Sample records for allyl radicals

  1. Elementary reaction allyl radical with oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Feng; KONG Fanao


    The elementary reaction between allyl radical with oxygen molecule wasexperimentally investigated. The allyl radical was produced via laser photolysis of C3H5Br in gaseous phase. Nascent vibrational excited products HCO, CO2, CH3CHO and HCOOH were recorded by the time- resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The product channels of C2H5+CO2, CH3CHO+HCO, and HCOOH + C2H3 have been identified. The vibrational populations of product CO2 are obtained by spectral simulation. A mechanism forming a series of three-membered ring-struc- ture intermediates is suggested.

  2. Single pulse shock tube study of allyl radical recombination. (United States)

    Fridlyand, Aleksandr; Lynch, Patrick T; Tranter, Robert S; Brezinsky, Kenneth


    The recombination and disproportionation of allyl radicals has been studied in a single pulse shock tube with gas chromatographic measurements at 1-10 bar, 650-1300 K, and 1.4-2 ms reaction times. 1,5-Hexadiene and allyl iodide were used as precursors. Simulation of the results using derived rate expressions from a complementary diaphragmless shock tube/laser schlieren densitometry study provided excellent agreement with precursor consumption and formation of all major stable intermediates. No significant pressure dependence was observed at the present conditions. It was found that under the conditions of these experiments, reactions of allyl radicals in the cooling wave had to be accounted for to accurately simulate the experimental results, and this unusual situation is discussed. In the allyl iodide experiments, higher amounts of allene, propene, and benzene were found at lower temperatures than expected. Possible mechanisms are discussed and suggest that iodine containing species are responsible for the low temperature formation of allene, propene, and benzene.

  3. Do garlic-derived allyl sulfides scavenge peroxyl radicals? (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Pedulli, Gian Franco


    The chain-breaking antioxidant activities of two garlic-derived allyl sulfides, i.e. diallyl disulfide (1), the main component of steam-distilled garlic oil, and allyl methyl sulfide (3) were evaluated by studying the thermally initiated autoxidation of cumene or styrene in their presence. Although the rate of cumene oxidation was reduced by addition of both 1 and 3, the dependence on the concentration of the two sulfides could not be explained on the basis of the classic antioxidant mechanism as with phenolic antioxidants. The rate of oxidation of styrene, on the other hand, did not show significant changes upon addition of either 1 or 3. This unusual behaviour was explained in terms of the co-oxidant effect, consisting in the decrease of the autoxidation rate of a substrate forming tertiary peroxyl radicals (i.e. cumene) upon addition of little amounts of a second oxidizable substrate giving rise instead to secondary peroxyl radicals. The relevant rate constants for the reaction of ROO(.) with 1 and 3 were measured as 1.6 and 1.0 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, fully consistent with the H-atom abstraction from substituted sulfides. It is therefore concluded that sulfides 1 and 3 do not scavenge peroxyl radicals and therefore cannot be considered chain-breaking antioxidants.

  4. From the tunneling dimer to the onset of microsolvation: Infrared spectroscopy of allyl radical water aggregates in helium nanodroplets (United States)

    Leicht, Daniel; Kaufmann, Matin; Pal, Nitish; Schwaab, Gerhard; Havenith, Martina


    The infrared spectrum of allyl:water clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets was recorded. Allyl radicals were produced by flash vacuum pyrolysis and trapped in helium droplets. Deuterated water was added to the doped droplets, and the infrared spectrum of the radical water aggregates was recorded in the frequency range 2570-2820 cm-1. Several absorption bands are observed and assigned to 1:1 and 1:2 allyl:D2O clusters, based on pressure dependent measurements and accompanying quantum chemical calculations. The analysis of the 1:1 cluster spectrum revealed a tunneling splitting as well as a combination band. For the 1:2 cluster, we observe a water dimer-like motif that is bound by one π-hydrogen bond to the allyl radical.

  5. Role of allyl group in the hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of S-allylcysteine. (United States)

    Maldonado, Perla D; Alvarez-Idaboy, J Raúl; Aguilar-González, Adriana; Lira-Rocha, Alfonso; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Galano, Annia


    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is the most abundant compound in aged garlic extracts, and its antioxidant properties have been demonstrated. It is known that SAC is able to scavenge different reactive species including hydroxyl radical (•OH), although its potential ability to scavenge peroxyl radical (ROO•) has not been explored. In this work the ability of SAC to scavenge ROO• was evaluated, as well as the role of the allyl group (-S-CH(2)-CH═CH(2)) in its free radical scavenging activity. Two derived compounds of SAC were prepared: S-benzylcysteine (SBC) and S-propylcysteine (SPC). Their abilities to scavenge •OH and ROO• were measured. A computational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which these compounds scavenge •OH and ROO•. SAC was able to scavenge •OH and ROO•, in a concentration-dependent way. Such activity was significantly ameliorated when the allyl group was replaced by benzyl or propyl groups. It was shown for the first time that SAC is able to scavenge ROO•.

  6. Tandem SN2' nucleophilic substitution/oxidative radical cyclization of aryl substituted allylic alcohols with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Cheng; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Fu-Min; Han, Xue; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Ming


    A novel and efficient tandem SN2' nucleophilic substitution/oxidative radical cyclization reaction of aryl substituted allylic alcohols with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds has been developed by using Mn(OAc)3 as an oxidant, which enables the expeditious synthesis of polysubstituted dihydrofuran (DHF) derivatives in moderate to high yields. The use of weakly acidic hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) as the solvent rather than AcOH has successfully improved the yields and expanded the substrate scope of this type of radical cyclization reactions. Mechanistic studies confirmed the cascade reaction process involving a final radical cyclization.

  7. Synchrotron Photoionization Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Kinetics and Product Formation in the Allyl Radical (H2CCHCH2)Self Reaction (United States)

    Selby, Talitha M.; Melini, giovanni; Goulay, Fabien; Leone, Stephen R.; Fahr, Askar; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.


    Product channels for the self-reaction of the resonance-stabilized allyl radical, C3H5 + C3H5, have been studied with isomeric specificity at temperatures from 300-600 K and pressures from 1-6 Torr using time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry. Under these conditions 1,5-hexadiene was the only C6H10 product isomer detected. The lack of isomerization of the C6H10 product is in marked contrast to the C6H6 product in the related C3H3 + C3H3 reaction, and is due to the more saturated electronic structure of the C6H10 system. The disproportionation product channel, yielding allene + propene, was also detected, with an upper limit on the branching fraction relative to recombination of 0.03. Analysis of the allyl radical decay at 298 K yielded a total rate coefficient of (2.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp -11) cu cm/molecule/s, in good agreement with pre.vious experimental measurements using ultraviolet kinetic absorption spectroscopy and a recent theoretical determination using variable reaction coordinate transition state theory. This result provides independent indirect support for the literature value of the allyl radical ultraviolet absorption cross-section near 223 nm.

  8. Radical heterosexuality: Straight teacher activism in schools : Does ally-led activism work?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Potvin


    Here, I explore the efficacy of straight teacher allies, the importance of understanding straight privilege, and the significance of radical heterosexuality for straight people doing LGBTQ activism. Relying on queer theory and decolonizing/Indigenous queer theory, I argue that it is necessary for straight teachers to acknowledge their straight privilege in order to challenge homophobia's companions: heterosexism and heteronormativity. In addressing the latter two covert forms of oppression in schools, teachers and students could shift into deeper, more effective resistance measures.

  9. Radical graft polymerization of an allyl monomer onto hydrophilic polymers and their antibacterial nanofibrous membranes. (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Xu, Weilin; Sun, Gang; Chiou, Bor-Sen


    Hydrophilic poly (vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) copolymers with 27 mol %, 32 mol % and 44 mol % ethylene were functionalized by melt radical graft copolymerization with 2,4-diamino-6-diallylamino-1,3,5-triazine (NDAM) using reactive extrusion. This functionalization imparts antibacterial properties. The covalent attachments of the NDAM as side chains onto the PVA-co-PE polymer backbones were confirmed. The effects of initiator concentrations and ethylene contents in PVA-co-PE polymers on grafting of NDAM were studied. The chain scissions of PVA-co-PE polymers during reactive extrusion were investigated by monitoring changes in the melt torque and FTIR spectra. The NDAM grafted PVA-co-PE polymers were successfully fabricated into hydrophilic nanofibers and nanofibrous membranes with sufficient surface exposure of the grafted NDAM. The hydrophilicity of the PVA-co-PE polymers and the large specific surface area offered by the nanofiber membranes significantly facilitated the chlorine activation process, enhanced the active chlorine contents of the grafted PVA-co-PE nanofiber membranes, and therefore led to their superior antibacterial properties.

  10. Primary photodissociation pathways of epichlorohydrin and analysis of the C-C bond fission channels from an O((3)P)+allyl radical intermediate. (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Benjamin L; Alligood, Bridget W; Butler, Laurie J; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, Jim Jr-Min


    This study initially characterizes the primary photodissociation processes of epichlorohydrin, c-(H(2)COCH)CH(2)Cl. The three dominant photoproduct channels analyzed are c-(H(2)COCH)CH(2)+Cl, c-(H(2)COCH)+CH(2)Cl, and C(3)H(4)O+HCl. In the second channel, the c-(H(2)COCH) photofission product is a higher energy intermediate on C(2)H(3)O global potential energy surface and has a small isomerization barrier to vinoxy. The resulting highly vibrationally excited vinoxy radicals likely dissociate to give the observed signal at the mass corresponding to ketene, H(2)CCO. The final primary photodissociation pathway HCl+C(3)H(4)O evidences a recoil kinetic energy distribution similar to that of four-center HCl elimination in chlorinated alkenes, so is assigned to production of c-(H(2)COC)=CH(2); the epoxide product is formed with enough vibrational energy to isomerize to acrolein and dissociate. The paper then analyzes the dynamics of the C(3)H(5)O radical produced from C-Cl bond photofission. When the epoxide radical photoproduct undergoes facile ring opening, it is the radical intermediate formed in the O((3)P)+allyl bimolecular reaction when the O atom adds to an end C atom. We focus on the HCO+C(2)H(4) and H(2)CO+C(2)H(3) product channels from this radical intermediate in this report. Analysis of the velocity distribution of the momentum-matched signals from the HCO+C(2)H(4) products at m/e=29 and 28 shows that the dissociation of the radical intermediate imparts a high relative kinetic energy, peaking near 20 kcal/mol, between the products. Similarly, the energy imparted to relative kinetic energy in the H(2)CO+C(2)H(3) product channel of the O((3)P)+allyl radical intermediate also peaks at high-recoil kinetic energies, near 18 kcal/mol. The strongly forward-backward peaked angular distributions and the high kinetic energy release result from tangential recoil during the dissociation of highly rotationally excited nascent radicals formed photolytically in this

  11. Cyclization by intramolecular carbolithiation of alkyl- and vinyllithiums prepared by the action of aromatic radical anions on phenyl thioethers. High stereoselectivity in the cyclization accelerated by an allylic lithium oxyanion. (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Bensari-Bouguerra, Ahlem; Whetstone, Joseph; Cohen, Theodore


    The reductive lithiation of alkyl and vinyl phenyl thioethers by aromatic radical anions is shown to be the most general method yet known for preparing organolithiums capable of intramolecular carbometalation of unactivated alkenes to produce five-membered rings and in one case a four-membered ring (in a far higher yield than known cases). The relative rates of cyclization for alkyllithiums are secondary > tertiary > primary, and the yields are very high. In the secondary case, the stereoselectivity is extremely high, producing a cyclopentylmethyllithium with a trans-2-alkyl substituent. A remarkable finding is that for all of the organolithiums a lithium oxyanionic group in the proximal allylic position to the alkene greatly accelerates the cyclization and leads almost exclusively to a trans relationship between the CH(2)Li group and the OLi group, the opposite relationship from that observed in intramolecular carbolithiations by allyllithiums. A mechanistic rationale for this divergence is discussed. One of the two types of proximal homoallylic lithium oxyanions exerts an analogous effect. An intriguing limitation, even occurring with the highly reactive secondary organolithium and in the presence of an allylic oxyanionic group, is the failure of intramolecular carbolithiation when a methyl group is at the terminus of the alkene.

  12. Pressure Dependent Product Formation in the Photochemically Initiated Allyl + Allyl Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Zeuch


    Full Text Available Photochemically driven reactions involving unsaturated radicals produce a thick global layer of organic haze on Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. The allyl radical self-reaction is an example for this type of chemistry and was examined at room temperature from an experimental and kinetic modelling perspective. The experiments were performed in a static reactor with a volume of 5 L under wall free conditions. The allyl radicals were produced from laser flash photolysis of three different precursors allyl bromide (C3H5Br, allyl chloride (C3H5Cl, and 1,5-hexadiene (CH2CH(CH22CHCH2 at 193 nm. Stable products were identified by their characteristic vibrational modes and quantified using FTIR spectroscopy. In addition to the (re- combination pathway C3H5+C3H5 → C6H10 we found at low pressures around 1 mbar the highest final product yields for allene and propene for the precursor C3H5Br. A kinetic analysis indicates that the end product formation is influenced by specific reaction kinetics of photochemically activated allyl radicals. Above 10 mbar the (re- combination pathway becomes dominant. These findings exemplify the specificities of reaction kinetics involving chemically activated species, which for certain conditions cannot be simply deduced from combustion kinetics or atmospheric chemistry on Earth.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Minze T.; Zondervan, Charon; Feringa, Bernard


    Several chiral Cu(II)-complexes of cyclic amino acids catalyse the enantioselective allylic oxidation of cyclohexene to cyclohexenyl esters. Cyclohexenyl propionate was obtained in 86% yield with e.e.'s up to 61%.

  14. Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Allylation of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids in Aqueous Solution. (United States)

    Cui, Lei; Chen, He; Liu, Chao; Li, Chaozhong


    Direct decarboxylative radical allylation of aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. With K2S2O8 as the oxidant and AgNO3 as the catalyst, the reactions of aliphatic carboxylic acids with allyl sulfones in aqueous CH3CN solution gave the corresponding alkenes in satisfactory yields under mild conditions. This site-specific allylation method is applicable to all primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl acids and exhibits wide functional group compatibility.

  15. Allyl 4-hydroxyphenyl carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Hugo Flores Ahuactzin


    Full Text Available The title molecule, C10H10O4, is a functionalized carbonate used in the synthetic route to organic glasses. The central CH fragment of the allyl group is disordered over two positions, with occupancies in a 0.758 (10:0.242 (10ratio. This disorder reflects the torsional flexibility of the oxygen–allyl group, although both disordered parts present the expected anticlinal conformation, with O—CH2—CH=CH2 torsion angles of −111 (2 and 119.1 (4°. The crystal structure is based on chains parallel to [010], formed by O...H—O hydrogen bonds involving hydroxyl and carbonyl groups as donors and acceptors, respectively. The molecular packing is further stabilized by two weak C—H...π contacts from the benzene ring of the asymmetric unit with two benzene rings of neighboring molecules.


    Kennedy, J.


    An ion exchange resin having a relatively high adsorption capacity tor uranyl ion as compared with many common cations is reported. The resin comprises an alphyl-allyl hydrogen phosphate polymer, the alphyl group being either allyl or a lower alkyl group having up to 5 carbon atoins. The resin is prepared by polymerizing compounds such as alkyl-diallyl phosphate and triallyl phosphate in the presence of a free radical generating substance and then partially hydrolyzing the resulting polymer to cause partial replacement of organic radicals by cations. A preferred free radical gencrating agent is dibenzoyl peroxide. The partial hydrolysis is brought about by refluxing the polymer with concentrated aqueous NaOH for three or four hours.

  17. Tsuji-Trost N-allylation with allylic acetates using cellulose-Pd catalyst (United States)

    Allylic amines are synthesized using heterogeneous cellulose-Pd catalyst via N-allylation of amines; aliphatic and benzyl amines undergo facile reaction with substituted and unsubstituted allyl acetates in high yields.

  18. Facile synthesis of allyl resinate monomer in an aqueous solution under microwave irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yanju Lu; Mixia Wang; Zhendong Zhao; Yuxiang Chen; Shichao Xu; Jing Wang; Liangwu Bi


    We have developed a facile method for production of allyl resinate monomer (allyl rosin ester) via a phase transfer reaction under microwave irradiation. The synthesis of allyl resinate was conducted using allyl chloride and sodium resinate as starting materials in aqueous solution at 50°C for 30 min with a yield of 94.7%, which is 20% higher than conventional heating method. The products precipitated spontaneously from the aqueous phase after reaction, which significantly facilitated the subsequent separation of monomer products. The synthesized monomer product appeared as a viscous liquid, with a viscosity of 460 mPa·s at 25°C and a density of 1.0469 g/cm3. The physical and chemical properties suggested that the synthesized monomer has great potential for free radical polymerization.

  19. Allylation of Aromatic Aldehyde under Microwave Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yu-Mei; JIA,Xue-Feng; WANG,Jin-Xian


    @@ Allylation of carbonyl compounds is one of the most interesting processes for the preparation of homoallylic alcohols. Over the past few decades, many reagents have been developed for such reactions[1~3]. In this paper, we first report allylic zinc reagent 1, which can be prepared from zinc dust and allyl bromide conveniently in THF, and reacted with aromatic aldehyde to give homo-allylic alcohols under microwave irradiation.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed amination of allyl alcohols. (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Sarkar, Amitabha


    An efficient catalytic amination of aryl-substituted allylic alcohols has been developed. The complex [(η(3)-allyl)PdCl](2) modified by a bis phosphine ligand, L, has been used as catalyst in the reaction that afforded a wide range of allyl amines in good to excellent yield under mild conditions.

  1. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution (United States)

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  2. The NBS Reaction: A Simple Explanation for the Predominance of Allylic Substitution over Olefin Addition by Bromine at Low Concentrations. (United States)

    Wamser, Carl C.; Scott, Lawrence T.


    Examines mechanisms related to use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) for bromination at an allylic position. Also presents derived rate laws for three possible reactions of molecular bromine with an alkene: (1) free radical substitution; (2) free radical addition; and (3) electrophilic addition. (JN)

  3. The allylic chalcogen effect in olefin metathesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya A. Lin


    Full Text Available Olefin metathesis has emerged as a powerful tool in organic synthesis. The activating effect of an allylic hydroxy group in metathesis has been known for more than 10 years, and many organic chemists have taken advantage of this positive influence for efficient synthesis of natural products. Recently, the discovery of the rate enhancement by allyl sulfides in aqueous cross-metathesis has allowed the first examples of such a reaction on proteins. This led to a new benchmark in substrate complexity for cross-metathesis and expanded the potential of olefin metathesis for other applications in chemical biology. The enhanced reactivity of allyl sulfide, along with earlier reports of a similar effect by allylic hydroxy groups, suggests that allyl chalcogens generally play an important role in modulating the rate of olefin metathesis. In this review, we discuss the effect of allylic chalcogens in olefin metathesis and highlight its most recent applications in synthetic chemistry and protein modifications.

  4. The allylic chalcogen effect in olefin metathesis (United States)

    Lin, Yuya A


    Summary Olefin metathesis has emerged as a powerful tool in organic synthesis. The activating effect of an allylic hydroxy group in metathesis has been known for more than 10 years, and many organic chemists have taken advantage of this positive influence for efficient synthesis of natural products. Recently, the discovery of the rate enhancement by allyl sulfides in aqueous cross-metathesis has allowed the first examples of such a reaction on proteins. This led to a new benchmark in substrate complexity for cross-metathesis and expanded the potential of olefin metathesis for other applications in chemical biology. The enhanced reactivity of allyl sulfide, along with earlier reports of a similar effect by allylic hydroxy groups, suggests that allyl chalcogens generally play an important role in modulating the rate of olefin metathesis. In this review, we discuss the effect of allylic chalcogens in olefin metathesis and highlight its most recent applications in synthetic chemistry and protein modifications. PMID:21283554

  5. Interplay of metal-allyl and metal-metal bonding in dimolybdenum allyl complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Kevin D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Steven J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Addition of PMe{sub 3} to Mo{sub 2}(allyl){sub 4} afforded Mo{sub 2}(allyl){sub 4}(PMe{sub 3}){sub 2}, in which two of the allyl groups adopt an unprecedented {mu}{sub 2{sup -}}{eta}{sup 1}, {eta}{sup 3} bonding mode; theoretical studies elucidate the role sof the {sigma}- and {pi}-donor ligands in the interplay of metal-allyl and metal-metal bonding.

  6. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with allyl ketones

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Guanghu


    The asymmetric allylic alkylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with allyl ketones has been developed. The α-regioselective alkylation adducts, containing a hexa-1,5-diene framework with important synthetic value, were achieved in up to 83% yield, >99% ee, and 50:1 dr by using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid as the catalyst. From the allylic alkylation adduct, a cyclohexene bearing two adjacent chiral centers was readily prepared. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Regio- and Stereospecific Formation of Protected Allylic Alcohols via Zirconium-Mediated SN2' Substitution of Allylic Chlorides


    Fox, Richard J; Lalic, Gojko; Bergman, Robert G.


    A new, highly regio- and stereospecific SN2' substitution reaction between a zirconium oxo complex and allylic chloride has been achieved. The resulting allylic alcohol or TBS-protected allylic ether products were isolated in good to excellent yields with a wide range of E-allylic chlorides. A mechanism for the SN2' allylic substitution consistent with kinetic, stereochemical and secondary isotope effect studies was proposed.

  8. Compound list: allyl alcohol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available allyl alcohol AA 00010 ftp:/.../ ...

  9. Synthesis of 3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones by Cyclized Coupling of Ethyl o-Hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)phosphinate with Allyl Bromide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3-Allyl-4-phosphachromones as the phosphorus analogues of chromone were firstly prepared in good yields and high regioselectivity by the palladium(Ⅱ)-catalyzed cyclized coupling reaction of ethyl o-hydroxyphenyl(ethynyl)-phosphinate with allyl bromide.

  10. Rh-Catalyzed Chemo- and Enantioselective Hydrogenation of Allylic Hydrazones. (United States)

    Hu, Qiupeng; Hu, Yanhua; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Wanbin


    A highly efficient P-stereogenic diphosphine-rhodium complex was applied to the chemo- and enantioselective hydrogenation of allylic hydrazones for the synthesis of chiral allylic hydrazines in 89-96 % yields and with 82-99 % ee values. This methodology was successfully applied to the preparation of versatile chiral allylic amine derivatives.

  11. Radical-scavenging Activity of Natural Methoxyphenols vs. Synthetic Ones using the Induction Period Method

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    Ichiro Yokoe


    Full Text Available The radical-scavenging activities of the synthetic antioxidants 2-allyl-4-X-phenol (X=NO2, Cl, Br, OCH3, COCH3, CH3, t-(CH33, C6H5 and 2,4-dimethoxyphenol, and the natural antioxidants eugenol and isoeugenol, were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC by measuring their anti-1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical activity and the induction period for polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN and benzoyl peroxide (BPO. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol and 2,4-dimethoxy-phenol scavenged not only oxygen-centered radicals (PhCOO. derived from BPO, but also carbon-centered radicals (R. derived from the AIBN and DPPH radical much more efficiently, in comparison with eugenol and isoeugenol. 2-Allyl-4-methoxyphenol may be useful for its lower prooxidative activity.

  12. Radicals contributing to preirradiation graft polymerization onto porous polyethylene (United States)

    Uezu, Kazuya; Saito, Kyoichi; Furusaki, Shintaro; Sugo, Takanobu; Ishigaki, Isao

    Porous polyethylene hollow fiber was irradiated by an electron beam at 160 kGy and 8 kGy/min. The concentrations of the radicals such as alkyl, allyl and peroxy were determined by analyzing an integral form of ESR spectra. The comparison of the decay of the radicals with and without contact with air demonstrated that the key radical contributing to the preirradiation graft polymerization is the alkyl radical. The decay of the alkyl radical was simulated by the diffusion-controlled model in the spherical crystallites of polyethylene.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagik Torosyan


    Full Text Available It has been established the possibility for phenol allylation on natural zeolites and them analogs. Here is demonstrated the synthesis of allyl phenol, which has wide industrial applications. The offered method in comparison with the traditional methods has more advantages – higher selectivity, smaller material and power resources consumption. It has been obtained the mixture of allylating phenols (30% in general with allyl phenyl ether (1 with 80% yields. At 600 K is obtained allylphenyl ether, at 700 K beginning the formation of allyl phenols, which is the result of direct C-allylation of the aromatic ring. It has been investigated the possibility of Claisen rearrangement in the same conditions. All of that are established by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography data.

  14. Pathways of arachidonic acid peroxyl radical reactions and product formation with guanine radicals. (United States)

    Crean, Conor; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Shafirovich, Vladimir


    Peroxyl radicals were derived from the one-electron oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids by sulfate radicals that were generated by the photodissociation of peroxodisulfate anions in air-equilibrated aqueous solutions. Reactions of these peroxyl and neutral guanine radicals, also generated by oxidation with sulfate radicals, were investigated by laser kinetic spectroscopy, and the guanine oxidation products were identified by HPLC and mass spectrometry methods. Sulfate radicals rapidly oxidize arachidonic (ArAc), linoleic (LnAc), and palmitoleic (PmAc) acids with similar rate constants, (2-4) x 10 (9) M (-1) s (-1). The C-centered radicals derived from the oxidation of ArAc and LnAc include nonconjugated Rn(.) ( approximately 80%) and conjugated bis-allylic Rba(.) ( approximately 20%) radicals. The latter were detectable in the absence of oxygen by their prominent, narrow absorption band at 280 nm. The Rn(.) radicals of ArAc (containing three bis-allylic sites) transform to the Rba(.) radicals via an intramolecular H-atom abstraction [rate constant (7.5 +/- 0.7) x 10 (4) s (-1)]. In contrast, the Rn(.) radicals of LnAc that contain only one bis-allylic site do not transform intramolecularly to the Rba(.) radicals. In the case of PmAc, which contains only one double bond, the Rba(.) radicals are not observed. The Rn(.) radicals of PmAc rapidly combine with oxygen with a rate constant of (3.8 +/- 0.4) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The Rba(.) radicals of ArAc are less reactive and react with oxygen with a rate constant of (2.2 +/- 0.2) x 10 (8) M (-1) s (-1). The ArAc peroxyl radicals formed spontaneously eliminate superoxide radical anions [rate constant = (3.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 (4) M (-1) s (-1)]. The stable oxidative lesions derived from the 2',3',5'-tri- O-acetylguanosine or 2',3',5'-tri- O-acetyl-8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine radicals and their subsequent reactions with ArAc peroxyl radicals were also investigated. The major products found were the 2,5-diamino-4 H

  15. Cp*Co(III)-Catalyzed Dehydrative C-H Allylation of 6-Arylpurines and Aromatic Amides Using Allyl Alcohols in Fluorinated Alcohols. (United States)

    Bunno, Youka; Murakami, Nanami; Suzuki, Yudai; Kanai, Motomu; Yoshino, Tatsuhiko; Matsunaga, Shigeki


    Cp*Co(III)-catalyzed C-H allylation of various aromatic C-H bonds using allyl alcohols as allylating reagents is described. Improved reaction conditions using fluorinated alcohol solvents afforded efficient directed C-H allylation of 6-arylpurines, benzamides, and a synthetically useful Weinreb amide with good functional group compatibility.

  16. Molecular detection and in vitro antioxidant activity of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) extracted from Allium sativum. (United States)

    Sun, Y-E; Wang, W-D


    It is well known that Allium sativum has potential applications to clinical treatment of various cancers due to its remarkable ability in eliminating free radicals and increasing metabolism. An allyl-substituted cysteine derivative - S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) was separated and identified from Allium sativum. The extracted SAC was reacted with 1-pyrenemethanol to obtain pyrene-labelled SAC (Py-SAC) to give SAC fluorescence properties. Molecular detection of Py-SAC was conducted by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence method to quantitatively measure concentrations of Py-SAC solutions. The ability of removing 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical using Py-SAC was determined through oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Results showed the activity of Py-SAC and Vitamin C (VC) with ORAC as index, the concentrations of Py-SAC and VC were 58.43 mg/L and 5.72 mg/L respectively to scavenge DPPH, and 8.16 mg/L and 1.67 mg/L to scavenge •OH respectively. Compared with VC, the clearance rates of Py-SAC to scavenge DPPH were much higher, Py-SAC could inhibit hydroxyl radical. The ability of removing radical showed a dose-dependent relationship within the scope of the drug concentration.

  17. Elucidation of the regio- and chemoselectivity of enzymatic allylic oxidations with Pleurotus sapidus – conversion of selected spirocyclic terpenoids and computational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Weidmann


    Full Text Available Allylic oxidations of olefins to enones allow the efficient synthesis of value-added products from simple olefinic precursors like terpenes or terpenoids. Biocatalytic variants have a large potential for industrial applications, particularly in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Herein we report efficient biocatalytic allylic oxidations of spirocyclic terpenoids by a lyophilisate of the edible fungus Pleurotus sapidus. This ‘’mushroom catalysis’’ is operationally simple and allows the conversion of various unsaturated spirocyclic terpenoids. A number of new spirocyclic enones have thus been obtained with good regio- and chemoselectivity and chiral separation protocols for enantiomeric mixtures have been developed. The oxidations follow a radical mechanism and the regioselectivity of the reaction is mainly determined by bond-dissociation energies of the available allylic CH-bonds and steric accessibility of the oxidation site.

  18. Amination of allylic alcohols in water at room temperature. (United States)

    Nishikata, Takashi; Lipshutz, Bruce H


    The "trick" to carrying out regiocontrolled aminations of allylic alcohols in water as the only medium is use of a nanomicelle's interior as the organic reaction solvent. When HCO(2)Me is present, along with the proper base and source of catalytic Pd, allylic amines are cleanly formed at room temperature.

  19. Allyl borates: a novel class of polyhomologation initiators

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De


    Allyl borates, a new class of monofunctional polyhomologation initiators, are reported. These monofunctional initiators are less sensitive and more effective towards polymethylene-based architectures. As an example, the synthesis of α-vinyl-ω-hydroxypolymethylenes is given. By designing/synthesizing different allylic borate initiators, and using 1H and 11B NMR spectroscopy, the initiation mechanism was elucidated.

  20. Radiation and thermal polymerization of allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-V, D., E-mail: dlopez@siu.buap.m [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Antiguo Edificio de la Fac. de Cs., Quimica. Av. San Claudio y Boulevard de la 14 sur, Col. San Manuel, Puebla, Pue., CP 72500 (Mexico); Herrera-G, A.M., E-mail: mherrera@uaeh.reduaeh.m [Centro de Inv. en Materiales y Metalurgia, UAEH. Km 4.5, C.U., CP 42184, Pachuca de S. Hidalgo (Mexico); Castillo-Rojas, S., E-mail: castillo@nucleares.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 DF (Mexico)


    Bulk polymerization of novel allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate was investigated using different sources of energy, such as gamma rays, ultraviolet rays as well as thermal polymerization. The poly(allyl(p-allylcarbonate) benzoate) obtained is a cross-linking, transparent, thermoset polycarbonate. Compositions of the monomer and the polycarbonate were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy.

  1. Atmospheric oxidation of vinyl and allyl acetate: product distribution and mechanisms of the OH-initiated degradation in the presence and absence of NO(x). (United States)

    Blanco, María B; Bejan, Iustinian; Barnes, Ian; Wiesen, Peter; Teruel, Mariano A


    The products formed from the reactions of OH radicals with vinyl acetate and allyl acetate have been studied in a 1080 L quartz-glass chamber in the presence and absence of NO(x) using in situ FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the reactant decay and product formation. The yields of the primary products formed in the reaction of OH with vinyl acetate were: formic acetic anhydride (84 ± 11)%; acetic acid (18 ± 3)% and formaldehyde (99 ± 15)% in the presence of NO(x) and formic acetic anhydride (28 ± 5)%; acetic acid (87 ± 12)% and formaldehyde (52 ± 8)% in the absence of NO(x). For the reaction of OH with allyl acetate the yields of the identified products were: acetoxyacetaldehyde (96 ± 15)% and formaldehyde (90 ± 12)% in the presence of NO(x) and acetoxyacetaldehyde (26 ± 4)% and formaldehyde (12 ± 3)% in the absence of NO(x). The present results indicate that in the absence of NO(x) the main fate of the 1,2-hydroxyalkoxy radicals formed after addition of OH to the double bond in the compounds is, in the case of vinyl acetate, an α-ester rearrangement to produce acetic acid and CH(2)(OH)CO(•) radicals and in the case of allyl acetate reaction of the radical with O(2) to form acetic acid 3-hydroxy-2-oxo-propyl ester (CH(3)C(O)OCH(2)C(O)CH(2)OH). In contrast, in the presence of NO(x) the main reaction pathway for the 1,2-hydroxyalkoxy radicals is decomposition. The results are compared with the available literature data and implications for the atmospheric chemistry of vinyl and allyl acetate are assessed.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Magnolol and Honokiol: Kinetic and Mechanistic Investigations of Their Reaction with Peroxyl Radicals. (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Zotova, Julija; Baschieri, Andrea; Valgimigli, Luca


    Magnolol and honokiol, the bioactive phytochemicals contained in Magnolia officinalis, are uncommon antioxidants bearing isomeric bisphenol cores substituted with allyl functions. We have elucidated the chemistry behind their antioxidant activity by experimental and computational methods. In the inhibited autoxidation of cumene and styrene at 303 K, magnolol trapped four peroxyl radicals, with a kinh of 6.1 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) in chlorobenzene and 6.0 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1) in acetonitrile, and honokiol trapped two peroxyl radicals in chlorobenzene (kinh = 3.8 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) and four peroxyl radicals in acetonitrile (kinh = 9.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). Their different behavior arises from a combination of intramolecular hydrogen bonding among the reactive OH groups (in magnolol) and of the OH groups with the aromatic and allyl π-systems, as confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Comparison with structurally related 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbiphenyl-4,4'-diol, 2-allylphenol, and 2-allylanisole allowed us to exclude that the antioxidant behavior of magnolol and honokiol is due to the allyl groups. The reaction of the allyl group with a peroxyl radical (C-H hydrogen abstraction) proceeds with rate constant of 1.1 M(-1) s(-1) at 303 K. Magnolol and honokiol radicals do not react with molecular oxygen and produce no superoxide radical under the typical settings of inhibited autoxidations.

  3. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert


    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  4. Chiral allylic and allenic metal reagents for organic synthesis. (United States)

    Marshall, James A


    This account traces the evolution of our work on the synthesis of chiral allylic and allenic organometal compounds of tin, silicon, zinc, and indium and their application to natural product synthesis over the past quarter century.

  5. Copper-catalyzed regioselective allylic substitution reactions with indium organometallics. (United States)

    Rodríguez, David; Sestelo, José Pérez; Sarandeses, Luis A


    The first nucleophilic allylic substitution reactions of triorganoindium compounds with allylic halides and phosphates are reported. The reactions of trialkyl- and triarylindium reagents with cinnamyl and geranyl halides and phosphates, with the aid of copper catalysis [Cu(OTf)(2)/P(OEt)(3)], are described. In general, the reaction proceeds efficiently to give good yields and regioselectively to afford the S(N)2' product.

  6. Molecular Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry Based Study of Nickel-N-Allyl Urea and N-Allyl Thiourea Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. Sharma


    Full Text Available Eigenvalue, eigenvector and overlap matrix of nickel halide complex of N-allyl urea and N-allyl thiourea have been evaluated. Our results indicate that ligand field parameters (Dq, B’ and β evaluated earlier by electronic spectra are very close to values evaluated with the help of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Eigenvector analysis and population analysis shows that in bonding 4s, 4p, and 3dx2-y2, 3dyz orbitals of nickel are involved but the coefficient values differ in different complexes. Out of 4px, 4py, 4pz the involvement of either 4pz or 4py, is noticeable. The theoretically evaluated positions of infrared bands indicate that N-allyl urea is coordinated to nickel through its oxygen and N-allyl thiourea is coordinated to nickel through its sulphur which is in conformity with the experimental results.

  7. Structurally defined allyl compounds of main group metals: coordination and reactivity. (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Crispin; Okuda, Jun


    Organometallic allyl compounds are important as allylation reagents in organic synthesis, as polymerization catalysts, and as volatile metal precursors in material science. Whereas the allyl chemistry of synthetically relevant transition metals such as palladium and of the lanthanoids is well-established, that of main group metals has been lagging behind. Recent progress on allyl complexes of Groups 1, 2, and 12-16 now provides a more complete picture. This is based on a fundamental understanding of metal-allyl bonding interactions in solution and in the solid state. Furthermore, reactivity trends have been rationalized and new types of allyl-specific reactivity patterns have been uncovered. Key features include 1) the exploitation of the different types of metal-allyl bonding (highly ionic to predominantly covalent), 2) the use of synergistic effects in heterobimetallic compounds, and 3) the adjustment of Lewis acidity by variation of the charge of allyl compounds.

  8. Transition metal catalysed Grignard-like allylic activation across tetragonal tin(II) oxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradipta Sinha; Moloy Banerjee; Abhijit Kundu; Sujit Roy


    The reaction of allyl halide and a carbonyl compound under the aegis of tetragonal tin(II) oxide and catalytic 8, 10 metal complexes provides the corresponding homoallylic alcohol, via a novel allyl tin intermediate.

  9. Scalable and sustainable electrochemical allylic C-H oxidation (United States)

    Horn, Evan J.; Rosen, Brandon R.; Chen, Yong; Tang, Jiaze; Chen, Ke; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.


    New methods and strategies for the direct functionalization of C-H bonds are beginning to reshape the field of retrosynthetic analysis, affecting the synthesis of natural products, medicines and materials. The oxidation of allylic systems has played a prominent role in this context as possibly the most widely applied C-H functionalization, owing to the utility of enones and allylic alcohols as versatile intermediates, and their prevalence in natural and unnatural materials. Allylic oxidations have featured in hundreds of syntheses, including some natural product syntheses regarded as “classics”. Despite many attempts to improve the efficiency and practicality of this transformation, the majority of conditions still use highly toxic reagents (based around toxic elements such as chromium or selenium) or expensive catalysts (such as palladium or rhodium). These requirements are problematic in industrial settings; currently, no scalable and sustainable solution to allylic oxidation exists. This oxidation strategy is therefore rarely used for large-scale synthetic applications, limiting the adoption of this retrosynthetic strategy by industrial scientists. Here we describe an electrochemical C-H oxidation strategy that exhibits broad substrate scope, operational simplicity and high chemoselectivity. It uses inexpensive and readily available materials, and represents a scalable allylic C-H oxidation (demonstrated on 100 grams), enabling the adoption of this C-H oxidation strategy in large-scale industrial settings without substantial environmental impact.

  10. Catalytic Enantioselective Allylic Amination of Olefins for the Synthesis of ent-Sitagliptin. (United States)

    Bao, Hongli; Bayeh, Liela; Tambar, Uttam K


    The presence of nitrogen atoms in most chiral pharmaceutical drugs has motivated the development of numerous strategies for the synthesis of enantioenriched amines. Current methods are based on the multi-step transformation of pre-functionalized allylic electrophiles into chiral allylic amines. The enantioselective allylic amination of unactivated olefins represents a more direct and attractive strategy. We report the enantioselective synthesis of ent-sitagliptin via an allylic amination of an unactivated terminal olefin.

  11. Redox-Neutral Rh(III)-Catalyzed Olefination of Carboxamides with Trifluoromethyl Allylic Carbonate. (United States)

    Park, Jihye; Han, Sangil; Jeon, Mijin; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Lee, Seok-Yong; Lee, Jong Suk; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Um, Sung Hee; Kim, In Su


    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed olefination of various carboxamides with α-CF3-substituted allylic carbonate is described. This reaction provides direct access to linear CF3-allyl frameworks with complete trans-selectivity. In particular, a rhodium catalyst provided Heck-type γ-CF3-allylation products via the β-O-elimination of rhodacycle intermediate and subsequent olefin migration process.

  12. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers from alcohols and phenols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S P Senthilkumar


    Allyl and benzyl ethers of alcohols can be prepared conveniently and in high yield with allyl and benzyl bromide in the presence of solid potassium hydroxide without use of any solvent. Phenols can be converted to allyl ethers but are inert to benzylation under above conditions.

  13. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenfeng; HU Xingzhou; YAN Qing


    Photoinduced grafting of acrylic and allyl monomers on polyethylene surface was generally studied by using benzophenone (BP) as a photoinitiator. The grafting process was carried out either in vapor-phase or in solution of the monomers. In the vapor-phase reaction with a filter used to cut off the short wavelength UV light, allyl amine is the most reactive of the four monomers used and acrylic amide is comparatively more reactive than acrylic acid and allyl alcohol. Acetone, as a solvent and carrier for initiator and monomers, however, shows its reactivity to participate the reaction. The solution grafting with a filter is much faster than the corresponding vapor-phase reaction, and a fully covered surface by the grafted polymer can be achieved in this way.

  15. Direct activation of allylic alcohols in palladium catalyzed coupling reactions


    Gümrükçü, Y.


    The direct use of allylic alcohols in substitution reactions without pre-activation of the hydroxyl-group into a better leaving group or the use of additional stoichiometric in situ activators remains challenging due to the poor leaving group ability of the hydroxyl-group. Hence, it is important to develop new methods to activate (bio-mass derived) allyl-alcohols, which allow ‘green’ chemical processes for a broad substrate range. This may have a considerable impact on the methodology for fin...

  16. Cytokine Attenuation and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of a New Flavanone7,4'-Dihydroxy-3″,3″-Dimethyl -(5,6-Pyrano-2″-One)- 8- (3‴,3‴-Dimethyl Allyl)- Isolated from Mallotus philippensis: Possible Mechanism for Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity. (United States)

    Rizvi, Waseeem; Fayazuddin, Mohd; Singh, Ompal; Naeem, Syed Shariq; Moin, Shagufta; Akhtar, Kafil; Kumar, Anil


    Mallotus philippensis L.(MP) commonly known as Kamala tree in Hindi,is a small to medium-sized monoecious tree.The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of MPand a new flavanoneisolated from it by using in vivo models of inflammation.Albino wistar rats of either sex weighing 150-200g were used. Seven groups were made (n = 6), namely normal control group (normal saline, 1 ml/kg), standard control group (acetylsalicylic acid, 100 mg/kg), methanol crude extract (300 and 500 mg/kg), ethylacetate fraction (300 and 500 mg/kg) and active compound 4 (new flavanone, 50 mg/kg). The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan induced paw edema method and cotton pellet granuloma method. Levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1and IL-6) and activity of antioxidant enzymeslike catalase and glutathione peroxidase were estimated. It was found that the methanol extract, ethylacetate fraction and Flavanonedemonstrated significant reduction in paw edema in carrageenan induced paw edema method as compared to control. They also diminished the serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1 levels. Significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde levels and increased the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue. Similarly there was asignificant decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet induced granuloma method. In conclusion, MP extracts and the newflavanonepossess anti-inflammatory activity and this might be due to the inhibition of various cytokines and increased free radical scavenging activity.

  17. Direct activation of allylic alcohols in palladium catalyzed coupling reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümrükçü, Y.


    The direct use of allylic alcohols in substitution reactions without pre-activation of the hydroxyl-group into a better leaving group or the use of additional stoichiometric in situ activators remains challenging due to the poor leaving group ability of the hydroxyl-group. Hence, it is important to

  18. Sulfonium-based Ionic Liquids Incorporating the Allyl Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Dyson


    Full Text Available A series of sulfonium halides bearing allyl groups have been prepared andcharacterized. Anion metathesis with Li[Tf2N] and Ag[N(CN2] resulted in sulfonium-basedionic liquids which exhibit low viscosities at room temperature. The solid state structure ofone of the halide salts was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  19. Electrochemical Allylic Oxidation of Olefins: Sustainable and Safe. (United States)

    Waldvogel, Siegfried R; Selt, Maximilian


    The power you're supplying: With the application of an optimized electrochemical approach, the allylic oxidation of olefins, which is an important C-H activation process that provides access to enones, becomes a sustainable, versatile, and potent key reaction for organic synthesis.

  20. 1-Allyl-5-chloroindoline-2,3-dione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Tribak


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C11H8ClNO2, the allyl side chain is almost perpendicular to the 5-chloroindoline-2,3-dione ring system, with a dihedral angle of 88.0 (3°. In the crystal, C—H...O interactions link the molecules into layers lying parallel to the bc plane.

  1. Cytokine Attenuation and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of a New Flavanone7,4′-Dihydroxy-3″,3″-Dimethyl -(5,6-Pyrano-2″-One)- 8- (3‴,3‴-Dimethyl Allyl)- Isolated from Mallotus philippensis: Possible Mechanism for Its Anti-Inflammatory Activity (United States)

    Singh, Ompal; Moin, Shagufta; Akhtar, Kafil; Kumar, Anil


    Mallotus philippensis L.(MP) commonly known as Kamala tree in Hindi,is a small to medium-sized monoecious tree.The objective of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of MPand a new flavanoneisolated from it by using in vivo models of inflammation.Albino wistar rats of either sex weighing 150-200g were used. Seven groups were made (n = 6), namely normal control group (normal saline, 1 ml/kg), standard control group (acetylsalicylic acid, 100 mg/kg), methanol crude extract (300 and 500 mg/kg), ethylacetate fraction (300 and 500 mg/kg) and active compound 4 (new flavanone, 50 mg/kg). The anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan induced paw edema method and cotton pellet granuloma method. Levels of cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1and IL-6) and activity of antioxidant enzymeslike catalase and glutathione peroxidase were estimated. It was found that the methanol extract, ethylacetate fraction and Flavanonedemonstrated significant reduction in paw edema in carrageenan induced paw edema method as compared to control. They also diminished the serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1 levels. Significantly attenuated the malondialdehyde levels and increased the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue. Similarly there was asignificant decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet induced granuloma method. In conclusion, MP extracts and the newflavanonepossess anti-inflammatory activity and this might be due to the inhibition of various cytokines and increased free radical scavenging activity. PMID:27941980

  2. The tert-butoxyl radical mediated hydrogen atom transfer reactions of the Parkinsonian proneurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and selected tertiary amines. (United States)

    Suleman, N Kamrudin; Flores, Joey; Tanko, James M; Isin, Emre Mehmet; Castagnoli, Neal


    Previous studies have shown that the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions of tert-butoxyl radical from the Parkinsonian proneurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) occur with low selectivity at the allylic and non-allylic alpha-C-H positions. In this paper, we report a more comprehensive regiochemical study on the reactivity of the tert-butoxyl radical as well as on the associated primary kinetic deuterium isotope effects for the various hydrogen atom abstractions of MPTP. In addition, the results of a computational study to estimate the various C-H bond dissociation energies of MPTP are presented. The results of the present study show the allylic/non-allylic selectivity is approximately 73:21. The behavior of the tert-butoxyl radical mediated oxidation of MPTP contrasts with this reaction as catalyzed by monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) that occurs selectively at the allylic alpha-carbon. These observations lead to the conclusion that the tert-butoxyl radical is not a good chemical model for the MAO-B-catalyzed bioactivation of MPTP.

  3. Intense, hyperthermal source of organic radicals for matrix-isolation spectroscopy (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Friderichsen, Anders V.; Nandi, Sreela; Ellison, G. Barney; David, Donald E.; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Lindeman, Theodore G.; Dayton, David C.; Nimlos, Mark R.


    We have incorporated a pulsed, hyperthermal nozzle with a cryostat to study the matrix-isolated infrared spectroscopy of organic radicals. The radicals are produced by pyrolysis in a heated, narrow-bore (1-mm-diam) SiC tube and then expanded into the cryostat vacuum chamber. The combination of high nozzle temperature (up to 1800 K) and near-sonic flow velocities (on the order of 104cm s-1) through the length of the 2 cm tube allows for high yield of radicals (approximately 1013 radicals pulse-1) and low residence time (on the order of 10 μs) in the nozzle. We have used this hyperthermal nozzle/matrix isolation experiment to observe the IR spectra of complex radicals such as allyl radical (CH2CHCH2), phenyl radical (C6H5), and methylperoxyl radical (CH3OO). IR spectra of samples produced with a hyperthermal nozzle are remarkably clean and relatively free of interfering radical chemistry. By monitoring the unimolecular thermal decomposition of allyl ethyl ether in the nozzle using matrix IR spectroscopy, we have derived the residence time (τnozzle) of the gas pulse in the nozzle to be around 30 μs.

  4. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solpan, Dilek; Guven, Olgun [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry


    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by {gamma}-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tudos (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively. (Author).

  5. Radiation initiated copolymerization of allyl alcohol with acrylonitrile (United States)

    Şolpan, Dilek; Güven, Olgun


    Copolymerization of allyl alcohol (AA) with acrylonitrile (AN) initiated by γ-rays has been investigated to determine the respective reactivity ratios. Three different experimental techniques, namely Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Ultraviolet (UV/vis) and elemental analysis (EA) have been used for the determination of copolymer compositions. Fineman-Ross (FR), Kelen-Tüdös (KT), Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS) Analysis and Q-e methods have been applied to the three sets of experimental data. It has been concluded that data obtained from elemental analysis as applied to the Non-Linear Least Square approach gave the most reliable reactivity ratios as 2.09 and 0.40 for acrylonitrile and allyl alcohol, respectively.

  6. Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed allylic and benzylic oxidations. (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Kuang, Yi; Wang, Yuanhua


    The dirhodium(II) catalyst Rh2(esp)2 allows direct solvent-free allylic and benzylic oxidations by T-HYDRO with a remarkably low catalyst loading. This method is operationally simple and scalable at ambient temperature without the use of any additives. The high catalyst stability in these reactions may be attributed to a dirhodium(II,II) catalyst resting state, which is less prone to decomposition.

  7. Thin film of Poly(acrylic acid-co-allyl acrylate as a Sacrificial Protective Layer for Hydrophilic Self Cleaning Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jānis Lejnieks


    Full Text Available Poly(acrylic acid-co-allyl acrylate statistical copolymers were synthesized in a controlled manner in two steps: first tert.butyl acrylate and allyl acrylate were polymerized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP and afterwords the tert.butyl protective groups were removed via hydrolysis. Samples of self cleaning glass (SCG were coated with thin films of poly(acrylic acid-co-allyl acrylate and cross-linked afterwards by UV irradiation (in the presence of a photoinitiator and an accelerator. Solution cast thin films were transparent and homogeneous before and after UV cross-linking. The irradiated samples were found to be hydrophilic (Θ < 20° and water insoluble. The coating prevented the spontaneous hydrophobization of the SCG by residual silicon exhaled from the sealing material. The TiO2 photocatalyst that covers the glass surface was found to strip the protective coating. The rate of the photooxidation process was measured by IR spectroscopy. The real field performance of the protective coating was also tested.

  8. Gold(I)-Assisted α-Allylation of Enals and Enones with Alcohols. (United States)

    Mastandrea, Marco Michele; Mellonie, Niall; Giacinto, Pietro; Collado, Alba; Nolan, Steven P; Miscione, Gian Pietro; Bottoni, Andrea; Bandini, Marco


    The intermolecular α-allylation of enals and enones occurs by the condensation of variously substituted allenamides with allylic alcohols. Cooperative catalysis by [Au(ItBu)NTf2] and AgNTf2 enables the synthesis of a range of densely functionalized α-allylated enals, enones, and acyl silanes in good yield under mild reaction conditions. DFT calculations support the role of an α-gold(I) enal/enone as the active nucleophilic species.

  9. An Unexpected Reaction of Allylic Propynoate under Palladium(Ⅱ) Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Zhao-Guo(张兆国); LU,Xi-Yan(陆熙炎); LANG,Shen-Hui(郎深慧)


    Palladium (Ⅱ) catalyzed reactions of allyl propynoate in the presence of excess halide ions with or without allyl halide or acrolein were studied, yielding (E)-3-halo-2-allyl-acrylic acid as the sole product. A mechanism involving halopalladation, carbopalladation, ring opening and β-heteroatom elimination was prioposed and was further justified by the reaction with deuterated substrate.keywords palladium, enyne, halopalladation, carbopalladation,β-heteroatom elimination was proposed and was further justified by the reaction with deuterated substrate.

  10. Allyl strontium compounds: synthesis, molecular structure and properties. (United States)

    Jochmann, Phillip; Davin, Julien P; Maslek, Stefanie; Spaniol, Thomas P; Sarazin, Yann; Carpentier, Jean-Francois; Okuda, Jun


    The synthesis and attempted isolation of neutral bis(allyl)strontium [Sr(C(3)H(5))(2)] (1) resulted in the isolation of potassium tris(allyl)strontiate K[Sr(C(3)H(5))(3)] (2). In situ generated 1 shows a pronounced Brønsted basicity, inducing polymerisation of THF. Ate complex 2 crystallises as [K(THF)(2){Sr(C(3)H(5))(3)}(THF)](∞) (2·(THF)(3)). The salt-like solid state structure of 2·(THF)(3) comprises a two-dimensional network of (μ(2)-η(3):η(3)-C(3)H(5))(-) bridged potassium and strontium centres. Synthesis of allyl complexes 1 and 2 utilised SrI(2), [Sr(TMDS)(2)] (3) (TMDS = tetramethyldisilazanide), and [Sr(HMDS)(2)] (HMDS = hexamethyldisilazanide) as strontium precursors. The solid state structure of previously reported [Sr(TMDS)(2)] (3) was established by X-ray single crystal analysis as a dissymmetric dimer of [Sr(2)(TMDS)(4)(THF)(3)] (3·(THF)(3)) with multiple Si-HSr agostic interactions. The presence of ether ligands (THF, 18-crown-6) influenced the Si-HSr resonances in the NMR spectra of the amido complex 3.

  11. Catalyst-free synthesis of skipped dienes from phosphorus ylides, allylic carbonates, and aldehydes via a one-pot SN2' allylation-Wittig strategy. (United States)

    Xu, Silong; Zhu, Shaoying; Shang, Jian; Zhang, Junjie; Tang, Yuhai; Dou, Jianwei


    A catalyst-free allylic alkylation of stabilized phosphorus ylides with allylic carbonates via a regioselective SN2' process is presented. Subsequent one-pot Wittig reaction with both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as ketenes provides structurally diverse skipped dienes (1,4-dienes) in generally high yields and moderate to excellent stereoselectivity with flexible substituent patterns. This one-pot SN2' allylation-Wittig strategy constitutes a convenient and efficient synthetic method for highly functionalized skipped dienes from readily available starting materials.

  12. Peroxy radical chemistry and OH radical production during the NO3-initiated oxidation of isoprene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Wennberg


    Full Text Available Peroxy radical reactions (RO2 + RO2 from the NO3-initiated oxidation of isoprene are studied with both gas chromatography and a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique that allows for more specific speciation of products than in previous studies of this system. We find high nitrate yields (>~80%, consistent with other studies. We further see evidence of significant hydroxyl radical (OH formation in this system, which we propose comes from RO2 + HO2 reactions with a yield of ~42–62%. An additional OH source is the second generation oxidation of the nitrooxyhydroperoxide, which produces OH and a dinitrooxyepoxide with a yield of ~35%. The branching ratio of the radical propagating, carbonyl- and alcohol-forming, and dimer-forming channels of the RO2 + RO2 reaction are found to be ~18–38%, ~59–77%, and ~3–4%, respectively. HO2 formation in this system is lower than has been previously assumed. Addition of RO2 to isoprene is suggested as a possible route to the formation of several isoprene dimer compounds (ROOR. The nitrooxy, allylic, and C5 peroxy radicals present in this system exhibit different behavior than the limited suite of peroxy radicals that have been studied to date.

  13. Peroxy radical chemistry and OH radical production during the NO3-initiated oxidation of isoprene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Seinfeld


    Full Text Available Peroxy radical reactions (RO2 + RO2 from the NO3-initiated oxidation of isoprene are studied with both gas chromatography and a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique that allows for more specific speciation of products than in previous studies of this system. We find high nitrate yields (~ 80%, consistent with other studies. We further see evidence of significant hydroxyl radical (OH formation in this system, which we propose comes from RO2 + HO2 reactions with a yield of ~38–58%. An additional OH source is the second generation oxidation of the nitrooxyhydroperoxide, which produces OH and a dinitrooxyepoxide with a yield of ~35%. The branching ratio of the radical propagating, carbonyl- and alcohol-forming, and organic peroxide-forming channels of the RO2 + RO2 reaction are found to be ~18–38%, ~59–77%, and ~3–4%, respectively. HO2 formation in this system is lower than has been previously assumed. Addition of RO2 to isoprene is suggested as a possible route to the formation of several isoprene C10-organic peroxide compounds (ROOR. The nitrooxy, allylic, and C5 peroxy radicals present in this system exhibit different behavior than the limited suite of peroxy radicals that have been studied to date.

  14. Radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens; Jakobsen, Henrik


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare oncological and functional outcomes between robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) during the initial phase with RALP at a large university hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patient and tumour...... surgery and at follow-up and they were asked to report their use of pads/diapers. Potency was defined as an IIEF-5 score of at least 17 with or without phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Patients using up to one pad daily for security reasons only were considered continent. Positive surgical margins, blood...... loss and functional outcomes were compared between groups. RESULTS: Overall, 453 patients were treated with RRP and 585 with RALP. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, the type of surgery did not affect surgical margins (p = 0.96) or potency at 12 months (p = 0.7). Patients who had undergone...

  15. Catalytic membrane-installed microchannel reactors for one-second allylic arylation. (United States)

    Yamada, Yoichi M A; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Torii, Kaoru; Uozumi, Yasuhiro


    A variety of catalytic membranes of palladium-complexes with linear polymer ligands were prepared inside a microchannel reactor via coordinative and ionic molecular convolution to provide catalytic membrane-installed microdevices, which were applied to the instantaneous allylic arylation reaction of allylic esters and aryl boron reagents under microflow conditions to afford the corresponding coupling products within 1 second of residence time.

  16. Copper-Catalyzed SN2'-Selective Allylic Substitution Reaction of gem-Diborylalkanes. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Qi; Zhang, Ben; Lu, Xi; Liu, Jing-Hui; Lu, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Bin; Fu, Yao


    A Cu/(NHC)-catalyzed SN2'-selective substitution reaction of allylic electrophiles with gem-diborylalkanes is reported. Different substituted gem-diborylalkanes and allylic electrophiles can be employed in this reaction, and various synthetic valuable functional groups can be tolerated. The asymmetric version of this reaction was initially researched with chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands.

  17. Allyl sulphides in olefin metathesis: catalyst considerations and traceless promotion of ring-closing metathesis. (United States)

    Edwards, Grant A; Culp, Phillip A; Chalker, Justin M


    Allyl sulphides are reactive substrates in ruthenium-catalysed olefin metathesis reactions, provided each substrate is matched with a suitable catalyst. A profile of catalyst activity is described, along with the first demonstration of allyl sulphides as traceless promoters in relayed ring-closing metathesis reactions.

  18. Memory effects in palladium-catalyzed allylic Alkylations of 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensen, Nina; Fristrup, Peter; Tanner, David Ackland;


    The objective of this work was to characterize the enantiospecificity of the allylic alkylation of enantioenriched 2-cyclohexen-1-yl acetate with the enolate ion of dimethyl malonate catalyzed by unsymmetrical palladium catalysts. The precatalysts employed were (eta(3)-allyl)PdLCl, where L is a m...

  19. Corn oil and milk enhance the absorption of orally administered allyl isothiocyanate in rats. (United States)

    Ippoushi, Katsunari; Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko


    Allyl isothiocyanate, a chief component of mustard oil, exhibits anticancer effects in both cultured cancer cells and animal models. The accumulation of the N-acetylcysteine conjugate of allyl isothiocyanate, the final metabolite of allyl isothiocyanate, in urine was evaluated in rats that were orally coadministered allyl isothiocyanate with fluids (e.g., water, green tea, milk, and 10% ethanol) or corn oil. The N-acetylcysteine conjugate of allyl isothiocyanate content in urine when allyl isothiocyanate (2 or 4μmol) was coadministered with corn oil or milk showed a greater increase (1.4±0.22 or 2.7±0.34μmol or 1.2±0.32 or 2.5±0.36μmol, 1.6- to 1.8-fold or 1.5-fold, respectively) than when allyl isothiocyanate (2 or 4μmol) was coadministered with water (0.78±0.10 or 1.7±0.17μmol). This result demonstrates that corn oil and milk enhance the absorption of allyl isothiocyanate in rats.

  20. Green Synthesis and Regioselective Control of Sn/I2 Mediated Allylation of Carbonyl Compounds with Crotyl Halide in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Yan; ZHA,Zhang-Gen; ZHOU,Yu-Qing; WANG,Zhi-Yong


    @@ Barbier-type carbonyl allylation is particularly useful due to ease of operation and the availability and tractability of allylic substrates,[1] Metals such as indium, zinc and tin are often used as the mediator. Here we present a green approach toward the synthesis, that is, Sn/I2 mediated allylation of carbonyl compounds with crotyl halide in water.

  1. Construction of an Asymmetric Quaternary Carbon Center via Allylation of Hydrazones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Bum; Satyender, Apuri; Jang, Doo Ok [Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Asymmetric indium-mediated allylation of imine derivatives bearing a chiral auxiliary is a reliable strategy for the synthesis of chiral homoallylic amines. Various techniques for indium-mediated stereoselective allylation of imines bearing a chiral auxiliary have been reported. In 1997 Loh and co-workers reported indium-mediated allylation with imines derived from L-valine methyl ester. Since then, many forms of indium-mediated allylation bearing a chiral auxiliary have been reported, including imines derived from (S)-valinol, (R)-phenylglycinol, uracil, (R)-phenylglycinol methyl ester, N-tert-butanesufinamide, and (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-indanol. However, the synthesis of chiral auxiliaries often involves a laborious multi-step synthesis with expensive reagents. Therefore, the development of readily accessible chiral auxiliaries for asymmetric indium-mediated all-ylation is in high demand.

  2. Gas-phase reactivity of peptide thiyl (RS•), perthiyl (RSS•), and sulfinyl (RSO•) radical ions formed from atmospheric pressure ion/radical reactions. (United States)

    Tan, Lei; Xia, Yu


    In this study, we demonstrated the formation of gas-phase peptide perthiyl (RSS•) and thiyl (RS•) radical ions besides sulfinyl radical (RSO•) ions from atmospheric pressure (AP) ion/radical reactions of peptides containing inter-chain disulfide bonds. The identity of perthiyl radical was verified from characteristic 65 Da (•SSH) loss in collision-induced dissociation (CID). This signature loss was further used to assess the purity of peptide perthiyl radical ions formed from AP ion/radical reactions. Ion/molecule reactions combined with CID were carried out to confirm the formation of thiyl radical. Transmission mode ion/molecule reactions in collision cell (q2) were developed as a fast means to estimate the population of peptide thiyl radical ions. The reactivity of peptide thiyl, perthiyl, and sulfinyl radical ions was evaluated based on ion/molecule reactions toward organic disulfides, allyl iodide, organic thiol, and oxygen, which followed in order of thiyl (RS•) > perthiyl (RSS•) > sulfinyl (RSO•). The gas-phase reactivity of these three types of sulfur-based radicals is consistent with literature reports from solution studies.

  3. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions


    Yasemin Gumrukcu; Bas de Bruin; Reek, Joost N. H.


    We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooperative hydrogen-bonding array between the urea moiety and the hydroxyl group of the allyl alcohol, which strengthens the hydrogen bond between the O-H moiety of the coordinated allyl-alcohol and th...

  4. Highly stereoselective synthesis of functionalized 1,3-dienes from a new allyl bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Fray


    Full Text Available New and highly functionalized 1,3-dienes 3 and 4 have been synthesized via two different pathways starting from allyl bromide 1. Firstly, the reaction of allyl bromide 1 with triethylphosphite leads to an allylphosphonate 2, which undergoes the Wittig-Horner reaction with a range of saturated and unsaturated aldehydes gives rise to the corresponding 1,3-dienes 3. Secondly, a highly stereoselective reaction between allyl bromide 1 and nitroalkane salts, offers the possibility to obtaining functionalized (E-1,3-dienes 4.

  5. Chemoselective allylation of ketones in ionic liquids containing sulfonate anions. (United States)

    Galletti, Paola; Moretti, Fabio; Samorì, Chiara; Tagliavini, Emilio


    The chemoselective addition of tetraallyltin to dialkyl, alkenyl-alkyl, and alkynyl-alkyl ketones can be performed with high yields in N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium trifuoromethansulfonate (MBP-Tf). Other room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) can also be successfully employed if some sulfonic acid is added. The reaction is very sensitive to the electronic properties of the substrate. Aryl alkyl ketones bearing electron-withdrawing substituents behave like dialkyl ketones and react promptly; on the contrary, electron-rich aryl alkyl ketones react sluggishly, which allows selective competitive allylation of dialkyl substrates to occur. The ionic liquid solvent can be easily recycled, which meets the green chemistry principles of selectivity and reuse of chemicals. NMR spectroscopic data support the formation of tin-triflate catalysts in situ.

  6. Aerobic Linear Allylic C-H Amination: Overcoming Benzoquinone Inhibition. (United States)

    Pattillo, Christopher C; Strambeanu, Iulia I; Calleja, Pilar; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Mizuno, Tomokazu; White, M Christina


    An efficient aerobic linear allylic C-H amination reaction is reported under palladium(II)/bis-sulfoxide/Brønsted base catalysis. The reaction operates under preparative, operationally simple conditions (1 equiv of olefin, 1 atm O2 or air) with reduced Pd(II)/bis-sulfoxide catalyst loadings while providing higher turnovers and product yields than systems employing stoichiometric benzoquinone (BQ) as the terminal oxidant. Pd(II)/BQ π-acidic interactions have been invoked in various catalytic processes and are often considered beneficial in promoting reductive functionalizations. When such electrophilic activation for functionalization is not needed, however, BQ at high concentrations may compete with crucial ligand (bis-sulfoxide) binding and inhibit catalysis. Kinetic studies reveal an inverse relationship between the reaction rate and the concentration of BQ, suggesting that BQ is acting as a ligand for Pd(II) which results in an inhibitory effect on catalysis.

  7. Ignorance Radicalized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergo Somodi


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. I criticize Michael Devitt's linguistic---as opposed to Chomsky's psychological---conception of linguistics on the one hand, and I modify his related view on linguistic intuitions on the other. I argue that Devitt's argument for the linguistic conception is in conflict with one of the main theses of that very conception, according to which linguistics should be about physical sentence tokens of a given language rather than about the psychologically real competence of native speakers. The basis of this conflict is that Devitt's view on language, as I will show, inherits too much from the criticized Chomskian view. This is also the basis of Devitt's strange claim that it is the linguist, and not the ordinary speaker, whose linguistic intuition should have an evidential role in linguistics. I will argue for the opposite by sketching a view on language that is more appropriate to the linguistic conception. That is, in criticizing Devitt, I am not defending the Chomskian approach. My aim is to radicalize Devitt's claims.

  8. S-Allyl-Cysteines Reduce Amelioration of Aluminum Induced Toxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Shrivastava


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum (Al is a trivalent cation found in its ionic form in most kinds of animal tissues and in natural waters everywhere. Approach: It is a potent neurotoxin and has been associated in the pathogenesis of several clinical disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. Results: The aim of the study was to demonstrate the protective effect of S-Allyl-Cysteines (SAC against Al-induced toxicity in rat model on certain biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes of white albino rats. Six rats per group were divided into various treatment groups. Group one rats were given normal saline and served as control group. Group two animals received Al as aluminum nitrate 32.5 mg (i.p. for the induction of toxicity. Group three to five received different doses of SAC (25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 for 3 days after 24 h of Al toxicity. Rats were orally administered their respective doses every day for 3 days. Evaluations were made in blood and tissues. The activity of Acetylcholinesterase (AchE was inhibited in all the parts of brain after Al intoxication. Significant rise were observed the Activities of Serum Transaminases (AST and ALT after toxicant exposure. The activity of â-Aminolevulinic acid Dehydratase (ALAD in blood and â-Aminolevulinic Acid Synthetase (ALAS in brain was decreased after Al exposure. Al significant increased cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and urea level in serum. TBARS level was significantly higher and GSH content were significantly lower during toxicity. Total and esterified cholesterol in liver, kidney and brain were increased after Al exposure. Histopathological changes in liver, kidney and brain were also recouped with the therapy. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our data proved that SAC which is a bioactive and bioavailable component of garlic has organosulfur compounds which regulates the thiol status of the cell and scavenges free radicals and work as an antioxidant. Thus SAC

  9. New copolymer of acrylamide with allyl methacrylate and its capacity for the removal of azo dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Yildirim


    Full Text Available The copolymerization reactions of Acrylamide (AA with the different mole ratios of allyl methacrylate (AMA such as 25/75, 50/50 and 75/25 were studied by radical polymerization under argon atmosphere using 2,2’-Azobis (isobutyronitri1e (AIBN as initiator. The copolymers were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. FTIR spectra showed that the C=O, C-N and N-H groups in copolymers remained during the copolymerization. It is concluded from the thermograms that Poly(AA-co-AMA copolymers which contained different ratios of monomer and comonomer exhibit similar thermal behavior. Adsorption capacity, kinetic and isotherm studies of Direct Brown 2 onto the copolymers have been evaluated. Different factors such as the monomer ratio, pH, initial dye concentration, copolymer dosage and contact time affecting the removal process were studied. It was found that the adsorption process agreed with the Freundlich and Dubinin-Raduskevich model and the adsorption of Direct Brown 2 depended on the acrylamide content and pH of the solution. The standard Gibb’s free energy was determined as - 14.7 kJ/mol, which means that adsorption occurred spontaneously and the process is feasible. Increasing the acrylamide content led to increased adsorption of Direct Brown 2 on the copolymer. Moreover, adsorption kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step. These results show that Poly(AA-co-AMA can be used as adsorbent for water pollutants such as Direct Brown 2 and has potential applications in related industrial and environmental areas.

  10. Synthesis of acrylic and allylic bifunctional cross-linking monomers derived from PET waste (United States)

    Cruz-Aguilar, A.; Herrera-González, A. M.; Vázquez-García, R. A.; Navarro-Rodríguez, D.; Coreño, J.


    An acrylic and two novel allylic monomers synthesized from bis (hydroxyethyl) terephthalate, BHET, are reported. This was obtained by glycolysis of post-consumer PET with boiling ethylene glycol. The bifunctional monomer bis(2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl) terephthalate was obtained from acryloyl chloride, while the allylic monomers 2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy) ethyl (2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate and bis(2-(((allyloxi)carbonyl)oxy)ethyl) terephthalate, from allyl chloroformate. Cross-linking was studied in bulk polymerization using two different thermal initiators. Monomers were analyzed by means of 1H NMR and the cross-linked polymers by infrared spectroscopy. Gel content higher than 90% was obtained for the acrylic monomer. In the case of the mixture of the allylic monomers, the cross-linked polymer was 80 % using BPO initiator, being this mixture 24 times less reactive than the acrylic monomer.

  11. Biomarkers derived from heterolytic and homolytic cleavage of allylic hydroperoxides resulting from alkenone autoxidation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rontania, J.F.; Harji, R.; Volkmanc, J.K.

    , hydroxyacids and alkyldiols resulted from the reduction during the NaBH4 treatment of the corresponding aldehydes, ketoxyacids and ketoxyaldehydes formed from heterolytic or hemolytic cleavages of allylic hydroperoxyl groups resulting from the oxidation...

  12. ESR study of free radicals in UHMW-PE fiber irradiated by gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yanning [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin Normal University, Jilin 136000 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Mouhua [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Tang Zhongfeng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wu Guozhong, E-mail: [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 800-204, Shanghai 201800 (China)


    ESR spectra of the trapped radicals in an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fiber irradiated by gamma rays showed well-resolved hyperfine splitting at room temperature since the c-axis of the crystallites is aligned with the fiber direction and the radicals are trapped in crystallites. The alkyl radical (-CH{sub 2}-{sup c}entre dotCH-CH{sub 2}-) was the major product after irradiation in vacuum and in air at room temperature. Some of the alkyl radicals converted to allyl radicals (-CH{sub 2}-{sup c}entre dotCH-CH=CH-) and polyenyl radicals (-CH{sub 2}-{sup c}entre dotCH-(CH=CH){sub n}-CH{sub 2}-) during storage in vacuum. Upon storage in air atmosphere, the alkyl radicals decayed by reaction with oxygen. Of particular interest is the very slow decay rate of the alkyl radical trapped in UHMW-PE fiber, the half-life is 26 days in vacuum, and 13 days in air at room temperature, which is about 1/30 and 1/100 of that reported for high density polyethylene (HDPE), respectively. The extremely long lifetime of the alkyl radical is supposed to be caused by the large size of crystallites in UHMW-PE fiber. The rate of radical decay was accelerated by annealing at elevated temperature.

  13. Selective epoxidation of allylic alcohols with a titania-silica aerogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusi, M.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A. [Lab. of Technical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, ETH-Zentrum, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    An amorphous mesoporous titania-silica aerogel (20 wt%TiO{sub 2} - 80 wt% SiO{sub 2}) and tert.-butylhydroperoxide (TBHP) have been used for the epoxidation of various allylic alcohols. Allylic alcohols possessing an internal double bond were more reactive than those with a terminal C=C bond. Epoxide selectivities could be improved by addition of (basic) zeolite 4 A and NaHCO{sub 3} to the reaction mixture. (orig.)

  14. Direct use of allylic alcohols for platinum-catalyzed monoallylation of amines. (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Masaru; Miyamoto, Yoshiki; Ipposhi, Junji; Ohshima, Takashi; Mashima, Kazushi


    A new direct catalytic amination of allylic alcohols promoted by the combination of platinum and a large bite-angle ligand DPEphos was developed in which the allylic alcohol was effectively converted to a pi-allylplatinum intermediate without the use of an activating reagent. The use of the DPEphos ligand was essential for obtaining high catalyst activity and high monoallylation selectivity of primary amines, allowing the formation of a variety of monoallylation products in good to excellent yield.

  15. Effect of allyl isothiocyanate on developmental toxicity in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Russell Williams


    Full Text Available The pungent natural compound allyl isothiocyanate isolated from the seeds of Cruciferous (Brassica plants such as mustard is reported to exhibit numerous beneficial health-promoting antimicrobial, antifungal, anticarcinogenic, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Because it is also reported to damage DNA and is toxic to aquatic organisms, the objective of the present study was to determine whether it possesses teratogenic properties. The frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX was used to determine the following measures of developmental toxicity of the allyl isothiocyanate: (a 96-h LC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b 96-h EC50, defined as the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c teratogenic malformation index (TI, equal to 96-h LC50/96-h EC50. The quantitative results and the photographs of embryos before and after exposure suggest that allyl isothiocyanate seems to exhibit moderate teratogenic properties. The results also indicate differences in the toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate toward exposed embryos observed in the present study compared to reported adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate in fish, rodents, and humans. The significance of the results for food safety and possible approaches to protect against adverse effects of allyl isothiocyanate are discussed.

  16. Cp*Rh(III)-Catalyzed Low Temperature C-H Allylation of N-Aryl-trichloro Acetimidamide. (United States)

    Debbarma, Suvankar; Bera, Sourav Sekhar; Maji, Modhu Sudan


    The readily synthesized trichloro acetimidamide was found to be an excellent directing group for the directed C-H-allylation reactions. Depending on the allylating agent used, selectively either mono- or diallylated products were readily synthesized. Moreover, the trichloro acetimidamide directing group was found to be highly efficient even at lower temperature for the C-H-allylation reaction. Due to mildness of the reaction conditions, double bond isomerization or cyclization to indole side product was not observed.

  17. Gold-catalyzed intermolecular coupling of sulfonylacetylene with allyl ethers: [3,3]- and [1,3]-rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungho Jun


    Full Text Available Gold-catalyzed intermolecular couplings of sulfonylacetylenes with allyl ethers are reported. A cooperative polarization of alkynes both by a gold catalyst and a sulfonyl substituent resulted in an efficient intermolecular tandem carboalkoxylation. Reactions of linear allyl ethers are consistent with the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement mechanism, while those of branched allyl ethers provided [3,3]- and [1,3]-rearrangement products through the formation of a tight ion–dipole pair.

  18. Chiral Phosphoric Acid Catalyzed Enantioselective Allylation of Aldehydes with Allyltrichlorosilane%Chiral Phosphoric Acid Catalyzed Enantioselective Allylation of Aldehydes with Allyltrichlorosilane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程柯; 范甜甜; 孙健


    Easily accessible chiral phosphoric acid lb has been applied as efficient organocatalyst for the asymmetric al- lylation of aldehydes with allyltrichlorosilane. In the presence of 20 mol% of lb, the allylation of a broad range of aldehydes proceeded smoothly to give the corresponding homoallylic alcohol with up to 87% ee and 97% yield.

  19. SN2 reactions with allylic substrates--Trends in reactivity (United States)

    Ochran, Richard A.; Uggerud, Einar


    The gas-phase identity SN2 reactions of allylic substrates has been studied by systematic altering of the nucleophile/nucleofuge X, the remote substituent Y, and the number of methyl substituents at the reaction centre: X- + YCHCHCZ2X --> YCHCHCZ2X + X- (X = H, CH3, NH2, F, Cl; Y = F, OH, H, CHO, BH2; Z = H, CH3). Key regions of the potential energy surfaces have been explored by MP2, B3LYP, G3B3 and G3 calculations; the latter two methods providing accurate estimates of the reaction barrier. The calculations show that irrespective of theoretical level, for the second row of the periodic table (X = CH3, NH2, OH, and F), the tendency is that the barrier height decreases in going from left to right in agreement with the previously observed trend for identity SN2 reactions at methyl. The barrier height decreases by introduction a [pi] electron withdrawing substituents, Y, remote 6rom the reaction centre. The barrier height increases by introducing methyl groups (Z = CH3) next to the reaction centre, but the effect is less than half of that of changing the remote substituent from Y = CHO to Y = OH. The trends cannot be explained by simplified valence bond theory and are discussed in light of a simple electrostatic bonding model of the transition structure.

  20. Allyl isothiocyanate induced stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini AkalRachna K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC from mustard is cytotoxic; however the mechanism of its toxicity is unknown. We examined the effects of AITC on heat shock protein (HSP 70 expression in Caenorhabditis elegans. We also examined factors affecting the production of AITC from its precursor, sinigrin, a glucosinolate, in ground Brassica juncea cv. Vulcan seed as mustard has some potential as a biopesticide. Findings An assay to determine the concentration of AITC in ground mustard seed was improved to allow the measurement of AITC release in the first minutes after exposure of ground mustard seed to water. Using this assay, we determined that temperatures above 67°C decreased sinigrin conversion to AITC in hydrated ground B. juncea seed. A pH near 6.0 was found to be necessary for AITC release. RT-qPCR revealed no significant change in HSP70A mRNA expression at low concentrations of AITC ( 1.0 μM resulted in a four- to five-fold increase in expression. A HSP70 ELISA showed that AITC toxicity in C. elegans was ameliorated by the presence of ground seed from low sinigrin B. juncea cv. Arrid. Conclusions • AITC induced toxicity in C. elegans, as measured by HSP70 expression. • Conditions required for the conversion of sinigrin to AITC in ground B. juncea seed were determined. • The use of C. elegans as a bioassay to test AITC or mustard biopesticide efficacy is discussed.

  1. A radical approach to radical innovation


    Deichmann, Dirk; van der Ende, Jan


    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  2. The role of peroxyl radicals in polyester degradation--a mass spectrometric product and kinetic study using the distonic radical ion approach. (United States)

    Gervasoni, B D; Khairallah, G N; O'Hair, R A J; Wille, U


    Mass spectrometric techniques were used to obtain detailed insight into the reactions of peroxyl radicals with model systems of (damaged) polyesters. Using a distonic radical ion approach, it was shown that N-methylpyridinium peroxyl radical cations, Pyr(+)OO˙, do not react with non-activated C-H bonds typically present in polyesters that resist degradation. Structural damage in the polymer, for example small amounts of alkene moieties formed during the manufacturing process, is required to enable reaction with Pyr(+)OO˙, which proceeds with high preference through addition to the π system rather than via allylic hydrogen atom abstraction (kadd/kHAT > 20 for internal alkenes). This is due to the very fast and strongly exothermic subsequent fragmentation of the peroxyl-alkene radical adduct to epoxides and highly reactive Pyr(+)O˙, which both could promote further degradation of the polymer through non-radical and radical pathways. This work provides essential experimental support that the basic autoxidation mechanism is a too simplistic model to rationalize radical mediated degradation of polymers under ambient conditions.

  3. Catalyst-Free Imidation of Allyl Sulfides with Chloramine-T and Subsequent [2,3]-Sigmatropic Rearrangement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江玉波; 莫凡洋; 邱迪; 匡春香; 张艳; 王剑波


    A facile synthesis of various allyl sulfonamides based on imidation of allyl sulfides with chloramine-T and sub- sequent [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement has been achieved without metal catalysts. The reaction completes smoothly within 10 min, providing excellent yields in environment friendly solvent of alcohol. Functional groups such as bromine, hydroxyl, protected amido and aldehyde are tolerant under this condition.

  4. An Efficient Synthesis of de novo Imidates via Aza-Claisen Rearrangements of N-Allyl Ynamides. (United States)

    Dekorver, Kyle A; North, Troy D; Hsung, Richard P


    A novel thermal 3-aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-allyl ynamides for the synthesis of α-allyl imidates is described. Also, a sequential aza-Claisen, Pd-catalyzed Overman rearrangement is described for the synthesis of azapine-2-ones.

  5. Allyl isothiocyanate sensitizes TRPV1 to heat stimulation. (United States)

    Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Gees, Maarten; Sanchez, Alicia; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel


    The powerful plant-derived irritant allyl isothiocyanate (AITC, aka mustard oil) induces hyperalgesia to heat in rodents and humans through mechanisms that are not yet fully understood. It is generally believed that AITC activates the broadly tuned chemosensory cation channel transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A member 1 (TRPA1), triggering an inflammatory response that sensitizes the heat sensor transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1). In the view of recent data demonstrating that AITC can directly activate TRPV1, we here explored the possibility that this compound sensitizes TRPV1 to heat stimulation in a TRPA1-independent manner. Patch-clamp recordings and intracellular Ca(2+) imaging experiments in HEK293T cells over-expressing mouse TRPV1 revealed that the increase in channel activation induced by heating is larger in the presence of AITC than in control conditions. The analysis of the effects of AITC and heat on the current-voltage relationship of TRPV1 indicates that the mechanism of sensitization is based on additive shifts of the voltage dependence of activation towards negative voltages. Finally, intracellular Ca(2+) imaging experiments in mouse sensory neurons isolated from Trpa1 KO mice yielded that AITC enhances the response to heat, specifically in the subpopulation expressing TRPV1. Furthermore, this effect was strongly reduced by the TRPV1 inhibitor capsazepine and virtually absent in neurons isolated from double Trpa1/Trpv1 KO mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TRPV1 is a locus for cross sensitization between AITC and heat in sensory neurons and may help explaining, at least in part, the role of this channel in AITC-induced hyperalgesia to heat.

  6. How phenyl makes a difference: mechanistic insights into the ruthenium( ii )-catalysed isomerisation of allylic alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Manzini, Simone


    [RuCl(η5-3-phenylindenyl)(PPh3)2] (1) has been shown to be a highly active catalyst for the isomerisation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding ketones. A variety of substrates undergo the transformation, typically with 0.25-0.5 mol% of catalyst at room temperature, outperforming commonly-used complexes such as [RuCl(Cp)(PPh3) 2] and [RuCl(η5-indenyl)(PPh3) 2]. Mechanistic experiments and density functional theory have been employed to investigate the mechanism and understand the effect of catalyst structure on reactivity. These investigations suggest a oxo-π-allyl mechanism is in operation, avoiding intermediate ruthenium hydride complexes and leading to a characteristic 1,3-deuterium shift. Important mechanistic insights from DFT and experiments also allowed for the design of a protocol that expands the scope of the transformation to include primary allylic alcohols. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. A Green Approach for Allylations of Aldehydes and Ketones: Combining Allylborate, Mechanochemistry and Lanthanide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane P. de Souza


    Full Text Available Secondary and tertiary alcohols synthesized via allylation of aldehydes and ketones are important compounds in bioactive natural products and industry, including pharmaceuticals. Development of a mechanochemical method using potassium allyltrifluoroborate salt and water, to successfully perform the allylation of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds is reported for the first time. By controlling the grinding parameters, the methodology can be selective, namely, very efficient for aldehydes and ineffective for ketones, but by employing lanthanide catalysts, the reactions with ketones can become practically quantitative. The catalyzed reactions can also be performed under mild aqueous stirring conditions. Considering the allylation agent and its by-products, aqueous media, energy efficiency and use of catalyst, the methodology meets most of the green chemistry principles.

  8. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gumrukcu


    Full Text Available We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooperative hydrogen-bonding array between the urea moiety and the hydroxyl group of the allyl alcohol, which strengthens the hydrogen bond between the O-H moiety of the coordinated allyl-alcohol and the carbonyl-moiety of the ligand. This hydrogen bond pattern facilitates the (rate-limiting C-O oxidative addition step and leads to lower energy isomers throughout the catalytic cycle, clarifying the role of the urea-moiety.

  9. Highly selective palladium–benzothiazole carbene-catalyzed allylation of active methylene compounds under neutral conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monopoli


    Full Text Available The Pd–benzothiazol-2-ylidene complex I was found to be a chemoselective catalyst for the Tsuji–Trost allylation of active methylene compounds carried out under neutral conditions and using carbonates as allylating agents. The proposed protocol consists in a simplified procedure adopting an in situ prepared catalyst from Pd2dba3 and 3-methylbenzothiazolium salt V as precursors. A comparison of the performance of benzothiazole carbene with phosphanes and an analogous imidazolium carbene ligand is also proposed.

  10. Chemoselective and stereoselective lithium carbenoid mediated cyclopropanation of acyclic allylic alcohols. (United States)

    Durán-Peña, M J; Flores-Giubi, M E; Botubol-Ares, J M; Harwood, L M; Collado, I G; Macías-Sánchez, A J; Hernández-Galán, R


    The reaction of geraniol with different lithium carbenoids generated from n-BuLi and the corresponding dihaloalkane has been evaluated. The reaction occurs in a chemo and stereoselective manner, which is consistent with a directing effect from the oxygen of the allylic moiety. Furthermore, a set of polyenes containing allylic hydroxyl or ether groups were chemoselectively and stereoselectively converted into the corresponding gem-dimethylcyclopropanes in one single step in moderate to good yields mediated by a lithium carbenoid generated in situ by the reaction of n-BuLi and 2,2-dibromopropane.

  11. Additive-Free Pd-Catalyzed α-Allylation of Imine-Containing Heterocycles. (United States)

    Kljajic, Marko; Puschnig, Johannes G; Weber, Hansjörg; Breinbauer, Rolf


    An additive-free Pd-catalyzed α-allylation of different imino-group-ontaining heterocycles is reported. The activation of α-CH pronucleophiles (pKa (DMSO) > 25) occurs without the addition of strong bases or Lewis acids using only the Pd/Xantphos catalyst system. The reaction scope has been studied for various 5- and 6-membered nitrogen-containing heterocycles (yields up to 96%). Mechanistic investigations suggest an initial allylation of the imine-N followed by a Pd-catalyzed formal aza-Claisen rearrangement.

  12. Transient overexpression of adh8a increases allyl alcohol toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Klüver

    Full Text Available Fish embryos are widely used as an alternative model to study toxicity in vertebrates. Due to their complexity, embryos are believed to more resemble an adult organism than in vitro cellular models. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the embryo's metabolic capacity. We recently identified allyl alcohol, an industrial chemical, to be several orders of magnitude less toxic to zebrafish embryo than to adult zebrafish (embryo LC50 = 478 mg/L vs. fish LC50 = 0.28 mg/L. Reports on mammals have indicated that allyl alcohol requires activation by alcohol dehydrogenases (Adh to form the highly reactive and toxic metabolite acrolein, which shows similar toxicity in zebrafish embryos and adults. To identify if a limited metabolic capacity of embryos indeed can explain the low allyl alcohol sensitivity of zebrafish embryos, we compared the mRNA expression levels of Adh isoenzymes (adh5, adh8a, adh8b and adhfe1 during embryo development to that in adult fish. The greatest difference between embryo and adult fish was found for adh8a and adh8b expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that these genes might be required for allyl alcohol activation. Microinjection of adh8a, but not adh8b mRNA led to a significant increase of allyl alcohol toxicity in embryos similar to levels reported for adults (LC50 = 0.42 mg/L in adh8a mRNA-injected embryos. Furthermore, GC/MS analysis of adh8a-injected embryos indicated a significant decline of internal allyl alcohol concentrations from 0.23-58 ng/embryo to levels below the limit of detection (< 4.6 µg/L. Injection of neither adh8b nor gfp mRNA had an impact on internal allyl alcohol levels supporting that the increased allyl alcohol toxicity was mediated by an increase in its metabolization. These results underline the necessity to critically consider metabolic activation in the zebrafish embryo. As demonstrated here, mRNA injection is one useful approach to study the role of candidate enzymes

  13. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW


    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  14. [Lavoisier and radicals]. (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier


    Lavoisier and his co-workers (Guyton de Morveau, Bertholet, Fourcroy) considered that acids were constituted of oxygen and of something else that they called radicals. These radicals were known in some cases, i.e. nitrogen for nitrous acid, carbon for carbonic acid, phosphorus for phosphoric acid. In the case of sulfur, the sulfuric radical could be associated with different quantities of oxigen leading to sulfuric or sulfurous acids. In other cases radicals remained unknown at the time i.e. muriatic radical for muriatic acid, or benzoyl radical for benzoic acid. It is interesting to notice that Lavoisier evoked the case of compound radicals constituted of different substances such as carbon and hydrogen.

  15. Isolation determination of garlic allyl sulfides and their antioxidant activity%大蒜烯丙基硫化物的分离鉴定及抗氧化性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 陈琭璐; 张瑶; 白冰; 纪淑娟


    为了研究大蒜烯丙基硫化物的抗氧化活性,该文利用离子交换层析与制备液相技术从大蒜中分离得到 S-烯丙基-L-半胱氨酸(S-allyl-L-cysteine,SAC)、S-烯丙基-L-半胱氨酸亚砜(S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide,ACSO)和γ-谷氨酰-S-烯丙基-L-半胱氨酸(γ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine,GSAC)3种水溶性烯丙基硫化物。分离产物利用高效液相色谱-电喷雾离子化串联质谱联用(high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass/mass spectrometry, HPLC-ESI-MS/MS)、核磁共振氢谱(proton nuclear magnetic resonance,1H NMR)和核磁共振碳谱(carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance,13C NMR)技术及比旋光度检测方法鉴定,并与合成标准品比对分析确定。同时,该文以具有半胱氨酸结构的还原型谷胱甘肽(glutathione,GSH)为参照测定了 SAC、ACSO、GSAC 的1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼(1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl,DPPH)自由基清除能力及铁离子螯合能力。结果表明,SAC和GSAC对DPPH自由基的清除率较高(73.55%,72.68%)且与 GSH(71.14%)无显著性差异(P<0.05);SAC 和 ACSO 对铁离子的螯合率较高(81.21%,79.18%)且与GSH(78.13%)无显著性差异(P<0.05),尤其是GSAC对铁离子螯合率(92.76%)显著性高于GSH(P<0.05),证实了3种硫化物均具有很好的抗氧化性能。研究结果进一步解释和阐述大蒜硫化物的螯合能力,进而为大蒜硫化物以抗氧化为基础的其他功能活性研究提供参考。%The allyl-substituted cysteine derivatives were major components of sulfur compounds in garlic. This study separated and identified 3 allyl-substituted cysteine derivatives, i.e.S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC),S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) andγ-L-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (GSAC). Furthermore, scavenging ability of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and iron chelating ability were tested

  16. Contemporary Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu


    Full Text Available Purpose. Patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer have more surgical treatment options than in the past. This paper focuses on the procedures' oncological or functional outcomes and perioperative morbidities of radical retropubic prostatectomy, radical perineal prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Materials and Methods. A MEDLINE/PubMed search of the literature on radical prostatectomy and other new management options was performed. Results. Compared to the open procedures, robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy has no confirmed significant difference in most literatures besides less blood loss and blood transfusion. Nerve sparing is a safe means of preserving potency on well-selected patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Positive surgical margin rates of radical prostatectomy affect the recurrence and survival of prostate cancer. The urinary and sexual function outcomes have been vastly improved. Neoadjuvant treatment only affects the rate of positive surgical margin. Adjuvant therapy can delay and reduce the risk of recurrence and improve the survival of the high risk prostate cancer. Conclusions. For the majority of patients with organ-confined prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy remains a most effective approach. Radical perineal prostatectomy remains a viable approach for patients with morbid obesity, prior pelvic surgery, or prior pelvic radiation. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP has become popular among surgeons but has not yet become the firmly established standard of care. Long-term data have confirmed the efficacy of radical retropubic prostatectomy with disease control rates and cancer-specific survival rates.

  17. Organocatalytic asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates of isatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang


    Full Text Available The investigation of a Lewis base catalyzed asymmetric allylic amination of Morita–Baylis–Hillman carbonates derived from isatins afforded an electrophilic pathway to access multifunctional oxindoles bearing a C3-quaternary stereocenter, provided with good to excellent enantioselectivity (up to 94% ee and in high yields (up to 97%.

  18. Polystyrene-supported Selenides and Selenoxide:Versatile Routes to Synthesize Allylic Alcohols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming XU; You Chu ZHANG; Xian HUANG


    Several polystyrene-supported selenides and selenoxide have been prepared firstly. These novel reagents were treated with LDA to produce selenium stabilized carbanions, which reacted with aldehydes and alkyl halides, followed by selenoxide syn-elimination and [2,3] sigmatropic rearrangement respectively to give Z-allylic alcohols stereoselectively.

  19. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge (United States)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)


    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  20. Facile Formation of Ytterbium Diiodide and Its Use in the Synthesis of Allyl Selenides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU,Wei-Ke(苏为科); ZHANG,Yong-Min(张永敏); ZHENG,Yun-Fa(郑云法); LI,Yong-Shu(李永曙)


    Ytterbium metal reacts with iodine to generate ytterbium diiodide directly, which can react with diselenides to form ytterbium selenolates (RSeYbI2). These species reacted smoothly with allyl bromide to give allylselenides in moderate to good yields under neutral conditions.

  1. Combined experimental and theoretical mechanistic investigation of the Barbier allylation in aqueous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Johan Hygum; Fristrup, Peter; Madsen, Robert


    -determining step. For Zn, In, Sn, Sb, and Bi, an inverse secondary kinetic isotope effect was found (k(H)/k(D) = 0.75-0.95), which was compatible with the formation of a discrete organometallic species prior to allylation via a closed six-membered transition state. With Mg, a significantly larger build...

  2. Rationalizing Ring-Size Selectivity in Intramolecular Pd-Catalyzed Allylations of Resonance-Stabilized Carbanions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrby, Per-Ola; Mader, Mary M.; Vitale, Maxime


    Computational methods were applied to the Pd-catalyzed intramolecular allylations of resonance-stabilized carbanions obtained from amide and ketone substrates, with the aim of rationalizing the endo- vs. exo-selectivity in the cyclizations. In addition, ester substrates were prepared and subjecte...

  3. Unusual selectivity-determining factors in the phosphine-free Heck arylation of allyl ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrogio, I.; Fabrizi, G.; Cacchi, S.


    The Heck reaction of aryl iodides and bromides with allyl ethers has been investigated. Using phosphinefree Pd(OAc)(2) in DNIF at 90 degrees C in the presence of Bu4NOAc, the reaction gave cinnamyl derivatives, usually in good to high yields, with a wide range of aryl halides. The reaction tolera...

  4. Synthesis of allyl esters of fatty acids and their ovicidal effect on Cydia pomonella (L.). (United States)

    Escribà, Marc; Barbut, Montserrat; Eras, Jordi; Canela, Ramon; Avilla, Jesús; Balcells, Mercè


    Eight allyl esters of fatty acids were synthesized in moderate to high yields with a novel two-step procedure using glycerol as a starting material. The two-step methodology avoids the use of allyl alcohol. The first step consisted of heating at 80 degrees C for 48 h a 2:1:5 mmol mixture of glycerol, a fatty acid, and chlorotrimethylsilane in a solvent-free medium. The crude compound was then dissolved in butanone and heated at 115 degrees C in the presence of NaI. A tandem Finkelstein rearrangement-elimination reaction occurs, producing the corresponding allyl ester. The activity of these esters against Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs was tested in the laboratory by topical application of one 0.1 microL drop. All of the compounds showed a concentration-mortality response and caused 100% mortality at the highest concentration tested (10 mg/mL). There was an inverse relationship between the alkyl chain length and the ovicidal activity of the allyl ester; the LC(50) and the LC(90) of the two compounds that have the longer alkyl chains were significantly higher than those of the rest of the compounds. The ovicidal and IGR activities of this kind of compound appear to be unprecedented.

  5. Zirconium-allyl complexes as resting states in zirconocene-catalyzed α-olefin polymerization. (United States)

    Panchenko, Valentina N; Babushkin, Dmitrii E; Brintzinger, Hans H


    UV-vis spectroscopic data indicate that zirconocene cations with Zr-bound allylic chain ends are generally formed during olefin polymerization with zirconocene catalysts. The rates and extent of their formation and of their re-conversion to the initial pre-catalyst cations depend on the types of zirconocene complexes and activators used.

  6. A Mechanistic Study of Direct Activation of Allylic Alcohols in Palladium Catalyzed Amination Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumrukcu, Y.; de Bruin, B.; Reek, J.N.H.


    We here report a computational approach on the mechanism of allylicamination reactions using allyl-alcohols and amines as the substrates and phosphoramidite palladium catalyst 1a, which operates in the presence of catalytic amount of 1,3-diethylurea as a co-catalyst. DFT calculations showed a cooper

  7. Cooperative catalysis by palladium and a chiral phosphoric acid: enantioselective amination of racemic allylic alcohols. (United States)

    Banerjee, Debasis; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias


    Cooperative catalysis by [Pd(dba)2] and the chiral phosphoric acid BA1 in combination with the phosphoramidite ligand L8 enabled the efficient enantioselective amination of racemic allylic alcohols with a variety of functionalized amines. This catalytic protocol is highly regio- and stereoselective (up to e.r. 96:4) and furnishes valuable chiral amines in almost quantitative yield.

  8. In(OTf)3 catalyzed allylation reaction of imines with tetraallyltin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ning Wei; Ling Yan Liu; Bing Wang; Wei Xing Chang; Jing Li


    In the presence of catalytic amount of In(OTf)3 (10 mol%), a series of aldimines reacted with tetraallyltin in a 2:1 molar ratio to afford the corresponding homoallylic amines in good yields. The good atom efficiency was achieved under mild reaction conditions and a new protocol (allyl)4Sn/In(OTf)3 for simple imines was developed.

  9. Electrochemical studies and self diffusion coefficients in cyclic ammonium based ionic liquids with allyl substituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tzi-Yi [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Polymer Materials, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China); Su, Shyh-Gang [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, H. Paul [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yuan-Chung [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Gung, Shr-Tusen; Lin, Ming-Wei [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Sun, I.-Wen, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)


    Research highlights: Cyclic ammonium-based ionic liquids with allyl substituent have high conductivity. Ionic liquids with allyl substituent have wide electrochemical window. Electrochemical and self diffusion coefficients are available for comparison. The Stokes-Einstein plots of DT{sup -1} vs. {eta}{sup -1} for redox couples in ILs are evaluated. Stokes-Einstein product of ferrocene is larger than that of cobaltocenium in ILs. - Abstract: Several cyclic ammonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) with allyl substituent are synthesized, these allyl substituent ILs have high ionic conductivity (up to 4.72 mS cm{sup -1} at 30 {sup o}C) and wide electrochemical window of 5 V. The electrochemical behaviors of two organometallic redox couples Fc/Fc{sup +} (ferrocene/ferrocenium) and Cc/Cc{sup +} (cobaltocene/cobaltocenium) have been studied in these ILs, the calculated Stokes-Einstein product (D{eta} T{sup -1}) of ferrocene in ILs is larger than that of cobaltocenium in ILs. The self-diffusion coefficients of cation and anion in these ILs are studied using pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR technique. There are very few reports where electrochemically derived diffusion coefficients and self diffusion coefficients are available for comparison, so a new key concept in electrochemistry could be developed in this paper.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of allylic halides and acetates with indium organometallics. (United States)

    Rodríguez, David; Pérez Sestelo, José; Sarandeses, Luis A


    The palladium(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of allylic halides and acetates with indium organometallics is reported. In this synthetic transformation, triorganoindium compounds and tetraorganoindates (aryl, alkenyl, and methyl) react with cinnamyl and geranyl halides and acetates to afford the S(N)2 product regioselectively and in good yield. The reaction proceeds with net inversion of the stereochemical configuration.

  11. Enantioconvergent synthesis by sequential asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons and palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Hansen, E. Louise; Kane, John


    A new method for enantioconvergent synthesis has been developed. The strategy relies on the combination of an asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons (HWE) reaction and a palladium-catalyzed allylic substitution. Different $alpha@-oxygen-substituted, racemic aldehydes were initially transformed...

  12. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphins are micro-opioid receptor antagonists lacking inverse agonist properties. (United States)

    Marczak, Ewa D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Li, Tingyou; Bryant, Sharon D; Tsuda, Yuko; Okada, Yoshio; Lazarus, Lawrence H


    [N-allyl-Dmt1]-endomorphin-1 and -2 ([N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2) are new selective micro-opioid receptor antagonists obtained by N-alkylation with an allyl group on the amino terminus of 2',6'-dimethyl-L-tyrosine (Dmt) derivatives. To further characterize properties of these compounds, their intrinsic activities were assessed by functional guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S]thiotriphosphate) binding assays and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in cell membranes obtained from vehicle, morphine, and ethanol-treated SK-N-SH cells and brain membranes isolated from naive and morphine-dependent mice; their mode of action was compared with naloxone or naltrexone, which both are standard nonspecific opioid-receptor antagonists. [N-allyl-Dmt1]-EM-1 and -2 were neutral antagonists under all of the experimental conditions examined, in contrast to naloxone and naltrexone, which behave as neutral antagonists only in membranes from vehicle-treated cells and mice but act as inverse agonists in membranes from morphine- and ethanol-treated cells as well as morphine-treated mice. Both endomorphin analogs inhibited the naloxone- and naltrexone-elicited withdrawal syndromes from acute morphine dependence in mice. This suggests their potential therapeutic application in the treatment of drug addiction and alcohol abuse without the adverse effects observed with inverse agonist alkaloid-derived compounds that produce severe withdrawal symptoms.

  13. Surprisingly Mild Enolate-Counterion-Free Pd(0)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic Alkylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madec, David; Prestat, Guillaume; Martini, Elisabetta;


    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular allylic alkylations of unsaturated EWG-activated amides can take place under phase-transfer conditions or in the presence of a crown ether. These new reaction conditions are milder and higher yielding than those previously reported. A rationalization for such an...

  14. A Novel, One-Step Palladium and Phenylsilane Activated Amidation from Allyl Ester on Solid Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Ruan


    Full Text Available The direct conversion of solid-supported carboxylic acid allyl esters to carboxamides through the use of phenylsilane and catalytic Pd(PPh34 under mild reaction conditions is reported. The use of this methodology for the generation of a 48 compound solid-phase array is described herein.

  15. Catalytic allylation of phenols : chloride-free route towards epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, Jimmy Antonius van


    An industrially applicable process was developed for the synthesis of epoxy resin components. A catalytic reaction was explored towards allyl phenyl ethers that prevents the use of chloride-containing starting materials and thus formation of chloride-containing side products. The preferred allylatin

  16. Copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution reactions with organozinc and Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Koen; Fletcher, Stephen P.; van Zijl, Anthoni W.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Bignall, H. E.; Jauncey, D. L.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Kedziora-Chudczer, L. L.; MacQuart, J. P.; Tingay, S. J.; Rayner, D. P.; Clay, R. W.


    Asymmetric allylic alkylations (AAAs) are among the most powerful C-C bond-forming reactions. We present a brief overview of copper-catalyzed AAAs with organometallic reagents and discuss our own contributions to this field. Work with zinc reagents and phosphoramidite ligands provided a framework fo

  17. Forgotten Radicals in Biology



    Redox reactions play key roles in intra- and inter-cellular signaling, and in adaptative processes of tissues towards stress. Among the major free radicals with essential functions in cells are reactive oxygen species (ROS) including superoxide anion (O2 •-), hydroxyl radical (•OH) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) such as nitric oxide (•NO). In this article, we review the forgotten and new radicals with potential relevance to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Approximately 0.3% of O2 •- pres...

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Some Properties of Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-allyl) Complexes. (United States)

    Baillie, Rhett A; Holmes, Aaron S; Lefèvre, Guillaume P; Patrick, Brian O; Shree, Monica V; Wakeham, Russell J; Legzdins, Peter; Rosenfeld, Devon C


    Sequential treatment at low temperatures of Cp*W(NO)Cl2 in THF with 1 equiv of a binary magnesium allyl reagent, followed by an excess of LiBH4, affords three new Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-allyl) complexes, namely, Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-CH2CHCMe2) (1), Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-CH2CHCHPh) (2), and Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-CH2CHCHMe) (3). Complexes 1-3 are isolable as air-stable, analytically pure yellow solids in good to moderate yields by chromatography or fractional crystallization. In solutions, complex 1 exists as two coordination isomers in an 83:17 ratio differing with respect to the endo/exo orientation of the allyl ligand. In contrast, complexes 2 and 3 each exist as four coordination isomers, all differing by the orientation of their allyl ligands which can have either an endo or an exo orientation with the phenyl or methyl groups being either proximal or distal to the nitrosyl ligand. A DFT computational analysis using the major isomer of Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(3)-CH2CHCHMe) (3a) as the model complex has revealed that its lowest-energy thermal-decomposition pathway involves the intramolecular isomerization of 3a to the 16e η(2)-alkene complex, Cp*W(NO)(η(2)-CH2═CHCH2Me). Such η(2)-alkene complexes are isolable as their 18e PMe3 adducts when compounds 1-3 are thermolyzed in neat PMe3, the other organometallic products formed during these thermolyses being Cp*W(NO)(PMe3)2 (5) and, occasionally, Cp*W(NO)(H)(η(1)-allyl)(PMe3). All new complexes have been characterized by conventional spectroscopic and analytical methods, and the solid-state molecular structures of most of them have been established by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses.

  19. The Wacker oxidation of allyl alcohol along cyclic-intermediate routes: An ab initio molecular dynamics investigation (United States)

    Imandi, Venkataramana; Nair, Nisanth N.


    The absence of isotope scrambling observed by Henry and coworkers in the Wacker oxidation of deuterated allylic alcohol was used by them as support for the inner-sphere mechanism hydroxypalladation mechanism. One of the assumptions used to interpret their experimental data was that allyl alcohol oxidation takes place through non-cyclic intermediate routes as in the case of ethene. Here we verify this assumption through ab initio metadynamics simulations of the Wacker oxidation of allyl alcohol in explicit solvent. Importance of our results in interpreting the isotope scrambling experiments is discussed.

  20. Deconvoluting the memory effect in Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation; effect of leaving group and added chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Jensen, Thomas; Hoppe, Jakob;


    An analysis of product distributions in the Tsuji-Trost reaction indicates that several instances of reported memory effects can be attributed to slow interconversion of the initially formed syn- and anti-[Pd(eta3-allyl)] complexes. Addition of chloride triggers a true memory effect, in which...... the allylic terminus originally bearing the leaving group has a higher reactivity. The latter effect, termed regioretention, can be rationalized by ionization from a palladium complex bearing a chloride ion, forming an unsymmetrically substituted [Pd(eta3-allyl)] complex. DFT calculations verify...

  1. Decreased glycation and structural protection properties of γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-cysteine peptide isolated from fresh garlic scales (Allium sativum L.). (United States)

    Tan, Dehong; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Lulu; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xuan; Wu, Zhaoxia; Bai, Bing; Ji, Shujuan


    The antiglycative effect of γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-cysteine (GSAC) peptide isolated from fresh garlic scales was investigated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)/glucose system. GSAC inhibited the increase of fluorescence intensity at about 440 nm in a concentration-dependent manner and reduced reacted free lysine side chains by 10.9%, 24.7% and 37.7%, as the GSAC concentrations increased from 0.1 to 2.5 mg mL(-1). Glycation-specific decline in BSA α-helix content (from 61.3% to 55.6%) and increase in β-sheet (from 2.1% to 5.4%) were prevented by GSAC (2.5 mg mL(-1)) in vitro, implying its stabilisation effect. GSAC treatment (2.5 mg mL(-1)) suppressed protein crosslinking to form polymers. Additionally, GSAC (10, 40, and 160 μg mL(-1)) showed radical-scavenging and metal-chelating capacities. In conclusion, GSAC has an antiglycative effect, which may involve its radical-scavenging and metal-chelating capacities.

  2. Carbocations generated under stable conditions by ionization of matrix-Isolated radicals: the allyl and benzyl cations


    Mišić, Vladimir; Piech, Krzysztof; Bally, Thomas


    Carbocations are crucial intermediates in many chemical reactions; hence, considerable effort has gone into investigating their structures and properties, for example, in superacids, in salts, or in the gas phase. However, studies of the vibrational structure of carbocations are not abundant, because their infrared spectra are difficult to obtain in superacids or salts (where furthermore the cations may be perturbed by counterions), and the generation of gas-phase carbocations in discharges u...

  3. The magnesium-ene cyclization stereochemically directed by an allylic oxyanionic group and its application to a highly stereoselective synthesis of (+/-)-matatabiether. Allylmagnesium compounds by reductive magnesiation of allyl phenyl sulfides. (United States)

    Cheng, D; Zhu, S; Yu, Z; Cohen, T


    The first example of a magnesium-ene cyclization stereochemically directed by an allylic oxyanionic group is demonstrated by a highly stereoselective synthesis of the bicyclic terpene matatabiether 10. The synthetic method is particularly valuable, not only because of the stereochemical control and the utility of the versatile hydroxyl group introduced into the product, but also because the precursor of the allylmagnesium is an allyl phenyl sulfide, which is more stable and more easily prepared in a connective fashion than the usual allyl halide precursor. Since the presence of lithium ions encourages undesirable proton transfer to the cyclized organometallic and is detrimental to the stereochemical control, the conversion of the allylic thioether to the allylmagnesium utilizes a lithium-free method involving direct reductive magnesiation in the presence of the magnesium-anthracene complex.

  4. Orgasm after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, M; VanDriel, MF; Schultz, WCMW; Mensink, HJA


    Objective To evaluate the ability to obtain and the quality of orgasm after radical prostatectomy, Patients and methods The orgasms experienced after undergoing radical prostatectomy were evaluated in 20 men (median age 65 years, range 56-76) using a semi-structured interview and a self-administered

  5. The Radicalization Puzzle [video


    Mohammed Hafez; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School


    This 20 minute lecture, by Dr. Mohammad Hafez of the Naval Postgraduate School examines the driving factors behind the process of radicalization, turning seemingly ordinary men and women into potential terrorists. The lecture is based on the article "The Radicalization Puzzle: A Theoretical Synthesis of Empirical Approaches to Homegrown Extremism" in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, by Mohammad Hafez and Creighton Mullins.

  6. Highly functionalized and potent antiviral cyclopentane derivatives formed by a tandem process consisting of organometallic, transition-metal-catalyzed, and radical reaction steps. (United States)

    Jagtap, Pratap R; Ford, Leigh; Deister, Elmar; Pohl, Radek; Císařová, Ivana; Hodek, Jan; Weber, Jan; Mackman, Richard; Bahador, Gina; Jahn, Ullrich


    A simple modular tandem approach to multiply substituted cyclopentane derivatives is reported, which succeeds by joining organometallic addition, conjugate addition, radical cyclization, and oxygenation steps. The key steps enabling this tandem process are the thus far rarely used isomerization of allylic alkoxides to enolates and single-electron transfer to merge the organometallic step with the radical and oxygenation chemistry. This controlled lineup of multiple electronically contrasting reactive intermediates provides versatile access to highly functionalized cyclopentane derivatives from very simple and readily available commodity precursors. The antiviral activity of the synthesized compounds was screened and a number of compounds showed potent activity against hepatitis C and dengue viruses.

  7. A Perspective on Free Radical Autoxidation: The Physical Organic Chemistry of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid and Sterol Peroxidation (United States)


    This Perspective describes advances from the author’s laboratory on the free radical reactions of organic compounds with molecular oxygen. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and sterols are particularly prone to undergo radical chain oxidation and evidence suggests that this process, known as lipid peroxidation, occurs in vivo under a variety of conditions that are the result of an oxidative stress. Cyclic peroxides, hydroperoxides, and epoxy-alcohols are major products formed from peroxidation and the basic mechanisms of product formation are now reasonably well understood. These mechanisms include reversible addition of oxygen to carbon radicals, rearrangement and cyclization of allyl and pentadienyl peroxyl radicals and homolytic substitution of carbon radicals on the peroxide bond. A physical organic approach to the problem of free radicals in biology and medicine is highlighted in this Perspective with stereochemical, kinetic and extrathermodynamic probes applied to the study of mechanism. A radical clock permits the determination of free radical propagation rate constants and 7-dehydrocholesterol, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol, is found by this clock to be one of the most oxidizable lipids known. The consequences of the extreme reactivity of 7-dehydrocholesterol on human health is the focus of a current research theme in the author’s laboratory. PMID:23445181

  8. A perspective on free radical autoxidation: the physical organic chemistry of polyunsaturated fatty acid and sterol peroxidation. (United States)

    Porter, Ned A


    This Perspective describes advances from the author's laboratory on the free radical reactions of organic compounds with molecular oxygen. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and sterols are particularly prone to undergo radical chain oxidation, and evidence suggests that this process, known as lipid peroxidation, occurs in vivo under a variety of conditions that are the result of an oxidative stress. Cyclic peroxides, hydroperoxides, and epoxy alcohols are major products formed from peroxidation, and the basic mechanisms of product formation are now reasonably well understood. These mechanisms include reversible addition of oxygen to carbon radicals, rearrangement and cyclization of allyl and pentadienyl peroxyl radicals, and homolytic substitution of carbon radicals on the peroxide bond. A physical organic approach to the problem of free radicals in biology and medicine is highlighted in this Perspective with stereochemical, kinetic, and extrathermodynamic probes applied to the study of mechanism. A radical clock permits the determination of free radical propagation rate constants, and 7-dehydrocholesterol, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of cholesterol, is found by this clock to be one of the most oxidizable lipids known. The consequences of the extreme reactivity of 7-dehydrocholesterol on human health is the focus of a current research theme in the author's laboratory.

  9. Chemoenzymatic one-pot synthesis in an aqueous medium: combination of metal-catalysed allylic alcohol isomerisation-asymmetric bioamination. (United States)

    Ríos-Lombardía, Nicolás; Vidal, Cristian; Cocina, María; Morís, Francisco; García-Álvarez, Joaquín; González-Sabín, Javier


    The ruthenium-catalysed isomerisation of allylic alcohols was coupled, for the first time, with asymmetric bioamination in a one-pot process in an aqueous medium. In the cases involving prochiral ketones, the ω-TA exhibited excellent enantioselectivity, identical to that observed in the single step. As a result, amines were obtained from allylic alcohols with high overall yields and excellent enantiomeric excesses.

  10. Salvage robotic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Kaffenberger


    Full Text Available Failure of non-surgical primary treatment for localized prostate cancer is a common occurrence, with rates of disease recurrence ranging from 20% to 60%. In a large proportion of patients, disease recurrence is clinically localized and therefore potentially curable. Unfortunately, due to the complex and potentially morbid nature of salvage treatment, radical salvage surgery is uncommonly performed. In an attempt to decrease the morbidity of salvage therapy without sacrificing oncologic efficacy, a number of experienced centers have utilized robotic assistance to perform minimally invasive salvage radical prostatectomy. Herein, we critically evaluate the existing literature on salvage robotic radical prostatectomy with a focus on patient selection, perioperative complications and functional and early oncologic outcomes. These results are compared with contemporary and historical open salvage radical prostatectomy series and supplemented with insights we have gained from our experience with salvage robotic radical prostatectomy. The body of evidence by which conclusions regarding the efficacy and safety of robotic salvage radical prostatectomy can be drawn comprises fewer than 200 patients with limited follow-up. Preliminary results are promising and some outcomes have been favorable when compared with contemporary open salvage prostatectomy series. Advantages of the robotic platform in the performance of salvage radical prostatectomy include decreased blood loss, short length of stay and improved visualization. Greater experience is required to confirm the long-term oncologic efficacy and functional outcomes as well as the generalizability of results achieved at experienced centers.

  11. Catenation through a Combination of Radical Templation and Ring-Closing Metathesis. (United States)

    Gibbs-Hall, Ian C; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A; Dale, Edward J; Henkelis, James J; Blackburn, Anthea K; Barnes, Jonathan C; Stoddart, J Fraser


    Synthesis of an electrochemically addressable [2]catenane has been achieved following formation by templation of a [2]pseudorotaxane employing radically enhanced molecular recognition between the bisradical dication obtained on reduction of the tetracationic cyclophane, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene), and the radical cation generated on reduction of a viologen disubstituted with p-xylylene units, both carrying tetraethylene glycol chains terminated by allyl groups. This inclusion complex was subjected to olefin ring-closing metathesis, which was observed to proceed under reduced conditions, to mechanically interlock the two components. Upon oxidation, Coulombic repulsion between the positively charged and mechanically interlocked components results in the adoption of a co-conformation where the newly formed alkene resides inside the cavity of the tetracationic cyclophane. (1)H NMR spectroscopic analysis of this hexacationic [2]catenane shows a dramatic upfield shift of the resonances associated with the olefinic and allylic protons as a result of them residing inside the tetracationic component. Further analysis shows high diastereoselectivity during catenation, as only a single (Z)-isomer is formed.

  12. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  13. Radical chemistry of artemisinin (United States)

    Denisov, Evgenii T.; Solodova, S. L.; Denisova, Taisa G.


    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer activities of novel benzisoxazole-substituted-allyl derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, Mohanam [Kingston Engineering College, Vellore (India); Selvaraj, Vaithialingam [University College of Engineering-Villupuram, Villupuram (India); Alagar, Muthukaruppan [Anna University, Chennai (India)


    A novel series of various 2-allylbenzo[d]isoxazol-3(2H)-ones were synthesized using benzo[d]isoxazol-3(2H)-one treated with different allyl bromides/chlorides in the presence of water-mediated cesium carbonate as a new catalyst 3(a-h). The structures of the newly synthesized Benzisoxazole-substituted-allyl derivatives were characterized by spectroscopic methods and mass spectrometry. These synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity. Compounds 3b, d, f, h were identified as the best hit against HT-29 Human colon cancer cells. Similarly, compounds like 3b, d, f, h showed significant antioxidant activity compared to the standard drug butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT)

  15. Recent Advances in the Application of Chiral Phosphine Ligands in Pd-Catalysed Asymmetric Allylic Alkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Martin


    Full Text Available One of the most powerful approaches for the formation of simple and complex chiral molecules is the metal-catalysed asymmetric allylic alkylation. This reaction has been broadly studied with a great variety of substrates and nucleophiles under different reaction conditions and it has promoted the synthesis of new chiral ligands to be evaluated as asymmetric inductors. Although the mechanism as well as the active species equilibria are known, the performance of the catalytic system depends on the fine tuning of factors such as type of substrate, nucleophile nature, reaction medium, catalytic precursor and type of ligand used. Particularly interesting are chiral phosphines which have proved to be effective asymmetric inductors in several such reactions. The present review covers the application of phosphine-donor ligands in Pd-catalysed asymmetric allylic alkylation in the last decade.

  16. Iron complexes of tetramine ligands catalyse allylic hydroxyamination via a nitroso-ene mechanism. (United States)

    Porter, David; Poon, Belinda M-L; Rutledge, Peter J


    Iron(II) complexes of the tetradentate amines tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) and N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N,N'-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (BPMEN) are established catalysts of C-O bond formation, oxidising hydrocarbon substrates via hydroxylation, epoxidation and dihydroxylation pathways. Herein we report the capacity of these catalysts to promote C-N bond formation, via allylic amination of alkenes. The combination of N-Boc-hydroxylamine with either FeTPA (1 mol %) or FeBPMEN (10 mol %) converts cyclohexene to the allylic hydroxylamine (tert-butyl cyclohex-2-en-1-yl(hydroxy)carbamate) in moderate yields. Spectroscopic studies and trapping experiments suggest the reaction proceeds via a nitroso-ene mechanism, with involvement of a free N-Boc-nitroso intermediate. Asymmetric induction is not observed using the chiral tetramine ligand (+)-(2R,2'R)-1,1'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-2,2'-bipyrrolidine ((R,R')-PDP).

  17. [Surface modification of poly methyl methacrylate intraocular lens by alpha-allyl glucoside]. (United States)

    Qu, Chao; Yao, Ke; Kou, Ruiqiang; Xu, Zhikang


    A method for improving the biocompatibility of the intraocular lens (IOL) and reducing the cell attachment was adopted in this study. The alpha-Allyl glucoside was used for the surface modification of the poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) IOL by way of plasma-induced in situ polymerization. The surfaces of the control and treatment IOLs were characterized by contact angle estimation and ESCA techniques. The resolution, diopter and anti-fatigue of loops were determined by physical and optical methods. Cell attachment on the surfaces was examined by light microscopy. The results indicated that all of the treatment groups had excellent physical and optical properties. The modification with the use of alpha-Allyl glucoside could improve the hydrophilicity of the anterior surface of the PMMA IOLs and reduce the cell attachment.

  18. Epoxidation of allyl alcohol to glycidol over the microporous TS-1 catalyst. (United States)

    Wróblewska, Agnieszka; Fajdek, Anna


    The results of the epoxidation of allyl alcohol with 30% hydrogen peroxide over the TS-1 catalyst have been presented. The studies were carried out under the atmospheric pressure and at the presence of methanol as a solvent. The influence of the following technological parameters on the course of epoxidation was examined: the temperature of 20-60 degrees C, the molar ratio of AA/H(2)O(2) 1:1-5:1, the methanol concentration of 5-90 wt%, the catalyst content of 0.1-5.0 wt% and the reaction time 5-300 min. The main functions describing the process were the selectivity to glycidol in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the conversion of substrates, and the selectivity of transformation to organic compounds in relation to hydrogen peroxide consumed. The parameters at which the functions describing the process reached the highest values were determined.

  19. Crystal structure of (E-3-allyl-2-sulfanylidene-5-[(thiophen-2-ylmethylidene]thiazolidin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahhal El Ajlaoui


    Full Text Available Molecules of the title compound, C11H9NOS3, are built up by one thiophene and one 2-thioxathiazolidin-4-one ring which are connected by a methylene bridge. In addition, there is an allyl substituent attached to nitrogen. The two rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle between them of 0.76 (11°. The allyl group is oriented perpendicular to the mean plane through both ring systems. The crystal structure exhibits inversion dimers in which molecules are linked by pairs of C—H...O hydrogen bonds. Additional π–π interactions between neighboring thiophene and 2-thioxathiazolidin-4-one rings [intercentroid distance = 3.694 (2 Å] lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  20. Synthetic Studies on Tricyclic Diterpenoids: Direct Allylic Amination Reaction of Isopimaric Acid Derivatives. (United States)

    Timoshenko, Mariya A; Kharitonov, Yurii V; Shakirov, Makhmut M; Bagryanskaya, Irina Yu; Shults, Elvira E


    A selective synthesis of 7- or 14-nitrogen containing tricyclic diterpenoids was completed according to a strategy in which the key step was the catalyzed direct allylic amination of methyl 14α-hydroxy-15,16-dihydroisopimarate with a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles. It was revealed that the selectivity of the reaction depends on the nature of nucleophile. The catalyzed reaction of the mentioned diterpenoid allylic alcohol with 3-nitroaniline, 3-(trifluoromethyl)aniline, and 4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline yield the subsequent 7α-, 7β- and 14αnitrogen-containing diterpenoids. The reaction with 2-nitroaniline, 4-nitro-2-chloroaniline, 4-methoxy-2-nitroaniline, phenylsulfamide, or tert-butyl carbamate proceeds with the formation of 7α-nitrogen-substituted diterpenoids as the main products.

  1. Characterization by EPR of radicals in HDPE, PA6 and HDPE/PA6 blend irradiated with gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P. [Centro de Fisica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigacion Cientifica IVIC, Carretera Panamericana Km. 11, A.P. 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela); Albano, C.; Lovera, D. [Centro de Quimica, IVIC (Venezuela); Perera, R. [Departamento de Mecanica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela)


    Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we studied the tree radical formation in high-density Polyethylene (HDPE), polyamide (PA6) and HDPE/PA6 (80/20)blend, irradiated with integral doses (D), 0 < D < 1000 KGy, with a dose rate of irradiation in air of 6.6 KGy/h. Typical spectra indicative of the formation of allyl, alkyl and poly enyl radicals were obtained. A decay in the total number of spins per gram (C/g), when the samples are aged by a period of time of 30 days, was found, which is typical of a recombination of radicals with their environment. Additionally, a different order fit for the C/g as a function of D was obtained, which is indicative of the complex behavior of the kinetics of the decomposition. (Author)

  2. Tether-directed synthesis of highly substituted oxasilacycles via an intramolecular allylation employing allylsilanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Liam R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a silyl tether to unite an aldehyde electrophile and allylsilane nucleophile into a single molecule allows a subsequent Lewis-acid-mediated allylation to proceed in an intramolecular sense and therefore receive all the benefits associated with such processes. However, with the ability to cleave the tether post allylation, a product that is the result of a net intermolecular reaction can be obtained. In the present study, four diastereoisomeric β-silyloxy-α-methyl aldehydes, which contain an allylsilane tethered through the β-carbinol centre, have been prepared, in order to probe how the relative configuration of the two stereogenic centres affects the efficiency and selectivity of the intramolecular allylation. Results Syn-aldehydes, syn-4a and syn-4b, both react poorly, affording all four possible diastereoisomeric oxasilacycle products. In contrast, the anti aldehydes anti-4a and anti-4b react analogously to substrates that lack substitution at the α-site, affording only two of the four possible allylation products. Conclusion The outcome of the reaction with anti-aldehydes is in accord with reaction proceeding through a chair-like transition state (T.S.. In these systems, the sense of 1,3-stereoinduction can be rationalised by the aldehyde electrophile adopting a pseudoaxial orientation, which will minimise dipole-dipole interactions in the T.S. The 1,4-stereoinduction in these substrates is modest and seems to be modulated by the R substituent in the starting material. In the case of the syn-substrates, cyclisation through a chair T.S. is unlikely as this would require the methyl substituent α to the reacting carbonyl group to adopt an unfavourable pseudoaxial position. It is therefore proposed that these substrates react through poorly-defined T.S.s and consequently exhibit essentially no stereoselectivity.

  3. Synthesis of alkenyl boronates from allyl-substituted aromatics using an olefin cross-metathesis protocol. (United States)

    Hemelaere, Rémy; Carreaux, François; Carboni, Bertrand


    An efficient synthesis of 3-aryl-1-propenyl boronates from pinacol vinyl boronic ester and allyl-substituted aromatics by cross metathesis is reported. Although the allylbenzene derivatives are prone to isomerization reaction under metathesis conditions, we found that some ruthenium catalysts are effective for this methodology. This strategy thus provides an interesting alternative approach to alkyne hydroboration, leading to the preparation of unknown compounds. Moreover, the boron substituent can be replaced by various functional groups in good yields.

  4. Highly Regioselective Palladium-Catalyzed Carboxylation of Allylic Alcohols with CO2. (United States)

    Mita, Tsuyoshi; Higuchi, Yuki; Sato, Yoshihiro


    Various allylic alcohols were carboxylated in the presence of a catalytic amount of PdCl2 and PPh3 using ZnEt2 as a stoichiometric transmetalation agent under a CO2 atmosphere (1 atm). This carboxylation proceeded in a highly regioselective manner to afford branched carboxylic acids predominantly. The β,γ-unsaturated carboxylic acid thus obtained was successfully converted into an optically active γ-butyrolactone, a known intermediate of (R)-baclofen.

  5. On the key role of water in the allylic activation catalysed by Pd (II) bisphosphinite complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rakesh Kumar Sharma; Ashoka G Samuelson


    Palladium and platinum complexes of bisphosphinites and bisphosphines derived from mandelic acid have been prepared and characterized. Their ability to catalyze allylation of imines with allyltributylstannane has been studied. Bisphophinite complexes of Pd (II) are shown to be ideal and they work best in the presence of one equivalent of water. The near neutral conditions employed make the catalysts suitable for a wide variety of substrates.

  6. Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo


    A Lewis base catalyzed allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates has been developed. Various chiral MBH alcohols can be synthesized in high yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee). This is the first report using water as a nucleophile in asymmetric organocatalysis. The nucleophilic role of water has been verified using 18O-labeling experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Iron(III) chloride catalyzed glycosylation of peracylated sugars with allyl/alkynyl alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanaperumal, Senthil; Silva, Rodrigo Cesar da; Monteiro, Julia L.; Correa, Arlene G.; Paixao, Marcio W., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    In this work, the use of ferric chloride as an efficient catalyst in glycosylation reactions of sugars in the presence of allyl and alkynyl alcohols is described. The corresponding glycosides were obtained with moderate to good yields. This new procedure presented greater selectivity when compared to classic methods found in the literature. Principal features of this simple method include non-hazardous reaction conditions, low-catalyst loading, good yields and high anomeric selectivity (author)

  8. Direct Nucleophilic Substitution of Free Allylic Alcohols in Water Catalyzed by FeCl3⋅6 H2O: Which is the Real Catalyst?


    Trillo Alarcón, María Paz; Baeza, Alejandro; Nájera Domingo, Carmen


    The allylic substitution reaction, and particularly the direct allylic amination reaction, of free allylic alcohols in water catalyzed by FeCl3⋅6 H2O is described. This novel environmentally-friendly methodology allows the use of a wide variety of nitrogenated nucleophiles such as sulfonamides, carbamates, benzamides, anilines, benzotriazoles, and azides, generally giving good yields of the corresponding substitution products. The synthetic applicability of the process is also demonstrated be...

  9. Radical prostatectomy - discharge (United States)

    ... to 6 months. You will learn exercises (called Kegel exercises) that strengthen the muscles in your pelvis. ... Radical prostatectomy Retrograde ejaculation Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Suprapubic catheter care Urinary catheters - ...

  10. On the Structural Analysis of γ-Ray Induced Primary Free Radicals in UHMWPE and Vitamin E Stabilized UHMWPE by ESR Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Sajjad Mehmood


    Full Text Available Oriented allyl radicals are detected at room temperature in gamma irradiated UHMWPE. The effects of vitamin E and storage at room temperature on this oriented structure are also investigated during the study. While testing powder as well as compression-molded solids, with or without vitamin E, a typical ESR spectrum was recorded at room temperature following 100 kGy gamma dose and subsequent storage at −78.5°C for one year. The simulated results show that the relative abundance of 5% alkyl, 68% allyl, and 27% polyenyl produced a 98.7% best fit of experimental ones. Furthermore, the allyl radical signal gives approximately 20% of random orientations and 80% of oriented molecules. In oriented PE, measured at −196°C, Ohnishi et al. (1916 observed 25 lines within a total magnetic field width of approximately 133 G. Our spectra also show 25 lines spread over 136 G in UHMWPE powder samples and at room temperature after one year of storage.

  11. Determining the partial photoionization cross-sections of ethyl radicals. (United States)

    FitzPatrick, B L; Maienschein-Cline, M; Butler, L J; Lee, S-H; Lin, J J


    Using a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, these experiments photodissociate ethyl chloride at 193 nm and detect the Cl and ethyl products, resolved by their center-of-mass recoil velocities, with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The data determine the relative partial cross-sections for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to form C2H5+, C2H4+, and C2H3+ at 12.1 and 13.8 eV. The data also determine the internal energy distribution of the ethyl radical prior to photoionization, so we can assess the internal energy dependence of the photoionization cross-sections. The results show that the C2H4++H and C2H3++H2 dissociative photoionization cross-sections strongly depend on the photoionization energy. Calibrating the ethyl radical partial photoionization cross-sections relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross-section of Cl atoms near 13.8 eV allows us to use these data in conjunction with literature estimates of the Cl atom photoionization cross-sections to put the present bandwidth-averaged cross-sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged cross-section for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ near 13.8 eV is 8+/-2 Mb. Comparison of our 12.1 eV data with high-resolution ethyl radical photoionization spectra allows us to roughly put the high-resolution spectrum on the same absolute scale. Thus, one obtains the photoionization cross-section of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ from threshold to 12.1 eV. The data show that the onset of the C2H4++H dissociative photoionization channel is above 12.1 eV; this result offers a simple way to determine whether the signal observed in photoionization experiments on complex mixtures is due to ethyl radicals. We discuss an application of the results for resolving the product branching in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction.

  12. Free Radical Reactions in Food. (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.


    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and…

  13. Chemical Kinetics of Hydrogen Atom Abstraction from Allylic Sites by (3)O2; Implications for Combustion Modeling and Simulation. (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Wen; Simmie, John M; Somers, Kieran P; Goldsmith, C Franklin; Curran, Henry J


    Hydrogen atom abstraction from allylic C-H bonds by molecular oxygen plays a very important role in determining the reactivity of fuel molecules having allylic hydrogen atoms. Rate constants for hydrogen atom abstraction by molecular oxygen from molecules with allylic sites have been calculated. A series of molecules with primary, secondary, tertiary, and super secondary allylic hydrogen atoms of alkene, furan, and alkylbenzene families are taken into consideration. Those molecules include propene, 2-butene, isobutene, 2-methylfuran, and toluene containing the primary allylic hydrogen atom; 1-butene, 1-pentene, 2-ethylfuran, ethylbenzene, and n-propylbenzene containing the secondary allylic hydrogen atom; 3-methyl-1-butene, 2-isopropylfuran, and isopropylbenzene containing tertiary allylic hydrogen atom; and 1-4-pentadiene containing super allylic secondary hydrogen atoms. The M06-2X/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory was used to optimize the geometries of all of the reactants, transition states, products and also the hinder rotation treatments for lower frequency modes. The G4 level of theory was used to calculate the electronic single point energies for those species to determine the 0 K barriers to reaction. Conventional transition state theory with Eckart tunnelling corrections was used to calculate the rate constants. The comparison between our calculated rate constants with the available experimental results from the literature shows good agreement for the reactions of propene and isobutene with molecular oxygen. The rate constant for toluene with O2 is about an order magnitude slower than that experimentally derived from a comprehensive model proposed by Oehlschlaeger and coauthors. The results clearly indicate the need for a more detailed investigation of the combustion kinetics of toluene oxidation and its key pyrolysis and oxidation intermediates. Despite this, our computed barriers and rate constants retain an important internal consistency. Rate constants

  14. Genome wide association mapping in Arabidopsis thaliana identifies novel genes involved in linking allyl glucosinolate to altered biomass and defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Francisco


    Full Text Available A key limitation in modern biology is the ability to rapidly identify genes underlying newly identified complex phenotypes. Genome wide association studies (GWAS have become an increasingly important approach for dissecting natural variation by associating phenotypes with genotypes at a genome wide level. Recent work is showing that the Arabidopsis thaliana defense metabolite, allyl glucosinolate (GSL, may provide direct feedback regulation, linking defense metabolism outputs to the growth and defense responses of the plant. However, there is still a need to identify genes that underlie this process. To start developing a deeper understanding of the mechanism(s that modulate the ability of exogenous allyl GSL to alter growth and defense, we measured changes in plant biomass and defense metabolites in a collection of natural 96 A. thaliana accessions fed with 50 µM of allyl GSL. Exogenous allyl GSL was introduced exclusively to the roots and the compound transported to the leaf leading to a wide range of heritable effects upon plant biomass and endogenous GSL accumulation. Using natural variation we conducted GWAS to identify a number of new genes which potentially control allyl responses in various plant processes. This is one of the first instances in which this approach has been successfully utilized to begin dissecting a novel phenotype to the underlying molecular/polygenic basis.

  15. Palladacyclic imidazoline-naphthalene complexes: synthesis and catalytic performance in Pd(II)-catalyzed enantioselective reactions of allylic trichloroacetimidates. (United States)

    Cannon, Jeffrey S; Frederich, James H; Overman, Larry E


    A new family of air- and moisture-stable enantiopure C,N-palladacycles (PIN-acac complexes) were prepared in good overall yield in three steps from 2-iodo-1-naphthoic acid and enantiopure β-amino alcohols. Three of these PIN complexes were characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. As anticipated, the naphthalene and imidazoline rings of PIN-acac complexes 18a and 18b were canted significantly from planarity and projected the imidazoline substituents R(1) and R(2) on opposite faces of the palladium square plane. Fifteen PIN complexes were evaluated as catalysts for the rearrangement of prochiral (E)-allylic trichloroacetimidate 19 (eq 2) and the S(N)2' allylic substitution of acetic acid with prochiral (Z)-allylic trichloroacetimidate 23. Although these complexes were kinetically poor catalysts for the Overman rearrangement, they were good catalysts for the allylic substitution reaction, providing branched allylic esters in high yield. However, enantioselectivities were low to moderate and significantly less than that realized with palladacyclic complexes of the COP family. Computational studies support an anti-acetoxypalladation/syn-deoxypalladation mechanism analogous to that observed with COP catalysts. The computational study further suggests that optimizing steric influence in the vicinity of the carbon ligand of a chiral C,N-palladacycle, rather than near the nitrogen heterocycle, is the direction to pursue in future development of improved enantioselective catalysts of this motif.

  16. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker


    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  17. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten;


    INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomies can result in urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Traditionally, these issues have been studied separately, and the sexual problem that has received the most focus has been erectile dysfunction. AIM: To summarize the literature on sexually related side...... effects and their consequences after radical prostatectomy and focus on the occurrence and management of problems beyond erectile dysfunction. METHODS: The literature on sexuality after radical prostatectomy was reviewed through a Medline search. Original research using quantitative and qualitative...... methodologies was considered. Priority was given to studies exploring aspects of sexuality other than erectile function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence, predictive factors, and management of post-prostatectomy sexual problems beyond erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Most patients will develop urinary...

  18. Resonance energies of the allyl cation and allyl anion: contribution by resonance and inductive effects toward the acidity and hydride abstraction enthalpy of propene. (United States)

    Barbour, Josiah B; Karty, Joel M


    Density functional theory was employed to calculate the acidities and hydride abstraction enthalpies of propene (3) and propane (4), along with their vinylogues (5 and 6, respectively). The same reaction enthalpies were calculated for the propene vinylogues in which the terminal vinyl group was rotated perpendicular to the rest of the conjugated system (7). The contribution by resonance and inductive effects toward the acidity and hydride abstraction enthalpy of each vinylogue of 5 (n = 1-3) was computed and extrapolated to n = 0 (the parent propene system). The resonance energies of the allyl cation and anion were determined to be about 20-22 and 17-18 kcal/mol, respectively. Comparisons are made to resonance energies calculated using other methodologies.

  19. S-Allyl cysteine improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in type 2 diabetes Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats via regulation of hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism. (United States)

    Takemura, Shigekazu; Minamiyama, Yukiko; Kodai, Shintaro; Shinkawa, Hiroji; Tsukioka, Takuma; Okada, Shigeru; Azuma, Hideki; Kubo, Shoji


    It is important to prevent and improve diabetes mellitus and its complications in a safe and low-cost manner. S-Allyl cysteine, an aged garlic extract with antioxidant activity, was investigated to determine whether S-allyl cysteine can improve type 2 diabetes in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats and age-matched Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats were used and were divided into two groups at 29 weeks of age. S-Allyl cysteine (0.45% diet) was administered to rats for 13 weeks. Rats were killed at 43 weeks of age, and detailed analyses were performed. S-Allyl cysteine improved hemoglobinA1c, blood glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Furthermore, S-allyl cysteine normalized plasma insulin levels. S-Allyl cysteine activated the mRNA and protein expression of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, as well as inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat liver. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and forkhead box O1 proteins were normalized by S-allyl cysteine in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat liver. In conclusions, these findings support the hypothesis that S-allyl cysteine has diabetic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease therapeutic potential as a potent regulating agent against lipogenesis and glucose metabolism.

  20. Thermosetting composite matrix materials based on allyl and/or propargyl substituted cyclopentadiene, indene and fluorene (United States)

    Tregre, Gregory Jude

    A series of all-hydrocarbon thermoset composite matrix resins was synthesized via electrophilic substitution of cyclopentadiene, indene, and fluorene ring systems with allyl and/or propargyl halides under phase transfer conditions. Reaction of cyclopentadiene with allyl chloride (ACP resin), propargyl bromide (PCP resin) or various feed ratios of allyl chloride and propargyl bromide (APCP resins) yielded mixtures of products with 2-6 substituents per cyclopentadiene ring. Reaction of indene with allyl chloride (Al resins) or propargyl bromide (PI resins) yielded mixtures of products with 2-4 substituents per indene. In both sets of resins the allyl functionality obtained a greater average degree of substitution than the analogous propargyl species. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis of the multifunctional resins showed broad, high-energy thermal cures in all cases. The enthalpies of cure for ACP and PCP were 750 J/g and 805 J/g, respectively, with peak cure energies occurring at 310 and 248sp°C. The enthalpy of cure for APCP resins ranged from 750 J/g to 800 J/g with higher propargyl-functional resins yielding higher enthalpies of cure. Physically mixed ACP/PCP resin systems gave peak cure temperatures and energy values comparable to APCP resins. The enthalpies of cure for Al and PI-resins were 480 J/g and 630 J/g, respectively. Peak cure temperature for Al resin was 320sp°C, while the peak cure for PI resin occurred at 282sp°C. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used to evaluate mechanisms of cure in the experimental resins. The allyl functional resins cured through a combination of ene reactions and polyaddition reactions. The propargyl functional resins cured through ene reactions and polyadditions but also underwent some cyclotrimerization of the propargyl functionalities. A small amount of autoxidation was seen in all of the resins. Thermal stability and carbon yields of the cured resins were

  1. Chirality Transfer in Gold(I)-Catalysed Direct Allylic Etherifications of Unactivated Alcohols: Experimental and Computational Study. (United States)

    Barker, Graeme; Johnson, David G; Young, Paul C; Macgregor, Stuart A; Lee, Ai-Lan


    Gold(I)-catalysed direct allylic etherifications have been successfully carried out with chirality transfer to yield enantioenriched, γ-substituted secondary allylic ethers. Our investigations include a full substrate-scope screen to ascertain substituent effects on the regioselectivity, stereoselectivity and efficiency of chirality transfer, as well as control experiments to elucidate the mechanistic subtleties of the chirality-transfer process. Crucially, addition of molecular sieves was found to be necessary to ensure efficient and general chirality transfer. Computational studies suggest that the efficiency of chirality transfer is linked to the aggregation of the alcohol nucleophile around the reactive π-bound Au-allylic ether complex. With a single alcohol nucleophile, a high degree of chirality transfer is predicted. However, if three alcohols are present, alternative proton transfer chain mechanisms that erode the efficiency of chirality transfer become competitive.

  2. Study on the Preparation of Allyl-modified Starch in Isopropyl/Water Medium for Warp Sizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man-li; ZHU Zhi-feng; ZHANG Long-qiu


    A new method for the pretreatment of starch by etherification was developed to eliminate the problems of lower grafting efficiency associated with the preparation of starch graft copolymers as warp sizing agents.The etherification of starch with allyl chloride was investigated in order to effectively enhance the reaction efficiency.The technological variables of the reaction considered for evaluating the etherification included sodium hydroxide amount,water content in water-isopropyi alcohol medium,allyl cldoride concentration,reaction temperature and reaction time.The experimental result demonstrated that the variables considered showed evident effect on the reaction efficiency.For the etherification,a condition of 20% for the water content,1.5:1 for the molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to allyl chloride.and at 30℃ under 24h reaction is Sufficient to retain the reaction efficiency above 50%.Furthermore,a contrast test demonstrated that the graft efficiency can be increased with the etherification pretreatment.

  3. Beyond Radical Educational Cynicism. (United States)

    Wood, George H.


    An alternative is presented to counter current radical arguments that the schools cannot bring about social change because they are instruments of capitalism. The works of Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and Louis Althusser are discussed. Henry Giroux's "Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling" provides an alternative to cynicism.…

  4. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali


    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Electromeric rhodium radical complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puschmann, F.F.; Harmer, J.; Stein, D.; Rüegger, H.; de Bruin, B.; Grützmacher, H.


    Radical changes: One single P-Rh-P angle determines whether the odd electron in the paramagnetic complex [Rh(trop2PPh)(PPh3)] is delocalized over the whole molecule (see picture, blue) or is localized on the P—Rh unit (red). The two energetically almost degenerate electromers exist in a fast equilib

  6. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja


    When, why, and how do people living in a democracy become radicalized to the point of being willing to use or directly support the use of terrorist violence against fellow citizens? This question has been at the center of academic and public debate over the past years as terrorist attacks...

  7. Radical School Reform. (United States)

    Gross, Beatrice, Ed.; Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive examination of the nature of the school crisis and the ways in which radical thinkers and educators are dealing with it. Excerpts from the writings of Jonathan Kozol, John Holt, Kenneth Clark, and others are concerned with the realities of education in ghettos and suburbs. Paul Goodman, Marshall McLuhan, Sylvia…

  8. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community will be proposed...

  9. On Radical Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>All men are created equal.For centuries,human have been struggling for their rights.Women,as a special social force,are fighting vigorously for their equal rights with men.According to an introduction to feminism,there are three main types of feminism:socialist,reformist and radical(Feminism 101).In order

  10. Non-thermal plasma destruction of allyl alcohol in waste gas: kinetics and modelling (United States)

    DeVisscher, A.; Dewulf, J.; Van Durme, J.; Leys, C.; Morent, R.; Van Langenhove, H.


    Non-thermal plasma treatment is a promising technique for the destruction of volatile organic compounds in waste gas. A relatively unexplored technique is the atmospheric negative dc multi-pin-to-plate glow discharge. This paper reports experimental results of allyl alcohol degradation and ozone production in this type of plasma. A new model was developed to describe these processes quantitatively. The model contains a detailed chemical degradation scheme, and describes the physics of the plasma by assuming that the fraction of electrons that takes part in chemical reactions is an exponential function of the reduced field. The model captured the experimental kinetic data to less than 2 ppm standard deviation.

  11. Direct asymmetric allylic alkenylation of N-itaconimides with Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Wenguo


    The asymmetric allylic alkenylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates with N-itaconimides as nucleophiles has been developed using a commercially available Cinchona alkaloid catalyst. A variety of multifunctional chiral α-methylene-β-maleimide esters were attained in moderate to excellent yields (up to 99%) and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 91% ee). The origin of the regio- and stereoselectivity was verified by DFT methods. Calculated geometries and relative energies of various transition states strongly support the observed regio- and enantioselectivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Lanthanum triflate triggered synthesis of tetrahydroquinazolinone derivatives of N-allyl quinolone and their biological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardosh Hardik H.


    Full Text Available A series of 24 derivatives of tetrahydroquinazolinone has been synthesized by one-pot cyclocondensation reaction of N-allyl quinolones, cyclic β-diketones and (thiourea/N-phenylthiourea in presence of lanthanum triflate catalyst. This methodology allowed us to achieve the products in excellent yield by stirring at room temperature. All the synthesized compounds were investigated against a representative panel of pathogenic strains using broth microdilution MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration method for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Amongst these sets of heterocyclic compounds 5h, 6b, 6h, 5f, 5l, 5n and 6g found to have admirable activity.

  13. N-(2-Allyl-4-ethoxy-2H-indazol-5-yl-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Chicha


    Full Text Available The indazole ring system of the title compound, C19H21N3O3S, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0192 Å and forms dihedral angles of 77.99 (15 and 83.9 (3° with the benzene ring and allyl group, respectively. In the crystal, centrosymmetrically related molecules are connected by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds into dimers, which are further linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming columns parallel to the b axis.

  14. Thermophysical properties and reaction kinetics of γ-irradiated poly allyl diglycol carbonates nuclear track detector (United States)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K.; Seddik, Usama


    Kinetic thermogravimetric technique was used to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the poly allyl diglycol carbonates (PADC) within the dose range from 50 to ? Gy. The approach of Coats-Redfern was used to analyze the data. Results showed that low doses around 50 Gy make the polymer slightly more resistive to heat treatment. Higher radiation doses cause severe effects in the samples accompanied by the formation of lower molecular mass species and consequent crosslinking. Results support the domination of re-polymerization and crosslinking for the γ radiation interaction PADC at dose below about ? Gy, while the situation is inverted above ? Gy in which chain secession dominates.

  15. Synthesis of Aminophosphine Ligands with Binaphthyl Backbones for Silver(I)-catalyzed Enantioselective Allylation of Benzaldehyde

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Yi(王以); JI,Bao-Ming(吉保明); DING,Kui-Ling(丁奎岭)


    A series of aminophosphine ligands was synthesized from 2amino-2′-hydroxy-1,1′-binaphthyl (NOBIN). Their asymmetric induction efficiency was examined for silver(I)catalyzed enantioselective allylation reaction of benzaldehyde with allyltributyltin.Under the optimized reaction conditions,quantitative yield as well as moderate ee value (54.5% ee)of product was achieved by the catalysis with silver(I)/3 complex. The effects of the binaphthyl backbone and the substituted situated at chelating N, Patoms on enantioselectivity of the reaction were also discussed.

  16. Synthesis of Aryl Allyl Ether in the Recyclable Ionic Liquid [bmim]PF6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Mei-Yun; Li Yi-Qun; Xu Xin-Ming


    Ionic liquids, especially imidazonium salts, have recently gained recognition as possible environmentally benign alternative chemical process solvents. This is mainly due to their nonvolatile nature, insolubility in some solvents as well as their ability to dissolve a wide range of organic and inorganic materials, allowing the ionic liquids easy recovery and recycling. Examples of their application in organic reactions have been summarized in a number of recent review articles.1Aryl allyl ether is very useful intermediate in organic synthesis. The Williamson reaction is a well knows method for the preparation ethers. However, the reaction of alkylating agents with the phenoxide ions was conventionally carried out in the organic solvents. The usual solvents for this type of reaction are DCM, 2 DMSO, 3 DMF, 4 CH3CN5 etc. With the current desire to avoid the use of organic molecular solvents in organic synthesis, we decide to investigate the use of the ionic liquid for the alternative solvent for the Williamson reaction to prepare the aryl allyl ethers. The ionic liquid employed here was the moisture stable 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bmim]PF6.6 The ionic liquid is non-volatile, thermally stable, and depending on the anion, can present low immiscible with water,alkanes and dialky ethers. We have now found that aryl allyl ethers can have been obtained from various phenols and allyl bromide in the presence of potassium hydroxide in [bmim]PF6 as a replacement for classical organic solvents in the ambient temperature. The results are shown in Scheme 1.The reaction were carried out by simple mixing the phenolwith the ally bromide and potassium hydroxide in [bmim]PF6 and stirred at room temperature for 4h. The results are summarized in Table 1.In conclusion, Williamson reaction can be successfully conducted in ionic liquid [bmim]PF6 with a number of advantages: the procedure is simple, the reaction condition is mild and the yields are excellent

  17. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups (United States)

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H.


    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates. Nonetheless, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable because the resulting products could then be subjected to further modifications. However, such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine-copper catalyst (with an alkyl Grignard reagent, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminium compounds), a diene-iridium catalyst (with arylboroxines), or a bisphosphine-cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes). 1,6-Conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at the C4 position. It is unclear why certain catalysts favour bond formation at C6, and—although there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions—related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. Here we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenyl-boron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 per cent yield, >98:2 diastereomeric ratio (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. We elucidate the mechanistic details, including the origins of high site selectivity (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst

  18. N-(1-Allyl-3-chloro-4-ethoxy-1H-indazol-5-yl-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Chicha


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H20ClN3O3S, the benzene ring is inclined to the indazole ring system by 51.23 (8°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers which stack in columns parallel to [011]. The atoms in the allyl group are disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.624 (8:0.376 (8.

  19. Nano-Aluminum Powder Mediated Allylation of Carbonyl Compounds in Aqueous Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shi-Zhen; LIU Jin


    A new and effective Barbier-Grignard allylation of aldehydes or ketones has been carried out with nano-aluminum powder in aqueous 0.1 mol·L-1 NH4Cl (aq.) under an atmosphere of nitrogen. Aromatic carbonyl compounds gave homoallylic alcohols in good yields. The effectiveness of reaction was strongly influenced by the steric environment surrounding the carbonyl group. Aliphatic carbonyl compounds proceeded in low yields. The dominant stereoisomer was an erythro-isomer when an ortho-hydroxyl carbonyl compound was reacted under such a reaction condition.

  20. [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements of fluorinated allyl (Thio)cyanates - a tool for the synthesis of fluorinated (Thio)ureas. (United States)

    Ramb, Daniel C; Kost, Lisa; Haufe, Günter


    The first (thio)cyanate to iso(thio)cyanate rearrangements based on 2-fluoroallylic alcohols are presented. Long-chain 2-fluoroallylic alcohols were converted to corresponding N-unsubstituted carbamates by treatment with trichloroacetyl isocyanate. Dehydration using trifluoroacetic anhydride in the presence of triethylamine formed intermediate allylic cyanates, which immediately underwent sigmatropic rearrangement to fluorinated allyl isocyanates. Without isolation the latter delivered fluorinated ureas by addition of amines. The thiocyanate to isothiocyanate rearrangements started from the same fluorinated allylic alcohols, which were first converted to mesylates. Heating in THF with potassium thiocyanate led to fluorinated allyl isothiocyanates, via [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of intermediate allyl thiocyanates. The formed products were further reacted with amines to fluorinated thioureas.

  1. Further exploration of the heterocyclic diversity accessible from the allylation chemistry of indigo (United States)

    Shakoori, Alireza; Bremner, John B; Abdel-Hamid, Mohammed K; Willis, Anthony C; Haritakun, Rachada


    Summary Diversity-directed synthesis based on the cascade allylation chemistry of indigo, with its embedded 2,2’-diindolic core, has resulted in rapid access to new examples of the hydroxy-8a,13-dihydroazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(8H)-one skeleton in up to 51% yield. Additionally a derivative of the novel bridged heterocycle 7,8-dihydro-6H-6,8a-epoxyazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(13H)-one was produced when the olefin of the allylic substrate was terminally disubstituted. Further optimisation also produced viable one-pot syntheses of derivatives of the spiro(indoline-2,9'-pyrido[1,2-a]indol)-3-one (65%) and pyrido[1,2,3-s,t]indolo[1,2-a]azepino[3,4-b]indol-17-one (72%) heterocyclic systems. Ring-closing metathesis of the N,O-diallylic spiro structure and subsequent Claisen rearrangement gave rise to the new (1R,8aS,17aS)-rel-1,2-dihydro-1-vinyl-8H,17H,9H-benz[2',3']pyrrolizino[1',7a':2,3]pyrido[1,2-a]indole-8,17-(2H,9H)-dione heterocyclic system. PMID:25977722

  2. Further exploration of the heterocyclic diversity accessible from the allylation chemistry of indigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Shakoori


    Full Text Available Diversity-directed synthesis based on the cascade allylation chemistry of indigo, with its embedded 2,2’-diindolic core, has resulted in rapid access to new examples of the hydroxy-8a,13-dihydroazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(8H-one skeleton in up to 51% yield. Additionally a derivative of the novel bridged heterocycle 7,8-dihydro-6H-6,8a-epoxyazepino[1,2-a:3,4-b']diindol-14(13H-one was produced when the olefin of the allylic substrate was terminally disubstituted. Further optimisation also produced viable one-pot syntheses of derivatives of the spiro(indoline-2,9'-pyrido[1,2-a]indol-3-one (65% and pyrido[1,2,3-s,t]indolo[1,2-a]azepino[3,4-b]indol-17-one (72% heterocyclic systems. Ring-closing metathesis of the N,O-diallylic spiro structure and subsequent Claisen rearrangement gave rise to the new (1R,8aS,17aS-rel-1,2-dihydro-1-vinyl-8H,17H,9H-benz[2',3']pyrrolizino[1',7a':2,3]pyrido[1,2-a]indole-8,17-(2H,9H-dione heterocyclic system.

  3. Iron complexes of tetramine ligands catalyse allylic hydroxyamination via a nitroso–ene mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Porter


    Full Text Available Iron(II complexes of the tetradentate amines tris(2-pyridylmethylamine (TPA and N,N′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl-N,N′-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (BPMEN are established catalysts of C–O bond formation, oxidising hydrocarbon substrates via hydroxylation, epoxidation and dihydroxylation pathways. Herein we report the capacity of these catalysts to promote C–N bond formation, via allylic amination of alkenes. The combination of N-Boc-hydroxylamine with either FeTPA (1 mol % or FeBPMEN (10 mol % converts cyclohexene to the allylic hydroxylamine (tert-butyl cyclohex-2-en-1-yl(hydroxycarbamate in moderate yields. Spectroscopic studies and trapping experiments suggest the reaction proceeds via a nitroso–ene mechanism, with involvement of a free N-Boc-nitroso intermediate. Asymmetric induction is not observed using the chiral tetramine ligand (+-(2R,2′R-1,1′-bis(2-pyridylmethyl-2,2′-bipyrrolidine ((R,R′-PDP.

  4. Mechanism of the cobalt oxazoline palladacycle (COP)-catalyzed asymmetric synthesis of allylic esters. (United States)

    Cannon, Jeffrey S; Kirsch, Stefan F; Overman, Larry E; Sneddon, Helen F


    The catalytic enantioselective S(N)2' displacement of (Z)-allylic trichloroacetimidates catalyzed by the palladium(II) complex [COP-OAc](2) is a broadly useful method for the asymmetric synthesis of chiral branched allylic esters. A variety of experiments aimed at elucidating the nature of the catalytic mechanism and its rate- and enantiodetermining steps are reported. Key findings include the following: (a) the demonstration that a variety of bridged-dipalladium complexes are present and constitute resting states of the COP catalyst (however, monomeric palladium(II) complexes are likely involved in the catalytic cycle); (b) labeling experiments establishing that the reaction proceeds in an overall antarafacial fashion; (c) secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects that suggest substantial rehybridization at both C1 and C3 in the rate-limiting step; and (d) DFT computational studies (B3-LYP/def2-TZVP) that provide evidence for bidentate substrate-bound intermediates and an anti-oxypalladation/syn-deoxypalladation pathway. These results are consistent with a novel mechanism in which chelation of the imidate nitrogen to form a cationic palladium(II) intermediate activates the alkene for attack by external carboxylate in the enantiodetermining step. Computational modeling of the transition-state structure for the acyloxy palladation step provides a model for enantioinduction.

  5. Probability and radical behaviorism (United States)

    Espinosa, James M.


    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforcement and extinction, respectively. PMID:22478114

  6. Probability and radical behaviorism


    Espinosa, James M.


    The concept of probability appears to be very important in the radical behaviorism of Skinner. Yet, it seems that this probability has not been accurately defined and is still ambiguous. I give a strict, relative frequency interpretation of probability and its applicability to the data from the science of behavior as supplied by cumulative records. Two examples of stochastic processes are given that may model the data from cumulative records that result under conditions of continuous reinforc...

  7. Radical chic, javisst!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartle, J.F.


    Det är lätt att raljera över engagerade människor, i synnerhet när engagemanget framstår som ytligt och chict snarare än grundläggande och autentiskt. Men vad ligger bakom ett sådant avfärdande? Johan Frederik Hartle läser om Tom Wolfes klassiska essä "Radical Chic" och visar hur Wolfe −− genom att

  8. Women and radicalization


    Badran, Margot


    The paper focuses on women and radicalization within the context of Muslim societies (majority, minority, and half Muslim) societies and groups, mainly in Asia and Africa. The basic argument advanced in this paper is that Islamic feminism with its gender-egalitarian discourse and practices has a major role to play in the empowerment of Muslim women—and of men and society as a whole—and should be brought to bear in devising policy, strategy, and tools.

  9. Radical substitution with azide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Marinescu, Lavinia Georgeta; Bols, Mikael


    and the substrate. A primary deuterium kinetic isotope effect was found for the azidonation of benzyl ethers both with TMSN3-PhI(OAc)2 and with IN3. Also a Hammett free energy relationship study of this reaction showed good correlation with sigma+ constants giving with rho-values of -0.47 for TMSN3-PhI(OAc)2 and -0.......39 for IN3. On this basis a radical mechanism of the reaction was proposed....


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator


    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  11. [Radical prostatectomy - pro robotic]. (United States)

    Gillitzer, R


    Anatomical radical prostatectomy was introduced in the early 1980s by Walsh and Donker. Elucidation of key anatomical structures led to a significant reduction in the morbidity of this procedure. The strive to achieve similar oncological and functional results to this gold standard open procedure but with further reduction of morbidity through a minimally invasive access led to the establishment of laparoscopic prostatectomy. However, this procedure is complex and difficult and is associated with a long learning curve. The technical advantages of robotically assisted surgery coupled with the intuitive handling of the device led to increased precision and shortening of the learning curve. These main advantages, together with a massive internet presence and aggressive marketing, have resulted in a rapid dissemination of robotic radical prostatectomy and an increasing patient demand. However, superiority of robotic radical prostatectomy in comparison to the other surgical therapeutic options has not yet been proven on a scientific basis. Currently robotic-assisted surgery is an established technique and future technical improvements will certainly further define its role in urological surgery. In the end this technical innovation will have to be balanced against the very high purchase and running costs, which remain the main limitation of this technology.

  12. Asymmetric allylic alkylation in combination with ring-closing metathesis for the preparation of chiral N-heterocycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teichert, Johannes F.; Zhang, Suyan; Zijl, Anthoni W. van; Slaa, Jan Willem; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard


    Asymmetric copper-catalyzed allylic substitution with methylmagnesium bromide is employed in combination with ring-closing olefin metathesis or ene-yne metathesis to achieve the synthesis of chiral, unsaturated nitrogen heterocycles. The resulting six- to eight-membered chiral heterocycles are acces

  13. Synthesis of novel chiral phosphine-triazine ligand derived from α-phenylethylamine for Pd-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Di Huang; Xiang Ping Hu; Zhuo Zheng


    A novel chiral phosphine-triazine ligand was synthesized from chiral model reaction of Pd-catalyzed allylic alkylation of rac-l,3-diphenylprop-2-en-l-yl pivalate with dimethyl malonate, good enantioselectivity (90% e.e.) was obtained by using this ligand.

  14. New chiral N, S-ligands with Thiophenyl at Benzylic Position. Palladium(Ⅱ)-catalyzed Enantioselective Allylic Alkylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Hao(吴昊); WU,Xun-Wei(巫循伟); HOU,Xue-Long(侯雪龙); DAI,Li-Xin(戴立信); WANG,Quan-Rui(王全瑞)


    New chiral N, S-ligands with oxazoline and thiphenyl substituents at benzene ring and benzylic position have been prepared and applied in palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation reaction to provide the product with high yield and entantioselectivity (82%-93% ee).

  15. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions (United States)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  16. Spectra of carbanions formed from allyl cyanide during isomerization in zeolite NaY-FAU with strong basic sites (United States)

    Hannus, István; Förster, Horst; Tasi, Gyula; Kiricsi, Imre; Molnár, Árpád


    Double bond isomerization of allyl cyanide to crotononitrile over a basic zeolite catalyst was monitored by IR and UV-VIS spectroscopy in order to get information on the surface intermediates involved. Due to the spectral changes the occurence of a carbanionic intermediate seems to be highly probable characterized by an absorption at 400 nm.

  17. Phosphine-catalyzed [4 + 1] annulation between α,β-unsaturated imines and allylic carbonates: synthesis of 2-pyrrolines. (United States)

    Tian, Junjun; Zhou, Rong; Sun, Haiyun; Song, Haibin; He, Zhengjie


    In this report, a phosphine-catalyzed [4 + 1] annulation between α,β-unsaturated imines and allylic carbonates is described. This reaction represents the first realization of catalytic [4 + 1] cyclization of 1,3-azadienes with in situ formed phosphorus ylides, which provides highly efficient and diastereoselective synthesis of 2-pyrrolines.

  18. Inhibition and Promotion of Pyrolysis by Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) and Sulfanyl Radical (SH). (United States)

    Zeng, Zhe; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Oluwoye, Ibukun; Glarborg, Peter; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z


    This study resolves the interaction of sulfanyl radical (SH) with aliphatic (C1-C4) hydrocarbons, using CBS-QB3 based calculations. We obtained the C-H dissociation enthalpies and located the weakest link in each hydrocarbon. Subsequent computations revealed that, H abstraction by SH from the weakest C-H sites in alkenes and alkynes, except for ethylene, appears noticeably exothermic. Furthermore, abstraction of H from propene, 1-butene, and iso-butene displays pronounced spontaneity (i.e., ΔrG° < -20 kJ mol(-1) between 300-1200 K) due to the relatively weak allylic hydrogen bond. However, an alkyl radical readily abstracts H atom from H2S, with H2S acting as a potent scavenger for alkyl radicals in combustion processes. That is, these reactions proceed in the opposite direction than those involving SH and alkene or alkyne species, exhibiting shallow barriers and strong spontaneity. Our findings demonstrate that the documented inhibition effect of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on pyrolysis of alkanes does not apply to alkenes and alkynes. During interaction with hydrocarbons, the inhibitive effect of H2S and promoting interaction of SH radical depend on the reversibility of the H abstraction processes. For the three groups of hydrocarbon, Evans-Polanyi plots display linear correlations between the bond dissociation enthalpies of the abstracted hydrogens and the relevant activation energies. In the case of methane, we demonstrated that the reactivity of SH radicals toward abstracting H atoms exceeds that of HO2 but falls below those of OH and NH2 radicals.

  19. Catalysis of Radical Reactions: A Radical Chemistry Perspective. (United States)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P


    The area of catalysis of radical reactions has recently flourished. Various reaction conditions have been discovered and explained in terms of catalytic cycles. These cycles rarely stand alone as unique paths from substrates to products. Instead, most radical reactions have innate chains which form products without any catalyst. How do we know if a species added in "catalytic amounts" is a catalyst, an initiator, or something else? Herein we critically address both catalyst-free and catalytic radical reactions through the lens of radical chemistry. Basic principles of kinetics and thermodynamics are used to address problems of initiation, propagation, and inhibition of radical chains. The catalysis of radical reactions differs from other areas of catalysis. Whereas efficient innate chain reactions are difficult to catalyze because individual steps are fast, both inefficient chain processes and non-chain processes afford diverse opportunities for catalysis, as illustrated with selected examples.

  20. Gnosticism and Radical Feminism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan


    and place demand an explanation; my attempt to do so also takes into account the important differences between the gnostic and the radical feminist postures, notably the latter belief in progress and the former nostalgia for an ungendered era. Both the similarities and the differences, however, may offer...... support for approaching Gnosticism as first and foremost a cultural phenomenon (albeit exhibiting religious “symptoms”), and I attempt to show that such an approach can help to solve the recurrent problem of defining Gnosticism....

  1. Ab initio study of the influence of resonance stabilization on intramolecular ring closure reactions of hydrocarbon radicals. (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Villano, Stephanie M; Dean, Anthony M


    The intramolecular ring closure reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbon radicals potentially play an important role for the formation of molecular weight growth species, especially during the pyrolysis and oxidation of alkenes under low to intermediate temperatures. In this work we investigated a series of intramolecular cycloaddition reactions of both allylic- and alkyl-type dienyl radicals. In the first set of reactions, a resonant linear radical is converted into a non-resonant cyclic radical. In the second set, a non-resonant linear alkenyl radical isomerizes to either a resonant cyclic radical or a cyclic carbinyl radical. In both cases, three different reaction schemes are examined based on the location of the partially-formed resonance structure in the cyclic transition state. For each reaction scheme, both the endo- and exo-pathways were investigated. High pressure rate parameters are obtained from the results of CBS-QB3 electronic structure calculations combined with canonical transition state theory calculations. The results are discussed in the context of a Benson-type model to examine the impact of the partially-formed resonance stabilization on both the activation energies and pre-exponential factors. The results are compared to previously reported rate parameters for cycloaddition reactions of alkenyl radicals. The differences in the activation energies are primarily due to the bimolecular component of the activation energy. However, in some cases, the presence of the partial resonance structure significantly increases the strain energy for the ring that is formed in the transition state. The pre-exponential factors are also impacted by the formation of a partial resonance structure in the transition state. Lastly, the C6H9 potential energy surface is examined to show how the trends that are outlined here can be used to estimate rate parameters, which are needed to analyze pressure-dependent reaction systems.

  2. Bursectomy at radical gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuneyt; Kayaalp


    Radical gastrectomy with extended lymph node dissec tion and prophylactic resection of the omentum, peri toneum over the posterior lesser sac, pancreas and/o spleen was advocated at the beginning of the 1960 s in Japan. In time, prophylactic routine resections of the pancreas and/or spleen were abandoned because of the high incidence of postoperative complications. However omentectomy and bursectomy continued to be standard parts of traditional radical gastrectomy. The bursaomentalis was thought to be a natural barrier against invasion of cancer cells into the posterior part of the stomach. The theoretical rationale for bursectomy was to reduce the risk of peritoneal recurrences by eliminating the peritoneum over the lesser sac, which might include free cancer cells or micrometastases. Over time, the indication for bursectomy was gradually reduced to only patients with posterior gastric wall tumors penetrating the serosa. Despite its theoretical advantages, its benefit for recurrence or survival has not been proven yet. The possible reasons for this inconsistency are discussed in this review. In conclusion, the value of bursectomy in the treatment of gastric cancer is still under debate and large-scale randomized studies are necessary. Until clear evidence of patient benefit is obtained, its routine use cannot be recommended.

  3. Radically innovative steelmaking technologies (United States)

    Szekely, Julian


    The steel industry is faced with serious problems caused by the increasing cost of energy, labor and capital and by tough overseas competition, employing new highly efficient process plants. The very high cost of capital and of capital equipment renders the construction of new green field site plants, exemplifying the best available technology economically unattractive. For this reason, over the long term the development radically innovative steelmaking technologies appears to be the only satisfactory resolution of this dilemma. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of some of the radically innovative steelmaking technologies that have been proposed during the past few years and to develop the argument that these indeed do deserve serious consideration at the present time. It should be stressed, however, that these innovative technologies can be implemented only as part of a carefully conceived long range plan, which contains as a subset short term solutions, such as trigger prices improved investment credits, and so forth and intermediate term solutions, such as more extensive use of continuous casting, external desulfurization and selective modernization in general.

  4. The Reaction of Allyl Isothiocyanate with Hydroxyl/Water and β-Cyclodextrin Using Ultraviolet Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-Tao Jiang


    Full Text Available The reaction of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC with hydroxyl/water and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD in different acidic-alkaline media has been investigated by ultraviolet spectrometry. The kinetic parameters of the reaction were measured. It was found that after AITC translating into thiourea, the absorption peak shifted from 240 to 226 nm and the molar absorptivity increased about 16 times. The reaction can be seen as a pseudo first order reaction because the concentration of hydroxyl was constant. β-CD can inhibit the reaction of AITC with hydroxyl/water, i.e. the hydrolysis of AITC. The formation constant (Ka and thermodynamic parameters of the complex reaction were calculated. Ka decreased with the increase of temperature. The experimental results indicated that the inclusive process was an exothermic and enthalpy-driven process accompanied with a negative entropic contribution.

  5. An Efficient Amide-Aldehyde-Alkene Condensation: Synthesis for the N-Allyl Amides. (United States)

    Quan, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Xi-Cun


    The allylamine skeleton represents a significant class of biologically active nitrogen compounds that are found in various natural products and drugs with well-recognized pharmacological properties. In this personal account, we will briefly discuss the synthesis of allylamine skeletons. We will focus on showing a general protocol for Lewis acid-catalyzed N-allylation of electron-poor N-heterocyclic amides and sulfonamide via an amide-aldehyde-alkene condensation reaction. The substrate scope with respect to N-heterocyclic amides, aldehydes, and alkenes will be discussed. This method is also capable of preparing the Naftifine motif from N-methyl-1-naphthamide or methyl (naphthalene-1-ylmethyl)carbamate, with paraformaldehyde and styrene in a one-pot manner.

  6. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.


    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Low-temperature Electrodeposition of Aluminium from Lewis Acidic 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium Chloroaluminate Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑勇; 张锁江; 吕兴梅; 王倩; 左勇; 刘恋


    Lewis acidic 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloroaluminate ionic liquids were used as promising electrolytes in the low-temperature electrodeposition of aluminium. Systematic studies on deposition process have been performed by cYClic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The surface morphology and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of deposits prepared at different experimental conditions were also investigated. It was shown that the nucleation density and growth rate of crystallites had a great effect on the structure of aluminium deposited. The crys- tallographic orientation of deposits was mainly influenced by temperature and current density. Smooth, dense and well adherent aluminium coatings were obtained on copper substrates at 10-25^-2 and 313.2-353.2 K. More- over, the current efficiency of deposition and purity of aluminium have been significantly improved, demonstrating that the ionic liquids tested have a prospectful potential in electroplating and electrorefining of aluminium.

  8. Decarboxylative-coupling of allyl acetate catalyzed by group 10 organometallics, [(phen)M(CH3)]+. (United States)

    Woolley, Matthew; Ariafard, Alireza; Khairallah, George N; Kwan, Kim Hong-Yin; Donnelly, Paul S; White, Jonathan M; Canty, Allan J; Yates, Brian F; O'Hair, Richard A J


    Gas-phase carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, catalyzed by group 10 metal acetate cations [(phen)M(O2CCH3)](+) (where M = Ni, Pd or Pt) formed via electrospray ionization of metal acetate complexes [(phen)M(O2CCH3)2], were examined using an ion trap mass spectrometer and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In step 1 of the catalytic cycle, collision induced dissociation (CID) of [(phen)M(O2CCH3)](+) yields the organometallic complex, [(phen)M(CH3)](+), via decarboxylation. [(phen)M(CH3)](+) reacts with allyl acetate via three competing reactions, with reactivity orders (% reaction efficiencies) established via kinetic modeling. In step 2a, allylic alkylation occurs to give 1-butene and reform metal acetate, [(phen)M(O2CCH3)](+), with Ni (36%) > Pd (28%) > Pt (2%). Adduct formation, [(phen)M(C6H11O2)](+), occurs with Pt (24%) > Pd (21%) > Ni(11%). The major losses upon CID on the adduct, [(phen)M(C6H11O2)](+), are 1-butene for M = Ni and Pd and methane for Pt. Loss of methane only occurs for Pt (10%) to give [(phen)Pt(C5H7O2)](+). The sequences of steps 1 and 2a close a catalytic cycle for decarboxylative carbon-carbon bond coupling. DFT calculations suggest that carbon-carbon bond formation occurs via alkene insertion as the initial step for all three metals, without involving higher oxidation states for the metal centers.

  9. On the Nature of the Intermediates and the Role of Chloride Ions in Pd-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylations: Added Insight from Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Tanner, David Ackland


    The reactivity of intermediates in palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation was investigated using DFT (B3LYP) calculations including a PB-SCRF solvation model. In the presence of both phosphine and chloride ligands, the allyl intermediate is in equilibrium between a cationic eta(3)-allylPd complex...... with two phosphine ligands, the corresponding neutral complex with one phosphine and one chloride ligand, and a neutral eta(1)-allylPd complex with one chloride and two phosphine ligands. The eta(1)-complex is unreactive toward nucleophiles. The cationic eta(3)-complex is the intermediate most frequently...... invoked in the title reaction, but in the presence of halides, the neutral, unsymmetrically substituted eta(3)-CoMplex will be formed rapidly from anionic Pd(0) complexes in solution. Since the latter will prefer both leaving group ionization and reaction with nucleophiles in the position trans...

  10. Modular access to vicinally functionalized allylic (thio)morpholinonates and piperidinonates by substrate-controlled annulation of 1,3-azadienes with hexacyclic anhydrides. (United States)

    Braunstein, Hannah; Langevin, Spencer; Khim, Monique; Adamson, Jonathan; Hovenkotter, Katie; Kotlarz, Lindsey; Mansker, Brandon; Beng, Timothy K


    A modular substrate-controlled hexannulation of inherently promiscuous 1,3-azadienes with hexacyclic anhydrides, which affords versatile vicinally functionalized allylic lactams, in high yields, regio- and stereoselectivities is described.

  11. Structure and vibrational spectrum of 2-methylallyl radical. Nonempirical quantum chemical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, V.G.; Volkova, V.V.; Gusel' nikov, L.E.; Ziegler, U.; Zimmermann, G.; Ondurshka, B.; Nametkin, N.S.


    In the study of the role of allyl type radicals in the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons it is of interest to investigate the conditions of formation, structure, and reactivity of 2-methylallyl radical (C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./). The authors performed theoretical assignment of the bands, which were observed in the lattice spectra of the pyrolysis products, to the vibrations of the C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ radical by means of calculation of the frequencies and shapes of the normal vibrations. Since the necessary geometrical parameters and force coefficients of C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ are not known, they determined them by means of nonempirical quantum chemical calculation. The quantum chemical calculation of C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ was performed by means of the unrestricted Hartree-Fock method using STO-4G (geometry optimization taking into account the characteristics of calculation of radicals in minimal bases and calculation of the force coefficients by means of numerical differentiation) and 4-31G bases (electron density distribution) by means of GAUSSIAN-70 program. For comparison of the energy and electron density distribution they performed calculations also for the 2-methylallyl cation C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./. From the calculation of the difference of the total energies of C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ and C/sub 4/H/sub 7//sup ./ in the 4-31G basis was 7.4 eV, which is comparable to the ionization energy of the 2-methylallyl radical, 7.95 eV.

  12. Substrate-induced radical formation in 4-hydroxybutyryl coenzyme A dehydratase from Clostridium aminobutyricum. (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Friedrich, Peter; Pierik, Antonio J; Martins, Berta M; Buckel, Wolfgang


    4-Hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydratase (4HBD) from Clostridium aminobutyricum catalyzes the reversible dehydration of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and the irreversible isomerization of vinylacetyl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. 4HBD is an oxygen-sensitive homotetrameric enzyme with one [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster and one flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) in each subunit. Upon the addition of crotonyl-CoA or the analogues butyryl-CoA, acetyl-CoA, and CoA, UV-visible light and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy revealed an internal one-electron transfer to FAD and the [4Fe-4S](2+) cluster prior to hydration. We describe an active recombinant 4HBD and variants produced in Escherichia coli. The variants of the cluster ligands (H292C [histidine at position 292 is replaced by cysteine], H292E, C99A, C103A, and C299A) had no measurable dehydratase activity and were composed of monomers, dimers, and tetramers. Variants of other potential catalytic residues were composed only of tetramers and exhibited either no measurable (E257Q, E455Q, and Y296W) hydratase activity or FADH·, aided by protonation from E257 via T190. In contrast to FADH·, the tyrosyl radical could not be detected by EPR spectroscopy. FADH· appears to initiate the radical dehydration via an allylic ketyl radical that was proposed 19 years ago. The mode of radical generation in 4HBD is without precedent in anaerobic radical chemistry. It differs largely from that in enzymes, which use coenzyme B12, S-adenosylmethionine, ATP-driven electron transfer, or flavin-based electron bifurcation for this purpose.

  13. Radicals in Berkeley? (United States)

    Linn, Stuart


    In a previous autobiographical sketch for DNA Repair (Linn, S. (2012) Life in the serendipitous lane: excitement and gratification in studying DNA repair. DNA Repair 11, 595-605), I wrote about my involvement in research on mechanisms of DNA repair. In this Reflections, I look back at how I became interested in free radical chemistry and biology and outline some of our bizarre (at the time) observations. Of course, these studies could never have succeeded without the exceptional aid of my mentors: my teachers; the undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and senior lab visitors in my laboratory; and my faculty and staff colleagues here at Berkeley. I am so indebted to each and every one of these individuals for their efforts to overcome my ignorance and set me on the straight and narrow path to success in research. I regret that I cannot mention and thank each of these mentors individually.

  14. Oxidation reaction of 4-allyl-4-hydroperoxy-2-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone in the presence of potassium permanganate without a co-oxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Serdar Gültekin


    Full Text Available 4-Allyl-4-hydroperoxy-2-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone (5 was synthesized by photooxygenation of commercially available Eugenol in the presence of tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP as a singlet oxygen sensitizer. The brief and one-pot syntheses of some natural product skeletons were conducted using the corresponding allylic hydroperoxide at different temperatures (0 oC and room temperature with potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 in mild condition at N 2(g atm.

  15. A convenient and stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-allyl selenides via Sm/TMSCI system-promoted coupling of Baylis-Hillman adducts with diselenides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yun-kui; XU Dan-qian; XU Zhen-yuan; ZHANG Yong-min


    A simple and convenient procedure for stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-allyl selenides has been developed by a one-pot reaction of diselenides with Baylis-Hillman adducts in the presence of samarium metal-trimethylsilyl chloride under mild conditions. Presumably, the diselenides are cleaved by Sm/TMSCl system to form selenide anions, which then undergo SN2' substitution of Baylis-Hillman adducts to produce the (Z)-allyl selenides.

  16. Radical chic? Yes we are!


    Hartle, J.F.


    Ever since Tom Wolfe in a classical 1970 essay coined the term "radical chic", upper-class flirtation with radical causes has been ridiculed. But by separating aesthetics from politics Wolfe was actually more reactionary than the people he criticized, writes Johan Frederik Hartle.

  17. Muoniated acyl and thioacyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, Iain [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Brodovitch, Jean-Claude [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Ghandi, Khashayar [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada); Percival, Paul W. [TRIUMF and Department of Chemistry, 8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby B.C., V5A 1S6 (Canada)]. E-mail:


    The product of the reaction of muonium with tert-butylisocyanate was previously assigned as the muoniated tert-butylaminyl radical (I. McKenzie, J.-C. Brodovitch, K. Ghandi, S. Kecman, P. W. Percival, Physica B 326 (2003) 76). This assignment is incorrect since the muon and {sup 14}N hyperfine-coupling constants (hfcc) of this radical would have the opposite sign, which is in conflict with the experimental results. The radical is now reassigned as the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical, based on the similarities between the experimental muon and {sup 14}N hfcc and hfcc calculated at the UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)//UB3LYP/EPR-III level. The large zero-point energy in the N-Mu bond results in the dissociation barrier of the muoniated N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical being above the combined energy of the reactants, in contrast to the N-tert-butylcarbamoyl radical where the dissociation barrier lies below the combined energy of the reactants. The reaction of muonium with tert-butylisothiocyanate produced both conformers of the muoniated N-tert-butylthiocarbamoyl radical and their assignment was based on the similarities between the experimental and calculated muon hfcc. These are the first acyl and thioacyl radicals to be directly detected by muon spin spectroscopy.

  18. Melatonin scavenges phenylglyoxylic ketyl radicals. (United States)

    Sersen, F; Vencel, T; Annus, J


    The antioxidant properties of melatonin were tested in this work by EPR technique. It was found that melatonin scavenges phenylglyoxylic ketyl radicals. Its effectiveness was 10-times lower than that of vitamin C. A new method of generation of phenylglyoxylic ketyl radicals by spontaneous decomposition of D,L-2,3-diphenyltartaric acid in propan-2-ol was used.

  19. Photofragment imaging study of the CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate of the OH +allene reaction (United States)

    Raman, Arjun S.; Justine Bell, M.; Lau, Kai-Chung; Butler, Laurie J.


    These velocity map imaging experiments characterize the photolytic generation of one of the two radical intermediates formed when OH reacts via an addition mechanism with allene. The CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate is generated photolytically from the photodissociation of 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol at 193nm. Detecting the Cl atoms using [2+1] resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization evidences an isotropic angular distribution for the Cl +CH2CCH2OH photofragments, a spin-orbit branching ratio for Cl(P1/22):Cl(P3/22) of 0.28, and a bimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution. Conservation of momentum and energy allows us to determine from this data the internal energy distribution of the nascent CH2CCH2OH radical cofragment. To assess the possible subsequent decomposition pathways of this highly vibrationally excited radical intermediate, we include electronic structure calculations at the G3//B3LYP level of theory. They predict the isomerization and dissociation transition states en route from the initial CH2CCH2OH radical intermediate to the three most important product channels for the OH +allene reaction expected from this radical intermediate: formaldehyde+C2H3, H +acrolein, and ethene+CHO. We also calculate the intermediates and transition states en route from the other radical adduct, formed by addition of the OH to the center carbon of allene, to the ketene+CH3 product channel. We compare our results to a previous theoretical study of the O +allyl reaction conducted at the CBS-QB3 level of theory, as the two reactions include several common intermediates.

  20. Síntese de 2-iodobenzamidas e 3-(iodoacetamidobenzamidas ligadas à D-galactose e suas reações de carbociclização radicalar mediadas por hidreto de tri-n-butilestanho Synthesis of 2-iodobenzamides and 3-(iodoacetamidobenzamides linked to D-galactose and their tri-n-butyltin hydride-mediated radical carbocyclization reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henriques Soares Leal


    Full Text Available Starting from methyl 6-O-allyl-4-azido-2,3-di-O-benzyl-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside, four new derivatives containing 2-iodobenzamido and 3-(iodoacetamidobenzamido groups were synthesized. These four compounds were submitted to tri-n-butyltin hydride mediated radical cyclization reactions, resulting in two macrolactams from 11- and 15-endo aryl radical cyclization. The corresponding four hydrogenolysis products were also obtained. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by ¹H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui-qiang Kou; Chao Qu; Zhi-kang Xu; You-yi Xu; Ke Yao


    In this work, the surface properties of novel sugar-containing polymers, α-allyl glucoside (AG)/acrylonitrile (AN)copolymers, were studied by contact angle, protein adsorption and cell adhesion measurements. It was found that the contact angle of the copolymer films decreased from 68° to 30° with the increase of AG content in the copolymer. The adsorption amount of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the adhesive macrophage onto the film surface also decreased significantly with increasing α-allyl glucoside content from 0 to 42 wt% in the copolymer. These preliminary results reveal that both the hydrophilicity and the biocompatibility of polyacrylonitrile-based membranes could be improved by copolymerizing acrylonitrile with vinyl carbohydrates.

  2. Epoxidation of olefins and allylic alcohols with hydrogen peroxide catalyzed by heteropoly acids in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, Takuji; Yamawaki, Kazumasa; Nishihara, Hideki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ura, Toshikazu; Ishii, Yasutaka; Ogawa, Masaya


    The epoxidation of olefins and allylic alcohols with aqueous hydrogen peroxide could be achieved in good yield when 12-tungustophosphoric acid(WPA) was used with two phase condition using chloroform as the solvent. From the epoxidation result by 12-molybdophosphoric acid(MPA) and WPA catalysts, epoxidation activity of WPA catalyst was found to be remarkably higher than that of MPA. The rate of epoxidation by heteropoly acids catalyst depended markedly upon the activity of the reaction medium. Epoxidation of allylic alcohols with hydrogen peroxide proceeded under mild conditions, resulting good yield of epoxi-alcohols. Epoxidation of olefins by WPA/cetylpyridium chloride was confirmed to be promoted selectively with cheap and pure hydrogen peroxide, resulting good yield. (3 figs, 2 tabs, 18 refs)

  3. One-pot synthesis of enantiomerically pure N-protected allylic amines from N-protected α-amino esters (United States)

    Silveira-Dorta, Gastón; Álvarez-Méndez, Sergio J; Martín, Víctor S


    Summary An improved protocol for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure allylic amines is reported. N-Protected α-amino esters derived from natural amino acids were submitted to a one-pot tandem reduction–olefination process. The sequential reduction with DIBAL-H at −78 °C and subsequent in situ addition of organophosphorus reagents yielded the corresponding allylic amines without the need to isolate the intermediate aldehyde. This circumvents the problem of instability of the aldehydes. The method tolerates well both Wittig and Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons organophosphorus reagents. A better Z-(dia)stereoselectivity was observed when compared to the previous one-pot method. The (dia)stereoselectivity of the process was affected neither by the reaction solvent nor by the amount of DIBAL-H employed. The method is compatible with the presence of free hydroxy groups as shown with serine and threonine derivatives. PMID:27340486

  4. Crystal structure of (Z-3-allyl-5-(3-bromobenzylidene-2-sulfanylidene-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahhal El Ajlaoui


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10BrNOS2, the rhodanine (systematic name: 2-sulfanylidene-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one and the 3-bromobenzylidene ring systems are inclined slightly, forming a dihedral angle of 5.86 (12°. The rhodanine moiety is linked to an allyl group at the N atom and to the 3-bromobenzylidene ring system. The allyl group, C=C—C, is nearly perpendicular to the mean plane through the rhodanine ring, maling a dihedral angle of 87.2 (5°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by pairs of C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(10 ring motif.

  5. Allyl group as a protecting group for internucleotide phosphate and thiophosphate linkages in oligonucleotide synthesis: facile oxidation and deprotection conditions. (United States)

    Manoharan, M; Lu, Y; Casper, M D; Just, G


    [reaction: see text] The allyl group, which serves as a protecting group for an internucleotide bond for both phosphates and phosphorothioates, can be easily removed by good nucleophiles under weakly basic or neutral conditions. For a practical synthesis on solid support, camphorsulfonyloxaziridine was used as the oxidizing agent for synthesizing DNA, while the Beaucage reagent was used for preparing phosphorothioate oligomers. Both types of oligonucleotides were easily deprotected by concentrated ammonium hydroxide containing 2% mercaptoethanol.

  6. Platinum-catalyzed direct amination of allylic alcohols under mild conditions: ligand and microwave effects, substrate scope, and mechanistic study. (United States)

    Ohshima, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshiki; Ipposhi, Junji; Nakahara, Yasuhito; Utsunomiya, Masaru; Mashima, Kazushi


    Transition metal-catalyzed amination of allylic compounds via a pi-allylmetal intermediate is a powerful and useful method for synthesizing allylamines. Direct catalytic substitution of allylic alcohols, which forms water as the sole coproduct, has recently attracted attention for its environmental and economical advantages. Here, we describe the development of a versatile direct catalytic amination of both aryl- and alkyl-substituted allylic alcohols with various amines using Pt-Xantphos and Pt-DPEphos catalyst systems, which allows for the selective synthesis of various monoallylamines, such as the biologically active compounds Naftifine and Flunarizine, in good to high yield without need for an activator. The choice of the ligand was crucial toward achieving high catalytic activity, and we demonstrated that not only the large bite-angle but also the linker oxygen atom of the Xantphos and DPEphos ligands was highly important. In addition, microwave heating dramatically affected the catalyst activity and considerably decreased the reaction time compared with conventional heating. Furthermore, several mechanistic investigations, including (1)H and (31)P{(1)H} NMR studies; isolation and characterization of several catalytic intermediates, Pt(xantphos)Cl(2), Pt(eta(2)-C(3)H(5)OH)(xantphos), etc; confirmation of the structure of [Pt(eta(3)-allyl)(xantphos)]OTf by X-ray crystallographic analysis; and crossover experiments, suggested that formation of the pi-allylplatinum complex through the elimination of water is an irreversible rate-determining step and that the other processes in the catalytic cycle are reversible, even at room temperature.

  7. Direct Conversion of Aldehydes and Ketones to Allylic Halides by a NbX(5-)[3,3] Rearrangement. (United States)

    Fleming, Fraser F; Ravikumar, P C; Yao, Lihua


    Sequential addition of vinylmagnesium bromide and NbCl(5), or NbBr(5), to a series of aldehydes and ketones directly provides homologated, allylic halides. Transposition of the intermediate vinyl alkoxide is envisaged through a metalla-halo-[3,3] rearrangement with concomitant delivery of the halogen to the terminal carbon. The [3,3] rearrangement is equally effective for the conversion of a propargyllic alcohol to the corresponding allenyl bromide.

  8. Direct Conversion of Aldehydes and Ketones to Allylic Halides by a NbX5-[3,3] Rearrangement (United States)

    Fleming, Fraser F.; Ravikumar, P. C.; Yao, Lihua


    Sequential addition of vinylmagnesium bromide and NbCl5, or NbBr5, to a series of aldehydes and ketones directly provides homologated, allylic halides. Transposition of the intermediate vinyl alkoxide is envisaged through a metalla-halo-[3,3] rearrangement with concomitant delivery of the halogen to the terminal carbon. The [3,3] rearrangement is equally effective for the conversion of a propargyllic alcohol to the corresponding allenyl bromide. PMID:20046989

  9. Free radicals and male reproduction. (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R


    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  10. Guest Editorial: Processes of Radicalization and De-Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Della Porta


    Full Text Available The study of radicalization and de-radicalization, understood as processes leading towards the increased or decreased use of political violence, is central to the question of how political violence emerges, how it can be prevented, and how it can be contained. The focus section of this issue of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence addresses radicalization and de-radicalization, seeking to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the processes, dynamics, and mechanisms involved and taking an interdisciplinary approach to overcome the fragmentation into separate disciplines and focus areas. Contributions by Pénélope Larzillière, Felix Heiduk, Bill Kissane, Hank Johnston, Christian Davenport and Cyanne Loyle, Veronique Dudouet, and Lasse Lindekilde address repressive settings, legitimacy, institutional aspects, organizational outcomes, and dynamics in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North and South America.

  11. 烯丙基酚醛树脂的固化动力学%Curing Kinetics of Allyl Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 刘诗薇; 李志强; 于景坤


    The curing behavior of allyl phenolic resin was analyzed at different heating rates using differential scanning calorimetry.The obtained kinetic data were treated by Kissinger and KAS(Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose) methods to obtain the curing reaction kinetic parameters.A curing kinetics model was established for allyl phenolic resin.Compared with phenolic resin,the curing temperature of allyl phenolic resin is higher,the reaction order is closer to 1,and the average activation energy of the curing reaction is lower,111.45 kJ/mol.The activation energy of allyl phenolic resin is almost constant and changes little with temperature in the curing process.The curing kinetics model of allyl phenolic resin provides a theoretical basis for the study of curing process parameters.%利用差示扫描量热法分析了烯丙基酚醛树脂在不同升温速率下的固化行为,用Kissinger法和KAS(Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose)法对获得的动力学数据进行处理,得到了固化反应动力学参数,并建立了烯丙基酚醛树脂的固化动力学模型.结果表明:与纯酚醛树脂相比,烯丙基酚醛树脂固化温度较高,反应级数更接近于1,固化反应所需的平均表观活化能较低,为111.45kJ/mol;在整个固化过程中,烯丙基酚醛树脂的活化能较为恒定,随温度变化不大;烯丙基酚醛树脂固化动力学模型为研究该体系固化工艺参数提供了理论依据.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.

  14. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David;


    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programm...

  15. Redox Properties of Free Radicals. (United States)

    Neta, P.


    Describes pulse radiolysis as a useful means in studing one-electron redox potentials. This method allows the production of radicals and the determination of their concentration and rates of reaction. (CS)

  16. On the antioxidant, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of S-allyl cysteine: An update. (United States)

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Ali, Syed F; Túnez, Isaac; Santamaría, Abel


    Therapeutic approaches based on isolated compounds obtained from natural products to handle central and peripheral disorders involving oxidative stress and inflammation are more common nowadays. The validation of nutraceutics vs. pharmaceutics as tools to induce preventive and protective profiles in human health alterations is still far of complete acceptance, but the basis to start more solid experimental and clinical protocols with natural products has already begun. S-allyl cysteine (SAC) is a promising garlic-derived organosulfur compound exhibiting a considerable number of positive actions in cell models and living systems. An update, in the form of review, is needed from time to time to get access to the state-of-the-art on this topic. In this review we visited recent and refreshing evidence of new already proven and potential targets to explain the benefits of using SAC against toxic and pathological conditions. The broad spectrum of protective actions covered by this molecule comprises antioxidant, redox modulatory and anti-inflammatory activities, accompanied by anti-apoptotic, pro-energetic and signaling capacities. Herein, we detail the evidence on these aspects to provide the reader a more complete overview on the promising aspects of SAC in research.

  17. Merging allylic carbon-hydrogen and selective carbon-carbon bond activation (United States)

    Masarwa, Ahmad; Didier, Dorian; Zabrodski, Tamar; Schinkel, Marvin; Ackermann, Lutz; Marek, Ilan


    Since the nineteenth century, many synthetic organic chemists have focused on developing new strategies to regio-, diastereo- and enantioselectively build carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds in a predictable and efficient manner. Ideal syntheses should use the least number of synthetic steps, with few or no functional group transformations and by-products, and maximum atom efficiency. One potentially attractive method for the synthesis of molecular skeletons that are difficult to prepare would be through the selective activation of C-H and C-C bonds, instead of the conventional construction of new C-C bonds. Here we present an approach that exploits the multifold reactivity of easily accessible substrates with a single organometallic species to furnish complex molecular scaffolds through the merging of otherwise difficult transformations: allylic C-H and selective C-C bond activations. The resulting bifunctional nucleophilic species, all of which have an all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centre, can then be selectively derivatized by the addition of two different electrophiles to obtain more complex molecular architecture from these easily available starting materials.

  18. Non-Directed Allylic C-H Acetoxylation in the Presence of Lewis Basic Heterocycles. (United States)

    Malik, Hasnain A; Taylor, Buck L H; Kerrigan, John R; Grob, Jonathan E; Houk, K N; Du Bois, J; Hamann, Lawrence G; Patterson, Andrew W


    We outline a strategy to enable non-directed Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H functionalization in the presence of Lewis basic heterocycles. In a high-throughput screen of two Pd-catalyzed C-H acetoxylation reactions, addition of a variety of N-containing heterocycles is found to cause low product conversion. A pyridine-containing test substrate is selected as representative of heterocyclic scaffolds that are hypothesized to cause catalyst arrest. We pursue two approaches in parallel that allow product conversion in this representative system: Lewis acids are found to be effective in situ blocking groups for the Lewis basic site, and a pre-formed pyridine N-oxide is shown to enable high yield of allylic C-H acetoxylation. Computational studies with density functional theory (M06) of binding affinities of selected heterocycles to Pd(OAc)2 provide an inverse correlation of the computed heterocycle-Pd(OAc)2 binding affinities with the experimental conversions to products. Additionally, (1)H NMR binding studies provide experimental support for theoretical calculations.

  19. Allyl functionalized phosphinite and phosphonite ligands: Synthesis, transition metal chemistry and orthopalladation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Singappagudem Govindaraju; Guddekoppa S Ananthnag; Susmita Naik; Shaikh M Mobin; Maravanji S Balakrishn


    Allyl functionalized phosphinite PPh2(OAr) [Ar=C6H4(-C3H5)] (1) and phosphonite PPh(OAr)2 (2) ligands were prepared by the reactions of 2-allylphenol with PPh2Cl and PPhCl2, respectively. The ruthenium(II) complexes, [Ru(6--cymene)(PPh2(OAr))Cl2] (3) and [Ru(6--cymene)(PPh(OAr)2Cl2)] (4) were obtained by reacting 1 or 2 with [Ru(6--cymene)Cl2]2 in 2:1 molar ratios, respectively. Reactions of 1 or 2 with AuCl(SMe2) gave [Au{PPh2(OAr)}Cl] (5) or [Au{PPh(OAr)2}Cl] (6) in good yield. The palladium complex, [Pd{PPh(OAr)2}2Cl2] (7) was prepared by reacting Pd(COD)Cl2 with 2 in 1:2 molar ratio. The reaction between Pd(COD)Cl2 and 1 yielded a mixture of orthopalladated cis- and trans-[Pd(Ph2P(OAr))Cl]2 (8a and 8b). The treatment of 8 with PPh3 and Ph2PCH2PPh2 resulted in the cleavage of chloro bridge to give respectively, [Ph2(OAr)PPd(PPh3)Cl] (9) and [Ph2(ArO)PPd(2-dppm)]OTf (10). Single crystal X-ray structure of the ruthenium complex 3 is described.

  20. Release and antibacterial activity of allyl isothiocyanate/β-cyclodextrin complex encapsulated in electrospun nanofibers. (United States)

    Aytac, Zeynep; Dogan, Sema Y; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer


    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is known as an efficient antibacterial agent but it has a very high volatility. Herein, AITC and AITC/β-cyclodextrin (CD)-inclusion complex (IC) incorporated in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were produced via electrospinning. SEM images elucidated that incorporation of AITC and AITC/β-CD-IC into polymer matrix did not affect the bead-free fiber morphology of PVA nanofibers. (1)H-NMR and headspace GC-MS analyses revealed that very low amount of AITC was remained in PVA/AITC-NF because of the rapid evaporation of AITC during the electrospinning process. Nevertheless, much higher amount of AITC was preserved in the PVA/AITC/β-CD-IC-NF due to the CD inclusion complexation. The sustained release of AITC from nanofibers was evaluated at 30°C, 50°C and 75°C via headspace GC-MS. When compared to PVA/AITC-NF, PVA/AITC/β-CD-IC-NF has shown higher antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus due to the presence of higher amount of AITC in this sample which was preserved by CD-IC.

  1. Hydrolysis of cellulose catalyzed by quaternary ammonium perrhenates in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. (United States)

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhou, Mingdong; Yuan, Yuguo; Zhang, Quan; Fang, Xiangchen; Zang, Shuliang


    Quaternary ammonium perrhenates were applied as catalyst to promote the hydrolysis of cellulose in 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Amim]Cl). The quaternary ammonium perrhenates displayed good catalytic performance for cellulose hydrolysis. Water was also proven to be effective to promote cellulose hydrolysis. Accordingly, 97% of total reduced sugar (TRS) and 42% of glucose yields could be obtained under the condition of using 5mol% of tetramethyl ammonium perrhenate as catalyst, 70μL of water, ca. 0.6mmol of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and 2.0g of [Amim]Cl as solvent under microwave irradiation for 30min at 150°C (optimal conditions). The influence of quaternary ammonium cation on the efficiency of cellulose hydrolysis was examined based on different cation structures of perrhenates. The mechanism on perrhenate catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis is also discussed, whereas hydrogen bonding between ReO4 anion and hydroxyl groups of cellulose is assumed to be the key step for depolymerization of cellulose.

  2. Synergistic effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) on cisplatin efficacy in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Ling, Xiang; Westover, David; Cao, Felicia; Cao, Shousong; He, Xiang; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Zhang, Yuesheng; Chan, Daniel Cf; Li, Fengzhi


    Although in vitro studies have shown that isothiocyanates (ITCs) can synergistically sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin treatment, the underlying mechanisms have not been well defined, and there are no in vivo demonstrations of this synergy. Here, we report the in vitro and in vivo data for the combination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), one of the most common naturally occurring ITCs, with cisplatin. Our study revealed that cisplatin and AITC combination synergistically inhibits cancer cell growth and colony formation, and enhances apoptosis in association with the downregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin. Importantly, the in vivo combination treatment suppresses human tumor growth in animal models without observable increases in toxicity (body weight loss) in comparison with single agent treatment. Furthermore, our data revealed that addition of AITC to cisplatin treatment changes the profile of G2/M arrest (e.g. increase in M phase cell number) and significantly extends the duration of G2/M arrest in comparison with cisplatin treatment alone. To explore the underlying mechanism, we found that AITC treatment rapidly depletes b-tubulin. Combination of AITC and cisplatin inhibits the expression of G2/M checkpoint-relevant proteins including CDC2, cyclin B1 and CDC25. Together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for AITC enhancing cisplatin efficacy and provides the first in vivo evidence to support ITCs as potential candidates for developing new regimens to overcome platinum resistance.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Anti-Lipogenic/Adipogenic Effects of Allyl-Isothiocyanate Metabolites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Ji Kim

    Full Text Available Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC is an organosulfur phytochemical found in abundance in common cruciferous vegetables such as mustard, wasabi, and cabbage. Although AITC is metabolized primarily through the mercapturic acid pathway, its exact pharmacokinetics remains undefined and the biological function of AITC metabolites is still largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of AITC metabolites on lipid accumulation in vitro and elucidated the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of AITC metabolites in rats. We found that AITC metabolites generally conjugate with glutathione (GSH or N-acetylcysteine (NAC and are distributed in most organs and tissues. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a rapid uptake and complete metabolism of AITC following oral administration to rats. Although AITC has been reported to exhibit anti-tumor activity in bladder cancer, the potential bioactivity of its metabolites has not been explored. We found that GSH-AITC and NAC-AITC effectively inhibit adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and suppress expression of PPAR-γ, C/EBPα, and FAS, which are up-regulated during adipogenesis. GSH-AITC and NAC-AITC also suppressed oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation and lipogenesis in hepatocytes. Our findings suggest that AITC is almost completely metabolized in the liver and rapidly excreted in urine through the mercapturic acid pathway following administration in rats. AITC metabolites may exert anti-obesity effects through suppression of adipogenesis or lipogenesis.

  4. Allyl Isothiocyanate Inhibits Actin-Dependent Intracellular Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnar Sporsheim


    Full Text Available Volatile allyl isothiocyanate (AITC derives from the biodegradation of the glucosinolate sinigrin and has been associated with growth inhibition in several plants, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms of this feature remain scarcely investigated in plants. In this study, we present evidence of an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport in A. thaliana. A transgenic line of A. thaliana expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP-tagged actin filaments was used to show attenuation of actin filament movement by AITC. This appeared gradually in a time- and dose-dependent manner and resulted in actin filaments appearing close to static. Further, we employed four transgenic lines with YFP-fusion proteins labeling the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER, vacuoles and peroxisomes to demonstrate an AITC-induced inhibition of actin-dependent intracellular transport of or, in these structures, consistent with the decline in actin filament movement. Furthermore, the morphologies of actin filaments, ER and vacuoles appeared aberrant following AITC-exposure. However, AITC-treated seedlings of all transgenic lines tested displayed morphologies and intracellular movements similar to that of the corresponding untreated and control-treated plants, following overnight incubation in an AITC-absent environment, indicating that AITC-induced decline in actin-related movements is a reversible process. These findings provide novel insights into the cellular events in plant cells following exposure to AITC, which may further expose clues to the physiological significance of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system.

  5. Allyl m-Trifluoromethyldiazirine Mephobarbital: An Unusually Potent Enantioselective and Photoreactive Barbiturate General Anesthetic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Zhang, Xi; Chiara, David C.; Stewart, Deirdre S.; Ge, Rile; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Raines, Douglas E.; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S. (Harvard-Med); (Mass. Gen. Hosp.); (UIC)


    We synthesized 5-allyl-1-methyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (14), a trifluoromethyldiazirine-containing derivative of general anesthetic mephobarbital, separated the racemic mixture into enantiomers by chiral chromatography, and determined the configuration of the (+)-enantiomer as S by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we obtained the {sup 3}H-labeled ligand with high specific radioactivity. R-(-)-14 is an order of magnitude more potent than the most potent clinically used barbiturate, thiopental, and its general anesthetic EC{sub 50} approaches those for propofol and etomidate, whereas S-(+)-14 is 10-fold less potent. Furthermore, at concentrations close to its anesthetic potency, R-(-)-14 both potentiated GABA-induced currents and increased the affinity for the agonist muscimol in human {alpha}1{beta}2/3{gamma}2L GABA{sub A} receptors. Finally, R-(-)-14 was found to be an exceptionally efficient photolabeling reagent, incorporating into both {alpha}1 and {beta}3 subunits of human {alpha}1{beta}3 GABAA receptors. These results indicate R-(-)-14 is a functional general anesthetic that is well-suited for identifying barbiturate binding sites on Cys-loop receptors.

  6. Inelastic scattering of OH radicals from organic liquids: isolating the thermal desorption channel. (United States)

    King, Kerry L; Paterson, Grant; Rossi, Giovanni E; Iljina, Marija; Westacott, Robin E; Costen, Matthew L; McKendrick, Kenneth G


    Inelastic scattering of OH radicals from liquid surfaces has been investigated experimentally. An initially translationally and rotationally hot distribution of OH was generated by 193 nm photolysis of allyl alcohol. These radicals were scattered from an inert reference liquid, perfluorinated polyether (PFPE), and from the potentially reactive hydrocarbon liquids squalane (C30H62, 2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosane) and squalene (C30H50, trans-2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyltetracosa-2,6,10,14,18,22-hexaene). The scattered OH v = 0 products were detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Strong correlations were observed between the translational and rotational energies of the products. The high-N levels are translationally hot, consistent with a predominantly direct, impulsive scattering mechanism. Impulsive scattering also populates the lower-N levels, but a component of translationally relaxed OH, with thermal-desorption characteristics, can also be seen clearly for all three liquids. More of this translationally and rotationally relaxed OH survives from squalane than from squalene. Realistic molecular dynamics simulations confirm that double-bond sites are accessible at the squalene surface. This supports the proposition that relaxed OH may be lost on squalene via an addition mechanism.

  7. Mechanism and stereoselectivity of biologically important oxygenation reactions of the 7-dehydrocholesterol radical. (United States)

    Rajeev, Ramanan; Sunoj, Raghavan B


    The mechanism of free radical oxygenation of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC), one of the biologically important sterols, is investigated by using density functional theory. The energetic origin of the product distribution and the stereoelectronic factors involved in various mechanistic pathways are delineated. The addition of triplet molecular oxygen to two types of conjugatively stabilized radicals, generated by the removal of the reactive allylic hydrogens from C9 or C14 positions, respectively denoted as H9 and H14 pathways, is studied. The distortion-interaction analysis of the C-O bond formation transition states suggests that the energetic preference toward the α prochiral face stems from reduced skeletal distortions of the cholesterol backbone as compared to that in the corresponding β prochiral face. This insight derived through a detailed quantitative analysis of the stereocontrolling transition states suggests that the commonly found interpretations solely based on steric interactions between the incoming oxygen and the protruding angular methyl groups (C10, C13 methyls) in the β face calls for adequate refinement. The relative energies of the transition states for molecular oxygen addition to C9, C5, and C14 (where spin densities are higher) and the ensuing products thereof are in agreement with the experimentally reported distribution of oxygenated 7-DHCs.

  8. Choice of Bond Dissociation Enthalpies on which to Base the Stabilization Energies of Simple Radicals: DH(R-H)is Preferred because DH(R-Me) is Perturbed by Changes in Chain Branching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poutsma, Marvin L [ORNL


    The relative stabilization energies of radicals, SE(R ), along the simple series methyl/ethyl/i-propyl/t-butyl are known to vary in spread and even direction dependent on which dissociation enthalpies, DH(R-X), they are based on. Using a highly electronegative X is recognized as unwise, but it is not clear whether a choice of X = Me or X = R might not be preferred over the almost universal use of R = H. The enthalpies of isomerization of C4 radical pairs that vary only in the substitution pattern at the radical center but not in carbon skeleton illustrate that R = H is indeed the better choice. Comparisons in the context of recent predictive models for alkane and radical stability indicate that, while relative DH(R-H) values highlight the desired difference in substitution pattern at the radical center, relative DH(R-Me) values are perturbed by differences in skeletal branching or protobranching which are well-known to affect thermochemistry. As a result, SE(R ) values derived from relative DH(R-Me) values are consistently too small. The same pattern is illustrated for prim, sec, and tert allylic and benzylic radicals (larger SE(R )) and for the parent vinyl, phenyl, and ethynyl radicals (negative SE(R )).

  9. Fluorinated alcohols as promoters for the metal-free direct substitution reaction of allylic alcohols with nitrogenated, silylated, and carbon nucleophiles. (United States)

    Trillo, Paz; Baeza, Alejandro; Nájera, Carmen


    The direct allylic substitution reaction using allylic alcohols in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) as reaction media is described. The developed procedure is simple, works under mild conditions (rt, 50 and 70 °C), and proves to be very general, since different nitrogenated nucleophiles and carbon nucleophiles can be used achieving high yields, especially when HFIP is employed as solvent and aromatic allylic alcohols are the substrates. Thus, sulfonamides, carbamates, carboxamides, and amines can be successfully employed as nitrogen-based nucleophiles. Likewise, silylated nucleophiles such as trimethylsilylazide, allyltrimethylsilane, trimethylsilane, and trimethylsilylphenylacetylene give the corresponding allylic substitution products in high yields. Good results for the Friedel-Crafts adducts are also achieved with aromatic compounds (phenol, anisole, indole, and anilines) as nucleophiles. Particularly interesting are the results obtained with electron-rich anilines, which can behave as nitrogenated or carbon nucleophiles depending on their electronic properties and the solvent employed. In addition, 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds (acetylacetone and Meldrum's acid) are also successfully employed as soft carbon nucleophiles. Studies for mechanism elucidation are also reported, pointing toward the existence of carbocationic intermediates and two working reaction pathways for the obtention of the allylic substitution product.

  10. Allyl/propenyl phenol synthases from the creosote bush and engineering production of specialty/commodity chemicals, eugenol/isoeugenol, in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Vassão, Daniel G; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Bedgar, Diana L; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G


    The creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) harbors members of the monolignol acyltransferase, allylphenol synthase, and propenylphenol synthase gene families, whose products together are able to catalyze distinct regiospecific conversions of various monolignols into their corresponding allyl- and propenyl-phenols, respectively. In this study, co-expression of a monolignol acyltransferase with either substrate versatile allylphenol or propenylphenol synthases in Escherichia coli established that various monolignol substrates were efficiently converted into their corresponding allyl/propenyl phenols, as well as providing proof of concept for efficacious conversion in a bacterial platform. This capability thus potentially provides an alternate source to these important plant phytochemicals, whether for flavor/fragrance and fine chemicals, or ultimately as commodities, e.g., for renewable energy or other intermediate chemical purposes. Previous reports had indicated that specific and highly conserved amino acid residues 84 (Phe or Val) and 87 (Ile or Tyr) of two highly homologous allyl/propenyl phenol synthases (circa 96% identity) from a Clarkia species mainly dictate their distinct regiospecific catalyzed conversions to afford either allyl- or propenyl-phenols, respectively. However, several other allyl/propenyl phenol synthase homologs isolated by us have established that the two corresponding amino acid 84 and 87 residues are not, in fact, conserved.

  11. Peroxy radical partitioning during the AMMA radical intercomparison exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández


    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured onboard two scientific aircrafts during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in summer 2006. This paper reports results from the flight on 16 August 2006 during which measurements of HO2 by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low pressure (LIF-FAGE and total peroxy radicals (RO2*=HO2+ΣRO2, R= organic chain by two similar instruments based on the peroxy radical chemical amplification (PerCA technique were subject of a blind intercomparison. The German DLR-Falcon and the British FAAM-BAe-146 flew wing tip to wing tip for about 30 min making concurrent measurements on 2 horizontal level runs at 697 and 485 hPa over the same geographical area in Burkina Faso. A full set of supporting measurements comprising photolysis frequencies, and relevant trace gases like CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and a wider range of VOCs were collected simultaneously.

    Results are discussed on the basis of the characteristics and limitations of the different instruments used. Generally, no data bias are identified and the RO2* data available agree quite reasonably within the instrumental errors. The [RO2*]/[HO2] ratios, which vary between 1:1 and 3:1, as well as the peroxy radical variability, concur with variations in photolysis rates and in other potential radical precursors. Model results provide additional information about dominant radical formation and loss processes.

  12. Calculational and Experimental Investigations of the Pressure Effects on Radical - Radical Cross Combinations Reactions: C2H5 + C2H3 (United States)

    Fahr, Askar; Halpern, Joshua B.; Tardy, Dwight C.


    of C-C and C-H bond ruptures, cyclization, decyclization, and complex decompositions are discussed in terms of energetics and structural properties. The pressure dependence of the product yields were computed and dominant reaction paths in this chemically activated system were determined. Both modeling and experiment suggest that the observed pressure dependence of [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] is due to decomposition of the chemically activated combination adduct 1-C4H8* in which the weaker allylic C-C bond is broken: H2C=CHCH2CH3 yields C3H5 + CH3. This reaction occurs even at moderate pressures of approx.200 Torr (26 kPa) and becomes more significant at lower pressures. The additional products detected at lower pressures are formed from secondary radical-radical reactions involving allyl, methyl, ethyl, and vinyl radicals. The modeling studies have extended the predictions of product distributions to different temperatures (200-700 K) and a wider range of pressures (10(exp -3) - 10(exp 5) Torr). These calculations indicate that the high-pressure [1-C4H8]/[C4H10] yield ratio is 1.3 +/- 0.1.

  13. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter


    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  14. Radical formation by heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuter, W.


    Certain reduced heavy metal ions can convert oxygen to a ''reactive oxygen species'' by donation of an electron. The reactive oxygen then attacks structures susceptible to oxidation, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, and peroxidizes them in a radical reaction. This process is inhibited by the presence of vitamin E and by other means. Peroxidized lipids decay forming free radicals in the process which themselves can peroxidise neighbouring lipids in a radical chain reaction. This decay is, moreover, catalysed by reduced heavy metal ions but on the other hand retarded by selenium-containing glutathione peroxidase. Radical formation by heavy metals is considerably involved in (i) the production of parenteral iron poisoning of the piglet (ii) haemolytic crisis occurring in ruminants through chronic copper poisoning (iii) the production of lead poisoning in ruminants and other animals. These types of poisonings are made worse by a deficiency of vitamin E and/or selenium. Factors which increase the bio-availability of the free heavy metal ion or reduce the redox potential thereof can aid radical formation as well as factors which lead to a reduction of the heavy metal ion e.g. cysteine, ascorbic acid or glucose.

  15. Stereoselective coordination: a six-membered P,N-chelate tailored for asymmetric allylic alkylation. (United States)

    Császár, Z; Farkas, G; Bényei, A; Lendvay, G; Tóth, I; Bakos, J


    Six-membered chelate complexes [Pd(1a-b)Cl2], (2a-b) and [Pd(1a-b)(η(3)-PhCHCHCHPh)]BF4, (3a-b) of P,N-type ligands 1a, ((2S,4S)-2-diphenyl-phosphino-4-isopropylamino-pentane) and 1b, ((2S,4S)-2-diphenyl-phosphino-4-methylamino-pentane) have been prepared. The Pd-complexes have been characterized in solution by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The observed structures were confirmed by DFT calculations and in the case of 2a also by X-ray crystallography. Unexpectedly, the coordination of the all-carbon-backbone aminophosphine 1a resulted in not only a stereospecific locking of the donor nitrogen atom into one of the two possible configurations but also the conformation of the six-membered chelate rings containing three alkyl substituents was forced into the same single chair structure showing the axially placed isopropyl group on the coordinated N-atom. The stereodiscriminative complexation of 1a led to the formation of a palladium catalyst with a conformationally rigid chelate having a configurationally fixed nitrogen and electronically different coordination sites due to the presence of P and N donors. The stereochemically fixed catalyst provided excellent ee's (up to 96%) and activities in asymmetric allylic alkylation reactions. In contrast, the chelate rings formed by 1b exist in two different chair conformations, both containing axial methyl groups, but with the opposite configurations of the coordinated N-atom. Pd-complexes of 1b provided low enantioselectivities in similar alkylations, therefore emphasizing the importance of the stereoselective coordination of N-atoms in analogous P-N chelates. The factors determining the coordination of the ligands were also studied with respect to the chelate ring conformation and the nitrogen configuration.

  16. Mechanisms of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 activation and sensitization by allyl isothiocyanate. (United States)

    Gees, Maarten; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Sanchez, Alicia; Everaerts, Wouter; Segal, Andrei; Xue, Fenqin; Janssens, Annelies; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel


    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC; aka, mustard oil) is a powerful irritant produced by Brassica plants as a defensive trait against herbivores and confers pungency to mustard and wasabi. AITC is widely used experimentally as an inducer of acute pain and neurogenic inflammation, which are largely mediated by the activation of nociceptive cation channels transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). Although it is generally accepted that electrophilic agents activate these channels through covalent modification of cytosolic cysteine residues, the mechanism underlying TRPV1 activation by AITC remains unknown. Here we show that, surprisingly, AITC-induced activation of TRPV1 does not require interaction with cysteine residues, but is largely dependent on S513, a residue that is involved in capsaicin binding. Furthermore, AITC acts in a membrane-delimited manner and induces a shift of the voltage dependence of activation toward negative voltages, which is reminiscent of capsaicin effects. These data indicate that AITC acts through reversible interactions with the capsaicin binding site. In addition, we show that TRPV1 is a locus for cross-sensitization between AITC and acidosis in nociceptive neurons. Furthermore, we show that residue F660, which is known to determine the stimulation by low pH in human TRPV1, is also essential for the cross-sensitization of the effects of AITC and low pH. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that not all reactive electrophiles stimulate TRPV1 via cysteine modification and help understanding the molecular bases underlying the surprisingly large role of this channel as mediator of the algesic properties of AITC.

  17. Facile coupling of propargylic, allylic and benzylic alcohols with allylsilane and alkynylsilane, and their deoxygenation with Et3SiH, catalyzed by Bi(OTf)3 in [BMIM][BF4] ionic liquid (IL), with recycling and reuse of the IL. (United States)

    Kumar, G G K S Narayana; Laali, Kenneth K


    Allyltrimethylsilane (allyl-TMS) reacts with propargylic alcohols 1a-1d in the presence of 10% Bi(OTf)(3) in [BMIM][BF(4)] solvent to furnish the corresponding 1,5-enynes in respectable isolated yields (87-93%) at room temperature. The utility of Bi(OTf)(3) as a superior catalyst was demonstrated in a survey study on coupling of allyl-TMS with employing several metallic triflates (Bi, Ln, Al, Yb) as well as, B(C(6)F(5))(3), Zn(NTf(2))(2) and Bi(NO(3))(3)·5H(2)O. Coupling of cyclopropyl substituted propargylic alcohol with allyl-TMS gave the skeletally intact 1,5-enyne and a ring opened derivative as a mixture. Coupling of propargylic/allylic alcohol with allyl-TMS resulted in allylation at both benzylic (2 isomers) and propargylic positions, as major and minor products respectively. The scope of this methodology for allylation of a series of allylic and benzylic alcohols was explored. Chemoselective reduction of a host of propargylic, propagylic/allylic, bis-allylic, allylic, and benzylic alcohols with Et(3)SiH was achieved in high yields with short reaction times. The same approach was successfully applied to couple representative propargylic and allylic alcohols with 1-phenyl-2-trimethylsilylacetylene. The recovery and reuse of the ionic liquid (IL) was gauged in a case study with minimal decrease in isolated yields after six cycles.

  18. Rheological and mechanical behavior of polyacrylamide hydrogels chemically crosslinked with allyl agarose for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Suriano, R; Griffini, G; Chiari, M; Levi, M; Turri, S


    Two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis currently represents one of the most standard techniques for protein separation. In addition to the most commonly employed polyacrylamide crosslinked hydrogels, acrylamide-agarose copolymers have been proposed as promising systems for separation matrices in 2-D electrophoresis, because of the good resolution of both high and low molecular mass proteins made possible by careful control and optimization of the hydrogel pore structure. As a matter of fact, a thorough understanding of the nature of the hydrogel pore structure as well as of the parameters by which it is influenced is crucial for the design of hydrogel systems with optimal sieving properties. In this work, a series of acrylamide-based hydrogels covalently crosslinked with different concentrations of allyl agarose (0.2-1%) is prepared and characterized by creep-recovery measurements, dynamic rheology and tensile tests, in the attempt to gain a clearer understanding of structure-property relationships in crosslinked polyacrylamide-based hydrogels. The rheological and mechanical properties of crosslinked acrylamide-agarose hydrogels are found to be greatly affected by crosslinker concentration. Dynamic rheological tests show that hydrogels with a percentage of allyl agarose between 0.2% and 0.6% have a low density of elastically effective crosslinks, explaining the good separation of high molecular mass proteins in 2-D gel electrophoresis. Over the same range of crosslinker concentration, creep-recovery measurements reveal the presence of non-permanent crosslinks in the hydrogel network that justifies the good resolution of low molecular mass proteins as well. In tensile tests, the hydrogel crosslinked with 0.4% of allyl agarose exhibits the best results in terms of mechanical strength and toughness. Our results show how the control of the viscoelastic and the mechanical properties of these materials allow the design of mechanically stable hydrogels with improved

  19. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  20. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  1. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions. (United States)

    Li, Weili; Liu, Linshu; Jin, Tony Z


    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and used to coat one side of the film. The films were subjected to different storage conditions (storage time, storage temperature, and packed or unpacked) and handling conditions (washing, abrasion, and air blowing), and the antimicrobial activity of the films against Salmonella Stanley in tryptic soy broth was determined. The films (8.16 μl of AIT per cm(2) of surface area) significantly (P packaging.

  2. SnCl2/Cu-Mediated Carbonyl Allylation Reaction in Water:Scope,Selectivity and Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN,Xiang-Hui(谭翔晖); HOU,Yong-Quan(侯永泉); LIU,Lei(刘磊); GUO,Qing-Xiang(郭庆祥)


    Copper was found to be able to promote the SnC12-mediated carbonyl allylation reactions in water,giving the corresponding homoallylic alcohol products in very high yields.Detailed studies showed that the reaction could be applied to a variety of carbonyl compounds including those with hydroxyl,amino and nitro groups.It was also found that this reaction showed good regioselectivities for some substrates.Furthermore,carefully controled experiments and in situ NMR measurements provided important insights into the mechanism of the newly developed reaction.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春武; 谢令德; 陈雅群; 何君; 贺艳萍


    以玉米象和赤拟谷盗作为实验对象,采用熏蒸方式对烯丙基异硫氰酸酯的毒力进行测定.结果表明,烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对所研究的两种害虫有较好的快速致死作用,同时研究发现在相同熏蒸时间内烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对玉米象熏蒸的LC50和LC99均小于对赤拟谷盗的LC50和LC99,这说明烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对玉米象的熏蒸效果比对赤拟谷盗的好.%Chosing Si tophilus zesmais (Motschulsky) and Tribolium castaneun (Herbst) as experimental objects, the toxicity for the allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is tested systematically by fumigation method. The result demonstrates that the allyl isothiocyanate presents rapid lethal effect against both of the two types of insects. The research also shows that both the LC50 and the LC99 of the fumigation of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Sitophilus zeamais are less than those of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Tribolium castaneum exposuring the same fumigating time, which indicates that the fumigating effect of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Sitophilus zeamais is more effective than that of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Tribolium castaneum.

  4. The utilization of the mesoporous Ti-SBA-15 catalyst in the epoxidation of allyl alcohol to glycidol and diglycidyl ether in the water medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Agnieszka


    Full Text Available This work presents the studies on the optimization the process of allyl alcohol epoxidation over the Ti-SBA-15 catalyst. The optimization was carried out in an aqueous medium, wherein water was introduced into the reaction medium with an oxidizing agent (30 wt% aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide and it was formed in the reaction medium during the processes. The main investigated technological parameters were: the temperature, the molar ratio of allyl alcohol/hydrogen peroxide, the catalyst content and the reaction time. The main functions the process were: the selectivity of transformation to glycidol in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the selectivity of transformation to diglycidyl ether in relation to allyl alcohol consumed, the conversion of allyl alcohol and the selectivity of transformation to organic compounds in relation to hydrogen peroxide consumed. The analysis of the layer drawings showed that in water solution it is best to conduct allyl alcohol epoxidation in direction of glycidol (selectivity of glycidol 54 mol% at: the temperature of 10–17°C, the molar ratio of reactants 0.5–1.9, the catalyst content 2.9–4.0 wt%, the reaction time 2.7–3.0 h and in direction of diglycidyl ether (selectivity of diglycidyl ether 16 mol% at: the temperature of 18–33°C, the molar ratio of reactants 0.9–1.65, the catalyst content 2.0–3.4 wt%, the reaction time 1.7–2.6 h. The presented method allows to obtain two very valuable intermediates for the organic industry.

  5. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Labrin, Soledad


    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  6. Vaginal radical trachelectomy: an update. (United States)

    Plante, Marie


    The vaginal radical trachelectomy has emerged as a valuable fertility-preserving treatment option for young women with early-stage disease. Cancer-related infertility is associated with feelings of depression, grief, stress, and sexual dysfunction. Data have shown that the overall oncological outcome is safe and that the obstetrical outcome is promising. In this article, we analyze the data on the vaginal radical trachelectomy published over the last 10 years in the context of what we have learned, what issues remain unclear, and what the future holds.

  7. [bmim][Br] as a solvent and activator for the Ga-mediated Barbier allylation: direct formation of an N-heterocyclic carbene from Ga metal. (United States)

    Goswami, Dibakar; Chattopadhyay, Angshuman; Sharma, Anubha; Chattopadhyay, Subrata


    The room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][Br] has been found to be an excellent green and inexpensive medium for the Ga-mediated allylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and ketones. The RTIL activated the metal via formation of a Ga-N-heterocyclic carbene complex that assisted in the completion of the reaction at ambient temperature with only 0.5 equiv of Ga and 1.2 equiv of allyl bromide with respect to the carbonyl substrates. The present protocol required a much shorter time than those reported in the literature using other metals and solvents and proceeded with good yields and excellent selectivity.

  8. Green synthesis of allyl isobornyl ether%烯丙基异冰片基醚绿色合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士康; 徐徐; 兰蓝; 樊媛媛; 王石发


    以莰烯和烯丙醇为原料,研究了烯丙基异冰片基醚的绿色合成工艺,探讨了催化剂种类及用量、反应温度、反应时间,以及烯丙醇与莰烯物质的量之比对莰烯醚化反应选择性及烯丙基异冰片基醚产物得率的影响.采用正交试验方法确定了烯丙基异冰片基醚的最适工艺条件:A-15型阳离子树脂为催化剂,催化剂用量为烯丙醇和莰烯原料总质量的5%,烯丙醇与莰烯物质的量之比为1.5:1,反应温度75℃,反应时间7h.在此条件下工业莰烯转化率为85.5%,反应选择性为97.5%,烯丙基异冰片基醚得率为83.4%.最后采用GC-MS、IR等分析技术对合成所得产物的结构进行了分析测定.%Green synthetic method of allyl isobornyl ether was investigated by using camphene and allyl alcohol as the raw materials in this paper. Influence of catalysts and their usages, reaction temperature, reaction time, and the molar ratio of allyl alcohol to camphene on the selectivity of etherification and the yield of allyl isobornyl ether were examined, and the optimum synthesis conditions were determined based on the orthogonal test results as follows: A-15 resin was used as the catalyst for etherification, and the amount of A-15 cationic exchange resin was 5 % (based on the total weight of camphene and allyl alcohol) ; molar ratio of allyl alcohol to camphene was 1. 5-1; reaction temperature and reaction time were 75 ℃ and 7 h, respectively. The conversion ratio of camphene and the reaction selectivity reached 85. 5 % and 97. 5 % respectively, and the yield of allyl isobornyl ether also reached 83. 4 %. The structure of allyl isobornyl ether was identified by GC-MS and IR spectra.

  9. Use of Cyclic Allylic Bromides in the Zinc–Mediated Aqueous Barbier–Grignard Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. Perala


    Full Text Available The zinc–mediated aqueous Barbier–Grignard reaction of cyclic allylic bromide substrates with various aldehydes and ketones to afford homoallylic alcohols was investigated. Aromatic aldehydes and ketones afforded adducts in good yields (66–90% and with good diastereoselectivities. Non–aromatic aldehydes also reacted well under these conditions, but only poor yields were obtained with non–aromatic ketones. Regioselectivity was high when some substituted cyclic allylic bromides were investigated.

  10. Radical Innovation and Network Evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.W. Phlippen (Sandra); M. Riccaboni


    textabstractThis paper examines how a radical technological innovation affects alliance formation of firms and subsequent network structures. We use longitudinal data of interfirm R&D collaborations in the biopharmaceutical industry in which a new technological regime is established. Our findings su

  11. Wild radical square zero algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It is shown that a radical square zero algebra is wild, if and only if it is of Corner's type, and it is strictly wild if and only if it is Endo-wild. This gives a negative answer to a problem posed by Simson.

  12. Is Radical Innovation Management Misunderstood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jimmi Normann; Gertsen, Frank


    This paper poses a critical view on radical innovation (RI) management research and practice. The study investigates how expected RI performance influences firms’ under- standing of their RI capability. RI performance is often based on output measures such as market shares or fiscal return...

  13. Exploring the Theories of Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta


    Full Text Available After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.

  14. Radical review of NHS funding. (United States)


    The Government is to carry out a radical review of the way the NHS is funded, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher confirmed last week. And she hinted that she herself would be taking a leading role in drawing up proposals for reform.

  15. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock


    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill...

  16. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.


    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of "narrow mental states"; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without…

  17. Perfluoro Allyl Fluorosulfate (FAFS: A Versatile Building Block for New Fluoroallylic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Marchionni


    Full Text Available In this study we will present and discuss both the synthesis of CF2=CFCF2OSO2F (perfluoroallyl fluorosulfate, FAFS, focusing in particular on the important role of C3F6/SO3 ratio, reaction temperature and boron catalyst/SO3 ratio on FAFS’ yield and selectivity, as well as a wide variety of ionic and radical reactions possible with FAFS. We focused our attention on reactions of FAFS with aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, acyl halides, halides, H2O2, ketones and radicals whose synthesis and reaction mechanisms will be presented and discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to the novel diallyl-fluoroalkyl peroxide obtained. Factors such as pKa and Lowry and Pearson’s Hard/Soft Acid-Base Theory which determine the selectivity between Addition/Elimination vs. Nucleophilic Substitution reaction mechanisms on FAFS will also be presented and discussed.

  18. The - - and Submm-Wave Spectrum of Allyl Isocyanide and Radioastronomical Observations in Orion KL and the Primos Line Survey (United States)

    Haykal, I.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margules, L.; Huet, T. R.; Ecija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernandez, J. A.; Castano, F.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lesarri, A.; Guillemin, J. C.


    Last year we presented the first rotational analysis of the ground state of the two conformers of allyl isocyanide from 4 GHz to 905 GHz. The analysis of the rotational spectrum of the cis conformer of allyl isocyanide was extended. We resolved Coriolis interactions of a and b types between the excited vibrational states ν_1=1 and ν_2=1, calculated to be at 156 cm^{-1} (A^{'}) and 167 cm^{-1} (A^{''}) respectively (MP2/aug-cc-pvtz), from 150 GHz to 600 GHz. Strong perturbations were observed in the 150-310 GHz range for low values of the quantum number K_a starting from K_a = 0, 1. The anharmonicities appeared as well at higher frequencies for larger quantum numbers. The two modes were fitted together with the SPFIT/SPCAT suite of programs and a set of Coriolis parameters was accurately determined. The fit contains more than 3000 lines up to J = 99 and K_a = 12 for both modes. We did not detect these species neither in the IRAM 30-m line survey of Orion KL nor in the PRIMOS survey towards SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided upper limits to their column density in Orion KL. This work was supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. I. Haykal et al. manuscript in preparation H. Pickett J. Mol. Spec.{148}, 371-377, 1991.

  19. Inhibition of bladder cancer cell proliferation by allyl isothiocyanate (mustard essential oil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sávio, André Luiz Ventura, E-mail: [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Nicioli da Silva, Glenda [UFOP – Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Escola de Farmácia, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil); Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero [UNESP – Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Departamento de Patologia, Botucatu, SP (Brazil)


    Highlights: • AITC inhibits mutant and wild-type TP53 cell proliferation. • Morphological changes and cells debris were observed after AITC treatment in both cells. • BAX and BCL2 expression modulation was observed in wild-type TP53 cells. • BCL2, BAX and ANLN increased and S100P decreased expression was detected in mutated TP53 cells. • AITC effects in gene modulation are dependent TP53 gene status. - Abstract: Natural compounds hold great promise for combating antibiotic resistance, the failure to control some diseases, the emergence of new diseases and the toxicity of some contemporary medical products. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which is abundant in cruciferous vegetables and mustard seeds and is commonly referred to as mustard essential oil, exhibits promising antineoplastic activity against bladder cancer, although its mechanism of action is not fully understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AITC activity on bladder cancer cell lines carrying a wild type (wt; RT4) or mutated (T24) TP53 gene. Morphological changes, cell cycle kinetics and CDK1, SMAD4, BAX, BCL2, ANLN and S100P gene expression were evaluated. In both cell lines, treatment with AITC inhibited cell proliferation (at 62.5, 72.5, 82.5 and 92.5 μM AITC) and induced morphological changes, including scattered and elongated cells and cellular debris. Gene expression profiles revealed increased S100P and BAX and decreased BCL2 expression in RT4 cells following AITC treatment. T24 cells displayed increased BCL2, BAX and ANLN and decreased S100P expression. No changes in SMAD4 and CDK1 expression were observed in either cell line. In conclusion, AITC inhibits cell proliferation independent of TP53 status. However, the mechanism of action of AITC differed in the two cell lines; in RT4 cells, it mainly acted via the classical BAX/BCL2 pathway, while in T24 cells, AITC modulated the activities of ANLN (related to cytokinesis) and S100P. These data confirm

  20. Reaction between protein radicals and other biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østdal, Henrik; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Andersen, Henrik J


    oil-in-water emulsion resulted in additional formation of lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes. The results clearly show that protein radicals have to be considered as dynamic species during oxidative processes in biological systems and that protein radicals should not be considered as end-products......The present study investigates the reactivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) radicals towards different biomolecules (urate, linoleic acid, and a polypeptide, poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr)). The BSA radical was formed at room temperature through a direct protein-to-protein radical transfer from H(2)O(2....... Subsequent analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of urate upon reaction with the BSA radical, while the BSA radical in the presence of poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr) resulted in increased formation of the characteristic protein oxidation product, dityrosine. Reaction between the BSA radical and a linoleic acid...

  1. Exciton Coupling in Circular Dichroic Spectroscopy as a Tool for Establishing the Absolute Configuration of alpha,beta-Unsaturated Esters of Allylic Alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, A.; Cornett, Claus; Christensen, S. B.


    alpha-beta-Unsaturated esters of allylic alcohols have been shown to exhibit exciton coupling by circular dichroic spectroscopy. This coupling permits the establishment of the absolute configuration. The method was used to prove the absolute configuration at C-2 of archangelolide. Detailed NMR sp...

  2. Nickel-catalyzed enantioselective hydrovinylation of silyl-protected allylic alcohols:An efficient access to homoallylic alcohols with a chiral quaternary center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Asymmetric hydrovinylation of silyl-protected allylic alcohols catalyzed by nickel complexes of chiral spiro phosphoramidite ligands was developed.A series of homoallylic alcohols with a chiral quaternary center were produced in high yields(up to 97%) and high enantioselectivities(up to 95% ee).The reaction provides an efficient method for preparing bifunctional compounds with a chiral quaternary carbon center.

  3. γ‐ and δ-Lactams through Palladium-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic Alkylation: Enantioselective Synthesis, NMR Investigation, and DFT Rationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bantreil, Xavier; Prestat, Guillaume; Moreno, Aitor;


    the cyclization reactions to take place in up to 94:6 enantiomeric ratio. A model Pd-allyl complex has been prepared and studied through NMR spectroscopic analysis, which provided insight into the processes responsible for the observed enantiomeric ratios. DFT studies were used to characterize the diastereomeric...

  4. Synthesis of Oxacyclic Scaffolds via Dual Ruthenium Hydride/Brønsted Acid‐Catalyzed Isomerization/Cyclization of Allylic Ethers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascic, Erhad; Ohm, Ragnhild Gaard; Petersen, Rico;


    A ruthenium hydride/Brønsted acid‐catalyzed tandem sequence is reported for the synthesis of 1,3,4,9‐tetrahydropyrano[3,4‐b]indoles (THPIs) and related oxacyclic scaffolds. The process was designed on the premise that readily available allylic ethers would undergo sequential isomerization, first ...

  5. Oxygen free radicals in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Biemond (Pieter)


    textabstractCurrent knowledge strongly suggests that oxygen free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Additional information about the mechanism of free radical attack is necessary in order to find out if interaction with the mechanism of free radical damage can be used in the treatment

  6. DNA binding hydroxyl radical probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Vicky J.; Konigsfeld, Katie M.; Aguilera, Joe A. [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0610 (United States); Milligan, Jamie R., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0610 (United States)


    The hydroxyl radical is the primary mediator of DNA damage by the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. It is a powerful oxidizing agent produced by the radiolysis of water and is responsible for a significant fraction of the DNA damage associated with ionizing radiation. There is therefore an interest in the development of sensitive assays for its detection. The hydroxylation of aromatic groups to produce fluorescent products has been used for this purpose. We have examined four different chromophores, which produce fluorescent products when hydroxylated. Of these, the coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. We have therefore examined its behavior when linked to a cationic peptide ligand designed to bind strongly to DNA. - Highlights: > Examined four aromatic groups as a means to detect hydroxyl radicals by fluorescence. > Coumarin system suffers from the fewest disadvantages. > Characterized its reactivity when linked to a hexa-arginine peptide.

  7. Highly durable photochromic radical complexes having no steric protections of radicals. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoichi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Mutoh, Katsuya; Abe, Jiro


    Steric protection groups are usually necessary for stable radicals. However, here, we developed novel photochromic radical complexes which generate sterically unprotected imidazolyl and phenoxyl radicals upon UV light irradiation based on the phenoxyl-imidazolyl radical complex (PIC) framework. These photochromic compounds show excellent durability against repeated irradiation of intense nanosecond laser pulses even in polar protic solvents, such as ethanol.

  8. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.


    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  9. Reações de carbociclização radicalar de orto-iodoaliloxibenzoatos derivados de d-glicose e d-galactose e comparação com as reações de seus análogos benzamidas Radical carbocyclization reactions of ortho-iodoallyloxybenzoate derivatives of d-glucose and d-galactose and comparison with the reactions of their benzamide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildefonso Binatti


    Full Text Available Two ortho-iodoallyloxybenzoates, methyl 4-O-allyl-2,3-di-O-benzyl-6-O-(2-iodobenzoyl- alpha-D-glucopyranoside (3 and methyl 4-O-allyl-2,3-di-O-benzyl-6-O-(2-iodobenzoyl- alpha-D-galactopyranoside (4 were synthesized in seven conventional steps from methyl alpha-D-glucopyranoside and methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside, respectively. Bu3SnH-mediated aryl radical cyclization of 3 provided exclusively the hydrogenolysis product 12. The reaction of 4 gave the reduced uncyclized product 13 and only traces of 4A, resulting from 11-endo aryl radical cyclization. In previous papers we described that in similar Bu3SnH-mediated radical reaction of ortho-iodoallyloxybenzamides, analogs of 3 and 4, we obtained macrolactams resulting from 11-endo cyclization. An hypothesis to explain the differences is presented. It was assumed that in the aryl radical formed from iodobenzamides there is a suitable conformation to cyclization, which is stabilized by an intramolecular hydrogen bond.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kaya


    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  11. Oxidative stress, free radicals and protein peroxides. (United States)

    Gebicki, Janusz M


    Primary free radicals generated under oxidative stress in cells and tissues produce a cascade of reactive secondary radicals, which attack biomolecules with efficiency determined by the reaction rate constants and target concentration. Proteins are prominent targets because they constitute the bulk of the organic content of cells and tissues and react readily with many of the secondary radicals. The reactions commonly lead to the formation of carbon-centered radicals, which generally convert in vivo to peroxyl radicals and finally to semistable hydroperoxides. All of these intermediates can initiate biological damage. This article outlines the advantages of the application of ionizing radiations to studies of radicals, with particular reference to the generation of desired radicals, studies of the kinetics of their reactions and correlating the results with events in biological systems. In one such application, formation of protein hydroperoxides in irradiated cells was inhibited by the intracellular ascorbate and glutathione.

  12. Improved synthesis of cyclic tertiary allylic alcohols by asymmetric 1,2-addition of AlMe3 to enones. (United States)

    Kolb, Andreas; Zuo, Wei; Siewert, Jürgen; Harms, Klaus; von Zezschwitz, Paultheo


    The development of an improved protocol for the enantioselective Rh(I) /binap-catalysed 1,2-addition of AlMe3 to cyclic enones is reported. (31)P NMR analysis of the reaction revealed that the catalyst in its resting state is a chloride-bridged dimer. This insight led to the use of AgBF4 as an additive for in situ activation of the dimeric precatalyst. Thus, the catalyst loading can now be reduced to only 1 mol% with respect to rhodium. Various 5-7-membered cyclic enones can be transformed into tertiary allylic alcohols with excellent levels of enantioselectivity and high yields. The obtained products are versatile synthetic building blocks, shown by a highly enantioselective formal total synthesis of the pheromone (-)-frontalin as well as formation of a bicyclic lactone that has the core structure of the natural flavour component "wine lactone".

  13. Practical and Broadly Applicable Catalytic Enantioselective Additions of Allyl-B(pin) Compounds to Ketones and α-Ketoesters. (United States)

    Robbins, Daniel W; Lee, KyungA; Silverio, Daniel L; Volkov, Alexey; Torker, Sebastian; Hoveyda, Amir H


    A set of broadly applicable methods for efficient catalytic additions of easy-to-handle allyl-B(pin) (pin=pinacolato) compounds to ketones and acyclic α-ketoesters was developed. Accordingly, a large array of tertiary alcohols can be obtained in 60 to >98 % yield and up to 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. At the heart of this development is rational alteration of the structures of the small-molecule aminophenol-based catalysts. Notably, with ketones, increasing the size of a catalyst moiety (tBu to SiPh3 ) results in much higher enantioselectivity. With α-ketoesters, on the other hand, not only does the opposite hold true, since Me substitution leads to substantially higher enantioselectivity, but the sense of the selectivity is reversed as well.

  14. Isolation and recovery of cellulose from waste nylon/cotton blended fabrics by 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. (United States)

    Lv, Fangbing; Wang, Chaoxia; Zhu, Ping; Zhang, Chuanjie


    Development of a simple process for separating cellulose and nylon 6 from their blended fabrics is indispensable for recycling of waste mixed fabrics. An efficient procedure of dissolution of the fabrics in an ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([AMIM]Cl) and subsequent filtration separation has been demonstrated. Effects of treatment temperature, time and waste fabrics ratio on the recovery rates were investigated. SEM images showed that the cotton cellulose dissolved in [AMIM]Cl while the nylon 6 fibers remained. The FTIR spectrum of regenerated cellulose (RC) was similar with that of virgin cotton fibers, which verified that no other chemical reaction occurred besides breakage of hydrogen bonds during the processes of dissolution and separation. TGA curves indicated that the regenerated cellulose possessed a reduced thermal stability and was effectively removed from waste nylon/cotton blended fabrics (WNCFs). WNCFs were sufficiently reclaimed with high recovery rate of both regenerated cellulose films and nylon 6 fibers.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and solution behavior of new tin tetrachloride adducts with γ-keto allyl phosphonates (United States)

    Elleuch, Haitham; Sanhoury, M. A. K.; Rezgui, F.


    Four new octahedral complexes of the type [SnCl4L2] (L = γ-keto allyl phosphonate) (1-4) were prepared and characterized by multinuclear (1H, 13C, 31P and 119Sn) NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The NMR data show, as expected, that these complexes exist in solution as mixtures of cis and trans isomers. More importantly, the solution structure was confirmed by 119Sn NMR spectra which show two triplets corresponding to the two isomers. In addition, the solution behavior of these complexes in the presence of excess ligand was studied by variable temperature NMR using the coalescence temperature method. The metal-ligand exchange activation energies were therefore determined and found to be in the range 57-60 kJ/mol. The effect of remote substituents on the metal-ligand interaction was studied and compared with closely related tin-phosphoryl complexes.

  16. Crystal structure of (E-4-(acetoxyimino-N-allyl-3-isopropyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidine-1-carbothioamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mohandas


    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H31N3O2S, crystallizes with two molecules (A and B in the asymmetric unit. In each case, the piperidine ring exists in a twist-boat conformation. The dihedral angle between the phenyl rings is 46.16 (12° in molecule A and 44.95 (12° in molecule B. In both molecules, the allyl side chain is disordered over two orientations in a 0.649 (9:0.351 (9 ratio for molecule A and 0.826 (10:0.174 (10 ratio for molecule B. In the crystal, neither molecule forms a hydrogen bond from its N—H group, presumably due to steric hindrance. A+A and B+B inversion dimers are formed, linked by pairs of weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds enclosing R22(22 ring motifs.

  17. Crystal structure of N-(1-allyl-3-chloro-4-ethoxy-1H-indazol-5-yl-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Chicha


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H20ClN3O4S, the benzene ring is inclined to the indazole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.014 Å by 65.07 (8°. The allyl and ethoxy groups are almost normal to the indazole ring, as indicated by the respective torsion angles [N—N—C—C = 111.6 (2 and C—C—O—C = −88.1 (2°]. In the crystal, molecules are connected by N—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming helical chains propagating along [010]. The chains are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  18. Crystal structure of (Z-3-allyl-5-(4-chlorobenzylidene-2-sulfanylidene-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahhal El Ajlaoui


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C13H10ClNOS2, the dihedral angle between the rhodanine (r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 Å and 4-chlorobenzylidene rings is 1.79 (11°. The allyl group attached to the N atom, which lies almost perpendicular to the rhodanine ring, is disordered over two orientations in a 0.519 (13:0.481 (13 ratio. A short intramolecular C—H...S interaction closes an S(6 ring. In the crystal, molecules are linked by π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid separation = 3.600 (15 Å], generating inversion dimers.

  19. Online radicalization: the net or the netizen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Richard Omotoyinbo


    Full Text Available Purpose - Radicalization has gained some unusual prominence in the academic circles; maintaining a generic existence not only in the political sector. And with the advent of the Information Communication Technology (ICT, radicalization has begun to have some virtual dimension even in the remotest of human communities. This study seeks to mobilize a universal awareness on the collective urgency to oppose Online Radicalization (a radicalization that happens through the internet due to its propensity to engendering conflicts. It also aims at identifying the principal cause of online radicalization and steer a clear course for a practical reversal in the systems of online radicalization.Design/methodology/approach - The study is divided into three primary parts. The general notion of radicalization is the focus of the first part; which is further analysed into the levels of online radicalization with its accompanying developments and segments. The second part utilizes analytic and historical method to pinpoint the principal cause of online radicalization amidst the suspected causal factors (the Net and the Netizen. The final part analytically focuses on the Netizen (a user/citizen of the internet as the primary cause of online radicalization, and how the global community can bring about a corresponding change in the Net by the application of some measures on the Netizen.Findings - By virtue of the analytic plus historical methods employed by this study; it was initially identified that radicalization is basically having two versions which are online and offline. Further emphasis on the online version reveals that its existence is only made possible by the availability of the internet (the Net. Since the Net is a global phenomenon online radicalization is considered to be worldwide: a menace of globalization. However, the study later indicated that the Net is a facilitator and a cause of online radicalization. A view was deduced that the Netizen is

  20. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz


    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt......, as well as in user-generated comments in an online discussion. The television film represented an inclusive memory culture that made room for the difficult memories of all parties involved, including the radicalised, young hijackers. Based on a multidimensional model of mass media reception, the analysis...

  1. Radical conservatism and Danish imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    on the basis of a close reading of their imperialist program in the pamphlet Danmark Udslettes! from 1918. Rige had been a vague term for the larger Danish polity that originated in a pre-national conceptualization of the polity as a realm. The article suggests that rige-as-realm was translated by the radical...... to signify the ambition of being a great power, the spiritual elevation of the nation through the transcendence of the decaying liberal modernity. The program addressed the tension between a conservative political attitude and modernity and thus signified a kind of reactionary modernism, which rejected...

  2. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  3. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  4. Radical constructivism: Between realism and solipsism (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alberto


    This paper criticizes radical constructivism of the Glasersfeld type, pointing out some contradictions between the declared radical principles and their theoretical and practical development. These contradictions manifest themselves in a frequent oscillation between solipsism and realism, despite constructivist claims to be an anti-realist theory. The paper also points out the contradiction between the relativism of the radical constructivist principles and the constructivist exclusion of other epistemological or educational paradigms. It also disputes the originality and importance of the radical constructivist paradigm, suggesting the idea of an isomorphism between radical constructivist theory and contemplative realism. In addition, some pedagogical and scientific methodological aspects of the radical constructivist model are examined. Although radical constructivism claims to be a rational theory and advocates deductive thinking, it is argued that there is no logical deductive connection between the radical principles of constructivism and the radical constructivist ideas about scientific research and learning. The paper suggests the possibility of an ideological substratum in the construction and hegemonic success of subjective constructivism and, finally, briefly advances an alternative realist model to epistemological and educational radical constructivism.

  5. Stereochemistry of Pd(II)-Catalyzed THF Ring Formation of ε-Hydroxy Allylic Alcohols and Synthesis of 2,3,5-Trisubstituted and 2,3,4,5-Tetrasubstituted Tetrahydrofurans. (United States)

    Murata, Yuki; Uenishi, Jun'ichi


    Pd(II)-catalyzed ring formation of 2,3,5-trisubstituted and 2,3,4,5-tetrasubstituted tetrahydrofurans is described. Oxypalladation of a chiral ε-hydroxy allylic alcohol provides a 5-alkenyltetrahydrofuran ring in excellent yields via a 5-exo-trigonal process. Nine substrates including six secondary allylic alcohols and three primary allylic alcohols with or without an additional secondary hydroxy substituent at the γ-position have been examined. Their structures are restricted by a 2,2,4,4-tetraisopropyl-1,3,5,2,4-trioxadisilocane ring. The stereochemistry of the resulting tetrahydrofuran products was determined by chemical transformation. The reaction mechanism is discussed on the basis of the stereochemical results. The steps in the chiral allylic alcohol directed or the nucleophilic alcohol directed facial selection for the formation of the alkene-Pd(II)-π-complex, the cis-oxypalladation, and a syn-elimination mechanism account for the observed stereochemistry of the reaction.

  6. 超硬材料磨具用烯丙基化酚醛改性双马来酰亚胺树脂的研究%Bismaleimide Modified by Allyl Novolak for Superabrasives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑红飞; 李志宏; 朱玉梅


    A novel thermosetting resin system for superabrasives based on novolak and bismaleimide (BMI) was developed.The novolak resin was allylated and then copolymerized with BMI.The structure of allyl novolak and reaction mechanism were analyzed by FTIR.Thermal and mechanical properties were characterized by using comprehensive thermal analyzer (DSC-TG) and strength tester,respectively.The results showed that high molecular weight of novolak was advantageous for heat-resistance,but was unfavorable for the bending strength.High allyl content improved the heat-resistance but lowered the bending strength.When the molecular weight of novolak was 450 and allyl content was 50%,the best resin system with good heat-resistance and bending strength was obtained.It was suitable for the manufacturing of superabrasive tools.

  7. A one-pot stereoselective synthesis of 1,4-dienyl selenides by hydrostannylation-Stille tandem reaction of acetylenic selenides with Bu3SnH and allylic bromides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    La Mei Yu; Wen Yan Hao; Ming Zhong Cai


    1,4-Dienyl selenides can be stereoselectively synthesized in one pot under mild conditions in good yields by the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannylation of acetylenic selenides, followed by Stille coupling with allylic bromides.

  8. Role of cluster size and substrate in the gas phase CC bond coupling reactions of allyl halides mediated by Agn+ and Agn-1H+ cluster cations (United States)

    Wang, Farrah Qiuyun; Khairallah, George N.; O'Hair, Richard A. J.


    Previous studies have demonstrated that the silver hydride cluster cation Ag4H+ promotes CC bond coupling of allylbromide [G.N. Khairallah, R.A.J. O'Hair, Angewandte Chemie International Edition 44 (2005) 728]. Here the influence of both the nature and the size of the silver cluster cation and the substrate on CC bond coupling are examined. Thus each of the cations Ag2H+, Ag4H+, Ag3+, and Ag5+ were allowed to react with three different halides: allyl chloride, allyl bromide and allyl iodide. No CC bond coupling is observed in the reactions of the cluster cations with allyl chloride. There are four main reaction sequences that result in CC bond coupling for allyl bromide and allyl iodide mediated by Agn+ and Agn-1H+ clusters: (i) A sequence involving the reactions of silver cluster cations with two molecules of C3H5X: Agn+ --> Agn(C3H5X)+ --> AgnX2+. This only occurs in the cases of: n = 3 and X = I; n = 5 and X = Br. (ii) A sequence involving the reactions of silver cluster cations with two molecules of C3H5X via an organometallic intermediate: Agn+ --> Agn-1(C3H5)+ --> Agn-1X+. This only occurs in the cases of: n = 5 and X = Br and I. (iii) A sequence involving the reactions of silver hydride cluster cations with three molecules of C3H5X: Agn-1H+ --> Agn-1X+ --> Agn-1X(C3H5X)+ --> Ag(C3H5)2+ and Agn-1X3+. This only occurs in the cases of: n = 5 and X = Br and I. (iv) A sequence involving the reactions of silver hydride cluster cations with three molecules of C3H5X via an organometallic intermediate: Agn-1H+ --> Agn-1X+ --> Agn-3(C3H5)+ --> Ag(C3H5)2+ and Agn-3X+. This only occurs in the cases of: n = 5 and X = I.

  9. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare Louise


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...... and via enzymatic reactions. Over the last 15 years this technique has also found increasing use in detecting and identifying radicals formed on biological macromolecules as a result of either radical reactions or enzymatic processes. Though the EPR signals that result from the trapping of large, slowly...... tumbling radicals are often broad and relatively poor in distinctive features, a number of techniques have been developed that allow a wealth of information to be obtained about the nature, site, and reactions of such radicals. This article summarizes recent developments in this area and reviews selected...

  10. Radical Reactions and Its Synthetic Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeaki Naito


    @@ 1Introduction Strategies involving radical reactions have become preeminent tools in organic synthesis. Free radical-mediated cyclization has developed as a powerful method for preparing various types of cyclic compounds via carbon-carbon bond-forming processes. In order to develop effective and convenient methods for the synthesis of biologically active cyclic amines, we have focused our efforts on radical reactions using aldehydes, ketones,and C-C multiple bonds as a radical precursor and/or an oxime ether, hydrazone, and nitrone as a radical acceptor. In this lecture, I would like to talk on radical addition-cyclization of oxime ether and its application to the synthesis of martinellines.

  11. Radicalization In Pakistan And The Spread Of Radical Islam In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahir ahmad


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is pertinent to mention that radicalism is not intrinsic to Islam and radical interpretations of the religion or for that matter may occur within any way of life and religion Saikal 2003 and yet the question remains as to why Muslims in certain geographical regions have more radical approaches towards their religion and also that what are the causes of such radicalization. Becoming a radical Muslim is not even a matter of a day nor is it a sudden process. There are several reasons behind making a person radical peaceful angry smiling or tolerant. For knowing the reason behind radicalization or radicals persons one has to understand the causes. Tracing these causes is one of the ways to eliminate such behavior. The first step in the elimination of the radical sentiments in a person is to develop peace in his personality Fair Malhotra amp Shapiro 2010. The chapter which has been addressed here is going to shed light on the roots and symptoms of the radicalism. There will be a brief discussion on how the roots of radicalism can be traced and can be eliminated. The assessment and discussion will be conducted on the parameters of the economy media politics and theology from social cultural point of view. According to the analysis of Ahrari 2000 political factor is one of the major and direct factors which have resulted in causing of the radicalism. These factors however intertwine with one another. Radical actions cannot take place only because of the political factors.

  12. Serendipitous Findings While Researching Oxygen Free Radicals


    Floyd, Robert A.


    This review is based on the honor of receiving the Discovery Award from the Society of Free Radical Biology and Medicine. The review is reflective and presents our thinking which led to experiments that yielded novel observations. Critical questioning of our understanding of oxygen free radicals in biomedical problems led us to use and develop more direct and extremely sensitive methods. This included nitrone free radical spin-trapping and HPLC-electrochemical detection. This technology led t...

  13. Bioinspired terpene synthesis: a radical approach. (United States)

    Justicia, José; Álvarez de Cienfuegos, Luis; Campaña, Araceli G; Miguel, Delia; Jakoby, Verena; Gansäuer, Andreas; Cuerva, Juan M


    This tutorial review highlights the development of radical-based bioinspired synthesis of terpenes from the initial proposal to the development of modern catalytic methods for performing such processes. The power of the radical approach is demonstrated by the straightforward syntheses of many natural products from readily available starting materials. The efficiency of these processes nicely complements the described cationic polyolefin cyclisations and even suggests that modern radical methods provide means to improve upon nature's synthetic pathways.

  14. Superspecial radical%超特殊根

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    定义了超特殊根,即由无零因子的绝对半素环类所确定的上根,并证明了它是一个特殊根。%The superspecial radical is defined, it is the upper radical, determined by the rings class consisted without divisors of zero and absolutely semiprings. And it is a special radical.

  15. Neurotoxins: Free Radical Mechanisms and Melatonin Protection



    Toxins that pass through the blood-brain barrier put neurons and glia in peril. The damage inflicted is usually a consequence of the ability of these toxic agents to induce free radical generation within cells but especially at the level of the mitochondria. The elevated production of oxygen and nitrogen-based radicals and related non-radical products leads to the oxidation of essential macromolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA. The resultant damage is referred to as oxidative and nit...

  16. Radical-free biology of oxidative stress



    Free radical-induced macromolecular damage has been studied extensively as a mechanism of oxidative stress, but large-scale intervention trials with free radical scavenging antioxidant supplements show little benefit in humans. The present review summarizes data supporting a complementary hypothesis for oxidative stress in disease that can occur without free radicals. This hypothesis, which is termed the “redox hypothesis,” is that oxidative stress occurs as a consequence of disruption of thi...

  17. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  18. Formation of free radicals during phacoemulsification. (United States)

    Holst, A; Rolfsen, W; Svensson, B; Ollinger, K; Lundgren, B


    During phacoemulsification cavitation bubbles are formed. These bubbles are believed to be one source of damage to corneal endothelium seen after phacoemulsification. Free radicals are induced whenever cavitation bubbles implode. The aim of this study was to confirm the initiation of free radicals by phacoemulsification and to correlate the power of ultrasound in the phacoemulsification process to the amount of free radicals formed, using both in vitro and in vivo techniques. The formation of free radicals was determined by adding luminol to a buffer and measuring the chemoluminescence in vitro and in rabbit eyes (Lumacounter 2080 or a single-photon-counting apparatus) during phacoemulsification. The data obtained show that free radicals are formed during phacoemulsification and that the amount of free radicals correlates with the power of ultrasound. Furthermore, the radical formation could be inhibited by the radical scavengers SOD, Healon and Healon GV. These results were achieved both in vitro in the test tube and in vivo in rabbit eyes. By showing that the addition of SOD to the irrigation buffer during phacoemulsification decreases the corneal endothelial cell damage, we show that free radicals could have a role in postoperative complications seen clinically.

  19. Near-Ring Radicals and Class Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Godloza; N.J.Groenewald; W.A.Olivier


    For near-ring ideal mappings p1 and p2, we investigate radical theoretical properties of and the relationship among the class pairs (p1: p2), (Sp2: Sp1) and (Rp2:Rp1). Conditions on p1 and p2 are given for a general class pair to form a radical class of various types. These types include the Plotkin and KA-radical varieties. A number of examples are shown to motivate the suitability of the theory of Hoehnke-radicals over KA-radicals when radical pairs of near-rings are studied. In particular, it is shown that (pc: P3) forms a KA-radical class, where Pc denotes the class of completely prime nearrings and P3 the class of 3-prime near-rings. This gives another near-ring generalization of the 2-primal ring concept. The theory of radical pairs are also used to show that in general the class of 3-semiprime near-rings is not the semisimple class of the 3-prime radical.

  20. A Review on Mutagenicity Testing for Hazard Classification of Chemicals at Work: Focusing on in vivo Micronucleus Test for Allyl Chloride. (United States)

    Rim, Kyung-Taek; Kim, Soo-Jin


    Chemical mutagenicity is a major hazard that is important to workers' health. Despite the use of large amounts of allyl chloride, the available mutagenicity data for this chemical remains controversial. To clarify the mutagenicity of allyl chloride and because a micronucleus (MN) test had not yet been conducted, we screened for MN induction by using male ICR mice bone marrow cells. The test results indicated that this chemical is not mutagenic under the test conditions. In this paper, the regulatory test battery and several assay combinations used to determine the genotoxic potential of chemicals in the workplace have been described. Further application of these assays may prove useful in future development strategies of hazard evaluations of industrial chemicals. This study also should help to improve the testing of this chemical by commonly used mutagenicity testing methods and investigations on the underlying mechanisms and could be applicable for workers' health.

  1. Structure and stability of acrolein and allyl alcohol networks on Ag(111) from density functional theory based calculations with dispersion corrections (United States)

    Ferullo, Ricardo M.; Branda, Maria Marta; Illas, Francesc


    The interaction of acrolein and allyl alcohol with the Ag(111) surface has been studied by means of periodic density functional theory based calculations including explicitly dispersion terms. Different coverage values have been explored going from isolated adsorbed molecules to isolated dimers, interacting dimers or ordered overlayers. The inclusion of the dispersion terms largely affects the calculated values of the adsorption energy and also the distance between adsorbed molecule and the metallic surface but much less the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. Owing to the large dipole moment of acrolein, the present calculations predict that at high coverage this molecule forms a stable extensive two-dimensional network on the surface, caused by the alignment of the adsorbate dipoles. For the case of allyl alcohol, dimers and complex networks exhibit similar stability.

  2. A formal [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement route to quaternary alpha-vinyl amino acids: use of allylic N-PMP trifluoroacetimidates. (United States)

    Berkowitz, David B; Wu, Bin; Li, Huijie


    Pd(II)-mediated rearrangement of allylic N-PMP (p-methoxyphenyl) trifluoroacetimidates provides the first formal sigmatropic route to quaternary, alpha-vinylic amino acids, potential suicide substrates for PLP enzymes. The amino acid side chains enter via transition-metal-mediated C-C bond constructions, including (i) Cu(I)-mediated conjugate addition (Ala); (ii) Pd(0)/AsPh3-mediated Stille coupling (allyl-Gly, Phe, DOPA, m-Tyr); and (iii) Pd(0)/Pt-Bu3-mediated Negishi coupling (Leu). In the synthesis of the DOPA decarboxylase inactivator, alpha-vinyl-m-tyrosine, the new N-PMP trifluoroacetimidate rearranges much more efficiently than the corresponding trichloroacetimidate.

  3. Remarkable rate acceleration of SmI3-mediated iodination of acetates of Baylis-Hillman adducts in ionic liquid: facile synthesis of (Z)-allyl iodides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Stereoselective transformation of Baylis-Hillman acetates 1 into corresponding (Z)-allyl iodides 2 has been achieved by treatment of 1 with samarium triiodide in THF. Remarkable rate acceleration of samarium triiodide-mediated iodination of 1 was found when ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrafluroborate ([bmim]BF4) was used as reaction media in stead of THF. This novel approach proceeds readily at 50 ℃ within a few minutes to afford (Z)-allyl iodides 2 in excellent yields. A mechanism involving stereoselective iodination of the acetates of Baylis-Hillman adducts by samarium triiodide is described, in which a six-membered ring transition state played a key role in the stereoselective formation of 2.

  4. Inhibitory effects of chitosan on superoxide anion radicals and lipid free radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique, the inhibitory effects of chitosan on superoxide anion radicals and linoleic acid lipid radicals were found. The inhibitory ratio E for these two kinds of radicals is in proportion to the concentration of chitosan. It was also observed that E for linoleic acid lipid radicals increased with the increase of the degree of deacetylation and decreased with the increase of the molecular weight of chitosan.

  5. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.


    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.

  6. Iron and iron derived radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, D.C.; Schaich, K.M.


    We have discussed some reactions of iron and iron-derived oxygen radicals that may be important in the production or treatment of tissue injury. Our conclusions challenge, to some extent, the usual lines of thought in this field of research. Insofar as they are born out by subsequent developments, the lessons they teach are two: Think fastexclamation Think smallexclamation In other words, think of the many fast reactions that can rapidly alter the production and fate of highly reactive intermediates, and when considering the impact of competitive reactions on such species, think how they affect the microenvironment (on the molecular scale) ''seen'' by each reactive molecule. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Photoionisation of the tropyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin H. Fischer


    Full Text Available We present a study on the photoionisation of the cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl radical, C7H7, using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Tropyl is generated by flash pyrolysis from bitropyl. Ions and electrons are detected in coincidence, permitting us to record mass-selected photoelectron spectra. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of tropyl, corresponding to the X+ 1A1’ ← X 2E2” transition, reveals an ionisation energy of 6.23 ± 0.02 eV, in good agreement with Rydberg extrapolations, but slightly lower than the value derived from earlier photoelectron spectra. Several vibrations can be resolved and are reassigned to the C–C stretch mode ν16+ and to a combination of ν16+ with the ring breathing mode ν2+. Above 10.55 eV dissociative photoionisation of tropyl is observed, leading to the formation of C5H5+ and C2H2.

  8. Immobilization of Chiral Ferrocenyl Ligands on Silica Gel and their Testing in Pd-catalyzed Allylic Substitution and Rh-catalyzed Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J. Macquarrie


    Full Text Available Five different silica gels containing two chiral ferrocenyl ligands were prepared by various synthetic routes and tested in an enantioselective Pd(0-catalyzed allylic substitution and Rh-catalyzed hydrogenation. All the prepared anchored ligands were characterized by porosimetry data, DRIFTS spectra, thermal data and AAS. The aim of the work was to compare the influence of the carrier, surface properties and immobilization strategy on the performance of the catalyst.

  9. Palladium complexes with a tridentate PNO ligand. Synthesis of eta1-allyl complexes and cross-coupling reactions promoted by boron compounds. (United States)

    Crociani, Bruno; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Burattini, Marcello; Paoli, Paola; Rossi, Patrizia


    The iminophosphine 2-(2-Ph(2)P)C(6)H(4)N=CHC(6)H(4)OH (P-N-OH) reacts with [Pd(mu-Cl)(eta(3)-C(3)H(5))](2) yielding [PdCl(P-N-O)] and propene. In the presence of NEt(3), the reaction of P-N-OH with [Pd(mu-Cl)(eta(3)-1-R(1),3-R(2)C(3)H(3))](2) (R(1) = R(2) = H, Ph; R(1) = H, R(2) = Ph) affords the eta(1)-allyl derivatives [Pd(eta(1)-1-R(1),3-R(2)C(3)H(3))](P-N-O)] (R(1) = R(2) = H: 1; R(1) = H, R(2) = Ph: 2; R(1) = R(2) = Ph: 3). In solution, the complexes 1 and 3 undergo a slow dynamic process which interconverts the bonding site of the allyl ligand. The X-ray structural analysis of 1 indicates a square-planar coordination geometry around the palladium centre with a P,N,O,-tridentate ligand and a sigma bonded allyl group. The complexes [PdR(P-N-O)] (R = C(6)H(4)Me-4, C[triple bond]CPh) react slowly with p-bromoanisole in the presence of p-tolylboronic acid to give [PdBr(P-N-O)] and the coupling product RC(6)H(4)OMe-4. The latter reactions also proceed at a low rate under catalytic conditions. The coupling of allyl bromide with p-tolylboronic acid is catalyzed by [PdCl(P-N-O)]/K(2)CO(3) to give 4-allyltoluene.

  10. Divergent synthetic routes for ring expansion or cyclization from 1,4-allylic diol derivatives via gold(I) catalysis or zinc(II) mediation. (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Li; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Zhou, Wen; Li, Xin; Chen, Zili


    A new efficient method was developed to transform cyclic alkanols into one-carbon higher homologated ketones using various esters as the leaving groups through gold-catalyzed allylic cation-promoted pinacol-type rearrangement. This reaction, coupled with oxy-Cope rearrangement, provided a new strategy to synthesize five-carbon homologated ring ketones. In addition, using ZnBr(2), 2,5-dihydrofuran products were obtained in moderate to good yields via an intramolecular cyclization process.

  11. Intramolecular carbolithiation of N-allyl-ynamides: an efficient entry to 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyridines – application to a formal synthesis of sarizotan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Gati


    Full Text Available We have developed a general synthesis of polysubstituted 1,4-dihydropyridines and pyridines based on a highly regioselective lithiation/6-endo-dig intramolecular carbolithiation from readily available N-allyl-ynamides. This reaction, which has been successfully applied to the formal synthesis of the anti-dyskinesia agent sarizotan, further extends the use of ynamides in organic synthesis and further demonstrates the synthetic efficiency of carbometallation reactions.

  12. Hydroxyl radical reaction with trans-resveratrol: initial carbon radical adduct formation followed by rearrangement to phenoxyl radical. (United States)

    Li, Dan-Dan; Han, Rui-Min; Liang, Ran; Chen, Chang-Hui; Lai, Wenzhen; Zhang, Jian-Ping; Skibsted, Leif H


    In the reaction between trans-resveratrol (resveratrol) and the hydroxyl radical, kinetic product control leads to a short-lived hydroxyl radical adduct with an absorption maximum at 420 nm and a lifetime of 0.21 ± 0.01 μs (anaerobic acetonitrile at 25 °C) as shown by laser flash photolysis using N-hydroxypyridine-2(1H)-thione (N-HPT) as a "photo-Fenton" reagent. The transient spectra of the radical adduct are in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations showing an absorption maximum at 442 or 422 nm for C2 and C6 hydroxyl adducts, respectively, and showing the lowest energy for the transition state leading to the C2 adduct compared to other radical products. From this initial product, the relative long-lived 4'-phenoxyl radical of resveratrol (τ = 9.9 ± 0.9 μs) with an absorption maximum at 390 nm is formed in a process with a time constant (τ = 0.21 ± 0.01 μs) similar to the decay constant for the C2 hydroxyl adduct (or a C2/C6 hydroxyl adduct mixture) and in agreement with thermodynamics identifying this product as the most stable resveratrol radical. The hydroxyl radical adduct to phenoxyl radical conversion with concomitant water dissociation has a rate constant of 5 × 10(6) s(-1) and may occur by intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer or by stepwise proton-assisted electron transfer. Photolysis of N-HPT also leads to a thiyl radical which adds to resveratrol in a parallel reaction forming a sulfur radical adduct with a lifetime of 0.28 ± 0.04 μs and an absorption maximum at 483 nm.

  13. Effect of three 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols on inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 1 M HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kharchouf


    Full Text Available 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols P1−P3 synthesized from carvone P are tested as corrosion inhibitors of steel in 1 M HCl using weight loss measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation and impedance spectroscopy (EIS methods. The addition of 2-allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols reduced the corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies clearly reveal that the presence of inhibitors does not change the mechanism of hydrogen evolution and that they act essentially as cathodic inhibitors. 2-Allyl-p-mentha-6,8-dien-2-ols tested adsorb on the steel surface according to Langmuir isotherm. From the adsorption isotherm some thermodynamic data for the adsorption process are calculated and discussed. EIS measurements show the increase of the charge-transfer resistance with the inhibitor concentration. The highest inhibition efficiency (92% is obtained for P1 at 3 g/L. The corrosion rate decreases with the rise of temperature. The corresponding activation energies are determined.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykal, I.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Motyienko, R. A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes, et Molécules, UMR CNRS 8523, Université de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cédex (France); Écija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Castaño, F. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Lesarri, A. [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Guillemin, J. C. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, Allèe de Beaulieu, CS 50837, F-35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J., E-mail: [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Laboratory of Molecular Astrophysics, Department of Astrophysics, Ctra. De Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)


    Organic isocyanides have an interesting astrochemistry and some of these molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, rotational spectral data for this class of compounds are still scarce. We provide laboratory spectra of the four-carbon allyl isocyanide covering the full microwave region, thus allowing a potential astrophysical identification in the ISM. We assigned the rotational spectrum of the two cis (synperiplanar) and gauche (anticlinal) conformations of allyl isocyanide in the centimeter-wave region (4-18 GHz), resolved its {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) hyperfine structure, and extended the measurements into the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (150-900 GHz) ranges for the title compound. Rotational constants for all the monosubstituted {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopologues are additionally provided. Laboratory observations are supplemented with initial radioastronomical observations. Following analysis of an extensive dataset (>11000 rotational transitions), accurate ground-state molecular parameters are reported for the cis and gauche conformations of the molecule, including rotational constants, NQC parameters, and centrifugal distortion terms up to octic contributions. Molecular parameters have also been obtained for the two first excited states of the cis conformation, with a dataset of more than 3300 lines. The isotopic data allowed determining substitution and effective structures for the title compound. We did not detect allyl isocyanide either in the IRAM 30 m line survey of Orion KL or in the PRIMOS survey toward SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided an upper limit to its column density in Orion KL.

  15. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.


    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  16. Resonance raman studies of phenylcyclopropane radical cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godbout, J.T.; Zuilhof, H.; Heim, G.; Gould, I.R.; Goodman, J.L.; Dinnocenzo, J.P.; Myers Kelley, A.


    Resonance Raman spectra of the radical cations of phenylcyclopropane and trans-1-phenyl-2-methylcyclopropane are reported. A near-UV pump pulse excites a photosensitizer which oxidizes the species of interest, and a visible probe pulse delayed by 35 ns obtains the spectrum of the radical ion. The tr

  17. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourrain, B.; Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, P.


    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming.

  18. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourrain, B.; Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, P.


    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming.

  19. Organic chemistry: A radical step forward (United States)

    Zhang, Wenhao; Li, Ang


    Free radicals are notorious for unselective coupling reactions; however, the coupling of free radicals generated from acyl tellurides has now been shown to form C-C bonds with remarkable fidelity, which enables easy one-step assembly of densely oxygenated natural product motifs.

  20. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov...

  1. Victimology: A Consideration of the Radical Critique. (United States)

    Friedrichs, David O.


    Discusses the emergence of a new radical model in criminology and a new subdisciplinary area of concern, victimology, with roots in Marx and Engels' original formulations. Argues that the radical understanding of victimization provides an important corrective to mainstream approaches and broadens the focus of the concept of victimization. (JAC)

  2. Localization versus delocalization in diamine radical cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Wiering, P.G.; Zwier, J.M.;


    The optical absorption spectrum of the radical cation of 1,4-diphenylpiperazine 2a shows a strong transition in the near-IR, and only a weak band at 445 nm, in the region where aniline radical cations normally absorb strongly. This indicates that the charge and spin are delocalized over the two...

  3. Free Radical Mechanisms in Autoxidation Processes. (United States)

    Simic, Michael G.


    Discusses the use of steady-state radiation chemistry and pulse radiolysis for the generation of initial free radicals and formation of peroxy radicals in the autoxidation process. Provides information regarding the autoxidation process. Defines autoxidation reactions and antioxidant action. (CS)

  4. Place of Schauta's radical vaginal hysterectomy. (United States)

    Roy, Michel; Plante, Marie


    Women affected by early stage invasive cancer of the cervix are usually treated by surgery. Radical abdominal hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy is the most widely used technique. Because the morbidity of the abdominal approach can be important, the radical vaginal hysterectomy has gained acceptance in gynaecologic oncology. New instrumentation in laparoscopy also opens the possibility of treating cervical cancer by laparoscopically assisted vaginal radical hysterectomy and also total laparoscopic radical hysterectomy. Before these techniques become widely accepted, it has to be shown that safety and efficacy are comparable with the 'standard' abdominal approach. In this chapter, we review the technique of radical vaginal hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy and evaluate results of published studies, comparing the abdominal, vaginal and laparoscopic approaches.

  5. Pilot study of radical hysterectomy versus radical trachelectomy on sexual distress. (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A; Smith, Kelly B; Breckon, Erin; Plante, Marie


    Radical trachelectomy, which leaves the uterus intact, has emerged as a desirable surgical option for eligible women with early-stage cervical cancer who wish to preserve fertility. The available data suggest excellent obstetrical outcomes with radical trachelectomy, and no differences in sexual responding between radical trachelectomy and radical hysterectomy. There is a need to examine the effect of radical hysterectomy on sexual distress given that it is distinct from sexual function. Participants were 34 women diagnosed with early-stage cervical cancer. The authors report 1-month postsurgery data for 29 women (radical hysterectomy group: n = 17, M age = 41.8 years; radical trachelectomy group: n = 12, M age = 31.8 years), and 6-month follow-up data on 26 women. Whereas both groups experienced an increase in sex-related distress immediately after surgery, distress continued to increase 6 months after surgery for the radical hysterectomy group but decreased in the radical trachelectomy group. There were no between-group differences in mood, anxiety, or general measures of health. The decrease in sex-related distress in the radical trachelectomy but not in the radical hysterectomy group suggests that the preservation of fertility may have attenuated sex-related distress. Care providers should counsel women exploring surgical options for cervical cancer about potential sex distress-related sequelae.

  6. Modification in surface properties of poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39 implanted by Au+ ions at different fluences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagheer Riffat


    Full Text Available Ion implantation has a potential to modify the surface properties and to produce thin conductive layers in insulating polymers. For this purpose, poly-allyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39 was implanted by 400 keV Au+ ions with ion fluences ranging from 5 × 1013 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The chemical, morphological and optical properties of implanted CR-39 were analyzed using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of implanted samples was determined through four-point probe technique. Raman spectroscopy revealed the formation of carbonaceous structures in the implanted layer of CR-39. From FT-IR spectroscopy analysis, changes in functional groups of CR-39 after ion implantation were observed. AFM studies revealed that morphology and surface roughness of implanted samples depend on the fluence of Au ions. The optical band gap of implanted samples decreased from 3.15 eV (for pristine to 1.05 eV (for sample implanted at 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The electrical conductivity was observed to increase with the ion fluence. It is suggested that due to an increase in ion fluence, the carbonaceous structures formed in the implanted region are responsible for the increase in electrical conductivity.

  7. Computational insight into complex structures of thorium coordination with N, N'- bis(3-allyl salicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine. (United States)

    Lan, Wenbo; Gao, Sha; Lin, Ying-Wu; Liao, Lifu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Nie, Changming


    Theoretical calculations on the structure of Th(IV) complex containing N, N'- bis(3-allyl salicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine (BASPDA) were performed using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G** level. The geometrical structural parameters and infrared spectra results of the Th(BASPDA)2 from the calculation were compared with the parallel dislocated structure (PDS) obtained in laboratory. The calculated structural parameters were in good agreement with the experimental results. In addition, based on the calculations, a stereoisomer SFS (staggered finger " + " structure) of the Th(BASPDA)2 complex was forecasted by the analysis of a comprehensive method. The charge distribution, structural parameters, bond order indices, spectral properties and thermodynamic properties as well as the molecular orbitals of the two possible crystal structures of Th(BASPDA)2 were also systematically studied. It was expected that this work could provide insightful information for understanding the properties of Th (BASPDA)2 complex at the molecular level.

  8. Influence of the antimicrobial compound allyl isothiocyanate against the Aspergillus parasiticus growth and its aflatoxins production in pizza crust. (United States)

    Quiles, Juan M; Manyes, Lara; Luciano, Fernando; Mañes, Jordi; Meca, Giuseppe


    Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which possess mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in humans. In this study, active packaging devices containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) or oriental mustard flour (OMF) + water were tested to inhibit the growth of A. parasiticus and AFs production in fresh pizza crust after 30 d. The antimicrobial and anti-aflatoxin activities were compared to a control group (no antimicrobial treatment) and to a group added with commercial preservatives (sorbic acid + sodium propionate). A. parasiticus growth was only inhibited after 30 d by AITC in filter paper at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 5 μL/L and 10 μL/L and OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water. However, AFs production was inhibited by all antimicrobial treatments in a dose-dependent manner. More importantly, AITC in a filter paper at 10 μL/L, AITC sachet at 10 μL/L, OMF sachet at 850 mg + 850 μL of water and sorbic acid + sodium propionate at 0.5-2.0 g/Kg completely inhibited AFs formation. The use of AITC in active packaging devices could be a natural alternative to avoid the growth of mycotoxinogenic fungi in refrigerated bakery products in substitution of common commercial preservatives.

  9. Structure formation of soil dispersions in the presence of polyelectrolytes on the basis of allyl alcohol and acryl acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankait Asanov


    Full Text Available Some changes of structural composition and surface properties of soil dispersions in the presence of polyelectrolytes, based on allyl alcohol and acryl acid derivatives, have been studied. The results show, that the changes in the structure of soil dispersions composition are connected with the added concentration and pH value, that depend on mole ratio and nature of functional groups, as well as on the nature of counterions and concomitant electrolytes, changing with the conditions of polymer analogous conversion and neutralization reaction. Experimental data show, that the change in the conformational state and the length of the macromolecule has a significant impact on the structure-forming effect and the amount of polyelectrolyte, needed to achieve the same degree of structure-forming effect of soil dispersions. The causes for the revealed reasons are shown on the basis of the results of the experiment. Along with this, it was found that particular changes of structural composition and surface properties of the soil dispersions depend on the type and concentration of the added polyelectrolyte.

  10. Mesoporous sol-gel WO{sub 3} thin films via poly(styrene-co-allyl-alcohol) copolymer templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkan Zayim, Esra [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Letters, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, Istanbul 80626 (Turkey); Liu, Ping; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland; Deb, Satyen K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Turner, John A.


    In this study a copolymer poly(styrene-co-allyl-alcohol), [-CH{sub 2}CH(C{sub 6}H{sub 5})-]{sub x}[-CH{sub 2}CH-(CH{sub 2}OH)-]{sub y} has been employed as a novel template in a sol-gel synthesis process to direct the formation of mesoporous tungsten oxide. The copolymer, due to its rigid hydrophobic block of polystyrene, is a more effective surfactant in an alcohol solution than polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide based compounds. The films have been prepared by a spin-coating technique from an ethanol solution of tungsten hexachloride. At room temperature, ultraviolet illumination method has been found to be very suitable for removing the polymer template, leading to the formation of a high-quality mesoporous structure. The electrochromic and optical properties of the mesoporous films are described and compared to standard sol-gel tungsten oxide films. Mesoporous materials exhibit superior high-rate ion-insertion performance when used as electrochromic layers.

  11. Epoxidation of allyl-glycidyl ether with hydrogen peroxide over Ti-SBA-15 catalyst and in methanol medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walasek Marika


    Full Text Available This work presents the studies on the epoxidation of allyl-glycidyl ether (AGE over the Ti-SBA-15 catalyst. In these studies an aqueous hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidizing agent and as a solvent methanol was applied. The studies on the influence the following parameters: temperature (20–80°C, molar ratio of AGE/H2O2 (1:1.5–5:1, methanol concentration (10–90 wt%, catalyst content (1–9 wt% and reaction time (15–240 min. were carried out and the most favourable values of these parameters were chosen (temperature 80°C, molar ratio of AGE/H2O2 = 5:1, methanol concentration 30 wt%, catalyst content 3 wt% and the reaction time 240 min.. At these conditions the functions describing the process reached the following values: the selectivity of diglycidyl ether (DGE 9.2 mol%, the conversion of AGE 13.9 mol% and the efficiency of H2O2 conversion 89.9 mol%.

  12. Palladium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution of 2-arylcyclohexenol derivatives: asymmetric total syntheses of (+)-crinamine, (-)-haemanthidine, and (+)-pretazettine. (United States)

    Nishimata, Toyoki; Sato, Yoshihiro; Mori, Miwako


    Much interest has been shown in Amaryllidaceae alkaloids as synthetic targets due to their wide range of biological activities. Over 100 alkaloids have been isolated from members of the Amaryllidaceae family; most of them can be classified into eight skeletally homogeneous groups. We have succeeded in the first asymmetric total syntheses of the crinane-type alkaloids (+)-crinamine (1), (-)-haemanthidine (2), and (+)-pretazettine (3). The starting cyclohexenylamine 14 was obtained from allyl phosphonate 11c by palladium-catalyzed asymmetric amination in 82% yield and with 74% ee. The product was recrystallized from MeOH. Interestingly, (-)-14 with 99% ee was obtained from the mother liquor (74% recovery). Intramolecular carbonyl-ene reaction of (-)-10 proceeds in a highly stereoselective manner to give hexahydroindole derivative 9 as the sole product. In the Lewis-acid-catalyzed carbonyl-ene reaction, an interesting rearrangement product, 20, was isolated in high yield. From 9, (+)-crinamine was synthesized. Thus, the asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-crinamine was achieved in 10 steps from 11c, and the overall yield is 19%. The total synthesis of (-)-haemanthidine was also achieved from 9 by a short sequence of steps.

  13. Allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide based DES-functionalized carbon nanotubes for the removal of mercury from water. (United States)

    AlOmar, Mohamed Khalid; Alsaadi, Mohammed Abdulhakim; Hayyan, Maan; Akib, Shatirah; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Hashim, Mohd Ali


    Recently, deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown their new and interesting ability for chemistry through their involvement in variety of applications. This study introduces carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with DES as a novel adsorbent for Hg(2+) from water. Allyl triphenyl phosphonium bromide (ATPB) was combined with glycerol as the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) to form DES, which can act as a novel CNTs functionalization agent. The novel adsorbent was characterized using Raman, FTIR, XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET surface area, TGA, TEM and Zeta potential. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the removal conditions for Hg(2+). The optimum removal conditions were found to be pH 5.5, contact time 28 min, and an adsorbent dosage of 5 mg. Freundlich isotherm model described the adsorption isotherm of the novel adsorbent, and the maximum adsorption capacity obtained from the experimental data was 186.97 mg g(-1). Pseudo-second order kinetics describes the adsorption rate order.

  14. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activities of organotin(IV) complexes with 5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde-4-thiosemicarbazone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rosenani A Haque; M A Salam


    The organotin(IV) complexes [MeSnCl(L)] (2), [BuSnCl(L)] (3), [PhSnCl(L)] (4) and [Me2Sn(L)] (5) were synthesized by reacting organotin(IV) chloride(s) with 5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde- 4-thiosemicarbazone [H2L], (1)] in presence of KOH in 1:2:1 molar ratio (metal salt: base:ligand). All the complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectral studies. The molecular structure of complex 5 has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The ligand, H2L coordinates to Sn(IV) in thiolate form through phenoxide-O, azomethine-N and thiolate-S atoms. The C-Sn-C angle measured from coupling constant 1 (119Sn, 13C) for dimethyltin(IV) complex 5 is 123.4°. The 2 (119Sn, 1H) coupling constant values for complex 2 and 5 are 72.4 and 76.3 Hz, respectively. Proposed geometry for five coordinated Sn(IV) atom is a strongly distorted trigonal bipyramid. Biological studies were preformed in vitro against four bacterial strains which have shown better activities and potential as antibacterial agents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chernyshev


    Full Text Available Background. Radical prostatectomy (RPE is today the gold standard treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC. These operations are performed both openly and using video-assisted endosurgery. Since 2009, the Research Institute of Urology has been made 70 extraperitoneoscopic RPEs (ERPE.Objective: to assess the complications of ERPE with the validated Clavien complication scale.Materials and methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed the case histories of 70 patients with locally advanced PC who had undergone ERPE. The complications were allocated to 3 groups: intraoperative, early (within 1 month and late (over 1 month postoperative ones. All found complications were stratified using Clavien classification scale.Results. The total number of ERPE complications accounted for 35.7%. The most common complications, such as anastomotic incompetence and blood loss that required hemotransfusion, were 9.8 and 11.3%, respectively. Rectal damage was intraoperatively found in 2 cases. Obturator nerve damage was also recognized intraoperatively and did not result in the occurrence of neurological symptoms. The severest complication (Clavien scale grade V was pulmonary embolism causing death.Conclusion. Postoperative complications of ERPE were observed in a small percentage of the patients and posed no serious threat to their life. The analysis of the complications of ERPE suggests that this treatment for locally advanced PC is a current safe and low-traumatic method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Chernyshev


    Full Text Available Background. Radical prostatectomy (RPE is today the gold standard treatment option for locally advanced prostate cancer (PC. These operations are performed both openly and using video-assisted endosurgery. Since 2009, the Research Institute of Urology has been made 70 extraperitoneoscopic RPEs (ERPE.Objective: to assess the complications of ERPE with the validated Clavien complication scale.Materials and methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed the case histories of 70 patients with locally advanced PC who had undergone ERPE. The complications were allocated to 3 groups: intraoperative, early (within 1 month and late (over 1 month postoperative ones. All found complications were stratified using Clavien classification scale.Results. The total number of ERPE complications accounted for 35.7%. The most common complications, such as anastomotic incompetence and blood loss that required hemotransfusion, were 9.8 and 11.3%, respectively. Rectal damage was intraoperatively found in 2 cases. Obturator nerve damage was also recognized intraoperatively and did not result in the occurrence of neurological symptoms. The severest complication (Clavien scale grade V was pulmonary embolism causing death.Conclusion. Postoperative complications of ERPE were observed in a small percentage of the patients and posed no serious threat to their life. The analysis of the complications of ERPE suggests that this treatment for locally advanced PC is a current safe and low-traumatic method.

  17. Involvement of free radicals in breast cancer. (United States)

    Ríos-Arrabal, Sandra; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; León, Josefa; Román-Marinetto, Elisa; Del Mar Salinas-Asensio, María; Calvente, Irene; Núñez, Maria Isabel


    Researchers have recently shown an increased interest in free radicals and their role in the tumor microenvironment. Free radicals are molecules with high instability and reactivity due to the presence of an odd number of electrons in the outermost orbit of their atoms. Free radicals include reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are key players in the initiation and progression of tumor cells and enhance their metastatic potential. In fact, they are now considered a hallmark of cancer. However, both reactive species may contribute to improve the outcomes of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Besides, high levels of reactive oxygen species may be indicators of genotoxic damage in non-irradiated normal tissues. The purpose of this article is to review recent research on free radicals and carcinogenesis in order to understand the pathways that contribute to tumor malignancy. This review outlines the involvement of free radicals in relevant cellular events, including their effects on genetic instability through (growth factors and tumor suppressor genes, their enhancement of mitogenic signals, and their participation in cell remodeling, proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy processes; the possible relationship between free radicals and inflammation is also explored. This knowledge is crucial for evaluating the relevance of free radicals as therapeutic targets in cancer.

  18. Engineering a horseradish peroxidase C stable to radical attacks by mutating multiple radical coupling sites. (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Joo, Jeong Chan; Song, Bong Keun; Yoo, Young Je; Kim, Yong Hwan


    Peroxidases have great potential as industrial biocatalysts. In particular, the oxidative polymerization of phenolic compounds catalyzed by peroxidases has been extensively examined because of the advantage of this method over other conventional chemical methods. However, the industrial application of peroxidases is often limited because of their rapid inactivation by phenoxyl radicals during oxidative polymerization. In this work, we report a novel protein engineering approach to improve the radical stability of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRPC). Phenylalanine residues that are vulnerable to modification by the phenoxyl radicals were identified using mass spectrometry analysis. UV-Vis and CD spectra showed that radical coupling did not change the secondary structure or the active site of HRPC. Four phenylalanine (Phe) residues (F68, F142, F143, and F179) were each mutated to alanine residues to generate single mutants to examine the role of these sites in radical coupling. Despite marginal improvement of radical stability, each single mutant still exhibited rapid radical inactivation. To further reduce inactivation by radical coupling, the four substitution mutations were combined in F68A/F142A/F143A/F179A. This mutant demonstrated dramatic enhancement of radical stability by retaining 41% of its initial activity compared to the wild-type, which was completely inactivated. Structure and sequence alignment revealed that radical-vulnerable Phe residues of HPRC are conserved in homologous peroxidases, which showed the same rapid inactivation tendency as HRPC. Based on our site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical characterization, we have shown that engineering radical-vulnerable residues to eliminate multiple radical coupling can be a good strategy to improve the stability of peroxidases against radical attack.

  19. Radical pancreaticoduodenectomy for benign disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O


    Whipple\\'s procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple\\'s procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple\\'s procedure during a 15-year period (1987-2002) were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%). One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30-75). The major presenting features included jaundice (five), pain (two), gastric outlet obstruction (one), and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one). Investigations included ultrasound (eight), computerised tomography (eight), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology), and endoscopic ultrasound (two). The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two), chronic pancreatitis (two), choledochal cyst (one), inflammatory pseudotumour (one), cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one), duodenal angiodysplasia (one), and granular cell neoplasm (one). There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one), anastomotic leak (one), liver abscess (one), and myocardial infarction (one). All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple\\'s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) may reduce the need for Whipple\\'s operation

  20. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement. (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino


    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  1. Radicals involved in photoallergen/protein interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahanty, J.N.; Evans, J.C.; Rowlands, C.C.; Barratt, M.D.; Pendlington, R.U. (University College, Cardiff (England))


    Aqueous solutions (pH = 8) of both 3,3'-dimethyl and 4,4'-dimethyl substituted analogues of the photoallergen fentichlor (bis(2-hydroxy-5-chlorophenyl)sulphide) produced stable semiquinone radicals when irradiated with u.v. light (greater than 310 nm). These radicals have been characterised using electron spin resonance techniques: the results confirm the assignment of hyperfine coupling constants for the parent fentichlor radical. The binding of fentichlor to HSA was found to be partly oxygen dependent demonstrating a role for semiquinone type radicals in the binding mechanism. The stoichiometry and specificity of the binding of the dimethyl analogues to soluble proteins were found to be similar to that of fentichlor itself.

  2. Magnetic Trapping of Cold Methyl Radicals

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; Djuricanin, Pavle; Zhou, Sida; Zhong, Wei; Mittertreiner, Tony; Carty, David; Momose, Takamasa


    We have demonstrated that a supersonic beam of methyl radicals (CH3) in the ground rotational state of both para and ortho species has been slowed down to a standstill with a magnetic molecular decelerator, and successfully captured spatially in an anti-Helmholtz magnetic trap for > 1 s. The translational temperature of the trapped CH3 radicals was about 200 mK. The methyl radical is a non-polar polyatomic molecule, which is predicted to be an ideal system for further cooling below 1 mK via sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms. In addition, it is a highly reactive intermediate that plays an important role in various processes in cold environments such as planetary atmospheres and the interstellar medium. The demonstrated trapping capability of methyl radicals opens up various possibilities for realizing ultracold ensembles of molecules towards Bose-Einstein condensation of polyatomic molecules and investigations of reactions governed by quantum statistics.

  3. Neo-liberal Governing of 'Radicals'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse


    The Danish government’s counter-radicalization Action Plan of 2009 had intended and unintended effects. Primarily targeting Danish Muslims, it employs neoliberal governmentality approaches of governance through individual support and response, information and knowledge, empowerment, surveillance ...

  4. Rigid Ideals and Radicals of Ore Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chan Yong Hong; Tai Keun Kwak; S. Tariq Rizvi


    For an endomorphism σ of a ring R, Krempa called σ a rigid endomorphism if aσ(a) = 0 implies a= 0 for a ∈ R. A ring R is called rigid if there exists a rigid endomorphism of R. In this paper, we extend the σ-rigid property of a ring R to an ideal of R. For a σ-ideal Ⅰ of a ring R, we call Ⅰ a σ-rigid ideal if aσ(a) ∈Ⅰ implies a ∈Ⅰ for a ∈ R. We characterize σ-rigid ideals and study related properties. The connections of the prime radical and the upper nil radical of R with the prime radical and the upper nil radical of the Ore extension R[x; σ, δ], respectively, are also investigated.

  5. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumark, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    The authors have developed a novel technique for studying the photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals. In these experiments, radicals are generated by laser photodetachment of a fast (6-8 keV) mass-selected negative ion beam. The resulting radicals are photodissociated with a second laser, and the photofragments are collected and detected with high efficiency using a microchannel plate detector. The overall process is: ABC{sup -} {yields} ABC + e{sup -} {yields} A + BC, AB + C. Two types of fragment detection schemes are used. To map out the photodissociation cross-section of the radical, the photodissociation laser is scanned and the total photofragment yield is measured as a function of wavelength. In other experiments, the photodissociation frequency is fixed and the photofragment masses, kinetic energy release, and scattering angle is determined for each photodissociation event.

  6. Optimal pain management for radical prostatectomy surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Grish P; Jaschinski, Thomas; Bonnet, Francis;


    of evidence to develop an optimal pain management protocol in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. Most studies assessed unimodal analgesic approaches rather than a multimodal technique. There is a need for more procedure-specific studies comparing pain and analgesic requirements for open and minimally......BACKGROUND: Increase in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has increased the incidence of radical prostatectomy. However, the literature assessing pain therapy for this procedure has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, optimal pain therapy for patients undergoing radical prostatectomy remains...... invasive surgical procedures. Finally, while we wait for appropriate procedure specific evidence from publication of adequate studies assessing optimal pain management after radical prostatectomy, we propose a basic analgesic guideline....

  7. Radicalization and the Use of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Thompson


    Full Text Available The use of social media tools by individuals and organizations to radicalize individuals for political and social change has become increasingly popular as the Internet penetrates more of the world and mobile computing devices are more accessible. To establish a construct for radicalization,the power and reach of social media will be described so there is common understanding of what social media is and how it is utilized by various individuals and groups. The second section will answer the question of why social media applications are the perfect platform for the radical voice. Finally, the use of social media and its influence in radicalizing populations in Northern Africa and the Middle East during 2011 will be analyzed and recommendations proposed.

  8. Hydroxyl radical generation by red tide algae. (United States)

    Oda, T; Akaike, T; Sato, K; Ishimatsu, A; Takeshita, S; Muramatsu, T; Maeda, H


    The unicellular marine phytoplankton Chattonella marina is known to have toxic effects against various living marine organisms, especially fishes. However, details of the mechanism of the toxicity of this plankton remain obscure. Here we demonstrate the generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals from a red tide unicellular organism, C. marina, by using ESR spectroscopy with the spin traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) and N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN), and by using the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence response. The spin-trapping assay revealed productions of spin adduct of superoxide anion (O2-) (DMPO-OOH) and that of hydroxyl radical (.OH) (DMPO-OH) in the algal suspension, which was not observed in the ultrasonic-ruptured suspension. The addition of superoxide dismutase (500 U/ml) almost completely inhibited the formation of both DMPO-OOH and DMPO-OH, and carbon-centered radicals were generated with the disappearance of DMPO-OH after addition of 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO) and 5% ethanol. Furthermore, the generation of methyl and methoxyl radicals, which are thought to be produced by the reaction of hydroxyl radical and Me2SO under aerobic condition, was identified using spin trapping with a combination of PBN and Me2SO. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay also supported the above observations. These results clearly indicate that C. marina generates and releases the superoxide radical followed by the production of hydroxyl radical to the surrounding environment. The velocity of superoxide generation by C. marina was about 100 times faster than that by mammalian phagocytes per cell basis. The generation of oxygen radical is suggested to be a pathogenic principle in the toxication of red tide to susceptible aquaculture fishes and may be directly correlated with the coastal pollution by red tide.

  9. Catalytic Radical Domino Reactions in Organic Synthesis (United States)

    Sebren, Leanne J.; Devery, James J.; Stephenson, Corey R.J.


    Catalytic radical-based domino reactions represent important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. Their development benefits synthesis by providing atom- and step-economical methods to complex molecules. Intricate combinations of radical, cationic, anionic, oxidative/reductive, and transition metal mechanistic steps result in cyclizations, additions, fragmentations, ring-expansions, and rearrangements. This Perspective summarizes recent developments in the field of catalytic domino processes. PMID:24587964

  10. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation


    Mourrain, B.; J. B. Lasserre; Laurent, Monique; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, Philippe


    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are ecient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorporation of additional polynomials, ...

  11. Free Radical Mechanisms of Xenobiotic Mammalian Cytotoxicities (United States)


    frequent mechanism of xenobiotic liver toxicity is biotransformation by cytochrome P,5o- enzymes to toxic free radical intermediates. The primary objective...vascular cells was to incubate the cells with both the spin trapping agent methyl nitroso propane ( MNP ) and IRP chemicals to determine if free radical...gave a reasonably strong MNP -adduct signal. Figure 1 gives the MNP adduct signal for carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, as well as that for

  12. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira


    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  13. Oxygen radicals, inflammation, and tissue injury. (United States)

    Ward, P A; Warren, J S; Johnson, K J


    Inflammatory reactions often result in the activation and recruitment of phagocytic cells (e.g., neutrophils and/or tissue macrophages) whose products result in injury to the tissue. In killing of endothelial cells by activated neutrophils as well as in lung injury produced by either activated neutrophils or activated macrophages there is evidence that H2O2 and iron play a role. HO. may be a key oxygen product related to the process of injury. Endothelial cells in some vascular compartments may be susceptible to neutrophil mediated injury in a manner that is independent of oxygen radicals. On the basis of in vitro observations, a synergy exits between platelets and neutrophils, resulting in enhanced oxygen radical formation by the latter. Finally, the cytokines, interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor, released from macrophages have both direct stimulatory effects on oxygen radical formation in neutrophils and can "prime" macrophages for enhanced oxygen radical responses to other agonists. Cytokines may also alter endothelial cells rendering them more susceptible to oxygen radical mediated injury by neutrophils. This suggests a complex network of interactions between phagocytic cells and peptide mediators, the result of which is acute, oxygen radical mediated tissue injury.

  14. Free radicals in biology. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, W.A. (ed.)


    This volume covers topics ranging from radiation chemistry to biochemistry, biology, and medicine. This volume attempts to bridge the gap between chemical investigations and the medical applications and implications of free radical reactions. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction to the technique of radiation chemistry, the thermodynamics and kinetic factors that need be considered, the use of pulse radiolysis and flow techniques, and the application of these methods to free radicals of biological interest. Chapter 3 discusses the mechanisms of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Chapter 4 reviews the morphological, histochemical, biochemical, and chemical nature of lipofuscin pigments. This chapter brings together the evidence that lipofuscin pigments arise from free radical pathology and that the formation of these pigments proves the presence of lipid peroxidation in vivo. Chapter 5 reviews the evidence for production of free (i.e., scavengeable) radicals from the reactions of selected enzymes with their substrates. Chapter 6 discusses one of the systems in which free radical damage is clearly important in vivo, both for man and animal, the damage caused to skin by sunlight. The evidence that free radical reactions can contribute to carcinogenesis dates from the earliest observations that ionizing radiation often produces higher incidences of tumors. A current working hypothesis is that chemical toxins cause damage to DNA and that the repair of this damge may incorporate viral genetic information into the host cell's chromosomes, producing cell transformation and cancer. The mechanism whereby chemical carcinogens become bound to DNA to produce point defects is discussed in Chapter 7.

  15. Radical Scavenging Effects of Different Veronica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ummuhan Şebnem Harput


    Full Text Available It is well known that the excessive production of reactive oxygen species is hazardous for living organisms and damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, lipid and protein. To find new products reducing free radical damage is very important researches in recent pharmaceutical investigations. Considering this information, fourteen Veronica species are decided to research in the view point of their antioxidant capacity and the chemical content. Water extracts of the plants were tested for their radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide (SO and nitric oxide (NO radicals spectroscopically. Dose dependent radical scavenging activity was observed and the results were found to be comparable to that of ascorbic acid, quercetin and BHA which are known antioxidative compounds. In addition, gallic acid equivalent total phenolic contents of the plants were also determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. The most significant scavenging activity was found for V. chamaedrys against SO radical (IC50 113.40 μg/ml and V. officinalis against DPPH and NO radicals (IC50 40.93 μg/ml, 570.33 μg/ml, respectively .

  16. Radioprotective thermally generated free-radical dextrins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Effect of doses of the X-ray radiation from 0 to 400 Gy upon granular cornstarch and dextrins (British gums, BG) thermally generated from it at 230-300℃ was recognized with quantitative EPR and IR ab-sorption spectroscopy, molecular mass distribution in the depolymerization products, Scanning Elec-tron Microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. Fractal analysis of the profiles of molecular mass distribu-tion showed that the depolymerization involved debranching of amylopectin. Roasting of cornstarch produced BG which differed in concentration and EPR parameters of stable free radicals from BG generated by X-ray radiation. Two types of stable free radicals, with Gaussian and Lorentzian shapes of EPR signals, were recognized. The shapes of the signals and temperature dependence on free radical intensity indicated exchanging interactions of the antiferromagnetic type, causing partial quenching of the spins at -196℃ (77K). Upon X-ray irradiation, new radicals were generated, the number and stability of which strongly depended on the types of radicals present before irradiation. These radicals slowly ceased because of a repolymerization of BG on storage.

  17. Radicalization and Radical Catalysis of Biomass Sugars: Insights from First-principles Studies (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zhu, Chang; Zou, Xianli; Zhou, Lijun


    Ab initio and density functional calculations are conducted to investigate the radicalization processes and radical catalysis of biomass sugars. Structural alterations due to radicalization generally focus on the radicalized sites, and radicalization affects H-bonds in D-fructofuranose more than in D-glucopyranose, potentially with outcome of new H-bonds. Performances of different functionals and basis sets are evaluated for all radicalization processes, and enthalpy changes and Gibbs free energies for these processes are presented with high accuracy, which can be referenced for subsequent experimental and theoretical studies. It shows that radicalization can be utilized for direct transformation of biomass sugars, and for each sugar, C rather than O sites are always preferred for radicalization, thus suggesting the possibility to activate C-H bonds of biomass sugars. Radical catalysis is further combined with Brønsted acids, and it clearly states that functionalization fundamentally regulates the catalytic effects of biomass sugars. In presence of explicit water molecules, functionalization significantly affects the activation barriers and reaction energies of protonation rather than dehydration steps. Tertiary butyl and phenyl groups with large steric hindrances or hydroxyl and amino groups resulting in high stabilities for protonation products drive the protonation steps to occur facilely at ambient conditions.

  18. Enantiodivergent Fluorination of Allylic Alcohols: Data Set Design Reveals Structural Interplay between Achiral Directing Group and Chiral Anion. (United States)

    Neel, Andrew J; Milo, Anat; Sigman, Matthew S; Toste, F Dean


    Enantioselectivity values represent relative rate measurements that are sensitive to the structural features of the substrates and catalysts interacting to produce them. Therefore, well-designed enantioselectivity data sets are information rich and can provide key insights regarding specific molecular interactions. However, if the mechanism for enantioselection varies throughout a data set, these values cannot be easily compared. This premise, which is the crux of free energy relationships, exposes a challenging issue of identifying mechanistic breaks within multivariate correlations. Herein, we describe an approach to addressing this problem in the context of a chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed fluorination of allylic alcohols using aryl boronic acids as transient directing groups. By designing a data set in which both the phosphoric and boronic acid structures were systematically varied, key enantioselectivity outliers were identified and analyzed. A mechanistic study was executed to reveal the structural origins of these outliers, which was consistent with the presence of several mechanistic regimes within the data set. While 2- and 4-substituted aryl boronic acids favored the (R)-enantiomer with most of the studied catalysts, meta-alkoxy substituted aryl boronic acids resulted in the (S)-enantiomer when used in combination with certain (R)-phosphoric acids. We propose that this selectivity reversal is the result of a lone pair-π interaction between the substrate ligated boronic acid and the phosphate. On the basis of this proposal, a catalyst system was identified, capable of producing either enantiomer in high enantioselectivity (77% (R)-2 to 92% (S)-2) using the same chiral catalyst by subtly changing the structure of the achiral boronic acid.

  19. Allyl isothiocyanate, a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits growth of PC-3 human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay K; Xiao, Dong; Lew, Karen L; Hershberger, Pamela; Kokkinakis, Demetrius M; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L; Singh, Shivendra V


    We have shown previously that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a constituent of cruciferous vegetables, significantly inhibits survival of PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells in culture, whereas proliferation of a normal prostate epithelial cell line is minimally affected by AITC even at concentrations that are highly cytotoxic to the prostate cancer cells. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that AITC administration may retard growth of human prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Bolus i.p. injection of 10 micromol AITC, three times per week (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) beginning the day of tumor cell implantation, significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 xenograft (P < 0.05 by two-way ANOVA). For example, 26 days after tumor cell implantation, the average tumor volume in control mice (1025 +/- 205 mm3) was approximately 1.7-fold higher compared with AITC-treated mice. Histological analysis of tumors excised at the termination of the experiment revealed a statistically significant increase in number of apoptotic bodies with a concomitant decrease in cells undergoing mitosis in the tumors of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. Western blot analysis indicated an approximately 70% reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in the tumor lysate of AITC-treated mice compared with that of control mice. Moreover, the tumors from AITC-treated mice, but not control mice, exhibited cleavage of BID, which is known to promote apoptosis. Statistically significant reduction in the expression of several proteins that regulate G2/M progression, including cyclin B1, cell division cycle (Cdc)25B and Cdc25C (44, 45 and 90% reduction, respectively, compared with control), was also observed in the tumors of AITC-treated mice relative to control tumors. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that AITC administration inhibits growth of PC-3 xenografts in vivo by inducing apoptosis and reducing mitotic activity.

  20. Adsorption of acrolein, propanal, and allyl alcohol on Pd(111): a combined infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption study. (United States)

    Dostert, Karl-Heinz; O'Brien, Casey P; Mirabella, Francesca; Ivars-Barceló, Francisco; Schauermann, Swetlana


    Atomistic-level understanding of the interaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and their derivatives with late transition metals is of fundamental importance for the rational design of new catalytic materials with the desired selectivity towards C[double bond, length as m-dash]C vs. C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond partial hydrogenation. In this study, we investigate the interaction of acrolein, and its partial hydrogenation products propanal and allyl alcohol, with Pd(111) as a prototypical system. A combination of infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments was applied under well-defined ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions to obtain detailed information on the adsorption geometries of acrolein, propanal, and allyl alcohol as a function of coverage. We compare the IR spectra obtained for multilayer coverages, reflecting the molecular structure of unperturbed molecules, with the spectra acquired for sub-monolayer coverages, at which the chemical bonds of the molecules are strongly distorted. Coverage-dependent IR spectra of acrolein on Pd(111) point to the strong changes in the adsorption geometry with increasing acrolein coverage. Acrolein adsorbs with the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C and C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bonds lying parallel to the surface in the low coverage regime and changes its geometry to a more upright orientation with increasing coverage. TPD studies indicate decomposition of the species adsorbed in the sub-monolayer regime upon heating. Similar strong coverage dependence of the IR spectra were found for propanal and allyl alcohol. For all investigated molecules a detailed assignment of vibrational bands is reported.

  1. Expression of liver functions following sub-lethal and non-lethal doses of allyl alcohol and acetaminophen in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygstrup, N; Jensen, S A; Krog, B


    , doses producing no and about 30% mortality, respectively, within 2 days. In the morning 2, 6, 12, 24, and 36 h after intoxication, RNA was extracted from liver tissue. By slot blot hybridization mRNA levels were determined for acute phase proteins, enzymes involved in ammonia elimination and urea...... synthesis, and for proteins related to liver regeneration. RESULTS: After allyl alcohol, mRNA of "positive" acute phase proteins was higher than after acetaminophen and increased with the dose, whereas after acetaminophen it decreased with the dose. The mRNA of the urea cycle enzymes and glutamine...

  2. (4R-4-(2-Allyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-l-threose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Watkin


    Full Text Available X-ray crystallography unequivocally confirmed the structure of the title compound, C12H17N3O4, as (4R-4-(2-allyl-2H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-1,2-O-isopropylidene-l-threose. The absolute configuration was determined by the use of d-glucorono-3,6-lactone as the starting material. The crystal structure consists of hydrogen-bonded chains of molecules running parallel to the a axis. There are no unusual packing features.

  3. Direct Substitution of the Hydroxy Group at the Allylic/propargylic Position with Carbon-and Heteroatomcentered Nucleophiles Catalyzed by Yb(OTf)3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen; SHEN Quan-Sheng; WANG Jia-Liang; ZHOU Xi-Geng


    An efficient and highly selective Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed direct substitution of the hydroxy group at the allylic and propargylic positions with a variety of heteroatom- and carbon-centered nucleophiles, such as alcohols, thiols,amines, amides and active methylene compounds has been developed. The advantages of the present catalytic system are wide availability of the starting materials, especially for tolerance to thiols, no need for dried solvents and additives, mild conditions, short time of reaction, simple manipulation and environmentally friendly catalyst that can be recovered and reused at least ten times without significant reduction of activity.

  4. A configurational switch based on iridium-catalyzed allylic cyclization: application in asymmetric total syntheses of prosopis, dendrobate, and spruce alkaloids. (United States)

    Gnamm, Christian; Brödner, Kerstin; Krauter, Caroline M; Helmchen, Günter


    A method for the stereoselective synthesis of 2,6-disubstituted piperidines has been developed that is based on the use of an intramolecular iridium-catalyzed allylic substitution as a configurational switch. The procedure allows the preparation of 2-vinylpiperidines with enantiomeric excesses (ee) of greater than 99%. As applications, total syntheses of piperidine alkaloids have been elaborated, most often by using Ru-catalyzed cross-metatheses as a key step for introduction of a side chain. Asymmetric total syntheses of the prosopis alkaloids (+)-prosopinine, (+)-prosophylline, (+)-prosopine, and of the dendrobate alkaloid (+)-241D and its C6 epimer are described.

  5. Substituent Effects on Regioselectivity of the Diels-Alder Reactions: Reactions of 10-Allyl-1,8-dichloroanthracene with 2-Chloroacrylonitrile, 1-Cyanovinyl Acetate and Phenyl Vinyl Sulfone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujeeb A. Sultan


    Full Text Available Diels-Alder reaction of 10-allyl-1,8-dichloroanthracene (3 with 2-chloroacrylonitrile (4 and 1-cyanovinyl acetate (5 gives exclusively the ortho isomer while its reaction with phenyl vinyl sulfone (10 yields a mixture of two isomeric adducts with priority to ortho isomer. The reactions proceeded under microwave condition in xylene. Configurations of these isomers have been assigned with the help of NMR spectra. The results indicated that the steric effect is dominating toward the isomer regioselectivity in the Diels-Alder reaction of the present compounds.

  6. Crystal structure of methyl 1-allyl-4-methyl-1H-benzo[c][1,2]thiazine-3-carboxylate 2,2-dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Azotla-Cruz


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C14H15NO4S, the dihydrothiazine ring adopts a distorted sofa conformation with the S atom displaced from the mean plane through the N and C ring atoms by 0.767 (1 Å. The allyl substituent (C—C=C is inclined to this mean plane by 78.5 (7° and the acetate group [C(=O—O—C] by 66.5 (3°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...π interactions forming chains propagating along the a-axis direction.

  7. On the regiochemistry of nucleophilic attack on 2-halo pi-allyl complexes. 4. The effect of silver acetate and nucleophile concentrations in competitive nucleophilic attack with malonate and phenoxide nucleophiles. (United States)

    Organ, Michael G; Arvanitis, Elena A; Hynes, Stephen J


    2,3-Dibromo-1-propene or its allyl carbonate analogue are ionized under Pd catalysis to generate the 2-bromo Pd-pi-allyl complex (triphenylphosphine ligand), which alkylates with malonate nucleophile at the terminal position. The presence of acetate ion in the reaction mixture results in some malonate attack being redirected to the central carbon. The acetate ion can come from the ionization of 1-acetoxy-2-bromo-2-propene or by the addition of silver acetate to the reaction mixture. The addition of phenoxide ion to the reaction also causes the same regiochemical phenomena, although harder anions such as methoxide exert no such effect.

  8. How Radical is a Radical Innovation? An Outline for a Computational Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasmire, J.; Korhonen, J.M.; Nikolic, I.


    Radical innovations prompt significant subsequent technological development and exhibit novelty and “architectural” innovation, i.e. rearranging the way design elements are put together in a system. Thus, radical innovations often serve as the foundation for new technological systems, industries or

  9. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs)-2. Are free hydroxyl radicals generated in aqueous solutions? (United States)

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry


    A chemical spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical (·OH) in aqueous suspensions of 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu) particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP). The results indicate: (1) a significant differences in accumulated DMPO-OH adducts between EPFR containing particles and non-EPFR control samples, (2) a strong correlation between the concentration of DMPO-OH adducts and EPFRs per gram of particles, and (3) a slow, constant growth of DMPO-OH concentration over a period of days in solution containing 50 μg/mL EPFRs particles + DMPO (150 mM) + reagent balanced by 200 μL phosphate buffered (pH = 7.4) saline. However, failure to form secondary radicals using standard scavengers, such as ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, sodium formate, and sodium azide, suggests free hydroxyl radicals may not have been generated in solution. This suggests surface-bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals were generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both the EPFRs and Cu(II)O. Toxicological studies clearly indicate these bound free radicals promote various types of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease normally attributed to unbound free radicals; however, the exact chemical mechanism deserves further study in light of the implication of formation of bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals.

  10. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations (United States)


    The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within a mixed population composed of core and sensitive subpopulations. The latest includes first to third generation immigrants. Respective ways of life may be partially incompatible. In case of a conflict core agents behave as inflexible about the issue. In contrast, sensitive agents can decide either to live peacefully adjusting their way of life to the core one, or to oppose it with eventually joining violent activities. The interplay dynamics between peaceful and opponent sensitive agents is driven by pairwise interactions. These interactions occur both within the sensitive population and by mixing with core agents. The update process is monitored using a Lotka-Volterra-like Ordinary Differential Equation. Given an initial tiny minority of opponents that coexist with both inflexible and peaceful agents, we investigate implications on the emergence of radicalization. Opponents try to turn peaceful agents to opponents driving radicalization. However, inflexible core agents may step in to bring back opponents to a peaceful choice thus weakening the phenomenon. The required minimum individual core involvement to actually curb radicalization is calculated. It is found to be a function of both the majority or minority status of the sensitive subpopulation with respect to the core subpopulation and the degree of activeness of opponents. The results highlight the instrumental role core agents can have to hinder radicalization within the sensitive subpopulation. Some hints are outlined to favor novel public policies towards social integration. PMID:27166677

  11. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Galam

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within a mixed population composed of core and sensitive subpopulations. The latest includes first to third generation immigrants. Respective ways of life may be partially incompatible. In case of a conflict core agents behave as inflexible about the issue. In contrast, sensitive agents can decide either to live peacefully adjusting their way of life to the core one, or to oppose it with eventually joining violent activities. The interplay dynamics between peaceful and opponent sensitive agents is driven by pairwise interactions. These interactions occur both within the sensitive population and by mixing with core agents. The update process is monitored using a Lotka-Volterra-like Ordinary Differential Equation. Given an initial tiny minority of opponents that coexist with both inflexible and peaceful agents, we investigate implications on the emergence of radicalization. Opponents try to turn peaceful agents to opponents driving radicalization. However, inflexible core agents may step in to bring back opponents to a peaceful choice thus weakening the phenomenon. The required minimum individual core involvement to actually curb radicalization is calculated. It is found to be a function of both the majority or minority status of the sensitive subpopulation with respect to the core subpopulation and the degree of activeness of opponents. The results highlight the instrumental role core agents can have to hinder radicalization within the sensitive subpopulation. Some hints are outlined to favor novel public policies towards social integration.

  12. High-Power-Density Organic Radical Batteries. (United States)

    Friebe, Christian; Schubert, Ulrich S


    Batteries that are based on organic radical compounds possess superior charging times and discharging power capability in comparison to established electrochemical energy-storage technologies. They do not rely on metals and, hence, feature a favorable environmental impact. They furthermore offer the possibility of roll-to-roll processing through the use of different printing techniques, which enables the cost-efficient fabrication of mechanically flexible devices. In this review, organic radical batteries are presented with the focus on the hitherto developed materials and the key properties thereof, e.g., voltage, capacity, and cycle life. Furthermore, basic information, such as significant characteristics, housing approaches, and applied additives, are presented and discussed in the context of organic radical batteries.

  13. Exploring How Lead Users Develop Radical Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Hienerth, Christoph; Gemuenden, Hans Georg


    In this study, we explore how lead users develop radical innovations outside of manufacturing firms. We analyze the transition from a very early stage of activities to the ultimate commercialization of these innovations. The focus in this context is on the initiatives undertaken by lead users...... lead users as surgeons launch entrepreneurial activities and bridge periods in which established medical equipment manufacturers would not risk investing in radical innovations. By doing so, lead users create the conditions usually provided in manufacturer-initiated lead user projects, including...... the supply of diversified knowledge, the development and coordination of a network for further development of the innovation, and initial tests of technical or market feasibility. Our findings have implications for manufacturing firms that wish to design radical innovation projects with (individual) lead...

  14. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack (United States)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola


    Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  15. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R.M. [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, Nikola [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail:


    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  16. A Radically Configurable Six-State Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J.C.; Fahrenbach, Albert C.; Cao, Dennis; Dyar, Scott M.; Frasconi, M.; Giesener, M. A.; Benítez, D.; Tkatchouk, E.; Li, H.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Hartlieb, K.J.; Liu, Z.; Carmieli, Raanan; Botros, Y.Y.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Goddard III, W.A.; Stoddart, J. Fraser


    Most organic radicals possess short lifetimes and quickly undergo dimerization or oxidation. Here, we report on the synthesis by radical templation of a class of air- and water-stable organic radicals, trapped within a homo[2]catenane composed of two rigid and fixed cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) rings. The highly energetic octacationic homo[2]catenane, which is capable of accepting up to eight electrons, can be configured reversibly, both chemically and electrochemically, between each one of six experimentally accessible redox states (0, 2+, 4+, 6+, 7+, and 8+) from within the total of nine states evaluated by quantum mechanical methods. All six of the observable redox states have been identified by electrochemical techniques, three (4+, 6+, and 7+) have been characterized by x-ray crystallography, four (4+, 6+, 7+, and 8+) by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, one (7+) by superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, and one (8+) by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  17. Free radicals, antioxidant defense systems, and schizophrenia. (United States)

    Wu, Jing Qin; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang


    The etiopathogenic mechanisms of schizophrenia are to date unknown, although several hypotheses have been suggested. Accumulating evidence suggests that excessive free radical production or oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as evidenced by increased production of reactive oxygen or decreased antioxidant protection in schizophrenic patients. This review aims to summarize the basic molecular mechanisms of free radical metabolism, the impaired antioxidant defense system and membrane pathology in schizophrenia, their interrelationships with the characteristic clinical symptoms and the implications for antipsychotic treatments. In schizophrenia, there is accumulating evidence of altered antioxidant enzyme activities and increased levels of lipid peroxidation, as well as altered levels of plasma antioxidants. Moreover, free radical-mediated abnormalities may contribute to specific aspects of schizophrenic symptomatology and complications of its treatment with antipsychotic drugs, as well as the development of tardive dyskinesia (TD). Finally, the potential therapeutic strategies implicated by the accumulating data on oxidative stress mechanisms for the treatment of schizophrenia are discussed.

  18. Preservation of acidified cucumbers with a natural preservative combination of fumaric acid and allyl isothiocyanate that target lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F


    Without the addition of preservative compounds cucumbers acidified with 150 mM acetic acid with pH adjusted to 3.5 typically undergo fermentation by lactic acid bacteria. Fumaric acid (20 mM) inhibited growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and the lactic acid bacteria present on fresh cucumbers, but spoilage then occurred due to growth of fermentative yeasts, which produced ethanol in the cucumbers. Allyl isothiocyanate (2 mM) prevented growth of Zygosaccharomyces globiformis, which has been responsible for commercial pickle spoilage, as well as the yeasts that were present on fresh cucumbers. However, allyl isothiocyanate did not prevent growth of Lactobacillus plantarum. When these compounds were added in combination to acidified cucumbers, the cucumbers were successfully preserved as indicated by the fact that neither yeasts or lactic acid bacteria increased in numbers nor were lactic acid or ethanol produced by microorganisms when cucumbers were stored at 30 degrees C for at least 2 mo. This combination of 2 naturally occurring preservative compounds may serve as an alternative approach to the use of sodium benzoate or sodium metabisulfite for preservation of acidified vegetables without a thermal process.

  19. Interception and characterization of catalyst species in rhodium bis(diazaphospholane)-catalyzed hydroformylation of octene, vinyl acetate, allyl cyanide, and 1-phenyl-1,3-butadiene. (United States)

    Nelsen, Eleanor R; Brezny, Anna C; Landis, Clark R


    In the absence of H2, reaction of [Rh(H) (CO)2(BDP)] [BDP = bis(diazaphospholane)] with hydroformylation substrates vinyl acetate, allyl cyanide, 1-octene, and trans-1-phenyl-1,3-butadiene at low temperatures and pressures with passive mixing enables detailed NMR spectroscopic characterization of rhodium acyl and, in some cases, alkyl complexes of these substrates. For trans-1-phenyl-1,3-butadiene, the stable alkyl complex is an η(3)-allyl complex. Five-coordinate acyl dicarbonyl complexes appear to be thermodynamically preferred over the four-coordinate acyl monocarbonyls at low temperatures and one atmosphere of CO. Under noncatalytic (i.e., no H2 present) reaction conditions, NMR spectroscopy reveals the kinetic and thermodynamic selectivity of linear and branched acyl dicarbonyl formation. Over the range of substrates investigated, the kinetic regioselectivity observed at low temperatures under noncatalytic conditions roughly predicts the regioselectivity observed for catalytic transformations at higher temperatures and pressures. Thus, kinetic distributions of off-cycle acyl dicarbonyls constitute reasonable models for catalytic selectivity. The Wisconsin high-pressure NMR reactor (WiHP-NMRR) enables single-turnover experiments with active mixing; such experiments constitute a powerful strategy for elucidating the inherent selectivity of acyl formation and acyl hydrogenolysis in hydroformylation reactions.

  20. Update on Robotic Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett S. Matsunaga


    Full Text Available The da Vinci surgical robot has been shown to help shorten the learning curve for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP for both laparoscopically skilled and na surgeons[1,2]. This approach has shown equal or superior outcomes to conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy with regard to ease of learning, initial complication rates, conversion to open, blood loss, complications, continence, potency, and margin rates. Although the data are immature to compare oncologic and functional outcomes to open prostatectomy, preliminary data are promising.Herein, we review the technique and outcomes of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP.

  1. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goli, Marco; Rezaei, Shahamak


    It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for – or c......It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate...

  2. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  3. Ab initio heats of formation for chlorinated hydrocarbons: Allyl chloride, cis- and trans-1-chloropropene, and vinyl chloride (United States)

    Colegrove, Brenda Thies; Thompson, Tyler B.


    Ab initio molecular energies at several levels of theory (MP4/6-311G**//MP2/6-31G*, MP4/6-311+G**//MP2/6-31G*,G1, and G2) are used to determine the heats of formation of several chlorinated hydrocarbons (allyl chloride, cis- and trans-1-chloropropene, and vinyl chloride) from atomization and isodesmic reactions. More than one isodesmic reaction was investigated for each molecule. Inconsistencies between the results from isodesmic reactions for a given molecule indicated possible errors in the experimental heats of formation for some of the chlorinated molecules used as references in the isodesmic reactions (in particular 1-chloropropane and 2-chloropropane). To further examine this possibility we did a multivariate regression for the G2 calculated reaction enthalpies for the 30 isodesmic reactions. In the regression, the heats of formation of the hydrocarbons and CH3Cl were fixed at the experimental values. The heats of formation of all the other chlorinated hydrocarbons were varied. The heats of formation determined using this method were: ΔHf298(CH2Cl2)=-22.6 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CHCl=Cl2)=5.0 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CCl2=CH2)=-0.2 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2Cl-CH3)=-27.0 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(c-CHCl=CH-CH3)=-3.1 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(t-CHCl=CH-CH3)=-2.8 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2=CClCH3)=-5.4 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2=CH-CH2Cl)=-0.8 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH2Cl-CH2-CH3) =-32.2 kcal/mole, ΔHf298(CH3-CHCl-CH3 )=-35.9 kcal/mole. The calculated heats of formation were used to derive the following Benson group enthalpy values: C-(Cl)(H)2(Cd)=-15.6 kcal/mole, Cd-(Cl)(H)=-1.3 kcal/mole, and cis-halogen-alkyl =-0.3 kcal/mole.

  4. Competing with the radical right. Distances between the European radical right and other parties on typical radical right issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Lubbers, M.; Coffe, H.R.


    The popularity of European Radical Right Populist parties (RRPs) has led to investigations into the distances between RRPs’ and other parties’ stances regarding immigration. This article adds to this literature by investigating the distance between RRPs and the other parties on a wider variety of ty

  5. Peroxy Radical Chemistry and Partitioning under a Ponderosa Pine Canopy (United States)

    Wolfe, G. M.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin, L.; Kim, S.; Henry, S. B.; Boyle, E. S.; Karl, T.; Harley, P. C.; Turnipseed, A.; Zheng, W.; Flocke, F. M.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Guenther, A. B.; DiGangi, J. P.; Kaser, L.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Graus, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y. J.; Keutsch, F. N.


    As the first intermediates in the OH-initiated oxidation of hydrocarbons, peroxy radicals are central to the photochemistry of the lower atmosphere. Peroxy radical abundance and partitioning controls relative rates of radical propagation and termination in low-NOx regimes, and the coupled cycling of these molecules lies at the heart of recently-highlighted deficiencies in traditional chemical mechanisms. Using observations of hydroperoxy (HO2) and total peroxy (HO2 + RO2) radicals acquired during the summer 2010 BEACHON-ROCs campaign, we explore the processes affecting radical-mediated chemistry within a rural Ponderosa pine forest in central Colorado. Steady-state and fully-coupled 0-D modeling studies are used to provide complementary perspectives on our understanding of the radical budget in this environment. Analysis will focus on the nature and impact of unidentified radical sources and sinks and on how the composition of the peroxy radical pool modulates radical regeneration.

  6. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  7. HOx regeneration in the oxidation of isoprene III: theoretical study of the key isomerisation of the Z-δ-hydroxy-peroxy isoprene radicals. (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Lam; Vereecken, Luc; Peeters, Jozef


    As a sequel to our communication on a proposed new isoprene oxidation mechanism aiming to rationalize the unexpectedly high OH and HO(2) levels observed in isoprene-rich areas (J. Peeters, T. L. Nguyen, L. Vereecken, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2009, 11, 5935), we report herein the detailed quantum chemical and statistical kinetics characterization of the crucial 1,6-H shifts in the two Z-δ-hydroxy-peroxy radicals from isoprene. Geometries, energies and vibration frequencies of all conformers of the reactant radicals and transition states are computed at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory and the energies of the lowest-lying conformers are then refined at various higher levels of theory, including CBS-QB3, IRCMax(CBS-QB3//B3LYP) and CBS-APNO. The rate coefficients over a wide temperature range are calculated using multi-conformer transition state theory with WKB tunneling factors evaluated for the barrier shape found by CBS-QB3//B3LYP IRC analyses. The WKB tunneling factors for these allyl-stabilisation-assisted reactions are about 25 at ambient temperatures. The rate coefficients can be represented by Arrhenius expressions over the 250-350 K range: k(T)=1.4×10(9) exp(-6380/T) s(-1) for the Z-1-OH-4-OO(·)-isoprene radical, and k(T)=0.72×10(9) exp(-5520/T) s(-1) for Z-1-OH-4-OO(·)-isoprene. With the k(1,6-H) of order 1 s(-1) at ambient temperatures, these isomerisations can compete with and even outrun the traditional peroxy reactions at low and moderate NO levels. The importance of these reactions as key processes in the newly proposed, OH-regenerating isoprene oxidation scheme is discussed.

  8. Radical Negativity: Music Education for Social Justice (United States)

    McLaren, Peter


    According to Hedges (2010), the real enemies of the liberal class are radical thinkers such as Noam Chomsky and Ralph Nader, iconoclastic intellectuals who possess the moral autonomy to defy the power elite. While this author agrees with Hedges, he would take this argument even further. In this article, the author argues that the real enemy of…

  9. Serendipitous findings while researching oxygen free radicals. (United States)

    Floyd, Robert A


    This review is based on the honor of receiving the Discovery Award from the Society of Free Radical Biology and Medicine. The review is reflective and presents our thinking that led to experiments that yielded novel observations. Critical questioning of our understanding of oxygen free radicals in biomedical problems led us to use and develop more direct and extremely sensitive methods. This included nitrone free radical spin trapping and HPLC-electrochemical detection. This technology led to the pioneering use of salicylate to trap hydroxyl free radicals and show increased flux in ischemia/reperfused brain regions and also to first sensitively detect 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine in oxidatively damaged DNA and help assess its role in cancer development. We demonstrated that methylene blue (MB) photoinduces formation of 8-hydroxyguanine in DNA and RNA and discovered that MB sensitively photoinactivates RNA viruses, including HIV and the West Nile virus. Studies in experimental stroke led us serendipitously to discover that alpha-phenyl-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) was neuroprotective if given after the stroke. This led to extensive commercial development of NXY-059, a PBN derivative, for the treatment of stroke. More recently we discovered that PBN nitrones have potent anti-cancer activity and are active in preventing hearing loss caused by acute acoustical trauma.

  10. Designed metalloprotein stabilizes a semiquinone radical (United States)

    Ulas, Gözde; Lemmin, Thomas; Wu, Yibing; Gassner, George T.; Degrado, William F.


    Enzymes use binding energy to stabilize their substrates in high-energy states that are otherwise inaccessible at ambient temperature. Here we show that a de novo designed Zn(II) metalloprotein stabilizes a chemically reactive organic radical that is otherwise unstable in aqueous media. The protein binds tightly to and stabilizes the radical semiquinone form of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol. Solution NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with molecular dynamics simulations show that the substrate binds in the active site pocket where it is stabilized by metal-ligand interactions as well as by burial of its hydrophobic groups. Spectrochemical redox titrations show that the protein stabilized the semiquinone by reducing the electrochemical midpoint potential for its formation via the one-electron oxidation of the catechol by approximately 400 mV (9 kcal mol-1). Therefore, the inherent chemical properties of the radical were changed drastically by harnessing its binding energy to the metalloprotein. This model sets the basis for designed enzymes with radical cofactors to tackle challenging chemistry.

  11. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)


    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the

  12. Albert Einstein: Radical Pacifist and Democrat (United States)

    Jayaraman, T.

    We draw attention here to the radical political grounding of Einstein's pacifism. We also drescribe some less commonly known aspects of his commitment to civil liberties, particularly in the context of the anti-l hysteria and anti-racism current in the United States of the late 1940s and 1950s. We also examine briefly his views on socialism.

  13. Radical recombinations in acetylene-air flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, P.J.Th.; Alkemade, C.T.J.


    In this paper an analysis is given of the behaviour of excess radical concentrations, H, OH and O as a function of height above the reaction zone in premixed acetylene-air flames at 2–200° to 2400°K and 1 atmosphere pressure. The intensity was measured of the Li resonance line which is related to th

  14. User involvement competence for radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher


    -assisted navigation systems. The case study analysis reveals that firms who closely interact with specific users benefit significantly for their radical innovation work. These users have a high motivation toward new solutions, are open to new technologies, possess diverse competencies, and are embedded into a very...

  15. Radical Welfare State Retrenchment: A Comparative Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    as electoral suicide, but this changed in the 1980s when Margaret Thatcher's government began a series of cutbacks in the UK. During the 1990s, the New Zealand government announced the most radical social benefit cutbacks the country had ever seen. Examining these cases in detail, and contrasting them...

  16. Radical Change: Digital Age Literature and Learning. (United States)

    Dresang, Eliza T.; McClelland, Kathryn


    Describes the concept of radical change, a theoretical construct that identifies and explains books with characteristics reflecting the types of interactivity, connectivity, and access that permeate the emerging digital society. Highlights innovative ways that authors, illustrators, and designers incorporate these features into books for…

  17. Customers as Partners in Radical Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh


      Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to investigate customer involvement and related challenges in radical service innovations in engineering consulting services Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach and so called rich descriptions to investigate customer invo...

  18. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis. (United States)

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe


    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  19. Radical scavenging activity of antioxidants evaluated by means of electrogenerated HO radical. (United States)

    Oliveira, Raquel; Geraldo, Dulce; Bento, Fátima


    A method is proposed and tested concerning the characterization of antioxidants by means of their reaction with electrogenerated HO radicals in galvanostatic assays with simultaneous O2 evolution, using a Pt anode fairly oxidized. The consumption of a set of species with antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid (AA), caffeic acid (CA), gallic acid (GA) and trolox (T), is described by a first order kinetics. The rate of the processes is limited by the kinetics of reaction with HO radicals and by the kinetics of charge transfer. Information regarding the scavenger activity of antioxidants is obtained by the relative value of the rate constant of the reaction between antioxidants and HO radicals, k(AO,HO)/k(O2). The number of HO radicals scavenged per molecule of antioxidant is also estimated and ranged from 260 (ascorbic acid) to 500 (gallic acid). The method is applied successfully in the characterization of the scavenger activity of ascorbic acid in a green-tea based beverage.

  20. Pressure effects on the radical-radical recombination reaction of photochromic bridged imidazole dimers. (United States)

    Mutoh, Katsuya; Abe, Jiro


    The bridged imidazole dimers are some of the attractive fast photochromic compounds which have potential applications to the ophthalmic lenses, real-time hologram and molecular machines. The strategy for expanding their photochromic properties such as the colour variation and tuning the decolouration rates has been vigorously investigated, but the insight into the structural changes along the photochromic reactions has not been demonstrated in detail. Here, we demonstrated the pressure dependence of the radical-radical recombination reaction of the bridged imidazole dimers. The radical-radical interaction can be controlled by applying high pressure. Our results give fundamental information about the molecular dynamics of the bridged imidazole dimers, leading to the development of new functional photochromic machines and pressure-sensitive photochromic materials.

  1. Charge transfer from 2-aminopurine radical cation and radical anion to nucleobases: A pulse radiolysis study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manoj, P. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Mohan, H. [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mittal, J.P. [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Manoj, V.M. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Aravindakumar, C.T. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India)], E-mail:


    Pulse radiolysis study has been carried out to investigate the properties of the radical cation of 2-aminopurine (2AP) and the probable charge transfer from the radical cation and radical anion of 2AP to natural nucleobases in aqueous medium. The radical cation of 2AP was produced by the reaction of sulfate radical anion (SO{sub 4}{sup dot-}). The time resolved absorption spectra obtained by the reaction of SO{sub 4}{sup dot-} with 2AP at neutral pH have two distinct maxima at 380 and 470nm and is assigned to the formation of a neutral radical of the form 2AP-N{sup 2}(-H){sup dot} (k{sub 2}=4.7x10{sup 9}dm{sup 3}mol{sup -1}s{sup -1} at pH 7). This neutral radical is formed from the deprotonation reaction of a very short-lived radical cation of 2AP. The transient absorption spectra recorded at pH 10.2 have two distinct maxima at 400 and 480nm and is assigned to the formation of a nitrogen centered radical (2AP-N(9){sup dot}). As the hole transport from 2AP to guanine is a highly probable process, the reaction of SO{sub 4}{sup dot-} is carried out in the presence of guanosine, adenosine and inosine. The spectrum obtained in the presence of guanosine was significantly different from that in the absence and it showed prominent absorption maxima at 380 and 470nm, and a weak broad maximum centered around 625nm which match well with the reported spectrum of a neutral guanine radical (G(-H){sup dot}). The electron transfer reaction from the radical anion of 2AP to thymine (T), cytidine (Cyd) and uridine (Urd) was also investigated at neutral pH. Among the three pyrimidines, only the transient spectrum in the presence of T gave a significant difference from the spectral features of the electron adduct of 2AP, which showed a prominent absorption maximum at 340nm and this spectrum is similar to the electron adduct spectrum of T. The preferential reduction of thymine by 2AP{sup dot-} and the oxidation of guanosine by 2AP{sup dot+} clearly follow the oxidation

  2. The Reaction Kinetics of Neutral Free Radicals and Radical Ions Studied by Laser Flash Photolysis


    Friedline, Robert Alan


    t-Butoxyl radical has been used as a chemical model for hydrogen abstractions in many enzymatic and biological systems. However, the question has arisen as to how well this reactive intermediate mimics these systems. In addressing this concern, absolute rate constants and Arrhenius parameters for hydrogen abstraction by t-butoxyl radical were measured for a broad class of substrates including amines, hydrocarbons, and alcohols using laser flash photolysis. Initially, no obvious reactivity ...

  3. Evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of a series of synthetic hydroxychalcones towards the DPPH radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sixteen hydroxychalcones were synthesized in sufficient purity by the Claisen–Schmidt condensation between appropriate acetophenones and aromatic aldehydes. All the compounds were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. Important structure–activity relationships were observed that strongly contribute to the knowledge for the design of DPPH radical scavenging chalcones. Relevant theoretical parameters were computed in an attempt to understand and explain the obtained experimental results.

  4. Nature of the lowest excited states of neutral polyenyl radicals and polyene radical cations (United States)

    Starcke, Jan Hendrik; Wormit, Michael; Dreuw, Andreas


    Due to the close relation of the polyenyl radicals C2n+1H2n+3• and polyene radical cations C2nH2n+2•+ to the neutral linear polyenes, one may suspect their excited states to possess substantial double excitation character, similar to the famous S1 state of neutral polyenes and thus to be equally problematic for simple excited state theories. Using the recently developed unrestricted algebraic-diagrammatic construction scheme of second order perturbation theory and the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method, the vertical excitation energies, their corresponding oscillator strengths, and the nature of the wave functions of the lowest excited electronic states of the radicals are calculated and analyzed in detail. For the polyenyl radicals two one-photon allowed states are found as D1 and D4 states, with two symmetry-forbidden D2 and D3 states in between, while in the polyene radical cations D1 and D2 are allowed and D3 is forbidden. The order of the states is conserved with increasing chain length. It is found that all low-lying excited states exhibit a significant but similar amount of doubly excited configuration in their wave functions of 15%-20%. Using extrapolation, predictions for the excitation energies of the five lowest excited states of the polyene radical cations are made for longer chain lengths.

  5. Radical surgery compared with intracavitary cesium followed by radical surgery in cervical carcinoma stage IB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinga, D.J.; Bouma, J.; Aalders, J.G. (Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, State Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)); Hollema, H. (Dept. of Pathology, State Univ. Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands))


    Forty-nine patients aged {le} 45 years, with cervical carcinoma stage IB ({le} 3 cm) were treated with either primary radical surgery (n = 26), or intracavitary irradiation followed by radical surgery (n = 23). With primary surgery, ovarian function had been preserved in 15 of the 25 patients, who were alive and well. Seven of the primary surgery patients were irradiated postoperatively and 2 others with a central recurrence were cured by irradiation. One other patient, who was not irradiated postoperatively, had an intestinal metastasis and died of the disease. If any of the adverse prognostic factors (as reported in the literature) had been considered as an indication for postoperative irradiation, 17 patients instead of 7 would have been irradiated after primary radical surgery. In the comparable group of 23 patients treated by intracavitary irradiation and radical surgery (and in 4 cases postoperative irradiation as well) there was no recurrence. There was no significant statistical difference between the treatment results in the cesium + surgery group and those who underwent primary radical surgery. Young patients with early cervical carcinoma without prognostic indicators for postoperative irradiation can benefit from primary radical surgery, because their ovarian function can be preserved. (authors).

  6. Ovarian recurrence after radical trachelectomy for adenocarcinoma of the cervix. (United States)

    Piketty, Mathilde; Barranger, Emmanuel; Najat, Mourra; François, Paye; Daraï, Emile


    Radical trachelectomy is an effective fertility-sparing treatment for women with early-stage cervical cancer. We describe the first reported ovarian recurrence after radical trachelectomy for stage IB1 adenocarcinoma cervical cancer.

  7. Bithiophene radical cation: Resonance Raman spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grage, M.M.-L.; Keszthelyi, T.; Offersgaard, J.F.


    The resonance Raman spectrum of the photogenerated radical cation of bithiophene is reported. The bithiophene radical cation was produced via a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between excited bithiophene and the electron acceptor fumaronitrile in a room temperature acetonitrile solution a...

  8. Some Pluses and Minuses of Radical Constructivism in Mathematics Education. (United States)

    Ellerton, Nerida; Clements, M. A.


    Reviews the radical constructivism movement in mathematics education. Benefits identified include learner ownership of mathematical learning; importance of social interaction; and identification of principles for improving mathematics teaching and learning. Weaknesses identified include overzealousness of some radical constructivists; downplaying…

  9. Pyrimidine nucleobase radical reactivity in DNA and RNA (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc M.


    Nucleobase radicals are major products of the reactions between nucleic acids and hydroxyl radical, which is produced via the indirect effect of ionizing radiation. The nucleobase radicals also result from hydration of cation radicals that are produced via the direct effect of ionizing radiation. The role that nucleobase radicals play in strand scission has been investigated indirectly using ionizing radiation to generate them. More recently, the reactivity of nucleobase radicals resulting from formal hydrogen atom or hydroxyl radical addition to pyrimidines has been studied by independently generating the reactive intermediates via UV-photolysis of synthetic precursors. This approach has provided control over where the reactive intermediates are produced within biopolymers and facilitated studying their reactivity. The contributions to our understanding of pyrimidine nucleobase radical reactivity by this approach are summarized.

  10. Radical production from photosensitization of imidazoles (United States)

    Corral Arroyo, P.; Gonzalez, L.; Steimer, S.; Aellig, R.; Volkamer, R. M.; George, C.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Ammann, M.


    Reactions promoted by light are key in atmospheric chemistry. Some of them occur in the condensed phase of aerosols containing light absorbing organic compounds (George et al., 2015). This work explores the radical reactions initiated by near-UV light in mixtures of citric acid (CA) and imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (IC) using NO as a probe molecule for HO2, by means of coated wall flow tube experiments. Citric acid may act as H atom or electron donor in condensed phase radical cycles. IC may act as a photosensitizer. The loss of NO was measured by a chemiluminescence detector. The dependence of the NO loss on the NO concentration, the IC/CA ratio in the film, relative humidity, light intensity, oxygen molar fraction were investigated as well as the HONO and NO2 yields. We also added halide salts to investigate the effect of a competing electron donor in the system and the output of halogens to the gas phase. We found a correlation between the loss of NO above the film and the molar ratio of IC/CA and the light intensity. The variation of the NO loss with oxygen corroborates a mechanism, in which the triplet excited state of IC is reduced by citric acid, to a reduced ketyl radical that transfers an electron to molecular oxygen, which in turn leads to production of HO2 radicals. Therefore, the NO loss in the gas phase is related to the production of HO2 radicals. Relative humidity had a strong impact on the HO2 output, which shows a maximum production rate at around 30%. The addition of halide ions (X- = Cl-, Br-, I-) increases the HO2 output at low concentration and decrease it at higher concentration when X2- radical ions likely scavenge HO2. We could preliminarily quantify for the first time the contribution of these processes to the oxidative capacity in the atmosphere and conclude that their role is significant for aerosol aging and potentially a significant source of halogen compounds to the gas phase.

  11. Induction of apoptosis in human liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line by 5-allyl-7-gen-difluoromethylenechrysin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Wen Tan; Hong Xia; Jin-Hua Xu; Jian-Guo Cao


    AIM: To investigate the effect of 5-allyl-7-gen-difluoromethylenechrysin (ADFMChR) on apoptosis of human liver carcinoma HepG2 cell line and the molecular mechanisms involved. METHODS: HepG2 cells and L-02 cells were cultured in vitro and the inhibitory effect of ADFMChR on their proliferation was measured by MTT assay. The apoptosis of HepG2 cells was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) using propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence staining.DNA ladder bands were observed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. The influence of ADFMChR on the proxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), NF-κB, Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression of HepG2 cells were analyzed by Western blotting. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that ADFMChR significantly inhibited proliferation of HepG2 cells in a dosedependent manner, with little effect on growth of L-02 cells, and when IC50 was measured as 8.45 μmol/L and 191.55 μmol/L respectively, the potency of ADFMChR to HepG2 cells, was found to be similar to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, IC50 was 9.27 μmol/L). The selective index of ADFMChR cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells was 22.67 (191.55/8.45), higher than 5-FU (SI was 7.05 (65.37/9.27). FCM with PI staining demonstrated that the apoptosis rates of HepG2 cells treated with 3.0, 10.0 and 30.0 μmol/L ADFMChR for 48 h were 5.79%, 9.29% and 37.8%, respectively, and were significantly higher when treated with 30.0 μmol/L ADFMChR than when treated with 30.0 μmol/L ChR (16.0%) ( P < 0.05) and were similar to those obtained with 30.0 μmol/L 5-FU (41.0%). DNA agarose gel electrophoresis showed that treatment of HepG2 cells with 10.0 μmol/L ADFMChR for 48 h and 72 h resulted in typical DNA ladders which could be reversed by 10.00 μmol/L GW9662, a blocker of PPARγ. Western blotting analysis revealed that after 24 h of treatment with 3.0, 10.0, 30.0 μmol/L ADFMChR, PPARγ and Bax protein expression in HepG2 cells increased but Bcl-2 and NF-κB expression decreased; however, pre-incubation with 10.0 μmol/L GW

  12. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R


    Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several catego...

  13. α-Carbonyl Radical Cyclizatio n in Organic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Chin-Kang; CHIU Rei-Torng; LIH Shinn-Horng; SANTHOSH K. C.; CHANG Ching-Jung; TSENG Wei-Hong; HO Wen-Yueh


    @@ Intramolecular radical cyclization reactions are now used routinely to synthesize carbocyclic and heterocyclic structures. We have reported that α-carbonyl radicals 1, generated from the corresponding iodo ketones or enones, underwent intramolecular radical cyclization smoothly to afford products 2.1, 2,3

  14. Responsibility for radical change in addressing climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouvrie, des N.; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.; Jollands, N.


    To radically address the problem of climate change, it is not enough to modify specific attitudes and behaviors while upholding the present paradigms. This article aims to show why modifications will never bring about radical carbon emission reductions. We discuss what it implies to desire radical c

  15. Regularities and Radicals in Near-rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.J. Groenewald


    Let F be a regularity for near-rings and F(R) the largest FR-regular ideal in R. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the concepts of maximal Fmodular ideals and F-primitive near-rings to characterize F(R) for any near-ring regularity F. Under certain conditions, F(R) is equal to the intersection of all the maximal F-modular ideals of R. As examples, we apply this to the different analogs of the Brown-McCoy radicals and also the Behrens radicals. In the last part of this paper, we show that for certain regularities, the class of F-primitive near-rings forms a special class.

  16. Enacting a social ecology: radically embodied intersubjectivity. (United States)

    McGann, Marek


    Embodied approaches to cognitive science frequently describe the mind as "world-involving," indicating complementary and interdependent relationships between an agent and its environment. The precise nature of the environment is frequently left ill-described, however, and provides a challenge for such approaches, particularly, it is noted here, for the enactive approach which emphasizes this complementarity in quite radical terms. This paper argues that enactivists should work to find common cause with a dynamic form of ecological psychology, a theoretical perspective that provides the most explicit theory of the psychological environment currently extant. In doing so, the intersubjective, cultural nature of the ecology of human psychology is explored, with the challenges this poses for both enactivist and ecological approaches outlined. The theory of behavior settings (Barker, 1968; Schoggen, 1989) is used to present a framework for resolving some of these challenges. Drawing these various strands together an outline of a radical embodied account of intersubjectivity and social activity is presented.

  17. Freedom Now! Radical Jazz and Social Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Pluciński


    Full Text Available Music is obviously not only an aesthetic phenomenon. It is embeddedin a dense network of social relations. However, its social involvementis rather ambiguous, particularly since the second half of the twentiethcentury. On the one hand, music is one of the main elements of culturalcapitalism and a part of the system of domination. On the other hand,music provokes, (coproduces or possibly strengthens and coexists witha number of counterdiscourses and social projects of counterhegemoniccharacter.The main objective of the paper is to examine relationships between both, revolutionary jazz and revolutionary social movements, namely the civil rights movement, but above all radical movements, especially black power movement. The crucial questions I am interested in are problems of selforganization, performative social practices, as well as alternatives elaborated by radical-oriented jazz circles in various social dimensions, for instance economic or symbolic.

  18. International Radical Cystectomy Consortium: A way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Johar Raza


    Full Text Available Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is an emerging operative alternative to open surgery for the management of invasive bladder cancer. Studies from single institutions provide limited data due to the small number of patients. In order to better understand the related outcomes, a world-wide consortium was established in 2006 of patients undergoing RARC, called the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC. Thus far, the IRCC has reported its findings on various areas of operative interest and continues to expand its capacity to include other operative modalities and transform it into the International Radical Cystectomy Consortium. This article summarizes the findings of the IRCC and highlights the future direction of the consortium.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Al-Jami'ah: Journal of Islamic Studies


    Full Text Available Radical Islamism has become the “sexiest” issue in the international scholarship of religion since the September 11 tragedy in 2001. It has been associated with a number of terrorist attacks not only in the West but also in Muslim countries. Every single of radical Islamism has caught the interest of not only scholars and policy makers but also general public. Interestingly, the general assumption that religion is the source of peace has been seriously challenged, not by non-religious communities, but by the violent practices of particular religious groups, however small they are. Indeed, there are certain groups striving for Islam but by using acts which could give awful image on Islam itself and against humanity.

  20. Mechanisms of radical removal by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul


    It is well established from experiments in premixed, laminar flames, jet-stirred reactors, flow reactors, and batch reactors that SO2 acts to catalyze hydrogen atom removal at stoichiometric and reducing conditions. However, the commonly accepted mechanism for radical removal, SO2 + H...... that the interaction of SO, with the radical pool is more complex than previously assumed, involving HOSO and SO, as well as, at high temperatures also HSO, SH, and S. The revised mechanism with a high rate constant for H + SO2 recombination and with SO + H2O, rather than SO2 + H-2, as major products of the HOSO + H...... reaction is in agreement with a range of experimental results from batch and flow reactors, as well as laminar flames....

  1. 1-Allyl-3-methyl-3′,5′-diphenylspiro[quinoxaline-2(1H,2′(3′H-[1,3,4]thiadiazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seik Weng Ng


    Full Text Available In the title spiro compound, C25H22N4S, the planar quinoxaline (r.m.s. deviation = 0.070 Å and planar thiadiazole (r.m.s. deviation = 0.060 Å ring systems share a common C atom; their mean planes are aligned at 89.7 (1°. The thiazole ring possesses two aromatic ring substituents and is nearly coplanar with these rings [the dihedral angles between the thiadiazole and phenyl rings are 5.7 (1 and 10.7 (1°]. The allyl unit is disordered over two positions in a 0.65 (1:0.35 (1 ratio.

  2. Structure-Activity Relationship Study on Isothiocyanates: Comparison of TRPA1-Activating Ability between Allyl Isothiocyanate and Specific Flavor Components of Wasabi, Horseradish, and White Mustard. (United States)

    Terada, Yuko; Masuda, Hideki; Watanabe, Tatsuo


    Allyl isothiocyanate (ITC) (4) is the main pungent component in wasabi, and it generates an acrid sensation by activating TRPA1. The flavor and pungency of ITCs vary depending on the compound. However, the differences in activity to activate TRPA1 between ITCs are not known except for a few compounds. To investigate the effect of carbon chain length and substituents of ITCs, the TRPA1-activiting ability of 16 ITCs was measured. Since most of the ITCs showed nearly equal TRPA1-activiting potency, the ITC moiety is likely the predominant contributor to their TRPA1-activating abilities, and contributions of other functional groups to their activities to activate TRPA1 are comparatively small.

  3. Enhancement of the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B by allicin, an allyl-sulfur compound from garlic, against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. (United States)

    Ogita, Akira; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Taniguchi, Makoto; Tanaka, Toshio


    Amphotericin B (AmB) is a representative antibiotic for the control of serious fungal infections, and its fungicidal activity was greatly enhanced by allicin, an allyl-sulfur compound from garlic. In addition to the plasma membrane permeability change, AmB induced vacuole membrane damage so that the organelles were visible as small discrete particles. Although allicin was ineffective in promoting AmB-induced plasma membrane disability, this compound enhanced AmB-induced structural damage to the vacuolar membrane even at a non-lethal dose of the antibiotic. Allicin could also enhance the antifungal activity of AmB against the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and against Aspergillus fumigatus. In contrast, allicin did not enhance the cytotoxic activity of AmB against cells of human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60), a vacuole-less organism.

  4. DFT Mechanistic Study of the Selective Terminal C-H Activation of n-Pentane with a Tungsten Allyl Nitrosyl Complex

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond


    Mechanistic insights into the selective C-H terminal activation of n-pentane with tungsten allyl nitrosyl complex reported by Legzdins were gained by employing density functional theory with B3LYP hybrid functional. Using Bader’s atom in molecules (AIM) analysis on the elementary steps of the hydrogen transfer process, TS1 and TS2, it was observed that the calculated H-transfer models were closely similar to Hall’s metal-assisted σ-bond metathesis through bond critical point (BCP) comparisons. One distinguishable feature was the fact that the formal oxidation state of the W changed in the concerted H-transfer process. To better differentiate, we term these processes as ‘Formal Reductive Hydrogen Transfer’ (FRHT) for TS1 and ‘Formal Oxidative Hydrogen Transfer’ (FOHT) for TS2.

  5. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 1-(4-Nitrobenzyl-3-allyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dounia Belaziz


    Full Text Available A functionalized benzimidazole, 1-(4-nitrobenzyl-3-allyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H-one, has been synthesized, and the crystal structure was determined and analyzed. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic, space group P21/n (number 14 c with cell parameters, a=7.12148(8 Å, b=16.12035(17 Å, c=13.04169(17 Å, β=93.3043(11, V=1494.71(3 Å3, and Dcalc = 1.375 g/mm3. The solid state geometry is stabilized by intermolecular π–π interactions along with the van der Waals interactions which contribute to the stability of the crystal packing. Computational calculations have been used to properly understand the main intermolecular interactions present in the crystal.

  6. How Hume's Philosophy Informed Radical Behaviorism. (United States)

    Nuzzolilli, Andrew E; Diller, James W


    The present paper analyzes consistencies between the philosophical systems of David Hume and B. F. Skinner, focusing on their conceptualization of causality and attitudes about scientific behavior. The ideas that Hume initially advanced were further developed in Skinner's writings and shaped the behavior-analytic approach to scientific behavior. Tracing Skinner's logical antecedents allows for additional historical and philosophical clarity when examining the development of radical behaviorism.

  7. Can the United States Defeat Radical Islam (United States)


    or expatriate communities, identify with Al Qaeda’s radical message and find a new source of spiritual commitment in it. Albert Bandura in his...first Century. New York: Berkley Books, 2004. Bandura , Albert . “Mechanisms of moral disengagement.” Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies...standards that their families, their religious leaders, and their government seek to instill. This disengagement is activated, according to Bandura

  8. A Radical New Mach 7 Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Most engines compress air, add fuel and burn it, and then allow theheated gas to expand, creating power or thrust. A radical aircraft enginedevised by ONERA, France’s equivalent of NASA, does the opposite.The Priam inverse-cycle" engine is designed for hypersonic speedsabove Mach 4 (2, 650 mph). Conventional jets do not work at suchspeeds, because the air becomes so hot when it is rammed into the

  9. Oxygen radical functionalization of boron nitride nanosheets


    MAY, PETER; Coleman, Jonathan; MCGOVERN, IGNATIUS; GOUNKO, IOURI; Satti, Amro


    PUBLISHED The covalent chemical functionalization of exfoliated hexagonal boron-nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) is achieved by the solution phase oxygen radical functionalization of boron atoms in the h-BN lattice. This involves a two-step procedure to initially covalently graft alkoxy groups to boron atoms and the subsequent hydrolytic defunctionalisation of the groups to yield hydroxyl-functionalized BNNSs (OH-BNNSs). Characterization of the functionalized-BNNSs using HR-TEM, Raman, UV-Vis, F...

  10. Internet Radicalization: Actual Threat or Phantom Menace? (United States)


    morphine of ideas—self-induced at initiation, but involuntary once hooked. In correlation with this picture, juveniles have been identified at that she ultimately sought to assist. 5. Mohammed Hassan Khalid: Mohammed Hassan Khalid was radicalized as a juvenile and is believed to be...Sulejah Hadzovic Betim Kaziu and Sulejah Hadzovic came from Muslim families and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. Kaziu was convicted and sentenced to


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea R. Szkurhan; Michael K. Georges


    An overview of aqueous polymerizations, which include emulsion, miniemulsion and suspension polymerizations,under stable free radical polymerization (SFRP) conditions is presented. The success of miniemulsion and suspension SFRP polymerizations is contrasted with the difficulties associated with obtaining a stable emulsion polymerization. A recently developed unique microprecipitation technique is referenced as a means of making submicron sized particles that can be used to achieve a stable emulsion SFRP process.

  12. S-allyl cysteine activates the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response and protects neurons against ischemic injury in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Shi, Huanying; Jing, Xu; Wei, Xinbing; Perez, Ruth G; Ren, Manru; Zhang, Xiumei; Lou, Haiyan


    Stroke is a devastating clinical condition for which an effective neuroprotective treatment is currently unavailable. S-allyl cysteine (SAC), the most abundant organosulfur compound in aged garlic extract, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effects against stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain poorly defined. The present study tests the hypothesis that SAC attenuates ischemic neuronal injury by activating the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent antioxidant response in both in vitro and in vivo models. Our findings demonstrate that SAC treatment resulted in an increase in Nrf2 protein levels and subsequent activation of antioxidant response element pathway genes in primary cultured neurons and mice. Exposure of primary neurons to SAC provided protection against oxygen and glucose deprivation-induced oxidative insults. In wild-type (Nrf2(+/+) ) mice, systemic administration of SAC attenuated middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced ischemic damage, a protective effect not observed in Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2(-/-) ) mice. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant response by SAC is strongly associated with its neuroprotective effects against experimental stroke and suggest that targeting the Nrf2 pathway may provide therapeutic benefit for the treatment of stroke. The transcription factor Nrf2 is involved in cerebral ischemic disease and may be a promising target for the treatment of stroke. We provide novel evidence that SAC confers neuroprotection against ischemic stroke by activating the antioxidant Nrf2 signaling pathway. ARE, antioxidant response element; GCLC, glutathione cysteine ligase regulatory subunit; GCLM, glutathione cysteine ligase modulatory subunit; HO-1, heme oxygenase-1; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; Keap1, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; Maf, musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma; Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2

  13. Research on Industrial Catalytic Synthesis of Allyl Isothiocyanate%烯丙基异硫氰酸酯的工业催化合成研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Allyl isothiocyanate is an important Intermediate products in organic Production , it is widely used in va-rious fields such as pesticides , medicine and soil disinfection etc . This paper describes different methods from dif -ferent starting materials and routes of synthesis of isothiocyanates , and the temperature , pressure , ratio of raw materials was studied in detail . We also made the effect for the catalyst in this reaction , the influences of solvents on the reaction . Under catalytic conditions , to stage a way of industrial synthesis of allyl isothiocyanate , achieves better purification and reduce the cost of products of dual urpose .%烯丙基异硫氰酸酯是一种重要的有机合成中间体,在合成农药、医药等方面都有比较重要的用途,在土壤消毒方面也有应用。本文叙述了用不同起始原料,不同技术路线合成异硫氰酸酯的方法,并对温度、压力、配料比进行了细致的研究试验。特别研究了催化剂对反应的影响,探讨了溶剂对反应的影响。在催化条件下,以阶段升温的方式工业合成烯丙基异硫氰酯的方法,达到了纯化产品和降低成本的双重目的。

  14. Radical induction theory of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jay Pravda


    To propose a new pathogenesis called Radical Induction to explain the genesis and progression of ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is an inflammatory bowel disease. Colonic inflammation in UC is mediated by a buildup of white blood cells (WBCs) within the colonic mucosal lining; however,to date there is no answer for why WBCs initially enter the colonic mucosa to begin with. A new pathogenesis termed "Radical Induction Theory" is proposed to explain this and states that excess un-neutralized hydrogen peroxide, produced within colonic epithelial cells as a result of aberrant cellular metabolism, diffuses through cell membranes to the extracellular space where it is converted to the highly damaging hydroxyl radical resulting in oxidative damage to structures comprising the colonic epithelial barrier. Once damaged, the barrier is unable to exclude highly immunogenic fecal bacterial antigens from invading the normally sterile submucosa. This antigenic exposure provokes an initial immune response of WBC infiltration into the colonic mucosa. Once present in the mucosa,WBCs are stimulated to secrete toxins by direct exposure to fecal bacteria leading to mucosal ulceration and bloody diarrhea characteristic of this disease.

  15. Radical correction of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-qiang; WANG Zhong-gao; MENG Qing-you; SANG Hong-fei; QIAN Ai-min; DUAN Peng-fei; RONG Jian-jie


    Background Interventional therapy is widely accepted as the first choice for the treatment of the Budd-Chiari syndrome,but the use of radical correctional therapy should not be discarded. This study describes radical correction by controlling bleeding from distal end of pathological segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and discusses potential surgical errors and postoperative complications.Methods Of the 216 patients in the study, 78 were treated with simple membranectomy, 64 with dissection of the pathological segment of the IVC and vascular prosthesis or pericardial patch plasty, 60 with resection of the pathological segment of the IVC and orthotopic graft transplantation with vascular prosthesis, and 14 with resection of the occlusive main hepatic vein and its upper IVC, hepatic venous outflow plasty and vascular prosthesis orthotopic graft transplantation from the hepatic venous entrance to the IVC of right atrial ostium.Results Except 14 cases who were discharged after hepatic vein outflow plasty, four cases died postoperatively, and 198 patients were discharged without complications. The symptoms of 15 patients were relieved partially and 2 without any change. There were no deaths intraoperatively. Of the 112 cases who were followed up for 72 months, 13 suffered from a relapse.Conclusions Radical correction is a beneficial therapy in the treatment of Budd-Chiari syndrome.

  16. Removal of NOx by radical injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN He; GAO Xiang; LUO Zhongyang; CEN Kefa; PEI Meixiang; HUANG Zhen


    Removal of NOx ( DeNOx, NOx is the total of NO and NO2) from flue gas by radical injection has been investigated . The discharge characteristics were examined and the steady streamer corona was acquired by adjusting the nozzle gases properly. It was found that an increase in the voltage resulted in a decrease in the NO concentration and the concentration of the NO2 increased at low voltages but decreased as the voltage rose to a certain level. The DeNOx efficiency increased as the applied voltage rose and reached a maximum of 70% when the voltage approached the breakdown voltage. The hypothetical mechanism of NOx removal suggested that the radicals formed in the discharge process converted the NO and NO2 into acidic species. The Monte Carlo method was used to calculate the rate coefficients and the productivity of the radicals, and then the concentrations of both NO and NO2 and the DeNOx efficiencies were calculated with chemical kinetics. The calculated DeNOx efficiencies were comparable with the experimental DeNOx efficiencies at low voltages, but were lower at high voltages.

  17. Chemical Nonlinearities and Radical Pair Lifetime Estimation (United States)

    Robinson, Gregory


    Much attention has recently developed around chemical reactions that depend on applied static magnetic fields as weak as earth's. This interest is largely motivated by experiments that implicate the role of spin-selective radical pair recombination in biological magnetic sensing. Existing literature uses a straightforward calculation to approximate the expected lifetime of coherent radical pairs as a function of the minimum RF amplitude that is observed to disrupt magnetic navigation, apparently by decohering the radical pair via electronic Zeeman excitations. But we show that chemical nonlinearities can preclude direct computation of coherent pair lifetime without considering the cellular signalling mechanisms involved, and discuss whether it can explain the surprising fragility of some animals' compass sense. In particular, we demonstrate that an autocatalytic cycle can introduce threshold effects on the disruption sensitivity to applied oscillatory magnetic fields. We will show examples in the mean-field limit and consider the consequences of noise and fluctuations in the Freidlin-Wentzell picture of perturbed dynamical systems.

  18. Complications of Radical Cystectomy and Orthotopic Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen Tan


    Full Text Available Radical cystectomy and orthotopic reconstruction significant morbidity and mortality despite advances in minimal invasive and robotic technology. In this review, we will discuss early and late complications, as well as describe efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality, with a focus on ileal orthotopic bladder substitute (OBS. We summarise efforts to minimize morbidity and mortality including enhanced recovery as well as early and late complications seen after radical cystectomy and OBS. Centralisation of complex cancer services in the UK has led to a fall in mortality and high volume institutions have a significantly lower rate of 30-day mortality compared to low volume institutions. Enhanced recovery pathways have resulted in shorter length of hospital stay and potentially a reduction in morbidity. Early complications of radical cystectomy occur as a direct result of the surgery itself while late complications, which can occur even after 10 years after surgery, are due to urinary diversion. OBS represents the ideal urinary diversion for patients without contraindications. However, all patients with OBS should have regular long term follow-up for oncological surveillance and to identify complications should they arise.

  19. [Free radicals and hepatic ischemia-reperfusion]. (United States)

    Szijártó, Attila


    The critical importance of the ischemic-reperfusive injury is well documented with regards to numerous organs and clinical conditions. Oxygen free radicals play a central role in the mediation of the injury, which dominantly influences the prevalence of postoperative complications, (long term) organ damage, and the potential manifestation of systemic reactions. The both anatomically and pathophysiologically unique ischemic-reperfusive injury of the liver, which is expressively vulnerable to free radicals, is of utmost importance in liver surgery. Several techniques (adaptive maneuvers, chemical agents) are known to ameliorate the reperfusive injury. Based on the prior research of the workgroup of the author, the aim of the current article is to overview the set of measures capable of attenuating ischemic-reperfusive injury (ischemic preconditioning, -perconditioning, administration of adenosine, -inosine, -levosimendan, and -poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase inhibitor), with special attention to the ischemic-reperfusive injury of the liver, as well as the special pathophysiological role of free radicals in mediating hepatic damage.

  20. Generation and propagation of radical reactions on proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    The oxidation of proteins by free radicals is thought to play a major role in many oxidative processes within cells and is implicated in a number of human diseases as well as ageing. This review summarises information on the formation of radicals on peptides and proteins and how radical damage may...... be propagated and transferred within protein structures. The emphasis of this article is primarily on the deleterious actions of radicals generated on proteins, and their mechanisms of action, rather than on enzymatic systems where radicals are deliberately formed as transient intermediates. The final section...

  1. What is Radical Behaviorism? A Review of Jay Moore's Conceptual Foundations of Radical Behaviorism (United States)

    Baum, William M


    B. F. Skinner founded both radical behaviorism and behavior analysis. His founding innovations included: a versatile preparation for studying behavior; explicating the generic nature of stimulus and response; a pragmatic criterion for defining behavioral units; response rate as a datum; the concept of stimulus control; the concept of verbal behavior; and explicating the explanatory power of contingencies. Besides these achievements, however, Skinner also made some mistakes. Subsequent developments in radical behaviorist thought have attempted to remedy these mistakes. Moore's book presents a “party line” version of radical behaviorism. It focuses narrowly on a few of Skinner's concepts (mostly mentalism and verbal behavior) and contains no criticism of his mistakes. In fact, Moore adds a few mistakes of his own manufacture; for example, he insists that the mental realm does not exist—an unprovable and distracting assertion. The book's portrayal of behavior analysis would have been current around 1960; it mentions almost none of the developments since then. It also includes almost no developments in radical behaviorism since Skinner. Moore's book would give an unwary reader a highly distorted picture of contemporary behavior analysis and radical behaviorism.

  2. Growing up Radical: Investigation of Benzyl-Like Radicals with Increasing Chain Lengths (United States)

    Korn, Joseph A.; Jawad, Khadija M.; Hewett, Daniel M.; Zwier, Timothy S.


    Combustion processes involve complex chemistry including pathways leading to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from small molecule precursors. Resonance stabilized radicals (RSRs) likely play an important role in the pathways to PAHs due to their unusual stability. Benzyl radical is a prototypical RSR that is stabilized by conjugation with the phenyl ring. Earlier work on α-methyl benzyl radical showed perturbations to the spectroscopy due to a hindered methyl rotor. If the alkyl chain is lengthened then multiple conformations become possible. This talk will discuss the jet-cooled spectroscopy of α-ethyl benzyl radical and α-propyl benzyl radical produced from the discharge of 1-phenyl propanol and 1-phenyl butanol respectively. Electronic spectra were obtained via resonant two-photon ionization, and IR spectra were obtained by resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy. Kidwell, N. M.; Reilly, N. J.; Nebgen, B.; Mehta-Hurt, D. N.; Hoehn, R. D.; Kokkin, D. L.; McCarthy, M. C.; Slipchenko, L. V.; Zwier, T. S. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2013, 117, 13465.

  3. Covalently Bound Nitroxyl Radicals in an Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Barbara K.; Braunecker, Wade A.; Bobela, David C.; Nanayakkara, Sanjini U.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Johnson, Justin C.


    A series of covalent organic framework (COF) structures is synthesized that possesses a tunable density of covalently bound nitroxyl radicals within the COF pores. The highest density of organic radicals produces an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal that suggests the majority of radicals strongly interact with other radicals, whereas for smaller loadings the EPR signals indicate the radicals are primarily isolated but with restricted motion. The dielectric loss as determined from microwave absorption of the framework structures compared with an amorphous control suggests that free motion of the radicals is inhibited when more than 25% of available sites are occupied. The ability to tune the mode of radical interactions and the subsequent effect on redox, electrical, and optical characteristics in a porous framework may lead to a class of structures with properties ideal for photoelectrochemistry or energy storage.

  4. Crystallization experiments with the dinuclear chelate ring complex di-μ-chlorido-bis[(η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))platinum(II)]. (United States)

    Nguyen Thi Thanh, Chi; Pham Van, Thong; Le Thi Hong, Hai; Van Meervelt, Luc


    Crystallization experiments with the dinuclear chelate ring complex di-μ-chlorido-bis[(η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))platinum(II)], [Pt2(C15H19O4)2Cl2], containing a derivative of the natural compound eugenol as ligand, have been performed. Using five different sets of crystallization conditions resulted in four different complexes which can be further used as starting compounds for the synthesis of Pt complexes with promising anticancer activities. In the case of vapour diffusion with the binary chloroform-diethyl ether or methylene chloride-diethyl ether systems, no change of the molecular structure was observed. Using evaporation from acetonitrile (at room temperature), dimethylformamide (DMF, at 313 K) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, at 313 K), however, resulted in the displacement of a chloride ligand by the solvent, giving, respectively, the mononuclear complexes (acetonitrile-κN)(η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))chloridoplatinum(II) monohydrate, [Pt(C15H19O4)Cl(CH3CN)]·H2O, (η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))chlorido(dimethylformamide-κO)platinum(II), [Pt(C15H19O4)Cl(C2H7NO)], and (η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)platinum(II), determined as the analogue {η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-[(ethoxycarbonyl)methoxy]phenyl-κC(1)}chlorido(dimethyl sulfoxide-κS)platinum(II), [Pt(C14H17O4)Cl(C2H6OS)]. The crystal structures confirm that acetonitrile interacts with the Pt(II) atom via its N atom, while for DMSO, the S atom is the coordinating atom. For the replacement, the longest of the two Pt-Cl bonds is cleaved, leading to a cis position of the solvent ligand with respect to the allyl group. The crystal packing of the complexes is characterized by dimer formation via C-H...O and C-H...π interactions, but no π-π interactions are observed despite the presence of

  5. Even free radicals should follow some rules: a guide to free radical research terminology and methodology. (United States)

    Forman, Henry Jay; Augusto, Ohara; Brigelius-Flohe, Regina; Dennery, Phyllis A; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Mann, Giovanni E; Radi, Rafael; Roberts, L Jackson; Vina, Jose; Davies, Kelvin J A


    Free radicals and oxidants are now implicated in physiological responses and in several diseases. Given the wide range of expertise of free radical researchers, application of the greater understanding of chemistry has not been uniformly applied to biological studies. We suggest that some widely used methodologies and terminologies hamper progress and need to be addressed. We make the case for abandonment and judicious use of several methods and terms and suggest practical and viable alternatives. These changes are suggested in four areas: use of fluorescent dyes to identify and quantify reactive species, methods for measurement of lipid peroxidation in complex biological systems, claims of antioxidants as radical scavengers, and use of the terms for reactive species.

  6. O Behaviorismo Radical como filosofia da mente Radical Behaviorism as philosophy of mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Lopes


    Full Text Available O Behaviorismo Radical de B. F. Skinner é constantemente acusado de eliminar a mente de sua explicação do comportamento humano. Uma análise do livro The Concept of Mind, de Gilbert Ryle, sugere a possibilidade de defender a existência de uma mente relacional, diferente da categoria de existência da mente defendida em interpretações cartesianas (mente substancial. A análise de alguns textos de Skinner sugere que o conceito de uma mente relacional também pode ser defendido no Behaviorismo Radical. Esse fato, culminaria na possibilidade de que, além de filosofia da Ciência do Comportamento, o Behaviorismo Radical, também pode ser uma filosofia da mente, o que traria conseqüências ao estudo e à aplicação da Análise do Comportamento.B. F. Skinner's Radical Behaviorism has been repeatedly accused of eliminating the mind from its explanation of human behavior. An analysis of Gilbert Ryle's book, The Concept of Mind, suggests the possibility of defending the existence of a relational mind, different from the category of existence of mind defended in Cartesian interpretations (substantial mind. The analysis of some texts of Skinner suggests that the concept of a relational mind can also be defended in Radical Behaviorism. This fact would lead to the possibility that, beyond a philosophy of Behavior Science, Radical Behaviorism may also be a philosophy of mind, which would bring consequences to the study and application of Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Nerve plane-sparing radical hysterectomy: a simplified technique of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for invasive cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; LI Wei; SUN Yang-chun; ZHANG Rong; ZHANG Gong-yi; YU Gao-zhi; WU Ling-ying


    Background In order to simplify the complicated procedure of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy, a novel technique characterized by integral preservation of the autonomic nerve plane has been employed for invasive cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to introduce the nerve plane-sparing radical hysterectomy technique and compare its efficacy and safety with that of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy.Methods From September 2006 to August 2010, 73 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB to IIA cervical cancer underwent radical hysterectomy with two different nerve-sparing approaches. Nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy was performed for the first 16 patients (nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy group). The detailed autonomic nerve structures were identified and separated by meticulous dissection during this procedure. After January 2008, the nerve plane-sparing radical hysterectomy procedure was developed and performed for the next 57 patients (nerve plane-sparing radical hysterectomy group). During this modified procedure, the nerve plane (meso-ureter and its extension) containing most of the autonomic nerve structures was integrally preserved. The patients' clinicopathologic characteristics, surgical parameters, and outcomes of postoperative bladder function were compared between the two groups.Conclusion Nerve plane-sparing radical hysterectomy Is a reproducible and simplified modification of nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy, and may be preferable to nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy for treatment of early-stage invasive cervical cancer.

  8. Formation of long-lived radicals on proteins by radical transfer from heme enzymes--a common process?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostdal, H; Andersen, H J; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    albumin, indicating that the tertiary structure of the target protein plays an important role in determining the rate of radical transfer and/or the stability of the resultant species. These results are consistent with a mechanism for the HRP/H2O2/no free tyrosine system involving radical transfer...... to the albumin via the heme edge of the peroxidase. In contrast, albumin radical formation by the HRP/H2O2/free tyrosine system was only marginally affected by proteolysis, consistent with free tyrosine phenoxyl radicals being the mediators of radical transfer, without significant protein-protein interaction......Incubation of Fe(III)myoglobin (Fe(III)Mb) with H2O2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been shown previously to give albumin-derived radicals as a result of radical transfer from myoglobin to BSA. In this study the occurrence of similar processes with peroxidases has been...

  9. Spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes in superfluid helium nano-droplets

    CERN Document Server

    K"upper, J; K\\"upper, Jochen; Merritt, Jeremy M.


    The spectroscopy of free radicals and radical containing entrance-channel complexes embedded in superfluid helium nano-droplets is reviewed. The collection of dopants inside individual droplets in the beam represents a micro-canonical ensemble, and as such each droplet may be considered an isolated cryo-reactor. The unique properties of the droplets, namely their low temperature (0.4 K) and fast cooling rates ($\\sim10^{16}$ K s$^{-1}$) provides novel opportunities for the formation and high-resolution studies of molecular complexes containing one or more free radicals. The production methods of radicals are discussed in light of their applicability for embedding the radicals in helium droplets. The spectroscopic studies performed to date on molecular radicals and on entrance / exit-channel complexes of radicals with stable molecules are detailed. The observed complexes provide new information on the potential energy surfaces of several fundamental chemical reactions and on the intermolecular interactions pres...

  10. Core functionalization of semi-crystalline polymeric cylindrical nanoparticles using photo-initiated thiol–ene radical reactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Further methods, polymer and nanostructure characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5py01970b Click here for additional data file. (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Thomas, Anthony W.; Inam, Maria; Doncom, Kay


    Sequential ring-opening and reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was used to form a triblock copolymer of tetrahydropyran acrylate (THPA), 5-methyl-5-allyloxycarbonyl-1,3-dioxan-2-one (MAC) and l-lactide. Concurrent deprotection of the THPA block and crystallization-driven self-assembly (CDSA) was undertaken and allowed for the formation of cylindrical micelles bearing allyl handles in a short outer core segment. These handles were further functionalized by different thiols using photo-initiated thiol–ene radical reactions to demonstrate that the incorporation of an amorphous PMAC block within the core does not disrupt CDSA and can be used to load the cylindrical nanoparticles with cargo. PMID:27478513

  11. Mixed views about radical life extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Alvarez


    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies on public attitudes toward life extension technologies show a mix of ambivalence toward and support for extending the human lifespan (Partridge 2009; Dragojlovic 2013; Funk et al. 2013. Attitudes toward genetic modification of organisms and technological enhancements may be used to categorize individuals according to political or ideological orientation such as technoprogressive or conservative (Hughes 2010 and it could be easy to assume that these categories are related to more general categorizations related to culture, e.g. between Traditional and Secular-rational values in the World Values Survey (Ingelhart & Welzel 2010. This paper discusses how attitudes toward aspects of radical life extension may be related to cultural values as revealed in an online deliberative survey among university students conducted between January 2012 to January 2013. Survey results suggest that attitudes toward radical life extension tend to be mixed among groups categorized as Traditional, Secular-rational, Survivalist, and Self-expressionist. The study explored the relation between responses of 326 university students to 5 key questions on radical life extension (RLE and the cultural values they tend to favor as indicated by their response to 20 statements from the World Values Survey. Design and Method: The survey consisted of 3 stages: an online pre-discussion survey, face-to-face discussion, and post-discussion survey. After completing the 5 main survey questions in stage 1, participants were presented two additional questionnaires: one on cultural attitudes using 20 statements from the 2004-2008 World Values Survey (WVS and another on health attitudes with 12 statements from Dutta-Bergman’s 2004 study. In stage 2, participants were engaged in a face-to-face discussion in class focusing on their responses to the five key questions. After the discussion, they were invited to reconsider the choices and reasons they posted in stage

  12. Isoprene, sulphoxy radical-anions and acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Rudziński


    Full Text Available Transformation of isoprene coupled with autoxidation of SIV in aqueous solutions was studied experimentally and by chemical-kinetic modelling over broad range of solution acidities (pH=3–9 to complement the research on aqueous-phase and heterogeneous transformation of isoprene reported recently by many laboratories. Isoprene significantly slowed down the autoxidation in acidic and basic solutions, and accelerated it slightly in neutral solutions. Simultaneously, production of sulphate ions and formation of solution acidity were significantly reduced. Formation of sulphite and sulphate derivatives of isoprene – sulphurous acid mono-(2-methyl-4-oxo-but-2-enyl ester (m/z=162.9, sulphurous acid mono-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl ester (m/z=164.9, sulphuric acid mono-(2-methyl-4-oxo-but-2-enyl ester (m/z=178.9, sulphuric acid mono-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-but-2-enyl ester (m/z=180.9 – was indicated by mass spectroscopic analysis of post-reaction mixtures. The results of experiments were explained by changes in a subtle quantitative balance of three superimposed processes whose rates depended in different manner on the acidity of reacting solutions – the scavenging of sulphoxy radicals by isoprene, the formation of sulphoxy radicals during further reactions of isoprene radicals, and the autoxidation of SIV itself. A chemical mechanism based on this idea was explored numerically to show good agreement with experimental data. Interaction of isoprene with sulphur(IV species and oxygen can possibly result in formation of new organosulphate components of atmospheric aerosols and waters, and influence distribution of reactive sulphur and oxygen species in isoprene-emitting organisms exposed to SIV pollutants.

  13. Radical Nature of C-Lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berstis, Laura; Elder, Thomas; Crowley, Michael; Beckham, Gregg T.


    The recently discovered lignin composed of caffeoyl alcohol monolignols or C-lignin is particularly intriguing given its homogeneous, linear polymeric structure and exclusive benzodioxane linkage between monomers. By virtue of this simplified chemistry, the potential emerges for improved valorization strategies with C-lignin relative to other natural heterogeneous lignins. To better understand caffeoyl alcohol polymers, we characterize the thermodynamics of the radical recombination dimerization reactions forming the benzodioxane linkage and the bond dissociation into radical monolignol products. These properties are also predicted for the cross-coupling of caffeoyl alcohol with the natural monolignols, coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and p-coumaryl alcohol, in anticipation of polymers potentially enabled by genetic modification. The average BDEs for the C-lignin benzodioxane ..alpha..- and ..beta..-bonds are 56.5 and 63.4 kcal/mol, respectively, with similar enthalpies for heterodimers. The BDE of the ..alpha..-bond within the benzodioxane linkage is consistently greater than that of the ..beta..-bond in all dimers of each stereochemical arrangement, explained by the ability the ..alpha..-carbon radical generated to delocalize onto the adjacent phenyl ring. Relative thermodynamics of the heterodimers demonstrates that the substituents on the phenyl ring directly neighboring the bond coupling the monolignols more strongly impact the dimer bond strengths and product stability, compared to the substituents present on the terminal phenyl ring. Enthalpy comparisons furthermore demonstrate that the erythro stereochemical configurations of the benzodioxane bond are slightly less thermodynamically stable than the threo configurations. The overall differences in strength of bonds and reaction enthalpies between stereoisomers are generally found to be insignificant, supporting that postcoupling rearomatization is under kinetic control. Projecting the lowest

  14. Radicals in {gamma}-irradiated wool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeva, N.N.; Sadova, S.F.; Sharpatyi, V.A.


    Radicals were identified in wool fiber {gamma}-irradiated at 77 K by EPR: products of reaction of an electron e and H atom with amino acid residues and a polypeptide chain, and their partial yields at 77 K and the reactivity scale of e with respect to the individual fragments of the protein molecule were determined: [RSSR]: [>C=O{sub p.b.}]:[NH{sub 3}{sup +}-R]:[aromatic ring] = 4:3: > 1:1. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Histopathologic Outcomes of Robotic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul R. Patel


    Full Text Available Robotically assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is a minimally invasive alternative for the treatment of prostate cancer. We report the histopathologic and shortterm PSA outcomes of 500 robotic radical prostatectomies. Five hundred patients underwent robotic radical prostatectomy. The procedure was performed via a six trocar transperitoneal technique. Prostatectomy specimens were analyzed for TNM stage, Gleason’s grade, tumor location, volume, specimen weight, seminal vesicle involvement, and margin status. A positive margin was reported if cancer cells were found at the inked specimen margin. PSA data were collected every 3 months for the first year, then every 6 months for a year, then yearly. The average preoperative PSA was 6.9 (1–90 with Gleason’s score of 5 (2%, 6 (52%, 7 (40%, 8 (4%, and 9 (2%; postoperatively, histopathologic analysis showed Gleason's 6 (44%, 7 (42%, 8 (10%, and 9 (4%; 10, 5, 63, 15, 5, and 2% had pathologic stage T2a, T2b, T2c, T3a, T3b, and T4, respectively. Positive margin rate was 9.4% for the entire series. The positive margin rate per 100 cases was: 13% (1–100, 8% (101–200, 13% (201–300, 5% (301–400, and 8% (401–500. By stage, it was 2, 4, and 2.5% for T2a, T2b, T2c tumors; 23% (T3a, 46% (T3b, and 53% (T4a. For organ-confined disease (T2, the margin rate was 2.5% and it was 31% for nonorgan-confined disease. There were a total of 47 positive margins, 26 (56% posterolateral, 4 (8.5% apical, 4 (8.5% bladder neck, 2 (4% seminal vesicle, and 11 (23% multifocal. Ninety-five percent of patients (n = 500 have undetectable PSA (<0.1 at average follow-up of 9.7 months. Recurrence has only been seen with nonorgan-confined tumors. Of those patients with a minimum follow-up of 1 year (average 15.7 months, 95% have undetectable PSA (<0.1. Our initial experience with robotic radical prostatectomy is promising. Histopathologic outcomes are acceptable with a low overall, positive margin rate. Shortterm

  16. Key contributors: Ernst von Glasersfeld's radical constructivism (United States)

    Tobin, Kenneth


    This article reviews the significance of the contributions of Ernst von Glasersfeld to research in science education, especially through his theoretical contributions on radical constructivism. As a field shaper, Glasersfeld's subversive ideas catalyzed debate in the science education community and fuelled transformation of many facets including research methods, ways of thinking about teaching and learning, curriculum, and science teacher education. Perturbations emanating from the debates on constructivism forged new pathways that led to the development and use of many of the sociocultural frameworks employed by authors in Cultural Studies of Science Education.

  17. Rehabilitation of erectile function following radical prostatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew R. McCullough


    The concept of muscle rehabilitation after nerve injury is not a novel idea and is practiced in many branches of medicine, including urology. Bladder rehabilitation after spinal cord injury is universally practiced. The erectile dysfunction (ED) experienced after radical prostatectomy (RP) is increasingly recognized as being primarily neurogenic followed by secondary penile smooth muscle (SM) changes. There is unfortunately no standard approach to penile rehabilitation after RP because controlled prospective human studies are not available. This article reviews the epidemiology, experimental pathophysiological models, rationale for penile rehabilitation, and currently published rehabilitation strategies.


    Al'-Shukri, S Kh; Ananiĭ, I A; Amdiĭ, R E; Kuz'min, I V


    The authors showed the result of complication treatment of lower urinary tracts in 128 patients with localized prostate cancer. The patients underwent radical prostatectomy. Urinary discomforts included enuresis, urinary incontinence in postoperative period. Abnormalities of urine outflow due to urethral stricture were revealed in 6 (4,6%) patients by the 6 month after operation. These complications required surgical treatment. Urinary incontinence was noted in 20 (15,6%) patients in this period. It was stressful urinary incontinence in 16 (12,6%) and urgent - in 4 (3%). Patents with stressful urinary difficulty were advised to use the conservative treatment (pelvic floor muscle training and electrostimulation), but in case of inefficiency - surgical treatment.

  19. Autoethnographic Mother-Writing: Advocating Radical Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patty Sotirin


    Full Text Available In considering the similarities between "momoirs"--popular memoirs written by mothers about motherhood experiences--and evocative autoethnographic mother-writing, I argue that differentiating these two forms of intimate observation and personal narrative requires a rethinking of autoethnographic practice. Specifically, I draw on the work of Gilles Deleuze to advocate for a radical specificity in autoethnographic writing. Thinking the autoethnographic narrative in terms of specificities and differences encourages us to think creatively about personal experiences and cultural relations beyond what is shared and communicable.

  20. Metal-Diazo Radicals of α-Carbonyl Diazomethanes (United States)

    Li, Feifei; Xiao, Longqiang; Liu, Lijian


    Metal-diazo radicals of α-carbonyl diazomethanes are new members of the radical family and are precursors to metal-carbene radicals. Herein, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with spin-trapping, we detect diazo radicals of α-carbonyl diazomethanes, induced by [RhICl(cod)]2, [CoII(por)] and PdCl2, at room temperature. The unique quintet signal of the Rh-diazo radical was observed in measurements of α-carbonyl diazomethane adducts of [RhICl(cod)]2 in the presence of 5,5-dimethyl-pyrroline-1-N-oxide (DMPO). DFT calculations indicated that 97.2% of spin density is localized on the diazo moiety. Co- and Pd-diazo radicals are EPR silent but were captured by DMPO to form spin adducts of DMPO-N• (triplet-of-sextets signal). The spin-trapping also provides a powerful tool for detection of metal-carbene radicals, as evidenced by the DMPO-trapped carbene radicals (DMPO-C•, sextet signal) and 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane-carbene adducts (MNP-C•, doublet-of-triplets signal). The transformation of α-carbonyl diazomethanes to metal-carbene radicals was confirmed to be a two-step process via metal-diazo radicals.