Tool, the ALMA data reduction and analysis package (CASA) and several enhanced tools being developed through the ALMA development program including the next generation CASA viewer (CARTA) and the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit (ADMIT). In anticipation for ALMA full science operations, a number of improvements have taken place over the past year to the Splatalogue database including, but not limited too, additions to Splatalogue from the JPL and CDMS line lists, improvements and reconciliation of the Lovas/NIST Catalog assigning NRAO recommended rest frequencies to every astronomically detected transition, including recent astronomical surveys to the list of transitions detected in space and finally, improved search and display features as requested by the astronomical community. Splatalogue is planning for the next 10 years of development and welcomes any and all contributions to improving the data integrity and availability to the scientific community.

  1. Supporting Student Learning in Computer Science Education via the Adaptive Learning Environment ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Gasparinatou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the ALMA environment (Adaptive Learning Models from texts and Activities. ALMA supports the processes of learning and assessment via: (1 texts differing in local and global cohesion for students with low, medium, and high background knowledge; (2 activities corresponding to different levels of comprehension which prompt the student to practically implement different text-reading strategies, with the recommended activity sequence adapted to the student’s learning style; (3 an overall framework for informing, guiding, and supporting students in performing the activities; and; (4 individualized support and guidance according to student specific characteristics. ALMA also, supports students in distance learning or in blended learning in which students are submitted to face-to-face learning supported by computer technology. The adaptive techniques provided via ALMA are: (a adaptive presentation and (b adaptive navigation. Digital learning material, in accordance with the text comprehension model described by Kintsch, was introduced into the ALMA environment. This material can be exploited in either distance or blended learning.

  2. The Science Cases for Building a Band 1 Receiver Suite for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Di Francesco, J; Matthews, B C; Bartel, N; Bronfman, L; Casassus, S; Chitsazzadeh, S; Cunningham, M; Duchene, G; Geisbuesch, J; Hales, A; Ho, P T P; Houde, M; Iono, D; Kemper, F; Kepley, A; Koch, P M; Kohno, K; Kothes, R; Lai, S -P; Lin, K Y; Liu, S -Y; Mason, B; Maccarone, T J; Mizuno, N; Morata, O; Schieven, G; Scaife, A M M; Scott, D; Shang, H; Shimojo, M; Takakuwa, S; Wagg, J; Wootten, A; Yusef-Zadeh, F

    2013-01-01

    We present the various science cases for building Band 1 receivers as part of ALMA's ongoing Development Program. We describe the new frequency range for Band 1 of 35-52 GHz, a range chosen to maximize the receiver suite's scientific impact. We first describe two key science drivers: 1) the evolution of grains in protoplanetary disks and debris disks, and 2) molecular gas in galaxies during the era of re-ionization. Studies of these topics with Band 1 receivers will significantly expand ALMA's Level 1 Science Goals. In addition, we describe a host of other exciting continuum and line science cases that require ALMA's high sensitivity and angular resolution. For example, ALMA Band 1 continuum data will probe the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in galactic clusters, Very Small Grains and spinning dust, ionized jets from young stars, spatial and flaring studies of Sgr A*, the acceleration sites of solar flares, pulsar wind nebulae, radio supernovae, and X-ray binaries. Furthermore, ALMA Band 1 line data will probe che...

  3. The Cultural Implications of Primary Health Care and the Declaration of Alma-Ata: The Health District of Kedougou, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanas, Demetri A.

    2008-01-01

    In 1978, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the international health community convoked a conference in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, to address global inequalities in health. The conference resulted in the publication of the "Declaration of Alma-Ata," which made the ambitious call "for urgent action by all governments, all health and…

  4. High-Angular-Resolution and High-Sensitivity Science Enabled by Beamformed ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Fish, Vincent; Anderson, James; Asada, Keiichi; Baudry, Alain; Broderick, Avery; Carilli, Chris; Colomer, Francisco; Conway, John; Dexter, Jason; Doeleman, Sheperd; Eatough, Ralph; Falcke, Heino; Frey, Sándor; Gabányi, Krisztina; Gálvan-Madrid, Roberto; Gammie, Charles; Giroletti, Marcello; Goddi, Ciriaco; Gómez, Jose L; Hada, Kazuhiro; Hecht, Michael; Honma, Mareki; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Impellizzeri, Violette; Johannsen, Tim; Jorstad, Svetlana; Kino, Motoki; Körding, Elmar; Kramer, Michael; Krichbaum, Thomas; Kudryavtseva, Nadia; Laing, Robert; Lazio, Joseph; Loeb, Abraham; Lu, Ru-Sen; Maccarone, Thomas; Marscher, Alan; Mart'ı-Vidal, Iván; Martins, Carlos; Matthews, Lynn; Menten, Karl; Miller, Jon; Miller-Jones, James; Mirabel, Félix; Muller, Sebastien; Nagai, Hiroshi; Nagar, Neil; Nakamura, Masanori; Paragi, Zsolt; Pradel, Nicolas; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Ransom, Scott; Rodr'\\iguez, Luis; Rottmann, Helge; Rushton, Anthony; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Smith, David; Stappers, Benjamin; Takahashi, Rohta; Tarchi, Andrea; Tilanus, Remo; Verbiest, Joris; Vlemmings, Wouter; Walker, R Craig; Wardle, John; Wiik, Kaj; Zackrisson, Erik; Zensus, J Anton

    2013-01-01

    An international consortium is presently constructing a beamformer for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile that will be available as a facility instrument. The beamformer will aggregate the entire collecting area of the array into a single, very large aperture. The extraordinary sensitivity of phased ALMA, combined with the extremely fine angular resolution available on baselines to the Northern Hemisphere, will enable transformational new very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations in Bands 6 and 7 (1.3 and 0.8 mm) and provide substantial improvements to existing VLBI arrays in Bands 1 and 3 (7 and 3 mm). The ALMA beamformer will have impact on a variety of scientific topics, including accretion and outflow processes around black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN), tests of general relativity near black holes, jet launch and collimation from AGN and microquasars, pulsar and magnetar emission processes, the chemical history of the universe and the evolution of fundame...

  5. The European ALMA Regional Centre Network: A Geographically Distributed User Support Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Andreani, Paola; Barta, Miroslav; Bertoldi, Frank; Brand, Jan; Gueth, Frederique; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Maercker, Matthias; Massardi, Marcella; Muehle, Stefanie; Muxlow, Thomas; Richards, Anita; Schilke, Peter; Tilanus, Remo; Vlemmings, Wouter; Afonso, Jose; Messias, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been a paradigm shift from centralised to geographically distributed resources. Individual entities are no longer able to host or afford the necessary expertise in-house, and, as a consequence, society increasingly relies on widespread collaborations. Although such collaborations are now the norm for scientific projects, more technical structures providing support to a distributed scientific community without direct financial or other material benefits are scarce. The network of European ALMA Regional Centre (ARC) nodes is an example of such an internationally distributed user support network. It is an organised effort to provide the European ALMA user community with uniform expert support to enable optimal usage and scientific output of the ALMA facility. The network model for the European ARC nodes is described in terms of its organisation, communication strategies and user support.

  6. ALMA service data analysis and level 2 quality assurance with CASA

    CERN Document Server

    Petry, Dirk; Villard, Eric; Komugi, Shinya; Schnee, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The Atacama Large mm and sub-mm Array (ALMA) radio observatory is one of the world's largest astronomical projects. After the very successful conclusion of the first observation cycles Early Science Cycles 0 and 1, the ALMA project can report many successes and lessons learned. The science data taken interleaved with commissioning tests for the still continuing addition of new capabilities has already resulted in numerous publications in high-profile journals. The increasing data volume and complexity are challenging but under control. The radio-astronomical data analysis package "Common Astronomy Software Applications" (CASA) has played a crucial role in this effort. This article describes the implementation of the ALMA data quality assurance system, in particular the level 2 which is based on CASA, and the lessons learned.

  7. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary disks: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Bertrang, Gesa H -M; Wolf, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary disks and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary disks, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to ALMA observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disk regions.

  8. Magnetic fields in protoplanetary discs: from MHD simulations to ALMA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrang, G. H.-M.; Flock, M.; Wolf, S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields significantly influence the evolution of protoplanetary discs and the formation of planets, following the predictions of numerous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. However, these predictions are yet observationally unconstrained. To validate the predictions on the influence of magnetic fields on protoplanetary discs, we apply 3D radiative transfer simulations of the polarized emission of aligned aspherical dust grains that directly link 3D global non-ideal MHD simulations to Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations. Our simulations show that it is feasible to observe the predicted toroidal large-scale magnetic field structures, not only in the ideal observations but also with high-angular resolution ALMA observations. Our results show further that high-angular resolution observations by ALMA are able to identify vortices embedded in outer magnetized disc regions.

  9. Observing Turbulent Fragmentation In Simulations: Through the Looking Glass of CARMA and ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Stella; Capodilupo, J.; Schnee, S.; Goodman, A.

    2012-01-01

    We use the CASA software package to synthetically observe binaries forming as a result of turbulent fragmentation in a radiation-hydrodynamic simulation of a collapsing molecular cloud. By following the evolution of such pairs beginning in the prestellar core stage, we are able to make predictions about the feasibility of observing such fragmentation using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We find that while intermediate ALMA configurations may potentially resolve structure with one fourth the integration time of CARMA, both instruments only marginally resolve sub-structure within 25 kyr of the onset of gravitational collapse. In addition, interferometric spatial filtering significantly reduces traces of filamentary gas morphology on < 0.1 pc scales. Thus, even with the improved sub-arcsecond resolution of ALMA, constraining stellar multiplicity at the earliest stages of star formation will be challenging.

  10. Protoplanetary disks in Taurus: Probing the role of multiplicity with ALMA observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laos, Stefan; Akeson, Rachel L.; Jensen, Eric L. N.

    2017-01-01

    We present results from an ALMA survey of single and multiple young systems in Taurus designed to probe how protoplanetary disk mass depends on both stellar mass and multiplicity. In observations taken in Cycles 0 and 2, we detect over 25 new disks. These detections include disks around stars in both single and multiple systems and are predominantly around lower mass stars with spectral types from M0 to M6. Combined with previous detections, these observations reveal a wide range of disk mass around both primary and companion stars, and allow us to test if the relation previously seen between disk and stellar mass continues at lower stellar masses. We find that within multiple systems the ratio of primary to secondary stellar mass is not correlated with the ratio of primary to secondary disk mass. In some cases, the secondary star hosts the more massive disk, contrary to theoretical predictions. We will discuss the implications of these results for the process of planet formation in multiple systems.This work makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00150.S. and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00105.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA (Taiwan), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO and NAOJ. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  11. ALMA Deep Field in SSA22: Source Catalog and Number Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehata, Hideki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Ivison, R. J.; Smail, Ian; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kato, Yuta; Ikarashi, Soh; Matsuda, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Seiji; Iono, Daisuke; Lee, Minju; Steidel, Charles C.; Saito, Tomoki; Alexander, D. M.; Yun, Min S.; Kubo, Mariko

    2017-01-01

    We present results from a deep 2‧ × 3‧ (comoving scale of 3.7 Mpc × 5.5 Mpc at z = 3) survey at 1.1 mm, taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the SSA22 field. We observe the core region of a z = 3.09 protocluster, achieving a typical rms sensitivity of 60 μJy beam‑1 at a spatial resolution of 0.″7. We detect 18 robust ALMA sources at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 5. Comparison between the ALMA map and a 1.1 mm map, taken with the AzTEC camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), indicates that three submillimeter sources discovered by the AzTEC/ASTE survey are resolved into eight individual submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) by ALMA. At least 10 of our 18 ALMA SMGs have spectroscopic redshifts of z ≃ 3.09, placing them in the protocluster. This shows that a number of dusty starburst galaxies are forming simultaneously in the core of the protocluster. The nine brightest ALMA SMGs with S/N > 10 have a median intrinsic angular size of 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} {32}-0.06+0.13 ({2.4}-0.4+1.0 physical kpc at z = 3.09), which is consistent with previous size measurements of SMGs in other fields. As expected, the source counts show a possible excess compared to the counts in the general fields at S1.1mm ≥ 1.0 mJy, due to the protocluster. Our contiguous mm mapping highlights the importance of large-scale structures on the formation of dusty starburst galaxies.

  12. H-alpha features with hot onsets III. Fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by a dense canopy of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the large opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe the H-alpha fibril canopy, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if this canopy were transparent.

  13. Primary health care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: from Alma-Ata to Doha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawky, S

    2012-12-04

    The celebration in Doha of the 30th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration at the International Conference on Primary Health Care renewed the commitment of the Eastern Mediterranean Region to primary health care as the tool for better health. The principles agreed at Alma-Ata in 1978 apply as much now as they did before. The event provided an opportunity for the Eastern Mediterranean countries to define future directions to steer the health systems to integrate primary health care and harness the intersectoral approach.

  14. O impossível regime das paixões da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende analisar o lugar das paixões da alma no ideal de saúde conforme a obra Âncora medicinal para conservar a vida em saúde (1721 do português Francisco da Fonseca Henriques, médico do rei D. João V. As paixões da alma eram consideradas um dos aspectos determinantes do regime de saúde. Elas eram relacionadas ao excesso, aos limites extremos do corpo e à morte.

  15. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Nick; Murchikova, Lena; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Vanden Bout, Paul; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C.; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at λ =2.6 {mm}. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well resolved for the first time. In the west nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends out to 0.″2 radius (74 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor of 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ({τ }2.6{mm}∼ 1) at λ =2.6 {mm} with a dust brightness temperature of ∼147 K. The column of interstellar matter at this nucleus is {N}{{H}2}≥slant 2× {10}26 cm‑2, corresponding to ∼900 gr cm‑2. The east nucleus is more elongated with radial extent 0.″3 or ∼111 pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves, and velocity dispersions. In the west nucleus, there is evidence of a central Keplerian component requiring a central mass of 8 × 108 {M}ȯ . The intrinsic widths of the emission lines are {{Δ }}v({FWHM})=250 (west) and 120 (east) km s‑1. Given the very short dissipation timescales for turbulence (≲105 years), we suggest that the line widths may be due to semicoherent motions within the nuclear disks. The symmetry of the nuclear disk structures is impressive, implying the merger timescale is significantly longer than the rotation period of the disks.

  16. Signs of Early-stage Disk Growth Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsi-Wei; Koch, Patrick M.; Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Aso, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA 1.3 mm continuum, 12CO, C18O, and SO data for the Class 0 protostars Lupus 3 MMS, IRAS 15398‑3559, and IRAS 16253‑2429 at resolutions of ∼100 au. By measuring a rotational profile in C18O, a 100 au Keplerian disk around a 0.3 M⊙ protostar is observed in Lupus 3 MMS. No 100 au Keplerian disks are observed in IRAS 15398‑3559 and IRAS 16253‑2429. Nevertheless, embedded compact (<30 au) continuum components are detected. The C18O emission in IRAS 15398‑3559 shows signatures of infall with a constant angular momentum. IRAS 16253‑2429 exhibits signatures of infall and rotation, but its rotational profile is unresolved. By fitting the C18O data with our kinematic models, the protostellar masses and the disk radii are inferred to be 0.01 M⊙ and 20 au in IRAS 15398‑3559, and 0.03 M⊙ and 6 au in IRAS 16253‑2429. By comparing the specific angular momentum profiles from 10,000 au to 100 au in eight Class 0 and I protostars, we find that the evolution of envelope rotation can be described with conventional inside-out collapse models. In comparison with a sample of 18 protostars with known disk radii, our results reveal signs of disk growth, with the disk radius increasing as {{M}* }0.8+/- 0.14 or {t}1.09+/- 0.37 in the Class 0 stage, where M* is the protostellar mass and t is the age. The disk growth rate slows down in the Class I stage. In addition, we find a hint that the mass accretion rate declines as {t}-0.26+/- 0.04 from the Class 0 to the Class I stages.

  17. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce, Hector G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Corder, Stuartt A. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Noriega-Crespo, Alberto [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Raga, Alejandro C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-09-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion.

  18. The ALMA View of the OMC1 Explosion in Orion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Arce, Hector; Eisner, Josh; Youngblood, Allison; Zapata, Luis; Zinnecker, Hans

    2017-03-01

    Most massive stars form in dense clusters where gravitational interactions with other stars may be common. The two nearest forming massive stars, the BN object and Source I, located behind the Orion Nebula, were ejected with velocities of ∼29 and ∼13 km s‑1 about 500 years ago by such interactions. This event generated an explosion in the gas. New ALMA observations show in unprecedented detail, a roughly spherically symmetric distribution of over a hundred 12CO J = 2‑1 streamers with velocities extending from V LSR = ‑150 to +145 km s‑1. The streamer radial velocities increase (or decrease) linearly with projected distance from the explosion center, forming a “Hubble Flow” confined to within 50″ of the explosion center. They point toward the high proper-motion, shock-excited H2 and [Fe ii] “fingertips” and lower-velocity CO in the H2 wakes comprising Orion's “fingers.” In some directions, the H2 “fingers” extend more than a factor of two farther from the ejection center than the CO streamers. Such deviations from spherical symmetry may be caused by ejecta running into dense gas or the dynamics of the N-body interaction that ejected the stars and produced the explosion. This ∼1048 erg event may have been powered by the release of gravitational potential energy associated with the formation of a compact binary or a protostellar merger. Orion may be the prototype for a new class of stellar explosiozn responsible for luminous infrared transients in nearby galaxies.

  19. Gender-Related Systematics in the NRAO and ALMA Proposal Review Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, Carol J; Hunt, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    A study has been made of the evidence for gender-related systematics in the proposal review processes for the four facilities operated by NRAO: the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA; hereafter VLA), the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile which is operated by NRAO/AUI in partnership with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Astronomical Observatories of Japan (NAOJ), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. A significant gender-related effect is found in the proposal rankings in favor of men over women in the ALMA Proposal Review Processes (PRP) for ALMA Cycles 2-4, with reliability of 99.998% that the underlying rank distributions for male and female PIs are not the same. The effect is largest and most significant for ALMA Cycle 3. A similar overall result is found for the other three NRAO telescopes over proposal Semesters 2012A-2017A, but with lower reliability level overall (98.3%), and with ...

  20. SÓCRATES E O CUIDADO DE SI OU A TERAPÊUTICA DA ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Araújo dos Santos

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo pretende ser uma abordagem simples, na verdade, um resumo, recolhido dostextos de Platão sobre o auto-conhecimento e o cuidado de si. Esses são os elementos queconstituem a base do saber ético iniciado por Sócrates e o ponto de partida do que chamamosterapêutica da alma.

  1. Equilibrium chemical reaction of supersonic hydrogen-air jets (the ALMA computer program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghobashi, S.

    1977-01-01

    The ALMA (axi-symmetrical lateral momentum analyzer) program is concerned with the computation of two dimensional coaxial jets with large lateral pressure gradients. The jets may be free or confined, laminar or turbulent, reacting or non-reacting. Reaction chemistry is equilibrium.

  2. ALMA imaging of the CO snowline of the HD 163296 disk with DCO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathews, G. S.; Klaassen, P. D.; Juhasz, A.; Harsono, D.; Chapillon, E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Espada, D.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Hales, A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Mottram, J. C.; Rawlings, M. G.; Takahashi, S.; Testi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The high spatial resolution and line sensitivity of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) opens the possibility of resolving emission from molecules in large samples of circumstellar disks. With an understanding of the conditions under which these molecules can have high a

  3. Constraint on dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at $z>6$ detected by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, W -C; Hou, K -C

    2016-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at $z>6$. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals, and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at $z>6$ by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta ($f_{\\mathrm{in}} \\ga 0.5$), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby g...

  4. ESO Signs Largest-Ever European Industrial Contract For Ground-Based Astronomy Project ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    ESO, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, announced today that it has signed a contract with the consortium led by Alcatel Alenia Space and composed also of European Industrial Engineering (Italy) and MT Aerospace (Germany), to supply 25 antennas for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) project, along with an option for another seven antennas. The contract, worth 147 million euros, covers the design, manufacture, transport and on-site integration of the antennas. It is the largest contract ever signed in ground-based astronomy in Europe. The ALMA antennas present difficult technical challenges, since the antenna surface accuracy must be within 25 microns, the pointing accuracy within 0.6 arc seconds, and the antennas must be able to be moved between various stations on the ALMA site. This is especially remarkable since the antennas will be located outdoor in all weather conditions, without any protection. Moreover, the ALMA antennas can be pointed directly at the Sun. ALMA will have a collecting area of more than 5,600 square meters, allowing for unprecedented measurements of extremely faint objects. The signing ceremony took place on December 6, 2005 at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany. "This contract represents a major milestone. It allows us to move forward, together with our American and Japanese colleagues, in this very ambitious and unique project," said ESO's Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "By building ALMA, we are giving European astronomers access to the world's leading submillimetre facility at the beginning of the next decade, thereby fulfilling Europe's desire to play a major role in this field of fundamental research." Pascale Sourisse, Chairman and CEO of Alcatel Alenia Space, said: "We would like to thank ESO for trusting us to take on this new challenge. We are bringing to the table not only our recognized expertise in antenna development, but also our long-standing experience in

  5. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Fialkov, A; Scudder, J; Hayward, C C; Cowley, W I; Bock, J; Calanog, J; Chapman, S C; Cooray, A; De Bernardis, F; Farrah, D; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R; Hopwood, R; Ivison, R J; Jarvis, M; Lacey, C; Loeb, A; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A J; Vieira, J D; Wang, L; Wardlow, J

    2015-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the poor spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870um 0.45" imaging obtained in Cycle 0 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5-sigma limit in our ALMA sample; sigma~0.2 mJy). Optical imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (mu>1.1), but only 6 are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for...

  6. Generic Abstraction of Hardware Control Based on the ALMA Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeram, B.; Chiozzi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Cirami, R.; Pokorny, M.; Muders, D.; Wischolek, D.

    2004-07-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a CORBA-based framework that provides a common and homogeneous infrastructure for the whole ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control (Schwarz et al., 2004). This paper focuses on ACS support for the development of Control System applications. In this domain, ACS provides a generic abstraction of hardware control and monitor points that is independent of the software underneath. This abstraction layer is coupled to the hardware using the DevIO (Device Input/Output) interface, based on the Bridge design pattern. Application developers have to implement DevIO classes that handle the details of the communication with the hardware. ACS itself provides a default DevIO implementation which simply writes and reads into/from a memory location. Currently there are two other major DevIO implementations available: a CAN bus communication, used by ALMA, and a socket based implementation used by the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) project. In spite of using different hardware and control electronics, the DevIO abstraction allows the ALMA and APEX projects to have the same device architecture down to the level of the DevIO implementation.

  7. Kan strategien for primaer sundhedstjeneste genoplives 30 år efter Alma-Ata?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Probst, Helene Bilsted; Bygbjerg, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years ago the Alma-Ata declaration on primary health care was developed. Implementation has been compounded by inadequate financing, changing disease patterns and immature health systems, and there is an ongoing discussion between selective and comprehensive primary health care supporters...

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA Frontier Fields Survey. I. (Gonzalez-Lopez+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, J.; Bauer, F. E.; Romero-Canizales, C.; Kneissl, R.; Villard, E.; Carvajal, R.; Kim, S.; Laporte, N.; Anguita, T.; Aravena, M.; Bouwens, R. J.; Bradley, L.; Carrasco, M.; Demarco, R.; Ford, H.; Ibar, E.; Infante, L.; Messias, H.; Munoz Arancibia, A. M.; Nagar, N.; Padilla, N.; Treister, E.; Troncoso, P.; Zitrin, A.

    2016-10-01

    Tables presenting detection properties of mm sources behind the 3 Frontier Fields Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403 and MACSJ1149.5+2223. We present the properties of the detected sources in the ALMA observations. We also present the intrinsic properties of the sources in the image plane as well as the separations to the optical counterpart. (6 data files).

  9. MILLIMETER EMISSION STRUCTURE IN THE FIRST ALMA IMAGE OF THE AU Mic DEBRIS DISK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Rosenfeld, Katherine A.; Andrews, Sean M.; Matthews, Brenda; Hughes, A. Meredith; Booth, Mark; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R.; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    We present 1.3 mm ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, similar to 10 Myr old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0 ''.6 (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU an

  10. Planet gaps in the dust layer of 3D protoplanetary disks. II. Observability with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, J -F; Maddison, S T; Ménard, F; Fouchet, L

    2012-01-01

    [Abridged] Aims: We provide predictions for ALMA observations of planet gaps that account for the specific spatial distribution of dust that results from consistent gas+dust dynamics. Methods: In a previous work, we ran full 3D, two-fluid Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of a planet embedded in a gas+dust T Tauri disk for different planet masses and grain sizes. In this work, the resulting dust distributions are passed to the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MCFOST to construct synthetic images in the ALMA wavebands. We then use the ALMA simulator to produce images that include thermal and phase noise for a range of angular resolutions, wavelengths, and integration times, as well as for different inclinations, declinations and distances. We also produce images which assume that gas and dust are well mixed with a gas-to-dust ratio of 100 to compare with previous ALMA predictions, all made under this hypothesis. Results: Our findings clearly demonstrate the importance of correctly incorporat...

  11. What's New in CASA: 'tclean' and the Cycle 4 ALMA Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan Meyer, Jennifer; CASA Development Team; ALMA Pipeline Working Group; NAASC Software Support Team

    2017-01-01

    CASA, the Common Astronomy Software Applications package, undergoes continuous development to support calibration and imaging of astronomical data at radio wavelengths for both single dish and interferometric telescopes. It is largely focused on supporting the post-processing needs of the next generation of radio telescopes such as ALMA and the JVLA. The most recent release of CASA, version 4.7, includes major upgrades in its imaging capabilities via the implementation of a task called 'tclean', which will eventually replace the current imaging task 'clean'. It has a new, more straightforward interface, allows more combinations of imaging algorithms, has a more flexible outlier approach, and includes algorithms for autoboxing. Further, the new 'tclean' task has been implemented in the Cycle 4 ALMA Interferometric Pipeline with great success; this pipeline software can be obtained bundled with CASA 4.7 at https://casa.nrao.edu/. A major goal of the ALMA project [and the National Radio Astronomical Observatory (NRAO)] is to provide Science-Ready Data Products to our user community, and the ALMA Cycle 4 Pipeline is a major step forward in that direction.

  12. Improved design for low noise Nb SIS devices for Band 9 of ALMA (600 - 720 GHz)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Kroug, M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Mena, F. P.; Baryshev, A. M.; Wild, W.

    2005-01-01

    Superconducting-insulating-superconducting mixers incorporating a novel design were fabricated and evaluated for heterodyne detection in the frequency range of 600 to 720 GHz (ALMA Band 9). The improved design consists in tapering the corners of the RF transformer and a careful optimization of the d

  13. ALMA finds dew drops in the dusty spider's web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Bitten; Lehnert, Matthew D.; De Breuck, Carlos; Branchu, Steve; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Guillard, Pierre; Hatch, Nina; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.; Omont, Alain; Seymour, Nick; Vernet, Joël

    2016-06-01

    We present 0.̋5 resolution ALMA detections of the observed 246 GHz continuum, [CI] 3P2→3P1 fine structure line ([CI]2-1), CO(7-6), and H2O lines in the z = 2.161 radio galaxy MRC1138-262, the so-called Spiderweb galaxy. We detect strong [CI]2-1 emission both at the position of the radio core, and in a second component ~4 kpc away from it. The 1100 km s-1 broad [CI]2-1 line in this latter component, combined with its H2 mass of 1.6 × 1010 M⊙, implies that this emission must come from a compact region <60 pc, possibly containing a second active galactic nucleus (AGN). The combined H2 mass derived for both objects, using the [CI]2-1 emission, is 3.3 × 1010 M⊙. The total CO(7-6)/[CI]2-1 line flux ratio of 0.2 suggests a low excitation molecular gas reservoir and/or enhanced atomic carbon in cosmic ray dominated regions. We detect spatially-resolved H2O 211-202 emission - for the first time in a high-z unlensed galaxy - near the outer radio lobe to the east, and near the bend of the radio jet to the west of the radio galaxy. No underlying 246 GHz continuum emission is seen at either position. We suggest that the H2O emission is excited in the cooling region behind slow (10-40 km s-1) shocks in dense molecular gas (103-5 cm-3). The extended water emission is likely evidence of the radio jet's impact on cooling and forming molecules in the post-shocked gas in the halo and inter-cluster gas, similar to what is seen in low-z clusters and other high-z radio galaxies. These observations imply that the passage of the radio jet in the interstellar and inter-cluster medium not only heats gas to high temperatures, as is commonly assumed or found in simulations, but also induces cooling and dissipation, which can lead to substantial amounts of cold dense molecular gas. The formation of molecules and strong dissipation in the halo gas of MRC1138-262 may explain both the extended diffuse molecular gas and the young stars observed around MRC1138-262. The reduced data cubes

  14. Further ALMA observations and detailed modeling of the Red Rectangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarrabal, V.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.; Santander-García, M.; Van Winckel, H.; Sánchez Contreras, C.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We aim to study the rotating and expanding gas in the Red Rectangle, which is a well known object that recently left the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. We analyze the properties of both components and the relation between them. Rotating disks have been very elusive in post-AGB nebulae, in which gas is almost always found to be in expansion. Methods We present new high-quality ALMA observations of C17O J=6−5 and H13CN J=4−3 line emission and results from a new reduction of already published 13CO J=3−2 data. A detailed model fitting of all the molecular line data, including previous maps and single-dish observations of lines of CO, CII, and CI, was performed using a sophisticated code that includes an accurate nonlocal treatment of radiative transfer in 2D. These observations (of low- and high-opacity lines requiring various degrees of excitation) and the corresponding modeling allowed us to deepen the analysis of the nebular properties. We also stress the uncertainties, particularly in the determination of the boundaries of the CO-rich gas and some properties of the outflow. Results We confirm the presence of a rotating equatorial disk and an outflow, which is mainly formed of gas leaving the disk. The mass of the disk is ~ 0.01 M⊙, and that of the CO-rich outflow is around ten times smaller. High temperatures of ≳ 100 K are derived for most components. From comparison of the mass values, we roughly estimate the lifetime of the rotating disk, which is found to be of about 10000 yr. Taking data of a few other post-AGB composite nebulae into account, we find that the lifetimes of disks around post-AGB stars typically range between 5000 and more than 20000 yr. The angular momentum of the disk is found to be high, ~ 9 M⊙ AU km s−1, which is comparable to that of the stellar system at present. Our observations of H13CN show a particularly wide velocity dispersion and indicate that this molecule is only abundant in the inner Keplerian disk, at

  15. Water around IRAS 15398-3359 observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Bergin, E. A.; Frimann, S.; Harsono, D.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Lindberg, J. E.; Persson, M.; Sakai, N.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Visser, R.; Yamamoto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Understanding how protostars accrete their mass is one of the fundamental problems of star formation. High dust column densities and complex kinematical structures make direct observations challenging. Moreover, direct observations only provide a snapshot. Chemical tracers provide an interesting alternative to characterise the infall histories of protostars. Aims: We aim to map the distribution and kinematics of gaseous water towards the low-mass embedded protostar IRAS 15398-3359. Previous observations of H13CO+ showed a depression in the abundance towards IRAS 15398-3359. This is a sign of destruction of HCO+ by an enhanced presence of gaseous water in an extended region, possibly related to a recent burst in the accretion. Direct observations of water vapour can determine the exact extent of the emission and confirm the hypothesis that HCO+ is indeed a good tracer of the water snow-line. Methods: IRAS 15398-3359 was observed using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 0.5″ resolution in two setups at 390 and 460 GHz. Maps of HDO (101-000) and were taken simultaneously with observations of the CS (8-7) and N2H+ (5-4) lines and continuum at 0.65 and 0.75 mm. The maps were interpreted using dust radiative transfer calculations of the protostellar infalling envelope with an outflow cavity. Results: HDO is clearly detected and extended over the scales of the H13CO+ depression, although it is displaced by 500 AU in the direction of the outflow. HO is tentatively detected towards the red-shifted outflow lobe, but otherwise it is absent from the mapped region, which suggests that temperatures are low. Although we cannot entirely exclude a shock origin, this indicates that another process is responsible for the water emission. Conclusions: Based on the temperature structure obtained from dust radiative transfer models, we conclude that the water was most likely released from the grains in an extended hour-glass configuration during a

  16. Measuring turbulence in TW Hydrae with ALMA: methods and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, R.; Guilloteau, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Dutrey, A.; Piétu, V.; Birnstiel, T.; Chapillon, E.; Hollenbach, D.; Gorti, U.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: We aim to obtain a spatially resolved measurement of velocity dispersions in the disk of TW Hya. Methods: We obtained images with high spatial and spectral resolution of the CO J = 2-1, CN N = 2-1 and CS J = 5-4 emission with ALMA in Cycle 2. The radial distribution of the turbulent broadening was derived with two direct methods and one modelling approach. The first method requires a single transition and derives Tex directly from the line profile, yielding a vturb. The second method assumes that two different molecules are co-spatial, which allows using their relative line widths for calculating Tkin and vturb. Finally we fitted a parametric disk model in which the physical properties of the disk are described by power laws, to compare our direct methods with previous values. Results: The two direct methods were limited to the outer r > 40 au disk because of beam smear. The direct method found vturb to range from ≈130 m s-1 at 40 au, and to drop to ≈50 m s-1 in the outer disk, which is qualitatively recovered with the parametric model fitting. This corresponds to roughly 0.2-0.4 cs. CN was found to exhibit strong non-local thermal equilibrium effects outside r ≈ 140 au, so that vturb was limited to within this radius. The assumption that CN and CS are co-spatial is consistent with observed line widths only within r ≲ 100 au, within which vturb was found to drop from 100 m s-1 (≈0.4 cs) to zero at 100 au. The parametric model yielded a nearly constant 50 m s-1 for CS (0.2-0.4 cs). We demonstrate that absolute flux calibration is and will be the limiting factor in all studies of turbulence using a single molecule. Conclusions: The magnitude of the dispersion is comparable with or below that predicted by the magneto-rotational instability theory. A more precise comparison would require reaching an absolute calibration precision of about 3%, or finding a suitable combination of light and heavy molecules that are co-located in the disk. The reduced

  17. Multimolecule ALMA observations toward the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S.; Kohno, K.; Izumi, T.; Krips, M.; Meier, D. S.; Aladro, R.; Matsushita, S.; Takano, S.; Turner, J. L.; Espada, D.; Nakajima, T.; Terashima, Y.; Fathi, K.; Hsieh, P.-Y.; Imanishi, M.; Lundgren, A.; Nakai, N.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.; Wiklind, T.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The nearby Sy 1 galaxy NGC 1097 represents an ideal laboratory for exploring the molecular chemistry in the surroundings of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Aims: Exploring the distribution of different molecular species allows us to understand the physical processes affecting the interstellar medium both in the AGN vicinity and in the outer star forming molecular ring. Methods: We carried out 3 mm ALMA observations that include seven different molecular species, namely HCN, HCO+, CCH, CS, HNCO, SiO, HC3N, and SO, as well as the 13C isotopologues of the first two. Spectra were extracted from selected positions and all species were imaged over the central 2 kpc (~30'') of the galaxy at a resolution of ~2.2'' × 1.5'' (150 pc × 100 pc). Results: HCO+ and CS appear to be slightly enhanced in the star forming ring. CCH shows the largest variations across NGC 1097 and is suggested to be a good tracer of both obscured and early stage star formation. HNCO, SiO, and HC3N are significantly enhanced in the inner circumnuclear disk surrounding the AGN. Conclusions: Differences in the molecular abundances are observed between the star forming ring and the inner circumnuclear disk. We conclude that the HCN/HCO+ and HCN/CS differences observed between AGN-dominated and starburst (SB) galaxies are not due to a HCN enhancement due to X-rays, but rather this enhancement is produced by shocked material at distances of 200 pc from the AGN. Additionally, we claim that lower HCN/CS is a combination of a small underabundance of CS in AGNs, together with excitation effects, where a high density gas component (~106 cm-3) may be more prominent in SB galaxies. However, the most promising are the differences found among the dense gas tracers that, at our modest spatial resolution, seem to outline the physical structure of the molecular disk around the AGN. In this picture, HNCO probes the well-shielded gas in the disk, surrounding the dense material moderately exposed to the X

  18. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  19. Bulk data transfer distributer: a high performance multicast model in ALMA ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirami, R.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Chiozzi, G.; Jeram, B.

    2006-06-01

    A high performance multicast model for the bulk data transfer mechanism in the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array) Common Software (ACS) is presented. The ALMA astronomical interferometer will consist of at least 50 12-m antennas operating at millimeter wavelength. The whole software infrastructure for ALMA is based on ACS, which is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. To cope with the very strong requirements for the amount of data that needs to be transported by the software communication channels of the ALMA subsystems (a typical output data rate expected from the Correlator is of the order of 64 MB per second) and with the potential CORBA bottleneck due to parameter marshalling/de-marshalling, usage of IIOP protocol, etc., a transfer mechanism based on the ACE/TAO CORBA Audio/Video (A/V) Streaming Service has been developed. The ACS Bulk Data Transfer architecture bypasses the CORBA protocol with an out-of-bound connection for the data streams (transmitting data directly in TCP or UDP format), using at the same time CORBA for handshaking and leveraging the benefits of ACS middleware. Such a mechanism has proven to be capable of high performances, of the order of 800 Mbits per second on a 1Gbit Ethernet network. Besides a point-to-point communication model, the ACS Bulk Data Transfer provides a multicast model. Since the TCP protocol does not support multicasting and all the data must be correctly delivered to all ALMA subsystems, a distributer mechanism has been developed. This paper focuses on the ACS Bulk Data Distributer, which mimics a multicast behaviour managing data dispatching to all receivers willing to get data from the same sender.

  20. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzawa, Y., E-mail: y.uzawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z. [National Institute of Information and Telecommunications Technology, 588-2 Iwaoka, Iwaoka-cho, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2492 (Japan); Asayama, S. [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The ALMA Band 10 (787–950 GHz) SIS receivers have been developed. •The complex conductivity of NbTiN was measured by a THz-TDS for the mixer design. •Tens of Band 10 receivers have been produced and their performance was quite well. •The best achieved receiver noise temperature was 125 K corresponding to 3hf/k{sub B}. •Band 10 receiver installed in the ALMA antenna captured astronomical signals. -- Abstract: The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787–950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO{sub 2}/Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/k{sub B}T{sub C} ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/k{sub B} for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation.

  1. Dust evolution processes in normal galaxies at z > 6 detected by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chen; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Hou, Kuan-Chou

    2017-03-01

    Recent Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array (ALMA) observations of high-redshift normal galaxies have been providing a great opportunity to clarify the general origin of dust in the Universe, not biased to very bright special objects even at z > 6. To clarify what constraint we can get for the dust enrichment in normal galaxies detected by ALMA, we use a theoretical model that includes major processes driving dust evolution in a galaxy; that is, dust condensation in stellar ejecta, dust growth by the accretion of gas-phase metals and supernova destruction. Using the dust emission fluxes detected in two normal galaxies at z > 6 by ALMA as a constraint, we can get the range of the time-scales (or efficiencies) of the above mentioned processes. We find that if we assume extremely high-condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta (fin ≳ 0.5), rapid dust enrichment by stellar sources in the early phase may be enough to explain the observed ALMA flux, unless dust destruction by supernovae in those galaxies is stronger than that in nearby galaxies. If we assume a condensation efficiency expected from theoretical calculations (fin ≲ 0.1), strong dust growth (even stronger than assumed for nearby galaxies if they are metal-poor galaxies) is required. These results indicate that the normal galaxies detected by ALMA at z > 6 are biased to objects (i) with high dust condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta, (ii) with strong dust growth in very dense molecular clouds or (iii) with efficient dust growth because of fast metal enrichment up to solar metallicity. A measurement of metallicity is crucial to distinguish among these possibilities.

  2. The ALMA common software: a developer-friendly CORBA-based framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiozzi, Gianluca; Jeram, Bogdan; Sommer, Heiko; Caproni, Alessandro; Plesko, Mark; Sekoranja, Matej; Zagar, Klemen; Fugate, David W.; Di Marcantonio, Paolo; Cirami, Roberto

    2004-09-01

    The ALMA Common Software (ACS) is a set of application frameworks built on top of CORBA. It provides a common software infrastructure to all partners in the ALMA collaboration. The usage of ACS extends from high-level applications such as the Observation Preparation Tool [7] that will run on the desk of astronomers, down to the Control Software [6] domain. The purpose of ACS is twofold: from a system perspective, it provides the implementation of a coherent set of design patterns and services that will make the whole ALMA software [1] uniform and maintainable; from the perspective of an ALMA developer, it provides a friendly programming environment in which the complexity of the CORBA middleware and other libraries is hidden and coding is drastically reduced. The evolution of ACS is driven by a long term development plan, however on the 6-months release cycle the plan is adjusted based on incoming requests from ALMA subsystem development teams. ACS was presented at SPIE 2002[2]. In the two years since then, the core services provided by ACS have been extended, while the coverage of the application framework has been increased to satisfy the needs of high-level and data flow applications. ACS is available under the LGPL public license. The patterns implemented and the services provided can be of use also outside the astronomical community; several projects have already shown their interest in ACS. This paper presents the status of ACS and the progress over the last two years. Emphasis is placed on showing how requests from ACS users have driven the selection of new features.

  3. Diversity of flavin-binding monooxygenase genes (almA) in marine bacteria capable of degradation long-chain alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanpeng; Shao, Zongze

    2012-06-01

    Many bacteria have been reported as degraders of long-chain (LC) n-alkanes, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Flavin-binding monooxygenase (AlmA) was recently found to be involved in LC-alkane degradation in bacteria of the Acinetobacter and Alcanivorax genera. However, the diversity of this gene and the role it plays in other bacteria remains unclear. In this study, we surveyed the diversity of almA in marine bacteria and in bacteria found in oil-enrichment communities. To identify the presence of this gene, a pair of degenerate PCR primers were was designed based on conserved motifs of the almA gene sequences in public databases. Using this approach, we identified diverse almA genes in the hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and in bacterial communities from the surface seawater of the Xiamen coastal area, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, almA was positively detected in 35 isolates belonging to four genera, and a total of 39 different almA sequences were obtained. Five isolates were confirmed to harbor two to three almA genes. From the Xiamen coastal area and the Atlantic Ocean oil-enrichment communities, a total of 60 different almA sequences were obtained. These sequences mainly formed two clusters in the phylogenetic tree, named Class I and Class II, and these shared 45-56% identity at the amino acid level. Class I contained 11 sequences from bacteria represented by the Salinisphaera and Parvibaculum genera. Class II was larger and more diverse, and it was composed of 88 sequences from Proteobacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and the enriched bacterial communities. These communities were represented by the Alcanivorax and Marinobacter genera, which are the two most popular genera hosting the almA gene. AlmA was also detected across a wide geographical range, as determined by the origin of the bacterial host. Our results demonstrate the diversity of almA and confirm its high rate of occurrence in hydrocarbon

  4. The ALMA Band 9 receiver. Design, construction, characterization, and first light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshev, A. M.; Hesper, R.; Mena, F. P.; Klapwijk, T. M.; van Kempen, T. A.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Jackson, B. D.; Adema, J.; Gerlofsma, G. J.; Bekema, M. E.; Barkhof, J.; de Haan-Stijkel, L. H. R.; van den Bemt, M.; Koops, A.; Keizer, K.; Pieters, C.; Koops van het Jagt, J.; Schaeffer, H. H. A.; Zijlstra, T.; Kroug, M.; Lodewijk, C. F. J.; Wielinga, K.; Boland, W.; de Graauw, M. W. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jager, H.; Wild, W.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: We describe the design, construction, and characterization of the Band 9 heterodyne receivers (600-720 GHz) for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). First-light Band 9 data, obtained during ALMA commissioning and science verification phases, are presented as well. Methods: The ALMA Band 9 receiver units (so-called "cartridges"), which are installed in the telescope's front end, have been designed to detect and down-convert two orthogonal linear polarization components of the light collected by the ALMA antennas. The light entering the front end is refocused with a compact arrangement of mirrors, which is fully contained within the cartridge. The arrangement contains a grid to separate the polarizations and two beam splitters to combine each resulting beam with a local oscillator signal. The combined beams are fed into independent double-sideband mixers, each with a corrugated feedhorn coupling the radiation by way of a waveguide with backshort cavity into an impedance-tuned superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) junction that performs the heterodyne down-conversion. Finally, the generated intermediate frequency (IF) signals are amplified by cryogenic and room-temperature HEMT amplifiers and exported to the telescope's IF back end for further processing and, finally, correlation. Results: The receivers have been constructed and tested in the laboratory and they show an excellent performance, complying with ALMA requirements. Performance statistics on all 73 Band 9 receivers are reported. Importantly, two different tunnel-barrier technologies (necessitating different tuning circuits) for the SIS junctions have been used, namely conventional AlOx barriers and the more recent high-current-density AlN barriers. On-sky characterization and tests of the performance of the Band 9 cartridges are presented using commissioning data. Continuum and line images of the low-mass protobinary IRAS 16293-2422 are presented which were obtained as part

  5. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: ALMA resolves the bright-end of the sub-millimeter number counts

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, James; Swinbank, Mark; Chapman, Scott; Geach, James; Ivison, Rob; Thomson, Alasdair; Aretxaga, Itziar; Blain, Andrew; Cowley, Will; Chen, Chian-Chou; Coppin, Kristen; Dunlop, Jim; Edge, Alastair; Farrah, Duncan; Ibar, Edo; Karim, Alex; Knudsen, Kirsten; Meijerink, Rowin; Michalowski, Michal; Scott, Douglas; Spanns, Marco; van der Werf, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution 870-um ALMA continuum maps of 30 bright sub-millimeter sources in the UKIDSS UDS field. These sources are selected from deep, 1-square degrees 850-um maps from the SCUBA--2 Cosmology Legacy Survey, and are representative of the brightest sources in the field (median SCUBA2 flux S_850=8.7+/-0.4 mJy). We detect 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) at >4-sigma significance in our 30 ALMA maps. In 61+/-17% of the ALMA maps the single-dish source comprises a blend of >=2 SMGs, where the secondary SMGs are Ultra--Luminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) with L_IR>10^12 Lo. The brightest SMG contributes on average 80+/-4% of the single-dish flux density, and in the ALMA maps containing >=2 SMGs the secondary SMG contributes 25+/-3% of the integrated ALMA flux. We construct source counts and show that multiplicity boosts the apparent single-dish cumulative counts by 20% at S_870>7.5mJy, and by 60% at S_870>12mJy. We combine our sample with previous ALMA studies of fainter SMGs and show that the cou...

  6. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  7. Debris Disks in Nearby Young Moving Groups in the ALMA Era

    CERN Document Server

    Kóspál, Á

    2015-01-01

    Many members of nearby young moving groups exhibit infrared excess attributed to circumstellar debris dust, formed via erosion of planetesimals. With their proximity and well-dated ages, these groups are excellent laboratories for studying the early evolution of debris dust and of planetesimal belts. ALMA can spatially resolve the disk emission, revealing the location and extent of these belts, putting constraints on planetesimal evolution models, and allowing us to study planet-disk interactions. While the main trends of dust evolution in debris disks are well-known, there is almost no information on the evolution of gas. During the transition from protoplanetary to debris state, even the origin of gas is dubious. Here we review the exciting new results ALMA provided by observing young debris disks, and discuss possible future research directions.

  8. ALMA observations of alpha Centauri: First detection of main-sequence stars at 3mm wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; Bayo, A; Bertone, E; Black, J H; del Burgo, C; Chavez, M; Danchi, W; De la Luz, V; Eiroa, C; Ertel, S; Fridlund, M C W; Justtanont, K; Krivov, A; Marshall, J P; Mora, A; Montesinos, B; Nyman, L -A; Olofsson, G; Sanz-Forcada, J; Thebault, P; White, G J

    2014-01-01

    The precise mechanisms that provide the non-radiative energy for heating the chromosphere and the corona of the Sun and those of other stars constitute an active field of research. By studying stellar chromospheres one aims at identifying the relevant physical processes. Defining the permittable extent of the parameter space can also serve as a template for the Sun-as-a-star. Earlier observations with Herschel and APEX have revealed the temperature minimum of alpha Cen, but these were unable to spatially resolve the binary into individual components. With the data reported here, we aim at remedying this shortcoming. Furthermore, these earlier data were limited to the wavelength region between 100 and 870mu. In the present context, we intend to extend the spectral mapping to longer wavelengths, where the contrast between stellar photospheric and chromospheric emission becomes increasingly evident. ALMA is particularly suited to point sources, such as unresolved stars. ALMA provides the means to achieve our obj...

  9. Transparent XML Binding using the ALMA Common Software (ACS) Container/Component Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, H.; Chiozzi, G.; Fugate, D.; Sekoranja, M.

    2004-07-01

    ALMA software, from high-level data flow applications down to instrument control, is built using the ACS framework. The common architecture and infrastructure used for the whole ALMA software is presented at this conference in (Schwarz, Farris, & Sommer 2004). ACS offers a CORBA-based container/component model and supports the exchange and persistence of XML data. For the Java programming language, the container integrates transparently the use of type-safe Java binding classes to let applications conveniently work with XML transfer objects without having to parse or serialize them. This paper will show how the ACS container/component architecture serves to pass complex data structures, such as observation meta-data, between heterogeneous applications.

  10. The Declaration of Alma Ata on its 30th anniversary: relevance for family medicine today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, Allen L; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2008-09-01

    The Declaration of Alma Ata, issued on September 12, 1978, provides a moral vision for primary care that remains valuable today at a time of transformation of the specialty of family medicine. The Declaration asserts a comprehensive definition of health that recognizes health as a fundamental human right, argues persuasively that gross inequalities in health status are politically, socially, and economically unacceptable, and identifies primary health care as the key to improving health and reducing health status inequalities. The values of Alma Ata can guide the specialty of family medicine to lead positive health system change through renewed collaboration, addressing inequalities, efficient use of resources and appropriate technology, and advocacy in the spirit of social justice.

  11. Development of the ALMA-North America Sideband-Separating SIS Mixers

    CERN Document Server

    Kerr, Anthony R; Claude, Stéphane M X; Dindo, Philip; Lichtenberger, Arthur W; Lauria, Eugene F

    2013-01-01

    As the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) nears completion, 73 dual-polarization receivers have been delivered for each of Bands 3 (84-116 GHz) and 6 (211-275 GHz). The receivers use sideband-separating superconducting Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb tunnel-junction (SIS) mixers, developed for ALMA to suppress atmospheric noise in the image band. The mixers were designed taking into account dynamic range, input return loss, and signal-to-image conversion (which can be significant in SIS mixers). Typical SSB receiver noise temperatures in Bands 3 and 6 are 30 K and 60 K, resp., and the image rejection is typically 15 dB.

  12. The Impacts of ALMA Primary Variables on Profitability An Empirical Study of Indonesian Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto Jumono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of liquidity on BEP and ROE in Indonesian banking industry. The supporting theory in this study is ALMA theory. Based on annual data for the period 2001-2014 and following purposive sampling technique, the acquired amount of sample study is 97 banks. The data is analyzed using panel data regression of GMM Arrelano Bond, as a novelty in data processing, therefore the speed of adjustment can be known. The ALMA variables such as LAR, capital, leverage, operating expenses, interest income, and CAR sensitivity have a significant effect on BEP and ROE. Meanwhile LDR, NPL, the FBI have no impact on profitability. The implication of this study is the fact that banking performance in Indonesia can be leveled up through the reduction in mortgage interest rates and increment of credit volume and FBI.

  13. Testing Wave Propagation Properties in the Solar Chromosphere with ALMA and IRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Bernard; Straus, Thomas; Wedemeyer, Sven

    2016-05-01

    Waves and oscillations are interesting not only from the point of view that they can propagate energy into the chromosphere and dissipate that energy to produce non-radiative heating, they also carry information about the structure of the atmosphere in which they propagate. Since the late 80s there is substantial evidence that the chromospheric wave field is dominated by a non-propagating component, presumably resulting from wave reflection at the transition region. Observations of Doppler oscillations measured in the Ca II infrared tripet lines, Ca II K, and He 10830 all show vanishing phase lags (i.e. vanishing travel time differences) between the various lines, in particular also for frequencies above the cut-off frequency. Why is the apparent phase speed of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere so high? Are these results misleading because of complex radiation transfer effects in these optically thick lines? ALMA, which acts as a linear thermometer of the solar chromosphere, will provide measurements of the local plasma conditions that should be, at least in principle, much easier to interpret. Multi-wavelength time series of ALMA observations of the temperature fluctuations of inter-network oscillations should allow travel time measurements between different heights as these disturbances propagate through the chromosphere and thus should finally settle the long-standing question about the propagation characteristics of high frequency acoustic waves in the chromosphere. We plan to combine ALMA mm-observations with high resolution IRIS observations in the Mg II h and k lines, and until ALMA observations are available, will study the expected signals using time series of mm-maps from 3D radiation hydrodynamics simulations that are being prepared within the framework of the Solar Simulations for the Atacama Large Millimeter Observatory Network (SSALMON).

  14. Compact Starbursts in z ∼ 3–6 Submillimeter Galaxies Revealed by ALMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2015-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) at {z}{phot}∼ 3–6. Their infrared luminosities and star formation rates (SFRs) are {L}{IR}∼ 2–6× {10}12 {L}ȯ and ∼200–600 {M}ȯ yr‑1, respectively.

  15. Detection of Lensing Substructure Using ALMA Observations of the Dusty Galaxy SDP.81

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Dalal, Neal; Marrone, Daniel P.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Wen, Di; Blandford, Roger D.; Carlstrom, John E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Kemball, Athol; Marshall, Philip J.; Murray, Norman; Perreault Levasseur, Laurence; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-05-01

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 108.96±0.12 M ⊙ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ˜ 2 × 107 M ⊙, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.

  16. Poster 9: Isotopic Ratios of Carbon and Oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serigano, Joseph; Nixion, Conor A.; Cordiner, Martin A.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.; Teanby, Nick A.; Charnley, Steven B.; Lindberg, Johan E.

    2016-06-01

    The advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) has provided a new and powerful facility for probing the atmospheres of solar system targets at long wavelengths (84-720 GHz) where the rotational lines of small, polar molecules are prominent. In the complex atmosphere of Titan, photochemical processes dissociate and ionize molecular nitrogen and methane in the upper atmosphere, creating a complex inventory of trace hydrocarbons and nitriles. Additionally, the existence of oxygen on Titan facilitates the synthesis of molecules of potential astrobiological importance. Utilization of ground-based submillimeter observations of Titan has proven to be a powerful tool to complement results from spacecraft observations. ALMA provides the ability to probe this region in greater detail with unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution at high sensitivity, allowing for the derivation of vertical mixing profiles, molecular detections, and observations of latitudinal and seasonal variations. Recent ALMA studies of Titan have presented spectrally and spatially-resolved maps of HNC and HC3N emission (Cordiner et al. 2014), as well as the first spectroscopic detection of ethyl cyanide (C2H5CN) in Titan's atmosphere (Cordiner et al. 2015). This poster will focus on ALMA observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues 13CO, C18O, and C 17O in Titan's atmosphere. Molecular abundances and the vertical atmospheric temperature profile were derived by modeling the observed emission line profiles using NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code (Irwin et al. 2008). This study reports the first spectroscopic detection of 17O in the outer solar system with C17O detected at >8σ confidence. The abundances of these molecules and isotopic ratios of 12C/13C, 16O/18O, and 16O/17O will be presented. General implications for the history of Titan from these measurements will be discussed.

  17. A dor da alma nas reflexões sobre a vaidade de Matias Aires (1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as relações entre a vaidade e o sofrimento conforme a obra Reflexões sobre a vaidade dos homens, do filósofo paulista Matias Aires Ramos da Silva de Eça (1705-1763. Discutem-se algumas fontes de seu pensamento e conclui-se que o autor faz uma fina e ainda atual análise da alma humana.

  18. ALMA observations of Lyman-alpha Blob 1: halo sub-structure illuminated from within

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, J E; Matsuda, Y; Hayes, M; Mas-Ribas, Ll; Dijkstra, M; Steidel, C C; Chapman, S C; Feldmann, R; Avison, A; Agertz, O; Ao, Y; Birkinshaw, M; Bremer, M N; Clements, D L; Dannerbauer, H; Farrah, D; Harrison, C M; Hine, N K; Kubo, M; Michalowski, M J; Scott, Douglas; Smith, D J B; Spaans, M; Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Taniguchi, Y; van Kampen, E; van der Werf, P; Verma, A; Yamada, T

    2016-01-01

    We present new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) 850um continuum observations of the original Lyman-alpha Blob (LAB) in the SSA22 field at z=3.1 (SSA22-LAB01). The ALMA map resolves the previously identified submillimeter source into three components with total flux density S_850 = 1.68+/-0.06 mJy, corresponding to a star formation rate of ~150 M_sun/yr. The submillimeter sources are associated with several faint (m~27 mag) rest-frame ultraviolet sources identified in Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) clear filter imaging (~5850A). One of these companions is spectroscopically confirmed with Keck MOSFIRE to lie within 20 projected kpc and 250 km/s of one of the ALMA components. We postulate that some of these STIS sources represent a population of low-mass star-forming satellites surrounding the central submillimeter sources, potentially contributing to their growth and activity through accretion. Using a high resolution cosmological zoom simulation of a 10^13 M_sun halo at z...

  19. ALMA resolves the torus of NGC 1068: continuum and molecular line emission

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Burillo, S; Almeida, C Ramos; Usero, A; Krips, M; Alonso-Herrero, A; Aalto, S; Casasola, V; Hunt, L K; Martin, S; Viti, S; Colina, L; Costagliola, F; Eckart, A; Fuente, A; Henkel, C; Marquez, I; Neri, R; Schinnerer, E; Tacconi, L J; van der Werf, P P

    2016-01-01

    We have used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 {\\mu}m continuum emission from the 300 pc-sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of ~4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and image, for the first time, the dust emission and the molecular gas distribution and kinematics from a 7-10 pc-diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: Mgas_torus=(1+-0.3)x10^5 Msun and Rtorus=3.5+-0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on the rotating pattern of the disk. The kinematic major axis of the CO torus...

  20. Blade Runner -What kind objects are there in the JVO ALMA Archive?-

    CERN Document Server

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Zapart, Christopher; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Wataru; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kosugi, George

    2015-01-01

    The JVO ALMA Archive provides users one of the easiest ways to access the ALMA archival data. The users can have a quick look at a 3 or 4-dimensional data cube without downloading multiple huge tarballs from a science portal of ALMA Regional Centers (ARCs). Since we just synchronize all datasets with those of ARCs, the metadata are identical to the upstream, including ``target name'' for each dataset. The name is not necessarily a common one like NGC numbers, but sometimes one of sequential numbers assigned in an observation proposal. Compilation of these artificial names into astronomical ones could provide users more flexible and powerful search interfaces; for instance, with the knowledge of the redshift for each source, the users can easily find the datasets which observed their interested emission/absorption lines at not the observer frame but the rest frame, fitting well with theoretical studies. To implement this functionality, cross-identification of all the sources in our archive with those in some o...

  1. Detection of lensing substructure using ALMA observations of the dusty galaxy SDP.81

    CERN Document Server

    Hezaveh, Yashar D; Marrone, Daniel P; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Wen, Di; Blandford, Roger D; Carlstrom, John E; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Holder, Gilbert P; Kemball, Athol; Marshall, Philip J; Murray, Norman; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Vieira, Joaquin D; Wechsler, Risa H

    2016-01-01

    We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations, we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a $M=10^{8.96\\pm 0.12} M_{\\odot}$ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of $6.9\\sigma$ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter subhalos down to $M\\sim 2\\times 10^7 M_{\\odot}$, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies...

  2. ALMA imaging of the CO snowline of the HD 163296 disk with DCO+

    CERN Document Server

    Mathews, G S; Juhasz, A; Harsono, D; Chapillon, E; van Dishoeck, E F; Espada, D; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Hales, A; Hogerheijde, M R; Mottram, J C; Rawlings, M G; Takahashi, S; Testi, L

    2013-01-01

    The high spatial and line sensitivity of ALMA opens the possibility of resolving emission from molecules in circumstellar disks. With an understanding of physical conditions under which molecules have high abundance, they can be used as direct tracers of distinct physical regions. In particular, DCO+ is expected to have an enhanced abundance within a few Kelvin of the CO freezeout temperature of 19 K, making it a useful probe of the cold disk midplane. We compare ALMA line observations of HD 163296 to a grid of models. We vary the upper- and lower-limit temperatures of the region in which DCO+ is present as well as the abundance of DCO+ in order to fit channel maps of the DCO+ J=5-4 line. To determine the abundance enhancement compared to the general interstellar medium, we carry out similar fitting to HCO+ J=4-3 and H13CO+ J=4-3 observations. ALMA images show centrally peaked extended emission from HCO+ and H13CO+. DCO+ emission lies in a resolved ring from ~110 to 160 AU. The outer radius approximately corr...

  3. ALMA observations of the debris disk around the young Solar Analog HD 107146

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, L; Fu, B; Hughes, A M; Corder, S; Isella, A

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA continuum observations at a wavelength of 1.25 mm of the debris disk surrounding the $\\sim$ 100 Myr old solar analog HD 107146. The continuum emission extends from about 30 to 150 AU from the central star with a decrease in the surface brightness at intermediate radii. We analyze the ALMA interferometric visibilities using debris disk models with radial profiles for the dust surface density parametrized as i) a single power-law, ii) a single power-law with a gap, and iii) a double power-law. We find that models with a gap of radial width $\\sim 8$ AU at a distance of $\\sim 80$ AU from the central star, as well as double power-law models with a dip in the dust surface density at $\\sim 70$ AU provide significantly better fits to the ALMA data than single power-law models. We discuss possible scenarios for the origin of the HD 107146 debris disk using models of planetesimal belts in which the formation of Pluto-sized objects trigger disruptive collisions of large bodies, as well as models which co...

  4. ALMA-resolved salt emission traces the chemical footprint and inner wind morphology of VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, L; Millar, T J; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Homan, W; Smith, N; Van de Sande, M; Walsh, C

    2016-01-01

    (abreviated) We aim to study the inner-wind structure (R<250 Rstar) of the well-known red supergiant VY CMa. We analyse high spatial resolution (~0".24x0".13) ALMA Science Verification (SV) data in band 7 in which four thermal emission lines of gaseous sodium chloride (NaCl) are present at high signal-to-noise ratio. For the first time, the NaCl emission in the inner wind region of VY CMa is spatially resolved. The ALMA observations reveal the contribution of up to four different spatial regions. The NaCl emission pattern is different compared to the dust continuum and TiO2 emission already analysed from the ALMA SV data. The emission can be reconciled with an axisymmetric geometry, where the lower density polar/rotation axis has a position angle of ~50 degrees measured from north to east. However, this picture can not capture the full morphological diversity, and discrete mass ejection events need to be invoked to explain localized higher-density regions. The velocity traced by the gaseous NaCl line profi...

  5. The ALMA archive and its place in the astronomy of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Stoehr, Felix; Leon, Stéphane; Muller, Erik; Manning, Alisdair; Moins, Christophe; Jenkins, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international partnership of Europe, North America and East Asia in cooperation with the Republic of Chile, is the largest astronomical project in existence. While ALMA's capabilities are ramping up, Early Science observations have started. The ALMA Archive is at the center of the operations of the telescope array and is designed to manage the 200 TB of data that will be taken each year, once the observatory is in full operations. We briefly describe design principles. The second part of this paper focuses on how astronomy is likely to evolve as the amount and complexity of data taken grows. We argue that in the future observatories will compete for astronomers to work with their data, that observatories will have to reorient themselves to from providing good data only to providing an excellent end-to-end user-experience with all its implications, that science-grade data-reduction pipelines will become an integral part of the design of a new observat...

  6. ALMA continuum observations of a 30 Myr old gaseous debris disk around HD 21997

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Kóspál, Á; Ábrahám, P; Apai, D; Csengeri, T; Grady, C; Henning, Th; Hughes, A M; Kiss, Cs; Pascucci, I; Schmalzl, M; Gabányi, K

    2013-01-01

    Circumstellar disks around stars older than 10 Myr are expected to be gas-poor. There are, however, two examples of old (30-40 Myr) debris-like disks containing a detectable amount of cold CO gas. Here we present ALMA and Herschel Space Observatory observations of one of these disks, around HD 21997, and study the distribution and origin of the dust and its connection to the gas. Our ALMA continuum images at 886um clearly resolve a broad ring of emission within a diameter of ~4.5 arcsec, adding HD 21997 to the dozen debris disks resolved at (sub)millimeter wavelengths. Modeling the morphology of the ALMA image with a radiative transfer code suggests inner and outer radii of ~55 and ~150 AU, and a dust mass of 0.09 M_Earth. Our data and modeling hints at an extended cold outskirt of the ring. Comparison with the morphology of the CO gas in the disk reveals an inner dust-free hole where gas nevertheless can be detected. Based on dust grain lifetimes, we propose that the dust content of this gaseous disk is of s...

  7. SXDF-UDS-CANDELS-ALMA 1.5 arcmin$^2$ deep survey

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, K; Tamura, Y; Tadaki, K; Hatsukade, B; Ikarashi, S; Caputi, K I; Rujopakarn, W; Ivison, R J; Dunlop, J S; Motohara, K; Umehata, H; Yabe, K; Wang, W -H; Kodama, T; Koyama, Y; Hayashi, M; Matsuda, Y; Hughes, D; Aretxaga, I; Wilson, G W; Yun, M S; Ohta, K; Akiyama, M; Kawabe, R; Iono, D; Nakanishi, K; Lee, M; Makiya, R

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous $105'' \\times 50''$ or 1.5 arcmin$^2$ window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5$\\sigma$ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, providing a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with $L_{\\rm IR} \\sim6\\times10^{11}$ $L_\\odot$ (for $T_{\\rm dust}$ =40K) up to $z\\sim10$ thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N$>$6) and 18 low-significance sources (5$>$S/N$>$4; these may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources ($S_{\\rm 1.1mm} = 0.84 \\pm 0.09$ mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey is able to uncover a faint dust-obscured population that is invisible in deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We found a possible [CII]-line emitter at $z=5.955$ or a low-$z$ CO emitting galaxy within the field, which may allow us to constrain the [CII] and/or the CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.

  8. Primary health care and England: the coming of age of Alma Ata?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew; Ross, Duncan; Mirzoev, Tolib

    2007-01-01

    The Alma Ata Declaration is now 28 years old. This article uses its framework to assess the changes that have occurred in recent years in the English health system. It summarises the health reform changes that have occurred internationally and those in the English health system in two eras, pre- and post-1997 - when the Labour Party came to power. It concludes that linked forces of managerialism and consumerism have had an impact on the health system which has undergone a number of structural changes in recent years. It suggests that the original Alma Ata focus on equity is being modified by the concept of choice. The tensions between central priorities, often reflected in targets, and local accountability and needs are explored. There appears to be a greater interest in seeking genuine health (rather than solely health care) change, with attendant public health and partnership policies, however the gap between policy and practice still needs to be bridged, and questions as to the appropriate locus and leadership for health promotion activities addressed. However there have been numerous institutional changes which carry the danger of distracting from the purpose of achieving health change, and which continue to raise questions as to the appropriateness of a market model for health. Finally the paper argues that the PHC framework of Alma Ata remains a useful framework for assessing health systems, but needs to be tailored to, and prioritised within, a political dynamic.

  9. Prototype Implementation of Web and Desktop Applications for ALMA Science Verification Data and the Lessons Learned

    CERN Document Server

    Eguchi, Satoshi; Shirasaki, Yuji; Komiya, Yutaka; Kosugi, George; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Mizumoto, Yoshihiko

    2012-01-01

    ALMA is estimated to generate TB scale data during only one observation; astronomers manage to identify which part of the data they are really interested in. Now we have been developing new GUI software for this purpose utilizing the VO interface: ALMA Web Quick Look System (ALMAWebQL) and ALMA Desktop Application (Vissage). The former is written in JavaScript and HTML5 generated from Java codes by Google Web Toolkit, and the latter is in pure Java. An essential point of our approach is how to reduce network traffic: we prepare, in advance, "compressed" FITS files of 2x2x1 (horizontal, vertical, and spectral directions, respectively) binning, 2x2x2 binning, 4x4x2 binning data, and so on. These files are hidden from users, and Web QL automatically choose proper one by each user operation. Through this work, we find that network traffic in our system is still a bottleneck towards TB scale data distribution. Hence we have to develop alternative data containers for much faster data processing. In this paper, I in...

  10. Development and testing of Band 10 receivers for the ALMA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaneko, K.; Kroug, M.; Kojima, T.; Kuroiwa, K.; Miyachi, A.; Saito, S.; Makise, K.; Wang, Z.; Asayama, S.

    2013-11-01

    The production model of a dual polarization heterodyne receiver for the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimteter Array (ALMA) telescope has been developed to operate in the 787-950 GHz frequency band. The receiver uses two double sideband (DSB) waveguide mixers with Nb/AlOx/Nb tunnel junctions and NbTiN/SiO2/Al microstrip tuning circuits on quartz substrate. A terahertz time domain spectrometer was used to characterize our NbTiN film for the tuning circuit design, which revealed that the complex conductivity of the film is described by the Mattis-Bardeen theory including a finite scattering time of 15 fs and a superconducting gap with a gap ratio 2Δ/kBTC ∼ 4.0. Tens of these receivers (out of the total production number of 73) have been successfully produced, and their performance is well within the stringent ALMA requirements. The best achieved DSB receiver noise temperature is 125 K, corresponding to about 3hf/kB for 4 K operation. One of Band 10 receivers has successfully been installed in the ALMA antenna for a test observation.

  11. A detailed view of the gas shell around R Sculptoris with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Maercker, M; Brunner, M; De Beck, E; Humphreys, E M; Kerschbaum, F; Lindqvist, M; Olofsson, H; Ramstedt, S

    2016-01-01

    Thermal pulses are fundamental to the chemical evolution of AGB stars and their circumstellar envelopes. A further consequence of thermal pulses is the formation of detached shells of gas and dust around the star. We aim to determine the physical properties of the detached gas shell around R Sculptoris, in particular the shell mass and temperature, and to constrain the evolution of the mass-loss rate during and after a thermal pulse. We analyse CO(1-0), CO(2-1), and CO(3-2) emission, observed by. The spatial resolution of the ALMA data allows us to separate the detached shell emission from the extended emission inside the shell. We perform radiative transfer modelling of both components to determine the shell properties and the post-pulse mass-loss properties. The ALMA data show a gas shell with a radius of 19.5" expanding at 14.3km/s. The different scales probed by the ALMA Cycle 0 array show that the shell must be entirely filled with gas, contrary to the idea of a detached shell. The comparison to single-d...

  12. Centralized operations and maintenance planning at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Guniat, Serge; Hernandez, Octavio; Gairing, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA consists of 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. Since the inauguration of the observatory back in March 2013 there has been a continuous effort to establish solid operations processes for effective and efficient management of technical and administrative tasks on site. Here a key aspect had been the centralized maintenance and operations planning: input is collected from science stakeholders, the computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) and from the technical teams spread around the world, then this information is analyzed and consolidated based on the established maintenance strategy, the observatory long-term plan and the short-term priorities definitions. This paper presents the high-level process that has been developed for the planning and scheduling of planned- and unplanned maintenance tasks, and for site operations like the telescope array reconfiguration campaigns. We focus on the centralized planning approach by presenting its genesis, its current implementation for the observatory operations including related planning products, and we explore the necessary next steps in order to fully achieve a comprehensive centralized planning approach for ALMA in steady-state operations.

  13. The ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S): I. The massive end of the z=4 main sequence of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schreiber, C; Leiton, R; Elbaz, D; Wang, T; Okumura, K; Labbé, I

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S), a systematic ALMA survey of all the known galaxies with stellar mass (M*) larger than 5e10 Msun at 3.5ALMA at 890um (180um rest-frame) with an on-source integration time of 1.3 min per galaxy. We detect 32% of the sample at more than 3 sigma significance. Using the stacked ALMA and Herschel photometry, we derive an average dust temperature of 40+/-2 K for the whole sample, and extrapolate the Lir and SFR for all our galaxies based on their ALMA flux. We then use a forward modeling approach to estimate their intrinsic sSFR distribution, deconvolved of measurement errors and selection effects: we find a linear relation between SFR and M*, with a median sSFR=2.8+/-0.8 Gyr and a dispersion around that relation of 0.28+/-0.13 dex. This latter value is consistent with that measured at lower redshifts, which is proof that the main ...

  14. Quiescent Prominences in the Era of ALMA: Simulated Observations Using the 3D Whole-prominence Fine Structure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunár, Stanislav; Heinzel, Petr; Mackay, Duncan H.; Anzer, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    We use the detailed 3D whole-prominence fine structure model to produce the first simulated high-resolution ALMA observations of a modeled quiescent solar prominence. The maps of synthetic brightness temperature and optical thickness shown in the present paper are produced using a visualization method for synthesis of the submillimeter/millimeter radio continua. We have obtained the simulated observations of both the prominence at the limb and the filament on the disk at wavelengths covering a broad range that encompasses the full potential of ALMA. We demonstrate here extent to which the small-scale and large-scale prominence and filament structures will be visible in the ALMA observations spanning both the optically thin and thick regimes. We analyze the relationship between the brightness and kinetic temperature of the prominence plasma. We also illustrate the opportunities ALMA will provide for studying the thermal structure of the prominence plasma from the cores of the cool prominence fine structure to the prominence-corona transition region. In addition, we show that detailed 3D modeling of entire prominences with their numerous fine structures will be important for the correct interpretation of future ALMA observations of prominences.

  15. The Alma-Bacon County Story: A Model for Rural America. Committee Print, 92nd Congress, 2nd Session, July 24, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Robert E.

    Designed to illustrate the revitalization process of a small rural community via use of the Model Cities Program, this case study of Alma-Bacon County, Georgia traces Alma-Bacon's: (1) historical background; (2) community development beginnings; (3) political development; (4) outstanding problems; and (5) development plans and accomplishments…

  16. 甲码(Alma)全力抢滩中国造船市场%Alma full ahead in the China Shipbuilding market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    二十五年来,以生产切割、套料、排序软件著称的甲码(Alma)始终活跃于国际造船市场。早在八十年代初期,“海洋君主号”远洋客轮就已开始使用上述软件。多年的发展,甲码(Alma)迅速成为业内知名企业,并在造船和近海作业平台等领域屡有斩获,从而一举奠定了欧洲市场的领先地位。甲码中国(AlmaChina)作为Alma于2007年在中国上海设立的子公司,

  17. Thirty years of Alma Ata pledges: is devolution in Pakistan an opportunity for rekindling primary health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Babar T; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Pappas, Gregory

    2007-05-01

    The 1978 Alma Ata Conference presented the manifesto to attain global health for the next century by providing basic health care aimed at the urban and rural poor of the developing world. While the goals of Alma Ata were noble, they were untenable. Today, developing countries face serious issues of equity in health care delivery and fairness in health care management with even a greater need to transform the management systems and practice. Primary health care remains a cornerstone of building the capacity of health systems. Devolution in health sector in Pakistan seems like a chance to re-exert Alma Ata agenda. To achieve the millennium development goals by 2015, revitalization and effective implementation of primary health care will be a vital reform.

  18. The Impacts of ALMA Primary Variables on Profitability An Empirical Study of Indonesian Banking (13-32

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapto Jumono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of liquidity on BEP and ROE in Indonesian banking industry. The supporting theory in this study is ALMA theory. Based on annual data for the period 2001-2014 and following purposive sampling technique, the acquired amount of sample study is 97 banks. The data is analyzed using panel data regression of GMM Arrelano Bond, as a novelty in data processing, therefore the speed of adjustment can be known. The ALMA variables such as LAR, capital, leverage, operating expenses, interest income, and CAR sensitivity have a significant effect on BEP and ROE. Meanwhile LDR, NPL, the FBI have no impact on profitability. The implication of this study is the fact that banking performance in Indonesia can be leveled up through the reduction in mortgage interest rates and increment of credit volume and FBI. Keywords: Bank,ALMA,BEP,ROE,LAR,LDR,NPL,Capital

  19. Probing turbulent, magnetized star formation with ALMA observations and next-generation AREPO simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley K.; Miquel Girart, Josep; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Cortes, Paulo; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The first polarization data from ALMA have been delivered, and are both expanding and confounding our understanding of the role of magnetic fields in low-mass star formation. Here I will show the highest resolution and highest sensitivity polarization images ever made of a Class 0 protostellar source. These new ALMA observations of the source, known as Ser-emb 8, achieve 140 AU resolution, allowing us to probe polarization -- and thus magnetic field orientation -- in the innermost regions surrounding the protostar. The collapse of strongly magnetized dense gas is predicted to pinch the magnetic field into an hourglass shape that persists down to scales <100 AU. However, in contrast with more than 50 years of theory, the ALMA data definitively rule out an hourglass morphology and instead reveal a chaotic magnetic field that has not been inherited from the field in the interstellar medium surrounding the source. We have simulated the star formation process with cutting-edge, moving-mesh AREPO simulations on scales from a million AU (5 pc) down to 60 AU. We find that only in the case of a very strong magnetic field (~100 microgauss on 5 pc scales) is the field direction preserved from cloud to disk scales. When the field is weak, turbulence in the interstellar gas shapes the field on large scales, and the forming star system re-shapes the field again on small scales, divorcing the field from its history on larger scales. We conclude that this is what has happened in Ser-emb 8. The main distinction from the strong-field star formation model is that in the weak-field case it is turbulence -- not the magnetic field -- that shapes the material that forms the protostar.

  20. ALMA Resolves the Torus of NGC 1068: Continuum and Molecular Line Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Burillo, S.; Combes, F.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Usero, A.; Krips, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Aalto, S.; Casasola, V.; Hunt, L. K.; Martín, S.; Viti, S.; Colina, L.; Costagliola, F.; Eckart, A.; Fuente, A.; Henkel, C.; Márquez, I.; Neri, R.; Schinnerer, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; van der Werf, P. P.

    2016-05-01

    We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to map the emission of the CO(6-5) molecular line and the 432 μm continuum emission from the 300 pc sized circumnuclear disk (CND) of the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 with a spatial resolution of ˜4 pc. These observations spatially resolve the CND and, for the first time, image the dust emission, the molecular gas distribution, and the kinematics from a 7-10 pc diameter disk that represents the submillimeter counterpart of the putative torus of NGC 1068. We fitted the nuclear spectral energy distribution of the torus using ALMA and near- and mid-infrared (NIR/MIR) data with CLUMPY torus models. The mass and radius of the best-fit solution for the torus are both consistent with the values derived from the ALMA data alone: {M}{{gas}}{{torus}}=(1+/- 0.3)× {10}5 {M}⊙ and R torus = 3.5 ± 0.5 pc. The dynamics of the molecular gas in the torus show strong non-circular motions and enhanced turbulence superposed on a surprisingly slow rotation pattern of the disk. By contrast with the nearly edge-on orientation of the H2O megamaser disk, we found evidence suggesting that the molecular torus is less inclined (i = 34°-66°) at larger radii. The lopsided morphology and complex kinematics of the torus could be the signature of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability, long predicted to likely drive the dynamical evolution of active galactic nuclei tori.

  1. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF SPT-DISCOVERED, STRONGLY LENSED, DUSTY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezaveh, Y. D. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Marrone, D. P.; Spilker, J. S.; Bothwell, M. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vieira, J. D. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, J. E. [University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Aravena, M.; De Breuck, C. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5 (Canada); and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 860 {mu}m imaging of four high-redshift (z = 2.8-5.7) dusty sources that were detected using the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at 1.4 mm and are not seen in existing radio to far-infrared catalogs. At 1.''5 resolution, the ALMA data reveal multiple images of each submillimeter source, separated by 1''-3'', consistent with strong lensing by intervening galaxies visible in near-IR imaging of these sources. We describe a gravitational lens modeling procedure that operates on the measured visibilities and incorporates self-calibration-like antenna phase corrections as part of the model optimization, which we use to interpret the source structure. Lens models indicate that SPT0346-52, located at z = 5.7, is one of the most luminous and intensely star-forming sources in the universe with a lensing corrected FIR luminosity of 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun} and star formation surface density of 4200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. We find magnification factors of 5 to 22, with lens Einstein radii of 1.''1-2.''0 and Einstein enclosed masses of 1.6-7.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. These observations confirm the lensing origin of these objects, allow us to measure their intrinsic sizes and luminosities, and demonstrate the important role that ALMA will play in the interpretation of lensed submillimeter sources.

  2. Alma-Ata 30 years on: revolutionary, relevant, and time to revitalise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Joy E; Rohde, Jon; Rifkin, Susan; Were, Miriam; Paul, Vinod K; Chopra, Mickey

    2008-09-13

    In this paper, we revisit the revolutionary principles-equity, social justice, and health for all; community participation; health promotion; appropriate use of resources; and intersectoral action-raised by the 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration, a historic event for health and primary health care. Old health challenges remain and new priorities have emerged (eg, HIV/AIDS, chronic diseases, and mental health), ensuring that the tenets of Alma-Ata remain relevant. We examine 30 years of changes in global policy to identify the lessons learned that are of relevance today, particularly for accelerated scale-up of primary health-care services necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, the modern iteration of the "health for all" goals. Health has moved from under-investment, to single disease focus, and now to increased funding and multiple new initiatives. For primary health care, the debate of the past two decades focused on selective (or vertical) versus comprehensive (horizontal) delivery, but is now shifting towards combining the strengths of both approaches in health systems. Debates of community versus facility-based health care are starting to shift towards building integrated health systems. Achievement of high and equitable coverage of integrated primary health-care services requires consistent political and financial commitment, incremental implementation based on local epidemiology, use of data to direct priorities and assess progress, especially at district level, and effective linkages with communities and non-health sectors. Community participation and intersectoral engagement seem to be the weakest strands in primary health care. Burgeoning task lists for primary health-care workers require long-term human resource planning and better training and supportive supervision. Essential drugs policies have made an important contribution to primary health care, but other appropriate technology lags behind. Revitalisng Alma-Ata and learning from three

  3. ALMA IMAGING OF MILLIMETER/SUBMILLIMETER CONTINUUM EMISSION IN ORION KL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181–8588 (Japan); Kim, Mi Kyoung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Hwaam-dong 61-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: tomoya.hirota@nao.ac.jp [Chile Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-03-10

    We have carried out high-resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) of continuum emission from the Orion Kleinmann–Low (KL) region. We identify 11 compact sources at ALMA band 6 (245 GHz) and band 7 (339 GHz), including the Hot Core, Compact Ridge, SMA1, IRc4, IRc7, and a radio source I (Source I). A spectral energy distribution (SED) of each source is determined by using previous 3 mm continuum emission data. Physical properties such as size, mass, hydrogen number density, and column density are discussed based on the dust graybody SED. Among 11 identified sources, Source I, a massive protostar candidate, is a dominant energy source in Orion KL. We extensively investigate its SED from centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths. The SED of Source I can be fitted with a single power-law index of 1.97, suggesting an optically thick emission. We employ the H{sup −} free–free emission as an opacity source of this optically thick emission. The temperature, density, and mass of the circumstellar disk associated with Source I are constrained by the SED of H{sup −} free–free emission. Still, the fitting result shows a significant deviation from the observed flux densities. Combined with the thermal dust graybody SED to explain excess emission at higher frequency, a smaller power-law index of 1.60 for the H{sup −} free–free emission is obtained in the SED fitting. The power-law index smaller than two would suggest a compact source size or a clumpy structure unresolved with the present study. Future higher resolution observations with ALMA are essential to reveal more detailed spatial structure and physical properties of Source I.

  4. Alma Soprano半导体冰点激光脱毛的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄欣; 傅丽清; 樊秋晓; 曾莲蓉; 麦慧

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察Alma Soprano半导体冰点激光脱毛的临床效果.方法 对157例患者采用Alma Soprano半导体冰点激光脱毛仪进行脱毛治疗,波长810 nm,脉冲宽度400 ms,光斑大小10 mm×12 mm,能量密度10 J/cm2(冰点模式),频率10 Hz,统计不同部位的累计能量、治疗间隔、治疗次数,观察治疗中患者的疼痛感、不良反应、再生毛发的情况,治疗终结半年后观察最终效果.结果 157例患者经过4~10次的治疗,治愈151例,显效6例.每次治疗后再生的毛发均变细、变稀疏、颜色变浅.治疗操作的时间短,治疗中患者的疼痛感不明显,未观察到明显并发症.结论 Alma Soprano半导体冰点激光脱毛安全、有效,操作时间短,患者疼痛感轻,无明显并发症.

  5. Bartolomé Cairasco de Figueroa y el auto sacramental: La Comedia del Alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez, José Ismael

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of its title, Comedia del Alma, by Bartolomé Cairasco de Figueroa, is an allegorical religious play. This literary work not only is an inusual testimony of this gender in Canarian Islands; it's also one of the best allegorical religious plays of the Spanish Renaissance. Comedia del Alma alternates between humor and seriousness, abstract ideas and humanization, learned and popular style, verse and prose. However, its principal characteristic concerns the allusions which the characters make to the reality close to the audience and the fierce attack launder on the Canarian society.La Comedia del Alma, de Bartolomé Cairasco de Figueroa, pese a su título, pertenece al género dramático conocido como «auto sacramental». No sólo es uno de los escasos autos sacramentales escritos en las Islas Canarias, sino que además es uno de los mejores del siglo XVI español. La pieza teatral se ajusta en muchos aspectos a las características del género: mezcla lo serio y lo cómico, lo abstracto y la humanización, lo culto y lo popular, la prosa y el verso... Pero quizás la mayor particularidad de la obra sean las referencias a la realidad inmediata de los espectadores que aparecen en ella y las críticas que algunos personajes alegóricos hacen de las costumbres de la sociedad canaria de la época.

  6. Revealing H2D+ depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesen, R. K.; Di Francesco, J.; Bourke, T. L.;

    2014-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H2D+ 110-111 emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within...... hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H2D+) depletion in the cold center of the condensation. We propose that SM1 is protostellar and that the condensation detected by ALMA is a warm (T ~ 30-50 K) accretion disk. The less concentrated emission of the SM1N condensation suggests that it is still starless...

  7. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  8. AlmaViva Teatro: clásicos desde el compromiso

    OpenAIRE

    Olivas Fuentes, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo aborda la trayectoria de la compañía AlmaViva Teatro y su trabajo con la puesta en escena del teatro aurisecular. Estos montajes están basados no solo en la reivindicación de la actualidad del propio texto o el mensaje de compromiso social que pueda transmitir al espectador del siglo xxi con respecto a su propio contexto, sino también en la apuesta por espacios escénicos no convencionales que resignifican el texto y lo conectan aún más con la concepción colectiva del Teatro. Pal...

  9. Resolving the extended atmosphere and the inner wind of Mira (o Ceti) with long ALMA baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. T.; Kamiński, T.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-05-01

    Context. High angular resolution (sub)millimetre observations of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, now possible with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), allow direct imaging of these objects' photospheres. The physical properties of the molecular material around these regions, which until now has only been studied by imaging of maser emission and spatially unresolved absorption spectroscopy, can be probed with radiative transfer modelling and compared to hydrodynamical model predictions. The prototypical Mira variable, o Cet (Mira), was observed as a Science Verification target in the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, offering the first opportunity to study these physical conditions in detail. Aims: With the longest baseline of 15 km, ALMA produces clearly resolved images of the continuum and molecular line emission/absorption at an angular resolution of ~30 mas at 220 GHz. Models are constructed for Mira's extended atmosphere to investigate the physics and molecular abundances therein. Methods: We imaged the data of 28SiO ν= 0, 2J = 5-4 and H2O v2 = 1JKa,Kc = 55,0-64,3 transitions and extracted spectra from various lines of sight towards Mira's extended atmosphere. In the course of imaging the emission/absorption, we encountered ambiguities in the resulting images and spectra that appear to be related to the performance of the CLEAN algorithm when applied to a combination of extended emission, and compact emission and absorption. We addressed these issues by a series of tests and simulations. We derived the gas density, kinetic temperature, molecular abundance, and outflow/infall velocities in Mira's extended atmosphere by modelling the SiO and H2O lines. Results: We resolve Mira's millimetre continuum emission and our data are consistent with a radio photosphere with a brightness temperature of 2611 ± 51 K. In agreement with recent results obtained with the Very Large Array, we do not confirm the existence of a compact region (codex, can

  10. Dos revistas similares pero distintas: “El Olivo” y “Alma100”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Arbelos

    2006-01-01

    Así aparecen dos revistas similares pero diferentes, si bien ambas se proponen la difusión y divulgación del flamenco, una El Olivo lo hace desde una perspectiva más tradicional y Alma100 lo aborda desde conceptos más ligados a lo que se ha denominado postmodernidad. La otra gran diferencia es que mientras la primera depende económicamente casi exclusivamente de una subvención institucional, la segunda lo hace desde los recursos propios que genera la publicidad que se inserta en la publicación

  11. [Can strategy for primary health care be revitalized 30 years after Alma-Ata?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Stine; Probst, Helene Bilsted; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-12-06

    Thirty years ago the Alma-Ata declaration on primary health care was developed. Implementation has been compounded by inadequate financing, changing disease patterns and immature health systems, and there is an ongoing discussion between selective and comprehensive primary health care supporters. Globally, child mortality for under-five-year-olds has been reduced by 50%, but there are still large regional differences. This year the WHO development report is about revitalisation of the primary health care strategy. Recognition of this strategy may be the best instrument to improve health globally.

  12. [Alma Ata 30 years on. Evolution and perspectives of primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciocco, G

    2008-01-01

    The Alma Ata Declaration (September 1978) was a turning point in the definition of "Primary Health Care". The traditional bio-medical model was based on a paternalistic approach and on the treatment of the individual episodes of disease. The new bio-psycho-social model was based on prevention, continuity of care, integrated health care teams and on a direct role of patients in managing their health. Thirty years on, this approach is still relevant. Actually, it is the only adequate one to answer effectively to the current challenges: epidemiological changes (increasing prevalence of chronic diseases), social changes (increased social inequalities in health), cultural changes (increased patients demand for information and autonomy).

  13. ALMA view of the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Kenta; Tsuboi, Masato; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud (50MC) with ALMA to search for filamentary structures. In the CS J=2-1 emission line channel maps, we succeeded in identifying 27 molecular cloud filaments using the DisPerSE algorithm. This is the first attempt of filament-finding in the Galactic Center Region. These molecular cloud filaments strongly suggest that the molecular cloud filaments are also ubiquitous in the molecular clouds of the Galactic Center Region.

  14. ALMA view of the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Uehara, Kenta; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We have observed the Galactic Center 50km/s molecular cloud (50MC) with ALMA to search for filamentary structures. In the CS J=2-1 emission line channel maps, we succeeded in identifying 27 molecular cloud filaments using the DisPerSE algorithm. This is the first attempt of "filament-finding" in the Galactic Center Region. These molecular cloud filaments strongly suggest that the molecular cloud filaments are also ubiquitous in the molecular clouds of the Galactic Center Region.

  15. Cross-polarization in quasi-optical receivers: ALMA band 4 and 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.

    2012-09-01

    A careful study about the influence of individual optical components on receiver cross-polarization has been performed. The basic mechanisms of generation of cross-polarization in ellipsoidal mirrors and dielectrics have been reviewed and characterized in terms of higher-order Gaussian beam modes. A simple model considering the phase differences of different Gaussian beam modes is proposed in order to calculate the final system cross-polarization pattern. This model has been successfully used to characterize the total cross-polarization in two cryogenically-cooled receivers for astronomy: ALMA band 4 and band 10.

  16. ALMA Observations of Orion Source I at 350 and 660 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Plambeck, R L

    2016-01-01

    Orion Source I ('SrcI') is the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann-Low Nebula. ALMA observations of SrcI at 350 and 660 GHz failed to detect the H26$\\alpha$ and H21$\\alpha$ recombination lines, ruling out the possibility that SrcI is a hypercompact HII region. The deconvolved size of the continuum source is approximately 0.23 x 0.05" (100 x 20 AU); it is interpreted as a disk viewed almost edge-on. The continuum flux density is proportional to $\

  17. A dor de amor na medicina da alma da primeira modernidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute o problema da dor de amor nos diferentes campos do saber que compunham a medicina da alma da primeira modernidade. Deu-se especial destaque às reflexões do médico francês Jacques Ferrand (1575-1623 sobre o caráter instável, ilusório e faltoso do amor. Conclui-se que a dor de amor exige pensar as relações entre os afetos e o corpo, além de desafiar as próprias categorias diagnósticas e os tratamentos tradicionais.

  18. Europe, Japan and North America Prepare for Joint Construction of the Giant Radio Telescope "ALMA" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Caption : PR Photo 14/01 shows how the ALMA facility may look like when it is ready at Chajnantor. Courtesy NAOJ . Representatives from Europe, Japan, and North America met in Tokyo today and signed a Resolution affirming their mutual intent to construct and operate a giant radio telescope in co-operation with the Republic of Chile, where the telescope will be located. The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is conceived as a radio telescope comprised of sixty-four transportable 12-meter diameter antennas distributed over an area 14 km in extent. Japanese participation will allow enhanced imaging and spectroscopy, especially at submillimeter wavelengths. By pointing all the antennas in unison toward a single astronomical object, and combining the signals detected by all the antennas with a super-fast digital signal processor, this gigantic radio telescope achieves an imaging detail 10 times better than that of the Hubble Space Telescope. The combined area of all 64 antennas used to collect signals from celestial objects is more than 40 times larger than that available to astronomers using existing submillimeter telescopes. ALMA will be built on the Andean plateau at 5,000 meters altitude near the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. This site provides the exceptionally dry atmospheric conditions necessary for astronomical observations at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths (wavelengths between the radio and far-infrared spectral regions). Observations with this telescope will have a profound impact on virtually all fields of astrophysical research. The most important targets include the most distant (i.e., the youngest) galaxies as they emerged in the early Universe. These are expected to have become rapidly enshrouded in the dust produced by the first stars; the dust absorbs much of the starlight making the galaxies difficult to see in the optical wavebands, but these same galaxies shine brightly at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. In

  19. An ALMA Search for Substructure, Fragmentation, and Hidden Protostars in Starless Cores in Chamaeleon I

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Pineda, Jaime E; Bourke, Tyler L; Tobin, John J; Arce, Héctor G; Chen, Xuepeng; Di Francesco, James; Johnstone, Doug; Lee, Katherine I; Myers, Philip C; Price, Daniel; Sadavoy, Sarah I; Schnee, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We present an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 106 GHz (Band 3) continuum survey of the complete population of dense cores in the Chamaeleon I molecular cloud. We detect a total of 24 continuum sources in 19 different target fields. All previously known Class 0 and Class I protostars in Chamaeleon I are detected, whereas all of the 56 starless cores in our sample are undetected. We show that the Spitzer+Herschel census of protostars in Chamaeleon I is complete, with the rate at which protostellar cores have been misclassified as starless cores calculated as <1/56, or < 2%. We use synthetic observations to show that starless cores collapsing following the turbulent fragmentation scenario are detectable by our ALMA observations when their central densities exceed ~10^8 cm^-3, with the exact density dependent on the viewing geometry. Bonnor-Ebert spheres, on the other hand, remain undetected to central densities at least as high as 10^10 cm^-3. Our starless core non-detections are used t...

  20. ALMA reveals the feeding of the Seyfert 1 nucleus in NGC 1566

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F; Casasola, V; Hunt, L; Krips, M; Baker, A J; Boone, F; Eckart, A; Marquez, I; Neri, R; Schinnerer, E; Tacconi, L J

    2014-01-01

    We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1566, at a spatial resolution of 25 pc. Our aim is to investigate the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc, and to probe nuclear fueling and feedback phenomena. NGC 1566 has a nuclear bar of 1.7 kpc radius and a conspicuous grand design spiral starting from this radius. The ALMA field of view, of diameter 0.9 kpc, lies well inside the nuclear bar and reveals a molecular trailing spiral structure of \\sim 100 pc in size, which is possibly fueling the nucleus. The spiral starts with a large pitch angle from the center and then winds up in a pseudo-ring at the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) of the nuclear bar. This is the first time that a trailing spiral structure is clearly seen driving the gas inwards inside the ILR ring of the nuclear bar. This phenomenon shows that the massive central black hole has a significant dynamical influence on the gas, triggering its fueling. The gaseous spiral is well correlated with th...

  1. ALMA observations of cool dust in a low-metallicity starburst, SBS0335-052

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, L K; Casasola, V; Garcia-Burillo, S; Combes, F; Nikutta, R; Caselli, P; Henkel, C; Maiolino, R; Menten, K M; Sauvage, M; Weiss, A

    2013-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 0 Band 7 observations of an extremely metal-poor dwarf starburst galaxy in the Local Universe, SBS0335-052 (12+log(O/H)~7.2). With these observations, dust is detected at 870micron (ALMA Band 7), but 87% of the flux in this band is due to free-free emission from the starburst. We have compiled a spectral energy distribution (SED) of SBS0335-052 that spans almost 6 orders of magnitude in wavelength and fit it with a spherical dust shell heated by a single-age stellar population; the best-fit model gives a dust mass of (3.8+/-0.6)x10^4 Msun. We have also constructed a SED including Herschel archival data for IZw18, another low-metallicity dwarf starburst (12+log(O/H)=7.17), and fit it with a similar model to obtain a dust mass of (3.4+/-1.0)x10^2 Msun. Compared with their atomic gas mass, the dust mass of SBS0335-052 far exceeds the prediction of a linear trend of dust-to-gas mass ratio with metallicity, while IZw18 falls far below. We use gas...

  2. Molecular Gas in the X-ray Bright Group NGC 5044 as Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    David, Laurence P; Forman, William; Vrtilek, Jan; Combes, Francoise; Salome, Philippe; Edge, Alastair; Jones, Christine; Sun, Ming; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Gastaldello, Fabio; Temi, Pasquale; Schmitt, Henrique; Ohyama, Youichi; Hamer, Stephen; Mathews, William; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Giacintucci, Simona; Bardelli, Sandro; Trung, Dinh-V

    2014-01-01

    A short 30 minute ALMA observation of the early-type galaxy NGC 5044, which resides at the center of an X-ray bright group with a moderate cooling flow, has detected 24 molecular structures within the central 2.5 kpc. The masses of the molecular structures vary from 3e5 to 1e7 Mo3 and the CO(2-1) linewidths vary from 15 to 65 km/s. Given the large CO(2-1) linewidths, the observed structures are likely giant molecular associations (GMAs) and not individual molecular clouds (GMCs). Only a few of the GMAs are spatially resolved with the cycle 0 ALMA beam and the average density of these GMAs yields a GMC volume filling factor of about 15%. The observed masses of the resolved GMAs are insufficient for them to be gravitationally bound, however, the most massive GMA does contain a less massive component with a linewidth of 5.5 km/s (typical of an individual virialized GMC). We also show that the GMAs cannot be pressure confined by the hot gas. Given the observed CO(2-1) linewidths of the GMAs (i.e., the velocity di...

  3. Resolving the stellar activity of the Mira AB binary with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Vlemmings, W H T; O'Gorman, E; Humphreys, E M L; Wittkowski, M; Baudry, A; Karovska, M

    2015-01-01

    We present the size, shape and flux densities at millimeter continuum wavelengths, based on ALMA science verification observations in Band 3 (~94.6 GHz) and Band 6 (~228.7 GHz), from the binary Mira A (o Ceti) and Mira B. The Mira AB system has been observed with ALMA at a spatial resolution of down to ~25 mas. The extended atmosphere of Mira A and the wind around Mira B sources are resolved and we derive the size of Mira A and of the ionized region around Mira B. The spectral indices within Band 3 (between 89-100 GHz) and between Band 3 and Band 6 are also derived. The spectral index of Mira A is found to change from 1.71+-0.05 within Band 3 to 1.54+-0.04 between Band 3 and 6. The spectral index of Mira B is 1.3+-0.2 in Band 3, in good agreement with measurements at longer wavelengths. However it rises to 1.72+-0.11 between the bands. For the first time the extended atmosphere of a star is resolved at these frequencies and for Mira A the diameter is ~3.7x2.9 AU in Band 3 (with brightness temperature Tb~6000 ...

  4. ALMA and Herschel Observations of the Prototype Dusty and Polluted White Dwarf G29-38

    CERN Document Server

    Farihi, J; Greaves, J S; Bonsor, A; Sibthorpe, B; Panić, O

    2014-01-01

    ALMA Cycle 0 and Herschel PACS observations are reported for the prototype, nearest, and brightest example of a dusty and polluted white dwarf, G29-38. These long wavelength programs attempted to detect an outlying, parent population of bodies at 1-100 AU, from which originates the disrupted planetesimal debris that is observed within 0.01 AU and which exhibits L_IR/L = 0.039. No associated emission sources were detected in any of the data down to L_IR/L ~ 1e-4, generally ruling out cold dust masses greater than 1e24 - 1e25 g for reasonable grain sizes and properties in orbital regions corresponding to evolved versions of both asteroid and Kuiper belt analogs. Overall, these null detections are consistent with models of long-term collisional evolution in planetesimal disks, and the source regions for the disrupted parent bodies at stars like G29-38 may only be salient in exceptional circumstances, such as a recent instability. A larger sample of polluted white dwarfs, targeted with the full ALMA array, has th...

  5. ALMA Science Verification Data: Millimeter Continuum Polarimetry of the Bright Radio Quasar 3C 286

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, H; Paladino, R; Hull, C L H; Cortes, P; Moellenbrock, G; Fomalont, E; Asada, K; Hada, K

    2016-01-01

    We present full-polarization observations of the compact, steep-spectrum radio quasar 3C~286 made with the ALMA at 1.3~mm. These are the first full-polarization ALMA observations, which were obtained in the framework of Science Verification. A bright core and a south-west component are detected in the total intensity image, similar to previous centimeter images. Polarized emission is also detected toward both components. The fractional polarization of the core is about 17\\%, this is higher than the fractional polarization at centimeter wavelengths, suggesting that the magnetic field is even more ordered in the millimeter radio core than it is further downstream in the jet. The observed polarization position angle (or EVPA) in the core is $\\sim$\\,$39^{\\circ}$, which confirms the trend that the EVPA slowly increases from centimeter to millimeter wavelengths. With the aid of multi-frequency VLBI observations, we argue that this EVPA change is associated with the frequency-dependent core position. We also report ...

  6. ALMA Observations of SPT-Discovered, Strongly Lensed, Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hezaveh, Y D; Fassnacht, C D; Spilker, J S; Vieira, J D; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bothwell, M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; De Breuck, C; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Fomalont, E B; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Halverson, N W; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Husband, K; Hunter, T R; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L M; Murphy, E J; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Sharon, K; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Weiß, A; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) 860 micrometer imaging of four high-redshift (z=2.8-5.7) dusty sources that were detected using the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at 1.4 mm and are not seen in existing radio to far-infrared catalogs. At 1.5 arcsec resolution, the ALMA data reveal multiple images of each submillimeter source, separated by 1-3 arcsec, consistent with strong lensing by intervening galaxies visible in near-IR imaging of these sources. We describe a gravitational lens modeling procedure that operates on the measured visibilities and incorporates self-calibration-like antenna phase corrections as part of the model optimization, which we use to interpret the source structure. Lens models indicate that SPT0346-52, located at z=5.7, is one of the most luminous and intensely star-forming sources in the universe with a lensing corrected FIR luminosity of 3.7 X 10^13 L_sun and star formation surface density of 4200 M_sun yr^-1 kpc^-2. We find magnification factors of 5 to 22, w...

  7. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FROM SOURCE I IN THE ORION-KL REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Curiel, Salvador [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-264, 04510 DF (Mexico)

    2012-07-20

    In this Letter, we present sensitive millimeter SiO (J = 5-4; {nu} = 0) line observations of the outflow arising from the enigmatic object Orion Source I made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The observations reveal that at scales of a few thousand AU, the outflow has a marked 'butterfly' morphology along a northeast-southwest axis. However, contrary to what is found in the SiO and H{sub 2}O maser observations at scales of tens of AU, the blueshifted radial velocities of the moving gas are found to the northwest, while the redshifted velocities are in the southeast. The ALMA observations are complemented with SiO (J = 8-7; {nu} = 0) maps (with a similar spatial resolution) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. These observations also show a similar morphology and velocity structure in this outflow. We discuss some possibilities to explain these differences at small and large scales across the flow.

  8. Brown dwarf disks with ALMA: evidence for truncated dust disks in Ophiuchus

    CERN Document Server

    Testi, L; Scholz, A; Tazzari, M; Ricci, L; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    The study of the properties of disks around young brown dwarfs can provide important clues on the formation of these very low mass objects and on the possibility of forming planetary systems around them. The presence of warm dusty disks around brown dwarfs is well known, based on near- and mid-infrared studies. High angular resolution observations of the cold outer disk are limited, we used ALMA to attempt a first survey of young brown dwarfs in the rho-Ophiuchi star forming region with ALMA. All 17 young brown dwarfs in our sample were observed at 890 um in the continuum at ~0.5" angular resolution. The sensitivity of our observations was chosen to detect ~0.5 MEarth of dust. We detect continuum emission in 11 disks (65% of the total), the estimated mass of dust in the detected disks ranges from ~0.5 to ~6 MEarth. These disk masses imply that planet formation around brown dwarfs may be relatively rare and that the supra-Jupiter mass companions found around some brown dwarfs are probably the result of a binar...

  9. Linearly Polarized Millimeter and Submillimeter Continuum Emission of Sgr A* Constrained by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Brinkerink, Christiaan D; Ho, Paul T P; Mills, Elisabeth A C; Martín, Sergio; Falcke, Heino; Matsushita, Satoki; Martí-Vidal, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Our aim is to characterize the polarized continuum emission properties including intensity, polarization position angle, and polarization percentage of Sgr A* at $\\sim$100 (3.0 mm), $\\sim$230 (1.3 mm), $\\sim$345 (0.87 mm), $\\sim$500 (0.6 mm), and $\\sim$700 GHz (0.43 mm). We report continuum emission properties of Sgr A* at the above frequency bands, based on the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations. We measured flux densities of Sgr A* from ALMA single pointing and mosaic observations. We performed sinusoidal fittings to the observed (XX-YY)/I intensity ratios, to derive the polarization position angles and polarization percentages. We successfully detect polarized continuum emission from all observed frequency bands. We observed lower Stokes I intensity at $\\sim$700 GHz than that at $\\sim$500 GHz, which suggests that emission at $\\gtrsim$500 GHz is from optically thin part of a synchrotron emission spectrum. Both the Stokes I intensity and the polarization position angle at our highest observin...

  10. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Survey Description

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Fabian; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Ivison, R J; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Anguita, Timo; Assef, Roberto; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Dickinson, Mark; Elbaz, David; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Ibar, Edo; Inami, Hanae; Infante, Leopoldo; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Fevre, Olivier Le; Magnelli, Benjamin; Neri, Roberto; Oesch, Pascal; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; Sheth, Kartik; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present the rationale for and the observational description of ASPECS: The ALMA SPECtroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF), the cosmological deep field that has the deepest multi-wavelength data available. Our overarching goal is to obtain an unbiased census of molecular gas and dust continuum emission in high-redshift (z$>$0.5) galaxies. The $\\sim$1$'$ region covered within the UDF was chosen to overlap with the deepest available imaging from HST. Our ALMA observations consist of full frequency scans in band 3 (84-115 GHz) and band 6 (212-272 GHz) at approximately uniform line sensitivity ($L'_{\\rm CO}\\sim$2$\\times$10$^{9}$ K km/s pc$^2$), and continuum noise levels of 3.8 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ and 12.7 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$, respectively. The molecular surveys cover the different rotational transitions of the CO molecule, leading to essentially full redshift coverage. The [CII] emission line is also covered at redshifts $6.0

  11. Interaction design challenges and solutions for ALMA operations monitoring and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietriga, Emmanuel; Cubaud, Pierre; Schwarz, Joseph; Primet, Romain; Schilling, Marcus; Barkats, Denis; Barrios, Emilio; Vila Vilaro, Baltasar

    2012-09-01

    The ALMA radio-telescope, currently under construction in northern Chile, is a very advanced instrument that presents numerous challenges. From a software perspective, one critical issue is the design of graphical user interfaces for operations monitoring and control that scale to the complexity of the system and to the massive amounts of data users are faced with. Early experience operating the telescope with only a few antennas has shown that conventional user interface technologies are not adequate in this context. They consume too much screen real-estate, require many unnecessary interactions to access relevant information, and fail to provide operators and astronomers with a clear mental map of the instrument. They increase extraneous cognitive load, impeding tasks that call for quick diagnosis and action. To address this challenge, the ALMA software division adopted a user-centered design approach. For the last two years, astronomers, operators, software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers have been involved in participatory design workshops, with the aim of designing better user interfaces based on state-of-the-art visualization techniques. This paper describes the process that led to the development of those interface components and to a proposal for the science and operations console setup: brainstorming sessions, rapid prototyping, joint implementation work involving software engineers and human-computer interaction researchers, feedback collection from a broader range of users, further iterations and testing.

  12. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin$^2$ Deep Survey: 1.1-mm Number Counts

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Caputi, Karina I; Dunlop, James S; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ich; Tamura, Yoichi; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S

    2016-01-01

    We report 1.1 mm number counts revealed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF). The advent of ALMA enables us to reveal millimeter-wavelength number counts down to the faint end without source confusion. However, previous studies are based on the ensemble of serendipitously-detected sources in fields originally targeting different sources and could be biased due to the clustering of sources around the targets. We derive number counts in the flux range of 0.2-2 mJy by using 23 (>=4sigma) sources detected in a continuous 2.0 arcmin$^2$ area of the SXDF. The number counts are consistent with previous results within errors, suggesting that the counts derived from serendipitously-detected sources are not significantly biased, although there could be field-to-field variation due to the small survey area. By using the best-fit function of the number counts, we find that ~40% of the extragalactic background light at 1.1 mm is resolved at S(1.1mm)...

  13. Dust properties across the CO snowline in the HD 163296 disk from ALMA and VLA observations

    CERN Document Server

    Guidi, G; Testi, L; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Chandler, C J; Pérez, L; Isella, A; Natta, A; Ortolani, S; Hennings, Th; Corder, S; Linz, H; Andrews, S; Wilner, D; Ricci, L; Carpenter, J; Sargent, A; Mundy, L; Storm, S; Calvet, N; Dullemond, C; Greaves, J; Lazio, J; Deller, A; Kwon, W

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the mechanisms of planet formation it is crucial to investigate the properties and evolution of protoplanetary disks around young stars, where the initial conditions for the growth of planets are set. Our goal is to study grain growth in the disk of the young, intermediate mass star HD163296 where dust processing has already been observed, and to look for evidence of growth by ice condensation across the CO snowline, already identified in this disk with ALMA. Under the hypothesis of optically thin emission we compare images at different wavelengths from ALMA and VLA to measure the opacity spectral index across the disk and thus the maximum grain size. We also use a Bayesian tool based on a two-layer disk model to fit the observations and constrain the dust surface density. The measurements of the opacity spectral index indicate the presence of large grains and pebbles ($\\geq$1 cm) in the inner regions of the disk (inside $\\sim$50 AU) and smaller grains, consistent with ISM sizes, in the outer ...

  14. An ALMA Constraint on the GSC 6214-210 B Circum-Substellar Accretion Disk Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bowler, Brendan P; Kraus, Adam L; Ireland, Michael J; Herczeg, Gregory; Ricci, Luca; Carpenter, John; Brown, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of GSC 6214-210 A and B, a solar-mass member of the 5-10 Myr Upper Scorpius association with a 15 $\\pm$ 2 Mjup companion orbiting at $\\approx$330 AU (2.2"). Previous photometry and spectroscopy spanning 0.3-5 $\\mu$m revealed optical and thermal excess as well as strong H$\\alpha$ and Pa~$\\beta$ emission originating from a circum-substellar accretion disk around GSC 6214-210 B, making it the lowest mass companion with unambiguous evidence of a subdisk. Despite ALMA's unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, neither component was detected in our 880 $\\mu$m (341 GHz) continuum observations down to a 3-$\\sigma$ limit of 0.22 mJy/beam. The corresponding constraints on the dust mass and total mass are <0.15 Mearth and <0.05 Mjup, respectively, or <0.003% and <0.3% of the mass of GSC 6214-210 B itself assuming a 100:1 gas-to-dust ratio and characteristic dust temperature of 10-20 K. If the host star possesses a putative c...

  15. The Inner Mass Distribution of the Gravitational Lens SDP.81 from ALMA Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Kenneth C; Matsushita, Satoki

    2015-01-01

    The central image of a strongly lensed background source places constraints on the foreground lens galaxy's inner mass profile slope, core radius and mass of its nuclear supermassive black hole. Using high-resolution long-baseline Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations and archival $Hubble~Space~Telescope$ ($HST$) imaging, we model the gravitational lens H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (also known as SDP.81) and search for the demagnified central image. There is central continuum emission from the lens galaxy's active galactic nucleus (AGN) but no evidence of the central lensed image in any molecular line. We use the CO $J$=5-4 map to determine the flux limit of the central image excluding the AGN continuum. We predict the flux density of the central image and use the limits from the ALMA data to constrain the inner mass distribution of the lens. For the core radius of $0.15"$ measured from $HST$ photometry of the lens galaxy assuming that the central flux is completely attributed to the AG...

  16. A Measurement of the Black-Hole Mass in NGC 1097 using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Onishi, Kyoko; Sheth, Kartik; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    We present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy \\object{NGC 1097} using Atacamma Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of dense gas kinematics. Dense molecular gas dynamics are traced with ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$ and ${\\rm HCO^{+}} (J=1-0)$ emission lines. Assuming a host galaxy inclination of $46^{\\circ}$, we derive a SMBH mass, $M_{\\rm BH}=1.40^{+0.27}_{-0.32} \\times 10^{8}M_{\\odot}$, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be $5.14^{+0.03}_{-0.04}$, using ${\\rm HCN} (J=1-0)$. The estimated parameters are consistent between the two emission lines. The measured SMBH mass is in good agreement with the SMBH mass and bulge velocity dispersion relationship. Our result showcases ALMA's potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses, especially for nearby late-type galaxies. Larger samples and accurate SMBH masses will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole (BH) and host galaxy properties and constrain the coevolutionary growt...

  17. ALMA observations of a misaligned binary protoplanetary disk system in Orion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Mann, Rita K.; Francesco, James Di; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hughes, A. Meredith [Van Vleck Observatory, Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, 96 Foss Hill Drive, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Bally, John, E-mail: jpw@ifa.hawaii.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, CB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a wide binary system in Orion, with projected separation 440 AU, in which we detect submillimeter emission from the protoplanetary disks around each star. Both disks appear moderately massive and have strong line emission in CO 3-2, HCO{sup +} 4-3, and HCN 3-2. In addition, CS 7-6 is detected in one disk. The line-to-continuum ratios are similar for the two disks in each of the lines. From the resolved velocity gradients across each disk, we constrain the masses of the central stars, and show consistency with optical-infrared spectroscopy, both indicative of a high mass ratio ∼9. The small difference between the systemic velocities indicates that the binary orbital plane is close to face-on. The angle between the projected disk rotation axes is very high, ∼72°, showing that the system did not form from a single massive disk or a rigidly rotating cloud core. This finding, which adds to related evidence from disk geometries in other systems, protostellar outflows, stellar rotation, and similar recent ALMA results, demonstrates that turbulence or dynamical interactions act on small scales well below that of molecular cores during the early stages of star formation.

  18. ALMA Observations of the Coldest Place in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R; Huggins, P J; Nyman, L-A; Gonidakis, I

    2013-01-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, and an extreme member of the class of Pre-Planetary Nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the AGB and Planetary Nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J=1-0) observations (with a 45 arcsec beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang with ALMA in the CO J=2-1 and J=1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with HST and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter ...

  19. Development of the control system for the 40m OAN radiotelescope with the Alma Common Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, P.; Bolaño, R.; Barbas, L.

    2006-07-01

    The Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN) is building a 40m radiotelescope in its facilities in Yebes (Spain) which will be delivered in summer 2006. The radiotelescope is an instrument composed of antenna, receivers, backends, and auxiliary equipment connected through a Local Area Network (LAN). The control system has to deal with a distributed environment which needs to be remotely controlled and monitored from external heterogeneous users (astronomers and engineers) and requires multiple processes simultaneously working and being synchronized. We have chosen the Alma Common Software (ACS) framework for the development of the control system. ACS provides an implementation of the component/container paradigm via Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and also provides general purpose utility libraries, hiding the complexity of CORBA to the developer. ACS is supported by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the National Radioastronomy Observatory (NRAO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) with a lifetime similar to our radiotelescope. This is an important guarantee for the OAN with a very reduced software team. We present an overview of the planned software architecture of the radiotelescope and the current status of the development of the components.

  20. Millimeter Emission Structure in the first ALMA Image of the AU Mic Debris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Meredith A; Rosenfeld, Katherine A; Andrews, Sean M; Matthews, Brenda; Hughes, A Meredith; Booth, Mark; Chiang, Eugene; Graham, James R; Kalas, Paul; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    We present 1.3 millimeter ALMA Cycle 0 observations of the edge-on debris disk around the nearby, ~10 Myr-old, M-type star AU Mic. These observations obtain 0.6 arcsec (6 AU) resolution and reveal two distinct emission components: (1) the previously known dust belt that extends to a radius of 40 AU, and (2) a newly recognized central peak that remains unresolved. The cold dust belt of mass about 1 lunar mass is resolved in the radial direction with a rising emission profile that peaks sharply at the location of the outer edge of the "birth ring" of planetesimals hypothesized to explain the midplane scattered light gradients. No significant asymmetries are discerned in the structure or position of this dust belt. The central peak identified in the ALMA image is ~6 times brighter than the stellar photosphere, which indicates an additional emission process in the inner regions of the system. Emission from a stellar corona or activity may contribute, but the observations show no signs of temporal variations chara...

  1. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and its Complementarity to ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, Dave

    2007-01-01

    We report results of a pre-Formulation Phase study of SPIRIT, a candidate NASA Origins Probe mission. SPIRIT is a spatial and spectral interferometer with an operating wavelength range 25 - 400 microns. SPIRIT will provide sub-arcsecond resolution images and spectra with resolution R = 3000 in a 1 arcmin field of view to accomplish three primary scientific objectives: (1) Learn how planetary systems form from protostellar disks, and how they acquire their chemical organization; (2) Characterize the family of extrasolar planetary systems by imaging the structure in debris disks to understand how and where planets of different types form; and (3) Learn how high-redshift galaxies formed and merged to form the present-day population of galaxies. In each of these science domains, SPIRIT will yield information complementary to that obtainable with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), and all three observatories could operate contemporaneously. Here we shall emphasize the SPIRIT science goals (1) and (2) and the mission's complementarity with ALMA.

  2. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-06-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  3. ON THE NATURE OF THE TERTIARY COMPANION TO FW TAU: ALMA CO OBSERVATIONS AND SED MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, Claudio; Hardy, Adam; Schreiber, Matthias R.; Cánovas, Héctor [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, 2360102 Valparaíso (Chile); Cieza, Lucas A. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Williams, Jonathan P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Hales, Antonio [Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array, Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, 763-0355 Santiago (Chile); Pinte, Christophe [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, CNRS, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Ménard, Francois [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, UMI 3386 (France); Wahhaj, Zahed [European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, 19001 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-20

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FW Tau system. We present here ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak {sup 12}CO (2–1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with either a brown dwarf embedded in an edge-on disk or a planet embedded in a low inclination disk, which is externally irradiated by the binary companion. Further observations with ALMA, aiming for high SNR detections of non-contaminated gas lines, are required to conclusively unveil the nature of the third object in FW Tau.

  4. The End of Protoplanetary Disk Evolution: An ALMA Survey of Upper Scorpius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Sargent, Anneila I.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of the mass of solids in circumstellar disks is a key factor in determining how planets form. Infrared observations have established that the dust in primordial disks vanishes around the majority of stars by an age of 5-10 Myr. However, how this disappearance proceeds is poorly constrained. Only with longer wavelength observations, where the dust emission is optically thin, is it possible to measure disk dust mass and how it varies as a function of age. To this end, we have obtained ALMA 0.88 mm observations of over 100 sources with suspected circumstellar disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association (Upper Sco). The 5-11 Myr age of Upper Sco suggests that any such disks will be quite evolved, making this association an ideal target to compare to systems of younger disks in order to study evolution. With ALMA, we achieve an order of magnitude improvement in sensitivity over previous (sub)millimeter surveys of Upper Sco and detect 58 disks in the continuum. We calculate the total dust masses of these disks and compare their masses to those of younger disks in Taurus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon. We find strong evidence for a decline in disk dust mass between these 1-3 Myr old systems and the 5-11 Myr old Upper Sco. Our results represent the first definitive measurement of a decline in disk dust mass with age.

  5. Travessias discursivas: intertextualidade e interdisciplinaridade no romance Netto perde sua alma, de Tabajara Ruas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Andrade Duarte

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma leitura crítica das relações intertextuais promovidas por Netto perde sua alma pretende-se analisar o romance, de Tabajara Ruas, não só em seu diálogo interdisciplinar com a historiografia, mas também nas relações que a obra suscita com outros textos literários. Nesse caminho, percebe-se que a historiografia tradicionalmente trata os homens que participaram de guerras como semideuses, configurando-os apenas por suas ações e participações heroicas em conflitos políticos. Enquanto o romance Netto perde sua alma, sem deixar de incorporar ações heroicas de seu protagonista, privilegia a configuração de uma dimensão humana e humanizadora de sua personagem histórica, pois a faz refletir e questionar profundamente sobre tais ações.  Dessa forma, destacamos nessa leitura o processo de humanização que o romance de Tabajara Ruas promove de um personagem relevante da história do Rio Grande do Sul, o General Antonio de Souza Netto.

  6. Atomic carbon as a tracer of molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies: perspectives for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, Matteo; Romano-Diaz, Emilio; Ludlow, Aaron D; Papadopoulos, Padelis P

    2014-01-01

    We use a high-resolution simulation that tracks the non-equilibrium abundance of molecular hydrogen, H2, within a massive high-redshift galaxy to produce mock ALMA maps of the fine-structure lines of atomic carbon CI 1-0 and CI 2-1. Inspired by recent observational and theoretical work, we assume that CI is thoroughly mixed in giant molecular clouds and demonstrate that its emission is an excellent proxy for H2. The entire H2 mass of a galaxy at redshift z<4 can be detected using a compact interferometric configuration with a large synthesized beam (that does not resolve the target galaxy) in less than 1 hour of integration time. Low-resolution imaging of the CI lines (in which the target galaxy is resolved into 3-4 beams) will detect nearly 50-60 per cent of the molecular hydrogen in less than 12 hours. In this case, the data cube also provides valuable information regarding the dynamical state of the galaxy. We conclude that ALMA observations of the CI 1-0 and 2-1 emission will widely extend the interval...

  7. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2016-01-01

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  8. ALMA and VLA observations of the outflows in IRAS 16293-2422

    CERN Document Server

    Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F; Pech, Gerardo; Chandler, Claire J; Brogan, Crystal L; Wilner, David J; Ho, Paul T P; Parise, Berengere; Hartmann, Lee W; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    We present ALMA and VLA observations of the molecular and ionized gas at 0.1-0.3 arcsec resolution in the Class 0 protostellar system IRAS 16293-2422. These data clarify the origins of the protostellar outflows from the deeply embedded sources in this complex region. Source A2 is confirmed to be at the origin of the well known large scale north-east--south-west flow. The most recent VLA observations reveal a new ejection from that protostar, demonstrating that it drives an episodic jet. The central compact part of the other known large scale flow in the system, oriented roughly east-west, is well delineated by the CO(6-5) emission imaged with ALMA and is confirmed to be driven from within component A. Finally, a one-sided blueshifted bubble-like outflow structure is detected here for the first time from source B to the north-west of the system. Its very short dynamical timescale (~ 200 yr), low velocity, and moderate collimation support the idea that source B is the youngest object in the system, and possibly...

  9. ALMA observations of massive molecular gas filaments encasing radio bubbles in the Phoenix cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; McNamara, B R; Fabian, A C; Nulsen, P E J; Bayliss, M B; Benson, B A; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Edge, A C; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Marrone, D P; Reichardt, C L; Vieira, J D

    2016-01-01

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from the $2.7\\pm0.4\\times10^{10}\\rm\\thinspace M_{\\odot}$ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fuelling a vigorous starburst at a rate of $500-800\\rm\\thinspace M_{\\odot}\\rm\\; yr^{-1}$ and powerful black hole activity in the form of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each $10-20\\rm\\; kpc$ long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered molecular gas flows around each bubble, which are inconsistent with gravitational free-fall. The molecular clouds have been lifted directly by the radio bubbles, or formed via thermal instabilities ...

  10. Scientific and technological Challenges in the development of astronomical instrumentation: E-ELT & ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrado, David; Gallego, Jesús

    2009-12-01

    The answers to the present astrophysical questions require the development of highly sophisticated instrumentation, which needs long-term scheduling and large assets of human and material resources, managed by consortia of several institutions. Spain has carried in the last years serious efforts in this direction (GTC, ESO, ESA), but there is still a notable offset between astronomical research at the theoretical and observational levels and the development of instrumentation. Now, the incorporation of new countries to ESO (in particular Spain) to ESO and several future big projects (ALMA, E-ELT, Cosmic Vision), raise the level of exigency. The goal of this workshop is to gather the scientific teams and the industries of the sector to expose their needs and projects, and share experiences. The workshop is aimed as well at serving as an echo to convince financing agencies and the astronomical community in general of the need to promote with decision the development of astrophysical instrumentation and the tools for the analysis of related data. The formation and acknowledgement of instrumentation astronomers will be a key factor for Spain to meet the requirements of its position in Astronomy in the next decades. Here, we present the contributions most closely related to the development of E-ELT, ALMA and ESA missions.

  11. Alma Observations of Massive Molecular Gas Filaments Encasing Radio Bubbles in the Phoenix Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, H. R.; McDonald, M.; McNamara, B. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Bayliss, M. B.; Benson, B. A.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Edge, A. C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Marrone, D. P.; Reichardt, C. L.; Vieira, J. D.

    2017-02-01

    We report new ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) line emission from the 2.1+/- 0.3× {10}10 {M}ȯ molecular gas reservoir in the central galaxy of the Phoenix cluster. The cold molecular gas is fueling a vigorous starburst at a rate of 500{--}800 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and powerful black hole activity in the forms of both intense quasar radiation and radio jets. The radio jets have inflated huge bubbles filled with relativistic plasma into the hot, X-ray atmospheres surrounding the host galaxy. The ALMA observations show that extended filaments of molecular gas, each 10{--}20 {kpc} long with a mass of several billion solar masses, are located along the peripheries of the radio bubbles. The smooth velocity gradients and narrow line widths along each filament reveal massive, ordered molecular gas flows around each bubble, which are inconsistent with gravitational free-fall. The molecular clouds have been lifted directly by the radio bubbles, or formed via thermal instabilities induced in low-entropy gas lifted in the updraft of the bubbles. These new data provide compelling evidence for close coupling between the radio bubbles and the cold gas, which is essential to explain the self-regulation of feedback. The very feedback mechanism that heats hot atmospheres and suppresses star formation may also paradoxically stimulate production of the cold gas required to sustain feedback in massive galaxies.

  12. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302

    CERN Document Server

    Santander-García, M; Alcolea, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Sánchez-Contreras, C; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Corradi, R L M; Neri, R

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich equatorial regions of post-AGB stars can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms at work. We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. The high spatial resolution of the $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO J=3-2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the SHAPEMOL plug-in. We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much grea...

  13. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Coutens, A.; Lykke, J. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Calcutt, H.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Garrod, R. T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims: The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods: An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293-2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5'' (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s-1, and a sensitivity of 4-5 mJy beam-1 km s-1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results: More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s-1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or

  14. ALMA observations of anisotropic dust mass loss in the inner circumstellar environment of the red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Gorman, E.; Vlemmings, W.; Richards, A.M.S.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Harper, G.M.; Humphreys, E.M.; Kervella, P.; Khouri, T.; Muller, S.

    2015-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These

  15. Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA. II. The chemistry of the dense molecular gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viti, S.; García-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Usero, A.; Henkel, C.; Eckart, A.; Martin, S.; Spaans, M.; Muller, S.; Combes, F.; Krips, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Casasola, V.; Costagliola, F.; Marquez, I.; Planesas, P.; van der Werf, P. P.; Aalto, S.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present a detailed analysis of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Bands 7 and 9 data of CO, HCO+, HCN, and CS, augmented with Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) data of the ~200 pc circumnuclear disc (CND) and the ~1.3 kpc starburst ring (SB ring) of NGC 1068, a nearby (

  16. An ALMA survey of submillimetre galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: High resolution 870um source counts

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, Alexander; Hodge, Jackie; Smail, Ian; Walter, Fabian; Biggs, Andy; Simpson, James; Danielson, Alice; Alexander, David; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Edge, Alastair; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Knudsen, Kirsten; Menten, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; Weiß, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We report the first counts of faint submillimetre galaxies (SMG) in the 870-um band derived from arcsecond resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). We have used ALMA to map a sample of 122 870-um-selected submillimetre sources drawn from the (0.5x0.5)deg^2 LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Submillimetre Survey (LESS). These ALMA maps have an average depth of sigma(870um)~0.4mJy, some ~3x deeper than the original LABOCA survey and critically the angular resolution is more than an order of magnitude higher, FWHM of ~1.5" compared to ~19" for the LABOCA discovery map. This combination of sensitivity and resolution allows us to precisely pin-point the SMGs contributing to the submillimetre sources from the LABOCA map, free from the effects of confusion. We show that our ALMA-derived SMG counts broadly agree with the submillimetre source counts from previous, lower-resolution single-dish surveys, demonstrating that the bulk of the submillimetre sources are not caused by blendi...

  17. Kan strategien for primær sundhedstjeneste genoplives 30 år efter Alma-Ata?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Probst, Helene Bilsted; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Thirty years ago the Alma-Ata declaration on primary health care was developed. Implementation has been compounded by inadequate financing, changing disease patterns and immature health systems, and there is an ongoing discussion between selective and comprehensive primary health care supporters...

  18. The ALMA high speed optical communication link is here: an essential component for reliable present and future operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, S.; Liello, F.; Ovando, N.; Astudillo, A.; Parra, J.; Saldias, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Announced in 2012, started in 2013 and completed in 2015, the ALMA high bandwidth communication system has become a key factor to achieve the operational and scientific goals of ALMA. This paper summarizes the technical, organizational, and operational goals of the ALMA Optical Link Project, focused in the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Operations Support Facility and Array Operations Site, both located in the Atacama Desert in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence of REUNA in Antofagasta, about 400km away, and from there to the Santiago Central Office in the Chilean capital through the optical infrastructure created by the EC-funded EVALSO project and now an integral part of the REUNA backbone. This new infrastructure completed in 2014 and now operated on behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, uses state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. The paper also reports on the results obtained during the first year and a half testing and operation period, where different operational set ups have been experienced for data transfer, remote collaboration, etc. Finally, the authors will present a forward look of the impact of it to both the future scientific development of the Chajnantor Plateau, where many installations area are (and will be) located, as well as the potential Chilean scientific backbone long term development.

  19. The ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S). I. The massive end of the z = 4 main sequence of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, C.; Pannella, M.; Leiton, R.; Elbaz, D.; Wang, T.; Okumura, K.; Labbé, I.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce the ALMA Redshift 4 Survey (AR4S), a systematic ALMA survey of all the known galaxies with stellar mass (M∗) larger than 5 × 1010M⊙ at 3.5 frame) with an on-source integration time of 1.3 min per galaxy. We detected 32% of the sample at more than 3σ significance. Using the stacked ALMA and Herschel photometry, we derived an average dust temperature of 40 ± 2 K for the whole sample, and extrapolate the LIR and SFR for all our galaxies based on their ALMA flux. We then used a forward modeling approach to estimate their intrinsic sSFR distribution, deconvolved of measurement errors and selection effects: we find a linear relation between SFR and M∗, with a median sSFR = 2.8 ± 0.8 Gyr and a dispersion around that relation of 0.28 ± 0.13 dex. This latter value is consistent with that measured at lower redshifts, which is proof that the main sequence of star-forming galaxies was already in place at z = 4, at least among massive galaxies. These new constraints on the properties of the main sequence are in good agreement with the latest predictions from numerical simulations, and suggest that the bulk of star formation in galaxies is driven by the same mechanism from z = 4 to the present day, that is, over at least 90% of the cosmic history. We also discuss the consequences of our results on the population of early quiescent galaxies. This paper is part of a series that will employ these new ALMA observations to explore the star formation and dust properties of the massive end of the z = 4 galaxy population.

  20. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS): First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Jørgensen, J K; Coutens, A; Lykke, J M; Müller, H S P; van Dishoeck, E F; Calcutt, H; Bjerkeli, P; Bourke, T L; Drozdovskaya, M N; Favre, C; Fayolle, E C; Garrod, R T; Jacobsen, S K; Öberg, K I; Persson, M V; Wampfler, S F

    2016-01-01

    The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterised by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. This paper introduces a systematic survey, "Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)" of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The survey covers the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) with additional targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. More than 10,000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary. Glycolaldehyde, its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid, and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the ISM. The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or slightly larger than that of ethylene glycol. In comparison to the Galactic Center, these two species...

  1. Platão e a cidade justa: poetas ilusionistas e potências da alma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gazolla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A censura que Platão faz à poesia na República apresenta dois ângulos que serão investigados neste texto: de um lado, a relação com a mímesis, considerada como necessária para o conhecimento pela via da phantasía; de outro, a relação do gênero epithymético da alma, com a crítica mais específica exposta no livro X.The censorship Plato directs against poetry in the Republic is investigated from two points of view in this article: on one hand, the perspective of mimesis, which is seen as necessary to achieve knowledge, through phantasía; on the other, the issue of the epithymetic genre of soul, which is part of the more specific criticism developed in book X.

  2. From Alma Ata to the Global Fund: The history of international health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italian Global Health Watch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available “Global Funds are like stars in the sky, you can see them, admire them, appreciate their abundance… but fail to touch them.” - Ministry of Health Official, Malawi Abstract The paper traces the evolution of international health policies and international health institutions, starting from the birth of the World Health Organization, the setting up of the Health for All target at the Alma Ata conference in 1978 and the rise of neo-liberal policies promoted by international financial institutions from 1980 to the present. The paper looks at different issues surrounding public-private partnerships and the setting up of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the influence of these institutions on the health systems in poor countries.

  3. Dense Cloud Cores revealed by ALMA CO observations in the low metallicity dwarf galaxy WLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, M.; Elmegreen, B.; Hunter, D.; Cortes, J.; Brinks, E.; Cigan, P.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding stellar birth requires observations of the clouds in which they form. These clouds are dense and self-gravitating, and in all existing observations, they are molecular with H2 the dominant species and CO the best available. When the abundances of carbon and oxygen are low compared to hydrogen, and the opacity from dust is also low, as in primeval galaxies and local dwarf irregular galaxies CO forms slowly and is easily destroyed, so it cannot accumulate inside dense clouds. Then we lose our ability to trace the gas in regions of star formation and we lose critical information on the temperatures, densities, and velocities of the material that collapses. I will report on high resolution observations with ALMA of CO clouds in the local group dwarf irregular galaxy WLM, which has a metallicity that is 13% of the solar value and 50% lower than the previous CO detection threshold and the properties derived of very small dense CO clouds mapped..

  4. ALMA resolves turbulent, rotating [CII] emission in a young starburst galaxy at z=4.8

    CERN Document Server

    De Breuck, Carlos; Swinbank, Mark; Caselli, Paola; Coppin, Kristen; Davis, Timothy A; Maiolino, Roberto; Nagao, Tohru; Smail, Ian; Walter, Fabian; Weiss, Axel; Zwaan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present spatially resolved Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) [CII] observations of the z=4.7555 submillimetre galaxy, ALESS 73.1. Our 0.5" FWHM map resolves the [CII] emitting gas which is centred close to the active galactic nucleus (AGN). The gas kinematics are dominated by rotation but with high turbulence, v_rot/sigma_int~3.1, and a Toomre Q parameter ~0.4. The diameter of the dust continuum emission is 80 Gyr^{-1}, especially since there are no clear indications of recent merger activity. Finally, our high signal-to-noise [CII] measurement revises the observed [NII]/[CII] ratio, which suggests a close to solar metallicity, unless the [CII] flux contains significant contributions from HII regions. Our observations suggest that ALESS73.1 is a nascent galaxy undergoing its first major burst of star formation, embedded within an unstable but metal-rich gas disk.

  5. La inmortalidad del alma: historia de un argumento político

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saralegui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina una cuestión fundamental y poco estudiada de la teología política: la relación entre la defensa de la inmortalidad del alma y el mantenimiento del orden público. Se realiza un recorrido histórico por autores como Pietro Pomponazzi y Tomás Moro, que aceptan motivos políticos para defenderla, y David Hume, quien considera que no existe ningún motivo político para mantener dicha relación. Por último, se analizan los argumentos esgrimidos para mostrar que su eficacia está condicionada por la situación histórica.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA survey of Lupus protoplanetary disks. I. (Ansdell+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-11-01

    Our ALMA Cycle 2 observations (Project ID: 2013.1.00220.S) were obtained on 2015 June 14 (AGK-type sources and unknown spectral types) and 2015 June 15 (M-type sources). The continuum spectral windows were centered on 328.3, 340.0, and 341.8GHz with bandwidths of 1.875, 0.938, and 1.875 GHz and channel widths of 15.625, 0.244, and 0.977MHz, respectively. The bandwidth-weighted mean continuum frequency was 335.8GHz (890um). The spectral setup included two windows covering the 13CO and C18O 3-2 transitions; these spectral windows were centered on 330.6 and 329.3GHz, respectively, with bandwidths of 58.594MHz, channel widths of 0.122MHz, and velocity resolutions of 0.11km/s. (3 data files).

  7. Local instability signatures in ALMA observations of dense gas in NGC7469

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Kambiz; Romeo, Alessandro B; Martín, Sergio; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Hatziminaoglou, Evanthia; Aalto, Susanne; Espada, Daniel; Kohno, Kotaro; Krips, Melanie; Matsushita, Satoki; Meier, David S; Nakai, Naomasa; Terashima, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    We present an unprecedented measurement of the disc stability and local instability scales in the luminous infrared Seyfert 1 host, NGC7469, based on ALMA observations of dense gas tracers and with a synthesized beam of 165 x 132 pc. While we confirm that non-circular motions are not significant in redistributing the dense interstellar gas in this galaxy, we find compelling evidence that the dense gas is a suitable tracer for studying the origin of its intensely high-mass star forming ring-like structure. Our derived disc stability parameter accounts for a thick disc structure and its value falls below unity at the radii in which intense star formation is found. Furthermore, we derive the characteristic instability scale and find a striking agreement between our measured scale of ~ 180 pc, and the typical sizes of individual complexes of young and massive star clusters seen in high-resolution images.

  8. Healthcare for the poor and dispossessed: from Alma-Ata to the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, S R

    2011-07-01

    Healthcare models which recognize the equity principle have had to confront the challenge of providing healthcare for the poor and dispossessed. Healthcare premised on "human rights" strives to remove/ reduce barriers to access by a complete waiver of all fees in the public sector or various other subsidies to make healthcare more affordable. Social welfare programmes are held hostage to the vagaries of the economy and resource scarcity. The Alma-Ata's primary healthcare is inherently a health development strategy which embraces a wholistic approach to health and wellness. This strategy, by refocussing on the Millennium Development Goals, can therefore accommodate the innovations required to overcome the challenges posed by technological, financial, cultural and geographical factors to provide a better quality of life for all, but moreso for the poor and dispossessed.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA observations of GKM stars in Upper Sco (Barenfeld+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, S. A.; Carpenter, J. M.; Ricci, L.; Isella, A.

    2016-11-01

    ALMA observations were obtained in Cycle 0 and Cycle 2 using the 12m array. Twenty sources were observed in Cycle 0 between 2012 August and 2012 December. Eighty-seven sources were observed in 2014 June and 2014 July. All observations used band 7 with the correlator configured to record dual polarization. Spectral windows for Cycle 2 were centered at 334.2, 336.1, 346.2, and 348.1GHz for a mean frequency of 341.1GHz (0.88mm). The bandwidth of each window is 1.875GHz. Cycle 0 observations used between 17 and 28 antennas with maximum baselines of ~400m, for an angular resolution of ~0.55". Cycle 2 observations used between 34 and 36 antennas with baselines extending out to 650m, corresponding to an angular resolution of 0.34". (3 data files).

  10. Black hole mass measurement using molecular gas kinematics: what ALMA can do

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ilsang

    2017-04-01

    We study the limits of the spatial and velocity resolution of radio interferometry to infer the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centres using the kinematics of circum-nuclear molecular gas, by considering the shapes of the galaxy surface brightness profile, signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of the position-velocity diagram (PVD) and systematic errors due to the spatial and velocity structure of the molecular gas. We argue that for fixed galaxy stellar mass and SMBH mass, the spatial and velocity scales that need to be resolved increase and decrease, respectively, with decreasing Sérsic index of the galaxy surface brightness profile. We validate our arguments using simulated PVDs for varying beam size and velocity channel width. Furthermore, we consider the systematic effects on the inference of the SMBH mass by simulating PVDs including the spatial and velocity structure of the molecular gas, which demonstrates that their impacts are not significant for a PVD with good S/N unless the spatial and velocity scale associated with the systematic effects are comparable to or larger than the angular resolution and velocity channel width of the PVD from pure circular motion. Also, we caution that a bias in a galaxy surface brightness profile owing to the poor resolution of a galaxy photometric image can largely bias the SMBH mass by an order of magnitude. This study shows the promise and the limits of ALMA observations for measuring SMBH mass using molecular gas kinematics and provides a useful technical justification for an ALMA proposal with the science goal of measuring SMBH mass.

  11. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE COLDEST PLACE IN THE UNIVERSE: THE BOOMERANG NEBULA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Vlemmings, W. H. T. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Huggins, P. J. [Physics Department, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Nyman, L.-Å. [Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO), Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile (Chile); Gonidakis, I., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield NSW 2122 (Australia)

    2013-11-10

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, and an extreme member of the class of pre-planetary nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J = 1-0) observations (with a 45'' beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang Nebula with ALMA in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible wavelength range is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold, high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist—these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (millimeter-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultra-cold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating.

  12. ALMA Observations of the Coldest Place in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Huggins, P. J.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Gonidakis, I.

    2013-11-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, and an extreme member of the class of pre-planetary nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the asymptotic giant branch and planetary nebula evolutionary stages. Previous single-dish CO (J = 1-0) observations (with a 45'' beam) showed that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. Here we report the first observations of the Boomerang Nebula with ALMA in the CO J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 lines to resolve the structure of this ultra-cold nebula. We find a central hourglass-shaped nebula surrounded by a patchy, but roughly round, cold high-velocity outflow. We compare the ALMA data with visible-light images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and confirm that the limb-brightened bipolar lobes seen in these data represent hollow cavities with dense walls of molecular gas and dust producing both the molecular-emission-line and scattered-light structures seen at millimeter and visible wavelengths. The large diffuse biconical shape of the nebula seen in the visible wavelength range is likely due to preferential illumination of the cold, high-velocity outflow. We find a compact source of millimeter-wave continuum in the nebular waist—these data, together with sensitive upper limits on the radio continuum using observations with ATCA, indicate the presence of a substantial mass of very large (millimeter-sized) grains in the waist of the nebula. Another unanticipated result is the detection of CO emission regions beyond the ultra-cold region which indicate the re-warming of the cold gas, most likely due to photoelectric grain heating.

  13. Exocometary gas structure, origin and physical properties around β Pictoris through ALMA CO multitransition observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Wyatt, M. C.; Kral, Q.; Wilner, D. J.; Panić, O.; Hughes, A. M.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Hales, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Greaves, J.; Roberge, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations unveiled the structure of CO gas in the 23 Myr old β Pictoris planetary system, a component that has been discovered in many similarly young debris discs. We here present ALMA CO J = 2-1 observations, at an improved spectro-spatial resolution and sensitivity compared to previous CO J = 3-2 observations. We find that (1) the CO clump is radially broad, favouring the resonant migration over the giant impact scenario for its dynamical origin, (2) the CO disc is vertically tilted compared to the main dust disc, at an angle consistent with the scattered light warp. We then use position-velocity diagrams to trace Keplerian radii in the orbital plane of the disc. Assuming a perfectly edge-on geometry, this shows a CO scaleheight increasing with radius as R0.75, and an electron density [derived from CO line ratios through non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) analysis] in agreement with thermodynamical models. Furthermore, we show how observations of optically thin line ratios can solve the primordial versus secondary origin dichotomy in gas-bearing debris discs. As shown for β Pictoris, subthermal (NLTE) CO excitation is symptomatic of H2 densities that are insufficient to shield CO from photodissociation over the system's lifetime. This means that replenishment from exocometary volatiles must be taking place, proving the secondary origin of the disc. In this scenario, assuming steady state production/destruction of CO gas, we derive the CO+CO2 ice abundance by mass in β Pic's exocomets to be at most ˜6 per cent, consistent with comets in our own Solar system and in the coeval HD181327 system.

  14. Merger-induced Shocks in the Nearby LIRG VV 114 through Methanol Observations with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshiki; Iono, Daisuke; Espada, Daniel; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ueda, Junko; Sugai, Hajime; Takano, Shuro; Yun, Min S.; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Ohashi, Satoshi; Lee, Minju; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Motohara, Kentaro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of two CH3OH lines (JK = 2K–1K and 3K–2K) between the progenitor’s disks (“Overlap”) of the mid-stage merging galaxy VV 114 obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3 and Band 4. The detected CH3OH emission shows an extended filamentary structure (∼3 kpc) across the progenitor’s disks with relatively large velocity width (FWZI ∼ 150 km s‑1). The emission is only significant in the “overlap” and not detected in the two merging nuclei. Assuming optically thin emission and local thermodynamic equilibrium, we found the CH3OH column density relative to H2 ({X}{{CH}3{OH}}) peaks at the “Overlap” (∼8 × 10‑9), which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that at the eastern nucleus. We suggest that kpc-scale shocks driven by galaxy–galaxy collision may play an important role to enhance the CH3OH abundance at the “Overlap.” This scenario is consistent with shock-induced large velocity dispersion components of ionized gas that have been detected in optical wavelength at the same region. Conversely, low {X}{{CH}3{OH}} at the nuclear regions might be attributed to the strong photodissociation by nuclear starbursts and/or a putative active galactic nucleus, or inefficient production of CH3OH on dust grains due to initial high-temperature conditions (i.e., desorption of the precursor molecule, CO, into gas phase before forming CH3OH on dust grains). These ALMA observations demonstrate that CH3OH is a unique tool to address kpc-scale shock-induced gas dynamics and star formation in merging galaxies.

  15. An ALMA and MagAO Study of the Substellar Companion GQ Lup B*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Sheehan, Patrick D.; Males, Jared R.; Close, Laird M.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Teske, Johanna K.; Haug-Baltzell, Asher; Merchant, Nirav; Lyons, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Multi-wavelength observations provide a complementary view of the formation of young, directly imaged planet-mass companions. We report the ALMA 1.3 mm and Magellan adaptive optics Hα, i\\prime , z\\prime , and Y S observations of the GQ Lup system, a classical T Tauri star with a 10{--}40 {M}{Jup} substellar companion at ∼110 au projected separation. We estimate the accretion rates for both components from the observed Hα fluxes. In our ∼0.″05 resolution ALMA map, we resolve GQ Lup A’s disk in the dust continuum, but no signal is found from the companion. The disk is compact, with a radius of ∼22 au, a dust mass of ∼6 M ⊕, an inclination angle of ∼56°, and a very flat surface density profile indicative of a radial variation in dust grain sizes. No gaps or inner cavity are found in the disk, so there is unlikely a massive inner companion to scatter GQ Lup B outward. Thus, GQ Lup B might have formed in situ via disk fragmentation or prestellar core collapse. We also show that GQ Lup A’s disk is misaligned with its spin axis, and possibly with GQ Lup B’s orbit. Our analysis on the tidal truncation radius of GQ Lup A’s disk suggests that GQ Lup B’s orbit might have a low eccentricity. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  16. ALMA 1.3 mm Observation of the Fomalhaut Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jacob; Boley, Aaron C.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matthew J.; Dent, William; Corder, Stuartt

    2017-01-01

    We present ALMA Band 6 (1.3 mm) observations of Fomalhaut and its debris disk. Since the system is relatively close at 7.7 pc, it has been the target of numerous studies at multiple wavelengths, and can serve as a testbed for debris disk evolution models and planet-disk interactions. Outstanding issues that need to be resolved to properly characterize the debris include tightening constraints on the spectral index in the submm/mm regime and determining whether there is indeed excess over the stellar emission, indicating the presence of an inner debris disk or ring.These ALMA 1.3 mm observations provide the highest resolution observations to date of the mm grains the outer ring. Tight constraints are placed on the geometry of the disk and on the mm-wavelength spectral index. We explore fitting the debris disk model in the image plane in addition to the standard method of fitting the visibilities. The results are compared and potential advantages/disadvantages of each approach are discussed.The central emission detected is indistinguishable from a point source, with 0.90 mJy being the best fit flux of the host star for Fomalhaut itself. This implies that any inner debris component must contribute little to the total central emission. Moreover, the stellar flux is less than 70% of that predicted by extrapolating a blackbody from the constrained photosphere temperature and just over 70% of the flux if extrapolating from the far infrared. This behavior is similar to that seen in the Sun for submm/mm wavelengths, but even more pronounced. Currently, insufficient data exists to properly constrain the degree to which stellar atmospheres affect the observed flux in the submm/mm regime. This result is part of an ongoing larger project focused on measuring the emission from stellar atmospheres at submm/mm wavelengths, which directly impacts inferred excesses for debris disk studies.

  17. Detection of the Simplest Sugar, Glycolaldehyde, in a Solar-type Protostar with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Jes K.; Favre, Cécile; Bisschop, Suzanne E.; Bourke, Tyler L.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Schmalzl, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this Letter we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH3), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show redshifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS 16293B) indicative of infall and emission at the systemic velocity offset from this by about 0farcs2 (25 AU). We discuss the constraints on the chemical formation of glycolaldehyde and other organic species—in particular, in the context of laboratory experiments of photochemistry of methanol-containing ices. The relative abundances appear to be consistent with UV photochemistry of a CH3OH-CO mixed ice that has undergone mild heating. The order of magnitude increase in line density in these early ALMA data illustrates its huge potential to reveal the full chemical complexity associated with the formation of solar system analogs.

  18. Spatially resolved CO SLED of the Luminous Merger Remnant NGC 1614 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Toshiki; Iono, Daisuke; Xu, Cong K.; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Ueda, Junko; Espada, Daniel; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; König, Sabine; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Lee, Minju; Yun, Min S.; Aalto, Susanne; Hibbard, John E.; Yamashita, Takuji; Motohara, Kentaro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2017-02-01

    We present high-resolution (1.″0) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of CO (1–0) and CO (2–1) rotational transitions toward the nearby IR-luminous merger NGC 1614 supplemented with ALMA archival data of CO (3–2) and CO (6–5) transitions. The CO (6–5) emission arises from the starburst ring (central 590 pc in radius), while the lower-J CO lines are distributed over the outer disk (∼3.3 kpc in radius). Radiative transfer and photon-dominated region (PDR) modeling reveals that the starburst ring has a single warmer gas component with more a intense far-ultraviolet radiation field ({n}{{{H}}2}∼ {10}4.6 cm‑3, {T}{kin}∼ 42 K, and {G}0∼ {10}2.7) relative to the outer disk ({n}{{{H}}2}∼ {10}5.1 cm‑3, {T}{kin}∼ 22 K, and {G}0∼ {10}0.9). A two-phase molecular interstellar medium with a warm and cold (>70 and ∼19 K) component is also an applicable model for the starburst ring. A possible source for heating the warm gas component is mechanical heating due to stellar feedback rather than PDR. Furthermore, we find evidence for non-circular motions along the north–south optical bar in the lower-J CO images, suggesting a cold gas inflow. We suggest that star formation in the starburst ring is sustained by the bar-driven cold gas inflow and that starburst activities radiatively and mechanically power the CO excitation. The absence of a bright active galactic nucleus can be explained by a scenario where cold gas accumulating on the starburst ring is exhausted as the fuel for star formation or is launched as an outflow before being able to feed to the nucleus.

  19. Perder e recuperar a alma: tendências recentes na psicologia social da religião norte-americana e européia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo José de Paiva

    Full Text Available A palavra alma, do vocabulário religioso e psicológico, desapareceu da linha-mestra da psicologia. Com ela desapareceu o conceito de uma instância essencial da realidade humana. Ao contrário das denotações que identificam alma, espírito e mente e contrapõem alma a corpo, parece possível restituir a articulação originária dessas palavras nas fontes hebraicas da Bíblia, nas expressões idiomáticas das línguas ocidentais e no vocabulário psicológico fundador. Não é o uso da palavra alma, mas a recusa de seu desemprego, que torna interessante para o psicoterapeuta a serviço da alma, a atenção para estudos recentes, norte-americanos e europeus, que tentam restituir à alma sua posição estrutural e dinâmica na psique.

  20. Analysis of antenna position measurements and weather station network data during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Todd R; Broguiere, Dominique; Fomalont, Ed B; Dent, William R F; Phillips, Neil; Rabanus, David; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In a radio interferometer, the determination of geometrical antenna positions relies on accurate calibration of the dry and wet delay of the atmosphere above each antenna. For the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), which has baseline lengths up to 16 kilometers, the geography of the site forces the height above mean sea level of the more distant antenna pads to be significantly lower than the central array. Thus, both the ground level meteorological values and the total water column can be quite different between antennas in the extended configurations. During 2015, a network of six additional weather stations was installed to monitor pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, in order to test whether inclusion of these parameters could improve the repeatability of antenna position determinations in these configurations. We present an analysis of the data obtained during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of Oct. through Nov. 2015. The repeatability of antenna position measurem...

  1. A search for pre- and proto-brown dwarfs in the dark cloud Barnard 30 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huélamo, N.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Palau, A.; Barrado, D.; Bayo, A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Zapata, L.; Bouy, H.; Morata, O.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Eiroa, C.; Ménard, F.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The origin of brown dwarfs is still under debate. While some models predict a star-like formation scenario, others invoke a substellar mass embryo ejection, a stellar disk fragmentation, or the photo-evaporation of an external core due to the presence of massive stars. Aims: The aim of our work is to characterize the youngest and lowest mass population of the dark cloud Barnard 30, a region within the Lambda Orionis star-forming region. In particular, we aim to identify proto-brown dwarfs and study the mechanism of their formation. Methods: We obtained ALMA continuum observations at 880 μm of 30 sub-mm cores previously identified with APEX/LABOCA at 870 μm. We have complemented part of the ALMA data with sub-mm APEX/SABOCA observations at 350 μm, and with multi-wavelength ancillary observations from the optical to the far-infrared (e.g., Spitzer, CAHA/O2000, WISE, INT/WFC). Results: We report the detection of five (out of 30) spatially unresolved sources with ALMA, with estimated masses between 0.9 and 67 MJup. From these five sources, only two show gas emission. The analysis of multi-wavelength photometry from these two objects, namely B30-LB14 and B30-LB19, is consistent with one Class II- and one Class I low-mass stellar object, respectively. The gas emission is consistent with a rotating disk in the case of B30-LB14, and with an oblate rotating envelope with infall signatures in the case of LB19. The remaining three ALMA detections do not have infrared counterparts and can be classified as either deeply embedded objects or as starless cores if B30 members. In the former case, two of them (LB08 and LB31) show internal luminosity upper limits consistent with Very Low Luminosity objects, while we do not have enough information for LB10. In the starless core scenario, and taking into account the estimated masses from ALMA and the APEX/LABOCA cores, we estimate final masses for the central objects in the substellar domain, so they could be classified as

  2. Solar H-alpha features with hot onsets. III. Long fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.

    2017-02-01

    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by dense canopies of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the extraordinary opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe H-alpha-like fibril canopies, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if these canopies were transparent. An additional file is available at the end of the PDF file of this article.This study is offered as compliment to M.W.M. de Graauw. Our ways, objects, instruments and spectral domains parted after the 1970 eclipse but converge here.

  3. ALMA DETECTED OVERDENSITY OF SUB-MILLIMETER SOURCES AROUND WISE/NVSS-SELECTED z ∼ 2 DUSTY QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Andrea; Sajina, Anna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Lonsdale, Carol; Lacy, Mark [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We study the environments of 49 WISE/NVSS-selected dusty, hyper-luminous, z ∼ 2 quasars using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) 345 GHz images. We find that 17 of the 49 WISE/NVSS sources show additional sub-millimeter galaxies within the ALMA primary beam, probing scales within ∼150 kpc. We find a total of 23 additional sub-millimeter sources, four of which are in the field of a single WISE/NVSS source. The measured 870 μm source counts are ∼10× what is expected for unbiased regions, suggesting such hyper-luminous dusty quasars are excellent at probing high-density peaks.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: ALMA 870um obs. of HerMES galaxies (Bussmann+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; de Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, D.; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2016-02-01

    ALMA 870um data were obtained during Cycle 0 from 2012 June to December (Program 2011.0.00539.S; PI: D. Riechers). Optical imaging observations (ugriz) using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph-South (GMOS-S) were conducted in queue mode during the 2013B semester as part of program GS-2013B-Q-77 (PI: R. S. Bussmann). (3 data files).

  5. The SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin2 Deep Survey: Stacking Rest-frame Near-infrared Selected Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Kohno, Kotaro; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina I.; Dunlop, James S.; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J.; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanish, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tamura, Yoichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Wilson, Grant W.; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S.; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Foucaud, Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    We present stacking analyses on our ALMA deep 1.1 mm imaging in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field using 1.6 and 3.6 μm selected galaxies in the CANDELS WFC3 catalog. We detect a stacked flux of ˜0.03-0.05 mJy, corresponding to {L}{IR}\\lt {10}11 {L}⊙ and a star formation rate (SFR) of ˜ 15 {M}⊙ yr-1 at z = 2. We find that galaxies that are brighter in the rest-frame near-infrared tend to also be brighter at 1.1 mm, and galaxies fainter than {m}3.6μ {{m}}=23 do not produce detectable 1.1 mm emission. This suggests a correlation between stellar mass and SFR, but outliers to this correlation are also observed, suggesting strongly boosted star formation or extremely large extinction. We also find tendencies that redder galaxies and galaxies at higher redshifts are brighter at 1.1 mm. Our field contains z˜ 2.5 Hα emitters and a bright single-dish source. However, we do not find evidence of bias in our results caused by the bright source. By combining the fluxes of sources detected by ALMA and fluxes of faint sources detected with stacking, we recover a 1.1 mm surface brightness of up to 20.3 ± 1.2 Jy deg-2, comparable to the extragalactic background light measured by COBE. Based on the fractions of optically faint sources in our and previous ALMA studies and the COBE measurements, we find that approximately half of the cosmic star formation may be obscured by dust and missed by deep optical surveys. Much deeper and wider ALMA imaging is therefore needed to better constrain the obscured cosmic star formation history.

  6. ALMA Observations Show Major Mergers Among the Host Galaxies of Fast-growing, High-redshift​ Supermassive​ Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2017-02-01

    We present new ALMA band-7 data for a sample of six luminous quasars at z≃ 4.8, powered by fast-growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with rather uniform properties: the typical accretion rates and black hole masses are L/{L}{Edd}≃ 0.7 and {M}{BH}≃ {10}9 {M}ȯ . Our sample consists of three “FIR-bright” sources, which were individually detected in previous Herschel/SPIRE observations, with star formation rates of {SFR}> 1000 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1, and three “FIR-faint” sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ∼400 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. The dusty interstellar medium in the hosts of all six quasars is clearly detected in the ALMA data and resolved on scales of ∼2 kpc, in both continuum ({λ }{rest}∼ 150 μ {{m}}) and [{{C}} {{II}}] λ 157.74 μ {{m}} line emission. The continuum emission is in good agreement with the expectations from the Herschel data, confirming the intense SF activity in the quasar hosts. Importantly, we detect companion sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) for three sources—one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint, separated by ∼ 14{--}45 {kpc} and ALMA data therefore clearly support the idea that major mergers are important drivers for rapid early SMBH growth. However, the fact that not all high-SFR quasar hosts are accompanied by interacting SMGs and the gas kinematics as observed by ALMA suggest that other processes may be fueling these systems. Our analysis thus demonstrates the diversity of host galaxy properties and gas accretion mechanisms associated with early and rapid SMBH growth.

  7. Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1332 from ALMA Observations at 0.044 Arcsecond Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Aaron J; Darling, Jeremy; Baker, Andrew J; Buote, David A; Ho, Luis C; Walsh, Jonelle L

    2016-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 3 observations of CO(2-1) emission from the circumnuclear disk in the E/S0 galaxy NGC 1332 at 0.044" resolution. The disk exhibits regular rotational kinematics and central high-velocity emission (+/-500 km/s) consistent with the presence of a compact central mass. We construct models for a thin, dynamically cold disk in the gravitational potential of the host galaxy and black hole, and fit the beam-smeared model line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Model fits successfully reproduce the disk kinematics out to r=200 pc. Fitting models just to spatial pixels within projected r=50 pc of the nucleus (two times larger than the black hole's gravitational radius of influence), we find M_BH=6.64(-0.63,+0.65)*10^8 solar masses. This observation demonstrates ALMA's powerful capability to determine the masses of supermassive black holes by resolving gas kinematics on small angular scales in galaxy nuclei.

  8. An ALMA Survey of Submillimetre Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: The Far-Infrared Properties of SMGs

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Smail, Ian; Harrison, Chris; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Walter, Fabian; Alexander, Dave; Brandt, Niel; de Breuck, Carlos; da Cunha, Elizabete; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Decarli, Roberto; Greve, Thomas; Ivison, Rob; Knudsen, Kirsten; Lagos, Claudia; Schinnerer, Eva; Thomson, Alasdair; Wardlow, Julie; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We exploit ALMA 870um (345GHz) observations of submillimetre sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South to investigate the far-infrared properties of high-redshift submillimetre galaxies (SMGs). Using the precisely located 870um ALMA positions of 99 SMGs, together with 24um and radio imaging of this field, we deblend the Herschel/SPIRE imaging of this region to extract their far-infrared fluxes and colours. The median photometric redshifts for ALMA LESS (ALESS) SMGs which are detected in at least two SPIRE bands increases with wavelength of the peak in their SEDs, with z=2.3+/-0.2, 2.5+/-0.3 and 3.5+/-0.5 for the 250, 350 and 500-um peakers respectively. We find that 34 ALESS SMGs do not have a >3-sigma counterpart at 250, 350 or 500-um. These galaxies have a median photometric redshift of z=3.3+/-0.5, which is higher than the full ALESS SMG sample; z=2.5+/-0.2. Using the photometric redshifts together with the 250-870um photometry, we estimate the far-infrared luminosities and characteristic dust tempe...

  9. High Efficiency Wideband Refractive Optics for ALMA Band-1 (35-52 GHz) - Design, Implementation, and Measurement Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, V.; González, A.; Finger, R.; Mena, F. P.; Monasterio, D.; Reyes, N.; Sánchez, M.; Bronfman, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present the design, implementation, and characterization of the optics of ALMA Band 1, the lowest frequency band in the most advanced radio astronomical telescope. Band 1 covers the broad frequency range from 35 to 50 GHz, with the goal of minor degradation up to 52 GHz. This is, up to now, the largest fractional bandwidth of all ALMA bands. Since the optics is the first subsystem of any receiver, low noise figure and maximum aperture efficiency are fundamental for best sensitivity. However, a conjunction of several factors (small cryostat apertures, mechanical constraints, and cost limitations) makes extremely challenging to achieve these goals. To overcome these problems, the optics presented here includes two innovative solutions, a compact optimized-profile corrugated horn and a modified Fresnel lens. The horn profile was optimized for optimum performance and easy fabrication by a single-piece manufacturing process in a lathe. In this way, manufacturability is eased when compared with traditional fabrication methods. To minimize the noise contribution of the optics, a one-step zoned lens was designed. Its parameters were carefully optimized to maximize the frequency coverage and reduce losses. The optical assembly reported here fully complies with ALMA specifications.

  10. ALMA-SZ Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock at Half the Age of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, K.; Sommer, M.; Erler, J.; Eckert, D.; Vazza, F.; Magnelli, B.; Bertoldi, F.; Tozzi, P.

    2016-10-01

    We present ALMA measurements of a merger shock using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) effect signal, at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at z≈ 0.9. Multi-wavelength analysis in combination with the archival Chandra data and a high-resolution radio image provides a consistent picture of the thermal and non-thermal signal variation across the shock front and helps to put robust constraints on the shock Mach number as well as the relic magnetic field. We employ a Bayesian analysis technique for modeling the SZ and X-ray data self-consistently, illustrating respective parameter degeneracies. Combined results indicate a shock with Mach number { M }={2.4}-0.6+1.3, which in turn suggests a high value of the magnetic field (of the order of 4-10 μ {{G}}) to account for the observed relic width at 2 GHz. At roughly half the current age of the universe, this is the highest-redshift direct detection of a cluster shock to date, and one of the first instances of an ALMA-SZ observation in a galaxy cluster. It shows the tremendous potential for future ALMA-SZ observations to detect merger shocks and other cluster substructures out to the highest redshifts.

  11. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect at Five Arc-seconds: RXJ1347.5-1145 Imaged by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Kitayama, T; Takakuwa, S; Tsutsumi, T; Komatsu, E; Akahori, T; Iono, D; Izumi, T; Kawabe, R; Kohno, K; Matsuo, H; Ota, N; Suto, Y; Takizawa, M; Yoshikawa, K

    2016-01-01

    We present the first image of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) obtained by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Combining 7-m and 12-m arrays in Band 3, we create an SZE map toward a galaxy cluster RXJ1347.5-1145 with 5 arc-second resolution (corresponding to the physical size of 20 kpc/h), the highest angular and physical spatial resolutions achieved to date for imaging the SZE, while retaining extended signals out to 40 arc-seconds. The 1-sigma statistical sensitivity of the image is 0.017 mJy/beam or 0.12 mK_CMB at the 5 arc-second full width at half maximum. The SZE image shows a good agreement with an electron pressure map reconstructed independently from the X-ray data and offers a new probe of the small-scale structure of the intracluster medium. Our results demonstrate that ALMA is a powerful instrument for imaging the SZE in compact galaxy clusters with unprecedented angular resolution and sensitivity. As the first report on the detection of the SZE by ALMA, we present ...

  12. Star formation and chemical complexity in the Orion nebula: A new view with the IRAM and ALMA interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudry, Alain; Brouillet, Nathalie; Despois, Didier

    2016-11-01

    The Orion nebula is one of the most observed celestial regions in the Milky Way. It is an active massive star-forming region, especially well studied in the millimeter and submillimeter domains that allow us to unveil the cool and obscured regions in which stars are being formed. After a brief introduction to the main properties of a radio telescope, we recall that the most sensitive radio interferometers, the IRAM mm array and, especially, the recently built ALMA millimeter/submillimeter array, offer an outstanding spatial resolution reaching the sub-arcsecond scale, or even about 10 milli-arcseconds for ALMA (about four times the Earth's orbit radius at the Orion distance). These interferometers can reveal the fine spatial details of the Orion clouds of gas and dust within which new stars and associated planetary systems are being formed. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity of both interferometers and the broad instantaneous bandwidth offered by ALMA allowed us to map the emission from a number of complex organic molecules, to estimate the molecular abundances, and to address some important aspects of the molecular complexity in Orion. Our observations do not lead to a unique molecular formation and excitation scheme, but the chemistry at work in the proto-stellar 'fragments' at the center of the Orion nebula can be compared with the chemistry prevailing in comets of the Solar system. We have underlined the possible links between the prebiotic molecules observed in space and the chemistry leading to the early terrestrial life.

  13. ALMACAL I: First dual-band number counts from a deep and wide ALMA submm survey, free from cosmic variance

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Ivison, R J; Smail, I; Biggs, A D

    2015-01-01

    We have exploited ALMA calibration observations to carry out a novel, wide and deep submm survey, ALMACAL. These calibration data comprise a large number of observations of calibrator fields in a variety of frequency bands and array configurations. Gathering together data acquired during multiple visits to many ALMA calibrators, it is possible to reach noise levels which allow the detection of faint dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a significant area. In this paper we outline our survey strategy and report the first results. We have analysed data for 69 calibrators, reaching depths of $\\sim 25 \\, {\\rm \\mu Jy \\, beam^{-1}}$ at sub-arcsec resolution. Adopting a conservative approach based on $\\geq 5 \\sigma$ detections, we have found eight and 11 DSFGs in ALMA bands 6 and 7, respectively, with flux densities $S_{\\rm 1.2 mm} \\geq 0.2 \\, {\\rm mJy}$. The faintest galaxies would have been missed by even the deepest \\emph{Herschel} surveys. Our cumulative number counts have been determined independently at 8...

  14. Toward Precision Black Hole Masses with ALMA: NGC 1332 as a Case Study in Molecular Disk Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, A J; Baker, A J; Boizelle, B D; Buote, D A; Ho, L C; Walsh, J L

    2016-01-01

    We present first results from a program of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) CO(2-1) observations of circumnuclear gas disks in early-type galaxies. The program was designed with the goal of detecting gas within the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes. In NGC 1332, the 0.3"-resolution ALMA data reveal CO emission from the highly inclined (i~ 83 degrees) circumnuclear disk, spatially coincident with the dust disk seen in Hubble Space Telescope images. The disk exhibits a central upturn in maximum line-of-sight velocity reaching +-500 km/s relative to the systemic velocity, consistent with the expected signature of rapid rotation around a supermassive black hole. Rotational broadening and beam smearing produce complex and asymmetric line profiles near the disk center. We constructed dynamical models for the rotating disk and fitted the modeled CO line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Degeneracy between rotation and turbulent velocity dispersion in the inner dis...

  15. High Efficiency Wideband Refractive Optics for ALMA Band-1 (35-52 GHz). Design, Implementation, and Measurement Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, V.; González, A.; Finger, R.; Mena, F. P.; Monasterio, D.; Reyes, N.; Sánchez, M.; Bronfman, L.

    2017-03-01

    We present the design, implementation, and characterization of the optics of ALMA Band 1, the lowest frequency band in the most advanced radio astronomical telescope. Band 1 covers the broad frequency range from 35 to 50 GHz, with the goal of minor degradation up to 52 GHz. This is, up to now, the largest fractional bandwidth of all ALMA bands. Since the optics is the first subsystem of any receiver, low noise figure and maximum aperture efficiency are fundamental for best sensitivity. However, a conjunction of several factors (small cryostat apertures, mechanical constraints, and cost limitations) makes extremely challenging to achieve these goals. To overcome these problems, the optics presented here includes two innovative solutions, a compact optimized-profile corrugated horn and a modified Fresnel lens. The horn profile was optimized for optimum performance and easy fabrication by a single-piece manufacturing process in a lathe. In this way, manufacturability is eased when compared with traditional fabrication methods. To minimize the noise contribution of the optics, a one-step zoned lens was designed. Its parameters were carefully optimized to maximize the frequency coverage and reduce losses. The optical assembly reported here fully complies with ALMA specifications.

  16. Porting the ALMA Correlator Data Processor from hard real-time to plain Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amestica, Rodrigo; Perez, Jesus; Saez, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    The ALMA correlator back-end consists of a cluster of 16 computing nodes and a master collector/packager node. The mission of the cluster is to process time domain lags into auto-correlations and complex visibilities, integrate them for some configurable amount of time and package them into a workable data product. Computers in the cluster are organized such that individual workloads per node are kept within achievable levels for different observing modes and antennas in the array. Over the course of an observation the master node transmits enough state information to each involved computing node to specify exactly how to process each set of lags received from the correlator. For that distributed mechanism to work, it is necessary to unequivocally identify each individual lag set arriving at each computing node. The original approach was based on a custom hardware interface to each node in the cluster plus a realtime version of the Linux Operating System. A modification recently introduced in the ALMA correlator consists of tagging each lag set with a time stamp before delivering them to the cluster. The time stamp identifies a precise 16- millisecond window during which that specific data set was streamed to the computing cluster. From the time stamp value a node is able to identify a centroid (in absolute time units), base-lines, and correlator mode during that hardware integration. That is, enough information to let the digital signal processing pipeline in each node to process time domain lags into frequency domain auto-correlations per antenna and visibilities per base-line. The scheme also means that a good degree of concurrency can be achieved in each node by having individual CPU cores process individual lag sets at the same time, thus rendering enough processing power to cope with a maximum 1 GiB/sec output from the correlator. The present paper describes how we time stamp lag sets within the correlator hardware, the implications to their on

  17. ALMA high spatial resolution observations of the dense molecular region of NGC 6302

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander-García, M.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Neri, R.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The mechanism behind the shaping of bipolar planetary nebulae is still poorly understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that the main agents must operate at their innermost regions, where a significant equatorial density enhancement should be present and related to the collimation of light and jet launching from the central star preferentially towards the polar directions. Most of the material in this equatorial condensation must be lost during the asymptotic giant branch as stellar wind and later released from the surface of dust grains to the gas phase in molecular form. Accurately tracing the molecule-rich regions of these objects can give valuable insight into the ejection mechanisms themselves. Aims: We investigate the physical conditions, structure and velocity field of the dense molecular region of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 by means of ALMA band 7 interferometric maps. Methods: The high spatial resolution of the 12CO and 13CO J = 3-2 ALMA data allows for an analysis of the geometry of the ejecta in unprecedented detail. We built a spatio-kinematical model of the molecular region with the software SHAPE and performed detailed non-LTE calculations of excitation and radiative transfer with the shapemol plug-in. Results: We find that the molecular region consists of a massive ring out of which a system of fragments of lobe walls emerge and enclose the base of the lobes visible in the optical. The general properties of this region are in agreement with previous works, although the much greater spatial resolution of the data allows for a very detailed description. We confirm that the mass of the molecular region is 0.1 M⊙. Additionally, we report a previously undetected component at the nebular equator, an inner, younger ring inclined 60° with respect to the main ring, showing a characteristic radius of 7.5 × 1016 cm, a mass of 2.7 × 10-3M⊙, and a counterpart in optical images of the nebula. This inner ring has the same kinematical age as

  18. Peri physeos psyches: sobre a natureza da alma no Fedro de Platão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida de Paiva Montenegro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No passo 245c do Fedro de Platão, no contexto do segundo discurso de Sócrates (no qual ele compõe sua palinodia dirigida a Eros, o filósofo chama atenção para a importância de "se tornar explícita a natureza da alma, dos seus estados e atos, assim como indagar se esta natureza é humana ou divina". Pretendo mostrar que Platão, nesse diálogo, tenta fundamentar a natureza mista da alma: em parte racional em parte passional. Essa ambiguidade constitutiva mostra-se diretamente correlacionada àquelas referentes às formas de Amor, Loucura e Retórica abordadas ao longo do diálogo, à medida que estas podem ser tanto perniciosas quanto prodigiosas, a depender do modo como se as conduz. Nessa perspectiva, meu propósito é defender a presença, na filosofia pensada por Platão, de elementos passionais imprescindíveis ao sucesso de sua atividade, cabendo ao filósofo alcançar, por meio de uma formação apropriada, a maestria para reverter aquilo que pode mergulhá-lo na ignorância e, consequentemente, na escravidão e na infelicidade, naquilo que justamente irá conduzi-lo na direção oposta: a do amor à Sabedoria.In Plato's Phaedrus 245-c, when Socrates delivers his second speech (in which he composes his palinodia addressed to Eros, the philosopher calls attention to the importance of "first understanding the truth about the nature of the soul, divine or human, by examining what it does and what is done to it". I intend to point out that in this dialogue, Plato tries to found the mixed composition of the soul: partly rational, partly passionate. This constitutive ambiguity seems to be directly related to those different kinds of Love, Madness and Rhetoric examined in the dialogue, inasmuch as they could be either beneficial or harmful, depending on the way they are managed. Therefore, my purpose is to point that regarding philosophy as conceived by Plato, the appealing of passionate elements are quite indispensable for its successful

  19. Terahertz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz DES) - ‘ALMA in the Lab’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile Auriacombe, Olivier Bruno Jacques; Fraser, Helen; Ellison, Brian; Ioppolo, Sergio; Rea, Simon

    2016-06-01

    ALMA is revolutionising our scope to identify and locate molecules that have been desorbed from ices, particularly complex organic molecules (COMS), which provide a vital link between interstellar and prebiotic chemistry. Explaining the existence of these molecules in star-forming regions relies on an empirical understanding of the chemistry that underpins their formation:- do COMS form predominantly in the solid-phase and then desorb to the gas phase, or do only “smaller” species, radials or ions desorb and then undergo gas-phase chemical reactions to generate larger COMS?-are the rotational state populations in COMS only attributable to equilibrium chemistry, or could their formation mechanisms and desorption processes affect the rotational state occupancy of these molecules, thereby directly tying certain species to solid-state origins?We have developed a novel laboratory method - THz Desorption Emission Spectroscopy (THz-DES) that combines “traditional” laboratory astrophysics high-vacuum ice experiments with a sensitive high-spectral-resolution terahertz total-power heterodyne radiometer 1,2, partially mirroring the spectral range of ALMA band 7 (275- 373 GHz). Ices are grown in situ on a cold-plate, situated in a vacuum cell, then (thermally) desorbed. The sub-mm emission spectra of the resultant gas-phase molecules are detected as a function of time, temperature, or distance from the surface. Our first THz DES results will be shown for pure and binary ice systems including H2O, N2O and CH3OH. They show good correlation with established methods e.g. TPD, with the advantage of exploiting the molecular spectroscopy to unravel surface dynamics, state-occupancy, and unequivocal molecular identification, as well as concurrently measuring desorption barriers and molecular yields. We will extend our technique to a broader frequency range, enabling us to detect radical and ion desorption, to differentiate between A and E populations of CH3OH or ortho

  20. ALMA Multi-line Imaging of the Nearby Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, David S; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Ott, Jürgen; Rosolowsky, Erik; Veilleux, Sylvain; Warren, Steven R; Weiss, Axel; Zwaan, Martin A; Zschaechner, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially resolved ($\\sim$50 pc) imaging of molecular gas species in the central kiloparsec of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, based on observations taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). A total of 50 molecular lines are detected over a 13 GHz bandwidth imaged in the 3 mm band. Unambiguous identifications are assigned for 27 lines. Based on the measured high CO/C$^{17}$O isotopic line ratio ($\\gtrsim$350), we show that $^{12}$CO(1-0) has moderate optical depths. A comparison of the HCN and HCO$^{+}$ with their $^{13}$C-substituted isotopologues shows that the HCN(1-0) and HCO$^{+}$(1-0) lines have optical depths at least comparable to CO(1-0). H$^{13}$CN/H$^{13}$CO$^{+}$ (and H$^{13}$CN/HN$^{13}$C) line ratios provide tighter constraints on dense gas properties in this starburst. SiO has elevated abundances across the nucleus. HNCO has the most distinctive morphology of all the bright lines, with its global luminosity dominated by the outer parts of the central re...

  1. Si-bearing molecules towards IRC+10216: ALMA unveils the molecular envelope of CWLeo

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, L Velilla; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Agúndez, M; Castro-Carrizo, A; Fonfría, J P; Marcelino, N; Zúñiga, J; Requena, A; Bastida, A; Lique, F; Guélin, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection during the ALMA Cycle 0 of SiS rotational lines in high-vibrational states as well as SiO and SiC$_2$ lines in their ground vibrational state, towards IRC+10216. The spatial distribution of these molecules shows compact emission for SiS and a more extended emission for SiO and SiC$_2$ , and also proves the existence of an increase in the SiC$_2$ emission at the outer shells of the circumstellar envelope. We analyze the excitation conditions of the vibrationally excited SiS using the population diagram technique and we used a large velocity gradient model to compare with the observations. We found moderate discrepancies between the observations and the models that could be explained if SiS lines detected are optically thick. Additionally, the line profiles of the detected rotational lines in the high energy vibrational states show a decreasing linewidth with increasing energy levels. This may evidence that these lines could be excited only in the inner shells, i.e. the densest and hotte...

  2. Galactic Center Mini-spiral by ALMA - Possible Origin of the Central Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuboi, Masato; Miyoshi, Makoto; Uehara, Kenta; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We present continuum images of the "Galactic Center Mini-spiral" of 100, 250, and 340 GHz bands with the analysis of the Cy.0 data acquired from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) archive. Pretty good UV coverage of the data and the "self-calibration" method give us an opportunity to obtain dynamic ranges of over 2x10^4 in the resultant maps of the 250 and 340 GHz bands. In particular the image of the 340 GHz band has high dynamic ranges unprecedented in sub-millimeter wave. The angular resolutions attain to 1.57"x1.33" in the 100 GHz band, 0.63"x0.53" in the 250 GHz band, and 0.44"x0.38" in the 340 GHz band, respectively. The continuum images clearly depict the "Mini-spiral", which is an ionized gas stream in the vicinity of Sgr A*. We found the tight correlation between the dust emission peaks and the OB/WR stars in the Northern-arm of the "Mini-spiral". The core mass function of the dust core identified by the clumpfind algorithm would obey the flat power-law dN/dM=aM^-1.5+/-0.4 on the...

  3. ALMA hints at the presence of two companions in the disk around HD 100546

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine; Pinilla, Paola; Harsono, Daniel; Mathews, Geoffrey S; Dent, William R F; Hogerheijde, Michiel R; Birnstiel, T; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Nomura, Hideko; Aikawa, Yuri; Millar, T J; Sandell, Goran

    2014-01-01

    HD 100546 is a well-studied Herbig Be star-disk system that likely hosts a close-in companion with compelling observational evidence for an embedded protoplanet at 68 AU. We present ALMA observations of the HD 100546 disk which resolve the gas and dust structure at (sub)mm wavelengths. The CO emission (at 345.795 GHz) originates from an extensive molecular disk (390+/-20 AU in radius) whereas the continuum emission is more compact (230+/-20 AU in radius) suggesting radial drift of the mm-sized grains. The CO emission is similar in extent to scattered light images indicating well-mixed gas and um-sized grains in the disk atmosphere. Assuming azimuthal symmetry, a single-component power-law model cannot reproduce the continuum visibilities. The visibilities and images are better reproduced by a double-component model: a compact ring with a width of 21 AU centered at 26 AU and an outer ring with a width of 75+/-3 AU centered at 190+/-3 AU. The influence of a companion and protoplanet on the dust evolution is inv...

  4. Revised spectroscopic parameters of SH$^+$ from ALMA and IRAM 30 m observations

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Holger S P; Cernicharo, José; Agúndez, Marcelino; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Gerin, Maryvonne; Dumas, Gaelle; Chapillon, Edwige

    2014-01-01

    Hydrides represent the first steps of interstellar chemistry. Sulfanylium (SH$^+$), in particular, is a key tracer of energetic processes. We used ALMA and the IRAM 30 m telescope to search for the lowest frequency rotational lines of SH$^+$ toward the Orion Bar, the prototypical photo-dissociation region illuminated by a strong UV radiation field. On the basis of previous $Herschel$/HIFI observations of SH$^+$, we expected to detect emission of the two SH$^+$ hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the $N_J = 1_0 - 0_1$ fine structure (FS) component near 346 GHz. While we did not observe any lines at the frequencies predicted from laboratory data, we detected two emission lines, each $\\sim$15 MHz above the SH$^+$ predictions and with relative intensities and HFS splitting expected for SH$^+$. The rest frequencies of the two newly detected lines are more compatible with the remainder of the SH$^+$ laboratory data than the single line measured in the laboratory near 346 GHz and previously attributed to SH$^+$....

  5. A submillimeter line survey of low-mass protostars: prelude to ALMA and Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dishoeck, E F; Maret, S; Ceccarelli, C; Caux, E; Schöier, F L; Castets, A; Tielens, A G G M

    2004-01-01

    The results from a single-dish molecular line survey of a set of 18 deeply embedded young stellar objects are summarized. More than 40 lines from 16 different species were observed with the JCMT, Onsala, IRAM 30m and SEST telescopes. The multi-transition data are analyzed using a temperature and density structure derived from models of the dust continuum emission. For the outer envelope (>300 AU), the data indicate a `drop' abundance profile for many species, with normal abundances in the outer- and innermost regions and highly depleted abundances in an intermediate zone. This zone is bounded at the outer than the lifetime of the core, and at the inner edge by the evaporation temperature of the species involved. In the innermost envelope (<300 AU), all ices evaporate resulting in jumps in the abundances of complex organic molecules such as CH3OH. A key project for Herschel will be to survey gas-phase water in these objects, whose abundance shows extreme variations with temperature. ALMA wil be able to dire...

  6. Chemical complexity in protoplanetary disks in the era of ALMA and Rosetta

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Comets provide a unique insight into the molecular composition and complexity of the material in the primordial solar nebula. Recent results from the Rosetta mission, currently monitoring comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in situ, and ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array), have demonstrated a tantalising link between the chemical complexity now confirmed in disks (via the detection of gas-phase CH3CN; Oberg et al. 2015) and that confirmed on the surface of 67P (Goesmann et al. 2015), raising questions concerning the chemical origin of such species (cloud or inheritance versus disk synthesis). Results from an astrochemical model of a protoplanetary disk are presented in which complex chemistry is included and in which it is assumed that simple ices only are inherited from the parent molecular cloud. The model results show good agreement with the abundances of several COMs observed on the surface of 67P with Philae/COSAC. Cosmic-ray and X-ray-induced photoprocessing of predominantly simple ices ...

  7. VLA and ALMA Imaging of Intense, Galaxy-Wide Star Formation in z ~ 2 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rujopakarn, W; Rieke, G H; Ivison, R J; Cibinel, A; Nyland, K; Jagannathan, P; Silverman, J D; Alexander, D M; Biggs, A D; Bhatnagar, S; Ballantyne, D R; Dickinson, M; Elbaz, D; Geach, J E; Hayward, C C; Kirkpatrick, A; McLure, R J; Michalowski, M J; Miller, N A; Narayanan, D; Owen, F N; Pannella, M; Papovich, C; Pope, A; Rau, U; Robertson, B E; Scott, D; Swinbank, A M; van der Werf, P; van Kampen, E; Windhorst, R A

    2016-01-01

    We present $\\simeq$0$.\\!\\!^{\\prime\\prime}4$-resolution extinction-independent distributions of star formation and dust in 11 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at $z = 1.3-3.0$. These galaxies are selected from sensitive, blank-field surveys of the $2' \\times 2'$ Hubble Ultra-Deep Field at $\\lambda = 5$ cm and 1.3 mm using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). They have star-formation rates (SFRs), stellar masses, and dust properties representative of massive main-sequence SFGs at $z \\sim 2$. Morphological classification performed on spatially-resolved stellar mass maps indicates a mixture of disk and morphologically disturbed systems; half of the sample harbor X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGN), thereby representing a diversity of $z \\sim 2$ SFGs undergoing vigorous mass assembly. We find that their intense star formation most frequently occurs at the location of stellar-mass concentration and extends over an area comparable to their stellar-mass distrib...

  8. ALMA maps the Star-Forming Regions in a Dense Gas Disk at z~3

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Nightgale, James; Furlanetto, Christina; Smail, Ian; Cooray, Asantha; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Steve; Gavazzi, Raphael; Hunter, Todd; Ivison, Rob; Negrello, Mattia; Oteo, Ivan; Smit, Renske; van der Werf, Paul; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    We exploit long-baseline ALMA sub-mm observations of the lensed star-forming galaxy SDP 81 at z=3.042 to investigate the properties of inter-stellar medium on scales of 50-100pc. The kinematics of the CO gas within this system are well described by a rotationally-supported disk with an inclination-corrected rotation speed, v=320+/-20km/s and a dynamical mass of M=(3.5+/-1.0)x10^10Mo within a radius of 1.5 kpc. The disk is gas rich and unstable, with a Toomre parameter, Q=0.30+/-0.10 and so should collapse in to star-forming regions with Jeans length L_J~130pc. We identify five star-forming regions within the ISM on these scales and show that their scaling relations between luminosity, line-widths and sizes are significantly offset from those typical of molecular clouds in local Galaxies (Larson's relations). These offsets are likely to be caused by the high external hydrostatic pressure for the interstellar medium (ISM), P/kB=(40+/-20)x10^7K/cm3, which is ~10,000x higher than the typical ISM pressure in the M...

  9. A Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1097 Using ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, K.; Iguchi, S.; Sheth, K.; Kohno, K.

    2015-06-01

    We present an estimate of the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in the nearby type-1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1097 using Atacamma Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of dense gas kinematics. Dense molecular gas dynamics are traced with HCN(J=1-0) and HC{{O}+}(J=1-0) emission lines. Assuming a host galaxy inclination of 46{}^\\circ , we derive an SMBH mass, {{M}BH}=1.40-0.32+0.27× {{10}8 }{{M}⊙ }, and an I-band mass to light ratio to be 5.14-0.04+0.03, using HCN(J=1-0). The estimated parameters are consistent between the two emission lines. The measured SMBH mass is in good agreement with the SMBH mass and bulge velocity dispersion relationship. Our result showcases ALMA’s potential for deriving accurate SMBH masses, especially for nearby late-type galaxies. Larger samples and accurate SMBH masses will further elucidate the relationship between the black hole (BH) and host galaxy properties and constrain the coevolutionary growth of galaxies and BHs.

  10. Merger-induced Shocks in the Nearby LIRG VV 114 through Methanol Observations with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Toshiki; Espada, Daniel; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ueda, Junko; Sugai, Hajime; Takano, Shuro; Yun, Min S; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Ohashi, Satoshi; Lee, Minju; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Motohara, Kentaro; Kawabe, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of two CH$_3$OH lines (J$_K$ = 2$_K$-1$_K$ and 3$_K$-2$_K$) between the progenitor's disks ("Overlap") of the mid-stage merging galaxy VV 114 obtained using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 3 and Band 4. The detected CH$_3$OH emission show an extended filamentary structure (~ 3 kpc) across the progenitor's disks with relatively large velocity width (FWZI ~ 150 km/s). The emission is only significant in the "overlap" and not detected in the two merging nuclei. Assuming optically-thin emission and local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), we found the CH$_3$OH column density relative to H$_2$ ($X_{\\rm CH_3OH}$) peaks at the "Overlap" (~ 8 $\\times$ 10$^{-9}$), which is almost an order of magnitude larger than that at the eastern nucleus. We suggest that kpc-scale shocks driven by galaxy-galaxy collision may play an important role to enhance the CH$_3$OH abundance at the "Overlap". This scenario is consistent with that shock-induced large velocity dispersion compon...

  11. Revealing H2D+ depletion and compact structure in starless and protostellar cores with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Friesen, R K; Bourke, T L; Caselli, P; Jørgensen, J K; Pineda, J E; Wong, M

    2014-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the submillimeter dust continuum and H2D+ 1_{10}-1_{11} emission toward two evolved, potentially protostellar cores within the Ophiuchus molecular cloud, Oph A SM1 and SM1N. The data reveal small-scale condensations within both cores, with mass upper limits of M <~ 0.02M_Sun (~ 20 M_Jup). The SM1 condensation is consistent with a nearly-symmetric Gaussian source with a width of only 37 AU. The SM1N condensation is elongated, and extends 500 AU along its major axis. No evidence for substructure is seen in either source. A Jeans analysis indicates these sources are unlikely to fragment, suggesting that both will form single stars. H2D+ is only detected toward SM1N, offset from the continuum peak by ~150-200 AU. This offset may be due to either heating from an undetected, young, low luminosity protostellar source or first hydrostatic core, or HD (and consequently H2D+) depletion in the cold centre of the condensation. We propose th...

  12. Gas Dynamics and Outflow in the Barred Starburst Galaxy NGC 1808 Revealed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Salak, Dragan; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Miyamoto, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    NGC 1808 is a nearby barred starburst galaxy with an outflow from the nuclear region. To study the inflow and outflow processes related to star formation and dynamical evolution of the galaxy, we have carried out \\(^{12}\\)CO (\\(J=1-0\\)) mapping observations of the central \\(r\\sim4\\) kpc of NGC 1808 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Four distinct components of molecular gas are revealed at high spatial resolution of 2\\arcsec (\\(\\sim100\\) pc): (1) a compact (\\(r<200\\) pc) circumnuclear disk (CND), (2) \\(r\\sim500\\) pc ring, (3) gas-rich galactic bar, and (4) spiral arms. Basic geometric and kinematic parameters are derived for the central 1-kpc region using tilted-ring modeling. The derived rotation curve reveals multiple mass components that include (1) a stellar bulge, (2) nuclear bar and molecular CND, and (3) unresolved massive (\\(\\sim10^7~M_\\sun\\)) core. Two systemic velocities, 998 km s\\(^{-1}\\) for the CND and 964 km s\\(^{-1}\\) for the 500-pc ring, are revealed, indicating ...

  13. ALMA detection of the rotating molecular disk wind drom the young star HD 163296

    CERN Document Server

    Klaassen, P D; Mathews, G S; De Gregorio-Monsalvo, J C Mottram I; van Dishoeck, E F; Takahashi, S; Akiyama, E; Chapillon, E; Espada, D; Hales, A; Hogerheijde, M R; Rawlings, M; Schmalzl, M; Testi, L

    2013-01-01

    Disk winds have been postulated as a mechanism for angular momentum release in protostellar systems for decades. HD 163296 is a Herbig Ae star surrounded by a disk and has been shown to host a series of HH knots (HH 409) with bow shocks associated with the farthest knots. Here we present ALMA Science Verification data of CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 emission which are spatially coincident with the blue shifted jet of HH knots, and offset from the disk by -18.6 km/s. The emission has a double corkscrew morphology and extends more than 10" from the disk with embedded emission clumps coincident with jet knots. We interpret this double corkscrew as emission from material in a molecular disk wind, and that the compact emission near the jet knots is being heated by the jet which is moving at much higher velocities. We show that the J=3-2 emission is likely heavily filtered by the interferometer, but the J=2-1 emission suffers less due to the larger beam and measurable angular scales. Excitation analysis suggests temperatures...

  14. Unveiling the gas and dust disk structure in HD 163296 using ALMA observations

    CERN Document Server

    de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Dent, W; Pinte, C; López, C; Klaassen, P; Hales, A; Cortés, P; Rawlings, M G; Tachihara, K; Testi, L; Takahashi, S; Chapillon, E; Mathews, G; Juhasz, A; Akiyama, E; Higuchi, A E; Saito, M; Nyman, L - Å; Phillips, N; Rodń, J; Corder, S; Van Kempen, T

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this work is to study the structure of the protoplanetary disk surrounding the Herbig Ae star HD 163296. Methods: We have used high-resolution and high-sensitivity ALMA observations of the CO(3-2) emission line and the continuum at 850 microns, as well as the 3- dimensional radiative transfer code MCFOST to model the data presented in this work. Results: The CO(3-2) emission unveils for the first time at sub-millimeter frequencies the vertical structure details of a gaseous disk in Keplerian rotation, showing the back- and the front-side of a flared disk. Continuum emission at 850 microns reveals a compact dust disk with a 240 AU outer radius and a surface brightness profile that shows a very steep decline at radius larger than 125 AU. The gaseous disk is more than two times larger than the dust disk, with a similar critical radius but with a shallower radial profile. Radiative transfer models of the continuum data confirms the need for a sharp outer edge to the dust disk. The models for the ...

  15. ORIGIN AND KINEMATICS OF THE ERUPTIVE FLOW FROM XZ TAU REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Galván-Madrid, Roberto; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Palau, Aina; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Kurtz, Stan E.; Tafoya, Daniel; Loinard, Laurent [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Curiel, Salvador [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-264, 04510 DF, México (Mexico)

    2015-09-20

    We present high angular resolution (∼0.″94) {sup 12}CO(1-0) Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations obtained during the 2014 long baseline campaign from the eruptive bipolar flow from the multiple XZ Tau stellar system discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These observations reveal, for the first time, the kinematics of the molecular flow. The kinematics of the different ejections close to XZ Tau reveal a rotating and expanding structure with a southeast–northwest velocity gradient. The youngest eruptive bubbles unveiled in the optical HST images are inside of this molecular expanding structure. Additionally, we report a very compact and collimated bipolar outflow emanating from XZ Tau A, which indicates that the eruptive outflow is indeed originating from this object. The mass (3 × 10{sup −7} M{sub ⊙}) and energetics (E{sub kin} = 3 × 10{sup 37} erg) for the collimated outflow are comparable to those found in molecular outflows associated with young brown dwarfs.

  16. Origin and kinematics of the eruptive flow from XZ Tau revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Zapata, Luis A; Carrasco-Gonzalez, Carlos; Curiel, Salvador; Palau, Aina; Rodriguez, Luis F; Kurtz, Stan E; Tafoya, Daniel; Loinard, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We present high angular resolution ($\\sim$0.94$"$) $^{12}$CO(1-0) Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations obtained during the 2014 long baseline campaign from the eruptive bipolar flow from the multiple XZ Tau stellar system discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These observations reveal, for the first time, the kinematics of the molecular flow. The kinematics of the different ejections close to XZ Tau reveal a rotating and expanding structure with a southeast-northwest velocity gradient. The youngest eruptive bubbles unveiled in the optical HST images are inside of this molecular expanding structure. Additionally, we report a very compact and collimated bipolar outflow emanating from XZ Tau A, which indicates that the eruptive outflow is indeed originating from this object. The mass (3 $\\times$ 10$^{-7}$ $M_\\odot$) and energetics (E$_{kin}$ $=$ 3 $\\times$ 10$^{37}$ ergs) for the collimated outflow are comparable with those found in molecular outflows associated with young b...

  17. An ALMA Disk Mass for the Candidate Protoplanetary Companion to FW Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Adam L; Bowler, Brendan P; Herczeg, Gregory; Ireland, Michael J; Liu, Michael C; Metchev, Stanimir; Cruz, Kelle L

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the FW Tau system, a close binary pair of M5 stars with a wide-orbit (300 AU projected separation) substellar companion. The companion is extremely faint and red in the optical and near-infrared, but boasts a weak far-infrared excess and optical/near-infrared emission lines indicative of a primordial accretion disk of gas and dust. The component-resolved 1.3 mm continuum emission is found to be associated only with the companion, with a flux (1.78 +/- 0.03 mJy) that indicates a dust mass of 1-2 M_Earth. While this mass reservoir is insufficient to form a giant planet, it is more than sufficient to produce an analog of the Kepler-42 exoplanetary system or the Galilean satellites. The mass and geometry of the disk-bearing FW Tau companion remains unclear. Near-infrared spectroscopy shows deep water bands that indicate a spectral type later than M5, but substantial veiling prevents a more accurate determination of the effective temperature (and hence mass). Both a disk-bearing "pl...

  18. ALMA Imaging of HCN, CS and dust in Arp 220 and NGC 6240

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Manohar, Swarnima; Zschaechner, Laura; Yun, Min; Koda, Jin; Sanders, David; Murchikova, Lena; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Genzel, Reinhard; Hernquist, Lars; Tacconi, Linda; Brown, Robert; Narayanan, Desika; Hayward, Christopher C; Barnes, Joshua; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Davies, Richard; van der Werf, Paul; Fomalont, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.4 - 0.6arcsec resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ~0.25arcsec resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate ISM masses for Arp 220 East, West and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2 and 1.6x10^9 msun within radii of 69, 65 and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n_H2 ~10^5 cm^-3 at R < 50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n_H2 ~2x10^...

  19. Constraining turbulence mixing strength in transitional discs with planets using SPHERE and ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Ovelar, M de Juan; Min, M; Dominik, C; Birnstiel, T

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect that the turbulent mixing strength parameter $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ plays on near-infrared polarimetric and sub-millimetre interferometric imaging observations of transitional discs (TDs) with a gap carved by a planet. We generate synthetic observations of these objects with ALMA and VLT/SPHERE-ZIMPOL by combining hydrodynamical, dust evolution, radiative transfer and instrument models for values of $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}=[10^{-4}, 10^{-3}, 10^{-2}]$. We find that, through a combination of effects on the viscosity of the gas, the turbulent mixing and dust evolution processes, $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ strongly affects the morphology of the dust distribution that can be traced with these observations. We constrain the value of $\\alpha_{\\rm{turb}}$ to be within an order of magnitude of $10^{-3}$ in TD sources that show cavities in sub-mm continuum images while featuring continuous distribution of dust or smaller cavities in NIR-polarimetric images.

  20. ALMA measurements of the HNC and HC$_3$N distributions in Titan's atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Cordiner, M A; Teanby, N A; Serigano, J; Charnley, S B; Milam, S N; Mumma, M J; Irwin, P G J; Lis, D C; Villanueva, G; Paganini, L; Kuan, Y -J; Remijan, A J

    2014-01-01

    We present spectrally and spatially-resolved maps of HNC and HC$_3$N emission from Titan's atmosphere, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) on 2013 November 17. These maps show anisotropic spatial distributions for both molecules, with resolved emission peaks in Titan's northern and southern hemispheres. The HC$_3$N maps indicate enhanced concentrations of this molecule over the poles, consistent with previous studies of Titan's photochemistry and atmospheric circulation. Differences between the integrated flux distributions of HNC and HC$_3$N show that these species are not co-spatial. The observed spectral line shapes are consistent with HNC residing predominantly in the mesosphere and above (at altitudes $z$ greater than about 400 km), whereas HC$_3$N is abundant at a broader range of altitudes ($z\\approx70-500$ km). From spatial variations in the HC$_3$N line profile, the locations of the HC$_3$N emission peaks are shown to be variable as a function of altitude. The integrated emission ...

  1. Three-dimensional mapping of the water cycle and D/H on Mars with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo Luis; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Clarke, John T.; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Khayat, Alain; Hecht, Michael; Fisher, David Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Using ALMA, we mapped the vertical distribution of the water D/H across a broad range of terrains and times of days and local seasons on Mars. The observations were done in March/2016 and targeted four lines of isotopic water (H2O, HDO, H218O, H217O), and one line of isotopic carbon monoxide (C17O) used for establishing the thermal structure. The observations allowed us to investigate and separate how the D/H evolves on the planet, since fractionation processes induced by cloud formation would lead to notable variations of D/H along the column.Isotopic measurements are per-se excellent tracers of water loss/evolution on Mars (Villanueva et al. 2015), yet some of the recently observed variations are striking and reveal a far more complex scenario for the processes acting on the Martian water cycle. They are perhaps indicative of sub-surface water reservoirs interacting with the atmosphere, but the IR measurements did not resolve the vertical structure, limiting the untangling of climatological effects (e.g., cloud formation, Rayleigh distillation).We will present 3D maps of water and D/H and will discuss possible scenarios to explain the observations, in particular, in the context of the upper-atmosphere D/H MAVEN measurements.Villanueva, G. L., Mumma, M. J., Novak, R. E., et al. 2015, Science, 348, 218

  2. Detection of a hot molecular core in the Large Magellanic Cloud with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Kawamura, Akiko; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    We report the first detection of a hot molecular core outside our Galaxy based on radio observations with ALMA toward a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) in a nearby low metallicity galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Molecular emission lines of CO, C17O, HCO+, H13CO+, H2CO, NO, SiO, H2CS, 33SO, 32SO2, 34SO2, and 33SO2 are detected from a compact region (0.1 pc) associated with a high-mass YSO, ST11. The temperature of molecular gas is estimated to be higher than 100 K based on rotation diagram analysis of SO2 and 34SO2 lines. The compact source size, warm gas temperature, high density, and rich molecular lines around a high-mass protostar suggest that ST11 is associated with a hot molecular core. We find that the molecular abundances of the LMC hot core are significantly different from those of Galactic hot cores. The abundances of CH3OH, H2CO, and HNCO are remarkably lower compared with Galactic hot cores by at least 1-3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that these abundances are characterized by the...

  3. ALMA Observations of the Debris Disk of Solar Analogue Tau Ceti

    CERN Document Server

    MacGregor, Meredith A; Wilner, David J; Matthews, Brenda C; Kennedy, Grant M; Booth, Mark; Di Francesco, James

    2016-01-01

    We present 1.3 mm observations of the Sun-like star $\\tau$ Ceti with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) that probe angular scales of $\\sim1$'' (4 AU). This first interferometric image of the $\\tau$ Ceti system, which hosts both a debris disk and possible multiplanet system, shows emission from a nearly face-on belt of cold dust with a position angle of $90^\\circ$ surrounding an unresolved central source at the stellar position. To characterize this emission structure, we fit parametric models to the millimeter visibilities. The resulting best-fit model yields an inner belt edge of $6.2^{+9.8}_{-4.6}$ AU, consistent with inferences from lower resolution, far-infrared Herschel observations. While the limited data at sufficiently short baselines preclude us from placing stronger constraints on the belt properties and its relation to the proposed five planet system, the observations do provide a strong lower limit on the fractional width of the belt, $\\Delta R/R > 0.75$ with $99\\%$ confidence...

  4. Isotopic Ratios of Carbon and Oxygen in Titan's CO using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Serigano, Joseph; Cordiner, Martin A; Irwin, Patrick G J; Teanby, Nicholas A; Charnley, Steven B; Lindberg, Johan E

    2016-01-01

    We report interferometric observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and its isotopologues in Titan's atmosphere using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The following transitions were detected: CO (J = 1-0, 2-1, 3-2, 6-5), $^{13}$CO (J = 2-1, 3-2, 6-5), C$^{18}$O (J = 2-1, 3-2), and C$^{17}$O (J = 3-2). Molecular abundances and the vertical atmospheric temperature profile were derived by modeling the observed emission line profiles using NEMESIS, a line-by-line radiative transfer code. We present the first spectroscopic detection of $^{17}$O in the outer solar system with C$^{17}$O detected at > 8$\\sigma$ confidence. The abundance of CO was determined to be 49.6 ${\\pm}$ 1.8 ppm, assumed to be constant with altitude, with isotopic ratios $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C = 89.9 ${\\pm}$ 3.4, $^{16}$O/$^{18}$O = 486 ${\\pm}$ 22, and $^{16}$O/$^{17}$O = 2917${\\pm}$359. The measurements of $^{12}$C/$^{13}$C and $^{16}$O/$^{18}$O ratios are the most precise values obtained in Titan's atmospheric CO to date. Our res...

  5. The ALMA Patchy Deep Survey: A blind search for [CII] emitters at z~4.5

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuda, Y; Iono, D; Hatsukade, B; Kohno, K; Tamura, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Shimizu, I

    2015-01-01

    We present a result of a blind search for [CII] 158 $\\mu$m emitters at $z\\sim 4.5$ using ALMA Cycle~0 archival data. We collected extra-galactic data covering at 330-360 GHz (band~7) from 8 Cycle~0 projects from which initial results have been already published. The total number of fields is 243 and the total on-source exposure time is 19.2 hours. We searched for line emitters in continuum-subtracted data cubes with spectral resolutions of 50, 100, 300 and 500 km/s. We could not detect any new line emitters above a 6-$\\sigma$ significance level. This result provides upper limits to the [CII] luminosity function at $z\\sim 4.5$ over $L_{\\rm [CII]} \\sim 10^8 - 10^{10} L_{\\odot}$ or star formation rate, SFR $\\sim$ 10-1000 M$_{^\\odot}$/yr. These limits are at least 2 orders of magnitude larger than the [CII] luminosity functions expected from the $z \\sim 4$ UV luminosity function or from numerical simulation. However, this study demonstrates that we would be able to better constrain the [CII] luminosity function a...

  6. Molecular Line Emission from Massive Protostellar Disks: Predictions for ALMA and the EVLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumholz, M R; Klein, R I; McKee, C F

    2007-05-07

    We compute the molecular line emission of massive protostellar disks by solving the equation of radiative transfer through the cores and disks produced by the recent radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of Krumholz, Klein, & McKee. We find that in several representative lines the disks show brightness temperatures of hundreds of Kelvin over velocity channels {approx} 10 km s{sup -1} wide, extending over regions hundreds of AU in size. We process the computed intensities to model the performance of next-generation radio and submillimeter telescopes. Our calculations show that observations using facilities such as the EVLA and ALMA should be able to detect massive protostellar disks and measure their rotation curves, at least in the nearest massive star-forming regions. They should also detect significant sub-structure and non-axisymmetry in the disks, and in some cases may be able to detect star-disk velocity offsets of a few km s{sup -1}, both of which are the result of strong gravitational instability in massive disks. We use our simulations to explore the strengths and weaknesses of different observational techniques, and we also discuss how observations of massive protostellar disks may be used to distinguish between alternative models of massive star formation.

  7. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Barenfeld, Scott A; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and $^{12}$CO $J = 3-2$ line fluxes of disks around low mass ($0.14-1.66$ $M_{\\odot}$) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, 5 are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area ($\\lesssim 40$ AU), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least $\\sim1000$ relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of $M_{dust}\\propto M_*^...

  8. Debris Disks in the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association Resolved by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Lieman-Sifry, Jesse; Carpenter, John M; Gorti, Uma; Hales, Antonio; Flaherty, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    We present a CO(2-1) and 1240 um continuum survey of 23 debris disks with spectral types B9-G1, observed at an angular resolution of 0.5-1 arcsec with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The sample was selected for large infrared excess and age ~10 Myr, to characterize the prevalence of molecular gas emission in young debris disks. We identify three CO-rich debris disks, plus two additional tentative (3-sigma) CO detections. Twenty disks were detected in the continuum at the >3-sigma level. For the 12 disks in the sample that are spatially resolved by our observations, we perform an independent analysis of the interferometric continuum visibilities to constrain the basic dust disk geometry, as well as a simultaneous analysis of the visibilities and broad-band spectral energy distribution to constrain the characteristic grain size and disk mass. The gas-rich debris disks exhibit preferentially larger outer radii in their dust disks, and a higher prevalence of characteristic grain sizes sma...

  9. An ALMA Continuum Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    CERN Document Server

    Carpenter, John M; Isella, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA 880 micron continuum observations of 20 K and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB association that are surrounded by protoplanetary disks. These data are used to measure the dust content in disks around low mass stars (0.1-1.6 Msun) at a stellar age of 5-11 Myr. Thirteen sources were detected in the 880 micron dust continuum at >3 sigma with inferred dust masses between 0.3 and 52 Mearth. The dust masses tend to be higher around the more massive stars, but the significance is marginal in that the probability of no correlation is p ~ 0.03. The evolution in the dust content in disks was assessed by comparing the Upper Sco observations with published continuum measurements of disks around ~ 1-2 Myr stars in the Class II stage in the Taurus molecular cloud. While the dust masses in the Upper Sco disks are on average lower than in Taurus, any difference in the dust mass distributions is significant at less than 3sigma. For stellar masses between 0.49 Msun and 1.6 Msun, the mean dust mass in disks...

  10. The Molecular Wind in the Nearest Seyfert Galaxy Circinus Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Zschaechner, Laura K; Bolatto, Alberto; Farina, Emanuele P; Kruijssen, J M Diederik; Leroy, Adam; Meier, David S; Ott, Jürgen; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the inner 1' (1.2 kpc) of the Circinus galaxy, the nearest Seyfert. We target CO (1-0) in the region associated with a well-known multiphase outflow driven by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). While the geometry of Circinus and its outflow make disentangling the latter difficult, we see indications of outflowing molecular gas at velocities consistent with the ionized outflow. We constrain the mass of the outflowing molecular gas to be 1.5e5 -5.1e6 solar masses, yielding a molecular outflow rate of 0.35-12.3 solar masses per year. The values within this range are comparable to the star formation rate in Circinus, indicating that the outflow indeed regulates star formation to some degree. The molecular outflow in Circinus is considerably lower in mass and energetics than previously-studied AGN-driven outflows, especially given its high ratio of AGN luminosity to bolometric luminosity. The molecular outflow in Circinus is, however, consistent with some trends put forth in...

  11. Compact starbursts in z~3-6 submillimeter galaxies revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Ikarashi, Soh; Caputi, Karina I; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, DavidH; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Lagos, ClaudiaD P; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Koichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, GrantG; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S

    2014-01-01

    We report the source size distribution, as measured by ALMA millimetric continuum imaging, of a sample of 13 AzTEC-selected submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) believed to lie at z_photo ~ 3-6. Their infrared luminosities and star-formation rates (SFR) are L_IR ~ 2-6 x 10^12 L_sun and ~ 200-500 M_sun yr-1, respectively. The size of z ~ 3-6 SMGs ranges from 0''.10 to 0''.38 with a median of 0''.22 (FWHM), corresponding to a median effective radius (Re) of ~ 0.8 kpc, comparable to the typical size of the stellar component measured in compact quiescent galaxies at z ~ 2 (cQGs) --- R ~ 1 kpc. The surface SFR density of our z ~ 3-6 SMGs is 160+610-82 M_sun yr-1 kpc-2, comparable to that seen in local merger-driven (U)LIRGs, which implies that these SMGs are also likely to be merger-driven. The discovery of compact starbursts in z >~ 3 SMGs strongly supports a massive galaxy formation scenario wherein z ~ 3-6 SMGs evolve into the compact stellar components of z ~ 2 cQGs. These cQGs are then thought to evolve into the mos...

  12. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks I: Dust and Gas Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Ansdell, Megan; van der Marel, Nienke; Carpenter, John M; Guidi, Greta; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Mathews, Geoff S; Manara, Carlo F; Miotello, Anna; Natta, Antonella; Oliveira, Isa; Tazzari, Marco; Testi, Leonardo; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; van Terwisga, Sierk E

    2016-01-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-mm survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use ALMA to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with $M_{\\ast}>0.1$ $M_{\\odot}$ in the young ($\\sim$1-3 Myr), nearby ($\\sim$150-200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 $\\mu$m continuum and the $^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O 3-2 lines. We use the sub-mm continuum to constrain $M_{\\rm dust}$ to a few Martian masses (0.2-0.4 $M_{\\oplus}$) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain $M_{\\rm gas}$ to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming ISM-like $\\rm {[CO]/[H_2]}$ abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in the continuum, 36 in $^{13}$CO, and 11 in C$^{18}$O at $>3\\sigma$ significance. Several new "transition disks" are found with relatively bright continuum and CO isotopologue emission. Stacking the individually unde...

  13. Measures of galaxy dust and gas mass with Herschel photometry and prospects for ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Berta, S; Genzel, R; Foerster-Schreiber, N M; Tacconi, L J

    2015-01-01

    (Abridged) Combining the deepest Herschel extragalactic surveys (PEP, GOODS-H, HerMES), and Monte Carlo mock catalogs, we explore the robustness of dust mass estimates based on modeling of broad band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with two popular approaches: Draine & Li (2007, DL07) and a modified black body (MBB). As long as the observed SED extends to at least 160-200 micron in the rest frame, M(dust) can be recovered with a >3 sigma significance and without the occurrence of systematics. An average offset of a factor ~1.5 exists between DL07- and MBB-based dust masses, based on consistent dust properties. At the depth of the deepest Herschel surveys (in the GOODS-S field) it is possible to retrieve dust masses with a S/N>=3 for galaxies on the main sequence of star formation (MS) down to M(stars)~1e10 [M(sun)] up to z~1. At higher redshift (z1, the delta(GDR) dependence on metallicity is consistent with the local relation. We combine far-IR Herschel data and sub-mm ALMA expected fluxes to study ...

  14. Detection of the simplest sugar, glycolaldehyde, in a solar-type protostar with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Jes K; Bisschop, Suzanne E; Bourke, Tyler L; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Schmalzl, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Glycolaldehyde (HCOCH2OH) is the simplest sugar and an important intermediate in the path toward forming more complex biologically relevant molecules. In this paper we present the first detection of 13 transitions of glycolaldehyde around a solar-type young star, through Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at 220 GHz (6 transitions) and 690 GHz (7 transitions). The glycolaldehyde lines have their origin in warm (200-300 K) gas close to the individual components of the binary. Glycolaldehyde co-exists with its isomer, methyl formate (HCOOCH3), which is a factor 10-15 more abundant toward the two sources. The data also show a tentative detection of ethylene glycol, the reduced alcohol of glycolaldehyde. In the 690 GHz data, the seven transitions predicted to have the highest optical depths based on modeling of the 220 GHz lines all show red-shifted absorption profiles toward one of the components in the binary (IRAS16293B) indicative of infall an...

  15. The ALMA detection of CO rotational line emission in AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, M A T; Marigo, P; Sloan, G C; Decin, L; Feast, M W; Goldman, S R; Justtanont, K; Kerschbaum, F; Matsuura, M; McDonald, I; Olofsson, H; Sahai, R; van Loon, J Th; Wood, P R; Zijlstra, A A; Bernard-Salas, J; Boyer, M L; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Jones, O C; Lagadec, E; Meixner, M; Rawlings, M G; Srinivasan, S

    2016-01-01

    Context: Low- and intermediate-mass stars lose most of their stellar mass at the end of their lives on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Determining gas and dust mass-loss rates (MLRs) is important in quantifying the contribution of evolved stars to the enrichment of the interstellar medium. Aims: Attempt to, for the first time, spectrally resolve CO thermal line emission in a small sample of AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Methods: ALMA was used to observe 2 OH/IR stars and 4 carbon stars in the LMC in the CO J= 2-1 line. Results: We present the first measurement of expansion velocities in extragalactic carbon stars. All four C-stars are detected and wind expansion velocities and stellar velocities are directly measured. Mass-loss rates are derived from modelling the spectral energy distribution and Spitzer/IRS spectrum with the DUSTY code. Gas-to-dust ratios are derived that make the predicted velocities agree with the observed ones. The expansion velocities and MLRs are compared to a Galactic sam...

  16. IRAS 16547–4247: A NEW CANDIDATE OF A PROTOCLUSTER UNVEILED WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Aya E. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Saigo, Kazuya; Chibueze, James O.; Sanhueza, Patricio [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takakuwa, Shigehisa [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, PO Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Garay, Guido, E-mail: ahiguchi@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino El Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-01-10

    We present the results of continuum and {sup 12}CO(3-2) and CH{sub 3}OH(7-6) line observations of IRAS 16547–4247 made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at an angular resolution of ∼0.''5. The {sup 12}CO(3-2) emission shows two high-velocity outflows whose driving sources are located within the dust continuum peak. The alignment of these outflows does not coincide with that of the wide-angle, large-scale, bipolar outflow detected with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment in previous studies. The CH{sub 3}OH(7-6) line emission traces an hourglass structure associated with the cavity walls created by the outflow lobes. Taking into account our results together with the position of the H{sub 2}O and class I CH{sub 3}OH maser clusters, we discuss two possible scenarios that can explain the hourglass structure observed in IRAS 16547–4247: (1) precession of a biconical jet, (2) multiple, or at least two, driving sources powering intersecting outflows. Combining the available evidence, namely, the presence of two cross-aligned bipolar outflows and two different H{sub 2}O maser groups, we suggest that IRAS 16547–4247 represents an early formation phase of a protocluster.

  17. The Mysterious Morphology of MRC0943-242 as Revealed by ALMA and MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Gullberg, Bitten; Lehnert, Matthew D; Vernet, Joel; Bacon, Roland; Drouart, Guillaume; Emonts, Bjorn; Galametz, Audrey; Ivison, Rob; Nesvadba, Nicole P H; Richard, Johan; Seymour, Nick; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    We present a pilot study of the z=2.923 radio galaxy MRC0943-242, where we for the first time combine information from ALMA and MUSE data cubes. Even with modest integration times, we disentangle an AGN and a starburst dominated set of components. These data reveal a highly complex morphology, as the AGN, starburst, and molecular gas components show up as widely separated sources in dust continuum, optical continuum and CO line emission observations. CO(1-0) and CO(8-7) line emission suggest that there is a molecular gas reservoir offset from both the dust and the optical continuum that is located ~90kpc from the AGN. The UV line emission has a complex structure in emission and absorption. The line emission is mostly due to i) a large scale ionisation cone energised by the AGN, ii) a Ly-alpha emitting bridge of gas between the radio galaxy and a heavily star-forming set of components. Strangely, the ionisation cone has no Ly-alpha emission. We find this is due to an optically thick layer of neutral gas with u...

  18. ALMA View of the Galactic Center Mini-spiral: Ionized Gas Flows around Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuboi, Masato; Uehara, Kenta; Miyawaki, Ryosuke; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Miyoshi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We have performed the observation of the "Galactic Center Mini-spiral(GCMS)" in H42alpha recombination line as a part of the first large-scale mosaic observation in the Sagittarius A complex using Atacama Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA). We revealed the kinematics of the ionized gas streamers of the GCMS. Especially we found that the streamer corresponding to the Bar of the GCMS has a Keplerian orbit with high eccentricity which is independent from the Keplerian orbits of the other streamers of the GCMS. The periastron is probably located within the Bondi accretion radius derived from X-ray observation. In addition, we estimated the LTE electron temperature in the sub-structures of the GCMS from the line-continuum flux density ratio. The electron temperatures are in the range of T* e=(6-13)x10^3 K. We confirmed the previously claimed tendency that the electron temperatures increase toward Sgr A*. We also found that the electron temperature at the positive velocity end of the Bar is twice as high as tha...

  19. THE PECULIAR DISTRIBUTION OF CH3CN IN IRC +10216 SEEN BY ALMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, M; Cernicharo, J; Quintana-Lacaci, G; Prieto, L Velilla; Castro-Carrizo, A; Marcelino, N; Guélin, M

    2015-12-01

    IRC +10216 is a circumstellar envelope around a carbon-rich evolved star which contains a large variety of molecules. According to interferometric observations, molecules are distributed either concentrated around the central star or as a hollow shell with a radius of ~15″. We present ALMA Cycle 0 band 6 observations of the J = 14 - 13 rotational transition of CH3CN in IRC +10216, obtained with an angular resolution of [Formula: see text]. The bulk of the emission is distributed as a hollow shell located at just ~2″ from the star, with a void of emission in the central region up to a radius of ~1″. This spatial distribution is markedly different from those found to date in this source for other molecules. Our analysis indicate that methyl cyanide is not formed neither in the stellar photosphere nor far in the outer envelope, but at radial distances as short as 1-2″, reaching a maximum abundance of ~ 0.02 molecules cm(-3) at 2″ from the star. Standard chemical models of IRC +10216 predict that the bulk of CH3CN molecules should be present at a radius of ~ 15″, where other species such as polyyne radicals and cyanopolyynes are observed, with an additional inner component within 1″ from the star. The non-uniform structure of the circumstellar envelope and grain surface processes are discussed as possible causes of the peculiar distribution of methyl cyanide in IRC +10216.

  20. ALMA and VLA Observations: Evidence for Ongoing Low-mass Star Formation near Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Cotton, W.; Wardle, M.; Royster, M. J.; Kunneriath, D.; Roberts, D. A.; Wootten, A.; Schödel, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using the VLA, we recently detected a large number of protoplanetary disk (proplyd) candidates lying within a couple of light years of the massive black hole Sgr A*. The bow-shock appearance of proplyd candidates point toward the young massive stars located near Sgr A*. Similar to Orion proplyds, the strong UV radiation from the cluster of massive stars at the Galactic center is expected to photoevaporate and photoionize the circumstellar disks around young, low mass stars, thus allowing detection of the ionized outflows from the photoionized layer surrounding cool and dense gaseous disks. To confirm this picture, ALMA observations detect millimeter emission at 226 GHz from five proplyd candidates that had been detected at 44 and 34 GHz with the VLA. We present the derived disk masses for four sources as a function of the assumed dust temperature. The mass of protoplanetary disks from cool dust emission ranges between 0.03 - 0.05 M⊙. These estimates are consistent with the disk masses found in star forming sites in the Galaxy. These measurements show the presence of on-going star formation with the implication that gas clouds can survive near Sgr A* and the relative importance of high vs low-mass star formation in the strong tidal and radiation fields of the Galactic center.

  1. Molecular gas in the immediate vicinity of Sgr A* seen with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Lydia; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Eckart, Andreas; Requena-Torres, Miguel A.; García-Marin, Macarena; Kunneriath, Devaky; Zensus, Anton; Britzen, Silke; Sabha, Nadeen; Shahzamanian, Banafsheh; Borkar, Abhijeet; Fischer, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    We report serendipitous detections of line emission with ALMA in band 3, 6, and 7 in the central parsec of the Galactic center at an up to now highest resolution (<0.7''). Among the highlights are the very first and highly resolved images of sub-mm molecular emission of CS, H13CO+, HC3N, SiO, SO, C2H, and CH3OH in the immediate vicinity (~1'' in projection) of Sgr A* and in the circumnuclear disk (CND). The central association (CA) of molecular clouds shows three times higher CS/X (X: any other observed molecule) luminosity ratios than the CND suggesting a combination of higher excitation - by a temperature gradient and/or IR-pumping - and abundance enhancement due to UV- and/or X-ray emission. We conclude that the CA is closer to the center than the CND is and could be an infalling clump consisting of denser cloud cores embedded in diffuse gas. Moreover, we identified further regions in and outside the CND that are ideally suited for future studies in the scope of hot/cold core and extreme PDR/XDR chemistry and consequent star formation in the central few parsecs.

  2. A Community-Engaged Research Approach to Improve Mental Health Among Latina Immigrants: ALMA Photovoice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Georgina; Della Valle, Pamela; Paraghamian, Sarah; Page, Rachel; Ochoa, Janet; Palomo, Fabiana; Suarez, Emilia; Thrasher, Angela; Tran, Anh N; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2016-05-01

    Recent Latina immigrants are at increased risk of poor mental health due to stressors associated with adapting to life in the United States. Existing social and health care policies often do not adequately address the mental health concerns of new Latino populations. Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma, a community-partnered research project, seeks to improve immigrant Latinas' mental health outcomes. Using Photovoice methodology, promotoras (lay health advisors) reflected on community factors affecting mental health through photography and guided discussion. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using content analysis to identify salient themes. Promotoras reviewed codes to develop themes that they presented in community forums to reach local policy makers and to increase community awareness. These forums included an exhibit of the promotoras' photographs and discussion of action steps to address community concerns. Themes included transitioning to life in the United States, parenting, education, and combating racism. Nearly 150 stakeholders attended the community forums and proposed responses to promotoras' photographic themes. Our findings suggest that Photovoice provides an opportunity for Latinas and the larger community to identify issues that they find most important and to explore avenues for action and change by creating sustainable partnerships between the community and forum attendees.

  3. ALMA [CII] detection of a redshift 7 lensed galaxy behind RXJ1347.1-1145

    CERN Document Server

    Bradač, Maruša; Huang, Kuang-Han; Vallini, Livia; Finney, Emily; Hoag, Austin; Lemaux, Brian; Schmidt, Kasper; Treu, Tommaso; Carilli, Chris; Dijkstra, Mark; Ferrara, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Jones, Tucker; Ryan, Russell; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of ALMA spectroscopic follow-up of a $z=6.765$ Lyman-$\\alpha$ emitting galaxy behind the cluster RXJ1347-1145. We report the detection of {\\ctf} line fully consistent with the Lyman-$\\alpha$ redshift and with the peak of the optical emission. Given the magnification of $\\mu=5.0 \\pm 0.3$ the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) luminosity of the [CII] line is $L_{[CII]} =1.4^{+0.2}_{-0.3} \\times 10^7L_{\\odot}$, which is ${\\sim}5$ times fainter than other detections of $z\\sim 7$ galaxies. The result indicates that low $L_{[CII]}$ in $z\\sim 7$ galaxies compared to the local counterparts are likely caused by their low metallicities and/or feedback. The small velocity off-set ($\\Delta v = 20_{-40}^{+140}\\mbox{km/s}$) between the Lyman-$\\alpha$ and [CII] line is unusual, and may be indicative of ionizing photons escaping.

  4. Primary health care development: where is Nepal after 30 years of Alma Ata Declaration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, R; Jha, N

    2010-01-01

    The year 2008 has witnessed the global conversation to return to tenets of Alma-Ata and to review its 30 years of journey. We reviewed Nepal's journey on Primary Health Care development: policy formulation, structure development, progress and constraints. Though Nepal has institutionalised the PHC approach in health policy, strategy and health care delivery system, this has not been effectively translated into actions, and the results are mixed. Nepal has gained impressive achievements in selective primary health care markers: 45.43% maternal mortality and 62.34% child mortality reduction during 1990-2005. But gain in comprehensive health care markers is not impressive: 18.7% Skilled Birth Attendant (4% in poorest quintile and 45% in richest quintile), 39% having access to improved sanitation and 55.7% of females are literate as compared to males. Socio-political environment until recently was not favourable for comprehensive primary health care, allowing limited health sector decentralisation and community empowerment. Health activities were focussed more on selective health care strategy in the form of disease control, immunisation, vitamin A supplementation, oral rehydration solution use and contraceptive use. Nepal's rural hilly geography posed great challenge on logistic supply, communication and retention of health workers rendering public health centres of low quality with negative perceptions of consumers. Nepal is on the pathway to build equitable comprehensive primary health care.

  5. Revised spectroscopic parameters of SH(+) from ALMA and IRAM 30m observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Holger S P; Goicoechea, Javier R; Cernicharo, José; Agúndez, Marcelino; Pety, Jérôme; Cuadrado, Sara; Gerin, Maryvonne; Dumas, Gaëlle; Chapillon, Edwige

    2014-09-19

    Hydrides represent the first steps of interstellar chemistry. Sulfanylium (SH(+)), in particular, is a key tracer of energetic processes. We used ALMA and the IRAM 30 m telescope to search for the lowest frequency rotational lines of SH(+) toward the Orion Bar, the prototypical photo-dissociation region illuminated by a strong UV radiation field. On the basis of previous Herschel/HIFI observations of SH(+), we expected to detect emission of the two SH(+) hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the NJ = 10-01 fine structure (FS) component near 346 GHz. While we did not observe any lines at the frequencies predicted from laboratory data, we detected two emission lines, each ~15 MHz above the SH(+) predictions and with relative intensities and HFS splitting expected for SH(+). The rest frequencies of the two newly detected lines are more compatible with the remainder of the SH(+) laboratory data than the single line measured in the laboratory near 346 GHz and previously attributed to SH(+). Therefore, we assign these new features to the two SH(+) HFS components of the NJ = 10-01 FS component and re-determine its spectroscopic parameters, which will be useful for future observations of SH(+), in particular if its lowest frequency FS components are studied. Our observations demonstrate the suitability of these lines for SH(+) searches at frequencies easily accessible from the ground.

  6. Spiral arms in the disk of HD 142527 from CO emission lines with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Christiaens, Valentin; Perez, Sebastian; van der Plas, Gerrit; Ménard, François

    2014-01-01

    In view of both the size of its gap and the previously reported asymmetries and near-infrared spiral arms, the transition disk of the Herbig Fe star HD 142527 constitutes a remarkable case study. This paper focuses on the morphology of the outer disk through ALMA observations of $^{12}$CO J=2-1, $^{12}$CO J=3-2 and $^{13}$CO J=2-1. Both $^{12}$CO J=2-1 and $^{12}$CO J=3-2 show spiral features of different sizes. The innermost spiral arm (S1) is a radio counterpart of the first near-infrared spiral observed by Fukagawa et al. (2006), but it is shifted radially outward. However, the most conspicuous CO spiral arm (S2) lies at the outskirts of the disk and had not been detected before. It corresponds to a cold density structure, with both brightness and excitation temperatures of order 13$\\pm$2 K and conspicuous in the $^{12}$CO J=2-1 peak-intensity map, but faint in $^{12}$CO J=3-2. There is also a faint counterarm (S3), point-symmetrical of S2 with respect to the star. These three spirals are modelled separate...

  7. ALMA data suggest the presence of a spiral structure in the inner wind of CW Leo

    CERN Document Server

    Decin, L; Neufeld, D; Steffen, W; Melnick, G; Lombaert, R

    2014-01-01

    (abbreviated) We aim to study the inner wind of the well-known AGB star CW Leo. Different diagnostics probing different geometrical scales have pointed toward a non-homogeneous mass-loss process: dust clumps are observed at milli-arcsec scale, a bipolar structure is seen at arcsecond-scale and multi-concentric shells are detected beyond 1". We present the first ALMA Cycle 0 band 9 data around 650 GHz. The full-resolution data have a spatial resolution of 0".42x0".24, allowing us to study the morpho-kinematical structure within ~6". Results: We have detected 25 molecular lines. The emission of all but one line is spatially resolved. The dust and molecular lines are centered around the continuum peak position. The dust emission has an asymmetric distribution with a central peak flux density of ~2 Jy. The molecular emission lines trace different regions in the wind acceleration region and suggest that the wind velocity increases rapidly from about 5 R* almost reaching the terminal velocity at ~11 R*. The channel...

  8. A Keplerian disk around a Class 0 source: ALMA observations of VLA1623A

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo, Nadia M; Bruderer, Simon; Harsono, Daniel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2013-01-01

    Context: Rotationally supported disks are critical in the star formation process. The questions of when do they form and what factors influence or hinder their formation have been studied but are largely unanswered. Observations of early stage YSOs are needed to probe disk formation. Aims: VLA1623 is a triple non-coeval protostellar system, with a weak magnetic field perpendicular to the outflow, whose Class 0 component, VLA1623A, shows a disk-like structure in continuum with signatures of rotation in line emission. We aim to determine whether this structure is in part or in whole a rotationally supported disk, i.e. a Keplerian disk, and what are its characteristics. Methods: ALMA Cycle 0 Early Science 1.3 mm continuum and C$^{18}$O (2-1) observations in the extended configuration are presented here and used to perform an analysis of the disk-like structure using PV diagrams and thin disk modelling with the addition of foreground absorption. Results: The PV diagrams of the C$^{18}$O line emission suggest the ...

  9. Measuring the Distribution and Excitation of Cometary CH3OH Using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Cordiner, M A; Mumma, M J; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Villanueva, G; Paganini, L; Milam, S N; Remijan, A J; Lis, D C; Crovisier, J; Boissier, J; Kuan, Y -J; Coulson, I M

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) was used to obtain measurements of spatially and spectrally resolved CH$_3$OH emission from comet C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) on 28-29 June 2014. Detection of 12-14 emission lines of CH$_3$OH on each day permitted the derivation of spatially-resolved rotational temperature profiles (averaged along the line of sight), for the innermost 5000 km of the coma. On each day, the CH$_3$OH distribution was centrally peaked and approximately consistent with spherically symmetric, uniform outflow. The azimuthally-averaged CH$_3$OH rotational temperature ($T_{rot}$) as a function of sky-projected nucleocentric distance ($\\rho$), fell by about 40 K between $\\rho=0$ and 2500 km on 28 June, whereas on 29 June, $T_{rot}$ fell by about 50 K between $\\rho=$0 km and 1500 km. A remarkable ($\\sim50$ K) rise in $T_{rot}$ at $\\rho=$1500-2500 km on 29 June was not present on 28 June. The observed variations in CH$_3$OH rotational temperature are interpreted primarily as a result of v...

  10. GRB 110715A: The peculiar multiwavelength evolution of the first afterglow detected by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R; Jóhannesson, G; Murphy, Tara; Postigo, A de Ugarte; Gorosabel, J; Kann, D A; Krühler, T; Oates, S R; Japelj, J; Thöne, C C; Lundgren, A; Perley, D A; Malesani, D; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio; Castro-Tirado, A J; D'Elia, V; Fynbo, J P U; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Goldoni, P; Greiner, J; Hu, Y -D; Jelínek, M; Jeong, S; Kamble, A; Klose, S; Kuin, N P M; Llorente, A; Martín, S; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Rossi, A; Schady, P; Sparre, M; Sudilovsky, V; Tello, J C; Updike, A; Wiersema, K; Zhang, B -B

    2016-01-01

    We present the extensive follow-up campaign on the afterglow of GRB 110715A at 17 different wavelengths, from X-ray to radio bands, starting 81 seconds after the burst and extending up to 74 days later. We performed for the first time a GRB afterglow observation with the ALMA observatory. We find that the afterglow of GRB 110715A is very bright at optical and radio wavelengths. We use optical and near infrared spectroscopy to provide further information about the progenitor's environment and its host galaxy. The spectrum shows weak absorption features at a redshift $z$ = 0.8225, which reveal a host galaxy environment with low ionization, column density and dynamical activity. Late deep imaging shows a very faint galaxy, consistent with the spectroscopic results. The broadband afterglow emission is modelled with synchrotron radiation using a numerical algorithm and we determine the best fit parameters using Bayesian inference in order to constrain the physical parameters of the jet and the medium in which the ...

  11. ALMA CO J=6-5 observations of IRAS16293-2422: Shocks and entrainment

    CERN Document Server

    Kristensen, L E; Mottram, J C; Schmalzl, M; Hogerheijde, M R

    2012-01-01

    Observations of higher-excited transitions of abundant molecules such as CO are important for determining where energy in the form of shocks is fed back into the parental envelope of forming stars. The nearby prototypical and protobinary low-mass hot core, IRAS16293-2422 (I16293) is ideal for such a study. The source was targeted with ALMA for science verification purposes in band 9, which includes CO J=6-5 (E_up/k_B ~ 116 K), at an unprecedented spatial resolution (~0.2", 25 AU). I16293 itself is composed of two sources, A and B, with a projected distance of 5". CO J=6-5 emission is detected throughout the region, particularly in small, arcsecond-sized hotspots, where the outflow interacts with the envelope. The observations only recover a fraction of the emission in the line wings when compared to data from single-dish telescopes, with a higher fraction of emission recovered at higher velocities. The very high angular resolution of these new data reveal that a bow shock from source A coincides, in the plane...

  12. Implementing Kanban for agile process management within the ALMA Software Operations Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveco, Johnny; Mora, Matias; Shen, Tzu-Chiang; Soto, Ruben; Sepulveda, Jorge; Ibsen, Jorge

    2014-07-01

    After the inauguration of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Software Operations Group in Chile has refocused its objectives to: (1) providing software support to tasks related to System Integration, Scientific Commissioning and Verification, as well as Early Science observations; (2) testing the remaining software features, still under development by the Integrated Computing Team across the world; and (3) designing and developing processes to optimize and increase the level of automation of operational tasks. Due to their different stakeholders, each of these tasks presents a wide diversity of importances, lifespans and complexities. Aiming to provide the proper priority and traceability for every task without stressing our engineers, we introduced the Kanban methodology in our processes in order to balance the demand on the team against the throughput of the delivered work. The aim of this paper is to share experiences gained during the implementation of Kanban in our processes, describing the difficulties we have found, solutions and adaptations that led us to our current but still evolving implementation, which has greatly improved our throughput, prioritization and problem traceability.

  13. Resolved gas cavities in transitional disks inferred from CO isotopologues with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    van der Marel, Nienke; Bruderer, Simon; Andrews, Sean M; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Herczeg, Greg J; van Kempen, Tim; Miotello, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Transitional disks around young stars are promising candidates to look for recently formed, embedded planets. Planet-disk interaction models predict that planets clear a gap in the gas while trapping dust at larger radii. Other physical mechanisms could be responsible for cavities as well. Previous observations have revealed that gas is still present inside these cavities, but the spatial distribution of this gas remains uncertain. We present high spatial resolution observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of 13CO and C18O lines of four well-studied transitional disks. The observations are used to set constraints on the gas surface density, specifically cavity size and density drop inside the cavity. The physical-chemical model DALI is used to analyze the gas images of SR21, HD135344B, DoAr44 and IRS48. The main parameters of interest are the size, depth and shape of the gas cavity. CO isotope-selective photodissociation is included to properly constrain the surface density in...

  14. Anatomy of a blazar in the (sub-)millimeter: ALMA Observations of PKS 0521-365

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Guerard, M; Villard, E; Hidayat, T; Flaquer, B Ocana; Vila-Vilaro, B

    2015-01-01

    We aim at analyzing the (sub-)millimeter emission in a nearby blazar, PKS 0521-365 , to study the synchrotron and thermal emission in the different components detected at low frequency. We analyze the archive public data of the ALMA Cycle 0 where PKS 0521-365 is used as a calibrator. A total of 13 projects with 23 dataset is analyzed in band 3, 6 and 7 and combined. The whole set of data is combined and wavelet filtered to obtain a deep image reaching a dynamic range of 47000. The individual emission flux is measured at different date over a period of 11 months in various components. Finally we analyze the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) in each different component, including the radio jet and counter jet. The point sources detected in the field follow a similar distribution to previous studies. The blazar flux shows large variation especially in band 3. Different components are observed: core, radio jet and newly detected counter jet, Hot Spot (HS) and a disky structure roughly perpendicular to the jet. T...

  15. Multi-molecule ALMA observations towards the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1097

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, S; Izumi, T; Krips, M; Meier, D S; Aladro, R; Matsushita, S; Takano, S; Turner, J L; Espada, D; Nakajima, T; Terashima, Y; Fathi, K; Hsieh, P -Y; Imanishi, M; Lundgren, A; Nakai, N; Schinnerer, E; Sheth, K; Wiklind, T

    2014-01-01

    The nearby Sy 1 galaxy NGC 1097 represents an ideal laboratory to explore the molecular chemistry in the presence and surroundings of an active galactic nucleus. Exploring the distribution of different molecular species allows us to understand the physical processes affecting the ISM both in the AGN vicinity as well as in the outer star forming molecular ring. We carried out 3 mm ALMA observations of HCN, HCO+, CCH, CS, HNCO, SiO, HC3N, and SO as well as the 13C isotopologues. All species were imaged over the central 2 kpc (~30") of the galaxy at a resolution of ~2.2"x1.5 (150 pc x 100 pc). HCO+ and CS appear to be slightly enhanced in the star forming ring. CCH, showing the largest variations across NGC 1097, is suggested to be a good tracer of both obscured and early stage star formation. HNCO, SiO and HC3N are significantly enhanced in the inner circumnuclear disk surrounding the AGN. Differences in the molecular abundances are observed between the star forming ring and the inner circumnuclear disk. We con...

  16. Investigating overdensities around z>6 galaxies through ALMA observations of [CII

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Tim B; Hayward, Christopher C; Behroozi, Peter S; Bradford, C Matt; Willott, Chris J; Wagg, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    We present a search for companion [CII] emitters to known luminous sources at $6<$ z $<6.5$ in deep ALMA observations. Our data is deep enough to detect sources down to L$_{\\rm [CII]} \\sim 10^8$ at z $\\sim6$. We identify five robust line detections from a blind search of five deep fields centered on ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and QSOs, suggesting these objects may be highly biased tracers of mass in the early Universe. We find these companion lines to have comparable properties to other known galaxies at the same epoch. All companions lie less than 650 km s$^{-1}$ and between 20-70 kpc (projected) from their central source, providing a constraint on their average halo masses of 1.4$\\times$10$^{12}$ M$_\\odot$. To place these discoveries in context, we employ a mock galaxy catalog to estimate the luminosity function for [CII] during reionization and compare to our observations. The simulations support this result by showing a similar level of elevated counts found around such luminous sources. Final...

  17. Relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll a concentration in the international Alma Gol Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Balali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll, a concentration in the International Alma Gol Wetland. Chlorophyll a is the major photosynthetic pigment in lots of phytoplanktons and has been used as a trophy index in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples were collected fortnightly from five stations in the wetland during summer and autumn. Chlorophyll-a ranged between 4.38 to 156.55 mg/m3, sulfate ranged between 138 to 190 mg/l, total alkalinity ranged between 80 to 280 mg/l, silica ranged between 3.80 to 35.00 mg/l, phosphate ranged between 0.02 to 3.70 mg/l, ammonia ranged between 0.10 to 11.90 mg/l, nitrate ranged between 0.01 to 2.75 mg/l and nitrite ranged between 0.01 to 0.39 mg/l. There was a significant correlation between chlorophyll a and nitrate, nitrite and ammonia but there was no significant correlation between chlorophyll a and silica, total alkalinity, sulfate and phosphorus.

  18. Protoplanetary Disks in the Orion OMC1 Region Imaged with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, J A; Ginsburg, A; Sheehan, P D

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the Orion Nebula that cover the OMC1 outflow region. Our focus in this paper is on compact emission from protoplanetary disks. We mosaicked a field containing $\\sim 600$ near-IR-identified young stars, around which we can search for sub-mm emission tracing dusty disks. Approximately 100 sources are known proplyds identified with HST. We detect continuum emission at 1 mm wavelengths towards $\\sim 20\\%$ of the proplyd sample, and $\\sim 8\\%$ of the larger sample of near-IR objects. The noise in our maps allows 4$\\sigma$ detection of objects brighter than $\\sim 1.5$ mJy, corresponding to protoplanetary disk masses larger than 1.5 M$_{\\rm J}$ (using standard assumptions about dust opacities and gas-to-dust ratios). None of these disks are detected in contemporaneous CO(2-1) or C$^{18}$O(2-1) observations, suggesting that the gas-to-dust ratios may be substantially smaller than the canonical value of 100. Furthermore, since dust grains may already be sequestered in large bodies in ON...

  19. Pre-ALMA observations of GRBs in the mm/submm range

    CERN Document Server

    Postigo, A de Ugarte; Martín, S; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Monsalvo, I de Gregorio; Michałowski, M J; Thöne, C C; Campana, S; Gorosabel, J; Tanvir, N R; Wiersema, K; Castro-Tirado, A J; Schulze, S; De Breuck, C; Petitpas, G; Hjorth, J; Jakobsson, P; Covino, S; Fynbo, J P U; Winters, J M; Bremer, M; Levan, A J; Salvaterra, R

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that GRBs generate an afterglow emission that can be detected from radio to X-rays during days, or even weeks after the initial explosion. The peak of this emission crosses the mm/submm range during the first hours to days, making their study in this range crucial for constraining the models. Observations have been limited until now due to the low sensitivity of the observatories in this range. We present observations of 10 GRB afterglows obtained from APEX and SMA at 230 and 345GHz and put them into context with a catalogue of all the observations that have been published until now in the spectral range that will be covered by ALMA. The catalogue of mm/submm observations collected here is the largest to date and is composed of 77 GRBs, of which 65 had afterglow observations, whereas the rest are host galaxy searches. With our programmes, we contributed with data of 10 GRBs and the discovery of 2 submm counterparts. In total, the full sample, including data from the literature, has 19 aftergl...

  20. ALMA observations of the supergiant B[e] star Wd1-9

    CERN Document Server

    Fenech, D; Prinja, R K; Morford, J C; Dougherty, S; Blomme, R

    2016-01-01

    Mass-loss in massive stars plays a critical role in their evolution, although the precise mechanism(s) responsible - radiatively driven winds, impulsive ejection and/or binary interaction -remain uncertain. In this paper we present ALMA line and continuum observations of the supergiant B[e] star Wd1-9, a massive post-Main Sequence object located within the starburst cluster Westerlund 1. We find it to be one of the brightest stellar point sources in the sky at millimetre wavelengths, with (serendipitously identified) emission in the H41alpha radio recombination line. We attribute these properties to a low velocity (~100 km/s) ionised wind, with an extreme mass-loss rate 6.4x10^-5(d/5kpc)^1.5 Msol/yr. External to this is an extended aspherical ejection nebula indicative of a prior phase of significant mass-loss. Taken together, the millimetre properties of Wd1-9 show a remarkable similarity to those of the highly luminous stellar source MWC349A.We conclude that these objects are interacting binaries evolving a...

  1. GRB 110715A: the peculiar multiwavelength evolution of the first afterglow detected by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Hancock, P. J.; Jóhannesson, G.; Murphy, Tara; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Kann, D. A.; Krühler, T.; Oates, S. R.; Japelj, J.; Thöne, C. C.; Lundgren, A.; Perley, D. A.; Malesani, D.; de Gregorio Monsalvo, I.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; D'Elia, V.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Goldoni, P.; Greiner, J.; Hu, Y.-D.; Jelínek, M.; Jeong, S.; Kamble, A.; Klose, S.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Llorente, A.; Martín, S.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Rossi, A.; Schady, P.; Sparre, M.; Sudilovsky, V.; Tello, J. C.; Updike, A.; Wiersema, K.; Zhang, B.-B.

    2017-02-01

    We present the extensive follow-up campaign on the afterglow of GRB 110715A at 17 different wavelengths, from X-ray to radio bands, starting 81 s after the burst and extending up to 74 d later. We performed for the first time a GRB afterglow observation with the ALMA observatory. We find that the afterglow of GRB 110715A is very bright at optical and radio wavelengths. We use the optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to provide further information about the progenitor's environment and its host galaxy. The spectrum shows weak absorption features at a redshift z = 0.8225, which reveal a host-galaxy environment with low ionization, column density, and dynamical activity. Late deep imaging shows a very faint galaxy, consistent with the spectroscopic results. The broad-band afterglow emission is modelled with synchrotron radiation using a numerical algorithm and we determine the best-fitting parameters using Bayesian inference in order to constrain the physical parameters of the jet and the medium in which the relativistic shock propagates. We fitted our data with a variety of models, including different density profiles and energy injections. Although the general behaviour can be roughly described by these models, none of them are able to fully explain all data points simultaneously. GRB 110715A shows the complexity of reproducing extensive multiwavelength broad-band afterglow observations, and the need of good sampling in wavelength and time and more complex models to accurately constrain the physics of GRB afterglows.

  2. ALMA observations of TiO$_2$ around VY Canis Majoris

    CERN Document Server

    De Beck, E; Muller, S; Black, J H; O'Gorman, E; Richards, A M S; Baudry, A; Maercker, M; Decin, L; Humphreys, E M

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide, TiO$_2$, is a refractory species that could play a crucial role in the dust-condensation sequence around oxygen-rich evolved stars. To date, gas phase TiO$_2$ has been detected only in the complex environment of the red supergiant VY CMa. We aim to constrain the distribution and excitation of TiO$_2$ around VY CMa in order to clarify its role in dust formation. We analyse spectra and channel maps for TiO$_2$ extracted from ALMA science verification data. We detect 15 transitions of TiO$_2$, and spatially resolve the emission for the first time. The maps demonstrate a highly clumpy, anisotropic outflow in which the TiO$_2$ emission likely traces gas exposed to the stellar radiation field. A roughly east-west oriented, accelerating bipolar-like structure is found, of which the blue component runs into and breaks up around a solid continuum component. A distinct tail to the south-west is seen for some transitions, consistent with features seen in the optical and near-infrared. We find that a si...

  3. ALMA observations of cold molecular gas filaments trailing rising radio bubbles in PKS0745-191

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Nulsen, P E J; Edge, A C; Combes, F; Murray, N W; Parrish, I J; Salome, P; Sanders, J S; Baum, S A; Donahue, M; Main, R A; O'Connell, R W; O'Dea, C P; Oonk, J B R; Tremblay, G; Vantyghem, A N; Voit, G M

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) line emission tracing filaments of cold molecular gas in the central galaxy of the cluster PKS0745-191. The total molecular gas mass of 4.6 +/- 0.3 x 10^9 solar masses, assuming a Galactic X_{CO} factor, is divided roughly equally between three filaments each extending radially 3-5 kpc from the galaxy centre. The emission peak is located in the SE filament roughly 1 arcsec (2 kpc) from the nucleus. The velocities of the molecular clouds in the filaments are low, lying within +/-100 km/s of the galaxy's systemic velocity. Their FWHMs are less than 150 km/s, which is significantly below the stellar velocity dispersion. Although the molecular mass of each filament is comparable to a rich spiral galaxy, such low velocities show that the filaments are transient and the clouds would disperse on <10^7 yr timescales unless supported, likely by the indirect effect of magnetic fields. The velocity structure is inconsistent with a merger origin or gravitational ...

  4. Molecular Gas Along a Bright Hα Filament in 2A 0335+096 Revealed by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantyghem, A. N.; McNamara, B. R.; Russell, H. R.; Hogan, M. T.; Edge, A. C.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Combes, F.; Salomé, P.; Baum, S. A.; Donahue, M.; Main, R. A.; Murray, N. W.; O'Connell, R. W.; O'Dea, C. P.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Parrish, I. J.; Sanders, J. S.; Tremblay, G.; Voit, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    We present ALMA CO(1-0) and CO(3-2) observations of the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) in the 2A 0335+096 galaxy cluster (z = 0.0346). The total molecular gas mass of 1.13 ± 0.15 × 109 M ⊙ is divided into two components: a nuclear region and a 7 kpc long dusty filament. The central molecular gas component accounts for 3.2 ± 0.4 × 108 M ⊙ of the total supply of cold gas. Instead of forming a rotationally supported ring or disk, it is composed of two distinct, blueshifted clumps south of the nucleus and a series of low-significance redshifted clumps extending toward a nearby companion galaxy. The velocity of the redshifted clouds increases with radius to a value consistent with the companion galaxy, suggesting that an interaction between these galaxies cooled out of the intracluster medium over a period of 25-100 Myr. The filament trails an X-ray cavity, suggesting that the gas has cooled from low-entropy gas that has been lifted out of the cluster core and become thermally unstable. We are unable to distinguish between inflow and outflow along the filament with the present data. Cloud velocities along the filament are consistent with gravitational free-fall near the plane of the sky, although their increasing blueshifts with radius are consistent with outflow.

  5. First Results from High Angular Resolution ALMA Observations Toward the HL Tau Region

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Perez, L M; Hunter, T R; Dent, W R F; Hales, A S; Hills, R; Corder, S; Fomalont, E B; Vlahakis, C; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Matsushita, S; Nakanishi, K; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodon, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Akiyama, E; Chapillon, E; de Gregorio, I; Di Francesco, J; Gueth, F; Kawamura, A; Lee, C -F; Luong, Q Nguyen; Mangum, J; Pietu, V; Sanhueza, P; Saigo, K; Takakuwa, S; Ubach, C; van Kempen, T; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Kurono, Y; Liu, H -Y; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Andreani, P; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0.075 arcseconds (10 AU) to 0.025 arcseconds (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analogue HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings observed at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination (46.72pm0.05 degrees) and position angle (+138.02pm0.07 degrees). We obtain a high-fidelity image of the 1.0 mm spectral index ($\\alpha$), which ranges from $\\alpha\\sim2.0$ in the optically-thick central peak and two brightest rings, increasing to 2.3-3.0 in the dark rings. The dark rings are not devoid of emission, we estimate a grain emissivity index of 0.8 for the innermost dark ring and lower for ...

  6. ALMA Imaging of Gas and Dust in a Galaxy Protocluster at Redshift 5.3

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Capak, Peter L; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa; Schinnerer, Eva; Yun, Min; Cox, Pierre; Bertoldi, Frank; Karim, Alexander; Yan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We report interferometric imaging of [CII] and OH emission toward the center of the galaxy protocluster associated with the z=5.3 submillimeter galaxy (SMG) AzTEC-3, using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). We detect strong [CII], OH, and rest-frame 157.7 um continuum emission toward the SMG. The [CII] emission is distributed over a scale of 3.9 kpc, implying a dynamical mass of 9.7 x 10^10 Msun, and a star formation rate (SFR) surface density of Sigma_SFR = 530 Msun/yr/kpc2. This suggests that AzTEC-3 forms stars at Sigma_SFR approaching the Eddington limit for radiation pressure supported disks. We find that the OH emission is slightly blueshifted relative to the [CII] line, which may indicate a molecular outflow associated with the peak phase of the starburst. We also detect and dynamically resolve [CII] emission over a scale of 7.5 kpc toward a triplet of Lyman-break galaxies with moderate UV-based SFRs in the protocluster at ~95kpc projected distance from the SMG. These galaxies are not dete...

  7. ALMA Reveals Weak [NII] Emission in "Typical" Galaxies and Intense Starbursts at z=5-6

    CERN Document Server

    Pavesi, Riccardo; Capak, Peter L; Carilli, Christopher L; Sharon, Chelsea E; Stacey, Gordon J; Karim, Alexander; Scoville, Nicholas Z; Smolcic, Vernesa

    2016-01-01

    We report interferometric measurements of [NII] 205 um fine-structure line emission from a representative sample of three galaxies at z=5-6 using the Atacama Large (sub)Millimeter Array (ALMA). These galaxies were previously detected in [CII] and far-infrared continuum emission and span almost two orders of magnitude in star formation rate (SFR). Our results show at least two different regimes of ionized inter-stellar medium properties for galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time, separated by their L_[CII]/L_[NII] ratio. We find extremely low [NII] emission compared to [CII] (L_ [CII]/L_[NII]=68 [+200/-28]) from a "typical" L*_UV star-forming galaxy, likely directly or indirectly (by its effect on the radiation field) related to low dust abundance and low metallicity. The infrared-luminous modestly star-forming Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG) in our sample is characterized by an ionized-gas fraction (L_[CII]/L_[NII]<=20) typical of local star-forming galaxies and shows evidence for spatial variations i...

  8. On the nature of the tertiary companion to FW Tau: ALMA CO observations and SED modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Caceres, Claudio; Schreiber, Matthias R; Canovas, Hector; Cieza, Lucas A; Williams, Jonathan P; Hales, Antonio; Pinte, Christophe; Menard, Francois; Wahhaj, Zahed

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that planetary mass companions may form through gravitational disk instabilities or core accretion. Identifying such objects in the process of formation would provide the most direct test for the competing formation theories. One of the most promising candidates for a planetary mass object still in formation is the third object in the FWTau system. We here present ALMA cycle 1 observations confirming the recently published 1.3 mm detection of a dust disk around this third object and present for the first time a clear detection of a single peak 12CO(2-1) line, providing direct evidence for the simultaneous existence of a gas disk. We perform radiative transfer modeling of the third object in FW Tau and find that current observations are consistent with a planetary mass object embedded in a disk which is externally irradiated by the binary companion and seen at an inclination of i<15 deg. However, we also find that a near edge-on disk around a more massive substellar object can explain the obse...

  9. Unveiling the Early-Stage Anatomy of a Protocluster Hub with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Henshaw, J D; Longmore, S N; Caselli, P; Pineda, J E; Avison, A; Barnes, A T; Tan, J C; Fontani, F

    2016-01-01

    High-mass stars shape the interstellar medium in galaxies, and yet, largely because the initial conditions are poorly constrained, we do not know how they form. One possibility is that high-mass stars and star clusters form at the junction of filamentary networks, referred to as "hubs". In this letter we present the complex anatomy of a protocluster hub within an Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC), G035.39-00.33, believed to be in an early phase of its evolution. We use high-angular resolution ($\\{\\theta_{\\rm maj}, \\theta_{\\rm min}\\}=\\{1.''4, 0.''8\\}\\sim\\{0.02\\,{\\rm pc}, 0.01\\,{\\rm pc}\\}$) and high-sensitivity ($0.2$ mJy beam$^{-1}$; $\\sim0.2$ M$_{\\odot}$) 1.07 mm dust continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to identify a network of narrow, $0.028\\,\\pm\\,0.005$ pc wide, filamentary structures. These are a factor of $\\gtrsim3$ narrower than the proposed "quasi-universal" $\\sim0.1$ pc width of interstellar filaments. Additionally, 28 compact objects are reported, spanning a mass range $0.3\\...

  10. SXDF-ALMA 2 Arcmin^2 Deep Survey: Resolving and Characterizing the Infrared Extragalactic Background Light Down to 0.5 mJy

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S_1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1-mm-deep continuum survey in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin^2, 1sigma = 0.055 mJy beam^-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ~ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0} Jy deg^{-2}, which corresponds to ~ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multi-wavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region...

  11. ALMA Reveals Strong [C II] Emission in a Galaxy Embedded in a Giant Lyα Blob at z = 3.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehata, Hideki; Matsuda, Yuichi; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Smail, Ian; Ivison, R. J.; Steidel, Charles C.; Chapman, Scott C.; Geach, James E.; Hayes, Matthew; Nagao, Tohru; Ao, Yiping; Kawabe, Ryohei; Yun, Min S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kubo, Mariko; Kato, Yuta; Saito, Tomoki; Ikarashi, Soh; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Lee, Minju; Izumi, Takuma; Mori, Masao; Ouchi, Masami

    2017-01-01

    We report the result from observations conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to detect [C ii] 158 μm fine structure line emission from galaxies embedded in one of the most spectacular Lyα blobs (LABs) at z = 3.1, SSA22-LAB1. Of three dusty star-forming galaxies previously discovered by ALMA 860 μm dust continuum survey toward SSA22-LAB1, we detected the [C ii] line from one, LAB1-ALMA3 at z = 3.0993 ± 0.0004. No line emission was detected, associated with the other ALMA continuum sources or from three rest-frame UV/optical selected zspec ≃ 3.1 galaxies within the field of view. For LAB1-ALMA3, we find relatively bright [C ii] emission compared to the infrared luminosity (L[C ii]/LIR ≈ 0.01) and an extremely high [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm emission line ratio (L[C ii]/L[N ii] > 55). The relatively strong [C ii] emission may be caused by abundant photodissociation regions and sub-solar metallicity, or by shock heating. The origin of the unusually strong [C ii] emission could be causally related to the location within the giant LAB, although the relationship between extended Lyα emission and interstellar medium conditions of associated galaxies is yet to be understand.

  12. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin2 deep survey: Resolving and characterizing the infrared extragalactic background light down to 0.5 mJy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J.; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1 mm deep continuum survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF)-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin2, 1σ = 0.055 mJy beam-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ˜ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0}Jy deg-2, which corresponds to ˜ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multiwavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region despite its infrared luminosity (L_IR˜eq 1× 10^{12} L_{⊙} or SFR ≃ 100 M⊙ yr-1). By fitting the spectral energy distributions at the optical-to-near-infrared wavelengths of the remaining four ALMA sources, we obtained the photometric redshifts (zphoto) and stellar masses (M*): zphoto ≃ 1.3-2.5, M* ≃ (3.5-9.5) × 1010 M⊙. We also derived their star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs as ≃30-200 M⊙ yr-1 and ≃0.8-2 Gyr-1, respectively. These values imply that they are main sequence star-forming galaxies.

  13. DIRECT IMAGING OF THE WATER SNOW LINE AT THE TIME OF PLANET FORMATION USING TWO ALMA CONTINUUM BANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzatti, A.; Pontoppidan, K. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pinilla, P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ricci, L.; Birnstiel, T. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ciesla, F., E-mail: banzatti@stsci.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at ≲10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint on the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor of 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index α{sub mm} due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplanetary disks using spatially resolved ALMA images in two continuum bands. We explore the model dependence on the disk viscosity and find that the spectral index reveals the water snow line for a wide range of conditions, with opposite trends when the emission is optically thin rather than thick. If the disk viscosity is low (α{sub visc} < 10{sup −3}), the snow line produces a ringlike structure with a minimum at α{sub mm} ∼ 2 in the optically thick regime, possibly similar to what has been measured with ALMA in the innermost region of the HL Tau disk.

  14. Toward Precision Black Hole Masses with ALMA: NGC 1332 as a Case Study in Molecular Disk Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Darling, Jeremy; Baker, Andrew J.; Boizelle, Benjamin D.; Buote, David A.; Ho, Luis C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.

    2016-05-01

    We present first results from a program of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) CO(2-1) observations of circumnuclear gas disks in early-type galaxies. The program was designed with the goal of detecting gas within the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes (BHs). In NGC 1332, the 0.″3-resolution ALMA data reveal CO emission from the highly inclined (i≈ 83^\\circ ) circumnuclear disk, spatially coincident with the dust disk seen in Hubble Space Telescope images. The disk exhibits a central upturn in maximum line-of-sight velocity, reaching ±500 km s-1 relative to the systemic velocity, consistent with the expected signature of rapid rotation around a supermassive BH. Rotational broadening and beam smearing produce complex and asymmetric line profiles near the disk center. We constructed dynamical models for the rotating disk and fitted the modeled CO line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Degeneracy between rotation and turbulent velocity dispersion in the inner disk precludes the derivation of strong constraints on the BH mass, but model fits allowing for a plausible range in the magnitude of the turbulent dispersion imply a central mass in the range of ˜(4-8) × 108 {M}⊙ . We argue that gas-kinematic observations resolving the BH’s projected radius of influence along the disk’s minor axis will have the capability to yield BH mass measurements that are largely insensitive to systematic uncertainties in turbulence or in the stellar mass profile. For highly inclined disks, this is a much more stringent requirement than the usual sphere-of-influence criterion.

  15. THE ANATOMY OF AN EXTREME STARBURST WITHIN 1.3 Gyr OF THE BIG BANG REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carilli, C. L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Riechers, D. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Maiolino, R.; Lentati, L. [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Wagg, J. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); McMahon, R. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Wolfe, A., E-mail: ccarilli@aoc.nrao.edu [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present further analysis of the [C II] 158 {mu}m fine structure line and thermal dust continuum emission from the archetype extreme starburst/active galactic nucleus (AGN) group of galaxies in the early universe, BRI 1202-0725 at z = 4.7, using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The group has long been noted for having a closely separated (26 kpc in projection) FIR-hyperluminous quasar host galaxy and an optically obscured submillimeter galaxy (SMG). A short ALMA test observation reveals a rich laboratory for the study of the myriad processes involved in clustered massive galaxy formation in the early universe. Strong [C II] emission from the SMG and the quasar have been reported earlier by Wagg et al. based on these observations. In this paper, we examine in more detail the imaging results from the ALMA observations, including velocity channel images, position-velocity plots, and line moment images. We present detections of [C II] emission from two Ly{alpha}-selected galaxies in the group, demonstrating the relative ease with which ALMA can detect the [C II] emission from lower star formation rate galaxies at high redshift. Imaging of the [C II] emission shows a clear velocity gradient across the SMG, possibly indicating rotation or a more complex dynamical system on a scale {approx}10 kpc. There is evidence in the quasar spectrum and images for a possible outflow toward the southwest, as well as more extended emission (a {sup b}ridge{sup )}, between the quasar and the SMG, although the latter could simply be emission from Ly{alpha}-1 blending with that of the quasar at the limited spatial resolution of the current observations. These results provide an unprecedented view of a major merger of gas-rich galaxies driving extreme starbursts and AGN accretion during the formation of massive galaxies and supermassive black holes within 1.3 Gyr of the big bang.

  16. Direct Imaging of the Water Snow Line at the Time of Planet Formation using Two ALMA Continuum Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzatti, A.; Pinilla, P.; Ricci, L.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Birnstiel, T.; Ciesla, F.

    2015-12-01

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at ≲10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint on the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor of 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index αmm due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplanetary disks using spatially resolved ALMA images in two continuum bands. We explore the model dependence on the disk viscosity and find that the spectral index reveals the water snow line for a wide range of conditions, with opposite trends when the emission is optically thin rather than thick. If the disk viscosity is low (αvisc < 10-3), the snow line produces a ringlike structure with a minimum at αmm ˜ 2 in the optically thick regime, possibly similar to what has been measured with ALMA in the innermost region of the HL Tau disk.

  17. A alma e o livre-arbítrio em Santo Agostinho: uma trajetória da pedagogia do Circuitum nostrum

    OpenAIRE

    Wilton Lima dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    O Trabalho de dissertação se baseia principalmente nos livros Sobre a Potencialidade da Alma: De quantitate animae e De libero arbítrio, escritos por Santo Agostinho. Discorremos sobre o processo de conceituação do ente alma e da solução do problema do livre arbítrio através do sistema pedagógico agostiniano circuitum nostrum. Veremos que esse ente imaterial que nos faz racionais e, portanto, humanos, é o que mais se aproxima de Deus, de todos os entes da criação. Um ente Im...

  18. Leibniz acerca de almas, corpos, agregados e substâncias na discussão com Fardella (1690

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Marques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Defendo neste artigo, contra a interpretação de Robert Adams, a tese de que, na discussão com Fardella (1690, Leibniz adota uma ontologia realista, segundo a qual seres vivos, e não almas, são substâncias.In this article, I sustain, against Robert Adam's interpretation, the thesis that Leibniz, in the discussion with Fardella (1690, adopts a realistic ontology, according to which live beings, instead of souls, are substances.

  19. The Anatomy of an Extreme Starburst within 1.3 Gyr of the Big Bang Revealed by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Riechers, D.; Walter, F.; Maiolino, R.; Wagg, J.; Lentati, L.; McMahon, R.; Wolfe, A.

    2013-02-01

    We present further analysis of the [C II] 158 μm fine structure line and thermal dust continuum emission from the archetype extreme starburst/active galactic nucleus (AGN) group of galaxies in the early universe, BRI 1202-0725 at z = 4.7, using the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The group has long been noted for having a closely separated (26 kpc in projection) FIR-hyperluminous quasar host galaxy and an optically obscured submillimeter galaxy (SMG). A short ALMA test observation reveals a rich laboratory for the study of the myriad processes involved in clustered massive galaxy formation in the early universe. Strong [C II] emission from the SMG and the quasar have been reported earlier by Wagg et al. based on these observations. In this paper, we examine in more detail the imaging results from the ALMA observations, including velocity channel images, position-velocity plots, and line moment images. We present detections of [C II] emission from two Lyα-selected galaxies in the group, demonstrating the relative ease with which ALMA can detect the [C II] emission from lower star formation rate galaxies at high redshift. Imaging of the [C II] emission shows a clear velocity gradient across the SMG, possibly indicating rotation or a more complex dynamical system on a scale ~10 kpc. There is evidence in the quasar spectrum and images for a possible outflow toward the southwest, as well as more extended emission (a "bridge"), between the quasar and the SMG, although the latter could simply be emission from Lyα-1 blending with that of the quasar at the limited spatial resolution of the current observations. These results provide an unprecedented view of a major merger of gas-rich galaxies driving extreme starbursts and AGN accretion during the formation of massive galaxies and supermassive black holes within 1.3 Gyr of the big bang. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA) and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada) and NSC and ASIAA

  20. Cuidadanos de ficción: discursos y derechos cuidadanos en las telenovelas mexicanas. El caso Alma de Hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARWIN FRANCO MIGUES

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las telenovelas mexicanas han comenzado a "naturalizar" diversos derechos ciudadanos para construir un discurso social que, anclado al debate, busca promover la inhibición tanto del derecho como del ciudadano que lo ejerce. Este artículo aborda el análisis de la telenovela Alma de Hierro y la forma en cómo ésta representó la Ley de Interrupción Legal del Embarazo y la Ley de Sociedad de Convivencia.

  1. Las almas indisciplinadas: comentario crítico y estilístico de Plut., De facie 945B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Lesage Gárriga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El mito escatológico que aparece al final del tratado de Plutarco De facie in orbe lunae todavía a día de hoy presenta problemas textuales y de interpretación que deben ser estudiados. Con este análisis del texto, que parte de estudios de crítica textual y crítica literaria y estilística, intento arrojar algo de luz sobre un pasaje que versa sobre el destino de las almas licenciosas.

  2. O estatuto político da amizade: A Alma do Osso, de Cao Guimarães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir do conceito de amizade proposto por Giorgio Agamben, este ensaio reflete, em uma interface entre estética e política, acerca das relações de poder presentes em A Alma do Osso (Cao Guimarães, 2004. O maior relevo é dado ao modo que o cineasta partilha, por meio do filme, sua existência com o ermitão Dominguinhos da Pedra, bem como as reverberações que isso garante à forma do documentário.

  3. The Detection of a Hot Molecular Core in the Large Magellanic Cloud with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kawamura, Akiko; Aikawa, Yuri

    2016-08-01

    We report the first detection of a hot molecular core outside our Galaxy based on radio observations with ALMA toward a high-mass young stellar object (YSO) in a nearby low metallicity galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Molecular emission lines of CO, C17O, HCO+, H13CO+, H2CO, NO, SiO, H2CS, 33SO, 32SO2, 34SO2, and 33SO2 are detected from a compact region (˜0.1 pc) associated with a high-mass YSO, ST11. The temperature of molecular gas is estimated to be higher than 100 K based on rotation diagram analysis of SO2 and 34SO2 lines. The compact source size, warm gas temperature, high density, and rich molecular lines around a high-mass protostar suggest that ST11 is associated with a hot molecular core. We find that the molecular abundances of the LMC hot core are significantly different from those of Galactic hot cores. The abundances of CH3OH, H2CO, and HNCO are remarkably lower compared to Galactic hot cores by at least 1-3 orders of magnitude. We suggest that these abundances are characterized by the deficiency of molecules whose formation requires the hydrogenation of CO on grain surfaces. In contrast, NO shows a high abundance in ST11 despite the notably low abundance of nitrogen in the LMC. A multitude of SO2 and its isotopologue line detections in ST11 imply that SO2 can be a key molecular tracer of hot core chemistry in metal-poor environments. Furthermore, we find molecular outflows around the hot core, which is the second detection of an extragalactic protostellar outflow. In this paper, we discuss the physical and chemical characteristics of a hot molecular core in the low metallicity environment.

  4. Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS): Constraining the formation of complex organic molecules with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jes K.; Coutens, Audrey; Bourke, Tyler L.; Favre, Cecile; Garrod, Robin; Lykke, Julie; Mueller, Holger; Oberg, Karin I.; Schmalzl, Markus; van der Wiel, Matthijs; van Dishoeck, Ewine; Wampfler, Susanne F.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how, when and where complex organic and potentially prebiotic molecules are formed is a fundamental goal of astrochemistry and an integral part of origins of life studies. Already now ALMA is showing its capabilities for studies of the chemistry of solar-type stars with its high sensitivity for faint lines, high spectral resolution which limits line confusion, and high angular resolution making it possible to study the structure of young protostars on solar-system scales. We here present the first results from a large unbiased survey “Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS)” targeting one of the astrochemical template sources, the low-mass protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422. The survey is more than an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous surveys of the source and provide imaging down to 25 AU scales (radius) around each of the two components of the binary. An example of one of the early highlights from the survey is unambiguous detections of the (related) prebiotic species glycolaldehyde, ethylene glycol (two lowest energy conformers), methyl formate and acetic acid. The glycolaldehyde-ethylene glycol abundance ratio is high in comparison to comets and other protostars - but agrees with previous measurements, e.g., in the Galactic Centre clouds possibly reflecting different environments and/or evolutionary histories. Complete mapping of this and other chemical networks in comparison with detailed chemical models and laboratory experiments will reveal the origin of complex organic molecules in a young protostellar system and investigate the link between these protostellar stages and the early Solar System.

  5. THE PECULIAR DISTRIBUTION OF CH{sub 3}CN IN IRC +10216 SEEN BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Prieto, L. Velilla [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Castro-Carrizo, A.; Guélin, M. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, F-38406 St. Martin d’Héres (France); Marcelino, N. [INAF, Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-12-01

    IRC +10216 is a circumstellar envelope around a carbon-rich evolved star which contains a large variety of molecules. According to interferometric observations, molecules are distributed either concentrated around the central star or as a hollow shell with a radius of ∼15″. We present ALMA Cycle 0 band 6 observations of the J = 14 – 13 rotational transition of CH{sub 3}CN in IRC +10216, obtained with an angular resolution of 0.″76 × 0.″61. The bulk of the emission is distributed as a hollow shell located at just ∼2″ from the star, with a void of emission in the central region up to a radius of ∼1″. This spatial distribution is markedly different from those found to date in this source for other molecules. Our analysis indicates that methyl cyanide is not formed in either the stellar photosphere or far in the outer envelope, but at radial distances as short as 1″–2″, reaching a maximum abundance of ∼0.02 molecules cm{sup −3} at 2″ from the star. Standard chemical models of IRC +10216 predict that the bulk of CH{sub 3}CN molecules should be present at a radius of ∼15″ where other species such as polyyne radicals and cyanopolyynes are observed, with an additional inner component within 1″ from the star. The non-uniform structure of the circumstellar envelope and grain surface processes are discussed as possible causes of the peculiar distribution of methyl cyanide in IRC +10216.

  6. ALMA Observations of Orion Source I at 350 and 660 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plambeck, R. L.; Wright, M. C. H.

    2016-12-01

    Orion Source I (“SrcI”) is the protostar at the center of the Kleinmann-Low Nebula. ALMA observations of SrcI with 0.″2 angular resolution were made at 350 and 660 GHz to search for the H26α and H21α hydrogen recombination lines and to measure the continuum flux densities. The recombination lines were not detected, ruling out the possibility that SrcI is a hypercompact H ii region. The deconvolved size of the continuum source is approximately 0.″23 × 0.″07 (˜100 × 30 au); it is interpreted as a disk viewed almost edge-on. Optically thick thermal emission from ˜500 K dust is the most plausible source of the continuum, even at frequencies as low as 43 GHz; the disk mass is most likely in the range 0.02-0.2 {M}⊙ . A rich spectrum of molecular lines is detected, mostly from sulfur- and silicon-rich molecules like SO, SO2, and SiS, but also including vibrationally excited CO and several unidentified transitions. Lines with upper energy levels {E}{{U}}\\gt 500 K appear in emission and are symmetric about the source’s LSR velocity of 5 {km} {{{s}}}-1, while lines with {E}{{U}}\\lt 500 K appear as blueshifted absorption features against the continuum, indicating that they originate in outflowing gas. The emission lines exhibit a velocity gradient along the major axis of the disk that is consistent with rotation around a 5-7 {M}⊙ central object. The relatively low mass of SrcI and the existence of a 100 au disk around it are difficult to reconcile with the model in which SrcI and the nearby Becklin-Neugebauer Object were ejected from a multiple system 500 years ago.

  7. ALMA Observations of Circumstellar Disks in the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barenfeld, Scott A.; Carpenter, John M.; Ricci, Luca; Isella, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    We present ALMA observations of 106 G-, K-, and M-type stars in the Upper Scorpius OB Association hosting circumstellar disks. With these data, we measure the 0.88 mm continuum and 12CO J = 3-2 line fluxes of disks around low-mass (0.14-1.66 M ⊙) stars at an age of 5-11 Myr. Of the 75 primordial disks in the sample, 53 are detected in the dust continuum and 26 in CO. Of the 31 disks classified as debris/evolved transitional disks, five are detected in the continuum and none in CO. The lack of CO emission in approximately half of the disks with detected continuum emission can be explained if CO is optically thick but has a compact emitting area (≲40 au), or if the CO is heavily depleted by a factor of at least ˜1000 relative to interstellar medium abundances and is optically thin. The continuum measurements are used to estimate the dust mass of the disks. We find a correlation between disk dust mass and stellar host mass consistent with a power-law relation of {M}{dust}\\propto {M}* 1.67+/- 0.37. Disk dust masses in Upper Sco are compared to those measured in the younger Taurus star-forming region to constrain the evolution of disk dust mass. We find that the difference in the mean of {log}({M}{dust}/{M}* ) between Taurus and Upper Sco is 0.64 ± 0.09, such that M dust/M * is lower in Upper Sco by a factor of ˜4.5.

  8. 30 years after Alma-Ata: has primary health care worked in countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jon; Cousens, Simon; Chopra, Mickey; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Black, Robert; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Lawn, Joy E

    2008-09-13

    We assessed progress for primary health care in countries since Alma-Ata. First we analysed life expectancy relative to national income and HIV prevalence to identify overachieving and underachieving countries. Then we focused on the 30 low-income and middle-income countries with the highest average yearly reduction of mortality among children less than 5 years of age, describing coverage and equity of primary health care as well as non-health sector actions. These 30 countries have scaled up selective primary health care (eg, immunisation, family planning), and 14 have progressed to comprehensive primary health care, marked by high coverage of skilled attendance at birth. Good governance and progress in non-health sectors are seen in almost all of the 14 countries identified with a comprehensive primary health care system. However, these 30 countries include those that are making progress despite very low income per person, political instability, and high HIV/AIDS prevalence. Thailand has the highest average yearly reduction in mortality among children less than 5 years of age (8.5%) and has achieved universal coverage of immunisation and skilled birth attendance, with low inequity. Lessons learned from all these countries include the need for a nationally agreed package of prioritised and phased primary health care that all stakeholders are committed to implementing, attention to district management systems, and consistent investment in primary health-care extension workers linked to the health system. More detailed analysis and evaluation within and across countries would be invaluable in guiding investments for primary health care, and expediting progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and "health for all".

  9. Spiral Arms in the Disk of HD 142527 from CO Emission Lines with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaens, V.; Casassus, S.; Perez, S.; van der Plas, G.; Ménard, F.

    2014-04-01

    In view of both the size of its gap and the previously reported asymmetries and near-infrared spiral arms, the transition disk of the Herbig Fe star HD 142527 constitutes a remarkable case study. This paper focuses on the morphology of the outer disk through ALMA observations of 12CO J = 2-1, 12CO J = 3-2, and 13CO J = 2-1. Both 12CO J = 2-1 and 12CO J = 3-2 show spiral features of different sizes. The innermost spiral arm (S1) is a radio counterpart of the first near-infrared spiral observed by Fukagawa, but it is shifted radially outward. However, the most conspicuous CO spiral arm (S2) lies at the outskirts of the disk and has not been detected before. It corresponds to a cold density structure, with both brightness and excitation temperatures of order 13±2 K and conspicuous in the 12CO J = 2-1 peak-intensity map, but faint in 12CO J = 3-2. There is also a faint counterarm (S3), at a point-symmetric location of S2 with respect to the star. These three spirals are modeled separately with two different formulae that approximate the loci of density maxima in acoustic waves due to embedded planets. S1 could be fit relatively well with these formulae, compared to S2 and S3. Alternative scenarios such as gravitational instability or external tidal interaction are discussed. The impact of channelization on spectrally and spatially resolved peak intensity maps is also briefly addressed.

  10. SPIRAL ARMS IN THE DISK OF HD 142527 FROM CO EMISSION LINES WITH ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiaens, V.; Casassus, S.; Perez, S.; Van der Plas, G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Ménard, F., E-mail: valchris@das.uchile.cl [UMI-FCA, CNRS/INSU, France (UMI 3386) and Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-04-10

    In view of both the size of its gap and the previously reported asymmetries and near-infrared spiral arms, the transition disk of the Herbig Fe star HD 142527 constitutes a remarkable case study. This paper focuses on the morphology of the outer disk through ALMA observations of {sup 12}CO J = 2-1, {sup 12}CO J = 3-2, and {sup 13}CO J = 2-1. Both {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 and {sup 12}CO J = 3-2 show spiral features of different sizes. The innermost spiral arm (S1) is a radio counterpart of the first near-infrared spiral observed by Fukagawa, but it is shifted radially outward. However, the most conspicuous CO spiral arm (S2) lies at the outskirts of the disk and has not been detected before. It corresponds to a cold density structure, with both brightness and excitation temperatures of order 13±2 K and conspicuous in the {sup 12}CO J = 2-1 peak-intensity map, but faint in {sup 12}CO J = 3-2. There is also a faint counterarm (S3), at a point-symmetric location of S2 with respect to the star. These three spirals are modeled separately with two different formulae that approximate the loci of density maxima in acoustic waves due to embedded planets. S1 could be fit relatively well with these formulae, compared to S2 and S3. Alternative scenarios such as gravitational instability or external tidal interaction are discussed. The impact of channelization on spectrally and spatially resolved peak intensity maps is also briefly addressed.

  11. ALMA IMAGING OF HCN, CS, AND DUST IN ARP 220 AND NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoville, Nick; Manohar, Swarnima; Murchikova, Lena [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Zschaechner, Laura [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sanders, David; Barnes, Joshua [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, Todd [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Robertson, Brant; Tacconi, Linda; Narayanan, Desika [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Genzel, Reinhard; Davies, Richard [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, Robert [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [TAPIR 350-17, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.''4-0.''6 resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ∼0.''25 resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate interstellar medium masses for Arp 220 east and west and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2, and 1.6 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}within radii of 69, 65, and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220 estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n{sub H{sub 2}}∼10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} at R <50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n {sub H2} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}. The agreement of the mean density from the total mass and size with that required for excitation suggests that the volume is essentially filled with dense gas, i.e., it is not cloudy or like swiss cheese.

  12. Unveiling the early-stage anatomy of a protocluster hub with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, J. D.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Longmore, S. N.; Caselli, P.; Pineda, J. E.; Avison, A.; Barnes, A. T.; Tan, J. C.; Fontani, F.

    2017-01-01

    High-mass stars shape the interstellar medium in galaxies, and yet, largely because the initial conditions are poorly constrained, we do not know how they form. One possibility is that high-mass stars and star clusters form at the junction of filamentary networks, referred to as `hubs'. In this Letter we present the complex anatomy of a protocluster hub within an Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC), G035.39-00.33, believed to be in an early phase of its evolution. We use high-angular resolution ({θmaj, θmin} = {1.4 arcsec, 0.8 arcsec} ˜ {0.02 pc, 0.01 pc}) and high-sensitivity (0.2 mJy beam-1; ˜0.2 M⊙) 1.07 mm dust continuum observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to identify a network of narrow, 0.028 ± 0.005 pc wide, filamentary structures. These are a factor of ≳3 narrower than the proposed `quasi-universal' ˜0.1 pc width of interstellar filaments. Additionally, 28 compact objects are reported, spanning a mass range 0.3 M⊙ < Mc < 10.4 M⊙. This indicates that at least some low-mass objects are forming coevally with more massive counterparts. Comparing to the popular `bead-on-a-string' analogy, the protocluster hub is poorly represented by a monolithic clump embedded within a single filament. Instead, it comprises multiple intra-hub filaments, each of which retains its integrity as an independent structure and possesses its own embedded core population.

  13. Exocometary gas structure, origin and physical properties around $\\beta$ Pictoris through ALMA CO multi-transition observations

    CERN Document Server

    Matrà, L; Wyatt, M C; Kral, Q; Wilner, D J; Panić, O; Hughes, A M; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Hales, A; Augereau, J -C; Greaves, J; Roberge, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent ALMA observations unveiled the structure of CO gas in the 23 Myr-old $\\beta$ Pictoris planetary system, a component that has been discovered in many similarly young debris disks. We here present ALMA CO J=2-1 observations, at an improved spectro-spatial resolution and sensitivity compared to previous CO J=3-2 observations. We find that 1) the CO clump is radially broad, favouring the resonant migration over the giant impact scenario for its dynamical origin, 2) the CO disk is vertically tilted compared to the main dust disk, at an angle consistent with the scattered light warp. We then use position-velocity diagrams to trace Keplerian radii in the orbital plane of the disk. Assuming a perfectly edge-on geometry, this shows a CO scale height increasing with radius as $R^{0.75}$, and an electron density (derived from CO line ratios through NLTE analysis) in agreement with thermodynamical models. Furthermore, we show how observations of optically thin line ratios can solve the primordial versus secondary ...

  14. Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in NGC 1332 from ALMA Observations at 0.044 arcsecond Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Boizelle, Benjamin D.; Darling, Jeremy; Baker, Andrew J.; Buote, David A.; Ho, Luis C.; Walsh, Jonelle L.

    2016-05-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle 3 observations of CO(2-1) emission from the circumnuclear disk in the E/S0 galaxy NGC 1332 at 0.″044 resolution. The disk exhibits regular rotational kinematics and central high-velocity emission (±500 km s-1) consistent with the presence of a compact central mass. We construct models for a thin, dynamically cold disk in the gravitational potential of the host galaxy and black hole and fit the beam-smeared model line profiles directly to the ALMA data cube. Model fits successfully reproduce the disk kinematics out to r = 200 pc. Fitting models just to spatial pixels within projected r = 50 pc of the nucleus (two times larger than the black hole’s gravitational radius of influence), we find {M}{BH}=({6.64}-0.63+0.65)× {10}8 {M}⊙ . This observation demonstrates ALMA’s powerful capability to determine the masses of supermassive black holes by resolving gas kinematics on small angular scales in galaxy nuclei.

  15. Distributions of molecules in the circumnuclear disk and surrounding starburst ring in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068 observed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, Shuro; Kohno, Kotaro; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric; Tamura, Yoichi; Izumi, Takuma; Taniguchi, Akio; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2014-01-01

    Sensitive observations with ALMA allow astronomers to observe the detailed distributions of molecules with relatively weak intensity in nearby galaxies. In particular, we report distributions of several molecular transitions including shock and dust related species ($^{13}$CO $J$ = 1--0, C$^{18}$O $J$ = 1--0, $^{13}$CN $N$ = 1--0, CS $J$ = 2--1, SO $J_N$ = 3$_2$--2$_1$, HNCO $J_{Ka,Kc}$ = 5$_{0,5}$--4$_{0,4}$, HC$_3$N $J$ = 11--10, 12--11, CH$_3$OH $J_K$ = 2$_K$--1$_K$, and CH$_3$CN $J_K$ = 6$_K$--5$_K$) in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 observed with the ALMA early science program. The central $\\sim$1 arcmin ($\\sim$4.3 kpc) of this galaxy was observed in the 100 GHz region covering $\\sim$96--100 GHz and $\\sim$108--111 GHz with an angular resolution of $\\sim4"\\times2"$ (290 pc$\\times$140 pc) to study the effects of an active galactic nucleus and its surrounding starburst ring on molecular abundances. Here, we present images and report a classification of molecular distributions into three main categorie...

  16. ALMA Observations of Warm Dense Gas in NGC 1614 --- Breaking of Star Formation Law in the Central kpc

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, C K; Lu, N; Gao, Y; Diaz-Santos, T; Herrero-Illana, R; Meijerink, R; Privon, G; Zhao, Y -H; Evans, A S; König, S; Mazzarella, J M; Aalto, S; Appleton, P; Armus, L; Charmandaris, V; Chu, J; Haan, S; Inami, H; Murphy, E J; Sanders, D B; Schulz, B; van der Werf, P

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle-0 observations of the CO (6-5) line emission and of the 435um dust continuum emission in the central kpc of NGC 1614, a local luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) at a distance of 67.8 Mpc (1 arcsec = 329 pc). The CO emission is well resolved by the ALMA beam (0".26 x 0".20) into a circum-nuclear ring, with an integrated flux of f_{CO(6-5)} = 898 (+-153) Jy km/s, which is 63(+-12)% of the total CO(6-5) flux measured by Herschel. The molecular ring, located between 100pc < r < 350pc from the nucleus, looks clumpy and includes seven unresolved (or marginally resolved) knots with median velocity dispersion of 40 km/s. These knots are associated with strong star formation regions with \\Sigma_{SFR} 100 M_\\sun/yr/kpc^{2} and \\Sigma_{Gas} 1.0E4 M_\\sun/pc^{2}. The non-detections of the nucleus in both the CO (6-5) line emission and the 435um continuum rule out, with relatively high confidence, a Compton-thick AGN in NGC 1614. Comparisons with radio continuum emission show a strong deviation fro...

  17. ALMA Observations of Anisotropic Dust Mass-loss in the Inner Circumstellar Environment of the Red Supergiant VY CMa

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, E; Richards, A M S; Baudry, A; De Beck, E; Decin, L; Harper, G M; Humphreys, E M; Kervella, P; Khouri, T; Muller, S

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to dust formation and the subsequent role it plays in driving mass-loss in cool evolved stars is an area of intense study. Here, we present high resolution ALMA Science Verification data of the continuum emission around the highly evolved oxygen-rich red supergiant VY CMa. These data enable us to study the dust in its inner circumstellar environment at a spatial resolution of 129 mas at 321 GHz and 59 mas at 658 GHz, allowing us to trace dust on spatial scales down to 11 R$_{\\star}$ (71 AU). Two prominent dust components are detected and resolved. The brightest dust component, C, is located 334 mas (61 R$_{\\star}$) south-east of the star and has a dust mass of at least $2.5\\times 10^{-4} $M$_{\\odot}$. It has an emissivity spectral index of $\\beta =-0.1$ at its peak, implying that it is either optically thick at these frequencies with a cool core of $T_{d}\\lesssim 100$ K, and/or contains very large dust grains. Interestingly, not a single molecule in the ALMA data has emission close to th...

  18. The SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey: Multi-wavelength Properties of ALMA-identified Submillimeter Galaxies in UKIDSS-UDS

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, J M; Swinbank, A M; Ivison, R J; Dunlop, J S; Geach, J E; Almaini, O; Arumugam, V; Bremer, M N; Chen, Chian-Chou; Conselice, C; Coppin, K E K; Farrah, D; Ibar, E; Hartley, W G; Ma, C J; Michalowski, M J; Spaans, M; Thomson, A P; van der Werf, P P

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of 52 sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs), identified using ALMA 870$\\mu$m continuum imaging in a pilot program to precisely locate bright SCUBA2-selected sub-mm sources in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (UDS) field. Using the available deep (especially near-infrared), panoramic imaging of the UDS field at optical-to-radio wavelengths we characterize key properties of the SMG population. The median photometric redshift of the bright ALMA/SCUBA-2 UDS (AS2UDS) SMGs that are detected in a sufficient number of wavebands to derive a robust photometric redshift is $z$=2.65$\\pm$0.13. However, similar to previous studies, 27% of the SMGs are too faint at optical-to-near-infrared wavelengths to derive a reliable photometric redshift. Assuming that these SMGs lie at z$\\gtrsim$3 raises the median redshift of the full sample to $z$=2.9$\\pm$0.2. A subset of 23, unlensed, bright AS2UDS SMGs have sizes measured from resolved imaging of their rest-frame far-infrared emission. We show that the ...

  19. ALMA-SZ Detection of a Galaxy Cluster Merger Shock at Half the Age of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Kaustuv; Erler, Jens; Eckert, Dominique; Vazza, Franco; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Tozzi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA measurement of a merger shock using the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signal, at the location of a radio relic in the famous El Gordo galaxy cluster at $z \\approx 0.9$. Multi-wavelength analysis in combination with the archival Chandra data and a high-resolution radio image provides a consistent picture of the thermal and non-thermal signal variation across the shock front, and helps to put robust constraints on the shock Mach number as well as the relic magnetic field. We employ a Bayesian analysis technique for modeling the SZ and X-ray data self-consistently, illustrating respective parameter degeneracies. Combined results indicate a shock with Mach number ${\\cal M} = 2.4^{+1.3}_{-0.6}$, which in turn suggests a high value of the magnetic field (of the order $4-10 ~\\mu$G) to account for the observed relic width at 2 GHz. At roughly half the current age of the universe, this is the highest redshift direct detection of a cluster shock to-date, and one of the first instances of ALMA S...

  20. ALMA Observations Show Major Mergers Among the Host Galaxies of Fast-growing, High-redshift Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Cicone, Claudia; Maiolino, Roberto; Shemmer, Ohad

    2016-01-01

    We present new ALMA band-7 data for a sample of six luminous quasars at z~4.8, powered by fast-growing supermassive black holes (SMBHs) with rather uniform properties: the typical accretion rates and black hole masses are L/L_Edd~0.7 and M_BH~10^9 M_sol. Our sample consists of three "FIR-bright" sources which were individually detected in previous Herschel/SPIRE observations, with star formation rates of SFR>1000 M_sol/yr, and three "FIR-faint" sources for which Herschel stacking analysis implies a typical SFR of ~400 M_sol/yr. The dusty interstellar medium in the hosts of all six quasars is clearly detected in the ALMA data, and resolved on scales of 2 kpc, in both continuum (\\lambda_rest~150um) and [CII]157.74um line emission. The continuum emission is in good agreement with the expectations from the Herschel data, confirming the intense SF activity in the quasars' hosts. Importantly, we detect companion sub-mm galaxies (SMGs) for three sources -- one FIR-bright and two FIR-faint, separated by ~14-45 kpc an...

  1. ALMA observations of the vibrationally excited rotational CO transitionv= 1,J= 3 - 2 towards five AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khouri, T.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Ramstedt, S.; Lombaert, R.; Maercker, M.; De Beck, E.

    2016-11-01

    We report the serendipitous detection with ALMA of the vibrationally-excited pure-rotational CO transition $v=1, J=3-2$ towards five asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, $o$ Cet, R Aqr, R Scl, W Aql, and $\\pi^1$ Gru. The observed lines are formed in the poorly-understood region located between the stellar surface and the region where the wind starts, the so-called warm molecular layer. We successfully reproduce the observed lines profiles using a simple model. We constrain the extents, densities, and kinematics of the region where the lines are produced. R Aqr and R Scl show inverse P-Cygni line profiles which indicate infall of material onto the stars. The line profiles of $o$ Cet and R Scl show variability. The serendipitous detection towards these five sources shows that vibrationally-excited rotational lines can be observed towards a large number of nearby AGB stars using ALMA. This opens a new possibility for the study of the innermost regions of AGB circumstellar envelopes.

  2. Dense core properties in the Infrared Dark cloud G14.225-0.506 revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Zhang, Qizhou; Busquet, Gemma; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Palau, Aina; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi

    2016-01-01

    We have performed a dense core survey toward the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506 at 3 mm continuum emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). This survey covers the two hub-filament systems with an angular resolution of $\\sim3$\\arcsec ($\\sim0.03$ pc). We identified 48 dense cores. Twenty out of the 48 cores are protostellar due to their association with young stellar objects (YSOs) and/or X-ray point-sources, while the other 28 cores are likely prestellar and unrelated with known IR or X-ray emission. Using APEX 870 $\\mu$m continuum emission, we also identified the 18 clumps hosting these cores. Through virial analysis using the ALMA N$_2$H$^+$ and VLA/Effelsberg NH$_3$ molecular line data, we found a decreasing trend in the virial parameter with decreasing scales from filaments to clumps, and then to cores. The virial parameters of $0.1-1.3$ in cores, indicate that cores are likely undergoing dynamical collapse. The cumulative Core Mass Function (CMF) for the prestellar cores ca...

  3. ALMA observations of the vibrationally-excited rotational CO transition $v=1, J=3-2$ towards five AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Khouri, T; Ramstedt, S; Lombaert, R; Maercker, M; De Beck, E

    2016-01-01

    We report the serendipitous detection with ALMA of the vibrationally-excited pure-rotational CO transition $v=1, J=3-2$ towards five asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, $o$ Cet, R Aqr, R Scl, W Aql, and $\\pi^1$ Gru. The observed lines are formed in the poorly-understood region located between the stellar surface and the region where the wind starts, the so-called warm molecular layer. We successfully reproduce the observed lines profiles using a simple model. We constrain the extents, densities, and kinematics of the region where the lines are produced. R Aqr and R Scl show inverse P-Cygni line profiles which indicate infall of material onto the stars. The line profiles of $o$ Cet and R Scl show variability. The serendipitous detection towards these five sources shows that vibrationally-excited rotational lines can be observed towards a large number of nearby AGB stars using ALMA. This opens a new possibility for the study of the innermost regions of AGB circumstellar envelopes.

  4. Extremely Red Submillimeter Galaxies: New z ≳ 4-6 Candidates Discovered using ALMA and Jansky VLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Soh; Ivison, R. J.; Caputi, Karina I.; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David H.; Iono, Daisuke; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Motohara, Kentaro; Ohta, Kouji; Tamura, Yoichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2017-02-01

    We present the detailed characterization of two extremely red submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), ASXDF1100.053.1 and 231.1, with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Jansky Very Large Array. These SMGs were originally selected using AzTEC at 1100 μm, and are observed by Herschel to be faint at 100–500 μm. Their (sub)millimeter colors are as red as—or redder—than known z ≳ 5 SMGs; indeed, ASXDF1100.053.1 is redder than HFLS 3, which lies at z = 6.3. They are also faint and red in the near-/mid-infrared: ∼1 μJy at IRAC 4.5 μm and ALMA maps are ∼1 and ≲0.2 kpc (∼2–3 kpc for 90% of the total flux). Last, their surface infrared luminosity densities, ΣIR, are ∼1 × 1012 and ≳1.5 × 1013 L ⊙ kpc‑2, similar to values seen for local (U)LIRGs. These data suggest that ASXDF1100.053.1 and 231.1 are compact SMGs at z ≳ 4 and can plausibly evolve into z ≳ 3 compact quiescent galaxies.

  5. An ALMA Survey of DCN/H13CN and DCO+/H13CO+ in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jane; Öberg, Karin I.; Qi, Chunhua; Aikawa, Yuri; Andrews, Sean M.; Furuya, Kenji; Guzmán, Viviana V.; Loomis, Ryan A.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Wilner, David J.

    2017-02-01

    The deuterium enrichment of molecules is sensitive to their formation environment. Constraining patterns of deuterium chemistry in protoplanetary disks is therefore useful for probing how material is inherited or reprocessed throughout the stages of star and planet formation. We present ALMA observations at ∼0.″6 resolution of DCO+, H13CO+, DCN, and H13CN in the full disks around T Tauri stars AS 209 and IM Lup, in the transition disks around T Tauri stars V4046 Sgr and LkCa 15, and in the full disks around Herbig Ae stars MWC 480 and HD 163296. We also present ALMA observations of HCN in the IM Lup disk. DCN, DCO+, and H13CO+ are detected in all disks, and H13CN in all but the IM Lup disk. We find efficient deuterium fractionation for the sample, with estimates of disk-averaged DCO+/HCO+ and DCN/HCN abundance ratios ranging from ∼0.02–0.06 and ∼0.005–0.08, respectively, which is comparable to values reported for other interstellar environments. The relative distributions of DCN and DCO+ vary between disks, suggesting that multiple formation pathways may be needed to explain the diverse emission morphologies. In addition, gaps and rings observed in both H13CO+ and DCO+ emission provide new evidence that DCO+ bears a complex relationship with the location of the midplane CO snowline.

  6. Macromineral Profile of Four Species of Earthworm Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudrilus eugeniae, Libyodrilus violaceus and Alma millsoni from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Dedeke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The macro mineral profile of four Nigerian species of earthworm; Hyperiodrilus africanus, Eudriluseugeniae, Libyodrilus violaceus and Alma millsoni was conducted. using the atomic absorptionspectrophotometer. Five macro minerals calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and phosphorus weredetermined. Comparatively H. africanus recorded the highest mean Ca (0.494 ±0.038% while A. millsonirecorded the lowest (0.318±0.034%. Hyperiodrilus africanus also recorded the highest mean Mg(0.154±0.015% whereas L. violaceus recorded the lowest (0.118±0.017%. Alma millsoni recorded the highestmean K (0.045±0.003% whereas H. africanus recorded the lowest (0.027±0.002%. The highest mean Na(74.209±13.699 ppm was recorded by A. millsoni while the lowest (19.813±2.087 ppm was recorded byH. africanus. Also A. millsoni recorded the highest mean P (0.701±0.022% while H.africanus recorded thelowest (0.456±0.034%. A significant difference was observed in the mean % Ca, % M g, % K, ppmNa and %P between the four species of earthworms (p<0.01. The study revealed that these five macro minerals whichare requirements of animals w ere well represented and adequate in the earthworms. Therefore, the use of mealprepared from these species as mineral supplement in fish diets could be encouraged.

  7. The ALMA Early Science view of FUor/EXor objects. I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, Alice; Williams, Jonathan P; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    As part of an ALMA survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circumstellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25\\as (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circumstellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of $106 \\pm 2$ mJy, characteristic radius of $\\sim$ 30 au, inclination of $14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5}$ deg, and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The \\co~emission is separated into distinct blue and red-shifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line-of-sight. The $^{13}$C...

  8. SXDF-ALMA 2-arcmin^2 Deep Survey: Stacking of Rest-Frame Near-Infrared Selected Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei-Hao; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Caputi, Karina I; Dunlop, James S; Ikarashi, Soh; Iono, Daisuke; Ivison, Rob J; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Motohara, Kentaro; Nakanish, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Tamura, Yoichi; Kodama, Tadayuki; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Wilson, Grant W; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Yun, Min S; Coupon, Jean; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Foucaud, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    We present stacking analyses on our ALMA deep 1.1 mm imaging in the SXDF using 1.6 {\\mu}m and 3.6 {\\mu}m selected galaxies in the CANDELS WFC3 catalog. We detect a stacked flux of ~0.03-0.05 mJy, corresponding to LIR < 10^11 Lsun and a star formation rate (SFR) of ~ 15 Msun/yr at z = 2. We find that galaxies brighter in the rest-frame near-infrared tend to be also brighter at 1.1 mm, and galaxies fainter than m[3.6um] = 23 do not produce detectable 1.1 mm emission. This suggests a correlation between stellar mass and SFR, but outliers to this correlation are also observed, suggesting strongly boosted star formation or extremely large extinction. We also find tendencies that redder galaxies and galaxies at higher redshifts are brighter at 1.1 mm. Our field contains z ~ 2.5 H-alpha emitters and a bright single-dish source. However, we do not find evidence of bias in our results caused by the bright source. By combining the fluxes of sources detected by ALMA and fluxes of faint sources detected with stacking,...

  9. Palynology of the Rupelian to Burdigalian (Oligocene to Lower Miocene) interval of the Alma-1X well, Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schioeler, P.

    2003-07-01

    A palynological study of cuttings samples from the North Sea well Alma-1X documents for the first time the dinoflagellae cyst and acritarch assemblage in the Oligocene to Lower Miocene interval of the Central North Sea. The interval is characterised by a poor foraminifera assemblage yielding a relatively low stratigraphic resolution, whereas the palynomorph assemblage is rich. Two hundred and three microplankton taxa were encountered in the study interval. The distribution of dinoflagellates and acritarchs in the well suggests a subdivision of the Oligocene to Lower Miocene interval into 24 zones based on first downhole occurrence of key taxa. The subdivsion lends support from unpublished consultancy report data from several other wells in the Danish North Sea. However, as the the subdivion builds on published data from one well only, it is considered informal until more documentatin is at hand. Four new species and on e new subspecies are described from the study interval: Amphorosphaeridium almae Schioeler sp. nov., Dalella rota Schioeler sp. nov., Filisphaera pachyderma Schioeler sp. nov., Pentadinium corium Schioeler sp. nov. and Spiniferites pseudofurcatus verrucosus Schioeler ssp., nov. Pseudospiniferites manumii Lund, 2002 is emended and transferred to the genus Spiniferites. (au)

  10. ALMA-resolved salt emission traces the chemical footprint and inner wind morphology of VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decin, L.; Richards, A. M. S.; Millar, T. J.; Baudry, A.; De Beck, E.; Homan, W.; Smith, N.; Van de Sande, M.; Walsh, C.

    2016-07-01

    Context. At the end of their lives, most stars lose a significant amount of mass through a stellar wind. The specific physical and chemical circumstances that lead to the onset of the stellar wind for cool luminous stars are not yet understood. Complex geometrical morphologies in the circumstellar envelopes prove that various dynamical and chemical processes are interlocked and that their relative contributions are not easy to disentangle. Aims: We aim to study the inner-wind structure (Rarchetype for the class of luminous red supergiant stars experiencing high mass loss. Specifically, the objective is to unravel the density structure in the inner envelope and to examine the chemical interaction between gas and dust species. Methods: We analyse high spatial resolution (~0.̋24×0.̋13) ALMA science verification (SV) data in band 7, in which four thermal emission lines of gaseous sodium chloride (NaCl) are present at high signal-to-noise ratio. Results: For the first time, the NaCl emission in the inner wind region of VY CMa is spatially resolved. The ALMA observations reveal the contribution of up to four different spatial regions. The NaCl emission pattern is different compared to the dust continuum and TiO2 emission already analysed from the ALMA SV data. The emission can be reconciled with an axisymmetric geometry, where the lower density polar/rotation axis has a position angle of ~50° measured from north to east. However, this picture cannot capture the full morphological diversity, and discrete mass ejection events need to be invoked to explain localized higher-density regions. The velocity traced by the gaseous NaCl line profiles is significantly lower than the average wind terminal velocity, and much slower than some of the fastest mass ejections, signalling a wide range of characteristic speeds for the mass loss. Gaseous NaCl is detected far beyond the main dust condensation region. Realising the refractory nature of this metal halide, this hints at a

  11. An ALMA survey of Sub-millimetre Galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South: Detection of [C II] at z=4.4

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, Mark; Smail, Ian; Hodge, Jackie; Walter, Fabian; Bertoldi, Frank; Biggs, Andy; De Breuck, Carlos; Chapman, Scott; Coppin, Kristen; Cox, Pierre; Danielson, Alice; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Ivison, Rob; Greve, Thomas; Knudsen, Kirsten; Menten, Karl; Simpson, James; Schinnerer, Eva; Wardlow, Julie; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We present ALMA 870-um (345GHz) observations of two sub-millimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from an ALMA study of the 126 sub-millimeter sources from the LABOCA Extended Chandra Deep Field South Survey (LESS). The ALMA data identify the counterparts to these previously unidentified sub-millimeter sources and serendipitously detect bright emission lines in their spectra which we show are most likely to be [C II]157.74um emission yielding redshifts of z=4.42 and z=4.44. This blind detection rate within the 7.5-GHz bandpass of ALMA is consistent with the previously derived photometric redshift distribution of SMGs and suggests a modest, but not dominant (4. We find that the ratio of L_CII/L_FIR in these SMGs is much higher than seen for similarly far-infrared-luminous galaxies at z~0, which is attributed to the more extended gas reservoirs in these high-redshift ULIRGs. Indeed, in one system we show that the [C II] emission shows hints of extended emission on >3kpc scales. Finally, we use the volume probed by our A...

  12. ALMA Long Baseline Observations of the Strongly Lensed Submillimeter Galaxy HATLAS J090311.6+003906 at z=3.042

    CERN Document Server

    Partnership, ALMA; Hunter, T R; Hodge, J A; Pérez, L M; Andreani, P; Brogan, C L; Cox, P; Martin, S; Zwaan, M; Matsushita, S; Dent, W R F; Impellizzeri, C M V; Fomalont, E B; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Hills, R E; Hirota, A; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Nakanishi, K; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Hales, A S; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodón, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Ao, Y; Di Francesco, J; Hatsukade, B; Hatziminaoglou, E; Mangum, J; Matsuda, Y; van Kampen, E; Wootten, A; de Gregorio, I; Dumas, G; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Iono, D; Kaminski, T; Karim, A; Krips, M; Kurono, Y; Lonsdale, A; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Videla, L; Villard, E; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present initial results of very high resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the $z$=3.042 gravitationally lensed galaxy HATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81). These observations were carried out using an extended configuration as part of Science Verification for the 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign, with baselines of up to 15 km. We present continuum imaging at 151, 236 and 290 GHz, at angular resolutions as fine as 23 milliarcseconds (mas; corresponding to an un-magnified spatial scale of 180 pc at z=3.042). The ALMA images clearly show two main gravitational arc components with emission tracing a radius of 1.5". We also present imaging of CO(10-9), CO(8-7), CO(5-4) and H2O line emission. The CO data has an angular resolution of 170 mas and the emission is found to broadly trace the gravitational arc structures. We detect H2O line emission but only using the shortest baselines. The ALMA continuum and spectral line fluxes are consistent with previous Plateau de Bure Inter...

  13. The Dragonfly Galaxy. II. ALMA unveils a triple merger and gas exchange in a hyper-luminous radio galaxy at z = 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emonts, B. H. C.; De Breuck, C.; Lehnert, M. D.; Vernet, J.; Gullberg, B.; Villar-Martín, M.; Nesvadba, N.; Drouart, G.; Ivison, R.; Seymour, N.; Wylezalek, D.; Barthel, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Dragonfly Galaxy (MRC 0152-209), at redshift z ~ 2, is one of the most vigorously star-forming radio galaxies in the Universe. What triggered its activity? We present ALMA Cycle 2 observations of cold molecular CO(6-5) gas and dust, which reveal that this is likely a gas-rich triple merger. It c

  14. ALMA Survey of Lupus Protoplanetary Disks. I. Dust and Gas Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansdell, M.; Williams, J. P.; van der Marel, N.; Carpenter, J. M.; Guidi, G.; Hogerheijde, M.; Mathews, G. S.; Manara, C. F.; Miotello, A.; Natta, A.; Oliveira, I.; Tazzari, M.; Testi, L.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; van Terwisga, S. E.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first high-resolution sub-millimeter survey of both dust and gas for a large population of protoplanetary disks. Characterizing fundamental properties of protoplanetary disks on a statistical level is critical to understanding how disks evolve into the diverse exoplanet population. We use the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to survey 89 protoplanetary disks around stars with {M}* \\gt 0.1 {M}⊙ in the young (1-3 Myr), nearby (150-200 pc) Lupus complex. Our observations cover the 890 μm continuum and the 13CO and C18O 3-2 lines. We use the sub-millimeter continuum to constrain {M}{{dust}} to a few Martian masses (0.2-0.4 M ⊕) and the CO isotopologue lines to constrain {M}{{gas}} to roughly a Jupiter mass (assuming an interstellar medium (ISM)-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance). Of 89 sources, we detect 62 in continuum, 36 in 13CO, and 11 in C18O at \\gt 3σ significance. Stacking individually undetected sources limits their average dust mass to ≲ 6 Lunar masses (0.03 M ⊕), indicating rapid evolution once disk clearing begins. We find a positive correlation between {M}{{dust}} and M *, and present the first evidence for a positive correlation between {M}{{gas}} and M *, which may explain the dependence of giant planet frequency on host star mass. The mean dust mass in Lupus is 3× higher than in Upper Sco, while the dust mass distributions in Lupus and Taurus are statistically indistinguishable. Most detected disks have {M}{{gas}}≲ 1 {M}{{Jup}} and gas-to-dust ratios \\lt 100, assuming an ISM-like [{CO}]/[{{{H}}}2] abundance; unless CO is very depleted, the inferred gas depletion indicates that planet formation is well underway by a few Myr and may explain the unexpected prevalence of super-Earths in the exoplanet population.

  15. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters

  16. BAND-9 ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE [N II] 122 μm LINE AND FIR CONTINUUM IN TWO HIGH-z GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brisbin, Drew; Stacey, Gordon J. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Nikola, Thomas [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 301-17, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: ferkinhoff@mpia.de [LERMA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris and ENS (France)

    2015-06-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of two high-redshift systems (SMMJ02399-0136 at z{sub 1} ∼ 2.8 and the Cloverleaf QSO at z{sub 1} ∼ 2.5) in their rest-frame 122 μm continuum (ν{sub sky} ∼ 650 GHz, λ{sub sky} ∼ 450 μm) and [N ii] 122 μm line emission. The continuum observations with a synthesized beam of ∼0.″ 25 resolve both sources and recover the expected flux. The Cloverleaf is resolved into a partial Einstein ring, while SMMJ02399-0136 is unambiguously separated into two components: a point source associated with an active galactic nucleus and an extended region at the location of a previously identified dusty starburst. We detect the [N ii] line in both systems, though significantly weaker than our previous detections made with the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer. We show that this discrepancy is mostly explained if the line flux is resolved out due to significantly more extended emission and longer ALMA baselines than expected. Based on the ALMA observations we determine that ≥75% of the total [N ii] line flux in each source is produced via star formation. We use the [N ii] line flux that is recovered by ALMA to constrain the N/H abundance, ionized gas mass, hydrogen- ionizing photon rate, and star formation rate. In SMMJ02399-0136 we discover it contains a significant amount (∼1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) of unobscured star formation in addition to its dusty starburst and argue that SMMJ02399-0136 may be similar to the Antennae Galaxies (Arp 244) locally. In total these observations provide a new look at two well-studied systems while demonstrating the power and challenges of Band-9 ALMA observations of high-z systems.

  17. Faint submillimeter galaxies revealed by multifield deep ALMA observations: number counts, spatial clustering, and a dark submillimeter line emitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Ouchi, Masami; Momose, Rieko [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kurono, Yasutaka, E-mail: ono@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago 763-0355 (Chile)

    2014-11-01

    We present the statistics of faint submillimeter/millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and serendipitous detections of a submillimeter/millimeter line emitter (SLE) with no multi-wavelength continuum counterpart revealed by the deep ALMA observations. We identify faint SMGs with flux densities of 0.1-1.0 mJy in the deep Band-6 and Band-7 maps of 10 independent fields that reduce cosmic variance effects. The differential number counts at 1.2 mm are found to increase with decreasing flux density down to 0.1 mJy. Our number counts indicate that the faint (0.1-1.0 mJy, or SFR{sub IR} ∼ 30-300 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) SMGs contribute nearly a half of the extragalactic background light (EBL), while the remaining half of the EBL is mostly contributed by very faint sources with flux densities of <0.1 mJy (SFR{sub IR} ≲ 30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}). We conduct counts-in-cells analysis with multifield ALMA data for the faint SMGs, and obtain a coarse estimate of galaxy bias, b {sub g} < 4. The galaxy bias suggests that the dark halo masses of the faint SMGs are ≲ 7 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}, which is smaller than those of bright (>1 mJy) SMGs, but consistent with abundant high-z star-forming populations, such as sBzKs, LBGs, and LAEs. Finally, we report the serendipitous detection of SLE-1, which has no continuum counterparts in our 1.2 mm-band or multi-wavelength images, including ultra deep HST/WFC3 and Spitzer data. The SLE has a significant line at 249.9 GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio of 7.1. If the SLE is not a spurious source made by the unknown systematic noise of ALMA, the strong upper limits of our multi-wavelength data suggest that the SLE would be a faint galaxy at z ≳ 6.

  18. Exploring molecular complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Alkanethiols and alkanols in Sagittarius B2(N2)

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, H S P; Xu, L -H; Lees, R M; Garrod, R T; Walters, A; van Wijngaarden, J; Lewen, F; Schlemmer, S; Menten, K M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past five decades, radio astronomy has shown that molecular complexity is a natural outcome of interstellar chemistry, in particular in star forming regions. However, the pathways that lead to the formation of complex molecules are not completely understood and the depth of chemical complexity has not been entirely revealed. In addition, the sulfur chemistry in the dense interstellar medium is not well understood. We want to know the relative abundances of alkanethiols and alkanols in the Galactic Center source Sagittarius B2(N2), the northern hot molecular core in Sgr B2(N), whose relatively small line widths are favorable for studying the molecular complexity in space. We investigated spectroscopic parameter sets that were able to reproduce published laboratory rotational spectra of ethanethiol and studied effects that modify intensities in the predicted rotational spectrum of ethanol. We used the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in its Cycles~0 and 1 for a spectral line survey of Sagittarius ...

  19. ALMA redshifts of millimeter-selected galaxies from the SPT survey: The redshift distribution of dusty star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, A; Marrone, D P; Vieira, J D; Aguirre, J E; Aird, K A; Aravena, M; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bethermin, M; Biggs, A D; Bleem, L E; Bock, J J; Bothwell, M; Bradford, C M; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Dobbs, M A; Downes, T P; Fassnacht, C D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Greve, T R; Halverson, N W; Hezaveh, Y D; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Husband, K; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Malkan, M; McIntyre, V; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Menten, K M; Meyer, S S; Murphy, E J; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Rosenman, M; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spilker, J S; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Vanderlinde, K; Welikala, N; Williamson, R

    2013-01-01

    Using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), we have conducted a blind redshift survey in the 3 mm atmospheric transmission window for 26 strongly lensd dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) selected with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). The sources were selected to have S_1.4mm>20 mJy and a dust-like spectrum and, to remove low-z sources, not have bright radio (S_843MHz=3.5. This finding is in contrast to the redshift distribution of radio-identified DSFGs, which have a significantly lower mean redshift of =2.3 and for which only 10-15% of the population is expected to be at z>3. We discuss the effect of gravitational lensing on the redshift distribution and compare our measured redshift distribution to that of models in the literature.

  20. Resolving Planet Formation in the Era of ALMA and Extreme AO Report on the joint ESO/NRAO Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, W. R. F.; Hales, A.; Milli, J.

    2016-12-01

    ALMA in its long-baseline configuration, as well as new optical/near-infrared adaptive optics instruments such as SPHERE and GPI, are now able to achieve spatial resolutions considerably better than 0.1 arcseconds. These facilities are enabling us to observe for the first time the regions around young stars where planets form. Already, complex structures including holes, spiral waves and extreme asymmetries are being found in these protoplanetary discs. To discuss these newly-imaged phenomena, and to enable cross-fertilisation of ideas between the two wavelength ranges, a joint ESO/NRAO workshop was held in Santiago. We present here a summary and some highlights of the meeting.

  1. A candidate circumbinary Keplerian disk in G35.20-0.74 N: A study with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Monge, A; Beltran, M T; Kumar, M S N; Stanke, T; Zinnecker, H; Etoka, S; Galli, D; Hummel, C A; Moscadelli, L; Preibisch, T; Ratzka, T; van der Tak, F F S; Vig, S; Walmsley, C M; Wang, K -S

    2013-01-01

    We report on ALMA observations of continuum and molecular line emission with 0.4" resolution towards the high-mass star forming region G35.20-0.74 N. Two dense cores are detected in typical hot-core tracers, such as CH3CN, which reveal velocity gradients. In one of these cores, the velocity field can be fitted with an almost edge-on Keplerian disk rotating about a central mass of 18 Msun. This finding is consistent with the results of a recent study of the CO first overtone bandhead emission at 2.3mum towards G35.20-0.74 N. The disk radius and mass are >2500 au and 3 Msun. To reconcile the observed bolometric luminosity (3x10^4 Lsun) with the estimated stellar mass of 18 Msun, we propose that the latter is the total mass of a binary system.

  2. Bright [CII] and dust emission in three z>6.6 quasar host galaxies observed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Venemans, B P; Zschaechner, L; Decarli, R; De Rosa, G; Findlay, J R; McMahon, R G; Sutherland, W J

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA detections of the [CII] 158 micron emission line and the underlying far-infrared continuum of three quasars at 6.6~6 quasar hosts correlate with the quasar's bolometric luminosity. In one quasar, the [CII] line is significantly redshifted by ~1700 km/s with respect to the MgII broad emission line. Comparing to values in the literature, we find that, on average, the MgII is blueshifted by 480 km/s (with a standard deviation of 630 km/s) with respect to the host galaxy redshift, i.e. one of our quasars is an extreme outlier. Through modeling we can rule out a flat rotation curve for our brightest [CII] emitter. Finally, we find that the ratio of black hole mass to host galaxy (dynamical) mass is higher by a factor 3-4 (with significant scatter) than local relations.

  3. Observations millimétriques et sub-millimétriques des composé oxygénés dans les atmosphères planétaires. Préparation aux missions Herschel et Alma

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalié, T.

    2008-01-01

    The planetary atmospheres can be characterized by observations carried out in the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength ranges. In a near future, the Herschel Space Observatory as well as the ALMA interferometer will increase our knowledge of the planet atmospheres. One of the main goals of this thesis work consists in developping an analysis tool for millimeter and submillimeter observations, which will be carried out with Herschel and ALMA. The model we have developped takes into account ...

  4. Dense Core Properties in the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506 Revealed by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Chen, Huei-Ru Vivien; Zhang, Qizhou; Busquet, Gemma; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Palau, Aina; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi

    2016-12-01

    We have performed a dense core survey toward the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506 at 3 mm continuum emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). This survey covers the two hub-filament systems with an angular resolution of ˜ 3\\prime\\prime (˜0.03 pc). We identified 48 dense cores. 20 out of the 48 cores are protostellar due to their association with young stellar objects (YSOs) and/or X-ray point-sources, while the other 28 cores are likely prestellar and unrelated with known IR or X-ray emission. Using APEX 870 μm continuum emission, we also identified the 18 clumps hosting these cores. Through virial analysis using the ALMA N2H+ and VLA/Effelsberg NH3 molecular line data, we found a decreasing trend in the virial parameter with decreasing scales from filaments to clumps, and then to cores. The virial parameters of 0.1-1.3 in cores indicate that cores are likely undergoing dynamical collapse. The cumulative core mass function for the prestellar core candidates has a power law index of α =1.6, with masses ranging from 1.5 to 22 {M}⊙ . We find no massive prestellar or protostellar cores. Previous studies suggest that massive O-type stars have not been produced yet in this region. Therefore, high-mass stars should be formed in the prestellar cores by accreting a significant amount of gas from the surrounding medium. Another possibility is that low-mass YSOs become massive by accreting from their parent cores that are fed by filaments. These two possibilities might be consistent with the scenario of global hierarchical collapse.

  5. Towards detecting methanol emission in low-mass protoplanetary discs with ALMA: the role of non-LTE excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, S. Yu.; Semenov, D. A.; Sobolev, A. M.; Gray, M. D.

    2016-08-01

    The understanding of organic content of protoplanetary discs is one of the main goals of the planet formation studies. As an attempt to guide the observational searches for weak lines of complex species in discs, we modelled the (sub)millimetre spectrum of gaseous methanol (CH3OH), one of the simplest organic molecules, in the representative T Tauri system. We used 1+1D disc physical model coupled to the gas-grain ALCHEMIC chemical model with and without 2D-turbulent mixing. The computed CH3OH abundances along with the CH3OH scheme of energy levels of ground and excited torsional states were used to produce model spectra obtained with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) 3D line radiative transfer code LIME. We found that the modelled non-LTE intensities of the CH3OH lines can be lower by factor of >10-100 than those calculated under assumption of LTE. Though population inversion occurs in the model calculations for many (sub)millimetre transitions, it does not lead to the strong maser amplification and noticeably high line intensities. We identify the strongest CH3OH (sub)millimetre lines that could be searched for with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) in nearby discs. The two best candidates are the CH3OH 50 - 40A+ (241.791 GHz) and 5-1 - 4-1E (241.767 GHz) lines, which could possibly be detected with the ˜5σ signal-to-noise ratio after ˜3 h of integration with the full ALMA array.

  6. ALMA Observations of the IRDC Clump G34.43+00.24 MM3: DNC/HNC Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Sakai, Nami; Furuya, Kenji; Aikawa, Yuri; Hirota, Tomoya; Foster, Jonathan B.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, James M.; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    We have observed the clump G34.43+00.24 MM3 associated with an infrared dark cloud in DNC J = 3-2, HN13C J = 3-2, and N2H+ J = 3-2 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The N2H+ emission is found to be relatively weak near the hot core and the outflows, and its distribution is clearly anti-correlated with the CS emission. This result indicates that a young outflow is interacting with cold ambient gas. The HN13C emission is compact and mostly emanates from the hot core, whereas the DNC emission is extended around the hot core. Thus, the DNC and HN13C emission traces warm regions near the protostar differently. The DNC emission is stronger than the HN13C emission toward most parts of this clump. The DNC/HNC abundance ratio averaged within a 15\\prime\\prime × 15\\prime\\prime area around the phase center is higher than 0.06. This ratio is much higher than the value obtained by the previous single-dish observations of DNC and HN13C J = 1-0 (˜0.003). It seems likely that the DNC and HNC emission observed with the single-dish telescope traces lower density envelopes, while that observed with ALMA traces higher density and highly deuterated regions. We have compared the observational results with chemical-model results in order to investigate the behavior of DNC and HNC in the dense cores. Taking these results into account, we suggest that the low DNC/HNC ratio in the high-mass sources obtained by the single-dish observations are at least partly due to the low filling factor of the high density regions.

  7. AN ALMA IMAGING STUDY OF METHYL FORMATE (HCOOCH{sub 3}) IN TORSIONALLY EXCITED STATES TOWARD ORION KL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Kaori [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 Japan (Japan); Hirota, Tomoya, E-mail: kaori@sci.u-toyama.ac.jp, E-mail: tomoya.hirota@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-04-20

    We recently reported the first identification of rotational transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH{sub 3}) in the second torsionally excited state toward Orion Kleinmann-Low (KL), observed with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. In combination with the identified transitions of methyl formate in the ground state and the first torsional excited state, it was found that there is a difference in rotational temperature and vibrational temperature, where the latter is higher. In this study, high spatial resolution analysis by using Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) science verification data was carried out to verify and understand this difference. Toward the Compact Ridge, two different velocity components at 7.3 and 9.1 km s{sup −1} were confirmed, while a single component at 7.3 km s{sup −1} was identified toward the Hot Core. The intensity maps in the ground, first, and second torsional excited states have quite similar distributions. Using extensive ALMA data, we determined the rotational and vibrational temperatures for the Compact Ridge and Hot Core by the conventional rotation diagram method. The rotational temperature and vibrational temperatures agree for the Hot Core and for one component of the Compact Ridge. At the 7.3 km s{sup −1} velocity component for the Compact Ridge, the rotational temperature was found to be higher than the vibrational temperature. This is different from what we obtained from the results by using the single-dish observation. The difference might be explained by the beam dilution effect of the single-dish data and/or the smaller number of observed transitions within the limited range of energy levels (≤30 K) of E{sub u} in the previous study.

  8. ALMA Observations of the Molecular Gas in the Debris Disk of the 30 Myr Old Star HD 21997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kospal, A.; Moor, A.; Juhasz, A.; Abraham, P.; Apai, D.; Csengeri, T.; Grady, C. A.; Henning, Th.; Hughes, A. M.; Kiss, Cs.; Pascucci, I.; Schmalzl, M.

    2013-01-01

    The 30 Myr old A3-type star HD 21997 is one of the two known debris dust disks having a measurable amount of cold molecular gas. With the goal of understanding the physical state, origin, and evolution of the gas in young debris disks, we obtained CO line observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Here, we report on the detection of (12)CO and (13)CO in the J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 transitions and C(18)O in the J = 2-1 line. The gas exhibits a Keplerian velocity curve, one of the few direct measurements of Keplerian rotation in young debris disks. The measured CO brightness distribution could be reproduced by a simple star+disk system, whose parameters are r(sub in) ALMA continuum observations by Moor et al., we conclude that comparable amounts of CO gas and dust are present in the disk. Interestingly, the gas and dust in the HD 21997 system are not colocated, indicating a dust-free inner gas disk within 55 AU of the star. We explore two possible scenarios for the origin of the gas. A secondary origin, which involves gas production from colliding or active planetesimals, would require unreasonably high gas production rates and would not explain why the gas and dust are not colocated. We propose that HD 21997 is a hybrid system where secondary debris dust and primordial gas coexist. HD 21997, whose age exceeds both the model predictions for disk clearing and the ages of the oldest T Tauri-like or transitional gas disks in the literature, may be a key object linking the primordial and the debris phases of disk evolution.

  9. The ALMA early science view of FUor/EXor objects - I. Through the looking-glass of V2775 Ori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Alice; Cieza, Lucas A.; Williams, Jonathan P.; Canovas, Hector; Perez, Sebastian; Hales, Antonio; Mužić, Koraljka; Principe, David A.; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Dary; Tobin, John; Zhang, Yichen; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Casassus, Simon; Prieto, Jose L.

    2017-02-01

    As part of an Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimiter Array (ALMA) survey to study the origin of episodic accretion in young eruptive variables, we have observed the circum-stellar environment of the star V2775 Ori. This object is a very young, pre-main sequence object which displays a large amplitude outburst characteristic of the FUor class. We present Cycle-2 band 6 observations of V2775 Ori with a continuum and CO (2-1) isotopologue resolution of 0.25 arcsec (103 au). We report the detection of a marginally resolved circum-stellar disc in the ALMA continuum with an integrated flux of 106 ± 2 mJy, characteristic radius of ˜30 au, inclination of 14.0^{+7.8}_{-14.5} deg and is oriented nearly face-on with respect to the plane of the sky. The 12CO emission is separated into distinct blue and redshifted regions that appear to be rings or shells of expanding material from quasi-episodic outbursts. The system is oriented in such a way that the disc is seen through the outflow remnant of V2775 Ori, which has an axis along our line of sight. The 13CO emission displays similar structure to that of the 12CO, while the C18O line emission is very weak. We calculated the expansion velocities of the low- and medium-density material with respect to the disc to be of -2.85 (blue), 4.4 (red) and -1.35 and 1.15 km s-1 (for blue and red) and we derived the mass, momentum and kinetic energy of the expanding gas. The outflow has an hourglass shape where the cavities are not seen. We interpret the shapes that the gas traces as cavities excavated by an ancient outflow. We report a detection of line emission from the circumstellar disc and derive a lower limit of the gas mass of 3 MJup.

  10. A new submm source within a few arcseconds of $\\alpha$ Centauri: ALMA discovers the most distant object of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; O'Gorman, E; Bertone, E; Chavez, M; De la Luz, V

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the formation of stellar and planetary systems requires the understanding of the structure and dynamics of their outmost regions, where large bodies are not expected to form. Serendipitous searches for Sedna-like objects allows the observation of regions that are normally not surveyed. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is particularly sensitive to point sources and it presents currently the only means to detect Sedna-like objects far beyond their perihelia. ALMA observations 10 months apart revealed a new blackbody point source that is apparently comoving with $\\alpha$ Cen B. We exclude that source to be a sub-/stellar member of the $\\alpha$ Centauri system, but argue that it is either an extreme TNO, a Super-Earth or a very cool brown dwarf in the outer realm of the solar system.

  11. Software as a Service: Herausforderungen bei der Einführung des Bibliothekssystems Alma in der Freien Universität Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Moderne Bibliothekssysteme werden zunehmend als Software as a Service (SaaS angeboten. Die Berliner Bibliotheken der Freien Universität Berlin, der Humboldt Universität, der Technischen Universität und der Universität der Künste haben für 2016 gemeinsam den Umstieg auf das cloudbasierte Bibliothekssystem Alma beschlossen. Der Aufsatz berichtet über die Herausforderungen während der zweijährigen Vertragsverhandlungen mit besonderem Augenmerk auf den Datenschutz.  Modern library management systems are increasingly offered as Software as a Service (SaaS.The libraries of the Free University Berlin, the Humboldt university, the Technical university and the University of Arts decided concertedly to move in 2016 to the cloud based next generation library management system Alma. The article reviews the challenges during the contract negotiations with a special focus on data protection.

  12. ALMA observations of a z~3.1 Protocluster: Star Formation from Active Galactic Nuclei and Lyman-Alpha Blobs in an Overdense Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, D M; Harrison, C M; Mullaney, J R; Smail, I; Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Hine, N K; Karim, A; Kubo, M; Lehmer, B D; Matsuda, Y; Rosario, D J; Stanley, F; Swinbank, A M; Umehata, H; Yamada, T

    2016-01-01

    We exploit ALMA 870um observations to measure the star-formation rates (SFRs) of eight X-ray detected Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) in a z~3.1 protocluster, four of which reside in extended Ly-alpha haloes (often termed Ly-alpha blobs: LABs). Three of the AGNs are detected by ALMA and have implied SFRs of ~220-410~M_sun/yr; the non detection of the other five AGNs places SFR upper limits of 100 kpc) do not host more luminous star formation than the smaller LABs, despite being an order of magnitude brighter in Ly-alpha emission. We use these results to discuss star formation as the power source of LABs.

  13. ALMA Observations of the Host Galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23: Deep Limits on Obscured Star Formation 630 Million Years After the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, E; Chary, R -R; Laskar, T; Chornock, R; Tanvir, N R; Stanway, E R; Levan, A J; Levesque, E M; Davies, J E

    2014-01-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB090423 at z=8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3-sigma limits of Fnu(222 GHz)4 (Lyman break galaxies, Ly-alpha emitters, and submillimeter galaxies), and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z>4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  14. O tratamento das paixões da alma nos primórdios da medicina moderna: o De victum romanorum de Alessandro Petronio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Carvalho da Silva

    Full Text Available Propõe-se analisar o tratamento das paixões da alma apresentado pelo médico italiano Alessandro Petronio em seu Del viver delli romani et di conservar la sanità, de 1592. Petronio sistematiza intervenções terapêuticas que agem na articulação entre as paixões, a capacidade de imaginar e pensar os cuidados com o corpo e a relação com o desejo.

  15. An Intensely Star-Forming Galaxy at z~7 with Low Dust and Metal Content Revealed by Deep ALMA and HST Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kohno, Kotaro; Momose, Rieko; Kurono, Yasutaka; Ashby, M L N; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Willner, S P; Fazio, G G; Tamura, Yoichi; Iono, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    We report deep ALMA observations complemented with associated HST imaging for a luminous (m_uv=25) galaxy, 'Himiko', at a redshift z=6.595. The galaxy is remarkable for its high star formation rate, 100 Mo/yr, securely estimated from our deep HST and Spitzer photometry, and the absence of any evidence for strong AGN activity or gravitational lensing magnification. Our ALMA observations probe an order of magnitude deeper than previous IRAM observations, yet fail to detect a 1.2mm dust continuum, indicating a flux <52uJy comparable with or weaker than that of local dwarf irregulars with much lower star formation rates. We likewise provide a strong upper limit for the flux of [CII] 158um, L([CII]) < 5.1x10^7 Lo, a diagnostic of the hot interstellar gas often described as a valuable probe for early galaxies. In fact, our observations indicate Himiko lies off the local L([CII]) - star formation rate scaling relation by a factor of more than 30. Both aspects of our ALMA observations suggest Himiko is an uniqu...

  16. ALMA Investigation of Vibrationally Excited HCN/HCO+/HNC Emission Lines in the AGN-Hosting Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy IRAS 20551-4250

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Izumi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy, IRAS 20551-4250, at HCN/HCO+/HNC J=3-2 lines at both vibrational-ground (v=0) and vibrationally excited (v2=1) levels. This galaxy contains a luminous buried active galactic nucleus (AGN), in addition to starburst activity, and our ALMA Cycle 0 data revealed a tentatively detected vibrationally excited HCN v2=1f J=4-3 emission line. In our ALMA Cycle 2 data, the HCN/HCO+/HNC J=3-2 emission lines at v=0 are clearly detected. The HCN and HNC v2=1f J=3-2 emission lines are also detected, but the HCO+ v2=1f J=3-2 emission line is not. Given the high-energy level of v2=1 and the resulting difficulty of collisional excitation, we compared these results with those of the calculation of infrared radiative pumping, using the available infrared 5-35 micron spectrum. We found that all of the observational results were reproduced, if the HCN abundance was significantly higher than that of HCO+ and HNC. The flux ratio and excitation ...

  17. ALMA [C II] 158 μm Detection of a Redshift 7 Lensed Galaxy behind RXJ1347.1‑1145

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradač, Maruša; Garcia-Appadoo, Diego; Huang, Kuang-Han; Vallini, Livia; Quinn Finney, Emily; Hoag, Austin; Lemaux, Brian C.; Borello Schmidt, Kasper; Treu, Tommaso; Carilli, Chris; Dijkstra, Mark; Ferrara, Andrea; Fontana, Adriano; Jones, Tucker; Ryan, Russell; Wagg, Jeff; Gonzalez, Anthony H.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of ALMA spectroscopic follow-up of a z = 6.766 Lyα emitting galaxy behind the cluster RX J1347.1‑1145. We report the detection of [C ii] 158 μm line fully consistent with the Lyα redshift and with the peak of the optical emission. Given the magnification of μ = 5.0 ± 0.3, the intrinsic (corrected for lensing) luminosity of the [C ii] line is L [C ii] = {1.4}-0.3+0.2× {10}7 {L}ȯ , roughly ∼5 times fainter than other detections of z ∼ 7 galaxies. The result indicates that low L [C ii] in z ∼ 7 galaxies compared to the local counterparts might be caused by their low metallicities and/or feedback. The small velocity offset ({{Δ }}v={20}-40+140 {km} {{{s}}}-1) between the Lyα and [C ii] line is unusual, and may be indicative of ionizing photons escaping. These observations are based on the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2015.1.00091.S. They are also associated with programs Spitzer #90009, 60034, 00083, 50610, 03550, 40593, and HST # GO10492, GO11591, GO12104, and GO13459. Furthermore based on multi-year KECK programs.

  18. The ALMA Frontier Fields Survey I: 1.1 mm Continuum Detections in Abell 2744, MACSJ0416.1-2403 and MACSJ1149.5+2223

    CERN Document Server

    González-López, J; Romero-Cañizales, C; Kneissl, R; Villard, E; Carvajal, R; Kim, S; Laporte, N; Anguita, T; Aravena, M; Bouwens, R J; Bradley, L; Carrasco, M; Demarco, R; Ford, H; Ibar, E; Infante, L; Messias, H; Arancibia, A M Muñoz; Nagar, N; Padilla, N; Treister, E; Troncoso, P; Zitrin, A

    2016-01-01

    Dusty star-forming galaxies are among the most prodigious systems at high redshift (z>1), characterized by high star formation rates and huge dust reservoirs. The bright end of this population has been well characterized in recent years, but considerable uncertainties remain for fainter dusty star-forming galaxies, which are responsible for the bulk of star formation at high redshift and thus play a key role in galaxy growth and evolution. In this first paper of our series, we describe our methods for finding high redshift faint dusty galaxies using millimeter observations with ALMA. We obtained ALMA 1.1 mm mosaic images for three strong-lensing galaxy clusters from the Frontier Fields survey. The 2'x2' mosaics overlap with the deep HST WFC3/IR footprints and encompass the high magnification regions of each cluster. The combination of extremely high ALMA sensitivity and the magnification power of these clusters allows us to systematically probe the sub-mJy population of dusty star-forming galaxies over a larg...

  19. Molecular line emission in NGC 1068 imaged with ALMA. II. The chemistry of the dense molecular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viti, S.; García-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.; Hunt, L. K.; Usero, A.; Henkel, C.; Eckart, A.; Martin, S.; Spaans, M.; Muller, S.; Combes, F.; Krips, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Casasola, V.; Costagliola, F.; Marquez, I.; Planesas, P.; van der Werf, P. P.; Aalto, S.; Baker, A. J.; Boone, F.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2014-10-01

    Aims: We present a detailed analysis of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Bands 7 and 9 data of CO, HCO+, HCN, and CS, augmented with Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) data of the ~200 pc circumnuclear disc (CND) and the ~1.3 kpc starburst ring (SB ring) of NGC 1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy. We aim to determine the physical characteristics of the dense gas present in the CND, and to establish whether the different line intensity ratios we find within the CND, as well as between the CND and the SB ring, are due to excitation effects (gas density and temperature differences) or to a different chemistry. Methods: We estimate the column densities of each species in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We then compute large one-dimensional, non-LTE radiative transfer grids (using RADEX) by using only the CO transitions first, and then all the available molecules to constrain the densities, temperatures, and column densities within the CND. We finally present a preliminary set of chemical models to determine the origin of the gas. Results: We find that, in general, the gas in the CND is very dense (>105 cm-3) and hot (T> 150 K), with differences especially in the temperature across the CND. The AGN position has the lowest CO/HCO+, CO/HCN, and CO/CS column density ratios. The RADEX analyses seem to indicate that there is chemical differentiation across the CND. We also find differences between the chemistry of the SB ring and some regions of the CND; the SB ring is also much colder and less dense than the CND. Chemical modelling does not succeed in reproducing all the molecular ratios with one model per region, suggesting the presence of multi-gas phase components. Conclusions: The LTE, RADEX, and chemical analyses all indicate that more than one gas-phase component is necessary to uniquely fit all the available molecular ratios within the CND. A higher number of molecular transitions at the ALMA resolution is necessary to

  20. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE MOLECULAR GAS IN THE DEBRIS DISK OF THE 30 Myr OLD STAR HD 21997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kóspál, Á. [European Space Agency (ESA-ESTEC, SRE-SA), P.O. Box 299, 2200AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Moór, A.; Ábrahám, P.; Kiss, Cs. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Juhász, A.; Schmalzl, M. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, NL-2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Apai, D. [Department of Astronomy and Department of Planetary Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Csengeri, T. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Grady, C. A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Hughes, A. M. [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Pascucci, I., E-mail: akospal@rssd.esa.int [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-10-20

    The 30 Myr old A3-type star HD 21997 is one of the two known debris dust disks having a measurable amount of cold molecular gas. With the goal of understanding the physical state, origin, and evolution of the gas in young debris disks, we obtained CO line observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Here, we report on the detection of {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO in the J = 2-1 and J = 3-2 transitions and C{sup 18}O in the J = 2-1 line. The gas exhibits a Keplerian velocity curve, one of the few direct measurements of Keplerian rotation in young debris disks. The measured CO brightness distribution could be reproduced by a simple star+disk system, whose parameters are r{sub in} < 26 AU, r{sub out} = 138 ± 20 AU, M{sub *}=1.8{sup +0.5}{sub -0.2} M{sub ☉}, and i = 32.°6 ± 3.°1. The total CO mass, as calculated from the optically thin C{sup 18}O line, is about (4-8) × 10{sup –2} M{sub ⊕}, while the CO line ratios suggest a radiation temperature on the order of 6-9 K. Comparing our results with those obtained for the dust component of the HD 21997 disk from ALMA continuum observations by Moór et al., we conclude that comparable amounts of CO gas and dust are present in the disk. Interestingly, the gas and dust in the HD 21997 system are not colocated, indicating a dust-free inner gas disk within 55 AU of the star. We explore two possible scenarios for the origin of the gas. A secondary origin, which involves gas production from colliding or active planetesimals, would require unreasonably high gas production rates and would not explain why the gas and dust are not colocated. We propose that HD 21997 is a hybrid system where secondary debris dust and primordial gas coexist. HD 21997, whose age exceeds both the model predictions for disk clearing and the ages of the oldest T Tauri-like or transitional gas disks in the literature, may be a key object linking the primordial and the debris phases of disk evolution.

  1. Malaria control in the African Region: perceptions and viewspoints on proceedings of the Africa Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009 a total of 153,408 malaria deaths were reported in Africa. Eleven countries showed a reduction of more than 50% in either confirmed malaria cases or malaria admissions and deaths in recent years. However, many African countries are not on track to achieve the malaria component of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 6. The African Leaders Malaria Alliance (ALMA working session at the 15th African Union Summit discussed the bottlenecks to achieving MDG 6 (specifically halting and beginning to reverse the incidence of malaria by 2015, success factors, and what countries needed to do to accelerate achievement of the MDG. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the ALMA working session. Methods Working methods of the session included speeches and statements by invited speakers and high-level panel discussions. Discussion The main bottlenecks identified related to the capacity of the health systems to deliver quality care and accessibility issues; need for strong, decentralized malaria-control programmes with linkages with other health and development sectors, the civil society and private sector entities; benefits of co-implementation of malaria control programmes with child survival or other public health interventions; systematic application of integrated promotive, preventive, diagnostic and case management interventions with full community participation; adapting approaches to local political, socio-cultural and administrative environments. The following prerequisites for success were identified: a clear vision and effective leadership of national malaria control programmes; high level political commitment to ensure adequate capacity in expertise, skill mix and number of managers, technicians and service providers; national ownership, intersectoral collaboration and accountability, as well as strong civil society and private sector involvement; functional epidemiological surveillance systems

  2. ALMA Resolves 30 Doradus: Sub-parsec Molecular Cloud Structure Near the Closest Super-Star Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Indebetouw, Remy; Chen, C -H Rosie; Leroy, Adam; Johnson, Kelsey; Muller, Erik; Madden, Suzanne; Cormier, Diane; Galliano, Frederic; Hughes, Annie; Hunter, Todd; Kawamura, Akiko; Kepley, Amanda; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Meixner, Margaret; Oliveira, Joana M; Onishi, Toshikazu; Vasyunina, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of 30 Doradus -- the highest resolution view of molecular gas in an extragalactic star formation region to date (~0.4pc x 0.6pc). The 30Dor-10 cloud north of R136 was mapped in 12CO 2-1, 13CO 2-1, C18O 2-1, 1.3mm continuum, the H30alpha recombination line, and two H2CO 3-2 transitions. Most 12CO emission is associated with small filaments and clumps (<1pc, ~1000 Msun at the current resolution). Some clumps are associated with protostars, including "pillars of creation" photoablated by intense radiation from R136. Emission from molecular clouds is often analyzed by decomposition into approximately beam-sized clumps. Such clumps in 30 Doradus follow similar trends in size, linewidth, and surface density to Milky Way clumps. The 30 Doradus clumps have somewhat larger linewidths for a given size than predicted by Larson's scaling relation, consistent with pressure confinement. They extend to higher surface density at a given size and linewidth compared to clouds studied at 10pc res...

  3. Fragmentation of high line-mass filaments as revealed by ALMA: the integral shaped filament in Orion A

    CERN Document Server

    Kainulainen, Jouni; Stanke, Thomas; Abreu-Vicente, Jorge; Beuther, Henrik; Henning, Thomas; Johnston, Katharine G; Megeath, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We study the fragmentation of the most nearby high line-mass filament, the integral shaped filament (ISF) in the Orion A molecular cloud. We have observed a 1.6 pc long section of the ISF with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 3 mm continuum emission, at a resolution of $\\sim$3" (1$\\,$200 AU). We identify from the region 40 dense cores with masses on the order of a solar mass. The nearest neighbour separation distribution of the cores does not show a preferred fragmentation scale; the frequency of short separations increases down to our resolution limit. We apply a two-point correlation analysis on the dense core separations and show that the cores are significantly grouped at separations below $\\sim$17$\\,$000 AU and strongly grouped below $\\sim$6$\\,$000 AU. In addition, the two-point correlation function indicates periodic grouping of the cores into groups of $\\sim$30$\\,$000 AU in size, separated by $\\sim$55$\\,$000 AU. The groups coincide with dust column density peaks detected by He...

  4. ALMA Observations of the Largest Proto-Planetary Disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426: A CO Silhouette

    CERN Document Server

    Bally, John; Eisner, Josh; Andrews, Sean M; Di Francesco, James; Hughes, Meredith; Johnstone, Doug; Matthews, Brenda; Ricci, Luca; Williams, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the largest protoplanetary disk in the Orion Nebula, 114-426. Detectable 345 GHz (856 micron) dust continuum is produced only in the 350 AU central region of the ~1000 AU diameter silhouette seen against the bright H-alpha background in HST images. Assuming optically thin dust emission at 345 GHz, a gas-to-dust ratio of 100, and a grain temperature of 20 K, the disk gas-mass is estimated to be 3.1 +/- 0.6 Jupiter masses. If most solids and ices have have been incorporated into large grains, however, this value is a lower limit. The disk is not detected in dense-gas tracers such as HCO+ J=4-3, HCN J=4-3, or CS =7-6. These results may indicate that the 114-426 disk is evolved and depleted in some light organic compounds found in molecular clouds. The CO J=3-2 line is seen in absorption against the bright 50 to 80 K background of the Orion A molecular cloud over the full spatial extent and a little beyond the dust continuum emission. The CO absorption reaches a depth of 27 K below...

  5. Exploring Molecular Complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Deuterated complex organic molecules in Sagittarius B2(N2)

    CERN Document Server

    Belloche, A; Garrod, R T; Menten, K M

    2015-01-01

    Deuteration is a powerful tracer of the history of the cold prestellar phase in star forming regions. Apart from methanol, little is known about deuterium fractionation of complex organic molecules in the interstellar medium, especially in high mass star forming regions. We use a spectral line survey performed with ALMA to search for deuterated complex organic molecules toward the hot molecular core Sgr B2(N2). Population diagrams and integrated intensity maps are constructed to fit rotational temperatures and emission sizes for each molecule. Column densities are derived by modelling the full spectrum under the LTE assumption. The results are compared to predictions of two astrochemical models that treat the deuteration process. We report the detection of CH2DCN toward Sgr B2(N2) with a deuteration level of 0.4%, and tentative detections of CH2DOH, CH2DCH2CN, the chiral molecule CH3CHDCN, and DC3N with levels in the range 0.05%-0.12%. A stringent deuteration upper limit is obtained for CH3OD (<0.07%). Upp...

  6. ISM Masses and Star Formation at z = 1 to 6 ALMA Observations of Dust Continuum in 180 Galaxies in COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, N; Aussel, H; Bout, P Vanden; Capak, P; Bongiorno, A; Casey, C M; Murchikova, L; Koda, J; Pope, A; Toft, S; Ivison, R; Sanders, D; Manohar, S; Lee, N

    2015-01-01

    ALMA Cycle 2 observations of the long wavelength dust emission in 180 star-forming (SF) galaxies are used to investigate the evolution of ISM masses at z = 1 to 6.4. The ISM masses exhibit strong increases from z = 0 to $\\rm $ = 1.15 and further to $\\rm $ = 2.2 and 4.8, particularly amongst galaxies above the SF galaxy main sequence (MS). The galaxies with highest SFRs at $\\rm $ = 2.2 and 4.8 have gas masses 100 times that of the Milky Way and gas mass fractions reaching 50 to 80\\%, i.e. gas masses 1 - 4$\\times$ their stellar masses. For the full sample of galaxies, we find a single, very simple SF law: $\\rm SFR \\propto M_{\\rm ISM}^{0.9}$, i.e. a `linear' dependence on the ISM mass -- on and above the MS. Thus, the galaxies above the MS are converting their larger ISM masses into stars on a timescale similar to those on the MS. At z $> 1$, the entire population of star-forming galaxies has $\\sim$5 - 10$\\times$ shorter gas depletion times ($\\sim0.2$ Gyr) than galaxies at low redshift. These {\\bf shorter deplet...

  7. A recent accretion burst in the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359: ALMA imaging of its related chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Jes K; Sakai, Nami; Bergin, Edwin A; Brinch, Christian; Harsono, Daniel; Lindberg, Johan E; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Bisschop, Suzanne E; Persson, Magnus V

    2013-01-01

    Low-mass protostars have been suggested to show highly variable accretion rates through-out their evolution. Such changes in accretion, and related heating of their ambient envelopes, may trigger significant chemical variations on different spatial scales and from source-to-source. We present images of emission from C17O, H13CO+, CH3OH, C34S and C2H toward the low-mass protostar IRAS 15398-3359 on 0.5" (75 AU diameter) scales with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 340 GHz. The resolved images show that the emission from H13CO+ is only present in a ring-like structure with a radius of about 1-1.5" (150-200 AU) whereas the CO and other high dipole moment molecules are centrally condensed toward the location of the central protostar. We propose that HCO+ is destroyed by water vapor present on small scales. The origin of this water vapor is likely an accretion burst during the last 100-1000 years increasing the luminosity of IRAS 15398-3359 by a factor of 100 above its current luminosity....

  8. Planck's Dusty GEMS. II. Extended [CII] emission and absorption in the Garnet at z=3.4 seen with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvadba, N; Canameras, R; Boone, F; Falgarone, E; Frye, B; Gerin, M; Koenig, S; Lagache, G; Floc'h, E Le; Malhotra, S; Scott, D

    2016-01-01

    We present spatially resolved ALMA [CII] observations of the bright (flux density S=400 mJy at 350 microns), gravitationally lensed, starburst galaxy PLCK G045.1+61.1 at z=3.427, the "Garnet". This source is part of our set of "Planck's Dusty GEMS", discovered with the Planck's all-sky survey. Two emission-line clouds with a relative velocity offset of ~600 km/s extend towards north-east and south-west, respectively, of a small, intensely star-forming clump with a star-formation intensity of 220 Msun/yr/kpc^2, akin to maximal starbursts. [CII] is also seen in absorption, with a redshift of +350 km/s relative to the brightest CO component. [CII] absorption has previously only been found in the Milky Way along sightlines toward bright high-mass star-forming regions, and this is the first detection in another galaxy. Similar to Galactic environments, the [CII] absorption feature is associated with [CI] emission, implying that this is diffuse gas shielded from the UV radiation of the clump, and likely at large di...

  9. ALMA Spectroscopic Survey in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Molecular gas reservoirs in high-redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Decarli, Roberto; Aravena, Manuel; Carilli, Chris; Bouwens, Rychard; da Cunha, Elisabete; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, Mark; Weiss, Axel; Bacon, Roland; Bauer, Franz; Bell, Eric F; Bertoldi, Frank; Chapman, Scott; Colina, Luis; Cortes, Paulo C; Cox, Pierre; Gónzalez-López, Jorge; Inami, Hanae; Ivison, Rob; Hodge, Jacqueline; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Ota, Kazuaki; Popping, Gergö; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sargent, Mark; van der Wel, Arjen; van der Werf, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We study the molecular gas properties of high-$z$ galaxies observed in the ALMA Spectroscopic Survey (ASPECS) that targets a $\\sim1$ arcmin$^2$ region in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF), a blind survey of CO emission (tracing molecular gas) in the 3mm and 1mm bands. Of a total of 1302 galaxies in the field, 56 have spectroscopic redshifts and correspondingly well-defined physical properties. Among these, 11 have infrared luminosities $L_{\\rm{}IR}>10^{11}$ L$_\\odot$, i.e. a detection in CO emission was expected. Out these, 7 are detected at various significance in CO, and 4 are undetected in CO emission. In the CO-detected sources, we find CO excitation conditions that are lower than typically found in starburst/SMG/QSO environments. We use the CO luminosities (including limits for non-detections) to derive molecular gas masses. We discuss our findings in context of previous molecular gas observations at high redshift (star-formation law, gas depletion times, gas fractions): The CO-detected galaxies in the U...

  10. Molecular line emission in NGC1068 imaged with ALMA: II. The chemistry of the dense molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Viti, S; Fuente, A; Hunt, L K; Usero, A; Henkel, C; Eckart, A; Martin, S; Spaans, M; Muller, S; Combes, F; Krips, M; Schinnerer, E; Casasola, V; Costagliola, F; Marquez, I; Planesas, P; van der Werf, P P; Aalto, S; Baker, A J; Boone, F; Tacconi, L J

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of ALMA Bands 7 and 9 data of CO, HCO+, HCN and CS, augmented with Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) data of the ~ 200 pc circumnuclear disk (CND) and the ~ 1.3 kpc starburst ring (SB ring) of NGC~1068, a nearby (D = 14 Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy. We aim at determining the physical characteristics of the dense gas present in the CND and whether the different line intensity ratios we find within the CND as well as between the CND and the SB ring are due to excitation effects (gas density and temperature differences) or to a different chemistry. We estimate the column densities of each species in Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE). We then compute large one-dimensional non-LTE radiative transfer grids (using RADEX) by using first only the CO transitions, and then all the available molecules in order to constrain the densities, temperatures and column densities within the CND. We finally present a preliminary set of chemical models to determine the origin of the gas. We fi...

  11. Molecular line emission in NGC1068 imaged with ALMA. I An AGN-driven outflow in the dense molecular gas

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Burillo, S; Usero, A; Aalto, S; Krips, M; Viti, S; Alonso-Herrero, A; Hunt, L K; Schinnerer, E; Baker, A J; Casasola, F Boone V; Colina, L; Costagliola, F; Eckart, A; Fuente, A; Henkel, C; Labiano, A; Martin, S; Marquez, I; Muller, S; Planesas, P; Almeida, C Ramos; Spaans, M; Tacconi, L J; van der Werf, P P

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the fueling and the feedback of star formation and nuclear activity in NGC1068, a nearby (D=14Mpc) Seyfert 2 barred galaxy, by analyzing the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the disk. We have used ALMA to map the emission of a set of dense molecular gas tracers (CO(3-2), CO(6-5), HCN(4-3), HCO+(4-3) and CS(7-6)) and their underlying continuum emission in the central r ~ 2kpc of NGC1068 with spatial resolutions ~ 0.3"-0.5" (~ 20-35pc). Molecular line and dust continuum emissions are detected from a r ~ 200pc off-centered circumnuclear disk (CND), from the 2.6kpc-diameter bar region, and from the r ~ 1.3kpc starburst (SB) ring. Most of the emission in HCO+, HCN and CS stems from the CND. Molecular line ratios show dramatic order-of-magnitude changes inside the CND that are correlated with the UV/X-ray illumination by the AGN, betraying ongoing feedback. The gas kinematics from r ~ 50pc out to r ~ 400pc reveal a massive (M_mol ~ 2.7 (+0.9, -1.2) x 10^7 Msun) outflow in all molec...

  12. ALMA observations of feeding and feedback in nearby Seyfert galaxies: an AGN-driven outflow in NGC 1433

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F; Casasola, V; Hunt, L; Krips, M; Baker, A J; Boone, F; Eckart, A; Marquez, I; Neri, R; Schinnerer, E; Tacconi, L J

    2013-01-01

    We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 2 double-barred galaxy NGC1433, at the unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.5"=24 pc. Our aim is to probe AGN feeding and feedback phenomena through the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc. The CO map, which covers the whole nuclear region (nuclear bar and ring), reveals a nuclear gaseous spiral structure, inside the nuclear ring encircling the nuclear stellar bar. This gaseous spiral is well correlated with the dusty spiral seen in Hubble Space Telescope images. The nuclear spiral winds up in a pseudo-ring at 200 pc radius, which might correspond to the inner ILR. Continuum emission is detected at 0.87 mm only at the very centre, and its origin is more likely thermal dust emission than non-thermal emission from the AGN. It might correspond to the molecular torus expected to exist in this Seyfert 2 galaxy. The HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines were observed simultaneously, but only upper limits are derived, with a ratio to the CO...

  13. An ALMA Early Science survey of molecular absorption lines toward PKS1830-211 -- Analysis of the absorption profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, S; Guelin, M; Gerin, M; Aalto, S; Beelen, A; Black, J H; Curran, S J; Darling, J; Dinh-V-Trung,; Garcia-Burillo, S; Henkel, C; Horellou, C; Martin, S; Marti-Vidal, I; Menten, K M; Murphy, M T; Ott, J; Wiklind, T; Zwaan, M A

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an ALMA spectral survey of strong absorption lines for common interstellar species in the z=0.89 molecular absorber toward the lensed blazar PKS1830-211. The dataset brings essential information on the structure and composition of the absorbing gas in the foreground galaxy. In particular, we find absorption over large velocity intervals (gtrsim 100 km/s) toward both lensed images of the blazar. This suggests either that the galaxy inclination is intermediate and that we sample velocity gradients or streaming motions in the disk plane, that the molecular gas has a large vertical distribution or extraplanar components, or that the absorber is not a simple spiral galaxy but might be a merger system. The number of detected species is now reaching a total of 42 different species plus 14 different rare isotopologues toward the SW image, and 14 species toward the NE line-of-sight. The abundances of CH, H2O, HCO+, HCN, and NH3 relative to H2 are found to be comparable to those in the G...

  14. Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422 - The high-resolution ALMA and SMA view

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, Magnus V; van Dishoeck, Ewine F

    2012-01-01

    Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter. Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 5(3,2)-4(4,1) transition of H2-18O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) as well as the 3(1,3)-2(2,0) of H2-18O at 203.40752 GHz and the 3(1,2)-2(2,1) transition of HDO at 225.89672 GHz from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) are presented. The 692 GHz H2-18O line is seen toward both components of the binary protostar. Toward one of the components, "source B", the line is seen in absorption toward the continuum, slightly red-shifted from the systemic velocity, whereas emission is seen off-source at the systemic velocity. Toward the other component, "source A", the two HDO and H2-18O lines are detecte...

  15. Deep ALMA imaging of the merger NGC1614 - Is CO tracing a massive inflow of non-starforming gas?

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Muller, S; Gallagher, J S; Beswick, R J; Xu, C K; Evans, A

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the molecular gas over scales of ~0.5 to several kpc provide crucial information on how the gas moves through galaxies, especially in mergers and interacting systems, where it ultimately reaches the galaxy center, accumulates and feeds nuclear activity. To understand the processes involved in gas transport is one of the important steps forward to understand galaxy evolution. 12CO and 13CO1-0 high-sensitivity ALMA observations are used to assess properties of the large-scale molecular gas reservoir and its connection to the circumnuclear molecular ring in NGC1614. The role of excitation and abundances are studied in this context. Spatial distributions of the 12CO and 13CO 1-0 emission show significant differences. 12CO is tracing large-scale molecular gas reservoir associated with a dust lane associated with infalling gas and extends into the southern tidal tails. 13CO emission peaks at the connection between the dust lane and the circumnuclear molecular ring found in previous observations and ...

  16. Revealing the complex nature of the strong gravitationally lensed system H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S; Swinbank, A M; Vlahakis, C; Nightingale, J W; Dunne, L; Eales, S A; Smail, Ian; Oteo-Gomez, I; Hunter, T; Negrello, M; Dannerbauer, H; Ivison, R J; Gavazzi, R; Cooray, A; van der Werf, P

    2015-01-01

    We have modelled Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) long baseline imaging of the strong gravitational lens system H-ATLAS J090311.6+003906 (SDP.81). We have reconstructed the distribution of continuum emission in the z=3.042 source and we have determined its kinematic properties by reconstructing CO line emission. The continuum imaging reveals a highly non-uniform distribution of dust with clumps on scales of ~200pc. In contrast, the CO line emission shows a relatively smooth velocity field which resembles disk-like dynamics. Modelling the velocity field as a rotating disk indicates an inclination angle of (40 +/- 5) degrees, implying an intrinsic asymptotic rotation velocity of 320km/s and a dynamical mass of 3.5x10^{10} M_sol within 1.5kpc. We obtain similar estimates of the total molecular gas mass of 2.7x10^{10} M_sol and 1.4x10^{10} M_sol from the dust continuum emission and CO emission respectively. Our new reconstruction of the lensed HST near-infrared emission shows two objects that ...

  17. ALMA observations of the submillimetre hydrogen recombination line from the type 2 active nucleus of NGC 1068

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Takuma; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kohno, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen recombination lines at the submillimetre band (submm-RLs) can serve as probes of ionized gas without dust extinction. One therefore expects to probe the broad line region (BLR) of an obscured (type 2) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with those lines. However, admitting the large uncertainty in the continuum level, here we report on the non-detection of both broad and narrow H26$\\alpha$ emission line (rest frequency = 353.62 GHz) towards the prototypical type 2 AGN of NGC 1068 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We also investigate the nature of BLR clouds that can emit submm-RLs with model calculations. As a result, we suggest that clouds with an electron density ($N_e$) of $\\sim$ 10$^9$ cm$^{-3}$ can mainly contribute to broad submm-RLs in terms of the line flux. On the other hand, line flux from other density clouds would be insignificant considering their too large or too small line optical depths. Since $N_e$ $\\sim$ 10$^9$ cm$^{-3}$ is typical in BLRs, insufficient sensiti...

  18. A Multi-Transition Study of Molecules toward NGC 1068 based on High-Resolution Imaging Observations with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Nakajima, Taku; Kohno, Kotaro; Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric; Tamura, Yoichi; Izumi, Takuma; Taniguchi, Akio; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2014-01-01

    We present 0.8-mm band molecular images and spectra obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) toward one of the nearest galaxies with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), NGC 1068. Distributions of CO isotopic species ($^{13}$CO and C$^{18}$O) $\\it{J}$ = 3--2, CN $\\it{N}$ = 3--2 and CS $\\it{J}$ = 7--6 are observed toward the circumnuclear disk (CND) and a part of the starburst ring with an angular resolution of $\\sim$1.$^{\\prime\\prime}$3 $\\times$ 1.$^{\\prime\\prime}$2. The physical properties of these molecules and shock-related molecules such as HNCO, CH$_{3}$CN, SO, and CH$_{3}$OH detected in the 3-mm band were estimated using rotation diagrams under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The rotational temperatures of the CO isotopic species and the shock-related molecules in the CND are, respectively, 14--22 K and upper limits of 20--40 K. Although the column densities of the CO isotopic species in the CND are only from one-fifth to one-third of that in the starburst ri...

  19. Tentative planetary orbital constraints of some scenarios for the possible new Solar System object recently discovered with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Some of the scenarios envisaged for the possible new Solar System object, whose discovery with the ALMA facility has been recently claimed in the literature, are preliminarily put to the test by means of the orbital motions of some planets of the Solar System. It turns out that the current ranges of admissible values for any anomalous secular precession of the perihelion of Saturn, determined in the recent past with either the EPM2011 and the INPOP10a planetary ephemerides without modeling the action of such a potential new member of the Solar System, do not rule out the existence of a putative Neptune-like pointlike perturber at about 2500 au. Instead, both a super-Earth at some hundreds of au and a Jovian-type planet up to 4000 au are strongly disfavored. An Earth-sized body at 100 au would have a density as little as $\\sim 0.1-0.01~\\textrm{g}~\\textrm{cm}^{-3}$, while an unusually large Centaur or (Extreme) Trans Neptunian Object with linear size of $220-880~\\textrm{km}$ at $12-25~\\textrm{au}$ would have de...

  20. ALMA view of the circumstellar environment of the post-common-envelope-evolution binary system HD101584

    CERN Document Server

    Olofsson, H; Maercker, M; Humphreys, E M L; Lindqvist, M; Nyman, L; Ramstedt, S

    2015-01-01

    We study the circumstellar evolution of the binary HD101584, consisting of a post-AGB star and a low-mass companion, which is most likely a post-common-envelope-evolution system. We used ALMA observations of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J=2-1 lines and the 1.3mm continuum to determine the morphology, kinematics, masses, and energetics of the circumstellar environment. The circumstellar medium has a bipolar hour-glass structure, seen almost pole-on, formed by an energetic jet, about 150 km/s. We conjecture that the circumstellar morphology is related to an event that took place about 500 year ago, possibly a capture event where the companion spiraled in towards the AGB star. However, the kinetic energy of the accelerated gas exceeds the released orbital energy, and, taking into account the expected energy transfer efficiency of the process, the observed phenomenon does not match current common-envelope scenarios. This suggests that another process must augment, or even dominate, the ejection process. A significant...