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Sample records for alluvium

  1. Craton-derived alluvium as a major sediment source in the Himalayan Foreland Basin of India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Kettanah, Y.; Gibling, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    of the Bundelkhand Complex. Along the Yamuna Valley the red alluvium is overlain by gray alluvium dated at 82–35 ka ago, which also yields a cratonic signature, with large amounts of smectite derived from the Deccan Traps. Cratonic contributions are evident in alluvium as young as 9 ka ago in a section 25 km north...

  2. Intermediate depth burial of classified transuranic wastes in arid alluvium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Di Sanza, F.

    1999-01-01

    Intermediate depth disposal operations were conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1984 through 1989. These operations emplaced high-specific activity low-level wastes (LLW) and limited quantities of classified transuranic (TRU) wastes in 37 m (120-ft) deep, Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes. The GCD boreholes are 3 m (10 ft) in diameter and founded in a thick sequence of arid alluvium. The bottom 15 m (50 ft) of each borehole was used for waste emplacement and the upper 21 m (70 ft) was backfilled with native alluvium. The bottom of each GCD borehole is almost 200 m (650 ft) above the water table. The GCD boreholes are located in one of the most arid portions of the US, with an average precipitation of 13 cm (5 inches) per year. The limited precipitation, coupled with generally warm temperatures and low humidities results in a hydrologic system dominated by evapotranspiration. The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) 40 CFR 191 defines the requirements for protection of human health from disposed TRU wastes. This EPA standard sets a number of requirements, including probabilistic limits on the cumulative releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment for 10,000 years. The DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) has contracted with Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) to conduct a performance assessment (PA) to determine if the TRU wastes emplaced in the GCD boreholes complies with the EPA's 40 CFR 191 requirements. This paper describes DOE's actions undertaken to evaluate whether the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes will, or will not, endanger human health. Based on preliminary modeling, the TRU wastes in the GCD boreholes meet the EPA's requirements, and are, therefore, protective of human health

  3. Results and assessment of uranium series dating of vertebrate fossils from Quaternary alluvium in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    An average uranium-series age of 102,000 ± 14,000 yr for bones from Louviers Alluvium, near Denver, Colorado, is compatible with the inferred geologic age of from 120,000 to 150,000 yr. A uranium-series date of about 190,000 yr for a bone from Slocum Alluvium, near Canon City, Colorado, is consistent with the inferred geologic age of from 150,000 to 260,000 yr. Age determinations for the Broadway Alluvium are inconsistent but its geologic age is considered to be 15,000 to 30,000 yr BP.

  4. Hydrogeology and water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium, Concho Reserve, Canadian County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A growing user population within the Concho Reserve in Canadian County, Oklahoma, has increased the need for drinking water. The North Canadian River alluvium is a reliable source of ground water for agriculture, industry, and cities in Canadian County and is the only ground-water source capable of meeting large demands. This study was undertaken to collect and analyze data to describe the hydrogeology and ground-water quality of the North Canadian River alluvium within the Concho Reserve. The alluvium forms a band about 2 miles long and 0.5 mile wide along the southern edge of the Concho Reserve. Thickness of the alluvium ranges from 19 to 75 feet thick and averages about 45 feet in the study area. Well cuttings and natural gamma-ray logs indicate the alluvium consists of interfingering lenses of clay, silt, and sand. The increase of coarse-grained sand and the decrease of clay and silt with depth suggests that the water-bearing properties of the aquifer within the study area improve with depth. A clay layer in the upper part of the aquifer may be partially responsible for surface water ponding in low areas after above normal precipitation and may delay the infiltration of potentially contaminated water from land surface. Specific conductance measurements indicate the ground-water quality improves in a northern direction towards the terrace. Water-quality properties, bacteria counts, major ion and nutrient concentrations, trace-element and radionuclide concentrations, and organic compound concentrations were measured in one ground-water sample at the southern edge of the Concho Reserve and comply with the primary drinking-water standards. Measured concentrations of iron, manganese, sulfate, and total dissolved solids exceed the secondary maximum contaminant levels set for drinking water. The ground water is a calcium sulfate bicarbonate type and is considered very hard, with a hardness of 570 milligrams per liter as calcium carbonate.

  5. Estimates of ambient groundwater velocity in the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain from single-well tracer tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.; Umari, M.J.; Roback, R.; Earle, John; Darnell, Jon; Farnham, Irene

    2002-01-01

    The saturated alluvium located south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada is expected to serve as the final barrier to radionuclide transport from the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The alluvium will act as a barrier if radionuclides breach the engineered barriers in the repository, move through the unsaturated zone beneath the repository to the water table, and then migrate through saturated volcanic tuffs to the alluvium. Three single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests were conducted between December 2000 and April 2001 in the saturated alluviuni at NC-EWDP-19D1, a Nye County-Early Warning Drilling Program well located about 18 km south of Yucca Mountain. The tests had the objectives of (1) distinguishing between a single- and a dual-porosity conceptual radionuclide transport model for the alluvium, and (2) obtaining estimates of ambient groundwater velocity in the alluvium.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M.; Reed, A.W.

    1979-08-01

    The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here

  7. Distribution of moisture, tritium, and plutonium in the alluvium, aquifer, and underlying tuff in Mortandad Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Maes, M.N.; Peters, R.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the distribution of moisture, tritium, and plutonium in the Mortandad Canyon aquifer indicates some infiltration of water into the underlying tuff. This infiltration was accompanied by similar movement of tritium. The concentrations of plutonium on the sediments in the aquifer were low when compared with the high concentrations in solution in an ionic complex that does not readily exchange or is adsorbed by clay minerals in the alluvium. 2 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  8. Modeling the transport and fate of radioactive noble gases in very dry desert alluvium: Realistic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Donahue, M.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    US DOE Order 5820.2A (1988) requires that a performance assessment of all new and existing low-level radioactive waste management sites be made. An integral part of every performance assessment is the mathematical modeling of the transport and fate of noble gas radionuclides in the gas phase. Current in depth site characterization of the high desert alluvium in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is showing that the alluvium is very very dry all the way to the water table (240 meters below land surface). The potential for radioactive noble gas (e.g. Rn-220 and Rn-222) transport to the atmosphere from shallow land burial of Thorium and Uranium waste is very high. Objectives of this modeling effort include: Construct a physics based sits specific noble gas transport model; Include induced advection due to barometric pressure changes at the atmospheric boundary layer (thin) - dry desert alluvium interface; User selected option for use of NOAA barometric pressure or a ''home brewed'' barometric pressure wave made up of up to 15 sinusoids and cosinusoids; Use the model to help make engineering decisions on the design of the burial pits and associated closure caps

  9. Characterization of hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium and basin fill, Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeroth, Cory E.

    2002-01-01

    Acidic waters containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals have contaminated the regional aquifer in the Pinal Creek Basin, which is in Gila County, Arizona, about 100 kilometers east of Phoenix. The aquifer is made up of two geologic units: unconsolidated stream alluvium and consolidated basin fill. To better understand how contaminants are transported through these units, a better understanding of the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and processes that affect it within the aquifer is needed. Slug tests were done in September 1997 and October 1998 on 9 wells finished in the basin fill and 14 wells finished in the stream alluvium. Data from the tests were analyzed by using either the Bouwer and Rice (1976) method, or by using an extension to the method developed by Springer and Gellhar (1991). Both methods are applicable for unconfined aquifers and partially penetrating wells. The results of the analyses show wide variability within and between the two geologic units. Hydraulic conductivity estimates ranged from 0.5 to 250 meters per day for the basin fill and from 3 to 200 meters per day for the stream alluvium. Results of the slug tests also show a correlation coefficient of 0.83 between the hydraulic conductivity and the pH of the ground water. The areas of highest hydraulic conductivity coincide with the areas of lowest pH, and the areas of lowest hydraulic conductivity coincide with the areas of highest pH, suggesting that the acidic water is increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by dissolution of carbonate minerals.

  10. A field- and laboratory-based quantitative analysis of alluvium: Relating analytical results to TIMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, Melissa L.; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired over the McDowell Mountains northeast of Scottsdale, Arizona during August 1994. The raw data were processed to emphasize lithologic differences using a decorrelation stretch and assigning bands 5, 3, and 1 to red, green, and blue, respectively. Processed data of alluvium flanking the mountains exhibit moderate color variation. The objective of this study was to determine, using a quantitative approach, what environmental variable(s), in the absence of bedrock, is/are responsible for influencing the spectral properties of the desert alluvial surface.

  11. Bacterial community in ancient permafrost alluvium at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouchkov, Anatoli; Kabilov, Marsel; Filippova, Svetlana; Baturina, Olga; Rogov, Victor; Galchenko, Valery; Mulyukin, Andrey; Fursova, Oksana; Pogorelko, Gennady

    2017-12-15

    Permanently frozen (approx. 3.5Ma) alluvial Neogene sediments exposed in the Aldan river valley at the Mammoth Mountain (Eastern Siberia) are unique, ancient, and poorly studied permafrost environments. So far, the structure of the indigenous bacterial community has remained unknown. Use of 16S metagenomic analysis with total DNA isolation using DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MO-Bio) and QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen) has revealed the major and minor bacterial lineages in the permafrost alluvium sediments. In sum, 61 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) with 31,239 reads (Qiagen kit) and 15,404 reads (Mo-Bio kit) could be assigned to the known taxa. Only three phyla, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, comprised >5% of the OTUs abundance and accounted for 99% of the total reads. OTUs pertaining to the top families (Chitinophagaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Bradyrhizobiaceae, Halomonadaceae) held >90% of reads. The abundance of Actinobacteria was less (0.7%), whereas members of other phyla (Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria/Chloroplast, Fusobacteria, and Acidobacteria) constituted a minor fraction of reads. The bacterial community in the studied ancient alluvium differs from other permafrost sediments, mainly by predominance of Bacteroidetes (>52%). The diversity of this preserved bacterial community has the potential to cause effects unknown if prompted to thaw and spread with changing climate. Therefore, this study elicits further reason to study how reintroduction of these ancient bacteria could affect the surrounding ecosystem, including current bacterial species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of dissolved oxygen and organic substances concentrations in water of the nature reserve Alluvium Zitavy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaticka, A.; Noskovic, J.; Babosova, M.

    2007-01-01

    In 2006 concentrations of dissolved oxygen and organic substances were evaluated in water in the Nature Reserve Alluvium Zitavy (indirect method based on their oxidation by K 2 Cr 2 0 7 was used). The results are represented in mg of O 2 · dm -3 . Taking of samples took place in 6 sampling sites in regular month intervals. Based on obtained data and according to the standard STN 75 7221 (Water quality -The classification of the water surface quality) water in individual sampling sites was ranked into the classes of the .water surface quality. From the data it is clear that the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and organic substances in the Nature Reserve Alluvium Zitavy changed in dependence on sampling sites and time. The highest mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen in dependence on sampling time were found out in spring months and the lowest concentrations in summer months. They ranged from 1.6 mg 0 2 · dm -3 (July) to 9.0 mg O 2 · dm -3 (March). Falling dissolved oxygen values can be related to successive increase of water temperature, thus good conditions were created for decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms in water and sediments in which they use dissolved oxygen. In dependence on sampling place the highest mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was in sampling site No. 4 (6.0 mg 0 2 · dm -3 ) which is situated in the narrowest place in the NR. The lowest value was in sampling site No. 2 (3.6 mg 0 2 · dm -3 ) which is a typical wetland ecosystem. High mean values of COD Cr in dependence on sampling time were determined in summer months and low values during winter moths. Dependence of COD Cr values on sampling site was also manifested. The lowest mean value was obtained in sampling site No. 4 (59.5 mg · dm -3 ) and the highest value in sampling site No. 5 (97.1 mg · dm -3 ) which is also a typical wetland. Based on the results and according to the STN 75 7221 we ranked water in all sampling sites into the 5 th class of the water

  13. Groundwater Modeling and Sustainability of a Transboundary Hardrock–Alluvium Aquifer in North Oman Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizallah Izady

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at modeling groundwater flow using MODFLOW in a transboundary hardrock–alluvium aquifer, located in northwestern Oman. A three-dimensional stratigraphic model of the study area representing the vertical and spatial extent of four principal hydro-geologic units (specifically, the Hawasina, ophiolite, Tertiary and alluvium was generated using data collected from hundreds drilled borehole logs. Layer elevations and materials for four layers grid cells were taken from the generated stratigraphic model in which the materials and elevations were inherited from the stratigraphic model that encompasses the cell. This process led to accurate grid so that the developed groundwater conceptual model was mapped to simulate the groundwater flow and to estimate groundwater balance components and sustainable groundwater extraction for the October 1996 to September 2013 period. Results show that the long-term lateral groundwater flux ranging from 4.23 to 11.69 Mm3/year, with an average of 5.67 Mm3/year, drains from the fractured eastern ophiolite mountains into the alluvial zone. Moreover, the long-term regional groundwater sustainable groundwater extraction is 18.09 Mm3/year for 17 years, while it is, respectively, estimated as 14.51, 16.31, and 36.00 Mm3/year for dry, normal, and wet climate periods based on standardized precipitation index (SPI climate condition. Considering a total difference in groundwater levels between eastern and western points of the study area on the order of 228 m and a 12-year monthly calibration period (October 1996 to September 2008, a root mean squared error (RMSE in predicted groundwater elevation of 2.71 m is considered reasonable for the study area characterized by remarkable geological and hydrogeological diversity. A quantitative assessment of the groundwater balance components and particularly sustainable groundwater extraction for the different hydrological period would help decision makers to better

  14. Interaction between aeschynomene spp and rhizobiaceae strains from soils degraded by alluvium mining process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orozco, F H; Medina M; Restrepo, L R; Cuartas, A M

    2001-01-01

    The interaction between isolated bacterial from indigenous legumes of degraded soils by alluvium mining process and different species of aeschynomene was evaluated under nursery conditions. An essay was made in material from mining zone and the experimental design was random blocks with 21 treatment and four repetitions. The results were measured by dry weight of biomass and nodules, foliar nitrogen contains and percentage of occupation in the nodules by strains evaluated. In general terms, evaluated plants showed high specificity by the treatments. Specie of A. Americana was the best, because of its precocity and high production of biomass and nitrogen. Both types of A. falcata responded well to an isolated of rhizobium, while A. americana and A. villosa were better with strains of bradyrhizobium. Nitrogen concentration in all species of aeschynomene was very different. A. villosa presented higher concentration (28-34 9 kg - 1). We found a significant correlation for dry weight between nodules and biomass (r 0.82-0.93 P<0.001). We also found important difference among size of nodules of the species evaluated; it was independent of inoculated strain

  15. Accumulation of iron and arsenic in the Chandina alluvium of the lower delta plain, Southeastern Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, A.; Hassan, M.Q.; Breit, G.N.; Balke, K.-D.; Flegr, M.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulations of iron, manganese, and arsenic occur in the Chandina alluvium of southeastern Bangladesh within 2.5 m of the ground surface. These distinctive orange-brown horizons are subhorizontal and consistently occur within 1 m of the contact of the aerated (yellow-brown) and water-saturated (gray) sediment. Ferric oxyhydroxide precipitates that define the horizons form by oxidation of reduced iron in pore waters near the top of the saturated zone when exposed to air in the unsaturated sediment. Hydrous Fe-oxide has a high specific surface area and thus a high adsorption capacity that absorbs the bulk of arsenic also present in the reduced pore water, resulting in accumulations containing as much as 280 ppm arsenic. The steep redox gradient that characterizes the transition of saturated and unsaturated sediment also favors accumulation of manganese oxides in the oxidized sediment. Anomalous concentrations of phosphate and molybdenum also detected in the ferric oxyhydroxide-enriched sediment are attributed to sorption processes. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  16. Spatial variability in alluvium properties at a low-level nuclear waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Istok, J.D.; Blout, D.O.; Barker, L.; Johnejack, K.R.; Hammermeister, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Geological and statistical models for the spatial variability of soil properties are needed to predict field-scale water flow and solute transport but only limited information is currently available on unsaturated soils below the root zone. Spatial variability of selected physical and hydrologic properties was quantified for fine- and coarse-grained alluvial deposits at a low-level nuclear waste disposal site on the Nevada Test Site. Gravimetric water content (w), bulk density (ρ b ), saturated hydraulic conductivity (K a ), and particle-size distribution were determined for vertical and horizontal core specimens and bulk samples collected from 183-m-long horizontal transects in two existing waste disposal trenches located on a single alluvial fan. The transects were approximately aligned parallel and perpendicular to the principal direction of sediment transport. Properties were modeled as either normally or lognormally distributed random variables. Sample coefficients of variation were smallest for ρ b and largest for log(K a ); a weak correlation was identified between log(K a ) and the grain-size parameter d 10 . Particle-size distributions for the fine- and coarse-grained materials were different and significant differences in the natural logarithm of saturated hydraulic conductivity, log(K a ), existed between coarse and fine layers in an excavation aligned with the principal direction of alluvium deposition but not in a perpendicular direction. 37 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  17. CMI Remedy Selection for HE- and Barium-Contaminated Vadose Zone and Alluvium at LANL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickmott, D.; Reid, K.; Pietz, J.; Ware, D.

    2008-12-01

    A high explosives (HE) machining building outfall at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Technical Area 16 discharged millions of gallons of HE- and barium-contaminated water into the Canon de Valle watershed. The effluent contaminated surface soils, the alluvial aquifer, vadose zone waters, and deep-perched and regional groundwaters with HE and barium, frequently at levels greater than regulatory standards. Site characterization studies began in 1995 and included extensive monitoring of surface water, groundwater, soils, and subsurface solid media. Hydrogeologic and geophysical studies were conducted to help understand contaminant transport mechanisms and pathways. Results from the characterization studies were used to develop a site conceptual model. In 2000 the principal source area was removed. The ongoing Corrective Measure Study (CMS) and Corrective Measure Implementation (CMI) focus on residual vadose zone contamination and on the contaminated alluvial system. Regulators recently selected a CMI remedy that combined: 1) augmented source removal; 2) grouting of an HE- contaminated surge bed; 3) deployment of Stormwater Management System (SMS) stormfilters in contaminated springs; and 4) permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) in contaminated alluvium. The hydrogeologic conceptual model for the vadose zone and alluvial system as well as the status of the canyon as habitat for the Mexican Spotted Owl were key factors in selection of these minimal-environmental-impact remedies. The heterogeneous vadose zone, characterized by flow and contaminant transport in fractures and in surge beds, requires contaminant treatment at a point of discharge. The canyon PRB is being installed to capture water and contaminants prior to infiltration into the vadose zone. Pilot-scale testing of the SMS and lab-scale batch and column tests of a range of media suggest that granular activated carbon, zeolite, and gypsum may be effective media for removal of HE and/or barium from contaminated

  18. Effects of Gravel Bars on Nutrient Spiraling in Bedrock-Alluvium Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iobst, B. R.; Carroll, E. P.; Furbish, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The importance of the connection between nutrient transport and local stream geomorphology is becoming increasingly important. Studies have shown that the interconnectivity of nutrient cycles in the downstream direction is in part controlled by the distribution and size of gravel bars in low order streams, as hyporheic flow occurs dominantly through alternate and mid-channel gravel bars. For this investigation multiple gravel bars in a 3rd order bedrock-alluvium stream were studied to determine general relationships between nutrient spiraling and hyporheic flow. The first goal was to understand (1) the extent to which water moves through hyporheic zones and (2) the basic chemistry of the hyporheic water. The second part of the study was to understand how nutrients, notably nitrogen, are affected in their cycling by the relatively long residence times encountered in gravel bars during hyporheic flow. Wells were installed along a 600 m reach of Panther Creek, KY in selected bars, as well as in a secondary location involving a grid installation pattern in one large bar. Results have shown that hyporheic flow through gravel bars is an important factor in influencing stream chemistry. Background water chemistry surveys have shown that certain parameters, specifically ammonium and nitrogen concentrations vary downstream, and that the dominant control over these changes is gravel bar location. Rhodamine WT was used in field tracer tests to track the travel times of water through bars as well as partitioning of water between the open channel and hyporheic flows. Further tests will be conducted utilizing a stable isotope study to determine how nitrogen is affected by hyporheic flow, and what implications this has for nutrient transport. We expect results to show that the spacing and size of gravel bars is a dominant control in key nutrient spiraling parameters, namely uptake lengths and overall nitrogen cycling rates. This has implications for how natural systems will

  19. Spatial and temporal migration of a landfill leachate plume in alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Leachate from unlined or leaky landfills can create groundwater contaminant plumes that last decades to centuries. Understanding the dynamics of leachate movement in space and time is essential for monitoring, planning and management, and assessment of risk to groundwater and surface-water resources. Over a 23.4-year period (1986–2010), the spatial extent of the Norman Landfill leachate plume increased at a rate of 7800 m2/year and expanded by 878 %, from an area of 20,800 m2 in 1986 to 203,400 m2 in 2010. A linear plume velocity of 40.2 m/year was calculated that compared favorably to a groundwater-seepage velocity of 55.2 m/year. Plume-scale hydraulic conductivity values representative of actual hydrogeological conditions in the alluvium ranged from 7.0 × 10−5 to 7.5 × 10−4 m/s, with a median of 2.0 × 10−4 m/s. Analyses of field-measured and calculated plume-scale hydraulic conductivity distributions indicate that the upper percentiles of field-measured values should be considered to assess rates of plume-scale migration, spreading, and biodegradation. A pattern of increasing Cl− concentrations during dry periods and decreasing Cl− concentrations during wet periods was observed in groundwater beneath the landfill. The opposite occurred in groundwater downgradient from the landfill; that is, Cl− concentrations in groundwater downgradient from the landfill decreased during dry periods and increased during wet periods. This pattern of changing Cl−concentrations in response to wet and dry periods indicates that the landfill retains or absorbs leachate during dry periods and produces lower concentrated leachate downgradient. During wet periods, the landfill receives more recharge which dilutes leachate in the landfill but increases leachate migration from the landfill and produces a more concentrated contaminant plume. This approach of quantifying plume expansion, migration, and concentration during variable hydrologic

  20. Ion-probe U–Pb dating of authigenic and detrital opal from Neogene-Quaternary alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid; Paces, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Knowing depositional ages of alluvial fans is essential for many tectonic, paleoclimatic, and geomorphic studies in arid environments. The use of U–Pb dating on secondary silica to establish the age of Neogene-Quaternary clastic sediments was tested on samples of authigenic and detrital opal and chalcedony from depths of ∼25 to 53 m in boreholes at Midway Valley, Nevada. Dating of authigenic opal present as rinds on rock clasts and in calcite/silica cements establishes minimum ages of alluvium deposition; dating of detrital opal or chalcedony derived from the source volcanic rocks gives the maximum age of sediment deposition.Materials analyzed included 12 samples of authigenic opal, one sample of fracture-coating opal from bedrock, one sample of detrital opal, and two samples of detrital chalcedony. Uranium–lead isotope data were obtained by both thermal ionization mass spectrometry and ion-microprobe. Uranium concentrations ranged from tens to hundreds of μg/g. Relatively large U/Pb allowed calculation of 206Pb/238U ages that ranged from 1.64±0.36 (2σ) to 6.16±0.50 Ma for authigenic opal and from 8.34±0.28 to 11.2±1.3 Ma for detrital opal/chalcedony. Three samples with the most radiogenic Pb isotope compositions also allowed calculation of 207Pb/235U ages, which were concordant with 206Pb/238U ages from the same samples.These results indicate that basin development at Midway Valley was initiated between about 8 and 6 Ma, and that the basin was filled at long-term average deposition rates of less than 1 cm/ka. Because alluvium in Midway Valley was derived from adjacent highlands at Yucca Mountain, the low rates of deposition determined in this study may imply a slow rate of erosion of Yucca Mountain. Volcanic strata underlying the basin are offset by a number of buried faults to a greater degree than the relatively smooth-sloping bedrock/alluvium contact. These geologic relations indicate that movement on most faults ceased prior to erosional

  1. Surface motion near underground nuclear explosions in desert alluvium Operation Nougat I, Area 3, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perret, W.R.

    1978-05-01

    During Operation Nougat I, which was conducted in late 1961 and the first half of 1962, Sandia Laboratories measured surface motion in the vicinity of all contained underground nuclear explosions conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. This report presents and analyses most of the data derived from that study. Propagation velocities in the desert alluvium, 4440 ft/sec, and underlying tuff, 6020 ft/sec, are typical of those derived from later measurements. Motion attenuation data exhibit considerable scatter, in part because of early measurement and data reduction techniques but primarily because of differences in the characteristics of the geologic media which had not then been recognized. However, regression fits to the scaled data show attenuation of scaled acceleration at a rate 35% greater than that observed for Merlin event data (Merlin was conducted later in Area 3). The attenuation rate for particle velocity data from Nougat I events was 47% less than that for Merlin data, and the Nougat I scaled displacement data attenuation rate was 87% less than that for Merlin data. Analysis of data from a vertical string of gages extending to the surface above the Mink explosion has established a significant difference between normal spallation above contained explosions in competent rock and the reaction of uncemented alluvium to similar explosive loading

  2. In-situ arsenic removal during groundwater recharge through unsaturated alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David; Izbicki, John; T.J. Kim,; Clark Ajawani,; Suarez, Donald; Barnes, Thomas; Thomas Kulp,; Burgess, Matthew K.; Tseng, Iwen

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and sustainability of in-situ removal of arsenic from water infiltrated through unsaturated alluvium. BACKGROUND Arsenic is naturally present in aquifers throughout the southwestern United States and elsewhere. In January 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lowered the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for arsenic from 50 to 10 micrograms per liter (g/L). This raised concerns about naturally-occurring arsenic in groundwater. Although commercially available systems using sorbent iron or aluminum oxide resins are available to treat high-arsenic water, these systems are expensive to build and operate, and may generate hazardous waste. Iron and aluminum oxides occur naturally on the surfaces of mineral grains that compose alluvial aquifers. In areas where alluvial deposits are unsaturated, these oxides may sorb arsenic in the same manner as commercial resins, potentially providing an effective low-cost alternative to commercially engineered treatment systems. APPROACH The Antelope Valley within the Mojave Desert of southern California contains a shallow water-table aquifer with arsenic concentrations of 5 g/L, and a deeper aquifer with arsenic concentrations of 30 g/L. Water was pumped from the deep aquifer into a pond and infiltrated through an 80 m-thick unsaturated zone as part of field-scale and laboratory experiments to treat high-arsenic groundwater and recharge the shallow water table aquifer at the site. The field-scale recharge experiment included the following steps: 1) construction of a recharge pond 2) test drilling for sample collection and instrument installation adjacent to the pond 3) monitoring downward migration of water infiltrated from the pond 4) monitoring changes in selected trace-element concentrations as water infiltrated through the unsaturated zone Data from instruments within the borehole adjacent to the pond were supplemented with borehole and

  3. Determination of Abutment Pressure in Coal Mines with Extremely Thick Alluvium Stratum: A Typical Kind of Rockburst Mines in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Sitao; Feng, Yu; Jiang, Fuxing

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the abutment pressure distribution in coal mines with extremely thick alluvium stratum (ETAS), which is a typical kind of mines encountering frequent intense rockbursts in China. This occurs due to poor understanding to abutment pressure distribution pattern and the consequent inappropriate mine design. In this study, a theoretical computational model of abutment pressure for ETAS longwall panels is proposed based on the analysis of load transfer mechanisms of key stratum (KS) and ETAS. The model was applied to determine the abutment pressure distribution of LW2302S in Xinjulong Coal Mine; the results of stress and microseismic monitoring verified the rationality of this model. The calculated abutment pressure of LW2302S was also used in the terminal mining line design of LW2301N for rockburst prevention, successfully protecting the main roadway from the adverse influence of the abutment pressure.

  4. Simulation of fluid flow and energy transport processes associated with high-level radioactive waste disposal in unsaturated alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, David W.

    1986-01-01

    Many parts of the Great Basin have thick zones of unsaturated alluvium which might be suitable for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of energy, water (vapor and liquid), and dry air was used to analyze one-dimensional, vertical transport above and below an areally extensive repository. Numerical simulations were conducted for a hypothetical repository containing spent nuclear fuel and located 100 m below land surface. Initial steady state downward water fluxes of zero (hydrostatic) and 0.0003 m yr−1were considered in an attempt to bracket the likely range in natural water flux. Predicted temperatures within the repository peaked after approximately 50 years and declined slowly thereafter in response to the decreasing intensity of the radioactive heat source. The alluvium near the repository experienced a cycle of drying and rewetting in both cases. The extent of the dry zone was strongly controlled by the mobility of liquid water near the repository under natural conditions. In the case of initial hydrostatic conditions, the dry zone extended approximately 10 m above and 15 m below the repository. For the case of a natural flux of 0.0003 m yr−1 the relative permeability of water near the repository was initially more than 30 times the value under hydrostatic conditions, consequently the dry zone extended only about 2 m above and 5 m below the repository. In both cases a significant perturbation in liquid saturation levels persisted for several hundred years. This analysis illustrates the extreme sensitivity of model predictions to initial conditions and parameters, such as relative permeability and moisture characteristic curves, that are often poorly known.

  5. Application of Mat Traps to Determine the Present Speed of Accumulation of Alluvium at the Ryazan Area in the Middle Reaches of the Oka River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtsov V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the processes of channel sedimentation in riverbeds of lowland rivers has important fundamental and practical importance. In the economic development of river valleys a lot of attention is paid to the dynamics of the major reliefforming processes within the floodplain. A typical example showing the pattern of forming landforms and type of floodplain processes is deposition and redeposition of riverine sediment. In the future sedimentation of alluvium in areas of riverine floodplain makes the growth rate of natural levees, islands and shoals. For the average flow of the Oka river the pace of modern dynamics of accumulation of alluvium in the riverine areas is clarified. For the first time in this area the method of mat traps is applied. Rubber and coconut fiber were selected as the main materials for the traps. Specific features of the application methods and the difficulties encountered in its application were defined. The authors obtained the data about thickness of the layer of sediment accumulation of river flood of 2015, the results of particle size analysis of alluvial material with traps. The main patterns of distribution of fractions of alluvium and the pace of accumulation of various forms of riverine floodplain accumulation were identified. Tested methodology has proven its effectiveness and was found promising for use in the future in this region.

  6. Characteristics of soils developed from alluvium and their potential for cocoa plant development in East Kolaka Regency, Southeast Sulawesi

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    E. Yatno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is one of plantation commodities that is quite important for the national economy. Land management for the development of this plant should pay attention to the characteristics of the soil. Three soil profiles formed from alluvium parent material in East Kolaka Regency were investigated to determine the mineralogical, physical, and chemical soil properties, as well as the potential of the land for the development of cocoa plant. The results showed that the mineral composition of the sand fraction was dominated by quartz, while the clay mineral fraction was composed of kaolinite, hydrate halloysite, interstratified of illite-vermiculite and smectite. The soils were characterized by poor drainage, low bulk density (0.78 to 0.95 g / cm3, moderate available water pores (10-15%, slow to fast permeability (0.10 to 14.05 cm / h, silty clay loam to silty clay texture of top soil, acidic soil reaction (pH 4.62 to 5.47, high organic C content (3.86 to 4.60% in the top soil and very low organic C content (<0.65% in the lower layer, moderate to high available P (14-38 mg / kg in the A horizon and very low to moderate (1-18 mg / kg in horizon B, moderate to high P2O5 (30-71 mg / 100g in horizon A and extremely low (1-11 mg / 100g in horizon B, very low to moderate K2O (3-28 mg / 100g , moderate to high exchangeable Ca (9.32 to 13.92 cmolc / kg in the upper and lower (0.70 to 5.04 cmolc / kg in the bottom layer, high exchangeable Mg content (2.83 to 8.95 cmolc / kg, high soil CEC (34.18 to 38.28 cmolc / kg in the upper layer and low to moderate (7.87 to 20.39 cmolc / kg in the bottom layer, moderate to high base saturation (44-68%, and very low to moderate Al saturation (0-17%. At the family level, the soil was classified as Fluvaquentic Endoaquepts (EK 1 profile and Typic Endoaquepts (EK 2 and EK 3 profiles, finely loamy, mix, acid, isohypertermik. The land was marginally suitable (S3 for cocoa plant with the contraints of impeded drainage, acid soil

  7. Hydrogeologic characteristics and geospatial analysis of water-table changes in the alluvium of the lower Arkansas River Valley, southeastern Colorado, 2002, 2008, and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Michael J.

    2017-05-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District measures groundwater levels periodically in about 100 wells completed in the alluvial material of the Arkansas River Valley in Pueblo, Crowley, Otero, Bent, and Prowers Counties in southeastern Colorado, of which 95 are used for the analysis in this report. The purpose of this report is to provide information to water-resource administrators, managers, planners, and users about groundwater characteristics in the alluvium of the lower Arkansas Valley extending roughly 150 miles between Pueblo Reservoir and the Colorado-Kansas State line. This report includes three map sheets showing (1) bedrock altitude at the base of the alluvium of the lower Arkansas Valley; (2) estimated spring-to-spring and fall-to-fall changes in water-table altitude between 2002, 2008, and 2015; and (3) estimated saturated thickness in the alluvium during spring and fall of 2002, 2008, and 2015, and thickness of the alluvium in the lower Arkansas Valley. Water-level changes were analyzed by geospatial interpolation methods.Available data included all water-level measurements made between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015; however, only data from fall and spring of 2002, 2008, and 2015 are mapped in this report. To account for the effect of John Martin Reservoir in Bent County, Colorado, lake levels at the reservoir were assigned to points along the approximate shoreline and were included in the water-level dataset. After combining the water-level measurements and lake levels, inverse distance weighting was used to interpolate between points and calculate the altitude of the water table for fall and spring of each year for comparisons. Saturated thickness was calculated by subtracting the bedrock surface from the water-table surface. Thickness of the alluvium was calculated by subtracting the bedrock surface from land surface using a digital elevation model.In order to analyze the response

  8. Physiographic soil map delineation for the Nile alluvium and desert outskirts in middle Egypt using remote sensing data of EgyptSat-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Afify

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to produce a physiographic soil map with correlated attributes to be a base for extra modifiers within the land information system. This integrated data will serve the purposes of land use planning, precision farming practices and to be applied in other areas using the extrapolation approach. The Satellite data of EgyptSat-1 were projected on an area of Middle Egypt that represents unique physiographic features over portions of Beni Suef, El Fayoum, Helwan, and October Provinces. The spectral signatures of the land patterns were delineated by the visual interpretation using the physiographic approach, while soil taxa were categorized according to the key of Soil Taxonomy (USDA, 2010, resulting in two landscape categories. The first category includes older and developed parent materials, covering the following units: (a Pediplains of residual soils over limestone parent rock, having soils of Lithic Haplocalcids, loamy skeletal. (b Terraced old alluvial plains represent the formerly deposited alluvium that preceded the recent one of the River Nile alluvium. They includes soils of Typic Calcigypsids, loamy skeletal and old alluvial plain but are currently managed under cultivation. The soils are dominated by Typic Haplocalcids, loamy skeletal. (c Wadis that were shaped by the paleodrainage erosion, are currently subjected to the seasonal flush flooding and are sparsely vegetated including soils of Typic Torrifluvents, lamy skeletal (calcareous; Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal, and Typic Torriorthents, sandy. (d Aeolian plain “partly cultivated” includes soils of Typic Torripsamments (calcareous. The second category is a recent River Nile alluvium that formed the following units: (a Terraced recent alluvial plain “cultivated” includes soils of Entic Calcitorrerts, fine and Typic Haplotorrerts fine. (b Recent flat alluvial plain includes soils of Typic Haplotorrerts, fine. (c Meandering belt is aligning

  9. An evaluation of Mesodon and other larger terrestrial gastropod shells for dating late Holocene and historic alluvium in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovan, Monica T.; Rech, Jason A.; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Nekola, Jeffery C.; Wiles, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the history of stream erosion and changes in channel morphology is important for managing and restoring unstable streams. One of the significant challenges in this type of research is establishing accurate dating of late Holocene and historic alluvium. Here we evaluate the potential of using 14C dating and amino acid racemization (AAR) to date large terrestrial gastropod shells that are often preserved within alluvial sediments. Many terrestrial gastropods incorporate old carbon from limestone or other carbonate rocks into their shells and therefore are unsuitable for radiocarbon dating. Recent studies, however, have shown that some taxa avoid this ‘limestone problem’ and can yield reliable 14C ages. In this study, we measured the 14C activity of specimens for the genera Mesodon, Ventridens, and Allogona collected live and from alluvial sequences dated independently by dendrochronology, 14C dating of wood, and/or 137Cs analyses. Mesodon zaletus contained old carbon in similar concentrations (up to ~ 30%) found in previous studies of other large taxa and should be avoided for 14C dating when possible. In contrast, shells of Ventridens ligera and Allogona profunda showed minimal limestone effects and therefore may be suitable for dating late Holocene alluvium. These results highlight the importance of taxonomic identification of gastropod taxa prior to their use for 14C dating and demonstrate that shell fragments that are not identifiable should be avoided. We also measured d/l ratios (n = 17) of aspartic and glutamic acid from eight different taxa of terrestrial gastropods recovered from four late Holocene and historic stratigraphic sequences. Average d/l ratios of aspartic and glutamic acid from historic sediments < 300 years old are lower in shells from younger stratigraphic units, indicating that AAR can be used to differentiate between multiple historic stratigraphic units.

  10. Application of Surface Geophysical Methods, With Emphasis on Magnetic Resonance Soundings, to Characterize the Hydrostratigraphy of the Brazos River Alluvium Aquifer, College Station, Texas, July 2006 - A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin D.; Kress, Wade H.; Legchenko, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, used surface geophysical methods at the Texas A&M University Brazos River Hydrologic Field Research Site near College Station, Texas, in a pilot study, to characterize the hydrostratigraphic properties of the Brazos River alluvium aquifer and determine the effectiveness of the methods to aid in generating an improved ground-water availability model. Three non-invasive surface geophysical methods were used to characterize the electrical stratigraphy and hydraulic properties and to interpret the hydrostratigraphy of the Brazos River alluvium aquifer. Two methods, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings and two-dimensional direct-current (2D-DC) resistivity imaging, were used to define the lateral and vertical extent of the Ships clay, the alluvium of the Brazos River alluvium aquifer, and the underlying Yegua Formation. Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS), a recently developed geophysical method, was used to derive estimates of the hydrologic properties including percentage water content and hydraulic conductivity. Results from the geophysics study demonstrated the usefulness of combined TDEM, 2D-DC resistivity, and MRS methods to reduce the need for additional boreholes in areas with data gaps and to provide more accurate information for ground-water availability models. Stratigraphically, the principal finding of this study is the relation between electrical resistivity and the depth and thickness of the subsurface hydrostratigraphic units at the site. TDEM data defined a three-layer electrical stratigraphy corresponding to a conductor-resistor-conductor that represents the hydrostratigraphic units - the Ships clay, the alluvium of the Brazos River alluvium aquifer, and the Yegua Formation. Sharp electrical boundaries occur at about 4 to 6 and 20 to 22 meters below land surface based on the TDEM data and define the geometry of the more resistive Brazos River alluvium aquifer

  11. Water-quality data for the Missouri River and Missouri River alluvium near Weldon Spring, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1991--92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeschulte, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains the water-quality data collected at two cross sections across the Missouri River and from monitoring wells in the Missouri River alluvium near Defiance, Missouri. The sampling results indicate the general water composition from the Missouri River changes with different flow conditions. During low-base flow conditions, the water generally contained about equal quantities of calcium and sodium plus potassium and similar quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate. During high-base flow conditions, water from the river predominantly was a calcium bicarbonate type. During runoff conditions, the water from the river was a calcium bicarbonate type, and sulfate concentrations were larger than during high-base flow conditions but smaller than during low-base flow conditions. The total and dissolved uranium concentrations at both the upstream and downstream cross sections, as well as from the different vertical samples across the river, were similar during each sampling event. However, sodium, sulfate, nitrate, and total and dissolved uranium concentrations varied with different flow conditions. Sodium and sulfate concentrations were larger during low-base flow conditions than during high-base flow or runoff conditions, while nitrate concentrations decreased during low-base flow conditions. Both total and dissolved uranium concentrations were slightly larger during runoff events than during low-base or high-base flow conditions

  12. Qualitative-quantitative characteristic of bird community of middle course alluvium of the Vah River (Piestany - Nove Mesto); Kvalitativno-kvantitativna charakteristika ornitocenoz aluvia stredneho toku Vahu (Piestany - Nove Mesto nad Vahom)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacko, J. [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra ekologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Topercer, J. [Botanicka zahrada Univerzity Komenskeho v Bratislave, pracovisko Blatnica, 03815 Blatnica pri Martine (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The research focuses on the analysis of structure and dynamics of bird communities in two transects on the Vah river alluvium between cities Piestany and Nove Mesto nad Vahom. The research is aimed on the analysis of species composition, distribution and multitude of aquatic and wetland birds, on the analysis of their seasonal dynamics, inter-annual variability in species composition, diversity and others indicators of birds in these transects. The secondary aim is to find out the main types of disturbances, their intensity, antropogenous effects and others chosen environment variables in these transects of Vah river alluvium. We will utilize statistical analyses from these environmental variables and explain their impact on bird communities of this area. From these findings suitable management measures for the conservation or improvement of conservation status of target species will be derived. (authors)

  13. Processes affecting δ34S and δ18O values of dissolved sulfate in alluvium along the Canadian River, central Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Breit, George N.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2009-01-01

    The δ34S and δ18O values for dissolved sulfate in groundwater are commonly used in aquifer studies to identify sulfate reservoirs and describe biogeochemical processes. The utility of these data, however, often is compromised by mixing of sulfate sources within reservoirs and isotope fractionation during sulfur redox cycling. Our study shows that, after all potential sulfate sources are identified and isotopically characterized, the δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values differentiate processes such as sulfate-source mixing, sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and organosulfur decomposition. During bacterial reduction of sulfate, the values reflect kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation and exchange of oxygen isotopes between sulfate and water. Detailed analysis of the chemistry (Cl and SO4 concentrations) and isotopic composition (δ2HH2Oand δ18OH2O) of groundwater in an alluvial aquifer in Central Oklahoma, USA allowed the identification of five distinct end members that supply water to the aquifer (regional groundwater flowing into the study area, river water, leachate from a closed landfill that operated within the site, rain, and surface runoff). The δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values in each end member differentiated three sources of sulfate: sulfate dissolved from Early to Late Permian rocks within the drainage basin (δ34SSO4 = 8–12‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), iron sulfides oxidized by molecular oxygen during low water-table levels (δ34SSO4 = − 16‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), and organosulfur compounds (predominately ester sulfates) from decomposition of vegetation on the surface and from landfill trash buried in the alluvium (δ34SSO4 = 8‰ and δ18OSO4 = 6‰). During bacterial reduction of these sulfate sources, similar isotope fractionation processes are recorded in the parallel trends of increasing δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values. When extensive reduction occurs, the kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation (estimated by εH2S–SO4 = − 23

  14. Evidence of young, proximal and primary (YPP diamond source occurring in alluviums in the Santo Antônio do Bonito, Santo Inácio and Douradinho rivers in Coromandel region, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Silvestre Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatism associated with the Alto Paranaíba structural high comprises kimberlites, kamafugites, and alkaline complexes, forming an approximately 400 x 150 km NW-SE belt in the southern São Francisco Craton. Dating of some intrusions reveals ages between 120 and 75 Ma. Chemical analyses of garnet recovered in alluvium from traditional diamond digging areas indicate peridotitic garnet windows in Três Ranchos and Coromandel. Six hundred and eighty (680 diamonds acquired or recovered during mineral exploration in the digging areas of Romaria, Estrela do Sul, Três Ranchos and Coromandel show unique characteristics, certain populations indicating young, proximal and primary sources (YPP. Analyses of 201 stones from Santo Antônio do Bonito, Santo Inácio and Douradinho rivers alluvium, Coromandel, present no evidence of transport, characterizing a proximal source. Within these river basins, exposures of the Late Cretaceous Capacete Formation basal conglomerate contain mainly small rounded and/or angular quartzite pebbles and of basic and ultrabasic rocks, as well as kimberlite minerals (garnet, ilmenite, spinel, sometimes diamond. A magnetotelluric profile between the Paraná and Sanfranciscana basins shows that the thick underlying lithosphere in the Coromandel region coincides with the peridotitic garnet window and with a diamond population displaying proximal source characteristics. Diamond-bearing kimberlite intrusions occur in different areas of Alto Paranaíba.

  15. Plio-Quaternary river incision rates inferred from burial dating (Al-26/Be-10) of in cave-deposited alluvium in the Meuse catchment (E Belgium): new insights into the uplift history of the Ardennes massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixhon, Gilles; Bourlès, Didier; Braucher, Régis; Peeters, Alexandre; Demoulin, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Although the Late Cenozoic uplift of the intraplate Variscan Ardennes/Rhenish massif (N Europe) has been long studied, its causes, shape and timing are still under debate (Demoulin & Hallot, 2009). This is mainly due to the scarcity of reliable ages for uplift markers, such as Quaternary terrace staircases along the deeply-incised valleys or Late Tertiary planation surfaces. In parallel, multi-level cave systems in limestone rocks, wherein abandoned phreatic passages filled with alluvium represent former phases of fluvial base-level stability, record the history of regional river incision (Anthony & Granger, 2007). Here, we present new burial ages (Al-26/Be-10) from fluvial gravels washed in a multi-level cave system developed in Devonian limestones of the lower Ourthe valley (main Ardennian tributary of the Meuse). Our results highlight a significant increase of incision rates from the Middle Pleistocene on, and allow reconstructing the incision history in the northern part of the Ardennes over the last 3.4 Ma. These long-term incision rates derived from burial ages are then discussed in relation to the existing studies dealing with river incision and/or tectonic uplift of the Ardennes/Rhenish massif (e.g. Demoulin & Hallot, 2009; Rixhon et al., 2011). Our cosmogenic nuclide ages thus enlarge the data pool required to explore the spatio-temporal characteristics of the drainage system's incision response to combined tectonic and climatic signals. References Anthony, D., Granger, D.E., 2007. A new chronology for the age of Appalachian erosional surfaces determined by cosmogenic nuclides in cave sediments. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 32, 874-887 Demoulin, A., Hallot, E., 2009. Shape and amount of the Quaternary uplift of the western Rhenish shield and the Ardennes (western Europe). Tectonophysics 474, 696-708. Rixhon, G., et al., 2011. Quaternary river incision in NE Ardennes (Belgium): Insights from Be-10/Al-26 dating of rive terraces. Quaternary Geochronology 6

  16. Litology and possibilities of comprehensive using modern alluvium Dnieper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanchenko V. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studied mineralogy of bottom sediments of the Lower Dnieper. The identified minerals zirconium, rare earths (monazite, titanium, grenades, etc., is finding gold, silver and diamonds. In addition to typical detrital grains tumors installed component authigenic sediment - pyrite, marcasite, carbonates, goethite. The observed constant presence of particles of sludge, slag, refractory, metallurgical graphite, spinel, glass and ore balls - indicators of anthropogenic pollution. Search interest with gold, zircon, ilmenite, rutile, monazite, diamond. When passing extraction can be used light fraction minerals: quartz, kaolinite and other clay minerals and mushlevyy detritus and limestone.

  17. Groundwater pollution with heavy metals in the Ibar alluvium near Raška (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladinović Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the operation of an ore flotation facility at Donja Rudnica near Raška, Serbia, during the period from 1972 to 2002, flotation tailings and wastewater of highly complex chemical compositions were deposited in the alluvial plain of the Ibar River. Due to the excellent groundwater flow characteristics of the alluvial formations underlying the tailings dump, the groundwater and soil over an extended area were continually polluted. High concentrations of heavy metals (Fe = 7.38 mg/L. Zn = 4.04 mg/L, Pb = 2.17 mg/L in the soil and concentrations of sulfate as high as 3709 mg/L, and pH levels of 4.2 in the groundwater have been recorded at some locations. This paper draws attention to the potential risk this site poses for the conservation of biodiversity over the extended area.

  18. Evaluation of Rehabilitation Efficiency of Clogged wells drilled in fractured bedrock and alluvium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Hamm, S.; Lee, J.; Ok, S.; Han, S.; Choo, C.; Kim, M.

    2011-12-01

    In Korea, more than one million of groundwater wells have been developed since 1990s. However, the groundwater wells have not been properly managed. Moreover, the importance of well maintenance and well rehabilitation has not been well recognized. In this circumstance, groundwater wells are usually terminated in 20-year operation due to well clogging, groundwater pollution, land use change, etc. which are originated from physical, chemical, biological, and artificial changes of and around the wells. The clogged state of the wells with diminished amount down to 80-85% can be ameliorated by various rehabilitation techniques as increasing discharge amount as well as extending the durability of the wells. In European countries and the USA, rehabilitation techniques of the clogged wells have been developed with understanding the cause and prevention of well bore clogging since 1990s. In recent years, the Korean Ministry of Environment (KME) recognized the importance of well rehabilitation. Under the support of the KME, this study evaluated the efficieny of rehabilitation using air surging, high-pressure water injection, brush & air surging, and explosive charge methods as applying to seven wells installed in fractured granite of Mt. Geumjeong and one well drilled in alluvial deposit of the Jeungsan-Ri area, Gyeongnam Province in the southeastern part of Korea. Hydraulic conductivity was estimated by using slug and pumping tests before and after well rehabilitation in order to assess physical, chemical, and biological changes of the wells. Hydraulic conductivity and pumping capacity of fractured bedrock are closely related to fracture characteristics such as fracture aperture, frequency, length, orientation, dip angle, interconnectivity, plane features, and filling materials. The evolution of clogging and filling of materials on and around the well makes decrease hydraulic conductivity and pumping capacity of the well. In this study, in addition of hydraulic conductivity estimation, optical televiewer (RG HI-OPTV type) and acoustic televiewer (RG HIRAT type) logs were used to quantitatively detect clogging and filling of the wells. Explosive charge method proved about 166% increase of specific capacity after rehabilitation than before. Water quality change occurred as showing the increase of EC, turbidity, and Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Mn2+, Zn2+, SO42-, Cl-, F-, NO3-, and SiO2 concentrations, and the decrease of temperature, pH, Eh, DO, and Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations. On the other hand, brushing method increased about 184% of specific capacity after rehabilitation than before. Water quality change showed the increase of Eh, DO, and Fe2+, HCO3-, F-, and SiO2 concentrations, and the decrease of temperature, turbidity, pH, EC, and Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+, Mn2+, Zn2+, SO42-, Cl-, and NO3- concentrations. Keywords: slug test, optical and acoustic televiewers, hydraulic conductivity, rehabilitation, clogging. Acknowledgement This work was financially supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment as "The GAIA Project".

  19. Source Physics Experiment Phase II, Dry Alluvium Geology (DAG) Experiments Using Nitromethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeger, Scott R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-12-21

    Need to provide briefing to the State of Nevada as part of the Permitting process for the Nevada Chemical Accident Prevention Program (CAPP) for use of nitromethane at the NNSS. This document will be accessible to the public as part of the CAPP program.

  20. Determining treatment requirements for turbid river water to avoid clogging of aquifer storage and recovery wells in siliceous alluvium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Vanderzalm, Joanne; Miotliński, Konrad; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Lawrie, Ken; Brodie, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    The success of Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) schemes relies on defining appropriate design and operational parameters in order to maintain high rates of recharge over the long term. The main contribution of this study was to define the water quality criteria and hence minimum pre-treatment requirements to allow sustained recharge at an acceptable rate in a medium-coarse sand aquifer. The source water was turbid, natural water from the River Darling, Australia. Three treatments were evaluated: bank filtration; coagulation and chlorine disinfection; and coagulation plus granular activated carbon and chlorine disinfection (GAC). Raw source water and the three treated waters were used in laboratory columns packed with aquifer material in replicate experiments in saturated conditions at constant temperature (19 °C) with light excluded for 37 days. Declines in hydraulic conductivity from a mean of 2.17 m/d occurred over the 37 days of the experiment. The GAC-treated water gave an 8% decline in hydraulic conductivity over the 16 cm length of columns, which was significantly different from the other three source waters, which had mean declines of 26-29%. Within the first 3 cm of column length, where most clogging occurred in each column, the mean hydraulic conductivity declined by 10% for GAC-treated water compared with 40-50% for the other source waters. There was very little difference between the columns until day 21, despite high turbidity (78 NTU) in the source water. Reducing turbidity by treatment was not sufficient to offset the reductions in hydraulic conductivity. Biological clogging was found to be most important as revealed by the accumulation of polysaccharides and bacterial numbers in columns when they were dissected and analysed at the end of the experiment. Further chemical clogging through precipitation of minerals was found not to occur within the laboratory columns, and dispersion of clay was also found to be negligible. Due to the low reduction in hydraulic conductivity, GAC-treated water quality was used to set pre-treatment targets for ASR injection of turbidity carbon (BDOC)  0.2 mg/L. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sediment properties and water movement through shallow unsaturated alluvium at an arid site for disposal of low-level radioactive waste near Beatty, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    A commercial disposal facility for low-level radioactive waste has been in operation near Beatty, Nevada, since 1962. The facility is in the arid Amargosa Desert where wastes are buried in trenches excavated into unsaturated alluvial sediments. Thick unsaturated zones in arid environments offer many potential advantages for disposal of radioactive wastes, but little is known about the natural movement of water near such facilities. Thus, a study was begun in 1982 to better define the direction and rates of water movement through the unsaturated zone in undisturbed sediments near the disposal facility. This report discusses the analyses of data collected between 1983 and 1988.

  2. Contamination of the Alluvium of the Nitra River in Slovakia by Cadmium, Mercury and Lead as a Result of Previous Intense Industrial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmannova, A; Kujovsky, M; Stanovic, R; Arvay, J; Harangozo, L

    2016-10-01

    The Nitra river is one of the most polluted rivers in the Slovak Republic. The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of Cd, Pb and Hg contamination of riverside sediments and alluvial soil in the vicinity of the Nitra river. The pseudototal Cd (all Cd forms except for residual fraction) and total Hg contents in riverside sediments (0.74-1.88 and 0.06-5.44 mg/kg, respectively) exceeded the limits for Cd and Hg in sandy soils (0.4 and 0.15 mg/kg). In three chosen localities in the flood plain of the Nitra river the soil content of mobile Pb forms (0.10-0.32 mg/kg), the pseudototal Cd (0.25-2.52 mg/kg) and total Hg content (0.03-1.6 mg/kg) exceeded the limits for Pb, Cd and Hg in loamy soils (0.1, 0.7 and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively). The obtained results confirmed the risk of Pb, Cd, Hg contamination caused by industrial activity in the vicinity of the Nitra river.

  3. Simulation of Local Seismic Ground Motions from the FLASK Underground Nuclear Explosion near the Source Physics Experiment Dry Alluvium Geology Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. J.; Pitarka, A.; Wagoner, J. L.; Helmberger, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The FLASK underground nuclear explosion (UNE) was conducted in Area 2 of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site on May 26, 1970. The yield was 105 kilotons (DOE/NV-209-Rev 16) and the working point was 529 m below the surface. This test was detonated in faulted Tertiary volcanic rocks of Yucca Flat. Coincidently, the FLASK UNE ground zero (GZ) is close (earth structure, including surface topography. SW4 includes vertical mesh refinement which greatly reduces the computational resources needed to run a specific problem. Simulations are performed on high-performance computers with grid spacing as small as 10 meters and resolution to 6 Hz. We are testing various subsurface models to identify the role of 3D structure on path propagation effects from the source. We are also testing 3D models to constrain structure for the upcoming DAG experiments in 2018.

  4. Caracterização do enraizamento da beterraba sacarina (Beta vulgaris L. num solo de aluvião Rooting pattern of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. saccharifera in a soil from alluvium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Toureiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento do padrão de enraizamento das culturas e sua evolução ao longo do ciclo cultural é importante para a gestão do uso da água e nutrientes do solo. A promoção de práticas de rega eficientes – como a condução da água de rega em tempo real numa determinada área – requer o conhecimento, para além de parâmetros meteorológicos e pedológicos, de parâmetros culturais, como duração dos estádios de desenvolvimento da cultura, coeficientes culturais, capacidade de aprofundamento radical, sensibilidade da cultura à deficiência hídrica, défice de gestão permissível e dos parâmetros que caracterizam as regas efectuadas durante a campanha (data e dotação de rega efectivamente aplicada e avaliação dos sistemas de rega utilizados. O presente estudo teve como objectivo avaliar o desenvolvimento da cultura da beterraba, num solo de aluvião (A – Solos Incipientes, Aluviossolo Moderno não Calcário de Textura Mediana, do Perímetro de Rega do Divor, cujo cenário de gestão da água de rega utilizado foi a optimização do rendimento óptimo da cultura. No ensaio realizado com a cultura da beterraba, durante a campanha de rega de 2004 (Primavera-Verão, utilizou-se o método do minirizotrão, com o qual é possível acompanhar as variações temporais e espaciais do desenvolvimento radical da cultura, permitindo uma caracterização do sistema radical como órgão dinâmico. Para além deste método procedeu-se à abertura de perfis, perpendicularmente à linha de cultura, até à profundidade de 50 cm. Em várias datas de observação durante o ciclo cultural, avaliou-se a capacidade de aprofundamento e peso do túberculo. Em complemento, avaliaram-se outros índices culturais tais como a duração dos estados fenológicos, o índice de área foliar (IAF, matéria verde da parte aérea e a produção total. Consideraram-se as seguintes épocas de observação: desenvolvimento vegetativo (0-69 dias após a sementeira (DAS; desenvolvimento vegetativo e formação do túberculo (69-166 DAS e maturação (166-196 DAS. Os resultados obtidos mostram o seguinte: 1 Relativamente aos parâmetros da parte aérea da cultura: os valores máximos relativos à massa verde e índice de área foliar ocorreram no período de 96-111 DAS, após o qual se registou um decréscimo acentuado dos valores, coincidindo com o início da senescência da parte aérea da cultura e o desenvolvimento rápido do tubérculo; e 2 Relativamente aos parâmetros radicais e tubérculo: a evolução da massa e da profundidade da localização do tubérculo foi crescente ao longo do ciclo, mais significativa a partir dos 96-111 DAS, atingindo os valores máximos de 2000 g e 40 cm, respectivamente, 196 DAS. Da análise sequencial das imagens obtidas com o minirizotrão, foi possível observar raízes finas (Ø Knowledge of plant rooting patterns and their evolution during the crop season is important for the apropriate soil water and nutrients management. The implementation of efficient irrigation practices – such as the irrigation management in real time for a certain area – needs information on meteorological, soil and crop parameters: such as crop growth stage, crop coefficients, paths of rooting depth, crop sensitivity to water stress, allowable soil water deficit, etc. Also, the characteristics of irrigation events should also be known, normally irrigation amount, opportunity, and evaluation. The objective of the present study is to evaluate a sugar beet crop growth including root growth pattern, on an Alluvial soil, under irrigation to give the crop the optimum water amount for maximum growth. The minirizotron method was used for monitoring root growth during crop season. Later on, trenches were opened for directly observing and measuring root development and pattern, up to 50 cm depth. Beet root depth and weight were evaluated at several points – growing stage from 0 to 69 days after seeding (DAS, yield formation from 69 to 166 DAS, and ripening from 166 to 196 DAS - and crop growth indices were also determined: leaf area index (LAI, and the duration of crop growing stages. Finally, biomass and grain production were evaluated. Data obtained showed that: 1 Maximum values for biomass and LAI were observed at 96 to 111 days, the values decreasing afterwards, while leaf senescence and rapid root growth occurred; and 2 Mass and depth of the beet root was observed to increase throughout the crop cicle, but faster between 96 and 111 DAS, reaching 2000 g and 40 cm respectively at 196 DAS. Images obtained with the minirizotron showed that fine beet roots had grown down to 90 cm depth.

  5. Water-vapor movement through unsaturated alluvium in Amargosa Desert near Beatty, Nevada - Current understanding and continuing studies: A section in Joint US Geological Survey, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission workshop on research related to low-level radioactive waste disposal, May 4-6, 1993, National Center, Reston, Virginia; Proceedings (WRI 95-4015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Stevens, Peter R.; Nicholson, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes has been a concern since the 1950's. These wastes commonly are buried in shallow trenches (Fischer, 1986, p. 2). Water infiltrating into the trenches is considered the principal process by which contaminants are transported away from the buried wastes, although gaseous transport in some areas may be important. Arid regions in the western United States have been suggested as places that could provide safe containment of the wastes, because little or no water would infiltrate into the trenches (Richardson, 1962), and because thick unsaturated zones would slow contaminant movement. Although burial in arid regions may greatly reduce the amount of water coming in contact with the waste and consequently may provide longterm containment, insufficient data are available on the effectiveness of burial in such regions. Of particular interest is the potential for contaminant movement, either as liquid or vapor, through unsaturated sediments to land surface or to underlying ground water.Since 1962, low-level radioactive wastes have been buried at a disposal facility in the Amargosa Desert, about 17 km south of Beatty, Nevada (fig. 50). This facility is in one of the most arid regions of the United States. Annual precipitation at the disposal facility averaged 82 mm for 1985-92; the minimum was 14 mm, recorded for 1989 (Wood and Andraski, 1992, p. 12).Investigations to determine the hydrogeology, water movement, and potential for contaminant movement at the facility began in 1976. Results from an initial study indicated that a potential exists for deep percolation of infiltrated water at the burial site (Nichols, 1987), assuming that the only water loss is by evaporation because the trenches are kept clear of vegetation. Results from a subsequent study of water movement beneath an undisturbed, vegetated site indicate that percolation of infiltrated water may be limited to the uppermost 9 m of sediments, on the basis of water potentials, subsurface temperatures, water content, and sodium chloride content of the sediments (Fischer, 1992, p. 1). One objective of a third study that began in 1987 is to determine how the typical procedure of burying wastes alters water movement and affects the potential for deep percolation of infiltrated water (Andraski, these proceedings). In addition to these studies, a fourth began in 1992 to determine the importance of vapor movement through the unsaturated zone.The purpose of this paper is to summarize the current understanding of water movement (as liquid and vapor) through the upper 13 m of unsaturated sediments beneath the undisturbed, vegetated site and to present plans for determining the importance of watervapor movement from land surface to the water table.

  6. Tethered Aerostat Effects on Nearby Seismometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This report assesses seismic interference generated by a tethered aerostat. The study was motivated by a planned aerostat deployment within the footprint of the Dry Alluvium Geology seismic network. No evidence was found for seismic interference generated by the aerostat, and thus the e ects on the Dry Alluvium Geology sensors will be negligible.

  7. Alluvial Aquifer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This coverage shows the extents of the alluvial aquifers in Kansas. The alluvial aquifers consist of unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium and contiguous terrace...

  8. Pollutant dispersal and stability in a severely polluted floodplain: A case study in the Litavka River, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Tereza; Kotková, Kristýna; Elznicová, J.; Strnad, L.; Engel, Z.; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 156, SEP (2015), s. 131-144 ISSN 0375-6742 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Anthropogenic alluvium * Fluvial sediments * Heavy metals * Secondary pollution from mining Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.147, year: 2015

  9. west gombe, north - eastern nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    According to reports by the Nigerian Geological Survey. Agency (NGSA) .... bedrocks. Alluvium is generally poorly developed ove the arenaceous member of the Cretaceous Formation ... where it unconformably lies on shale and limestone o.

  10. Logs and completion data for water and mass balance wells in Mortandad and Ten Site Canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, S.G.; Koch, R.J.

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled and completed in December 1994 as part of a water and mass balance study for the shallow perched aquifer in the Mortandad Canyon alluvium and in the lower part of Ten-Site Canyon. The wells penetrated the alluvium containing the aquifer and were completed into the top of the weathered tuff. Twelve of these wells encountered the Tshirege Member (Cooing Unit 1 g) of the Bandelier Tuff below the canyon alluvium, while ten wells made contact with the Cerro Toledo interval, which lies between the Tshirege and Otowi Members of the Bandelier Tuff. The remaining two wells were completed into the alluvium above the weathered tuff contact. These wells provide access for continuous water level measurement and water sampling. Data from these new wells will be used to determine changes in alluvial aquifer water storage, water quality sampling, and estimation of seepage into the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff below the alluvium. This report documents drilling activities and well completion logs for the water and mass balance study. These wells also provide critical new data for fourteen north-south vertical cross-sections constructed for the canyon alluvium

  11. Subsidence characterization and modeling for engineered facilities in Arizona, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Rucker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several engineered facilities located on deep alluvial basins in southern Arizona, including flood retention structures (FRS and a coal ash disposal facility, have been impacted by up to as much as 1.8 m of differential land subsidence and associated earth fissuring. Compressible basin alluvium depths are as deep as about 300 m, and historic groundwater level declines due to pumping range from 60 to more than 100 m at these facilities. Addressing earth fissure-inducing ground strain has required alluvium modulus characterization to support finite element modeling. The authors have developed Percolation Theory-based methodologies to use effective stress and generalized geo-material types to estimate alluvium modulus as a function of alluvium lithology, depth and groundwater level. Alluvial material modulus behavior may be characterized as high modulus gravel-dominated, low modulus sand-dominated, or very low modulus fines-dominated (silts and clays alluvium. Applied at specific aquifer stress points, such as significant pumping wells, this parameter characterization and quantification facilitates subsidence magnitude modeling at its' sources. Modeled subsidence is then propagated over time across the basin from the source(s using a time delay exponential decay function similar to the soil mechanics consolidation coefficient, only applied laterally. This approach has expanded subsidence modeling capabilities on scales of engineered facilities of less than 2 to more than 15 km.

  12. Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation Research Program: Geotechnical Aspects of Rock Erosion in Emergency Spillway Channels. Report 3. Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    exposed, hard sandstone ledge which floors the upper portion of the unlined channel at the Saylorville (Iowa) spillway still bears the elongate scars ...this alluvium was placed 60-cm (2-ft) armour of angular cobble and boulder-size basalt riprap (US Soil Conservation Services 1932). All of the riprap

  13. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater is a major source of water for agricultural and domestic requirements in western Uttar Pradesh.Due to increasing agricultural requirements the abstraction of groundwater has increased manifold in the last two-to-three decades.The quaternary alluvium hosts the aquifer in the region.The study area forms a part ...

  14. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of (1) the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium; (2) the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale; and (3) the fate and transport of contaminants from the uppermost aquifer to the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Shale unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. Figure 1 is a geologic cross section depicting the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Table 1 presents hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit

  15. Supplement to the site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide additional and more detailed information to supplement review of the site observational work plan (SOWP) (DOE, 1995) for the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This document includes a discussion of the average linear velocity of the ground water in the alluvium and a discussion of the ground water quality of the alluvium, weathered Mancos Shale, and the Tres Hermanos-C Member of the Mancos Shale. The data from a 1989 aquifer test were analyzed using the curve-matching software AQTESOLV and then compared with the original results. A hydrograph of the ground water elevations in monitoring wells screened in the alluvium is presented to show how the ground water elevations change with time. Stiff and Piper diagrams were created to describe the changes in ground water geochemistry in the alluvium/weathered Mancos Sahel unit, the Tres Hermanos-C Sandstone unit, the Tres Hermanos-B Sandstone unit, and the Dakota Sandstone. Background information on other related topics such as site history, cell construction, soil characteristics, and well construction are presented in the SOWP. A geologic cross section depicts the conceptual model of the hydrostratigraphy and ground water chemistry of the Ambrosia Lake site. Hydrogeologic information of each hydrostratigraphic unit is presented

  16. Soil erosion in the Herschel district of South Africa: changes over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analyses of aerial photographs showed that the extent and severity of erosion increased substantially since 1950, with the area affected by erosion doubling in some areas between 1950 and 1969. Soils derived from alluvium and sedimentary rocks were more eroded than soils derived from basalt and dolerite. Flat or gently ...

  17. Sr isotope ratio in the rainwater from Ahmedabad, an urban site in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Jayati; Singh, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    The rain water Sr was measured at Ahmedabad to get an idea about the various sources of dissolved ions to rain water. The present study shows the Deccan trap as an important source of Sr during the south west monsoon. Occasional contributions from other lithologies such as alluvium of the Ganga system have also been observed during this study

  18. Assessment of groundwater quality of the Tatlicay aquifer and relation to the adjacent evaporitic formations (Cankiri, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaydın, Ahmet; Aktaş, Sibel Demirci

    2012-04-01

    One of the most important hydrogeologic problems in and adjacent areas of evaporitic formations is severe quality degradation of groundwaters. These kinds of groundwaters contain high content of dissolved solids and generally have some limitations for use. Tatlicay basin (north-central Turkey) is an example to effects of the evaporites on groundwater quality in the adjacent alluvium aquifer. Gypsum and anhydrites in the two evaporite formations (Bayindir and Bozkir) effect of the groundwater quality in the alluvium adversely, by dissolution of the evaporites by surface drainage and infiltration into the alluvium aquifer (widespread effect) and by infiltration of low quality gypsum springs (local effect) into the aquifer. Evaporitic formations significantly increased EC, TDS, Ca and SO(4) parameters in the alluvium aquifer in the central and downstream regions. EC has increased roughly from 500-800 to 1,700-2,000 μS/cm, Ca has roughly increased from 3-4 to 10 meq/l, SO(4) has increased 0.5-1 to 11-12 meq/l. Consequently, three clusters were distinguished in the basin; (1) nonevaporitic waters in low TDS, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl and SO(4), (2) diluted waters in high TDS and relatively high Cl, moderate-relatively high Na, Ca, Mg, SO(4), (3) gypsum springs in highest TDS, Ca, SO(4), but moderate Mg and low Na, Cl.

  19. Probabilistic landslide hazards and risk mapping on Penang Island ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with landslide hazards and risk analysis of Penang Island, Malaysia using Geo- .... require a priori knowledge of the main causes of landslides .... Soil. Rengam-bukit. 289450. 10.03. 96. 20.73. 2.07 temiang association. Selangor-kangkong. 34197. 1.18. 0. 0.00. 0.00 association. Local alluvium-. 373655.

  20. Electromagnetic survey (TEM method) in Teradomari and examination of resistivity structure to be based on near surface information; Niigataken Teradomarimachi ni okeru denji tansa kekka (TEM ho) no doshitsu joho ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H; Mitsuhata, Y; Matsuo, K; Tanaka, H [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center; Wada, K [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    TEM method was applied to estimate soil structure from resistivity change of underground water saturated stratum featured by slow S wave and fast P wave over 1500m/s. Vertical magnetic field was measured by underlaying a transmission loop of 60m{times}60m around a measuring point in Teradomari, Niigata prefecture, and by installing a magnetic sensor at the measuring point. From comparison of a soil profile with the resistivity profile obtained by TEM data, the former well consisted with the latter. The surface low resistivity stratum corresponded to alluvium from comparison of it with soil and logging data. This alluvium base with fast P wave over 1500m/s satisfied the condition of optimum blasting depth because of a saturated stratum in the surface base. The resistivity structure was related to a saturated stratum. Sand bed was thick at the interface between alluvium low ground and hill area, and from the analytical result, the depth of sand bed showing high resistivity was more shallow than that of the alluvium base, pointing out necessary notice in interpretation. Resistivity survey is promising as simple method for optimum blasting depth. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Hydrology of coal-lease areas near Durango, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Tom

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Land Management leases Federal lands and minerals for coal mining near Durango, Colorado. This report addresses the hydrologic suitability of those lands for coal leasing; the report describes the general hydrology of the Durango area and, more specifically, the hydrology of the Stollsteimer Creek study area 32 miles east of the Durango and the Hay Gulch study area, 12 miles southwest of Durango. The most productive aquifers in the Durango study area are Quaternary alluvium and the tertiary Animas Formation. Water wells completed in alluvium typically yield 5 to 20 gallons/min; wells completed is the Animas Formation yield as much as 50 gallons/min. Water quality in these aquifers is variable, but it generally is suitable for domestic use. The coal-bearing Cretaceous Fruitland and Menefee Formations are mined by surface methods at the Chimney Rock Mine in the Stollsteimer Creek study area and by underground methods at the National King Coal Mine in the Hay Gulch study area. Effects of surface mining in the Stollsteimer Creek area are: (1) Dewatering of an alluvial aquifer; and (2) Local degradation of alluvium water quality by spoil-pile effluent. Effects of underground mining in the Hay Gulch area are: (1) Introduction of water with greater dissolved-solids concentrations into the upper Hay Gulch alluvium from mine runoff; (2) Subsidence fracturing which could dewater streams and the alluvial aquifer. (USGS)

  2. Microfacies description linked to the magnetic and non-magnetic proxy as a promising environmental tool: Case study from alluvial deposits of the Nile river

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisá, Lenka; Lisý, Pavel; Chadima, Martin; Čejchan, Petr; Bajer, A.; Cílek, Václav; Suková, L.; Schnabl, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 266, July (2012), s. 25-33 ISSN 1040-6182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Frequency dependent magnetic susceptibility * alluvium * Nile * grain size * TOC * human impact Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.962, year: 2012

  3. LAMBERSART "LES CONQUERANTS" (DEULE VALLEY, NORTH OF FRANCE) : A WEICHSELIAN EARLY-PLENIGLACIAL SLOPE-BOTTOM VALLEY TRANSITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschodt, Laurent; Munaut, Andre-Valentin; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Boulen, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    The Lambersart "les Conquerants" trench sequence is made of a Shelly loam topped by coarse alluviums. The whole is covered by several meters thick pleniglacial loess. The palynological and malacological data shows that this Shelly loam deposit occured during Early Glacial, in cold and moist

  4. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The potential for uranium deposits appears to be poor in Cambodia. It is largely alluvium. Uranium may occur in discordant deposits in metamorphics and intrusives in the Cardamon and Elephant Hills in the south, and in placers of U/TH minerals in the delta or banks of the Mekong River. The potential is in category 1 (less than 1000 tonnes U ). (author)

  5. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  6. Earthquake induced liquefaction analysis of Tendaho earth-fill dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fill dam, which is part of Tendaho Dam and Irrigation Project; the largest irrigation project in Ethiopia to date. The dam is located in the most seismic part of Ethiopia and was originally designed to be founded on potentially liquefiable alluvium ...

  7. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff

  8. Investigation of the Meers fault in southwestern Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luza, K.V.; Madole, R.F.; Crone, A.J.

    1987-08-01

    The Meers fault is part of a major system of NW-trending faults that form the boundary between the Wichita Mountains and the Anadarko basin in southwestern Oklahoma. A portion of the Meers fault is exposed at the surface in northern Comanche County and strikes approximately N. 60 0 W. where it offsets Permian conglomerate and shale for at least 26 km. The scarp on the fault is consistently down to the south, with a maximum relief of 5 m near the center of the fault trace. Quaternary stratigraphic relationships and 10 14 C age dates constrain the age of the last movement of the Meers fault. The last movement postdates the Browns Creek Alluvium, late Pleistocene to early Holocene, and predates the East Cache Alluvium, 100 to 800 yr B.P. Fan alluvium, produced by the last fault movement, buried a soil that dates between 1400 and 1100 yr B.P. Two trenches excavated across the scarp near Canyon Creek document the near-surface deformation and provide some general information on recurrence. Trench 1 was excavated in the lower Holocene part of the Browns Creek Alluvium, and trench 2 was excavated in unnamed gravels thought to be upper Pleistocene. Flexing and warping was the dominant mode of deformation that produced the scarp. The stratigraphy in both trenches indicates one surface-faulting event, which implies a lengthy recurrence interval for surface faulting on this part of the fault. Organic-rich material from two samples that postdate the last fault movement yielded 14 C ages between 1600 and 1300 yr B.P. These dates are in excellent agreement with the dates obtained from soils buried by the fault-related fan alluvium

  9. Preliminary report on the geology and hydrology of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico, with reference to disposal of liquid low-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, E.H.; Abrahams, J.H.; Purtyman, W.D.

    1963-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, selected the upper part of Mortandad Canyon near Los Alamos, New Mexico for a site for disposal of treated liquid low-level radioactive waste. This report summarizes the part of a study of the geology and hydrology that was done from October 1960 through June 1961. Additional work is being continued. Mortandad Canyon is a narrow east-southeast-trending canyon about 9? miles long that heads on the central part of the Pajarito Plateau at an altitude of about 7,340 feet. The canyon is tributary to the Rio Grande. The drainage area of the part of Mortandad Canyon that was investigated is about 2 square miles, and the total drainage area is about 4.9 square miles. The Pajarito Plateau is capped by the Bandelier Tuff of Pleistocene age. Mortandad Canyon is cut in the Bandelier, and alluvium covers the floor of the canyon to depths ranging from less than 1 foot to as much as 100 feet. The Bandelier is underlain by silt, sand, conglomerate, and interbedded basalt of the Santa Fe Group of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene(?) age. Some ground water is perched in the alluvium in the canyon; however, the top of the main aquifer is in the Santa Fe Group at a depth of about 990 feet below the canyon floor. Joints in the Bandelier Tuff probably were caused by shrinkage of the tuff during cooling. The joints range in width from hairline cracks to fissures several inches wide. Water can infiltrate along the open joints where the Bandelier is at the surface; however, soil, alluvial fill, and autochthonous clay inhibit infiltration on the tops of mesas and probably in the alluvium-floored canyons also. Thirty-three test holes, each less than 100 feet deep, were drilled in 10 lies across Mortandad Canyon from the western margin of the study area to just west of the Los Alamos-Santa Fe County line. Ten of the holes were cased for observation wells to measure

  10. Hydrogeologic Data of the Denver Basin, Colorado. Colorado Water Conservation Board Basic Data Report Number 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    mN N - N. 2 A 0 4 0 E N A 2 r. -C td , to- A . . . . . . 002 0 2.0 .2 0. 22 0 0 .30 0 0 0 C0 - Al 4 u’ 0 4 .2 3 . . 0 3 A aS u v 48 *0 U a 2 .0 "’U j...Depth C4~-344bb.--Conlt, td C4-66-4abda. Alt. S.431.0 ft. C4-i6-Sbcab. Alt. 5.444.0 ft. Sandstone. hard . . . 2 359 Piney Creek Alluvium Younger keess...sand. blue shale,and el68- 4bd ]c. Alt. 5,791.6 ft. Sandstone, yellow, and sandstone ...... ... 9 122 Slocum Alluviums sand .......... .. 6 89 Shale

  11. Correlation of alluvial deposits at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grothaus, B.; Howard, N.

    1977-01-01

    Because characteristics of rock layers and problems in drilling must be studied before radioactive waste can be safely contained, an evaluation was made of methods for correlating alluvial deposits at Yucca Flat of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Although correlation of Tertiary volcanic tuff beds at the NTS has been successfully achieved, correlation of stratigraphic zones in the overlying alluvium has posed technical difficulties. We have evaluated several methods for correlating alluvial deposits from drillholes, including electric resistivity logs (E logs), visual examination of sidewall samples and comparison of their carbonate (CO 2 ) content, downhole stereo photography for identifying debris flow deposits, caliche age-dating, and specific yield and permeability measurements of deposits. For predicting the thickness of zones having similar physical properties in the alluvium, E log measurements were found to be the most useful of these methods

  12. Vertical distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils of the Lokna River floodplain (Tula oblast) long after the Chernobyl accident and its simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikhin, S. V.; Golosov, V. N.; Paramonova, T. A.; Shamshurina, E. N.; Ivanov, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    Profiles of vertical 137Cs distribution in alluvial meadow soils on the low and medium levels of the Lokna River floodplain (central part of the Plavsk radioactive spot in Tula oblast) 28 years after the Chernobyl fallout have been studied. A significant increase in the 137Cs pool is revealed on the low floodplain areas compared to the soils of interfluves due to the accumulation of alluvium, which hampers the reduction of the total radionuclide pool in alluvial soils because of radioactive decay. The rate of alluvium accumulation in the soil on the medium floodplain level is lower by three times on average. An imitation prognostic model has been developed, which considers the flooding and climatic conditions in the region under study. Numerical experiments have quantitatively confirmed the deciding role of low-mobile forms in the migration of maximum 137Cs content along the soil profile in the absence of manifested erosion-accumulation processes.

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for Fireworks Display and Cleanup for the Luke Air Force Base, Arizona, Fourth of July Celebrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-21

    project locations (Figure 3-1). One distinct soil type dominates both the proposed and alternative action project areas: Estrella Loam. Estrella ...found on alluvial fans ranging in elevation from 100 to 2,700 feet and have slopes of zero to five or six percent. The Estrella soil formed in...stratified and mixed alluvium from mixed sources that can include sedimentary, metamorphic, granitic and volcanic rock. The Estrella series consists of well

  14. Identification of criteria and subcriteria for assessment of land suitability for irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević, Boško; Srđević, Zorica; Srđević, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Serbia is a country with a predominantly agriculture-based economy; however, out of the total area only 3% is irrigated. One of the strategic national development goals is to increase irrigated land especially in lowlands and alluviums of major rivers in the country. There are many criteria and subcriteria which are important for a decision on where to build new, sustainable irrigation systems. After the literature review regarding this topic, we propose a set of criteria and subcriteria for ...

  15. Analysis of Archaeological, Geological and Historical Artifacts and Documents Pertaining to the Midden Excavation at ’Woodville’ - Unit 4, James G. Fulton, Flood Protection Project, Chartiers Creek, Pennsylvania,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Baldwin 1973:218). Another advertisement describes HALES HONEY ...as "The Great Cough Remedy For Children as well as Adults. Cures all Coughs , Colds...all recent rodent burrows which honey -combed the midden particularly in the area of the W95 transect trench. There are three major categories of...into the top of the Stratum 3j alluvium, the final natural fill in the millrace channel. Because the center of the midden was literally honey -combed

  16. Final Environmental Assessment: Perimeter Fence Upgrade and Demolition of Two Sheds and Two Water Tanks, Lake Kickapoo Air Force Space Surveillance Station, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    conglomerates of the Nocona and Archer City Formations. Quaternary gravels, terrace deposits, and alluvium are present along the major drainages in the...packings, gaskets, resilient floor covering, pliable sealants and mastics and asphalt roofing products containing more than one percent asbestos...flooring and roofing materials. Less commonly used as a building material since the mid-1970s, asbestos is still in use or distribution in certain

  17. Hydrogeologic Characterization Data from the Area 5 Shallow Soil Trenches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-01-01

    Four shallow soil trenches excavated in the vicinity of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site were sampled in 1994 to characterize important physical and hydrologic parameters which can affect the movement of water in the upper few meters of undisturbed alluvium. This report describes the field collection of geologic samples and the results of laboratory analyses made on these samples. This report provides only qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations

  18. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, March 1994 to June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes lithologic logging of core from boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conducted from March 1994 to June 1994. Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium and colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, and Tertiary Calico Hills Formation. Logging results are presented in a table of contact depths for core from unsaturated zone neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphic lithologic logs for core from north ramp geology (NRG) boreholes

  19. Potential sites for a spent unreprocessed fuel facility (SURFF), southwesten part of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, D.L.; Eckel, E.B.; Ohl, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    In the absence of specific criteria, the topography, geomorphology, and geology of Jackass Flats and vicinity in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site are evaluated by arbitrary guidelines for a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility. The guidelines include requirements for surface slopes of less than 5%, 61 m of alluvium beneath the site, an area free of active erosion or deposition, lack of faults, a minimum area of 5 km 2 , no potential for flooding, and as many logistical support facilities as possible. The geology of the Jackass Flats area is similar to the rest of the Nevada Test Site in topographic relief (305-1,200 m), stratigraphy (complexly folded and faulted Paleozoic sediments overlain by Tertiary ash-flow tuffs and lavas overlain in turn by younger alluvium), and structure (Paleozoic thrust faults and folds, strike-slip faults, proximity to volcanic centers, and Basin and Range normal faults). Of the stratigraphic units at the potential Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility site in Jackass Flats, only the thickness and stability of the alluvium are of immediate importance. Basin and Range faults and a possible extension of the Mine Mountain fault need further investigation. The combination of a slope map and a simplified geologic and physiographic map into one map shows several potential sites for a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility in Jackass Flats. The potential areas have slopes of less than 5% and contain only desert pavement or segmented pavement--the two physiographic categories having the greatest geomorphic and hydraulic stability. Before further work can be done, specific criteria for a Spent Unreprocessed Fuel Facility site must be defined. Following criteria definition, potential sites will require detailed topographic and geologic studies, subsurface investigations (including geophysical methods, trenching, and perhaps shallow drilling for faults in alluvium), detailed surface hydrologic studies, and possibly subsurface hydrologic studies

  20. Geohydrology of the Winchester Subbasin, Riverside County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Charles A.; Burton, Carmen A.; Rees, Terry F.; Christensen, Allen H.

    1998-01-01

    The 20-square-mile Winchester structural subbasin is an alluvium-filled paleocanyon that is as much as 900 feet deep. The alluvial aquifer is composed of detrital material that generally ranges in size from clay to fine gravel; the fine and coarse materials are mixed in some places and inter- bedded in others. The apparent lenticularity of fine- and coarse-grained materials and differing water quality with depth indicate that the aquifer is partly or locally confined.

  1. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for the Leasing of Nevada Test and Training Range, EC-South Range, Well Site ER-EC-11, for the Underground Test Area Pahute Mesa Phase 2 Drilling and Testing Program Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    many areas by a variety of late Tertiary and Quaternary surficial deposits, including alluvium, colluvium, and basalt (Slate et al., 1999). Most...buried) ´ Claim Canyon Caldera marginPliocene & Quaternary basaltic rocks (1996) Source: NSTec, 2009 24 features in the PM-OV area are buried by...return it to the Fibers and Organics Branch. • Transformer Registration Form -I structions (E.QE)_ (1 pg, lOK) • Form 7720-12 (PDF) (1 pg, 13K

  2. Genesis and continuity of quaternary sand and gravel in glacigenic sediment at a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal site in east-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, K.G.; Curry, B. Brandon

    1991-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety has characterized the Martinsville Alternative Site (MAS) for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The MAS is located in east-central Illinois approximately 1.6 km (1 mi) north of the city of Martinsville. Geologic investigation of the 5.5-km2 (1380-acre) site revealed a sequence of chiefly Illinoian glacigenic sediments from 6 to 60 m (20-200 ft) thick overlying two major bedrock valleys carved in Pennsylvanian strata. Relatively permeable buried units include basal, preglacial alluvium; a complex of intraglacial and subglacial sediment; englacial deposits; and supraglacial fluvial deposits. Postglacial alluvium underlies stream valleys on and adjacent to the site. In most areas, the buried sand units are confined by low-permeability till, lacustrine sediment, colluvium, and loess. The distribution and thickness of the most extensive and continuous buried sand units have been modified considerably by subglacial erosion, and their distributions have been influenced by the buried bedrock valleys. The most continuous of the various sand units were deposited as preglacial and postglacial alluvium and are the uppermost and lowermost stratigraphic units at the alternative site. Sand units that were deposited in englacial or ice-marginal environments are less continuous. Aquifer pumping tests, potentiometric head data, and groundwater geochemistry analyses indicate minimal interaction of groundwater across localized interconnections of the permeable units. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  3. Lithologic and geophysical logs of drill holes Felderhoff Federal 5-1 and 25-1, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.; Grow, J.A.; Keller, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Two wildcat oil and gas exploration holes drilled in 1991 on the northern edge of the Amargosa Desert penetrated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks, alluvium, and basalt, possible Tertiary volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks, and Tertiary (?) and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The easternmost of the two holes, Felderhoff-Federal 5-1, encountered about 200 feet of alluvium, underlain by 305 feet of basalt breccia and basalt, about 345 feet of probable Tertiary tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and 616 feet of dense limestone and dolomite of uncertain age. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated 240 feet of alluvium and marl (?), and 250 feet of basalt breccia (?) and basalt, 270 feet of tuff (?) and/or tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 360 feet of slide blocks (?) and large boulders of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and 2,800 feet of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite. The two drill holes are located within a northerly trending fault zone defined largely by geophysical data; this fault zone lies along the east side of a major rift containing many small basalt eruptive centers and, farther north, several caldera complexes. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated an inverted paleozoic rock sequence; drill hole 5-1 encountered two large cavities 24-inches wide or more in dense carbonate rock of uncertain, but probable Paleozoic age. These openings may be tectonic and controlled by a regional system of northeast-striking faults

  4. Analysis and interpretation of electrical resistivity tomography data of alluvial aquifer of Tamanrasset Southern Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeddouri, Aziez; Elkheir, Abderrahmane Ben; Hadj-Said, Samia; Taupin, Jean-Denis; Leduc, Christian; Patris, Nicholas

    2018-05-01

    A groundwater exploration work in the Tamanrasset region in southern Algeria was started in August 2016 to assess the water reserves in the hydrogeological system related to the Oued Tamanrasset underflow water table which overcomes a volcanic basement. Five (05) electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in Tamanrasset area by using ABEM Terrameter LS system. the low electrical contrast between wet alluvium and water saturated alterites makes difficult the electrical response interpretation. to overcome the difficulties of interpretation of ERT profiles, field investigations, laboratory tests and software simulations, were carried out in order to clearly identify the structure of the hydrogeological system. The experimental investigation of the electrical characteristics of the alluvium as a function of water saturation was carried by the use of two devices (Wenner α and Schlumberger). Samples true resistivity values varies between 50 Ω.m for a 100% saturated sample and 1250 Ω.m for a 25% saturation sample. The interpretation of the measurements by the RES2DINV software made it possible to give 2D images of the subsoil up to a depth of 50 m. the electrical contrast between the bedrock and the overlying formations made it possible to identify it, however, it was difficult to distinguish alterites from alluvium. A methodology combining piezometric survey, geo-electrical measurements and field observations improves the interpretation of electrical tomography profiles and the application of the ERT method for accurate characterization of water resources in the Tamanrasset region.

  5. Map showing ground-water conditions in the Kaibito and Tuba City areas, Coconino and Navajo counties, Arizona, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The Kaibito and Tuba City areas include about 2,500 square miles in north-central Arizona. Ground water is obtained from the N aquifer and from alluvium. The N aquifer consists of Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, Moenave Formation, and the Lukachukai Member of the Wingate Sandstone. The main source of ground water is the Navajo Sandstone. Ground-water development has been slight in the areas. In 1977 the estimated ground-water withdrawals were about 350 acre-feet in the Kaibito area and 650 acre-feet in the Tuba City area. Water levels ranged from flowing at the land surface to 1,360 feet below the land surface. The chemical quality of the water in the N aquifer does not vary greatly in the areas. Dissolved-solids concentrations in the water range from 101 to 669 milligrams per liter but generally are less than 300 milligrams per liter. Along some of the valleys in the Kaibito and Tuba City areas, the alluvium yields water to many shallow dug wells. The water levels generally are from 5 to 15 feet below the land surface. Dissolved-solids concentrations in water from the alluvium usually are less than 600 milligrams per liter. Information shown on the map (scale 1:125,000) includes depth to water, altitude of the water level, and specific conductance and fluoride concentrations. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Radioactivity in groundwater along the borders of Oman and UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murad, A.; Alshamsi, D.; Al Shidi, F.; Al Kendi, R.; Aldahan, A.; Uppsala University, Uppsala

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the quality and radioactivity of groundwater is vital as it represents valuable resource in arid regions. Here we present radioactivity level in groundwater collected from wells in a region along the border between Sultanate of Oman and United Arab Emirates (UAE). The aquifers are alluvium deposits (silt, sand and gravel) and the measured groundwater radioactivity (including 232 Th, 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 222 Rn, gross-α and gross-β) indicates values below the WHO permissible limits for drinking water. The results also show large difference in radioactivity fingerprints, in particular for 226 Ra and 222 Rn within the investigated aquifers. The data further indicate lower radioactivity in groundwater of the alluviums compared to the carbonate aquifers in the region. This feature makes the alluvium aquifers valuable reservoirs that should be carefully exploited as a source of groundwater. As this is the first investigation on the radioactivity of groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the region, it suggests that other alluvial deposits, particularly those inland and far from the marine water intrusion or seepage from carbonate rocks would have low radioactivity fingerprints. (author)

  7. Water contents of samples from the Nevada Test Site: total, free (natural state to 1050C), and more tightly bonded (105 to 7000C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1981-05-01

    To help confirm correct functioning of an epithermal neutron sonde, we measured tightly bonded water content of selected Nevada Test Site (NTS) drill holes. Tuff and alluvium samples were dried overnight at 105 0 C. The samples were then heated for 45 min in a split tube furnace at 700 0 C. The water that came off due to this heating was collected and the amount recorded. The error in this procedure is +- 0.59 wt %. Total water can be calculated for samples from analyses of free and tightly bonded water contents. The maximum error in this calculation is equivalent to the error in determining the more tightly bonded water. Average total water content values have been assigned to geologic units. These values, in weight fraction, are alluvium 0.14 +- .05 and tuff 0.19 +- .04. Further division of the tuff gives values of Rainier Mesa 0.15 +- .01, Paintbrush 0.18 +- .03, Tunnel Beds 0.20 +- .04, and Grouse Canyon 0.29 +- .02. Statistically significant differences occur between the tuff and alluvium. Within the tuffs, these differences also occur between Grouse Canyon, Rainier Mesa, and Paintbrush/Tunnel Beds. Paintbrush and Tunnel Beds cannot be distinguished by this method

  8. Distinctive channel geometry and riparian vegetation: A geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, N.; Shaw, J. R.; Wohl, E. E.; Cooper, D.

    2012-12-01

    Interactions between hydrology, channel form, and riparian vegetation along arid ephemeral streams are not thoroughly understood and current stream classifications do not adequately represent variability in channel geometry and associated riparian communities. Relatively infrequent hydrologic disturbances in dryland environments are responsible for creation and maintenance of channel form that supports riparian communities. To investigate the influence of channel characteristics on riparian vegetation in the arid southwestern United States, we develop a geomorphic classification for arid ephemeral streams based on the degree of confinement and the composition of confining material that provide constraints on available moisture. Our conceptual model includes five stream types: 1) bedrock channels entirely confined by exposed bedrock and devoid of persistent alluvium; 2) bedrock with alluvium channels at least partially confined by bedrock but containing enough alluvium to create bedforms that persist through time; 3) incised alluvium channels bound only by unconsolidated alluvial material into which they are incised; 4) braided washes that exhibit multi-thread, braided characteristics regardless of the composition of confining material; and 5) piedmont headwater 0-2nd order streams (Strahler) confined only by unconsolidated alluvium and which initiate as secondary channels on piedmont surfaces. Eighty-six study reaches representing the five stream types were surveyed on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground in the Sonoran Desert of southwestern Arizona. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicates significant differences between the five stream types with regards to channel geometry (i.e., stream gradient, width-to-depth ratio, the ratio between valley width and channel width (Wv/Wc), shear stress, and unit stream power) and riparian vegetation (i.e., presence and canopy coverage by species, canopy stratum, and life form). Discriminant analysis

  9. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  10. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P. W.; Umari, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  11. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  12. Site Characterization Data from the U3ax/bl Exploratory Boreholes at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-08-01

    This report provides qualitative analyses and preliminary interpretations of hydrogeologic data obtained from two 45-degree, slanted exploratory boreholes drilled within the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site. Borehole UE-3bl-D1 was drilled beneath the U3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit, and Borehole UE-3bl-U1 was drilled in undisturbed alluvium adjacent to the disposal unit. The U3ax/bl disposal unit is located within two conjoined subsidence craters, U3ax and U3bl, which were created by underground nuclear testing. Data from these boreholes were collected to support site characterization activities for the U3ax/bl disposal unit and the entire Area 3 RWMS. Site characterization at disposal units within the Area 3 RWMS must address the possibility that subsidence craters and associated disturbed alluvium of the chimneys beneath the craters might serve as pathways for contaminant migration. The two boreholes were drilled and sampled to compare hydrogeologic properties of alluvium below the waste disposal unit with those of adjacent undisturbed alluvium. Whether Borehole UE-3bl-D1 actually penetrated the chimney of the U3bl crater is uncertain. Analyses of core samples showed little difference in hydrogeologic properties between the two boreholes. Important findings of this study include the following: No hazardous or radioactive constituents of waste disposal concern were found in the samples obtained from either borehole. No significant differences in physical and hydrogeologic properties between boreholes is evident, and no evidence of significant trends with depth for any of these properties was observed. The values observed are typical of sandy materials. The alluvium is dry, with volumetric water content ranging from 5.6 to 16.2 percent. Both boreholes exhibit a slight increase in water content with depth, the only such trend observed. Water potential measurements on core samples from both boreholes show a large positive

  13. Geohydrology and water utilization in the Willcox Basin, Graham and Cochise Counties, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S.G.; Schumann, Herbert H.

    1969-01-01

    The Willcox basin is an area of interior drainage in the northern part of Sulphur Springs Valley, Cochise and Graham Counties, Ariz. The basin comprises about 1,500 square miles, of which the valley floor occupies about 950 square miles. The basin probably formed during middle and late Tertiary time, when the area was subjected to large-scale faulting accompanied by the uplift of the mountain ranges that presently border it. During and after faulting, large quantities of alluvium were deposited in the closed basin. The rocks in the basin are divided into two broad groups--the rocks of the mountain blocks, of Precambrian through Tertiary age, and the rocks of the basin, of Tertiary and Quaternary age. The mountain blocks consist of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks; the water-bearing characteristics of these rocks depend primarily on their degree of weathering and fracturing. Even in areas where these rocks are fractured and jointed, only small amounts of water have been developed. The rocks of the basin consist of moderately consolidated alluvium, poorly consolidated alluvium, and unconsolidated alluvium. The water-bearing characteristics of the moderately and poorly consolidated alluvium are not well known. The unconsolidated alluvium underlies most of the valley floor and consists of two facies, stream deposits and lake beds associated with the old playa. The lenticular sand and gravel layers interbedded in silt- and clay-size material of the unconsolidated alluvium constitute the principal aquifer in the basin. The other aquifers, which yield less water, consist of beds of poorly to moderately consolidated sand- and gravel-size material; these beds occur in both the poorly consolidated and moderately consolidated alluvium. In the Stewart area the median specific capacity of wells per 100 feet of saturated unconsolidated alluvium was 20 gallons per minute, and in the Kansas Settlement area the specific capacity of wells penetrating the poorly and

  14. Progress report: Bangladesh [CSC Project on Management of Water Hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The CSC Project on Management of Water Hyacinth in Bangladesh was started in only April 1981. The present report from Bangladesh is based on the interim progress reports, submitted by the project coordinators of the organizations concerned, for the work during the short intervening period to 4th June 1981. It is obvious that the report deals mainly with the preliminary preparations and observations on the various aspects of the investigations. The research components assigned to various organisations in Bangladesh are: Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology; - Growth rate and biogas production; Housing and Building Research Institute; - Paper and board, and biogas; Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - Protein, enzymes and ammoacids; Dacca University - Pollution removal and studies of biomass production. Bangladesh is a flat deltaic plain formed from old and new alluvium. The areas of old alluvium are located above the general level, while the vast areas of new alluvium are situated m the flood plain of the modern rivers. The whole country is intersected by a network of rivers; the areas comprising the alluvial plains are very large. The river bank levees are high and the land gradually slopes inland away from the levees. The tract of land between two rivers are shaped like a furrow and in most cases form elongated 'beels' or swamps which are ideal place for the growth and propagation of aquatic plants particularly water hyacinth along with other aquatic organisms, both of plant and animal origin due to eutrophication. It is in the shallow swamps and derelict ponds that luxuriant growth and proliferation of water hyacinth is generally observed in Bangladesh. However, there is a feeling that much of the water hyacinth population in the open countryside was depleted during the severe drought which prevailed during the summer of 1979. But Bangladesh has the ideal water and climatic environment for conditions of rapid growth and spread

  15. Identifying the origin of underground water in the Andean Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.O.

    1979-01-01

    Two problems associated with groundwater flow were fully identified by the application of geochemical techniques. The first was related to the Palacio tunnel, where infiltration of 400 litres/min caused caving-in and other problems which held up construction for several months. To anticipate further problems and to plan the requisite engineering work, a study was carried out to locate the origin of the groundwater responsible for these difficulties. Water samples were taken from the four possible sources: a pool, a series of large fissures, superficial fluvioglacial deposits and the Guadalupe sandstone which crops out one kilometre from the cave-in site. After correlation of the results of chemical analyses with geological and hydrological information about the area, the conclusion was reached that the groundwater in question flows from the Guadalupe sandstone through fractures and secondary openings. The second problem studied was that of the immense Quebradablanca landslide caused by infiltration of water into and percolation through alluvial deposits. A drainage system had already been designed to intercept and collect direct infiltration water above the alluvium, thereby preventing the latter from becoming saturated. The present study was carried out to determine whether there was groundwater flow from the rocks adjacent to the alluvium. The results of the geochemical analysis indicate that most of the water does in fact come from the adjacent hard rock rather than from direct infiltration of rain-water above the alluvium. This shows that the drainage system designed is insufficient for preventing saturation of the rock and that a more extensive and costly system would be needed to control the groundwater flow. (author)

  16. Sensitivity of long-term bare soil infiltration simulations to hydraulic properties in an arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stothoff, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for emplacement of a high-level nuclear waste geologic repository is currently being evaluated. Assessments of the repository performance suggest that the uncertainty in infiltration rates strongly affects predicted repository performance. Most of the ground surface over the potential repository footprint is characterized by shallow to deep colluvium/alluvium overlying densely fractured, welded tuffs. In order to identify characteristic behavior of infiltration that might be expected at the site, two idealizations of this situation are examined: an effectively semi-infinite column of alluvium and a two-layer column of alluvium over a fractured impermeable matrix. For each idealization the impact of hydraulic properties is assessed. Examining the sensitivity of bare soil simulator predictions for an effectively semi-infinite column, it is found that decreasing the air entry pressure while holding all other parameters at a fixed level tends to increase both the long-term average moisture content and the long-term average net infiltration flux for homogeneous media. In contrast, increasing the van Genuchten scale parameter (m = 1 - 1/n) or decreasing the porosity tends to decrease the average soil moisture but increase the infiltration. Most interestingly, three regimes are found for permeability. For relatively high permeabilities, there is a trend toward increasing average infiltration and increasing average moisture content with decreasing permeability. For relatively low permeabilities, vapor transport dominates over liquid transport, runoff and evaporation overwhelm infiltration, and the soil becomes very dry with essentially no infiltration flux Between the extreme cases of high and low permeability, there is a zone where decreasing permeability results in decreased infiltration but increased moisture content

  17. Holocene and latest Pleistocene oblique dextral faulting on the southern Inyo Mountains fault, Owens Lake basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, S.N.; Jayko, A.S.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Inyo Mountains fault (IMF) is a more or less continuous range-front fault system, with discontinuous late Quaternary activity, at the western base of the Inyo Mountains in Owens Valley, California. The southern section of the IMF trends ???N20??-40?? W for at least 12 km at the base of and within the range front near Keeler in Owens Lake basin. The southern IMF cuts across a relict early Pliocene alluvial fan complex, which has formed shutter ridges and northeast-facing scarps, and which has dextrally offset, well-developed drainages indicating long-term activity. Numerous fault scarps along the mapped trace are northeast-facing, mountain-side down, and developed in both bedrock and younger alluvium, indicating latest Quaternary activity. Latest Quaternary multiple- and single-event scarps that cut alluvium range in height from 0.5 to 3.0 m. The penultimate event on the southern IMF is bracketed between 13,310 and 10,590 cal years B.P., based on radiocarbon dates from faulted alluvium and fissure-fill stratigraphy exposed in a natural wash cut. Evidence of the most recent event is found at many sites along the mapped fault, and, in particular, is seen in an ???0.5-m northeast-facing scarp and several right-stepping en echelon ???0.5-m-deep depressions that pond fine sediment on a younger than 13,310 cal years B.P. alluvial fan. A channel that crosses transverse to this scarp is dextrally offset 2.3 ?? 0.8 m, providing a poorly constrained oblique slip rate of 0.1-0. 3 m/ k.y. The identified tectonic geomorphology and sense of displacement demonstrate that the southern IMF accommodates predominately dextral slip and should be integrated into kinematic fault models of strain distribution in Owens Valley.

  18. Geologic map of the Weldona 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Taylor, Emily M.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2018-03-21

    The Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and river incision in the Weldona quadrangle. During the Pleistocene the course of the river within the map area shifted progressively southward as it incised, and by late middle Pleistocene the river was south of its present position, cutting and filling deep paleochannels now covered by younger alluvium. The river shifted back to the north during the late Pleistocene. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks are unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range that also have played a major role in shaping surficial geology of the map area. Periodically during the late Pleistocene, major flood events on these tributaries deposited large volumes of sediment at their confluences, forming a broad, low-gradient fan of sidestream alluvium that could have occasionally dammed the river for short periods of time. Eolian sand deposits of the Sterling (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of prolonged drought. With the onset of irrigation and damming during historical times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly

  19. Geologic map of the Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Taylor, Emily M.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2018-03-21

    The Weldona 7.5′ quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the Pleistocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and river incision in the Weldona quadrangle. During the Pleistocene the course of the river within the map area shifted progressively southward as it incised, and by late middle Pleistocene the river was south of its present position, cutting and filling deep paleochannels now covered by younger alluvium. The river shifted back to the north during the late Pleistocene. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks are unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range that also have played a major role in shaping surficial geology of the map area. Periodically during the late Pleistocene, major flood events on these tributaries deposited large volumes of sediment at their confluences, forming a broad, low-gradient fan of sidestream alluvium that could have occasionally dammed the river for short periods of time. Eolian sand deposits of the Sterling (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the quadrangle and record past episodes of sand mobilization during times of prolonged drought. With the onset of irrigation and damming during historical times, the South Platte River has changed from a broad, shallow, and sandy braided river with highly

  20. Hydrogeologic data for existing excavations and the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    The Special Projects Section of Reynolds Electrical ampersand Engineering Co., Inc. is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Waste Management Division. Geologic description, in situ testing, and laboratory analyses of alluvium exposed in existing excavations are important subparts to the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the RWMS for disposal of low level waste mixed waste and transuranic waste. The primary purpose of the Existing Excavation Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important hydrologic properties of the near surface alluvium, thought to play an important role in the infiltration and redistribution of water and solutes through the upper unsaturated zone at the Area 5 RWMS; and second, to provide guidance for the design of future sampling and testing programs. The justification for this work comes from the state of Nevada review of the original DOE/NV Part B Permit application submitted in 1988 for disposal of mixed wastes at the RWMS. The state of Nevada determined that the permit was deficient in characterization data concerning the hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone. DOE/NV agreed with the state and proposed the study of alluvium exposed in existing excavations as one step toward satisfying these important site characterization data requirements. Other components of the site characterization process include the Science Trench Borehole and Pilot Well Projects

  1. Characterising alluvial aquifers in a remote ephemeral catchment (Flinders River, Queensland) using a direct push tracer approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew R.; Smith, Stanley D.; Lamontagne, Sébastien; Suckow, Axel

    2018-01-01

    The availability of reliable water supplies is a key factor limiting development in northern Australia. However, characterising groundwater resources in this remote part of Australia is challenging due to a lack of existing infrastructure and data. Here, direct push technology (DPT) was used to characterise shallow alluvial aquifers at two locations in the semiarid Flinders River catchment. DPT was used to evaluate the saturated thickness of the aquifer and estimate recharge rates by sampling for environmental tracers in groundwater (major ions, 2H, 18O, 3H and 14C). The alluvium at Fifteen Mile Reserve and Glendalough Station consisted of a mixture of permeable coarse sandy and gravely sediments and less permeable clays and silts. The alluvium was relatively thin (i.e. < 20 m) and, at the time of the investigation, was only partially saturated. Tritium (3H) concentrations in groundwater was ∼1 Tritium Unit (TU), corresponding to a mean residence time for groundwater of about 12 years. The lack of an evaporation signal for the 2H and 18O of groundwater suggests rapid localised recharge from overbank flood events as the primary recharge mechanism. Using the chloride mass balance technique (CMB) and lumped parameter models to interpret patterns in 3H in the aquifer, the mean annual recharge rate varied between 21 and 240 mm/yr. Whilst this recharge rate is relatively high for a semiarid climate, the alluvium is thin and heterogeneous hosting numerous alluvial aquifers with varied connectivity and limited storage capacity. Combining DPT and environmental tracers is a cost-effective strategy to characterise shallow groundwater resources in unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers in remote data sparse areas.

  2. Comparative study of large scale simulation of underground explosions inalluvium and in fractured granite using stochastic characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, O.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T.; Glenn, L.

    2014-12-01

    This work describes a methodology used for large scale modeling of wave propagation fromunderground explosions conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in two different geological settings:fractured granitic rock mass and in alluvium deposition. We show that the discrete nature of rockmasses as well as the spatial variability of the fabric of alluvium is very important to understand groundmotions induced by underground explosions. In order to build a credible conceptual model of thesubsurface we integrated the geological, geomechanical and geophysical characterizations conductedduring recent test at the NTS as well as historical data from the characterization during the undergroundnuclear test conducted at the NTS. Because detailed site characterization is limited, expensive and, insome instances, impossible we have numerically investigated the effects of the characterization gaps onthe overall response of the system. We performed several computational studies to identify the keyimportant geologic features specific to fractured media mainly the joints; and those specific foralluvium porous media mainly the spatial variability of geological alluvium facies characterized bytheir variances and their integral scales. We have also explored common key features to both geologicalenvironments such as saturation and topography and assess which characteristics affect the most theground motion in the near-field and in the far-field. Stochastic representation of these features based onthe field characterizations have been implemented in Geodyn and GeodynL hydrocodes. Both codeswere used to guide site characterization efforts in order to provide the essential data to the modelingcommunity. We validate our computational results by comparing the measured and computed groundmotion at various ranges. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence LivermoreNational Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock

  4. Geophysics report of Santa Rosa place Canelones province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Hydrogeology Section required to Geophysics Department of the DINAMIGE to carry out this report for Education and Culture Ministery, to study the feasibility of the exploration and exploitation of underground waters located in three properties zones in Santa Rosa's town, Canelones province. By means of the geoeletric methods it was possible to estimate the alluviums thickness ,sedimentary deposits or alteration mantels. The purpose of the present work has been to establish geologic and structural features through vertical electric well by means of which is been able to study the vertical variations of the resistivity .

  5. The dispersion of pollutants in the Romanian rivers Olt, Somes and Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, M.; Paunica, I.; Pascu, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the results obtained in three tracer experiments carried out into the Romanian rivers Olt and Somes as well as into the Romanian part of the Danube by using the radioactive tracer 82 Br. The possibility of a radioactive discharge to occur from the Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant bring to focus also knowing of the distribution of fission products between water and solid suspended material. Consequently there were also studied and presented the distribution coefficients of the radionuclides 131 I, 99 Mo, 144 Ce, 137 Cs, and 95 Zr for clay, loess and the particular alluvium collected from the Danube bed. (author)

  6. The SPACE 1.0 model: a Landlab component for 2-D calculation of sediment transport, bedrock erosion, and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Barnhart, Katherine R.

    2017-12-01

    Models of landscape evolution by river erosion are often either transport-limited (sediment is always available but may or may not be transportable) or detachment-limited (sediment must be detached from the bed but is then always transportable). While several models incorporate elements of, or transition between, transport-limited and detachment-limited behavior, most require that either sediment or bedrock, but not both, are eroded at any given time. Modeling landscape evolution over large spatial and temporal scales requires a model that can (1) transition freely between transport-limited and detachment-limited behavior, (2) simultaneously treat sediment transport and bedrock erosion, and (3) run in 2-D over large grids and be coupled with other surface process models. We present SPACE (stream power with alluvium conservation and entrainment) 1.0, a new model for simultaneous evolution of an alluvium layer and a bedrock bed based on conservation of sediment mass both on the bed and in the water column. The model treats sediment transport and bedrock erosion simultaneously, embracing the reality that many rivers (even those commonly defined as bedrock rivers) flow over a partially alluviated bed. SPACE improves on previous models of bedrock-alluvial rivers by explicitly calculating sediment erosion and deposition rather than relying on a flux-divergence (Exner) approach. The SPACE model is a component of the Landlab modeling toolkit, a Python-language library used to create models of Earth surface processes. Landlab allows efficient coupling between the SPACE model and components simulating basin hydrology, hillslope evolution, weathering, lithospheric flexure, and other surface processes. Here, we first derive the governing equations of the SPACE model from existing sediment transport and bedrock erosion formulations and explore the behavior of local analytical solutions for sediment flux and alluvium thickness. We derive steady-state analytical solutions for

  7. Clay minerals and Sr-Nd isotopes of the sediments along the western margin of India and their implication for sediment provenance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Ahmad, S; Babu, G.A.

    - gion is occupied by Recent alluvium and the Warkala beds (ferruginised sand stones with inter- calated clays) of Tertiary age. Extensive laterisation of the parent rocks is a characteristic feature in western India. Bauxite- and laterite...^Nd isotopes of the sediments along the western margin of India and their implication for sediment provenance Pratima M. Kessarkar a , V. Purnachandra Rao a;C3 , S.M. Ahmad b , G. Anil Babu b a National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India...

  8. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study is a geohydrologic reconnaissance of about 170 square miles in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area from Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada. The study is one of a series that describes the geohydrology of the recreation area and that indentifies areas where water supplies can be developed. Precipitation in this arid area is about 5 inches per year. Streamflow is seasonal and extremely variable except for that in the Colorado River, which adjoins the area. Pan evaporation is more than 20 times greater than precipitation; therefore, regional ground-water supplies are meager except near the Colorado River, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave. Large ground-water supplies can be developed near the river and lakes, and much smaller supplies may be obtained in a few favorable locations farther from the river and lakes. Ground water in most of the areas probably contains more than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, but water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids can be obtained within about 1 mile of the lakes. Crystalline rocks of metamorphic, intrusive and volcanic origin crop out in the area. These rocks are overlain by conglomerate and mudstone of the Muddy Creek Formation, gravel and conglomerate of the older alluvium, and sand and gravel of the Chemehuevi Formation and younger alluvium. The crystalline rocks, where sufficiently fractured, yield water to springs and would yield small amounts of water to favorably located wells. The poorly cemented and more permeable beds of the older alluvium, Chemehuevi Formation, and younger alluvium are the better potential aquifers, particularly along the Colorado River and Lakes Mead and Mohave. Thermal springs in the gorge of the Colorado River south of Hoover Dam discharge at least 2,580 acre-feet per year of water from the volcanic rocks and metamorphic and plutonic rocks. The discharge is much greater than could be infiltrated in the drainage basin above the springs

  9. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Jefferson City Quadrangle, Missouri. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The Jefferson City quadrangle covers approximately 7500 square miles at the Northwestern end of the Ozark uplift. Lithified material exposed, ranges in age from Cambrian through Pennsylvanian, but Pennsylvanian sediments dominate the surface as mapped. Some alluvium is mapped in river flood plain areas. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. A total of 95 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly in this report. All anomalies are related to cultural features, but those associated with coal mine tailings appear to have some significance. Magnetic data appear to relate to complexities in the underlying Precambrian rocks

  10. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass

  11. Assessment of bleaching of K-feldspar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiafu; Li Shenghua; Tso, M-Y.W.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the difference in the bleaching rate between IRSL and TL signals, a new method of assessing the bleaching of sedimentary feldspar is proposed. All measurements for De and the bleaching factor (normalized ratio of IRSL to TL) are carried out on the same grain. K-feldspar grains from two sediments, a marine and an alluvium, from Hong Kong were tested. Their bleaching factors indicate that bleaching of the marine sediment was not uniform, whereas the latter was relatively homogeneous. Furthermore, the relatively well-bleached grains in each sample were identified

  12. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Henry R.

    1978-01-01

    The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village

  13. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  14. Optical dating using feldspar from Quaternary alluvial and colluvial sediments from SE Brazilian Plateau, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatumi, Sonia H.; Peixoto, Maria Naise O.; Moura, Josilda R.S.; Mello, Claudio L.; Carmo, Isabela O.; Kowata, Emilia A.; Yee, Marcio; Brito, Silvio Luiz M.; Gozzi, Giuiliano; Kassab, Luciana R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Opticallly stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating has been applied to a wide variety of materials such as loess, sand dunes, colluvium, alluvium, volcanic products, etc., helping geologic geomorphologic studies. OSL dating results using feldspar crystals extracted from alluvial and colluvial deposits of SE Brazilian Plateau will be presented in this work. The methodology used is based on the regeneration method, with multiple aliquot protocol. A total of 23 sample ages were obtained spanning 6.5-97.2 kyr. Results of radioactive contents and comparison with radiocarbon ages will be discussed

  15. Alpha-emitting isotopes and chromium in a coastal California aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Izbicki, John A.; Murtaugh, Joseph M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alluvium in Piedra de Lumbre basin higher radionuclides likely from natural Th. • Natural uranium decay-chain isotopes, including Ra, present in marine deposits. • Marine deposits also contain low concentrations of chromium. • Radionuclides and chromium concentrations lower in alluvium in the Las Flores basin. - Abstract: The unadjusted 72-h gross alpha activities in water from two wells completed in marine and alluvial deposits in a coastal southern California aquifer 40 km north of San Diego were 15 and 25 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L). Although activities were below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L, when adjusted for uranium activity; there is concern that new wells in the area may exceed MCLs, or that future regulations may limit water use from the wells. Coupled well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data collected from the wells in 2011 (with analyses for isotopes within the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay-chains) show gross alpha activity in marine deposits is associated with decay of naturally-occurring 238 U and its daughter 234 U. Radon activities in marine deposits were as high as 2230 pCi/L. In contrast, gross alpha activities in overlying alluvium within the Piedra de Lumbre watershed, eroded from the nearby San Onofre Hills, were associated with decay of 232 Th, including its daughter 224 Ra. Radon activities in alluvium from Piedra de Lumbre of 450 pCi/L were lower than in marine deposits. Chromium VI concentrations in marine deposits were less than the California MCL of 10 μg/L (effective July 1, 2014) but δ 53 Cr compositions were near zero and within reported ranges for anthropogenic chromium. Alluvial deposits from the nearby Las Flores watershed, which drains a larger area having diverse geology, has low alpha activities and chromium as a result of geologic and geochemical conditions and may be more promising for future water-supply development

  16. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REIMUS, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid

  17. Stream-sediment geochemical prospecting for uranium in the Paleozoic of the Belgian Ardennes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.; Lefin, J.P.; Dejonghe, L.; Henry, J.

    1983-01-01

    Orientation studies showed that a positive geochemical response for uranium in the Belgium Ardennes could be obtained with bank sampling, which consists of collecting colluvium and alluvium on both sides of the rivers. This necessitates a large sampling density of about one sample per km 2 (10 205 samples from an area of 11 000 km 2 ). Anomalies (> 3 ppm) are found that fall into three main areas each in a different geological setting: (1) at the periphery of the Cambro-Silurian Massif of Stavelot; (2) within the transition beds between the Visean and Namurian; and (3) in the lower Devonian of the central Ardennes. (Auth.)

  18. Temporal changes in the distribution of 137Cs in alluvial soils at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Miera, F.R. Jr.; Bostick, K.V.

    1978-05-01

    The alluvial soils of three liquid-effluent receiving areas at Los Alamos were sampled to determine 137 Cs temporal distributional relationships. Soil radionuclide concentrations were determined as a function of soil depth and distance from the waste outfall, and discussed relative to runoff transport of 137 Cs-contaminated alluvium. The inventories of soil 137 Cs in various segments of each effluent-receiving area were calculated for two sampling periods and compared with amounts of 137 Cs added to the canyons in the liquid wastes. The distribution patterns of soil cesium were compared with the waste-use history of the three study areas and the hydrologic characteristics of the canyons

  19. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Locke, D.A. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy`s Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  20. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Locke, D.A. (Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States))

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended.

  1. Appraisal of nuclear waste isolation in the vadose zone in arid and semiarid regions (with emphasis on the Nevada Test Site)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

    1983-05-01

    An appraisal was made of the concept of isolating high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone of alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Principal attributes of these terranes are: (1) low population density, (2) low moisture influx, (3) a deep water table, (4) the presence of sorptive rocks, and (5) relative ease of construction. Concerns about heat effects of waste on unsaturated rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity are considered. Calculations show that a standard 2000-acre repository with a thermal loading of 40 kW/acre in partially saturated alluvium or tuff would experience an average temperature rise of less than 100 0 C above the initial temperature. The actual maximum temperature would depend strongly on the emplacement geometry. Concerns about seismicity, volcanism, and future climatic change are also mitigated. The conclusion reached in this appraisal is that unsaturated zones in alluvium and tuff of arid regions should be investigated as comprehensively as other geologic settings considered to be potential repository sites

  2. 1D and 2D site amplification effects at Tarcento (Friuli, NE Italy), 30 years later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, Carlo; Faccioli, Ezio; Costa, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    A temporary accelerometer network has been installed in Tarcento (Friuli, NE Italy), a small town heavily hit by the 1976-1977 Friuli earthquake sequence, as a part of an ongoing research project aimed at ground motion simulation and generation of shakemaps in the near-field of an earthquake. The network operated from October 2008 to April 2010 and consisted of three K2 accelerographs with internal Episensor, distributed over a linear array of about 1.5 km length. Tarcento town had been chosen, at the end of the 1970s, as the ideal site for a pilot microzonation study, the first of this kind in Italy, in which a substantial number of field (and laboratory) tests were carried out in order to assess the mechanical properties of local alluvium deposits and their complex (3D) geometrical configuration. The data from the temporary network, illustrated herein, allow for proper verification and review of some of the quantitative predictions formulated in the 1980 study. As argued in the discussion section, we also believe that the data are apt to provide valuable information of more general interest on the complex seismic response of alluvium-filled valleys, and we show therein how the observations can be interpreted in the light of presently available parametric simulation studies and simplified criteria for handling basin amplification effects.

  3. Aquifer composition and the tendency toward scale-deposit formation during reverse osmosis desalination - Examples from saline ground water in New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    Desalination is expected to make a substantial contribution to water supply in the United States by 2020. Currently, reverse osmosis is one of the most cost effective and widely used desalination technologies. The tendency to form scale deposits during reverse osmosis is an important factor in determining the suitability of input waters for use in desalination. The tendency toward scale formation of samples of saline ground water from selected geologic units in New Mexico was assessed using simulated evaporation. All saline water samples showed a strong tendency to form CaCO3 scale deposits. Saline ground water samples from the Yeso Formation and the San Andres Limestone showed relatively stronger tendencies to form CaSO4 2H2O scale deposits and relatively weaker tendencies to form SiO2(a) scale deposits than saline ground water samples from the Rio Grande alluvium. Tendencies toward scale formation in saline ground water samples from the Dockum Group were highly variable. The tendencies toward scale formation of saline waters from the Yeso Formation, San Andres Limestone, and Rio Grande alluvium appear to correlate with the mineralogical composition of the geologic units, suggesting that scale-forming tendencies are governed by aquifer composition and water-rock interaction. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronostratigraphic study of the Grottaperfetta alluvial valley in the city of Rome (Italy: investigating possible interaction between sedimentary and tectonic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Giulio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We carried out geomorphologic and geological investigations in a south-eastern tributary valley of the Tiber River in Rome, the Grottaperfetta valley, aimed to reconstruct its buried geometry. Since results of the geomorphologic study evidenced anomalies of the stream beds, we performed geoelectric and boreholes prospecting to check whether recent faulting, rather than an inherited structural control, possibly contributed to the evolution of the alluvial valley. Vertical offsets of the stratigraphic horizons across adjacent boreholes were evidenced within the Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvium and its substratum. In order to rule out the effects of irregular geometry of the alluvial deposits, we focussed on sectors where vertical offsets affected all the stratigraphic horizons (alluvium and pre-Holocene substratum, showing an increasing displacement with depth. We identified a site where repeated displacements occur coupled with a lateral variation of soil resistivity, and we drilled an oblique borehole aimed to cross and sample the possible fault zone affecting the terrain. A 7 cm thick granular layer, inclined 50°÷70° on the horizontal, was recovered 5 m b.g., and it was interpreted as the filling material of a fracture. The convergence of the reported features with independent evidence from geoelectric and geomorphologic investigations leads to hypothesize the presence of a faulting zone within the Holocene alluvial terrains and to propose the excavation of a trench to verify this hypothesis.

  5. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site cover an area of about 20 acres, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. All waste is buried in the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation, and most is in the weathered shale (regolith) part of this member. Recharge to the rocks is probably by infiltration of rainfall through regolith at the top of the hill. At least two water tables are present: near the base of the regolith, at a depth of about 25 feet and; in the Ohio Shale, at a depth of about 300 feet. About 95 percent of ground-water discharge to streams is from colluvium on hillsides and valley alluvium. The remaining 5 percent is discharge from bedrock, of which about 0.5 percent is from rocks underlying the burial area. Waste radionuclides in the subsurface, other than tritium, were observed only in the regolith of the Nancy Member. Only tritium was observed with certainty in deeper rocks and in the adjacent valley alluvium. Other waste radionuclides were in streamwater and stream sediment, and may have been transported with overland runoff from the surface of the burial site. (USGS)

  6. Potential effect of natural gas wells on alluvial groundwater contamination at the Kansas City Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, D.A.; Laase, A.D.; Locke, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    This report is the result of a request for further information about several abandoned natural gas wells at the US Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The request was prompted by an old map showing several, possibly eight, natural gas wells located under or near what is now the southeast corner of the Main Manufacturing Building at KCP. Volatile organic compound contamination in the alluvial aquifer surrounding the gas wells might possibly contaminate the bedrock aquifer if the gas wells still exist as conduits. Several circumstances exist that make it doubtful that contamination is entering the bedrock aquifers: (1) because regional groundwater flow in the bedrock beneath the KCP is expected to be vertically upward, contaminants found in the alluvial aquifer should not migrate down the old wells; (2) because of the low hydraulic conductivity of the bedrock units, contaminant transport would be extremely slow if the contaminants were migrating down the wells; and (3) casing, apparently set through the alluvium in all of the wells, would have deteriorated and may have collapsed; if the casing collapsed, the silty clays in the alluvium would also collapse and seal the well. No definitive information has been discovered about the exact location of the wells. No further search for or consideration of the old gas wells is recommended

  7. Verification of a 1-dimensional model for predicting shallow infiltration at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    A characterization of net infiltration rates is needed for site-scale evaluation of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Shallow infiltration caused by precipitation may be a potential source of net infiltration. A 1-dimensional finite difference model of shallow infiltration with a moisture-dependent evapotranspiration function and a hypothetical root-zone was calibrated and verified using measured water content profiles, measured precipitation, and estimated potential evapotranspiration. Monthly water content profiles obtained from January 1990 through October 1993 were measured by geophysical logging of 3 boreholes located in the alluvium channel of Pagany Wash on Yucca Mountain. The profiles indicated seasonal wetting and drying of the alluvium in response to winter season precipitation and summer season evapotranspiration above a depth of 2.5 meters. A gradual drying trend below a depth of 2.5 meters was interpreted as long-term redistribution and/or evapotranspiration following a deep infiltration event caused by runoff in Pagany Wash during 1984. An initial model, calibrated using the 1990 to 1992 record, did not provide a satisfactory prediction of water content profiles measured in 1993 following a relatively wet winter season. A re-calibrated model using a modified, seasonally-dependent evapotranspiration function provided an improved fit to the total record. The new model provided a satisfactory verification using water content changes measured at a distance of 6 meters from the calibration site, but was less satisfactory in predicting changes at a distance of 18 meters

  8. Radon survey in the high natural radiation region of Niska Banja, Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Birovljev, A.; Bochicchio, F.; Quarto, M.; Obryk, B.; Paszkowski, M.; Celikovic, I.; Demajo, A.; Ujic, P.; Budzanowski, M.; Olko, P.; McLaughlin, J.P.; Waligorski, M.P.R.

    2007-01-01

    A radon survey has been carried out around the town of Niska Banja (Serbia) in a region partly located over travertine formations, showing an enhanced level of natural radioactivity. Outdoor and indoor radon concentrations were measured seasonally over the whole year, using CR-39 diffusion type radon detectors. Outdoor measurements were performed at 56 points distributed over both travertine and alluvium sediment formations. Indoor radon concentrations were measured in 102 living rooms and bedrooms of 65 family houses. In about 50% of all measurement sites, radon concentration was measured over each season separately, making it possible to estimate seasonal variations, which were then used to correct values measured over different periods, and to estimate annual values. The average annual indoor radon concentration was estimated at over 1500 Bq/m 3 and at about 650 Bq/m 3 in parts of Niska Banja located over travertine and alluvium sediment formations, respectively, with maximum values exceeding 6000 Bq/m 3 . The average value of outdoor annual radon concentration was 57 Bq/m 3 , with a maximum value of 168 Bq/m 3 . The high values of indoor and outdoor radon concentrations found at Niska Banja make this region a high natural background radiation area. Statistical analysis of our data confirms that the level of indoor radon concentration depends primarily on the underlying soil and building characteristics

  9. Environmental isotope-aided studies on river water and groundwater interaction in the region of Seoul and Taegu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Sung Ahn

    1988-01-01

    Environmental isotope-aided studies on river water and groundwater interaction in the Han River Basin in areas especially occupied by crystalline rocks and limestone have been undertaken. The result indicates that the groundwater in the Seoul area is recharged by the Han River whereas in non-urban areas it is replenished by the infiltration of precipitation, the crystalline rock aquifers are recharged by downward percolation of shallow groundwater stored in overlying alluvium. Older groundwater having a very low concentration of tritium, ranging from 0 to 2 TU, was observed at the lower Han River basin near Bupyeong. It may indicate that the water sampled was recharged at a much earlier time than the other groundwater sampled, maybe, as early as the pre-thermonuclear period. The same interaction study conducted in the Karst area has shown that there is clearly no systematic differences of tritium level between surface water and groundwater and that the residence time of groundwater in limestone is very short, probably not longer than a few months. The areas recharged by the water from the overlying alluvium into the sedimentary rock aquifer were restricted only along the Kumho River channel and its tributaries in a clastic sedimentary rock area. Bedrock groundwater whose tritium level and stable isotope composition were less than 14 TU and -6.8 respectively was observed in the central part of Taegu city. (author). 15 refs, 21 figs, 8 tabs

  10. EPRI's on-site soil-structure interaction research and its application to design/analysis verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepp, J C; Tang, H T [Seismic Center, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Soil structure, interaction (SSI) research at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is focused on validating modeling and computational procedures. A data base has been obtained with instrumented scale models of stiff structures founded both on unsaturated alluvial soils and on rock. Explosives were used to induce strong ground-motion for two experiments, one on rock and the other on alluvium. A third experiment, a one-fourth scale containment structure on saturated alluvium, relies on earthquakes as the energy source. Analysis of the explosion-induced SSI data shows a marked shift in the fundamental frequency of the soil-structure system to a lower frequency. The magnitude of the shift is a function of foundation conditions and level of excitation. Analytical simulation was found to require more sophisticated soil constitutive models and computer codes than are used in current practice. The current phase of the program concentrates on evaluating SSI models used in current design practice by comparing predicted with recorded data at points in the soil-structure system. (author)

  11. Attenuation Model Using the Large-N Array from the Source Physics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterholt, J.; Chen, T.; Snelson, C. M.; Mellors, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site. SPE seeks to better characterize the influence of subsurface heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation and energy dissipation from explosions. As a part of this experiment, SPE-5, a 5000 kg TNT equivalent chemical explosion, was detonated in 2016. During the SPE-5 experiment, a Large-N array of 996 geophones (half 3-component and half z-component) was deployed. This array covered an area that includes loosely consolidated alluvium (weak rock) and weathered granite (hard rock), and recorded the SPE-5 explosion as well as 53 weight drops. We use these Large-N recordings to develop an attenuation model of the area to better characterize how geologic structures influence source energy partitioning. We found a clear variation in seismic attenuation for different rock types: high attenuation (low Q) for alluvium and low attenuation (high Q) for granite. The attenuation structure correlates well with local geology, and will be incorporated into the large simulation effort of the SPE program to validate predictive models. (LA-UR-17-26382)

  12. Geochemistry of hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parry, W T; Ballantyne, J M; Bryant, N L; Dedolph, R E

    1980-01-01

    Hot spring deposits in the Roosevelt thermal area consist of opaline sinter and sinter-cemented alluvium. Alluvium, plutonic rocks, and amphibolite-facies gneiss have been altered by acid-sulfate water to alunite and opal at the surface, and alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite to a depth of 70 m. Marcasite, pyrite, chlorite, and calcite occur below the water table at about 30 m. The thermal water is dilute (ionic strength 0.1 to 0.2) sodium-chloride brine. The spring water now contains 10 times as much Ca, 100 times as much Mg, and up to 2.5 times as much SO/sub 4/ as the deep water. Although the present day spring temperature is 25/sup 0/C, the temperature was 85/sup 0/C in 1950. A model for development of the observed alteration is supported by observation and irreversible mass transfer calculations. Hydrothermal fluid convectively rises along major fractures. Water cools by conduction and steam separation, and the pH rises due to carbon dioxide escape. At the surface, hydrogen and sulfate ions are produced by oxidation of H/sub 2/S. The low pH water percolates downward and reacts with feldspar in the rocks to produce alunite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and muscovite as hydrogen ion is consumed. 4 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water

  14. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology of the Bear Creek Valley Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lietzke, D.A.; Lee, S.Y.; Lambert, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    An intensive soil survey was conducted on the proposed Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration Program site (LLWDDD) in Bear Creek Valley. Soils on the site were related to the underlying residuum and to the surficial colluvium and alluvium. Within any particular geologic formation, soils were subdivided based mostly on the degree of weathering, as reflected by saprolite weathering and morphologic features of the soils. Degree of weathering was related both to slope shape and gradient and to the joint-fracture system. Erosion classes were also used to make further subdivisions of any particular soil. Deep pits were dug in each of the major Conasauga Group formations (Pumpkin Valley, Rogersville, Maryville, and Nolichucky) for soil and saprolite characterization. Because of the widespread presence of alluvium and colluvium, which are potential sources of fill and final cover material, pits and trenches were dug to characterize the properties of these soils and to try to understand the past geomorphic history of the site. The results of the soil survey investigation indicated that the deeply weathered Pumpkin Valley residuum has good potential for the construction of tumuli or other types of belowground or aboveground burial of prepackaged compacted waste. 11 refs., 30 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Post-Pennsylvanian reactivation along the Washita Valley fault, southern Oklahoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanArsdale, R.; Ward, C.; Cox, R.

    1989-06-01

    Surface exposures of faults of the Washita Valley fault (WVF) system in Garvin, Murray, Carter, and Johnston counties of southern Oklahoma were studied to determine if there has been post-Pennsylvanian fault reactivation and to determine if there has been any Quaternary fault movement. This was undertaken through field mapping, by dating alluvium which overlies the faults, and by logging trenches excavated across the WVF. In northern Murray County and southern Garvin County (site A), the WVF displaces Late-Pennsylvanian Oscar Group showing post-Pennsylvanian movement; however, no faulting was observed in 2000 year old alluvium of Wildhorse Creek along strike of the WVF. Three sites (B, C, and D) are located within the Arbuckle Mountains. Faulting of Virgilian age Vanoss Conglomerate and Vanoss Shale reveal post-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) activity along a subsidiary fault in northern Murray County (site B). A 12000 to 15000 year old terrace at this site is unfaulted. Absence of any fault related features in paleosols which overly the WVF along the Washita River (site C) show that the fault has not been active during the last 1570 /+-/ 190 years in southern Murray County. Similarly, absence of any fault related features along Oil Creek (site D) indicates that the WVF has not been active during the last 1810 /+-/ 80 years in northern Carter and Johnston Counties. Faults in the Antlers Sandstone in southern Johnston County (site E) reveal post-Lower Cretaceous reactivation of the WVF. 49 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab

  16. Remedial action at the Green River uranium mill tailings site, Green River, Utah: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The inactive Green River uranium mill tailings site is one mile southeast of Green River, Utah. The existing tailings pile is within the floodplain boundaries of the 100-year and 500-year flood events. The 48-acre designated site contains eight acres of tailings, the mill yard and ore storage area, four main buildings, a water tower, and several small buildings. Dispersion of the tailings has contaminated an additional 24 acres surrounding the designated site. Elevated concentrations of molybdenum, nitrate, selenium, uranium, and gross alpha activity exceed background levels and the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum concentration limits in the groundwater in the unconsolidated alluvium and in the shallow shales and limestones beneath the alluvium at the mill tailings site. The contamination is localized beneath, and slightly downgradient of, the tailings pile. The proposed action is to relocate the tailings and associated contaminated materials to an area 600 feet south of the existing tailings pile where they would be consolidated into one, below-grade disposal cell. A radon/infiltration barrier would be constructed to cover the stabilized pile and various erosion control measures would be taken to ensure the long-term stability of the stabilized pile. 88 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs

  17. Appraisal of nuclear waste isolation in the vadose zone in arid and semiarid regions (with emphasis on the Nevada Test Site)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

    1983-05-01

    An appraisal was made of the concept of isolating high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone of alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Principal attributes of these terranes are: (1) low population density, (2) low moisture influx, (3) a deep water table, (4) the presence of sorptive rocks, and (5) relative ease of construction. Concerns about heat effects of waste on unsaturated rocks of relatively low thermal conductivity are considered. Calculations show that a standard 2000-acre repository with a thermal loading of 40 kW/acre in partially saturated alluvium or tuff would experience an average temperature rise of less than 100{sup 0}C above the initial temperature. The actual maximum temperature would depend strongly on the emplacement geometry. Concerns about seismicity, volcanism, and future climatic change are also mitigated. The conclusion reached in this appraisal is that unsaturated zones in alluvium and tuff of arid regions should be investigated as comprehensively as other geologic settings considered to be potential repository sites.

  18. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  19. Verification of a 1-dimensional model for predicting shallow infiltration at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.

    1994-01-01

    A characterization of net infiltration rates is needed for site-scale evaluation of groundwater flow at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Shallow infiltration caused by precipitation may be a potential source of net infiltration. A 1-dimensional finite difference model of shallow infiltration with a moisture-dependant evapotranspiration function and a hypothetical root-zone was calibrated and verified using measured water content profiles, measured precipitation, and estimated potential evapotranspiration. Monthly water content profiles obtained from January 1990 through October 1993 were measured by geophysical logging of 3 boreholes located in the alluvium channel of Pagany Wash on Yucca Mountain. The profiles indicated seasonal wetting and drying of the alluvium in response to winter season precipitation and summer season evapotranspiration above a depth of 2.5 meters. A gradual drying trend below a depth of 2.5 meters was interpreted as long-term redistribution and/or evapotranspiration following a deep infiltration event caused by runoff in Pagany Wash during 1984. An initial model, calibrated using the 1990 to 1 992 record, did not provide a satisfactory prediction of water content profiles measured in 1993 following a relatively wet winter season. A re-calibrated model using a modified, seasonally-dependent evapotranspiration function provided an improved fit to the total record. The new model provided a satisfactory verification using water content changes measured at a distance of 6 meters from the calibration site, but was less satisfactory in predicting changes at a distance of 18 meters

  20. Site response, shallow shear-wave velocity, and damage in Los Gatos, California, from the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Carver, D.; Williams, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Aftershock records of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake are used to calculate site response in the frequency band of 0.5-10 Hz at 24 locations in Los Gatos, California, on the edge of the Santa Clara Valley. Two different methods are used: spectral ratios relative to a reference site on rock and a source/site spectral inversion method. These two methods complement each other and give consistent results. Site amplification factors are compared with surficial geology, thickness of alluvium, shallow shear-wave velocity measurements, and ground deformation and structural damage resulting from the Loma Prieta earthquake. Higher values of site amplification are seen on Quaternary alluvium compared with older Miocene and Cretaceous units of Monterey and Franciscan Formation. However, other more detailed correlations with surficial geology are not evident. A complex pattern of alluvial sediment thickness, caused by crosscutting thrust faults, is interpreted as contributing to the variability in site response and the presence of spectral resonance peaks between 2 and 7 Hz at some sites. Within the range of our field measurements, there is a correlation between lower average shear-wave velocity of the top 30 m and 50% higher values of site amplification. An area of residential homes thrown from their foundations correlates with high site response. This damage may also have been aggravated by local ground deformation. Severe damage to commercial buildings in the business district, however, is attributed to poor masonry construction.

  1. Ground-water resources of the Sevier River basin between Yuba Dam and Leamington Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorklund, Louis Jay; Robinson, Gerald B.

    1968-01-01

    The area investigated is a segment of the Sevier River basin, Utah, comprising about 900 square miles and including a 19-mile reach of the Sevier River between Yuba Dam and Leamington Canyon. The larger valleys in the area are southern Juab, Round, and Scipio Valleys. The smaller valleys are Mills, Little, Dog, and Tinctic Wash Valleys.The geology of parts of Scipio, Little, and Mills Valleys and parts of the surrounding highlands was mapped and studied to explain the occurrence of numerous sinkholes in the thre valleys and to show their relation to the large springs in Mills Valley. The sinkholes, which are formed in the alluvium, are alined along faults, which penetrate both the alluvium and the underlying bedrock, and they have been formed by collapse of solution cavities in the underlying bedrock. The bedrock is mostly sandy limestone beds of the upper part of the North Horn Formation and of the Flagstaff Limestone. The numerous faults traversing Scipio Valley in a north-northeasterly direction trend directly toward Molter and Blue Springs in Mills Valley. One fault, which can be traced directly between the springs, probably is the principal channelway for the ground water moving from Scipio and Little Valleys to the springs.

  2. Effects of biochar application on morphological traits in maize and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šeremešić Srđan I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effects of the biochar application morphologi­cal traits in maize and soybean under semi-controlled conditions. During the study, the in­creasing doses of biochar (0%, 0.5%, 1, 3, and 5% were incorporated in three soil types: Alluvium, Humogley and Chernozem to determine plant height and shoot weight. The ex­periment was set up as fully randomized design with three repetitions. The plants were grown in pots of 5 l with controlled watering and N fertilization. The research results have shown that there are differences in terms of biochar effects on soils. The greatest effect on plant height and shoot weight was obtained when the biochar was applied to Humogley soil and lower effects were found on the Alluvium soil. The increase in aboveground mass of maize and soybeans was significantly conditioned by adding different doses of biochar. Based on these results, it can be concluded that adding biochar can significantly affect the growth of plants. This is a consequence of the changes it causes in soil, which requires further tests to complement the current findings. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR031072 i br. TR031073

  3. EPRI's on-site soil-structure interaction research and its application to design/analysis verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepp, J.C.; Tang, H.T.

    1988-01-01

    Soil structure, interaction (SSI) research at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is focused on validating modeling and computational procedures. A data base has been obtained with instrumented scale models of stiff structures founded both on unsaturated alluvial soils and on rock. Explosives were used to induce strong ground-motion for two experiments, one on rock and the other on alluvium. A third experiment, a one-fourth scale containment structure on saturated alluvium, relies on earthquakes as the energy source. Analysis of the explosion-induced SSI data shows a marked shift in the fundamental frequency of the soil-structure system to a lower frequency. The magnitude of the shift is a function of foundation conditions and level of excitation. Analytical simulation was found to require more sophisticated soil constitutive models and computer codes than are used in current practice. The current phase of the program concentrates on evaluating SSI models used in current design practice by comparing predicted with recorded data at points in the soil-structure system. (author)

  4. Facies Analysis of Tertiary Basin-Filling Rocks of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water System and Surrounding Areas, Nevada and California; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Taylor, Emily

    2002-01-01

    Existing hydrologic models of the Death Valley region typically have defined the Cenozoic basins as those areas that are covered by recent surficial deposits, and have treated the basin-fill deposits that are concealed under alluvium as a single unit with uniform hydrologic properties throughout the region, and with depth. Although this latter generalization was known to be flawed, it evidently was made because available geologic syntheses did not provide the basis for a more detailed characterization. As an initial attempt to address this problem, this report presents a compilation and synthesis of existing and new surface and subsurface data on the lithologic variations between and within the Cenozoic basin fills of this region. The most permeable lithologies in the Cenozoic basin fills are freshwater limestones, unaltered densely welded tuffs, and little-consolidated coarse alluvium. The least permeable lithologies are playa claystones, altered nonwelded tuffs, and tuffaceous and cl ay-matrix sediments of several types. In all but the youngest of the basin fills, permeability probably decreases strongly with depth owing to a typically increasing abundance of volcanic ash or clay in the matrices of the clastic sediments with increasing age (and therefore with increasing depth in general), and to increasing consolidation and alteration (both hydrothermal and diagenetic) with increasing depth and age. This report concludes with a categorization of the Cenozoic basins of the Death Valley region according to the predominant lithologies in the different basin fills and presents qualitative constraints on the hydrologic properties of these major lithologic categories

  5. Variations in radon-222 in soil and ground water at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.; Straume, T.; Smith, A.; King, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    To help evaluate the applicability of variations of radon-222 in ground water and soil gas as a possible earthquake predictor, measurements were conducted in conjunction with underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Radon fluctuations in ground water have been observed during a sequence of aftershocks following the Oroville, California earthquake of 1 August 1975. The NTS measurements were designed to show if these fluctuations were in response to ground shaking; if not, they could be attributed to changes in earth strain prior to the aftershocks. Well waters were periodically sampled and soil-gas 222 Rn monitored prior to and following seven underground explosions of varying strength and distance from sampling and detector locations. Soil-gas 222 Rn contents were measured by the alpha-track method; well water 222 Rn by gamma-ray spectrometry. There was no clearly identifiable correlation between well-water radon fluctuations and individual underground tests. One prominent variation in soil-gas radon corresponded to ground shaking from a pair of underground tests in alluvium; otherwise, there was no apparent correlation between radon emanation and other explosions. Markedly lower soil-gas radon contents following the tests were probably caused by consolidation of alluvium in response to ground shaking

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  7. Downstream reduction of rural channel size with contrasting urban effects in small coastal streams of southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, G. C.; Young, R. W.

    1981-07-01

    Although most streams show a downstream increase in channel size corresponding to a downstream increase in flood discharges, those flowing off the Illawarra escarpment of New South Wales show a marked reduction of channel size, accompanied by a down-stream increase in flood frequency in their lower reaches. Within the confined and steeply sloping valleys of the escarpment foothills, bed and bank sediments are relatively coarse and uncohesive, and channels increase in size, corresponding to increasing discharge downstream. However, once these streams emerge into more open rural valleys at lower slopes and are accompanied by extensive floodplains formed of fine cohesive sediment, there is a dramatic reduction in channel size. This decrease in channel size apparently results from a sudden decline in channel slope and associated stream power, the cohesive nature of downstream alluvium, its retention on the channel banks by a dense cover of pasture grasses, and the availability of an extensive floodplain to carry displaced floodwater. Under these conditions floodwaters very frequently spill out over the floodplain and the downstream channel-flow becomes a relatively unimportant component of the total peak discharge. This emphasizes the importance of these floodplains as a part of the total channel system. In situations where urban development has increased peak runoff and reduced the available area of effective floodplain, stream channels formed in this fine alluvium rapidly entrench and increase in cross-sectional area by 2-3 times. Minor man-induced channel alteration and maintenance appears to trigger this enlargement.

  8. Uranium favorability of tertiary rocks in the Badger Flats, Elkhorn Thrust Area, Park and Teller Counties, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, P.; Mickle, D.G.

    1976-10-01

    Uranium potential of Tertiary rocks in the Badger Flats--Elkhorn Thrust area of central Colorado is closely related to a widespread late Eocene erosion surface. Most uranium deposits in the area are in the Eocene Echo Park Alluvium and Oligocene Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate, which were deposited in paleodrainage channels on or above this surface. Arkosic detritus within the channels and overlying tuffaceous sedimentary rocks of the Antero and Florissant Formations of Oligocene age and silicic tuffs within the volcanic units provide abundant sources of uranium that could be concentrated in the channels where carbonaceous debris facilitates a reducing environment. Anomalous soil, water, and stream-sediment samples near the Elkhorn Thrust and in Antero basin overlie buried channels or are offset from them along structural trends; therefore, uranium-bearing ground water may have moved upward from buried uranium deposits along faults. The area covered by rocks younger than the late Eocene erosion surface, specifically the trends of mapped or inferred paleochannels filled with Echo Park Alluvium and Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate, and the Antero Formation are favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits

  9. A Method of Function Space for Vertical Impedance Function of a Circular Rigid Foundation on a Transversely Isotropic Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Eskandari-Ghadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with investigation of vertical impedance function of a surface rigid circular foundation resting on a semi-infinite transversely isotropic alluvium. To this end, the equations of motion in cylindrical coordinate system, which because of axissymmetry are two coupled equations, are converted into one partial differential equation using a method of potential function. The governing partial differential equation for the potential function is solved via implementing Hankel integral transforms in radial direction. The vertical and radial components of displacement vector are determined with the use of transformed displacement-potential function relationships. The mixed boundary conditions at the surface are satisfied by specifying the traction between the rigid foundation and the underneath alluvium in a special function space introduced in this paper, where the vertical displacements are forced to satisfy the rigid boundary condition. Through exercising these restraints, the normal traction and then the vertical impedance function are obtained. The results are then compared with the existing results in the literature for the simpler case of isotropic half-space, which shows an excellent agreement. Eventually, the impedance functions are presented in terms of dimensionless frequency for different materials. The method presented here may be used to obtain the impedance function in any other direction as well as in buried footing in layered media.

  10. Quality of Shallow Groundwater and Drinking Water in the Mississippi Embayment-Texas Coastal Uplands Aquifer System and the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, South-Central United States, 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Tollett, Roland W.; Seanor, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system is an important source of drinking water, providing about 724 million gallons per day to about 8.9 million people in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, and Alabama. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer ranks third in the Nation for total withdrawals of which more than 98 percent is used for irrigation. From 1994 through 2004, water-quality samples were collected from 169 domestic, monitoring, irrigation, and public-supply wells in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in various land-use settings and of varying well capacities as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Groundwater samples were analyzed for physical properties and about 200 water-quality constituents, including total dissolved solids, major inorganic ions, trace elements, radon, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pesticides, pesticide degradates, and volatile organic compounds. The occurrence of nutrients and pesticides differed among four groups of the 114 shallow wells (less than or equal to 200 feet deep) in the study area. Tritium concentrations in samples from the Holocene alluvium, Pleistocene valley trains, and shallow Tertiary wells indicated a smaller component of recent groundwater than samples from the Pleistocene terrace deposits. Although the amount of agricultural land overlying the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was considerably greater than areas overlying parts of the shallow Tertiary and Pleistocene terrace deposits wells, nitrate was rarely detected and the number of pesticides detected was lower than other shallow wells. Nearly all samples from the Holocene alluvium and Pleistocene valley trains were anoxic, and the reducing conditions in these aquifers likely result in denitrification of nitrate. In contrast, most samples from the

  11. Geologic framework, regional aquifer properties (1940s-2009), and spring, creek, and seep properties (2009-10) of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Sprague, Jesse E.; Durall, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, examined the geologic framework, regional aquifer properties, and spring, creek, and seep properties of the upper San Mateo Creek Basin near Mount Taylor, which contains areas proposed for exploratory drilling and possible uranium mining on U.S. Forest Service land. The geologic structure of the region was formed from uplift of the Zuni Mountains during the Laramide Orogeny and the Neogene volcanism associated with the Mount Taylor Volcanic Field. Within this structural context, numerous aquifers are present in various Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary formations and the Quaternary alluvium. The distribution of the aquifers is spatially variable because of the dip of the formations and erosion that produced the current landscape configuration where older formations have been exhumed closer to the Zuni Mountains. Many of the alluvial deposits and formations that contain groundwater likely are hydraulically connected because of the solid-matrix properties, such as substantive porosity, but shale layers such as those found in the Mancos Formation and Chinle Group likely restrict vertical flow. Existing water-level data indicate topologically downgradient flow in the Quaternary alluvium and indiscernible general flow patterns in the lower aquifers. According to previously published material and the geologic structure of the aquifers, the flow direction in the lower aquifers likely is in the opposite direction compared to the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater within the Chinle Group is known to be confined, which may allow upward migration of water into the Morrison Formation; however, confining layers within the Chinle Group likely retard upward leakage. Groundwater was sodium-bicarbonate/sulfate dominant or mixed cation-mixed anion with some calcium/bicarbonate water in the study area. The presence of the reduction/oxidation-sensitive elements iron and manganese in groundwater indicates reducing

  12. Ground-water resources of the Acu Valley, Rio Grande Norte, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; de Castro Araujo, Jonas Maria.

    1968-01-01

    The Acu Valley is the lower part of the Rio Piranhas valley in the northwestern part of the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. It begins where the Rio Piranhas leaves the crystalline Precambrian rocks to flow across the outcrop of sedimentary rocks. The area considered in this report extends northward for about 45 kilometers; it is terminated arbitrarily where encroachment by sea water has contaminated the aquifer and imparted a disagreeable saline taste to the water in it. The boundary was not determined in the field, however, for lack of special equipment. Part of the extensive uplands on either side of the valley are included. This makes the total area approximately 2,500 square kilometers. The largest town, Acu, had a population of about 8,000 in 1960. The area is considered to be part of the Drought Polygon of northeast Brazil because the precipitation, although averaging 448 millimeters annually at Acu, varies widely from year to year and often is deficient for many months. The precipitation has been supplemented by use of irrigation wells, but irrigated agriculture is not yet far advanced, and the quantities of water used in irrigation are small. Geologically, the area consists of basement crystalline rocks (Precambrian), a wedge of sedimentary rocks thickening northward (Cretaceous), and alluvial sediments constituting a narrow band in the bottom of the valley (Alluvium and terrace deposits). The crystalline rocks contain water mainly in fractures and, in general, are impermeable. The sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous age comprise two units: a thick but fine-grained sandstone grading upward into siltstone and shale (Acu Sandstone), and limestone and dolomite with an included shale zone (Jandaira Limestone). The sandstone especially and the limestone to a lesser degree are ground-water reservoirs of large capacity. The limestone has been tapped at several places, but the sandstone and its contained water are practically untested and, hence, imperfectly

  13. Hydrologic modeling of flood conveyance and impacts of historic overbank sedimentation on West Fork Black's Fork, Uinta Mountains, northeastern Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Eric C.

    2006-05-01

    This study assesses historic overbank alluvial sedimentation along a low-gradient reach of West Fork Black's Fork in the northern Uinta Mountains, Utah. In this previously glaciated setting, an alluvial floodplain that is approximately 400 m wide by 1500 m long has been modified by the combined effects of valley morphometry and the recent history of clear-cut logging during the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. To quantify the effects on sedimentation and flow conveyance, three natural streambank exposures were sampled and analyzed for nuclear bomb fallout 137Cs. The distribution of 137Cs within the three profiles suggests that a remnant outwash terrace exerts a first-order control over the deposition of overbank alluvium. Upstream from a constriction in the floodplain caused by the terrace remnant, as much as 40 cm of overbank alluvium has been deposited since the beginning of clear-cut logging. Immediately downstream of that constriction, no evidence exists for any overbank sedimentation during that same period. Vibracore samples and Oakfield soil probe sampling throughout the study reach quantified the geographic extent and thicknesses of the historic alluvial package. Flood conveyance through the study area was modeled using the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers HEC-RAS modeling program. Model simulations were run for modern conditions (using surveyed topography) and for prehistoric conditions (using the modern topography less the historic alluvial package determined by 137Cs analyses). Model results indicate that the floodplain constriction caused a significant impediment to flood conveyance at even modest discharges during prehistoric conditions. This promoted ponding of floodwaters upstream of the constriction and deposition of alluvium. This has increased bank heights upstream of the constriction, to the point that under modern conditions 1- to 5-year recurrence interval floods are largely confined within the channel. These results confirm the validity of this

  14. A review on anthropogenic impact to the Micro Prespa lake and its damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasheri, N.; Pano, N.; Frasheri, A.; Beqiraj, G.; Bushati, S.; Taska, E.

    2012-04-01

    Paper presents the results of the integrated and multidisciplinary studies for investigation of the anthropogenic damages to Albanian part of the transborder Micro Prespa Lake. Remote sensing with Landsat images was used for identification of environmental changes in time for the period 1970 - 2010. Micro Prespa Lake is lake with international status, as Ramsar Convection, International Park and Special Protection Area-79/409/EEC. According to the studies, investigations and analyses, the following were concluded: Devolli River- Micro Prespa Lake irrigation system was not scientifically supported by environmental engineering, hydroeconomy and International Rights principles. It does work according to the projected parameters, and also, doesn't supply the agricultural needs. About of 10 % of the water volume, discharges by Devolli River in Micro Prespa Lake during the winter, is taken from this lake for the irrigation in summer. Great surface of Albanian part of Micro Prespa Lake is destroyed. The other part of the lake is atrophied and the habitat and biodiversity are damaged. Important and unique species of fish, birds and plants of national and international values are risked. The underground karstic connection ways for water circulation are blocked. There are ruining the historic values of the area, such the encient Treni cave from the Bronze Age. The Albanian part of the Micro Prespa Lake has been damaged by the human activities. A huge amount of 1,2 million cubic meters alluvium has been deposited on the lake bottom and lakeshore, which was transported by the Devolli River waters, since 1974. This river waters, rich in alluvium and organic coal material from outcropped geological formations, also absorbed free chemical toxic remains by the drainage of Devolli farm ground, which have changed the chemical features of the lake water and degrading it. Micro Prespa Lake communicates with Macro Prespa Lake, and together with Ohrid Lake. Blockage of underground

  15. A decade of investigations on groundwater arsenic contamination in Middle Ganga Plain, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Dipankar; Sahu, Sudarsan

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater arsenic (As) load in excess of drinking limit (50 µg L(-1)) in the Gangetic Plains was first detected in 2002. Though the menace was known since about two decades from the downstream part of the plains in the Bengal Basin, comprising of Lower Ganga Plain and deltaic plains of Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River system, little thought was given to its possible threat in the upstream parts in the Gangetic Plains beyond Garo-Rajmahal Hills. The contamination in Bengal Basin has become one of the extensively studied issues in the world and regarded as the severest case of health hazard in the history of mankind. The researches and investigations in the Gangetic Plains during the last decade (2003-2013) revealed that the eastern half of the plains, also referred as Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), is particularly affected by contamination, jeopardising the shallow aquifer-based drinking water supply. The present paper reviews researches and investigations carried out so far in MGP by various research institutes and government departments on wide array of issues of groundwater As such as its spatio-temporal variation, mobilisation paths, water level behaviour and flow regime, configuration of contaminated and safe aquifers and their recharge mechanism. Elevated conc. of groundwater As has been observed in grey and dark grey sediments of Holocene age (Newer Alluvium) deposited in a fluvio-lacustrine environment in the floodplain of the Ganga and most of its northern tributaries from Himalayas. Older Alluvium, comprising Pleistocene brownish yellow sediment, extending as deeper aquifers in Newer Alluvium areas, is low in groundwater As. Similarities and differences on issues between the MGP and the Bengal Basin have been discussed. The researches point towards the mobilisation process as reductive dissolution of iron hydroxide coating, rich in adsorbed As, mediated by microbial processes. The area is marked with shallow water level (<8.0 m below ground) with ample

  16. Assessment of planetary geologic mapping techniques for Mars using terrestrial analogs: The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Dohm, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We photogeologically mapped the SP Mountain region of the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona, USA to evaluate and improve the fidelity of approaches used in geologic mapping of Mars. This test site, which was previously mapped in the field, is chiefly composed of Late Cenozoic cinder cones, lava flows, and alluvium perched on Permian limestone of the Kaibab Formation. Faulting and folding has deformed the older rocks and some of the volcanic materials, and fluvial erosion has carved drainage systems and deposited alluvium. These geologic materials and their formational and modificational histories are similar to those for regions of the Martian surface. We independently prepared four geologic maps using topographic and image data at resolutions that mimic those that are commonly used to map the geology of Mars (where consideration was included for the fact that Martian features such as lava flows are commonly much larger than their terrestrial counterparts). We primarily based our map units and stratigraphic relations on geomorphology, color contrasts, and cross-cutting relationships. Afterward, we compared our results with previously published field-based mapping results, including detailed analyses of the stratigraphy and of the spatial overlap and proximity of the field-based vs. remote-based (photogeologic) map units, contacts, and structures. Results of these analyses provide insights into how to optimize the photogeologic mapping of Mars (and, by extension, other remotely observed planetary surfaces). We recommend the following: (1) photogeologic mapping as an excellent approach to recovering the general geology of a region, along with examination of local, high-resolution datasets to gain insights into the complexity of the geology at outcrop scales; (2) delineating volcanic vents and lava-flow sequences conservatively and understanding that flow abutment and flow overlap are difficult to distinguish in remote data sets; (3) taking care to

  17. Geology and hydrology of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Douglas C.

    1965-01-01

    The Fort Belknap Indian Reservation includes an area of 970 square miles in north-central Montana. At its north edge is the Milk River valley, which is underlain by Recent alluvium of the Milk River, glacial deposits, and alluvial deposits of the preglacial Missouri River, which carved and occupied this valley before the Pleistocene Epoch. Rising gently to the south is an undulating glaciated plain broken only by three small syenite porphyry intrusions. Underlying the glacial till of the plain are Upper Cretaceous shale and sandstone of the Bearpaw and Judith River Formations. At the south end of the reservation, 40 miles from the Milk River, an intrusion of syenite porphyry in Tertiary time uplifted, tilted, and exposed the succession of sedimentary rocks overlying the Precambrian metamorphic basement. The sedimentary rocks include 1,000 feet of sandstone and shale of Cambrian age; 2,000 feet of limestone and dolomite of Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian age; 400 feet of shale and limestone of Jurassic age; and 3,500 feet of sandstone, siltstone, and shale of Cretaceous age. Extensive gravel terraces of Tertiary and Quaternary age bevel the upturned bedrock formations exposed around the Little Rocky Mountains. Ground water under water-table conditions is obtained at present from alluvium, glaciofluvial deposits, and the Judith River Formation. The water table ranges in depth from a few feet beneath the surface in the Milk River valley alluvium to more than 100 feet deep in the Judith River Formation. Yields to wells are generally low but adequate for domestic and stock-watering use. Quality of the water ranges from highly mineralized and unusable to excellent; many wells in the Milk River valley have been abandoned because of the alkalinity of their water. Potential sources of additional ground-water supplies are the alluvial gravel of creeks issuing from the Little Rocky Mountains and some extensive areas of terrace gravel. The uplift and tilting of the

  18. Hydrologic assessment and numerical simulation of groundwater flow, San Juan Mine, San Juan County, New Mexico, 2010–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Anne M.

    2018-04-03

    Shumway Arroyo alluvium after 1,320 years and from there to the San Juan River alluvium after 1,520 years or from southernmost CCB repositories directly to the San Juan River alluvium after 2,400 years after the cessation of mining.

  19. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  20. The hydraulic geometry of narrow and deep channels; evidence for flow optimisation and controlled peatland growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, Rachel A.; Nanson, Gerald C.; Huang, He Qing

    2010-04-01

    At-a-station and bankfull hydraulic geometry analyses of peatland channels at Barrington Tops, New South Wales, Australia, reveal adjustments in self-forming channels in the absence of sediment load. Using Rhodes ternary diagram, comparisons are made with hydraulic geometry data from self-forming channels carrying bedload in alluvial settings elsewhere. Despite constraints on channel depths caused at some locations by the restricted thickness of peat, most stations have cohesive, near-vertical, well-vegetated banks, and width/depth (w/d) ratios of ∼ 2 that are optimal for sediment-free flow. Because banks are strong, resist erosion and can stand nearly vertical, and depth is sometimes constrained, adjustments to discharge are accommodated largely by changes in velocity. These findings are consistent with the model of maximum flow efficiency and the overarching least action principle in open channels. The bankfull depth of freely adjusting laterally active channels in clastic alluvium is well known to be related to the thickness of floodplain alluvium and a similar condition appears to apply to these swamps that grow in situ and are formed almost entirely of organic matter. The thickness of peat in these swamps rarely exceeds that required to form a bankfull channel of optimum w/d ratio for the transport of sediment-free water. Swamp vegetation is highly dependent on proximity to the water table. To maintain a swamp-channel and associated floodplain system, the channels must flow with sufficient water much of the time; they not only offer an efficient morphology for flow but do so in a way that enables bankfull conditions to occur many times a year. They also prevent the swamp from growing above a level linked to the depth of the channel. Once the channel attains the most efficient cross section, further growth of the swamp vertically is restricted by enhanced flow velocities and limited flow depths. This means that the volume of peat in such swamps is determined

  1. Hydrogeology, ground-water flow, and tritium movement at low-level radioactive-waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garklavs, George; Healy, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Groundwater flow and tritium movement are described at and near a low-level radioactive waste disposal site near Sheffield, Illinois. Flow in the shallow aquifer is confined to three basins that ultimately drain into a stripmine lake. Most of the flow from the site is through a buried, pebbly sandfilled channel. Remaining flow is toward alluvium of an existing stream. Conceptual flow models for the two largest basins are used to improve definition of flow velocity and direction. Flow velocities range from about 25 to 2,500 ft/yr. Tritium was found in all three basins. The most extensive migration of tritium is coincident with buried channel. Tritium concentrations ranged from detection level to more than 300 nanocuries/L. (USGS)

  2. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND MONITORING DATA FROM THE AREA 5 PILOT WELLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Three exploratory boreholes were drilled and completed to the uppermost alluvial aquifer in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, in 1992. The boreholes and associated investigations were part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level, mixed, and high-specific-activity waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize the hydrogeology of the thick vadose zone and to help define the water quality and hydraulic properties of the uppermost aquifer. Wells UE5PW-1, UE5PW-2, and UE5PW-3 are located in a triangular array near the southeast, northeast, and northwest corners, respectively, of the approximately 2.6-square-kilometer Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to give reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization, and to help define the nearly horizontal water table. Two of the wells, UE5PW-1 and UE5PW-2, penetrated only unconsolidated alluvial materials. The third well, located closer to the margin of the basin, penetrated both alluvium and underlying ash-flow and bedded tuff units. The watertable was encountered at the elevation of approximately 734 meters. The results of laboratory testing of core and drill cuttings samples indicate that the mineralogical, material, and hydrologic properties of the alluvium are very similar within and between boreholes. Additional tests on the same core and drill cuttings samples indicate that hydrologic conditions within the alluvium are also similar between pilot wells. Both core and drill cuttings samples are dry (less than 10 percent water content by weight) throughout the entire unsaturated section of alluvium, and water content increases slightly with depth in each borehole. Water potential measurements on core samples show a large positive potential gradient (water tends to move upward, rather than downward) to a depth of approximately 30

  3. Temporal changes in the distribution of /sup 137/Cs in alluvial soils at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyhan, J.W.; Hakonson, T.E.; Miera, F.R. Jr.; Bostick, K.V.

    1978-05-01

    The alluvial soils of three liquid-effluent receiving areas at Los Alamos were sampled to determine /sup 137/Cs temporal distributional relationships. Soil radionuclide concentrations were determined as a function of soil depth and distance from the waste outfall, and discussed relative to runoff transport of /sup 137/Cs-contaminated alluvium. The inventories of soil /sup 137/Cs in various segments of each effluent-receiving area were calculated for two sampling periods and compared with amounts of /sup 137/Cs added to the canyons in the liquid wastes. The distribution patterns of soil cesium were compared with the waste-use history of the three study areas and the hydrologic characteristics of the canyons.

  4. Geomorphology and geologic characteristics of the Savannah River floodplain in the vicinity of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina and Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeth, D.C.; Nagle, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    The potential for migration of contaminated ground water from the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) beneath the Savannah River into Georgia (trans-river flow) is a subject of recent environmental concern. The degree of incision of the ancestral Savannah River into the local hydrogeologic framework is a significant consideration in the assessment of trans-river flow. The objective of this investigation is to identify the geologic formations which subcrop beneath the alluvium and the extent to which the river has incised regional confining beds. To meet this objective 18 boreholes were drilled to depths of 25 to 100 feet along three transects across the present floodplain. These borings provided data on the hydrogeologic character of the strata that fill the alluvial valley. The profiles from the borehole transects were compared with electrical conductivity (EM-34) data to ascertain the applicability of this geophysical technique to future investigations

  5. National uranium resource evaluation Prescott Quadrangle Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.T.; White, D.L.; Nystrom, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Prescott Quadrangle was evaluated for uranium favorability by means of a literature search, examination of uranium occurrences, regional geochemical sampling of Precambrian rocks, limited rubidium-strontium studies, scintillometer traverses, measurement of stratigraphic sections, subsurface studies, and an aerial radiometric survey. A limited well-water sampling program for Cenozoic basins was also conducted. Favorability criteria used were those developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Five geologic environments are favorable for uranium. Three are in Tertiary rocks of the Date Creek-Artillery Basin, Big Sandy Valley, and Walnut Grove Basin. Two are in Precambrian rocks in the Bagdad and Wickenburg areas. Unfavorable areas include the southwestern crystalline terrane, the Paleozoic and Mesozoic beds, and metamorphic and plutonic Precambrian rocks of the Bradshaw and Weaver Mountains. Unevaluated areas are the basalt-covered mesas, alluvium-mantled Cenozoic basins, the Hualapai Mountains, and the Kellwebb Mine

  6. Slifers revisited: a method for determining yields independent of radiochemical measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambo, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    It would be very desirable if an independent method other than radiochemical measurement were available to determine the yields of low-yield events in the alluviums and tuffs of areas 2, 9, and 10 at the Nevada Test Site. The successful application of slifers to the measurement of yields from high-yield events suggests that under some conditions they may also be usable with low-yield events. This view is supported by the evidence discussed here, which is based on direct experience with slifer yield measurements for low-yield events in porous media. Suggested methods for improving slifer yield determinations and a method for determining yields independent of radiochemical measurements are offered

  7. Soil fungi as indicators of pesticide soil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandić Leka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil fungi, with their pronounced enzymic activity and high osmotic potential, represent a significant indicator of negative effects of different pesticides on the agroecosystem as a whole. In that respect, a trial was set up on the alluvium soil type with the aim to investigate the effect of different herbicides (Simazine, Napropamid, Paraquat, fungicides (Captan and Mancozeb and insecticides (Fenitrothion and Dimethoate on a number of soil fungi under apple trees. The number of soil fungi was determined during four growing seasons by an indirect method of dilution addition on the Czapek agar. The study results indicate that the fungi belong to the group of microorganisms that, after an initial sensible response to the presence of pesticides in the soil, very rapidly establish normal metabolism enabling them even to increase their number. The fungicides and insecticides applied were found to be particularly effective in that respect.

  8. Ground Motion Prediction for Great Interplate Earthquakes in Kanto Basin Considering Variation of Source Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, H.; Yoshimi, M.; Horikawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Broadband ground motions are estimated in the Kanto sedimentary basin which holds Tokyo metropolitan area inside for anticipated great interplate earthquakes along surrounding plate boundaries. Possible scenarios of great earthquakes along Sagami trough are modeled combining characteristic properties of the source area and adequate variation in source parameters in order to evaluate possible ground motion variation due to next Kanto earthquake. South to the rupture area of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake along the Japan trench, we consider possible M8 earthquake. The ground motions are computed with a four-step hybrid technique. We first calculate low-frequency ground motions at the engineering basement. We then calculate higher-frequency ground motions at the same position, and combine the lower- and higher-frequency motions using a matched filter. We finally calculate ground motions at the surface by computing the response of the alluvium-diluvium layers to the combined motions at the engineering basement.

  9. Uranium-series dated authigenic carbonates and Acheulian sites in southern Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, B.J.; McHugh, W.P.; Schaber, G.G.; Breed, C.S.; Haynes, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    Field investigations in southern Egypt have yielded Acheulian artifacts in situ in authigenic carbonate deposits (CaCO 3 -cemented alluvium) along the edges of now-aggraded paleovalleys (Wadi Arid and Wadi Safsaf). Uranium-series dating of 25 carbonate samples from various localities as far apart as 70 kilometers indicates that widespread carbonate deposition occurred about 45, 141 and 212 ka (thousand years ago). Most of the carbonate appears to have been precipitated from groundwater, which suggests that these three episodes of deposition may be related to late Pleistocene humid climates that facilitated human settlement in this now hyperarid region. Carbonate cements from sediments containing Acheulian artifacts provide a minimum age of 212 ka for early occupation of the paleovalleys. 16 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. A simple model analysis of terrestrial radioactivity balance in a drainage basin in Central Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, S.

    1998-01-01

    In-situ measurements of terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates were carried out at 252 locations for soil samples and 47 locations for rock outcrops in the Shonai River drainage region to understand the transport of soil mass and terrestrial radioactivity. The basin was divided into two parts, a bedrock and a sediment (diluvium and alluvium), for compartment analysis. A set of balance equations for soil mass and radioactivity was derived for each region to obtain the transport rate of soils from bedrock to sediment region, the removal rates from land to ocean through rivers and the leaching rates of radioactivity. The relative values of the above parameters to the production rate of soil from bedrock could be estimated from the observed gamma-ray dose rates

  11. Spectral variations in rocks and soils containing ferric iron hydroxide and(or) sulfate minerals as seen by AVIRIS and laboratory spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data covering the Big Rock Candy Mountain area of the Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah, identified abundant rocks and soils bearing jarosite, goethite, and chlorite associated with volcanic rocks altered to propylitic grade during the Miocene (2321 Ma). Propylitically-altered rocks rich in pyrite associated with the relict feeder zones of convecting, shallow hydrothermal systems are currently undergoing supergene oxidation to natrojarosite, kaolinite, and gypsum. Goethite coatings are forming at the expense of jarosite where most pyrite has been consumed through oxidation in alluvium derived from pyrite-bearing zones. Spectral variations in the goethite-bearing rocks that resemble variations found in reference library samples of goethites of varying grain size were observed in the AVIRIS data. Rocks outside of the feeder zones have relatively low pyrite content and are characterized by chlorite, epidote, and calcite, with local copper-bearing quartz-calcite veins. Iron-bearing minerals in these rocks are weathering directly to goethite. Laboratory spectral analyses were applied to samples of iron-bearing rock outcrops and alluvium collected from the area to determine the accuracy of the AVIRIS-based mineral identification. The accuracy of the iron mineral identification results obtained by analysis of the AVIRIS data was confirmed. In general, the AVIRIS analysis results were accurate in identifying medium-grained goethite, coarse-grained goethite, medium- to coarse-grained goethite with trace jarosite, and mixtures of goethite and jarosite. However, rock fragments from alluvial areas identified as thin coatings of goethite with the AVIRIS data were found to consist mainly of medium- to coarse-grained goethite based on spectral characteristics in the visible and near-infrared. To determine if goethite abundance contributed to the spectral variations observed in goethite-bearing rocks

  12. Field study of macrodispersion in a heterogeneous aquifer. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, L.M.; Stauffer, T.B.; MacIntyre, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority is conducting a second large-scale groundwater research study. In this experiment, dissolved tracers are being injected into a shallow alluvium aquifer. This study will support groundwater protection by making possible more effective design of waste storage facilities, improving monitoring systems, and designing better mitigation programs. The objectives of this study are to better understand the dominant physical and chemical factors affecting contaminant movement in groundwater. A data set will be provided for evaluating transport models and for assessing the reliability of laboratory measure parameters to predict transport. Tritiated water was used as the conservative, nonreactive tracer to overcome problems experienced with the use of bromide in the first experiment. Four non-conservative tracers (naphthalene, carbon 14-labeled para-xylene, benzene, and ortho-dichlorobenzene) were also injected. This paper describes initial laboratory tests and the design and implementation of the second natural gradient injection experiment. (Author) (13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.)

  13. Isotope based assessment of groundwater recharge and pollution in water scarce areas: A case study in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amro, H.; Kilani, S.; Jawawdeh, J.; Abd El-Din, I.; Rayan, M.

    2001-01-01

    The study of environmental chloride, deuterium and nitrate has been carried out in sand profiles in two locations in Jordan. The first location is in the Quaternary sediments and sandstones of Al Quwayra in southern Jordan where the average rainfall is less than 70 mm per year. The study concluded that there is no modern recharge in the studied site in southern Jordan. The second location is in the Kurnub sandstone outcrop near to Jarash in northern Jordan. The average rainfall in the area is 500 mm per year and thus significant recharge is possible in that area. The study showed that the annual recharge to the aquifer in that area is about 28 mm per year. The third location consists of four cores is in the alluvium Mudflat deposits of Azraq Oasis. The average rainfall in this area is about 67 mm per year which occur as storms between January and March. (author)

  14. Morphology of calcite crystals in clast coatings from four soils in the Mojave desert region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Oliver A.; Sowers, Janet M.; Amundson, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Pedogenic calcite-crystal coatings on clasts were examined in four soils along an altitudinal gradient on Kyle Canyon alluvium in southern Nevada. Clast coatings were studied rather than matrix carbonate to avoid the effects of soil matrix on crystallization. Six crystal sizes and shapes were recognized and distinguished. Equant micrite was the dominant crystal form with similar abundance at all elevations. The distributions of five categories of spar and microspar appear to be influenced by altitudinally induced changes in effective moisture. In the drier, lower elevation soils, crystals were equant or parallel prismatic with irregular, interlocking boundaries while in the more moist, higher elevation soils they were randomly oriented, euhedral, prismatic, and fibrous. There was little support for the supposition that Mg(+2) substitution or increased (Mg + Ca)/HCO3 ratios in the precipitating solution produced crystal elongation.

  15. Staying report of Lic. Mirtha Gamba from (Cnea - Argentina) energetic minerals department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Vigil, P.

    1988-01-01

    The visit of the Lic.Gamba to our country, it was oriented to realise a completion of the geochemical sampling by uranium and other elements of interest to clear in lands of the Crystalline basament and the training of the taking of alluvium samples. The tasks were developed so much in cabinet as in field. Besides it were made visits to the laboratories where take place the preparation of samples, chemical analyses and petrography. Also were visited the laboratories of physical analyses in the D.N.T.N (Direction National of Nuclear technology) that it is mounted in DI.NA.MI.GE. And the exit of field was realised to visit two zones worked by the uranium program during years 1985-1987, Valle Chico (Photo-plan Alferez) and Puntas del Mataojo

  16. Petrology of tuff units from the J-13 drill site, Jackass Flats, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, G.H.; Bevier, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    The J-13 drill hole, located in Jackass Flats, Nevada Test Site, has penetrated 125 m of alluvium and 932 m of tuff. Most of the tuff deposits consist of welded tuffs; glass phases in the tuffs have been replaced by authigenic minerals, mainly K-feldspar, silica, and zeolites. The zonation of authigenic minerals, with depth, indictes that alteration of glass phases and filling of vugs occurred during welding and compaction of tuff units soon after deposition and by interaction with groundwater. Zonation of authigenic minerals in tuff deposits at Jackass Flats is similar to mineral zonation in tuffs elsewhere at the Nevada Test Site and in tuff deposits of west Texas. All appear to have been developed by leaching of glass phases and deposition of authigenic minerals in open hydrologic systems. 10 figures, 38 tables

  17. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Tarpon Springs and Orlando quadrangles, Florida. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Tarpon Springs and Orlando quadrangles cover 7850 square miles of central peninsular Florida. Cretaceous and younger platform deposits overlie a complex core of Precambrian, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic crystalline rocks and sediments. Tertiary and Quaternary platform deposits and alluvium cover the surface. Extensive mining for phosphates is taking place in certain areas of the two quadrangles. No known uranium deposits are present within the quadrangles, but the phosphates are known to contain higher than normal amounts of uranium. Statistical analysis resulted in the selection of 47 anomalies. All appear to be related to culture, but some that are associated with the phosphate region have extremely high apparent uranium values. Detailed resource study should concentrate on the phosphates and on the possibility of uranium recovery as a by-product of phosphate mining

  18. A detection method of subrecent to recent tectonic activity in the anticlinal system of the northern Negev, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilberman, E.; Wachs, D.

    1988-01-01

    Geomorphological and geophysical methods combined with borehole information were employed to search for possible subrecent small-scale vertical movement along the anticlinal fold belt of the central Negev, Israel. Such tectonic deformation might indicate displacement on the buried reverse faults underneath the anticlines. Variations in the thickness of the alluvial fill in the study area, which are in accordance with the fold structures, could be an indication of recent folding activity along the anticlinal system. In order to detect these thickness variations in the alluvial fill, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity measurements were carries out along the valley of Nahal Besor, which crosses the anticlinal belt. The thickness variations of the alluvial fill along the valley were not found to indicate any significant tectonic movement along the anticlines during the Pleistocene. The thickest alluvium was found overlying a karst bedrock, hence karst relief is suggested to be responsible for these variations

  19. Uranium prospection programme: Paso de las Piedras mission. Technical report[Geochemical prospection of Uranium in Uruguay]; Programa prospeccion uranio: Mision Paso de las Piedras. Informe tecnico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, J; Mujica, H; Umpierre, M; Galipolo, N

    1966-07-01

    The mission of Paso de las Piedras was due of the radioactive values found by the French mission of the CE.A. found in a few former polls .Analyzed the samples its gave values that range between 2.500 and 3.000 ppm in uranium. The need to come to prospectar this zone was immediate, to determine if wil be before a deposit of uranium. The later studies prove that the extension was limited and not concluded yet. There were compiled 5 classes of numerical information in order of increasing detail: a) Chemical analysis of samples of alluvium b) chemical analysis of water samples c) report radiometric d) chemical analysis and radiometric report of soils e) chemical and radiometric analysis of the perforations.

  20. Interpretation of hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Hole-to-surface resistivity measurements at Yucca Mountain indicate the presence of many near-surface geologic inhomogeneities, with no definite indication of deep structural features. A resistive anomaly near drill hole UE25a-6 is interpreted as a thin, vertical, resistive body that nearly intersects the surface, and may be caused by a silicified, or calcified, fracture zone. A resistive anomaly near hole UE25a-7 is probably caused by a near surface, horizontal, lens-shaped body that may represent a devitrified zone in the Tiva Canyon Member. Many conductive anomalies were detected to the southwest of hole UE25a-4. However, these anomalies are interpreted to be caused by variations in the thickness of the surface alluvium

  1. Site Characterization of the Source Physics Experiment Phase II Location Using Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, E. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Chipman, V.; Emer, D. F.; White, R. L.; Emmitt, R.; Wright, A. A.; Drellack, S.; Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Floyd, M.; McGowin, C.; Cothrun, C.; Bonal, N.

    2013-12-01

    An objective of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is to identify low-yield nuclear explosions from a regional distance. Low-yield nuclear explosions can often be difficult to discriminate among the clutter of natural and man-made explosive events (e.g., earthquakes and mine blasts). The SPE is broken into three phases. Phase I has provided the first of the physics-based data to test the empirical models that have been used to discriminate nuclear events. The Phase I series of tests were placed within a highly fractured granite body. The evolution of the project has led to development of Phase II, to be placed within the opposite end member of geology, an alluvium environment, thereby increasing the database of waveforms to build upon in the discrimination models. Both the granite and alluvium sites have hosted nearby nuclear tests, which provide comparisons for the chemical test data. Phase III of the SPE is yet to be determined. For Phase II of the experiment, characterization of the location is required to develop the geologic/geophysical models for the execution of the experiment. Criteria for the location are alluvium thickness of approximately 170 m and a water table below 170 m; minimal fracturing would be ideal. A P-wave mini-vibroseis survey was conducted at a potential site in alluvium to map out the subsurface geology. The seismic reflection profile consisted of 168 geophone stations, spaced 5 m apart. The mini-vibe was a 7,000-lb peak-force source, starting 57.5 m off the north end of the profile and ending 57.5 m past the southern-most geophone. The length of the profile was 835 m. The source points were placed every 5 m, equally spaced between geophones to reduce clipping. The vibroseis sweep was from 20 Hz down to 180 Hz over 8 seconds, and four sweeps were stacked at each shot location. The shot gathers show high signal-to-noise ratios with clear first arrivals across the entire spread and the suggestion of some shallow reflectors. The data were

  2. Interdisciplinary hydrogeologic site characterization at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.L.; Wagoner, J.L.; Drellack, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices. Hydrogeologic investigations began in earnest with the US Geological Survey mapping much of the area from 1960 to 1965. Since 1963, all nuclear detonations have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts, but a small percentage are conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks, but sometimes in alluvium. Hydrogeologic investigations began in earnest with the US Geological Survey's mapping of much of the NTS region from 1960 to 1965. Following the BANEBERRY test in December 1970, which produced an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere, the US Department of Energy (then the Atomic Energy Commission) established the Containment Evaluation Panel (CEP). Results of interdisciplinary hydrogeologic investigations for each test location are included in a Containment Prospectus which is thoroughly reviewed by the CEP

  3. Ground-water resources of Gregg County, Texas, with a section on Stream runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Breeding, S.D.

    1950-01-01

    Field work in the island of St. Croix, V. I., was carried on from December 1938 to April 1939 in connection with a test-drilling program for water sup- plies. The island is 21 miles long and has a maximum width of 6 miles. Its western part consists of a range of mountains flanked on the south by a rolling plain; its narrower eastern part is entirely mountainous. There are only a few small streams. The rolling and fiat lands are cultivated or are in grass, and the mountainous areas are either wooded or in grass. The average rain- fall of the island is 46.34 inches, but severe droughts and periods of excess precipitation are not uncommon. The island is made up of rocks of Upper Cretaceous age, mostly volcanic tufts and limestones known as the Mount Eagle volcanics; diorite intruded into the cretaceous rocks; and Oligocene to Miocene blue clays and yellow marls (the Jealousy formation and Kingshill marl, respectively). Alluvium is widely distributed. The Mount Eagle rocks were strongly folded in early Tertiary time and the Kingshill strata gently folded in post Lower-Miocene time along an east-northeast axis. Three early Tertiary cycles of erosion are recognized. After the folding of the Kingshill marl, streams followed the strike of the folded rocks in a westerly direction, but they gradually assumed southward courses across the marl plain and as a result a western area of old-age topography, a central area of late-mature topography, and an eastern area of early-mature topography have been created. Submerged reefs and emergent reefs and beaches indicate several fairly recent stands of the sea. Water for human consumption is obtained by collecting rain water in cis- terns, but water for other purposes is almost entirely supplied by wells which are generally less than 100 feet deep. Many dug wells are used, but in recent years drilled wells have been constructed. Most of them are discharged by wind-powered pumps of small capacity. Wells are developed in all the rocks

  4. Staying report of Lic. Mirtha Gamba from (Cnea - Argentina) energetic minerals department[Study of Uranium prospection in Uruguay]; Informe sobre la estadia de la Lic. Mirta Gamba (CNEA-Argentina) en el departamento de Minerales energeticos. en noviembre de 1988: Objetivos y actividades realizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara Vigil, P

    1988-07-01

    The visit of the Lic.Gamba to our country, it was oriented to realise a completion of the geochemical sampling by uranium and other elements of interest to clear in lands of the Crystalline basament and the training of the taking of alluvium samples. The tasks were developed so much in cabinet as in field. Besides it were made visits to the laboratories where take place the preparation of samples, chemical analyses and petrography. Also were visited the laboratories of physical analyses in the D.N.T.N (Direction National of Nuclear technology) that it is mounted in DI.NA.MI.GE. And the exit of field was realised to visit two zones worked by the uranium program during years 1985-1987, Valle Chico (Photo-plan Alferez) and Puntas del Mataojo.

  5. San Diego perspective on UST clean-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In June 1994, CalEPA State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/University of California (LLNL/UC) to review the current UST regulatory framework and cleanup process. As a result of their review, LLNL/UC recommended changes to expedite the cleanup process at leaking UST sites. The LLNL/UC report concludes that natural attenuation of petroleum is an important factor in stabilizing plumes and may be the only remedial activity necessary in the absence of the source. After a review of existing literature and a study of selected leaking UST cases primarily from Coastal Range sedimentary or valley alluvium hydrogeochemical provinces, the LLNL/UC report found that petroleum plumes tend to stabilize close to the source, generally occur in shallow groundwater, and rarely impact drinking water wells in the state. The study and report recommendations focused solely on fuel petroleum hydrocarbon constituents

  6. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, D.; Klarik, L.; Bojar, A.-V.

    2002-01-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition

  7. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Wash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The site characterization of Yucca Mountain, NV as a potential high level nuclear waste repository includes study of the surficial deposits as a record of the paleoenvironmental history of the Yucca Mountain region. An important aspect of this history is an understanding of the evolution of paleogeography leading to establishment of the present drainage pattern. Establishment of drainage basin evolution is needed before geomorphic response to paleoclimate and tectonics can be assessed, because a major change in drainage basin geometry can predominantly affect the sedimentary record. Because alluvial aquifers are significant to regional hydrology, a major change in surface drainage resulting in buried alluvium could have hydrogeologic significance. In this paper, we report on geologic evidence for a major modification in surface drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain region, resulting in the probable establishment of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin by latest Miocene time

  8. Geology, physical properties, and surface effects at Discus Thrower Site, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, W.J.; Miller, C.H.; Dodge, H.W. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Geologic studies in connection with Project Discus Thrower have furnished detailed stratigraphic and structural information about northwestern Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site. The Paleozoic rocks consist of a lower carbonate sequence, argillite of the Eleana Formation, and an upper carbonate sequence. The distribution of these rocks suggests that both top and bottom of the Eleana are structural contacts, probably thrusts or reverse faults. The overlying tuff includes several units recognized in the subsurface, such as the Fraction Tuff and tuff of Redrock Valley. Other units recognized include bedded tuff associated with the Grouse Canyon Member of Belted Range Tuff, and the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members of the Timber Mountain Tuff. The Timber Mountain and Grouse Canyon are extensively altered to montmorillonite (a swelling clay), possibly as a result of ponding of alkaline water. The overlying alluvium locally contains at the base a clayey, tuffaceous sandstone

  9. عرض في أفضلية معادلات التحرر و التوازن الملحي اثناء عملية غسل التربة.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    موفق سالم بربوش

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Miscible displacement had been used in this research in salts leaching of the saline soil.then the soil samples were collected from alqizwinia reign at Al-Najaf city. It was alluvium soil and salty for three location with three replicates .Soil samples were analyzed after soil prepared, the leaching process had been applied to study salts release by Kinetic concept to test which one among kinetic equation would be best one. Also using the saline equilibrium equation to describe removal salts with through time. The results showed as follow : 1- The binomial equation proceeding of salts release description than the others. 2-Decreasing of removal salts quantity via increased differential way with progressing of leaching time. 3-prediction of added or removal salts quantity via water irrigation and water table . 4- Possibility of Using these concepts into field work unless it will be fit with climate conditions disrespecting soil type and water quality.

  10. Hydrology of the shallow aquifer and uppermost semiconfined aquifer near El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.E.; Baker, E.T.; Sperka, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The availability of fresh ground water in El Paso and adjacent areas that is needed to meet increased demand for water supply concerns local, State, and Federal agencies. The Hueco bolson is the principal aquifer in the El Paso area. Starting in the early 1900s and continuing to the 1950s, most of the municipal and industrial water supply in El Paso was pumped from the Hueco bolson aquifer from wells in and near the Rio Grande Valley and the international border. The Rio Grande is the principal surface-water feature in the El Paso area, and a major source of recharge to the shallow aquifer (Rio Grande alluvium) within the study area is leakage of flow from the Rio Grande.

  11. A source of ground water 222Rn around Tachikawa fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Masaaki; Takata, Sigeru

    1994-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentration in ground water was characteristically high on the south-western zone divided by the Tachikawa fault, Tokyo. (1) The concentration did not increase with depth, and alluvium is thick on the zone. The source of radon was not considered as the updraft from base rock through the fault. Comparing the south-western zone with its surrounding zone, the followings were found. (2) The distribution of tritium concentration was supported that water had easily permeated into ground on the zone. (3) As the zone is located beside the Tama River and its alluvial fan center, the river water had likely affected. The source of radon on the zone would be 226 Ra in the aquifer soil. It can be presumed that the water of the Tama River had permeated into ground on the zone and had accumulated 226 Ra. (author)

  12. Characteristics of ejecta and alluvial deposits at Meteor Crater, Arizona and Odessa Craters, Texas: Results from ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Schultz, P. H.

    1991-01-01

    Previous ground penetrating radar (GRP) studies around 50,000 year old Meteor Crater revealed the potential for rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive sub-surface investigations for deep reflectors (generally greater than 10 m). New GRP results are summarized focusing the shallow sub-surfaces (1-2 m) around Meteor Crater and the main crater at Odessa. The following subject areas are covered: (1) the thickness, distribution, and nature of the contact between surrounding alluvial deposits and distal ejecta; and (2) stratigraphic relationships between both the ejecta and alluvium derived from both pre and post crater drainages. These results support previous conclusions indicating limited vertical lowering (less than 1 m) of the distal ejecta at Meteor Crater and allow initial assessment of the gradational state if the Odessa craters.

  13. Hydraulic modelling at the Piedra del Aguila dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruschin, J

    1985-01-01

    Piedra del Aguila is a major hydroelectric scheme in Argentina. Extensive tests, aimed to help and check the design of the main hydraulic structures, were run for more than two years on five models at scales from 1:20 to 1:130. High priority problems were identified as: the river diversion and closure; spillway capacity, chute flows, hydraulic jump sweepout, jet impact location and flow aeration; bottom outlet free surface flows, aeration, jet impact location and discharge capacity at various impact location and discharge capacity at various reservoir levels during impoundment; erosion-deposition pattern of alluvium and weathered rocks at jet impact locations, back-water effects and their prevention and/or elimination; and, vibration risks of the very large spillway crest taintergates, specifically suppression of air entraining vortices. Much attention is given to the prevention of cavitation. 12 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  14. Uranium prospection programme: Paso de las Piedras mission. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, J; Mujica, H; Umpierre, M; Galipolo, N.

    1966-01-01

    The mission of Paso de las Piedras was due of the radioactive values found by the French mission of the CE.A. found in a few former polls .Analyzed the samples its gave values that range between 2.500 and 3.000 ppm in uranium. The need to come to prospectar this zone was immediate, to determine if wil be before a deposit of uranium. The later studies prove that the extension was limited and not concluded yet. There were compiled 5 classes of numerical information in order of increasing detail: a) Chemical analysis of samples of alluvium b) chemical analysis of water samples c) report radiometric d) chemical analysis and radiometric report of soils e) chemical and radiometric analysis of the perforations

  15. The Impact of Hydrodynamics in Erosion - Deposition Process in Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve, South Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Luong, H. P.

    2014-12-01

    Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve is always considered as a friendly green belt to protect and bring up the habitants. However, recently some mangrove areas in the Dong Tranh estuary are being eroded seriously. Based on the field measurements in SW and NE monsoons as well as data of topography changes in 10 years, it is proved that hydrodynamics of waves, tidal currents and riverine currents are the main reasons for erosion-deposition processes at the studied site. The erosion-deposition process changes due to monsoon. The analysed results show that high waves and tidal oscillation cause the increase of the erosion rate in NE monsoon. However, high sediment deposition occurs in SW monsoon due to weak waves and more alluvium from upstream. Many young mangrove trees grow up and develop in the SW monsoon. From the research, it is strongly emphasized the role of mangrove forests in soil retention and energy dissipation.

  16. Notes on the geochemical survey for uranium in Mindoro Island, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Fernandez, L.G.; Villamater, D.T.; Seguis, J.E.; Ibe, M.G.

    1981-03-01

    Geochemical reconnaisance using stream sediment and heavy-mineral concentrates panned from coarse alluvium has been carried out in Mindoro Island, one of the oldest and diverse geologic terrains in the Philippines. A total of 135 selected sampling points situated near accessible areas along the periphery of the island were sampled. The samples were collected at a density of one sample per 53 sq. km. A set minus 80 mesh stream sediment fraction and heavy-mineral concentrates was obtained from each sampling point. Mobile or extractable and total uranium were determined. A large uranium anomaly was delineated over the Carboniferous Mindoro Metamorphics as well as in areas underlain by Early Tertiary sedimentary formations. Another group of anomalies were outlined in the southern part of the island underlain by Jurassic Mansalay Formation and Early to Middle Tertiary sedimentary rocks with associated limestone and coal measures. (author)

  17. The Study of Groundwater Age in Semarang Area Considering Beta Activityof Tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F, Wisjachudin; Agus-Sulistiyono; Fajar-Budi Haendrapratikto

    2000-01-01

    The groundwater age in Semarang regency, they are Genuk, Pedurungan,North Semarang, Urban Semarang, Mijen, Mangkang, Manyaran, Tembalang, Sekaranconsidering tritium content inside has been done. Tritium content ingroundwater given pretreatment that is enriching tritium content usingsynthesize technique by benzene synthesizer (H 2 O converted into C 6 H 6 ).Tritium activity in C 6 H 6 was analyzed using liquid scintillation counterPackard 2000 CA/LL. Optimum condition of volume ratio between cocktail(picofluor) and sample solution is reached ratio of 10 : 10. Efficiencydetection (ε) = 42.16 %, while merit factor = 1.981.10 5 . From twolocations that can be detected show that analysis on groundwater age onManyaran location (damar formation) is younger than Urban Semarang (alluviumsediment), which is match to geological analysis considering geological layershows that on geology layer of volcanic breksi layer is younger than damarformation area and the oldest is the alluvium sediment area. (author)

  18. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Mississippi and Florida airborne survey, Natchez quadrangle of, of Mississippi and Louisiana. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The Natchez quadrangle covers a region within and adjacent to the Mississippi River flood plain in the northern Gulf Coastal Physiographic Province. The underlying Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments of the Mississippi Embayment are extremely thick and contain many piercement structures. Exposed sediments consist largely of recent alluvium in the flood plain area, and Cenozoic sediments of marine and nonmarine origin in adjacent areas. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits in the area. Eighty-three uranium anomalies were found, using the selection criteria set forth in Appendix A, and are discussed briefly. None were considered significant, and most appeared to be of cultural origin. Magnetic data suggests extremely deep sources, and some possible structural complexity in the source area

  19. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Mississippi and Florida airborne survey, Greenwood quadrangle of Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The Greenwood quadrangle covers a region largely within the Mississippi River flood plain in the extreme northern Gulf Coastal Province. Tertiary sediments in this area are relatively thick, and overlie a Mesozoic section gradually shoaling to the north. The Ouachita Tectonic Zone strikes southeasterly through the center of the quadrangle. The exposed sequence is almost entirely Recent alluvium of the flood plain area. Older Cenozoic deposits crop out in upland areas on both sides of the river valley. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. Ninety-three uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly. None were considered significant, and all appeared to occur as the result of cultural and/or weather effects. Magnetic data appear to be in agreement with existing structural interpretations of the region

  20. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group.

  1. Identification groundwater aquifer by using geoelectrical method: case study Pondok Pesantren Darussallam, Kradenan, Grobogan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legowo, B.; Darsono; Putra, A. G.; Kurniawan, M. F. R.

    2018-03-01

    Geoelectrical is one of the geophysical methods that used to characteristic of rocks for early stage exploration. Geoelectrical using Wenner-Schlumberger configuration has been used to estimate the aquifer at Pondok Pesantren Darussallam. Based on the geological map of Grobogan, Kradenan is consist of Alluvium. There are three lines acquisition which length 500 meters and the space of electrode is 25 meters. The data processed using Res2Dinv and the 2D inversion show that the maximum depth is 78.2 meters. The result of this researh show that there is a aquifer at depth 30 - 50 meters. Based on the values of resistivity, 1 - 10 ohm,m identified as clay, then resistivity 10 - 100 ohm.m is sandstone indicated as aquifer, and resistivity 100 - 1338,9 ohm.m is limestone.

  2. Hydrogeology, geochemistry, and quality of water of The Basin and Oak Spring areas of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, E.T.; Buszka, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Test drilling near two sewage lagoons in The Basin area of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas, has shown that the alluvium and colluvium on which the lagoons are located is not saturated in the immediate vicinity of the lagoons. A shallow aquifer, therefore, does not exist in this critical area at and near the lagoons. Should seepage outflow from the lagoons occur, the effluent from the lagoons might eventually be incorporated into shallow ground water moving westward in the direction of Oak Spring. Under these conditions such water could reach the spring. Test borings that bottomed in bedrock below the alluvial and colluvial fill material are dry, indicating that no substantial leakage from the lagoons was detected. Therefore, no contaminant plume was identified. Fill material in The Basin does not contain water everywhere in its extensive outcropping area and supplies only a small quantity of ground water to Window Pouroff, which is the only natural surface outlet of The Basin.

  3. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, August 1993 to February 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.; Buesch, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is being investigated as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. This report summarizes the lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain that was done from August 1993 to February 1994 by the Rock Characteristics Section, Yucca Mountain Project Branch, US Geological Survey (USGS). Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium/colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, Tertiary Calico Hills Formation and Tertiary Prow Pass Tuff. We present criteria used for recognition of stratigraphic contacts, logging results as tables of contact depths for core from neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphical lithologic logs for core from non-UZN boreholes, and descriptions of several distinctive nonwelded tuffs recognized in the PTn hydrogeologic unit of the Paintbrush Group

  4. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO 2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  5. Phytoaccumulation, interaction, toxicity and remediation of cadmium from Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Dinesh; Sharma, Bechan; Kumar, Chitranjan

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the interaction between Cd and Ca, Zn and organic matter for Cd-phytoremediation in sunflower on the alluvium soil of the Sheila Dhar Institute (SDI) experimental farm, Allahabad (India). Application of 40 ppm Zn produced 11.18% extra dry matter (DM) content and 5.8% extra seed yield over the control. We recommended 1.0% Ca, 40 ppm Zn and 20 tons/ha of compost to enhance dry matter yield and diminish the Cd accumulation in 15 ppm Cd- ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA)-treated plots up to 1/12 folds in sunflower (phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil through soil-plant-rhizospheric processes.

  6. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, D; Klarik, L [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics (Romania); Bojar, A -V [Department of Geology and Paleontology, Graz (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition.

  7. A study on the U speciation in groundwater of a hard rock aquifer in South India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivya, C.; Chidambaram, S.; Thilagavathi, R.; Nepolian, M.; Adithya, V.S.; Tirumalesh, K.; Prasanna, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Speciation of uranium indicates the contribution of this ion into different species. An attempt has been made to study the spatial and temporal variations of U speciation in the hard rock aquifer of South India. The major rock types have granulite facies with high grade metamorphic rocks and younger intrusive. It also comprises of Fissile hornblende biotite gneiss, Charnockite, Quartzite, Granite and Flood Plain Alluvium. A total of 108 samples were collected from the handpumps of the study area for two seasons (Pre monsoon and South West monsoon). The groundwater samples were analysed for U and other ions like Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + and K + , HCO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 2- , PO 4 3- , NO 3 - , F - , H 4 SiO 4 , pH, EC and TDS using standard procedures

  8. A water-quality monitoring network for Vallecitos Valley, Alameda County, California. Water-resources investigations (final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.D.

    1980-10-01

    A water-quality monitoring network is proposed to detect the presence of and trace the movement of radioisotopes in the hydrologic system in the vicinity of the Vallecitos Nuclear Center. The source of the radioisotopes is treated industrial wastewater from the Vallecitos Nuclear Center that is discharged into an unnamed tributary of Vallecitos Creek. The effluent infiltrates the alluvium along the stream course, percolates downward to the water table, and mixes with the native ground water in the subsurface. The average daily discharge of effluent to the hydrologic system in 1978 was about 100,000 gallons. The proposed network consists of four surface-water sampling sites and six wells to sample the ground-water system. Samples collected monthly at each site and analyzed for tritium and for alpha, beta, and gamma radiation would provide adequate data for monitoring

  9. Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater quality in the Çavuşçayı basin, Sungurlu-Çorum, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Yıldırım, Turgut

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality and usage possibility of groundwater in the Çavuşçayı basin and suggest the best water structure for the groundwater use. Results from hydrochemical analyses reveal that groundwater is mostly affected by salty (Na+ Cl-) waters of the Incik Formation and brackish (Ca2+, Mg2+ SO{4/2-}) waters of the Bayındır Formation. The Alibaba saltpan discharged (2 l/s) from the Incik Formation is used for salt production. In the basin, salinity risk increases with depth and along the groundwater flow direction. Therefore, shallow water and trenches opened in the alluvium aquifer at the east of the basin were determined to yield suitable water with no Na+ and Cl- contamination. Following the heavy rainy period, waters of less salinity and conductivity are possibly used for agriculture.

  10. Did mud contribute to freeway collapse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E.; Friberg, Paul A.; Busby, Robert; Field, Edward F.; Jacob, Klaus H.; Borcherdt, Roger D.

    At least 41 people were killed October 17 when the upper tier of the Nimitz Freeway in Oakland, Calif., collapsed during the Ms = 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. Seismologists studying aftershocks concluded that soil conditions and resulting ground motion amplification were important in the failure of the structure and should be considered in the reconstruction of the highway.Structural design weaknesses in the two-tiered freeway, known as the Cypress structure, had been identified before the tragedy. The seismologists, from Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., and the U.S. Geological Survey in Menlo Park, Calif., found that the collapsed section was built on fill over Bay mud. A southern section of the Cypress structure built on alluvium of Quaternary age did not collapse (see Figure 1).

  11. Geologic investigation :an update of subsurface geology on Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hart, Dirk (GRAM, Inc.)

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to generate a revised geologic model of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) incorporating the geological and geophysical data produced since the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project (SWHC) of 1994 and 1995. Although this report has certain stand-alone characteristics, it is intended to complement the previous work and to serve as a status report as of late 2002. In the eastern portion of KAFB (Lurance Canyon and the Hubbell bench), of primary interest is the elevation to which bedrock is buried under a thin cap of alluvium. Elevation maps of the bedrock top reveal the paleodrainage that allows for the interpretation of the area's erosional history. The western portion of KAFB consists of the eastern part of the Albuquerque basin where bedrock is deeply buried under Santa Fe Group alluvium. In this area, the configuration of the down-to-the-west, basin-bounding Sandia and West Sandia faults is of primary interest. New geological and geophysical data and the reinterpretation of old data help to redefine the location and magnitude of these elements. Additional interests in this area are the internal stratigraphy and structure of the Santa Fe Group. Recent data collected from new monitoring wells in the area have led to a geologic characterization of the perched Tijeras Arroyo Groundwater system and have refined the known limits of the Ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments within the Santa Fe Group. Both the reinterpretation of the existing data and a review of the regional geology have shown that a segment of the boundary between the eastern and western portions of KAFB is a complicated early Tertiary (Laramide) wrench-fault system, the Tijeras/Explosive Ordnance Disposal Area/Hubbell Spring system. A portion of this fault zone is occupied by a coeval ''pull-apart'' basin filled with early Tertiary conglomerates, whose exposures form the ''Travertine Hills''.

  12. Nuclear waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, C.W.; Watts, R.E.; Sanner, W.S. Jr.; Paladino, J.B.; Lilley, A.W.; Winston, S.J.; Stricklin, B.C.; Razor, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a disposal site for the disposal of toxic or radioactive waste, comprising: (a) a trench in the earth having a substantially flat bottom lined with a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; (b) a non-rigid, radiation-blocking cap formed from a first layer of alluvium, a second layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular material having a high hydraulic conductivity for blocking any capillary-type flow of water between the layer of alluvium and the rest of the cap, a layer of water-shedding silt for directing surface water away from the trench, and a layer of rip-rap over the silt layer for protecting the silt layer from erosion and for providing a radiation barrier; (c) a solidly-packed array of abutting modules of uniform size and shape disposed in the trench and under the cap for both encapsulating the wastes from water and for structurally supporting the cap, wherein each module in the array is slidable movable in the vertical direction in order to allow the array of modules to flexibly conform to variations in the shape of the flat trench bottom caused by seismic disturbances and to facilitate the recoverability of the modules; (d) a layer of solid, fluent, coarse, granular materials having a high hydraulic conductivity in the space between the side of the modules and the walls of the trench for obstructing any capillary-type flow of ground water to the interior of the trench; and (e) a drain and wherein the layer of silt is sloped to direct surface water flowing over the cap into the drain

  13. Preliminary results of radiation monitoring near uranium mines in Namibia EJOLT Project (DRAFT version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    As a part of the EJOLT (Environmental Justice Organizations Liability and Trade) project, EARTHLIFE Namibia and CRIIRAD (Commission for Independent Research and Information about Radiation) have organised visits in areas located in the vicinity of uranium mines in Namibia In the course of an on site mission carried out between September 22 and October 2 2011, scientists from the CRIIRAD laboratory took radiation measurements in situ, and collected 14 samples of top soil, 13 samples of surface sediments of the Swakop, Gawib and Khan rivers, 11 underground water samples in the alluvium of Swakop, and Khan rivers and tap water from Arandis city, and one sample of asparagus. Solid samples have been analysed at the CRIIRAD laboratory in France (measurements performed by HpGe gamma spectrometry) and water samples have been monitored for main chemicals by LDA 26 laboratory in France and for radium 226 and radon 222 at the CRIIRAD laboratory. Some of the preliminary findings are summarised in this report: 1 - The dose rate measured by CRIIRAD on the parking of Roessing mine is about 6 times above natural background value (0.9 μSv/h compared to 0.15 μSv/h); 2 - The management of waste rock dumps needs to be improved: Some waste rocks are dumped on the banks of Khan river (at the intersection with Dome Gorge) without fencing and confinement. The radiological impact of this activity has to be studied in detail but preliminary measurements show various impacts on the environment; 3 - The finest fraction of the radioactive tailings dumped on Roessing tailings dam is blown away by the wind and contaminates the surrounding environment; 4 - The high uranium concentration in underground water collected downstream Roessing uranium mine in the Khan river and Swakop river alluvium raises the question of the origin of this uranium

  14. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE's Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS

  15. Electromagnetic surveys to detect clay-rich sediment in the Rio Grande inner valley, Albuquerque area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolino, James R.; Sterling, Joseph M.

    2000-01-01

    Information on the presence of clay-rich layers in the inner-valley alluvium is essential for quantifying the amount of water transmitted between the Rio Grande and the Santa Fe Group aquifer system. This report describes a study that used electromagnetic surveys to provide this information. In the first phase of the study, electromagnetic soundings were made using time-domain and frequency-domain electro- magnetic methods. On the basis of these initial results, the time- domain method was judged ineffective because of cultural noise in the study area, so subsequent surveys were made using the frequency-domain method. For the second phase of the study, 31 frequency-domain electromagnetic surveys were conducted along the inner valley and parallel to the Rio Grande in the Albuquerque area in the spring and summer of 1997 to determine the presence of hydrologically significant clay-rich layers buried in the inner-valley alluvium. For this report, the 31 survey sections were combined into 10 composite sections for ease of interpretation. Terrain-conductivity data from the surveys were modeled using interpretation software to produce geoelectric cross sections along the survey lines. This modeling used lithologic logs from two wells installed near the survey lines: the Bosque South and Rio Bravo 5 wells. Because of cultural interference, location of the wells and soundings, complex stratigraphy, and difficulty interpreting lithology, such interpretation was inconclusive. Instead, a decision process based on modeling results was developed using vertical and horizontal dipole 40-meter intercoil spacing terrain-conductivity values. Values larger than or equal to 20 millisiemens per meter were interpreted to contain a hydrologically significant thickness of clay-rich sediment. Thus, clay-rich sediment was interpreted to underlie seven segments of the 10 composited survey lines, totaling at least 2,660 meters of the Rio Grande inner valley. The longest of these clay

  16. Coupled Hydrodynamic and Wave Propagation Modeling for the Source Physics Experiment: Study of Rg Wave Sources for SPE and DAG series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmat, C. S.; Delorey, A.; Rougier, E.; Knight, E. E.; Steedman, D. W.; Bradley, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation reports numerical modeling efforts to improve knowledge of the processes that affect seismic wave generation and propagation from underground explosions, with a focus on Rg waves. The numerical model is based on the coupling of hydrodynamic simulation codes (Abaqus, CASH and HOSS), with a 3D full waveform propagation code, SPECFEM3D. Validation datasets are provided by the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) which is a series of highly instrumented chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site with yields from 100kg to 5000kg. A first series of explosions in a granite emplacement has just been completed and a second series in alluvium emplacement is planned for 2018. The long-term goal of this research is to review and improve current existing seismic sources models (e.g. Mueller & Murphy, 1971; Denny & Johnson, 1991) by providing first principles calculations provided by the coupled codes capability. The hydrodynamic codes, Abaqus, CASH and HOSS, model the shocked, hydrodynamic region via equations of state for the explosive, borehole stemming and jointed/weathered granite. A new material model for unconsolidated alluvium materials has been developed and validated with past nuclear explosions, including the 10 kT 1965 Merlin event (Perret, 1971) ; Perret and Bass, 1975). We use the efficient Spectral Element Method code, SPECFEM3D (e.g. Komatitsch, 1998; 2002), and Geologic Framework Models to model the evolution of wavefield as it propagates across 3D complex structures. The coupling interface is a series of grid points of the SEM mesh situated at the edge of the hydrodynamic code domain. We will present validation tests and waveforms modeled for several SPE tests which provide evidence that the damage processes happening in the vicinity of the explosions create secondary seismic sources. These sources interfere with the original explosion moment and reduces the apparent seismic moment at the origin of Rg waves up to 20%.

  17. The Importance of Bank Storage in Supplying Baseflow to Rivers Flowing Through Compartmentalized, Alluvial Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kimberly A.; Proffitt, Tiffany; Rowley, Taylor; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Montiel, Daniel; Dimova, Natasha; Tebo, Daniel; Miller, Gretchen R.

    2017-12-01

    As water grows scarcer in semiarid and arid regions around the world, new tools are needed to quantify fluxes of water and chemicals between aquifers and rivers. In this study, we quantify the volumetric flux of subsurface water to a 24 km reach of the Brazos River, a lowland river that meanders through the Brazos River Alluvium Aquifer (BRAA), with 8 months of high-frequency differential gaging measurements using fixed gaging stations. Subsurface discharge sources were determined using natural tracers and End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). During a 4 month river stage recession following a high stage event, subsurface discharge decreased from 50 m3/s to 0, releasing a total of 1.0 × 108 m3 of water. Subsurface discharge dried up even as the groundwater table at two locations in the BRAA located 300-500 m from the river remained ˜4 m higher than the river stage. Less than 4% of the water discharged from the subsurface during the prolonged recession period resembled the chemical fingerprint of the alluvial aquifer. Instead, the chemistry of this discharged water closely resembled high stage "event" river water. Together, these findings suggest that the river is well connected to rechargeable bank storage reservoirs but disconnected from the broader alluvial aquifer. The average width of discrete bank storage zones on each side of the river, identified with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), was approximately 1.5 km. In such highly compartmentalized aquifers, groundwater pumping is unlikely to impact the exchange between the river and the alluvium.

  18. Porosity determination from 2-D resistivity method in studying the slope failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslinda, Umi; Nordiana, M. M.; Bery, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    Slope failures have become the main focus for infrastructures development on hilly areas in Malaysia especially the development of tourism and residential. Lack of understanding and information of the subsoil conditions and geotechnical issues are the main cause of the slope failures. The failures happened are due to a combination of few factors such as topography, climate, geology and land use. 2-D resistivity method was conducted at the collapsed area in Selangor. The 2-D resistivity was done to study the instability of the area. The collapsed occurred because of the subsurface materials was unstable. Pole-dipole array was used with 5 m minimum electrode spacing for the 2-D resistivity method. The data was processed using Res2Dinv software and the porosity was calculated using Archie's law equation. The results show that the saturated zone (1-100 Ωm), alluvium or highly weathered rock (100-1000 Ωm), boulders (1600-7000 Ωm) and granitic bedrock (>7000 Ωm). Generally, the slope failures or landslides occur during the wet season or after rainfall. It is because of the water infiltrate to the slope and cause the saturation of the slope which can lead to landslides. Then, the porosity of saturated zone is usually high because of the water content. The area of alluvium or highly weathered rock and saturated zone have high porosity (>20%) and the high porosity also dominated at almost all the collapsed area which means that the materials with porosity >20% is potential to be saturated, unstable and might trigger slope failures.

  19. Groundwater arsenic contamination from parts of the Ghaghara Basin, India: influence of fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary morphostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Babar Ali

    2017-09-01

    A groundwater arsenic (As) distribution in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts of Uttar Pradesh is shown in the entrenched channels and floodplains of the Ghaghara River. Tubewell water samples were analysed for As through flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HG-AAS) system. About 38, 61, and 42 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, have As >10 µg/l (WHO guideline). Moreover, 15, 45, and 26 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, have As above 50 µg/l. About 86, 69, and 35 % of tubewells in Faizabad, Gonda, and Basti districts, respectively, are from shallow depth (21-45 m), and it is worth noticing that 47 % As-contaminated (As >10 µg/l) tubewells in these three districts are located within the depth of 10-35 m in Holocene Newer Alluvium aquifers. The high content of As (7.11 mg/kg) is measured in suspended river sediments of the Ghaghara River. Most of the As-contaminated villages in the Ghaghara Basin are located close to abandoned or present meander channels and floodplains of the Ghaghara River. In contrast, tubewells in Faizabad, Ayodhya, and Nawabganj towns are As-safe because of their positions on the Pleistocene Older Alluvium upland surfaces. Quaternary geomorphology plays an important role in groundwater arsenic contamination in the Ghaghara Basin. The sources of groundwater arsenic are geogenic and perennial mountainous rivers in the Ghaghara Basin supplied high sediment loads. The arsenic in groundwater of Ghaghara Basin is getting released from associated sediments which were likely deposited from the Himalayas. The process of release of groundwater arsenic is reductive dissolution of iron hydroxides.

  20. El flujo que no cesa: aproximación a las razones, cronología y perfil de los argentinos radicados en España (1975-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Mira Delli-Zotti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudia el fenómeno de la llegada cada vez más numerosa de argentinos a España desde la segunda mitad de la década de 1960 hasta el aluvión posterior a 1997, cuya magnitud y consecuencias aún son difíciles de evaluar. Plantea una cronología, de acuerdo a las causas de la salida, y procura indagar en los cambios que ha sufrido el perfil de los emigrantes argentinos que se dirigieron a España a lo largo de estos 40 años. Fenómeno paradójico, porque sociedad argentina fue creada por un aluvión inmigratorio, y dramático, porque los últimos arribos nos hablan de gente que abandona su tierra en respuesta a una falta total de expectativas y una situación económica insostenible, a pesar de la frecuente caracterización de Argentina como país dotado con grandes recursos naturales.________________________ABSTRACT:This article studies the phenomenon of the more and more numerous arrivals from Argentineans to Spain from second half of the decade of 1960 to the later alluvium to 1997, whose magnitude and consequences still are difficult to evaluate. It raises a chronology, according to the causes of the exit, and it tries to investigate in the changes that the profile of the Argentine emigrants has undergone who went to Spain throughout these 40 years. Paradoxical phenomenon, because Argentine society was created by an immigratory alluvium, and dramatic, because the last arrivals speak us of people who leave her earth in answer to a total lack of expectations and an untenable economic situation, in spite of the frequent characterization of Argentina like country equipped with great natural resources.

  1. Geohydrologic data collected from shallow neutron-access boreholes and resultant-preliminary geohydrologic evaluations, Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Loskot, C.L.; Chornack, M.P.

    1994-01-01

    In cooperation with the US Department of Energy, 74 neutron-access boreholes were drilled in and near the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Drilling, coring, sample collection and handling, and lithologic and preliminary geohydrologic data are presented in this report. The boreholes were drilled in a combination of alluvium/colluvium, ash-flow tuff, ash-fall tuff, or bedded tuff to depths of 4.6 to 36.6 meters. Air was used as a drilling medium to minimize disturbance of the water content and water potential of drill cuttings, core, and formation rock. Drill cuttings were collected at approximately 0.6-meter intervals. Core was taken at selected intervals from the alluvium/colluvium using drive-coring methods and from tuff using rotary-coring methods. Nonwelded and bedded tuffs were continuously cored using rotary-coring methods. Gravimetric water-content and water-potential values of core generally were greater than those of corresponding drill cuttings. Gravimetric water-content, porosity, and water-potential values of samples generally decreased, and bulk density values increased, as the degree of welding increased. Grain-density values remained fairly constant with changes in the degree of welding. A high degree of spatial variability in water-content and water-potential profiles was noted in closely spaced boreholes that penetrate similar lithologic subunits and was also noted in adjacent boreholes located in different topographic positions. Variability within a thick lithologic unit usually was small. 18 refs., 21 figs., 17 tabs

  2. Natural and anthropogenic processes that concentrate Mn in rural and urban environments of the lower Mississippi River Delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.W.; Gonzales, C.R.; Powell, E.; Shah, A.; Mielke, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated natural processes and projected ethyl cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl fuel additives as sources of Mn accumulation in the environment. Data sets include fresh alluvium and sediments from the lower Mississippi River Delta and a soil metal survey of metropolitan New Orleans. The (1) railroad Mn, (2) industrial Mn, and (3) dynamic aquifer-stream transfer of Mn hypotheses were tested with the Mississippi River Delta data. Friction between Mn-rich steel wheels and rails contributes Mn (P=0.017) to the environment, supporting (1). Sediment loads of Mn were similar (P=0.77) upstream and downstream from the Louisiana industrial corridor, not supporting (2). The median Mn on the alluvium surface (59 mg/kg), in the aquifer (159 mg/kg), and in the riverbank aquifer discharge zone (513 mg/kg) support (3) as a mechanism for Mn enrichment of lay. The New Orleans soil metal survey data set shows a rural to urban increase of fourfold for Mn and three orders of magnitude for Pb. At 1999 .S. highway fuel use, 8.3 mg of Mn per L would yield 5000 metric tons of Mn annually. If 13% of Mn were emitted, 650 tons of Mn would become aerosols annually, while 87% or 4350 tons would remain in engines. The 1999 toxic release inventory for Mn shows 370 tons as total emissions compared to the potential of 390 and 260 tons from vehicles, respectively, in urban and rural areas. A precautionary lesson from the use of Pb as a fuel additive is that the use of Mn as a fuel additive would be associated with an increased risk or neonates exceeding the estimated total tolerable daily intake of .1-16.5μg Mn (especially in urban inner city environments) because neonates lack fully functional hepatic clearance for Mn

  3. PERMEABILITY OF SAVCIBEY DAM (BİLECİK AXIS LOCATION AND DESIGN OF GROUT CURTAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Can Canoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study comprise the design of the planned grout curtain in Savcıbey Dam (Söğüt/Bilecik in order to provide impermeability along the dam axis. Within the context of field studies, engineering geology map was generated, ground investigation drilling was realized and permeability tests were performed. Within the field studies, the joint conditions of the geological units (Triassic aged Bozuyük Metamorphic schists under the dam axis and its effect on permeability was observed considering the positions of the discontinuities with regard to the dam axis location. Orientation of discontinuities generally have strikes changing between N – S and NNE – SSW. 5 boreholes on dam axis, 2 boreholes on cofferdam, 3 boreholes on diversion tunnel and 2 boreholes on spillway total 245 m ground investigation borehole were drilled. In order to determine the permeability profile of dam axis and design the grout curtain, Lugeon tests in Bozuyük Metamorphic units observed in dam axis, falling head permeability tests in alluviums observed in thalveg and slope debris observed in right abutment were performed. Lugeon tests realized in Bozuyük Metamorphic units show that the unit is generally permeable and partly low permeable. Alluvium and slope debris are highly permeable. In addition, drilling works realized in dam axis shows that the augmentation of the weathering degree cause an increase of permeability in Triassic aged Bozüyük Metamorphic schists. As a result of these studies information about the permeability of Savcıbey Dam was collected and the grout curtain hole was designed. Accordingly, it is predicted that approximately 40 m depth of grout curtain from the stripping excavation with the depth of 1.50 m would prevent the possible leakages.

  4. Geologic map of the Fraser 7.5-minute quadrangle, Grand County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Bryant, Bruce; Kellogg, Karl S.; Theobald, Paul K.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2010-01-01

    The geologic map of the Fraser quadrangle, Grand County, Colo., portrays the geology along the western boundary of the Front Range and the eastern part of the Fraser basin near the towns of Fraser and Winter Park. The oldest rocks in the quadrangle include gneiss, schist, and plutonic rocks of Paleoproterozoic age that are intruded by younger plutonic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age. These basement rocks are exposed along the southern, eastern, and northern margins of the quadrangle. Fluvial claystone, mudstone, and sandstone of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, and fluvial sandstone and conglomeratic sandstone of the Lower Cretaceous Dakota Group, overlie Proterozoic rocks in a small area near the southwest corner of the quadrangle. Oligocene rhyolite tuff is preserved in deep paleovalleys cut into Proterozoic rocks near the southeast corner of the quadrangle. Generally, weakly consolidated siltstone and minor unconsolidated sediments of the upper Oligocene to upper Miocene Troublesome Formation are preserved in the post-Laramide Fraser basin. Massive bedding and abundant silt suggest that loess or loess-rich alluvium is a major component of the siltstone in the Troublesome Formation. A small unnamed fault about one kilometer northeast of the town of Winter Park has the youngest known displacement in the quadrangle, displacing beds of the Troublesome Formation. Surficial deposits of Pleistocene and Holocene age are widespread in the Fraser quadrangle, particularly in major valleys and on slopes underlain by the Troublesome Formation. Deposits include glacial outwash and alluvium of non-glacial origin; mass-movement deposits transported by creep, debris flow, landsliding, and rockfall; pediment deposits; tills deposited during the Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations; and sparse diamictons that may be pre-Bull Lake till or debris-flow deposits. Some of the oldest surficial deposits may be as old as Pliocene.

  5. Using Seismic Refraction and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to Characterize the Valley Fill in Beaver Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, N.; Harry, D. L.; Wohl, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    This study is one of the first to use near surface geophysical techniques to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy in a high alpine, low gradient valley with a past glacial history and to obtain a preliminary grasp on the impact of Holocene beaver activity. Approximately 1 km of seismic refraction data and 5 km of GPR data were collected in Beaver Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park. An asymmetric wedge of sediment ranging in depth from 0-20 m transverse to the valley profile was identified using seismic refraction. Complementary analysis of the GPR data suggests that the valley fill can be subdivided into till deposited during the Pleistocene glaciations and alluvium deposited during the Holocene. Two main facies were identified in the GPR profiles through pattern recognition. Facie Fd, which consists of chaotic discontinuous reflectors with an abundance of diffractions, is interpreted to be glacial till. Facie Fc, which is a combination of packages of complex slightly continuous reflectors interfingered with continuous horizontal to subhorizontal reflectors, is interpreted to be post-glacial alluvium and includes overbank, pond and in-channel deposits. Fc consistently overlies Fd throughout the study area and is no more than 7 m thick in the middle of the valley. The thickness of Holocene sedimentation (beaver dams, a high abundance of fine sediment including silts and clays, historical records of beavers, and the name "Beaver Meadows" all suggest that Holocene beaver activity played a large role in sediment accumulation at this site, despite the lack of surficial relict beaver dams containing wood.

  6. Bank filtered water quality characteristics in Okgog-Ri area of Youngsan-River, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee-Youl; Kim, Hyoung-Soo [Korea Water Resources Corp., Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-02-28

    Preliminary artificial recharge groundwater intake method using bank filtering had been conducted in Okgog-Ri of Youngsan-River to evaluate the possibility of substitution of surface water intake method in the area. In order to investigate the characteristics of bank filtered groundwater, we examined the hydrogeological properties of alluvium and water quality of stream and groundwater. It is observed that nitrate in stream water from synthetic fertilizer and poultry manure is almost consumed during bank filtering in this area. This implies that denitrification of organic carbon and the oxidation of pyrite present in the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater samples from bank filtering show high Mn concentration. This high Mn concentration may be resulted from decreasing redox potential due to denitrification and increasing mobility due to redox reaction of Mn-oxide. In the study area, there is a typical tendency that Al concentrations of water samples decrease according to increasing pH. This tendency is interpreted as forming of amorphous Al(OH){sub 3} precipitates by reducing the Al{sup 3+} solubilities. It is revealed that the bank filtered groundwater in the area is not edible because color, turbidity, heterotrophic bacteria, coliform and Mn of the groundwater exceed the guideline of drinking water. Even though the bank filtered groundwater without treatment does not satisfy the guideline of drinking water, the groundwater shows a good water quality compared with stream water. So, the water treatment method using bank filtered groundwater can be more economical and efficient than the treatment using direct intake of stream water in the aspect of water quality. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Belleville quadrangle (IL). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two uranium anomalies meet the minimum statistical requirements as defined in Volume I. These anomalies are listed and are shown on the Uranium Anomaly Interpretation Map. Potassium (%K), equivalent Uranium (ppM eU), equivalent Thorium (ppM eTh), eU/eTh, eU/K, eTh/K, and magnetic pseudo-contour maps are presented in Appendix E. Stacked Profiles showing geologic strip maps along each flight-line, together with sensor data, and ancillary data are presented in Appendix F. All maps and profiles were prepared on a scale of 1:250,000, but have been reduced to 1:500,000 for presentation in Volume II. Anomalies No. 1, No. 4 to No. 17, No. 22 to No. 23, and No. 27 to No. 30 are over areas underlain by the Radnor Till member (Qti) of the Pleistocene Glasford formation. Anomalies No. 2 and No. 3 are over areas underlain by Pleistocene Cahokia Alluvium (Qc) and the Radnor Till member (Qti) of the Glasford formation. Anomalies No. 18 to No. 21, and No. 24 are over areas underlain by the Pleistocene Equality formation (Qcl). Anomalies No. 25 and No. 26 are over areas underlain by the Equality formation (Qcl) and the Radnor Till member (Qti) of the Glasford formation. Both of these formations are of Pleistocene age. Anomalies No. 31 and No. 33 are over areas underlain by the Pleistocene Cahokia Alluvium (Qc). Anomalies No. 32, No. 34 to No. 38, and No. 40 to No. 42 are over areas underlain by the Radnor Till member (Qti) of the Pleistocene Glasford formation. Anomaly No. 39 is over an area underlain by the Radnor Till (Qti) and the Hagarstown (Qgh) members of the Pleistocene Glasford formation

  8. Use of three-dimensional, high-resolution seismic technology to optimize the location of remedial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainer, R.W.; Adams, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    Two three-dimensional (3-D), high-resolution seismic reflection pilot studies were conducted in California at two sites, where the primary contaminants of concern are solvents. Identify pathways of contaminant migration. Determine the subsurface stratigraphy and structure to optimize the location for placement of remedial systems. The geology at the first site, located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, is characterized by unconsolidated alluvium. Ground water varies in depth from about 30 to 100 ft. The site typically is subjected to extensive cultural noise. The second site, in Southern California, is located in a broad, synclinal depression in the Transverse Range. Shallow alluvium overlies a marine turbidite sequence that crops out as massive sandstone beds. Field work for both surveys took place in August 1992. A Bison Model 90120-A, 120-channel (DIFP) seismograph was used to record the data. Thirty-hertz, natural-frequency geophones were used to receive the data, and an Elastic Wave Generator (EWG) was used as the seismic source. The use of a signal-stacking, noninvasive source was found to be an effective method of overriding background noise at the sites. Prior to the commencement of the 3-D pilot studies, a two-dimensional (2-D) profile was recorded to test the acquisition parameters, which included the geometry of the survey, digital sample rate, and analog filter settings. The data were monitored in the field with a Bison 486 Explorer outdoor computer. The 2-D data were processed and displayed in the field. Both sites displayed coherent seismic reflections from the depths of interest on the field-stacked sections

  9. Dust deposition in southern Nevada and California, 1984-1989: Relations to climate, source area, and source lithology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, Marith C.; Kihl, Rolf

    1995-05-01

    Dust samples collected annually for 5 years from 55 sites in southern Nevada and California provide the first regional source of information on modern rates of dust deposition, grain size, and mineralogical and chemical composition relative to climate and to type and lithology of dust source. The average silt and clay flux (rate of deposition) in southern Nevada and southeastern California ranges from 4.3 to 15.7 g/m2/yr, but in southwestern California the average silt and clay flux is as high as 30 g/m2/yr. The climatic factors that affect dust flux interact with each other and with the factors of source type (playas versus alluvium), source lithology, geographic area, and human disturbance. Average dust flux increases with mean annual temperature but is not correlated to decreases in mean annual precipitation because the regional winds bring dust to relatively wet areas. In contrast, annual dust flux mostly reflects changes in annual precipitation (relative drought) rather than temperature. Although playa and alluvial sources produce about the same amount of dust per unit area, the total volume of dust from the more extensive alluvial sources is much larger. In addition, playa and alluvial sources respond differently to annual changes in precipitation. Most playas produce dust that is richer in soluble salts and carbonate than that from alluvial sources (except carbonate-rich alluvium). Gypsum dust may be produced by the interaction of carbonate dust and anthropogenic or marine sulfates. The dust flux in an arid urbanizing area may be as much as twice that before disturbance but decreases when construction stops. The mineralogic and major-oxide composition of the dust samples indicates that sand and some silt is locally derived and deposited, whereas clay and some silt from different sources can be far-traveled. Dust deposited in the Transverse Ranges of California by the Santa Ana winds appears to be mainly derived from sources to the north and east.

  10. Geology of the Syncline Ridge area related to nuclear waste disposal, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, D.L.; Morrison, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    The Syncline Ridge area is in the western part of Yucca Flat, Nye Co., Nev. Drill holes, geophysical surveys, mapping, and laboratory studies during 1976 through 1978 were used to investigate argillite in unit J (Mississippian) of the Eleana Formation (Devonian and Mississippian) as a possible nuclear waste repository site. Argillite in unit J has a minimum stratigraphic thickness of at least 700 m. The argillite underlies most of the Syncline Ridge area east of the Eleana Range, and is overlain by Quaternary alluvium and the Tippipah Limestone of Syncline Ridge. At the edges of the Syncline Ridge area, alluvium and volcanic rocks overlie the argillite. The argillite is underlain by more than 1000 m of quartzite, siliceous argillite, and minor limestone in older units of the Eleana Formation. These older units crop out in the Eleana Range. The area is divided into southern, central, and northern structural blocks by two lateral faults. The southern and central blocks either have volumes of argillite too small for a repository site, or have irregular-shaped volumes caused by Mesozoic high-angle faults that make the structure too complex for a repository site. The northern block appears to contain thick argillite within an area of 6 to 8 km 2 . The postvolcanic history of the Syncline Ridge area indicates that the area has undergone less deformation than other areas in Yucca Flat. Most of the late Tertiary and Quaternary deformation consisted of uplift and eastward tilting in the Syncline Ridge area. Preliminary engineering geology investigations indicate that although the competency of the argillite is low, the argillite may be feasible for construction of a nuclear waste disposal facility. Physical, thermal, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the argillite appear to be within acceptable limits for a nuclear waste repository

  11. Water resources of the Santa Ysabel and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations, San Diego County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckleton, John R.

    1981-01-01

    The Santa Ysabel (consisting of three tracts) and Mesa Grande Indian Reservations are in north-central San Diego County, Calif. On both reservations fractured and weathered igneous and metamorphic rocks and alluvium are water bearing; however, no wells are known to derive their water entirely from alluvium. Well yields range from 2.5 to 250 gallons per minute. Springs occur where saturated fractured or weathered material intersects the land surface. Spring discharge ranged from 0 gallon per minute (November 1979) to 9.4 gallons per minute (November 1979). Few data are available for the surface water characteristics of the study area. One-time measurements of discharge at selected stream sites were made in late November 1979 and late May 1980; discharges ranged from less than 0.01 cubic foot per second to an estimated 3 cubic feet per second. Further study of the surface-water systems would provide a basis for estimating their development potential. The existing water-supply development on the Santa Ysabel Indian Reservation is adequate for the present residents. The Mesa Grande reservation was unoccupied in 1952, was reportedly unoccupied in November 1979, and has no developed water supply. Additional water can be developed for both reservations from the igneous and metamorphic rock, from presently undeveloped springs, and from perennial reaches of the larger streams. Except for excessive iron and sodium at some ground-water sites and excessive sodium at a few surface-water sites, the water is of suitable quality for domestic and agricultural use. (USGS)

  12. Alpha-emitting isotopes and chromium in a coastal California aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Jill N.; Izbicki, John A.; Murtaugh, Joseph M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    The unadjusted 72-h gross alpha activities in water from two wells completed in marine and alluvial deposits in a coastal southern California aquifer 40 km north of San Diego were 15 and 25 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L). Although activities were below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L, when adjusted for uranium activity; there is concern that new wells in the area may exceed MCLs, or that future regulations may limit water use from the wells. Coupled well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data collected from the wells in 2011 (with analyses for isotopes within the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay-chains) show gross alpha activity in marine deposits is associated with decay of naturally-occurring 238U and its daughter 234U. Radon activities in marine deposits were as high as 2230 pCi/L. In contrast, gross alpha activities in overlying alluvium within the Piedra de Lumbre watershed, eroded from the nearby San Onofre Hills, were associated with decay of 232Th, including its daughter 224Ra. Radon activities in alluvium from Piedra de Lumbre of 450 pCi/L were lower than in marine deposits. Chromium VI concentrations in marine deposits were less than the California MCL of 10 μg/L (effective July 1, 2014) but δ53Cr compositions were near zero and within reported ranges for anthropogenic chromium. Alluvial deposits from the nearby Las Flores watershed, which drains a larger area having diverse geology, has low alpha activities and chromium as a result of geologic and geochemical conditions and may be more promising for future water-supply development.

  13. Origen de la casiterita detrítica en los aluviones recientes de Tirados de la Vega-Golpejas (Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fort González, R.

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Two cassiterite anomalies have been detected in the Regato de los Lentiscos and Tirados de la Vega alluviums. in the Golpejas area (Salamanca. The granometric and morphometric parameters of these cassiterites have been compared with those shown by the cassiterite crystal ocurrying in the Golpejas granite. The comparison between the two groups of data allow us to conclude that the anomaly observed in the Regato de los Lentiscos has been originated by the disperssion of the cassiterite from the primary deposit of Golpejas. On the contrary. the anomaly ocuring in the alluviums to the south of Tirados de la Vega shows a different origin, and is coming from stanniferous veins. The factor analysis corroborates the differentiation mentionated aboye. and indicates a migration capacite of about 3 Kms. from the stanniferous deposits of Golpejas for the alluvial cassiterite.En el sector Tirados de la Vega-Golpejas han sido detectadas dos anomalías de casiterita en los aluviones del Regato de los Lentiscos y en otros existentes al sur de Tirados de la Vega. El estudio granométrico y morfométrico de éstas casiteritas. contrastado con el de la casiterita procedente del granito de Golpejas. permite asegurar que la anomalía del Regato de los Lentiscos se debe a la dispersión de la casiterita de aquel granito. mientras que la de Tirados de la Vega procede de filones estanníferos. La aplicación del análisis factoral corrobora este hecho y permite diferenciar las casiteritas que proceden de rocas graníticas de aquellas que vienen de filones estanníferos. Según esto se puede indicar que la capacidad de migración de la casiterita desde el yacimiento estannífero de Golpejas es de unos 3 Kms.

  14. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Grand Island NTMS Quadrangle, Nebraska/Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Grand Island Quadrangle, Nebraska/Kansas are reported. Statistical data and areal distributions for uranium and uranium-related variables are presented for 564 groundwater and 532 stream sediment samples. Also included is a brief discussion on location and geologic setting. Groundwater data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur primarily in shallow wells (0 to 20 m) along or near the Platte and Republican Rivers, which flow west to east along the northern and southern portions of the quadrangle, respectively. Waters containing high concentration of uranium in the northern portion of the quadrangle occur in recent alluvium and nearby glacial deposits. In the southern portion of the quadrangle, waters containing high uranium concentrations occur in Recent alluvium and the Niobrara Chalk in the southeast. Stream sediment data indicate that uranium concentrations above the 85th percentile occur in sediments along the Platte River in the northern portion of the quadrangle and paralleling the Republican River in the southeastern portion. Sediments with high uranium values along the Platte River are derived from glacial and alluvial deposits. High uranium values paralleling the Republican River in the southeast are derived from the Niobrara Chalk, the Carlile Shale, and glacial and alluvial deposits. High U-NT and thorium values, and high values for cerium, niobium, scandium, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium suggest the presence of clays and/or residual minerals in the southeast. Sediment derivation and the leaching of possible ash-rich loess and alluvial deposits and/or uranium-rich alkaline evaporite deposits could account for high uranium concentrations in sediment and groundwaters within the quadrangle

  15. Investigation about Role of Algae in Kazeroon Sasan Spring Odor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hamzeian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As odor for potable water is unpleasant for costumers, it needs to do researches for finding the reasons of odorous water. Sasan spring that is located in, near kazeroon city, Fars, Iran, is potable water resource for Kazeroon and Booshehr city and many other villages. Water in Sasan spring has the odor problem. With regards to important   role of algae on ado r problems in this study the role of algae on   odor was investigated. Methods: After regular sampling, the TON (threshold odor number was indicated and algae species was distinguished and the number of total algae and any species  of algae was numbers by microscopic direct numbering method .as the algae mass  is related to nitrogen and phosphor concentration, results of concentration Of nitrogen and phosphor in this spring that was examined regularity by water company was investigated and compared to concentration of these component that are need for algae growing.   Results: results shows that TON was in range  of 4.477 to 6.2 that indicated  oderous limit . Regression and diagram between TON and number of total algae showed the linear relationship. The concentration of nitrogen and phosphor, showed adequate condition for algal grow. Result of determination of algae species showed high population of Oscilatoria and Microcystis species, which are known as essential case of mold odor in water resources. Investigation on geological maps in the region around the Sasan spring, show alluvium source and is effected by surface part of it’s around land. Conclusion: because of the algae was determined as the essential cause of odor   in the spring, and algal growth is related to nutrients, and because of the surface pollution can penetrate in the alluvium lands around the spring, and effect the water in spring, so nutrient control and management is the essential way for odor control in the spring.

  16. Response of groundwater level and surface-water/groundwater interaction to climate variability: Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Raiber, Matthias; Pagendam, Dan; Gilfedder, Mat; Rassam, David

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the response of groundwater levels in alluvial and sedimentary basin aquifers to climatic variability and human water-resource developments is a key step in many hydrogeological investigations. This study presents an analysis of groundwater response to climate variability from 2000 to 2012 in the Queensland part of the sedimentary Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. It contributes to the baseline hydrogeological understanding by identifying the primary groundwater flow pattern, water-level response to climate extremes, and the resulting dynamics of surface-water/groundwater interaction. Groundwater-level measurements from thousands of bores over several decades were analysed using Kriging and nonparametric trend analysis, together with a newly developed three-dimensional geological model. Groundwater-level contours suggest that groundwater flow in the shallow aquifers shows local variations in the close vicinity of streams, notwithstanding general conformance with topographic relief. The trend analysis reveals that climate variability can be quickly reflected in the shallow aquifers of the Clarence-Moreton Basin although the alluvial aquifers have a quicker rainfall response than the sedimentary bedrock formations. The Lockyer Valley alluvium represents the most sensitively responding alluvium in the area, with the highest declining (-0.7 m/year) and ascending (2.1 m/year) Sen's slope rates during and after the drought period, respectively. Different surface-water/groundwater interaction characteristics were observed in different catchments by studying groundwater-level fluctuations along hydrogeologic cross-sections. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future water-resource management in the study area.

  17. Preliminary results of radiation monitoring near uranium mines in Namibia EJOLT Project (DRAFT version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chareyron, Bruno

    2012-04-05

    As a part of the EJOLT (Environmental Justice Organizations Liability and Trade) project, EARTHLIFE Namibia and CRIIRAD (Commission for Independent Research and Information about Radiation) have organised visits in areas located in the vicinity of uranium mines in Namibia In the course of an on site mission carried out between September 22 and October 2 2011, scientists from the CRIIRAD laboratory took radiation measurements in situ, and collected 14 samples of top soil, 13 samples of surface sediments of the Swakop, Gawib and Khan rivers, 11 underground water samples in the alluvium of Swakop, and Khan rivers and tap water from Arandis city, and one sample of asparagus. Solid samples have been analysed at the CRIIRAD laboratory in France (measurements performed by HpGe gamma spectrometry) and water samples have been monitored for main chemicals by LDA 26 laboratory in France and for radium 226 and radon 222 at the CRIIRAD laboratory. Some of the preliminary findings are summarised in this report: 1 - The dose rate measured by CRIIRAD on the parking of Roessing mine is about 6 times above natural background value (0.9 {mu}Sv/h compared to 0.15 {mu}Sv/h); 2 - The management of waste rock dumps needs to be improved: Some waste rocks are dumped on the banks of Khan river (at the intersection with Dome Gorge) without fencing and confinement. The radiological impact of this activity has to be studied in detail but preliminary measurements show various impacts on the environment; 3 - The finest fraction of the radioactive tailings dumped on Roessing tailings dam is blown away by the wind and contaminates the surrounding environment; 4 - The high uranium concentration in underground water collected downstream Roessing uranium mine in the Khan river and Swakop river alluvium raises the question of the origin of this uranium

  18. Airborne LiDAR analysis and geochronology of faulted glacial moraines in the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone reveal substantial seismic hazards in the Lake Tahoe region, California-Nevada USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, James F.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Schweickert, Richard A.; Finkel, Robert C.; Hunter, Lewis E.; Rose, Ronn S.; von Twistern, Brent

    2012-01-01

    We integrated high-resolution bare-earth airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) imagery with field observations and modern geochronology to characterize the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone, which forms the neotectonic boundary between the Sierra Nevada and the Basin and Range Province west of Lake Tahoe. The LiDAR imagery clearly delineates active normal faults that have displaced late Pleistocene glacial moraines and Holocene alluvium along 30 km of linear, right-stepping range front of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Herein, we illustrate and describe the tectonic geomorphology of faulted lateral moraines. We have developed new, three-dimensional modeling techniques that utilize the high-resolution LiDAR data to determine tectonic displacements of moraine crests and alluvium. The statistically robust displacement models combined with new ages of the displaced Tioga (20.8 ± 1.4 ka) and Tahoe (69.2 ± 4.8 ka; 73.2 ± 8.7 ka) moraines are used to estimate the minimum vertical separation rate at 17 sites along the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone. Near the northern end of the study area, the minimum vertical separation rate is 1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr, which represents a two- to threefold increase in estimates of seismic moment for the Lake Tahoe basin. From this study, we conclude that potential earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) range from 6.3 ± 0.25 to 6.9 ± 0.25. A close spatial association of landslides and active faults suggests that landslides have been seismically triggered. Our study underscores that the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone poses substantial seismic and landslide hazards.

  19. Latest Pleistocene and Holocene surficial deposits and landforms of Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E. K.; Stock, G. M.; Booth, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    Field studies on the surficial geology and geomorphology of Yosemite Valley since the 1870's formed an early basis for our understanding of Quaternary landscape evolution in the central Sierra Nevada. These landmark studies described the erosional origin of Yosemite's iconic scenery, but left details of the latest Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary record for later investigation. We combined mapping of deposits and landforms with geochronology to reconstruct the geomorphic evolution of Yosemite Valley since the 15 ka retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) valley glacier. We document a sustained period of relative landscape stability, characterized by valley-bottom aggradation of glacial till, fluvial sediments, and lacustrine silts, as well as valley-margin accumulation of talus and fan alluvium. Recessional moraines, episodically emplaced rock avalanches, and alluvial fans impeded surface flow and controlled the local base level. This predominantly aggradational regime then shifted to incision in the earliest Holocene, likely due to a diminishing supply of glacial sediment, and created a flight of fluvial terraces inset by up to 9 m. The volume of fringing talus and fan alluvium in comparison with fluvial terrace sequences emphasizes the importance of valley-wall erosion as a sediment source. Cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages from rock avalanche boulders and 14C charcoal ages from deltaic sequences and inset fluvial gravels suggest variable rates of Holocene river incision. Although some incision events likely record local base level changes at the El Capitan LGM recessional moraine, the presence of perched, well-developed outwash terraces downstream indicates a more regional climatic forcing. These findings, including the depositional record of land-use disturbances over the past two centuries, help illuminate the geologic evolution of this celebrated landscape and inform ongoing river-restoration work.

  20. Effects of local geological conditions in the San Francisco Bay region on ground motions and the intensities of the 1906 earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Gibbs, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The recordings show marked amplitude variations in the frequency band 0.25 to 3.0 Hz that are consistently related to the local geological conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1,1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for alluvium, and (3.7, 11.3) for bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies in the band 0.25 to 3.0 H for bay mud sites and for some alluvial sites. Amplitude spectra computed from recordings of seismic background noise at 50 sites do not generally define predominant ground frequencies. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 -- 1.90 log (Distance in kilometers). For sites on other geological units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical relation, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (AHSA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment = 0.27 + 2.70 log (AHSA). Average intensity increments predicted for the various geological units are --0.3 for granite, 0.2 for the Franciscan Formation, 0.6 for the Great Valley sequence, 0.8 for the Santa Clara Formation, 1.3 for alluvium, and 2.4 for bay mud

  1. Effects of local geological conditions in the San Francisco Bay region on ground motions and the intensities of the 1906 earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Gibbs, J.F.

    1976-04-01

    Measurements of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada have been completed for 99 locations in the San Francisco Bay region, California. The recordings show marked amplitude variations in the frequency band 0.25 to 3.0 Hz that are consistently related to the local geological conditions of the recording site. The average spectral amplifications observed for vertical and horizontal ground motions are, respectively: (1,1) for granite, (1.5, 1.6) for the Franciscan Formation, (3.0, 2.7) for the Santa Clara Formation, (3.3, 4.4) for alluvium, and (3.7, 11.3) for bay mud. Spectral amplification curves define predominant ground frequencies in the band 0.25 to 3.0 H for bay mud sites and for some alluvial sites. Amplitude spectra computed from recordings of seismic background noise at 50 sites do not generally define predominant ground frequencies. The intensities ascribed to various sites in the San Francisco Bay region for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the intensities for 917 sites on Franciscan rocks generally decrease with the logarithm of distance as Intensity = 2.69 -- 1.90 log (Distance in kilometers). For sites on other geological units, intensity increments, derived from this empirical relation, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (AHSA) according to the empirical relation Intensity Increment = 0.27 + 2.70 log (AHSA). Average intensity increments predicted for the various geological units are --0.3 for granite, 0.2 for the Franciscan Formation, 0.6 for the Great Valley sequence, 0.8 for the Santa Clara Formation, 1.3 for alluvium, and 2.4 for bay mud.

  2. Geology, water-quality, hydrology, and geomechanics of the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin, California, 2008--12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Rhett; Gibbs, Dennis R.; Hanson, Randall T.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Brandt, Justin T.; Falk, Sarah E.; Harich, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    To assess the water resources of the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin in Santa Barbara County, California, a series of cooperative studies were undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Barbara County Water Agency. Between 2008 and 2012, geologic, water-quality, hydrologic and geomechanical data were collected from selected sites throughout the Cuyama Valley groundwater basin. Geologic data were collected from three multiple-well groundwater monitoring sites and included lithologic descriptions of the drill cuttings, borehole geophysical logs, temperature logs, as well as bulk density and sonic velocity measurements of whole-core samples. Generalized lithologic characterization from the monitoring sites indicated the water-bearing units in the subsurface consist of unconsolidated to partly consolidated sand, gravel, silt, clay, and occasional cobbles within alluvial fan and stream deposits. Analysis of geophysical logs indicated alternating layers of finer- and coarser-grained material that range from less than 1 foot to more than 20 feet thick. On the basis of the geologic data collected, the principal water-bearing units beneath the monitoring-well sites were found to be composed of younger alluvium of Holocene age, older alluvium of Pleistocene age, and the Tertiary-Quaternary Morales Formation. At all three sites, the contact between the recent fill and younger alluvium is approximately 20 feet below land surface. Water-quality samples were collected from 12 monitoring wells, 27 domestic and supply wells, 2 springs, and 4 surface-water sites and were analyzed for a variety of constituents that differed by site, but, in general, included trace elements; nutrients; dissolved organic carbon; major and minor ions; silica; total dissolved solids; alkalinity; total arsenic and iron; arsenic, chromium, and iron species; and isotopic tracers, including the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, activities of tritium, and carbon-14 abundance. Of the 39

  3. Chronology of last earthquake on Firouzkuh Fault using by C14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, H.; Ritz, J.-F.; Walker, R.; Alimohammadian, H.; Salamati, R.; Shahidi, A.; Patnaik, R.; Talebian, M.

    2009-04-01

    study during last 5 years on Firouzkuh fault (Nazari, 2006) reveal seismic activity of this area and the rate of movement in young event is about 2 mm/yr. The Firouzkuh fault is close to Firouzkuh, Damavand, Semnan and Tehran cities, therefore, gathering information about the geometry, mechanism and characteristics of activity of Firouzkuh active fault, will help us possible to prediction of fault activity and minimize the resulted damage. Therefore chronology of last event is quit important. In this paper to date the last seismic event in Firouzkuh fault. We have used C14 dating on human bones recovered from F2 trench, along with Quaternary sedimentology of young alluvium deposits of eastern Firouzkuh city. Paleoseismic analysis and C14 dating along the Firouzkuh left -Latural Strike-slip fault indicates the central Alborz has been witnessed large earthquakes during the late Holocene. Here we provide data from one of the two excavated trenches with 15 m length, 2m width and 4 m depth dug across the gauge zone in east Firouzkuh city, where we found some evidence for last paleoearthquake associated to seismic re-activity of Firouzkuh fault. The last seismic event is evidenced by cutting young superficial deposits and overlaid by alluvium deposits which yielded fragments of human bones. The generated C14 date from human bones, found at palaeoseismological trench (F2) on Firouzkuh fault, indicates an age of 1131-1187 B.P. year for alluvium deposits bearing these bones since from stratigraphical point view, this alluvium deposits (unit 4) are overlaid by faulted recent sediments (unit 1, and these recent sediments are cut due to recent activity of Firouzkuh fault, which are younger than human bone bearing alluvium, we may come to conclusion that the time event of this earth quake must be younger than obtained C14 date (1159 ± 28). In other hand since the human bones have been found in a place not similar to grave, we may assume that the body was on the surface at the time

  4. Hydrology of the Upper Capibaribe Basin, Pernambuco, Brazil - A reconnaissance in an Area of Crystalline Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chada Filho, Luiz Goncalves; Dias Pessoa, Mario; Sinclair, William C.

    1966-01-01

    only small quantities to wells. The alluvium probably is the most productive aquifer in the basin, but is limited to narrow bands along the rivers that generally are no more than a few hundred meters wide and 5 meters thick. The alluvium contains variable amounts of silty sand capable of yielding small to moderate quantities of water to wells. Wells driven or dug into the alluvium could solve many small water problems. The chemical quality of the water in the upper Capibaribe basin ranges from good to bad and generally presents a major problem that cannot be solved solely by applying geological criteria. Mineralized water is widespread in the area, both in streams and underground, and .the choice of aquifers is small. All known aquifers contain, at one place or another, water that is mineralized, leaving no alternative for a natural supply of good-quality water. Although much of the available water is unsatisfactory for human consumption, it is generally acceptable for animals and therefore meets one of the principal water needs. Some of the ground water could be made potable by diluting it with rainwater, which could be collected during rainy seasons and temporarily stored in cisterns or reservoirs.

  5. Hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed, southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Jesse; Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Pool, D.R.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Parker, John T.; Macy, J.P.; Thomas, Blakemore

    2010-01-01

    Water managers in rural Arizona are under increasing pressure to provide sustainable supplies of water despite rapid population growth and demands for environmental protection. This report describes the results of a study of the hydrogeologic framework of the middle San Pedro watershed. The components of this report include: (1) a description of the geologic setting and depositional history of basin fill sediments that form the primary aquifer system, (2) updated bedrock altitudes underlying basin fill sediments calculated using a subsurface density model of gravity data, (3) delineation of hydrogeologic units in the basin fill using lithologic descriptions in driller's logs and models of airborne electrical resistivity data, (4) a digital three-dimensional (3D) hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) that represents spatial extents and thicknesses of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs), and (5) description of the hydrologic properties of the HGUs. The lithologic interpretations based on geophysical data and unit thickness and extent of the HGUs included in the HFM define potential configurations of hydraulic zones and parameters that can be incorporated in groundwater-flow models. The hydrogeologic framework comprises permeable and impermeable stratigraphic units: (1) bedrock, (2) sedimentary rocks predating basin-and-range deformation, (3) lower basin fill, (4) upper basin fill, and (5) stream alluvium. The bedrock unit includes Proterozoic to Cretaceous crystalline rocks, sedimentary rocks, and limestone that are relatively impermeable and poor aquifers, except for saturated portions of limestone. The pre-basin-and-range sediments underlie the lower basin fill but are relatively impermeable owing to cementation. However, they may be an important water-bearing unit where fractured. Alluvium of the lower basin fill, the main water-bearing unit, was deposited in the structural trough between the uplifted ridges of bedrock and (or) pre-basin-and-range sediments. Alluvium of

  6. Surficial Geologic Map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David W.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Counts, Ronald C.; Martin, Steven L.; Andrews, William M.; Newell, Wayne L.; Murphy, Michael L.; Thompson, Mark F.; Taylor, Emily M.; Kvale, Erik P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    The geologic map of the Evansville, Indiana, and Henderson, Kentucky, area depicts and describes surficial deposits according to their origin and age. Unconsolidated alluvium and outwash fill the Ohio River bedrock valley and attain maximum thickness of 33-39 m under Diamond Island, Kentucky, and Griffith Slough, south of Newburgh, Indiana. The fill is chiefly unconsolidated, fine- to medium-grained, lithic quartz sand, interbedded with clay, clayey silt, silt, coarse sand, granules, and gravel. Generally, the valley fill fines upward from the buried bedrock surface: a lower part being gravelly sand to sandy gravel, a middle part mostly of sand, and a surficial veneer of silt and clay interspersed with sandy, natural levee deposits at river's edge. Beneath the unconsolidated fill are buried and discontinuous, lesser amounts of consolidated fill unconformably overlying the buried bedrock surface. Most of the glaciofluvial valley fill accumulated during the Wisconsin Episode (late Pleistocene). Other units depicted on the map include creek alluvium, slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits, colluvium, dune sand, loess, and sparse bedrock outcrops. Creek alluvium underlies creek floodplains and consists of silt, clayey silt, and subordinate interbedded fine sand, granules, and pebbles. Lenses and beds of clay are present locally. Silty and clayey slackwater lake (lacustrine) deposits extensively underlie broad flats northeast of Evansville and around Henderson and are as thick as 28 m. Fossil wood collected from an auger hole in the lake and alluvial deposits of Little Creek, at depths of 10.6 m and 6.4 m, are dated 16,650+-50 and 11,120+-40 radiocarbon years, respectively. Fossil wood collected from lake sediment 16 m below the surface in lake sediment was dated 33,100+-590 radiocarbon years. Covering the hilly bedrock upland is loess (Qel), 3-7.5 m thick in Indiana and 9-15 m thick in Kentucky, deposited about 22,000-12,000 years before present. Most mapped surficial

  7. Hydrochemical processes in a shallow coal seam gas aquifer and its overlying stream–alluvial system: implications for recharge and inter-aquifer connectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvert, Clément; Raiber, Matthias; Owen, Daniel D.R.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Batiot-Guilhe, Christelle; Cox, Malcolm E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Major ions and isotopes used to study inter-aquifer mixing in a shallow CSG setting. • Considerable heterogeneity in the water composition of the coal-bearing aquifer. • Rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks. • Potential mixing between the coal-bearing aquifer and downstream alluvial aquifer. • Need to consider the seasonal influences on inter-aquifer mixing in CSG settings. - Abstract: In areas of potential coal seam gas (CSG) development, understanding interactions between coal-bearing strata and adjacent aquifers and streams is of highest importance, particularly where CSG formations occur at shallow depth. This study tests a combination of hydrochemical and isotopic tracers to investigate the transient nature of hydrochemical processes, inter-aquifer mixing and recharge in a catchment where the coal-bearing aquifer is in direct contact with the alluvial aquifer and surface drainage network. A strong connection was observed between the main stream and underlying alluvium, marked by a similar evolution from fresh Ca–Mg–HCO 3 waters in the headwaters towards brackish Ca–Na–Cl composition near the outlet of the catchment, driven by evaporation and transpiration. In the coal-bearing aquifer, by contrast, considerable site-to-site variations were observed, although waters generally had a Na–HCO 3 –Cl facies and high residual alkalinity values. Increased salinity was controlled by several coexisting processes, including transpiration by plants, mineral weathering and possibly degradation of coal organic matter. Longer residence times and relatively enriched carbon isotopic signatures of the downstream alluvial waters were suggestive of potential interactions with the shallow coal-bearing aquifer. The examination of temporal variations in deuterium excess enabled detection of rapid recharge of the coal-bearing aquifer through highly fractured igneous rocks, particularly at the catchment

  8. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  9. Geology and mineral deposits of an area in the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas (Subzone IIB), Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feininger, Tomas; Barrero L., Dario; Castro, Nestor; Hall, R.B.

    1973-01-01

    The Inventario Minero National (IMN), a four-year cooperative geologic mapping and mineral resources appraisal project, was accomplished under an agreement between the Republic of Colombia and the U. S. Agency for International Development from 1964 through 1969. Subzone IIB, consisting essentially of the east half of Zone comprises nearly 20,000 km2 principally in the Department of Antioquia but including also small parts of the Departments of Caldas and Tolima. The rocks in IIB range from Precambrian to Holocene. Precambrian feldspar-quartz gneiss occupies a mosaic of fault-bounded blocks intruded by igneous rocks between the Oto fault and the Rio Magdalena. Paleozoic rocks are extensive, and include lightly metamorphosed graptolite-bearing Ordovician shale at Cristalina, and a major suite of graphitic quartz-mica schist, feldspathic and aluminous gneiss, quartzite, marble, amphibolite, and other rocks. Syntectonic intrusive gneiss included many of the older rocks during a late Paleozoic(?) orogeny, which was accompanied by Abukuma-type metamorphosing from lowermost greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. A Jurassic diorite pluton bounded by faults cuts volcanic rocks of unknown age east of the Otu fault. Cretaceous rocks are major units. Middle Cretaceous carbonaceous shale, sandstone, graywacke, conglomerate, and volcanic rocks are locally prominent. The Antioquian batholith (quartz diorite) of Late Cretaceous age cuts the middle Cretaceous and older rocks. A belt of Tertiary nonmarine clastic sedimentary rocks crops out along the Magdalena Valley. Patches of Tertiary alluvium are locally preserved in the mountains. Quaternary alluvium, much of it auriferous, is widespread in modern stream valleys. Structurally IIB constitutes part of a vast complex synclinorium intruded concordantly by syntectonic catazonal or mesozonal felsic plutons, and by the later epizonal post-tectonic Antioquian batholith. Previously unrecognized major wrench faults are outstanding

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of the Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril-Hernández, José M.; Periáñez, Raúl; O'Connor, Jim E.; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    At approximately 18.0 ka, pluvial Lake Bonneville reached its maximum level. At its northeastern extent it was impounded by alluvium of the Marsh Creek Fan, which breached at some point north of Red Rock Pass (Idaho), leading to one of the largest floods on Earth. About 5320 km3 of water was discharged into the Snake River drainage and ultimately into the Columbia River. We use a 0D model and a 2D non-linear depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to aid understanding of outflow dynamics, specifically evaluating controls on the amount of water exiting the Lake Bonneville basin exerted by the Red Rock Pass outlet lithology and geometry as well as those imposed by the internal lake geometry of the Bonneville basin. These models are based on field evidence of prominent lake levels, hypsometry and terrain elevations corrected for post-flood isostatic deformation of the lake basin, as well as reconstructions of the topography at the outlet for both the initial and final stages of the flood. Internal flow dynamics in the northern Lake Bonneville basin during the flood were affected by the narrow passages separating the Cache Valley from the main body of Lake Bonneville. This constriction imposed a water-level drop of up to 2.7 m at the time of peak-flow conditions and likely reduced the peak discharge at the lake outlet by about 6%. The modeled peak outlet flow is 0.85·106 m3 s-1. Energy balance calculations give an estimate for the erodibility coefficient for the alluvial Marsh Creek divide of ∼0.005 m y-1 Pa-1.5, at least two orders of magnitude greater than for the underlying bedrock at the outlet. Computing quasi steady-state water flows, water elevations, water currents and shear stresses as a function of the water-level drop in the lake and for the sequential stages of erosion in the outlet gives estimates of the incision rates and an estimate of the outflow hydrograph during the Bonneville Flood: About 18 days would have been required for the outflow to grow from 10

  11. Climate change in southern Illinois, USA, based on the age and δ13C of organic matter in cave sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Samuel V.; Curry, B. Brandon; Wang, Hongfang; Hackley, Keith C.; Liu, Chao-Li; Lundstrom, Craig; Zhou, Juanzuo

    2004-01-01

    Matrix-supported diamicton and uniform to laminated, silty, fine-grained sediment deposited from about 42,500 to 27,600 cal yr B.P. under slackwater conditions nearly filled two caves in southwestern Illinois. At some point, most of the sediment was flushed from the caves and from about 22,700 to 4000 cal yr B.P., floods deposited a drape of sandy and silty sediment on remnant slackwater successions, cobbly alluvium, and bedrock (especially from 7700 to 4000 cal yr B.P.). Clay mineral analyses of the slackwater cave sediment reveal a provenance of chiefly Petersburg Silt, a smectite- and illite-rich proglacial lacustrine unit present in the overlying Illinois Episode glacial succession. Today, remnants of the ancient subterranean slackwater deposits nearly fill several secondary passages and, in at least two locations, cover a cobble-mantled strath terrace 1.3 to 1.5 m above active stream channels. Slumping and sinkhole formation appear to have been important mechanisms for deposition of the ancient subterranean deposits. Slumping of these surficial deposits and associated vegetation can occur along the flanks of sinkholes (in addition to sinkhole formation) and enter caves; however, the finer organics, some of them comminuted during transport into the caves, become part of the cave alluvium. This finer organic fraction is the modern analog of the humified organic matter disseminated in slackwater sediment dated in this investigation by radiocarbon methods. Twenty-four 14C ages on humified organic matter provide chronologic control. The ??13C values of the organic matter reflect the proportion of C4-type to C3-type vegetation growing in and around swallets and sinkholes at the time of redeposition. Drought-tolerant C4-type vegetation was more prevalent relative to C3-type vegetation from 42,500 to 31,200 cal yr B.P. compared to conditions from 28,800 cal yr B.P. to the present. The ??13C values are consistent with the results from other investigations of

  12. Deployment of an Alternative Closure Cover and Monitoring System at the Mixed Waste Disposal Unit U-3ax/bl at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitt, D.G.; Fitzmaurice, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    In October 2000, final closure was initiated of U-3ax/bl, a mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The application of approximately 30 cm of topsoil, composed of compacted native alluvium onto an operational cover, seeding of the topsoil, installation of soil water content sensors within the cover, and deployment of a drainage lysimeter facility immediately adjacent to the disposal unit initiated closure. This closure is unique in that it required the involvement of several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) groups: Waste Management (WM), Environmental Restoration (ER), and Technology Development (TD). Initial site characterization of the disposal unit was conducted by WM. Regulatory approval for closure of the disposal unit was obtained by ER, closure of the disposal unit was conducted by ER, and deployment of the drainage lysimeter facility was conducted by WM and ER, with funding provided by the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment ( ASTD) program, administered under TD. In addition, this closure is unique in that a monolayer closure cover, also known as an evapotranspiration (ET) cover, consisting of native alluvium, received regulatory approval instead of a traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered cover. Recent studies indicate that in the arid southwestern United States, monolayer covers may be more effective at isolating waste than layered covers because of the tendency of clay layers to desiccate and crack, and subsequently develop preferential pathways. The lysimeter facility deployed immediately adjacent to the closure cover consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two were left bare; two were revegetated with native species; two were allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. The lysimeters are constructed such that any drainage through the bottoms of the lysimeters can be measured. Sensors installed in the

  13. Understanding Kendal aquifer system: a baseline analysis for sustainable water management proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, A.; Aryanto, M. D.; Pramudito, A.; Andhika, A.; Irawan, D. E.

    2017-07-01

    North coast of Java has been grown as the center of economic activities and major connectivity hub for Sumatra and Bali. Sustainable water management must support such role. One of the basis is to understand the baseline of groundwater occurrences and potential. However the complex alluvium aquiver system has not been well-understood. A geoelectric measurements were performed to determine which rock layer has a good potential as groundwater aquifers in the northern coast of Kaliwungu Regency, Kendal District, Central Java province. Total of 10 vertical electrical sounding (VES) points has been performed, using a Schlumberger configuration with the current electrode spacing (AB/2) varies between 200 - 300 m and the potential difference electrode spacing (MN/2) varies between 0.5 to 20 m with depths target ranging between 150 - 200 m. Geoelectrical data processing is done using Ip2win software which generates resistivity value, thickness and depth of subsurface rock layers. Based on the correlation between resistivity value with regional geology, hydrogeology and local well data, we identify three aquifer layers. The first layer is silty clay with resistivity values vary between 0 - 10 ohm.m, then the second layer is tuffaceous claystone with resistivity value between 10 - 60 ohm.m. Both layers serve as impermeable layer. The third layer is sandy tuff with resistivity value between 60 - 100 ohm.m which serves as a confined aquifer layer located at 70 - 100 m below surface. Its thickness is vary between 70 to 110 m. The aquifer layer is a mixing of volcanic and alluvium sediment, which is a member of Damar Formation. The stratification of the aquifer system may change in short distance and depth. This natural setting prevent us to make a long continuous correlation between layers. Aquifer discharge is estimated between 5 - 71 L/s with the potential deep well locations lies in the west and southeast part of the study area. These hydrogeological settings should be used

  14. Indoor radon concentration: impact of geology in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake-affected Bagh area, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan; Concentration de radon interieur: l'impact de la geologie dans la zone Bagh, Azad Jammu et Cachemire, Pakistan affectee par le tremblement de terre de 2005 au Cachemire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, A.; Khan, S. [Department of Physics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad (Pakistan); Baig, M.S. [Institute of Geology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, (Pakistan); Akram, M. [Physics Research Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2011-07-15

    The early Miocene Murree Formation, late Miocene Nagri Formation and recent alluvium rock units are exposed in the sub-Himalayas of the Bagh area, State of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. The Bagh area was badly affected by the Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005 which, along the Muzaffarabad Fault, deformed both the hanging and footwall blocks. The cracks, joints, fissures and fractures in houses and bed-rocks might have affected the emission of radon to the surface. Indoor radon concentration measurements were carried out in some dwellings of the Bagh area, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. The measurements were based on passive integrative detection of radon using CN-85 plastic track detectors in box-type dosimeters. The radon concentration in dwellings was between 50 {+-} 11.6 Bq.m{sup -3} and 167.1 {+-} 21.4 Bq.m{sup -3} with an overall average of 95.1 {+-} 15.8 Bq.m{sup -3} (geometric mean = 93.4 Bq.m{sup -3}). The average radon concentrations in pucka, semi-pucka and kucha houses were 97.6 {+-} 15.4 Bq.m{sup -3}, 89.7 {+-} 15.2 Bq.m{sup -3} and 101.9 {+-} 15.9 Bq.m{sup -3}, respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in the Nagri Formation, Murree Formation and recent alluvium lithology were 99.3 {+-} 15.8, 90.1 and 96.2 {+-} 15.5 Bq.m{sup -3}, respectively. The annual effective dose to the Bagh population was calculated as 2.38 {+-} 0.77 (1.33 {+-} 0.2 to 4.7 {+-} 0.5) mSv. The average radon (95.1 {+-} 15.8 B m{sup -3}) concentration in dwellings for the inhabitants of the Bagh area was safe from radon-related health hazards and was within the recommended action level (ICRP publication 65 (1993) Protection against radon at home and at work, International Commission on Radiological Protection, Ann. ICRP 23(2)).The indoor radon values obtained in the present study are more than the world average of 40 Bq.m{sup -3} (UNSCEAR (2000) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic radiation, Report to the General Assembly, United Nations, New

  15. Simulation of Seismic Waves from Underground Explosions in Geologic Media: FY2009 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Sjogreen, B; Petersson, N A

    2009-11-09

    This report summarizes work done after one year on project LL09-Sim-NDD-02 entitled 'Exploratory Research: Advanced Simulation of Low Yield Underground Nuclear Explosions To Improve Seismic Yield Estimation and Source Identification'. Work on this effort proceeded in two thrusts: (1) parametric studies of underground explosion generated motions with GEODYN; and (2) coupling of GEODYN to WPP. GEODYN is a code for modeling hydrodynamic (shock-wave) motions in a wide variety of materials, including earth materials. WPP is an anelastic finite difference code for modeling seismic motions. The sensitivity of seismic motions to emplacement conditions was investigated with a series of parametric studies of low-yield (0.2-4 kiloton) chemical high-explosive shots at a range of burial depths in four canonical geologic media (granite, limestone, tuff and alluvium). Results indicate that the material has a strong impact on the seismic motions consistent with previous reports. Motions computed with GEODYN in realistically complex material models are very consistent with reported motions from nuclear tests by Perret and Bass (1975). The amplitude, frequency content and cavity size resulting from explosions are all strongly sensitive to the material strength. Explosions in high-strength (granite) resulted in the highest amplitude, shortest duration pulse and smallest cavities, whereas explosions in low-strength material (alluvium) resulted in the lowest amplitudes, longest duration pulse and larger cavities. The corner frequencies of P-wave motions at take-off angles corresponding to propagation to teleseismic distances show corresponding behavior, with high-strength materials having the highest corner frequency and low-strength materials having low corner frequency. Gravity has an important effect on the cavity size and outgoing motions due work done against lithostatic stress. In fact without gravity the cavity radius and elastic motions are largely insensitive to

  16. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril-Hernández, José M.; Periáñez, Raúl; O'Connor, Jim E.; Garcia-Castellanos, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    At approximately 18.0 ka, pluvial Lake Bonneville reached its maximum level. At its northeastern extent it was impounded by alluvium of the Marsh Creek Fan, which breached at some point north of Red Rock Pass (Idaho), leading to one of the largest floods on Earth. About 5320 km3 of water was discharged into the Snake River drainage and ultimately into the Columbia River. We use a 0D model and a 2D non-linear depth-averaged hydrodynamic model to aid understanding of outflow dynamics, specifically evaluating controls on the amount of water exiting the Lake Bonneville basin exerted by the Red Rock Pass outlet lithology and geometry as well as those imposed by the internal lake geometry of the Bonneville basin. These models are based on field evidence of prominent lake levels, hypsometry and terrain elevations corrected for post-flood isostatic deformation of the lake basin, as well as reconstructions of the topography at the outlet for both the initial and final stages of the flood. Internal flow dynamics in the northern Lake Bonneville basin during the flood were affected by the narrow passages separating the Cache Valley from the main body of Lake Bonneville. This constriction imposed a water-level drop of up to 2.7 m at the time of peak-flow conditions and likely reduced the peak discharge at the lake outlet by about 6%. The modeled peak outlet flow is 0.85·106 m3 s−1. Energy balance calculations give an estimate for the erodibility coefficient for the alluvial Marsh Creek divide of ∼0.005 m y−1 Pa−1.5, at least two orders of magnitude greater than for the underlying bedrock at the outlet. Computing quasi steady-state water flows, water elevations, water currents and shear stresses as a function of the water-level drop in the lake and for the sequential stages of erosion in the outlet gives estimates of the incision rates and an estimate of the outflow hydrograph during the Bonneville Flood: About 18 days would have been required for the

  17. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.

    2004-01-01

    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  18. Rivers turned to rock: Late Quaternary alluvial induration influencing the behaviour and morphology of an anabranching river in the Australian monsoon tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, Gerald C.; Jones, Brian G.; Price, David M.; Pietsch, Timothy J.

    2005-09-01

    Late Quaternary alluvial induration has greatly influenced contemporary channel morphology on the anabranching Gilbert River in the monsoon tropics of the Gulf of Carpentaria. The Gilbert, one of a number of rivers in this region, has contributed to an extensive system of coalescing low-gradient and partly indurated riverine plains. Extensive channel sands were deposited by enhanced flow conditions during marine oxygen isotope (OI) Stage 5. Subsequent flow declined, probably associated with increased aridity, however, enhanced runoff recurred again in OI Stages 4-3 (˜65-50 ka). Aridity then capped these plains with 4-7 m of mud. A widespread network of sandy distributary channels was incised into this muddy surface from sometime after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the mid Holocene during a fluvial episode more active than the present but less so than those of OI Stages 5 and 3. This network is still partly active but with channel avulsion and abandonment now occurring largely proximal to the main Gilbert flow path. A tropical climate and reactive catchment lithology have enhanced chemical weathering and lithification of alluvium along the river resulting in the formation of small rapids, waterfalls and inset gorges, features characteristic more of bedrock than alluvial systems. Thermoluminescence (TL) and comparative optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of the sediments are presented along with U/Th ages of pedogenic calcrete and Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide/ oxide accumulations. They show that calcrete precipitated during the Late Quaternary at times similar to those that favoured ferricrete formation, possibly because of an alternating wet-dry climate. Intense chemical alteration of the alluvium leading to induration appears to have prevailed for much of the Late Quaternary but, probably due to exceptional dryness, not during the LGM. The result has been restricted channel migration and a reduced capacity for the channel to adjust and accommodate sudden

  19. Geologic map of the Fort Morgan 7.5' quadrangle, Morgan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Margaret E.; Taylor, Emily M.; Slate, Janet L.; Paces, James B.; Hanson, Paul R.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2018-06-08

    The Fort Morgan 7.5′ quadrangle is located on the semiarid plains of northeastern Colorado, along the South Platte River corridor where the river has incised into Upper Cretaceous Pierre Shale. The Pierre Shale is largely covered by surficial deposits that formed from alluvial, eolian, and hillslope processes operating in concert with environmental changes from the late Pliocene to the present. The South Platte River, originating high in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, has played a major role in shaping surficial geology in the map area, which is several tens of kilometers downstream from where headwater tributaries join the river. Recurrent glaciation (and deglaciation) of basin headwaters has affected river discharge and sediment supply far downstream, influencing deposition of alluvium and river incision in the Fort Morgan quadrangle. Distribution and characteristics of the alluvial deposits indicate that during the Pleistocene the course of the river within the map area shifted progressively southward as it incised, and by late middle Pleistocene the river was south of its present position, cutting and filling a deep paleochannel near the south edge of the quadrangle. The river shifted back to the north during the late Pleistocene. Kiowa and Bijou Creeks are unglaciated tributaries originating in the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range that also have played a major role in shaping surficial geology of the map area. Periodically during the late Pleistocene, major flood events on these tributaries deposited large volumes of sediment at and near their confluences, forming a broad, low-gradient fan composed of sidestream alluvium that could have occasionally dammed the river for short periods of time. Wildcat Creek, also originating on the Colorado Piedmont, and the small drainage of Cris Lee Draw dissect the map area north of the river. Eolian sand deposits of the Sterling (north of river) and Fort Morgan (south of river) dune fields cover much of the

  20. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  1. Surficial Geologic Map of Mesa Verde National Park, Montezuma County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Mesa Verde National Park in southwestern Colorado was established in 1906 to preserve and protect the artifacts and dwelling sites, including the famous cliff dwellings, of the Ancestral Puebloan people who lived in the area from about A.D. 550 to A.D. 1300. In 1978, the United Nations designated the park as a World Heritage Site. The geology of the park played a key role in the lives of these ancient people. For example, the numerous (approximately 600) cliff dwellings are closely associated with the Cliff House Sandstone of Late Cretaceous age, which weathers to form deep alcoves. In addition, the ancient people farmed the thick, red loess (wind-blown dust) deposits on the mesa tops, which because of its particle size distribution has good moisture retention properties. The soil in this loess cover and the seasonal rains allowed these people to grow their crops (corn, beans, and squash) on the broad mesa tops. Today, geology is still an important concern in the Mesa Verde area because the landscape is susceptible to various forms of mass movement (landslides, debris flows, rockfalls), swelling soils, and flash floods that affect the park's archeological sites and its infrastructure (roads, septic systems, utilities, and building sites). The map, which encompasses an area of about 100 mi2 (260 km2), includes all of Mesa Verde National Park, a small part of the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation that borders the park on its southern and western sides, and some Bureau of Land Management and privately owned land to the north and east. Surficial deposits depicted on the map include: artificial fills, alluvium of small ephemeral streams, alluvium deposited by the Mancos River, residual gravel on high mesas, a combination of alluvial and colluvial deposits, fan deposits, colluvial deposits derived from the Menefee Formation, colluvial deposits derived from the Mancos Shale, rockfall deposits, debris flow deposits, earthflow deposits, translational and rotational landslide

  2. Quantifying Hyporheic Exchanges in a Large Scale River Reach Using Coupled 3-D Surface and Subsurface Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Glenn Edward; Bao, J; Huang, M; Hou, Z; Perkins, W; Harding, S; Titzler, S; Ren, H; Thorne, P; Suffield, S; Murray, C; Zachara, J

    2017-03-01

    suggest that the thickness of riverbed alluvium layer is the dominant factor for reach-scale hyporheic exchanges, followed by the alluvium permeability, the depth of the underlying impermeable layer, and the assumption of hydrostatic pressure.

  3. Geomorphic Effects, Chronologies, and Archaeological Significance of El Nino Floods in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Manners, R.; Goldstein, P.

    2003-12-01

    The catastrophic effects of large floods have been well documented, on both contemporary and paleo-timecales, especially for the conterminous U.S. Less is known, however, about extreme events in hyper-arid sub-tropical climates where synoptic scale meteorological causes, such as El Nino-Southern Oscillation events, are the driving atmospheric mechanism. This research documents the geomorphic effects of extreme floods in the Moquegua River valley of southern Peru, in the core of the Atacama Desert. Using a combination of geomorphic mapping, hydrolologic modeling, aerial photography, ASTER satellite imagery, and GIS, we document the geomorphic signature of large contemporary floods within the mid-valley section (1500 masl) of the Rio Moquegua. Stratigraphic evidence and paleostage indicators of paleofloods, such as slackwater deposits and preserved high level flood gravels, are used to evidence late Holocene paleoflood magnitude-frequency relationships. On contemporary timescales, channel belt expansion by lateral erosion during large floods, such as the recent '97 and '98 floods, correspond to as much as 30-40 hectares of floodplain loss along the 20 km study reach. Sixty years of repeat aerial photography indicates that channel belt expansion and floodplain erosion commonly occurs along the Rio Moquegua. The frequent resetting of floodplain alluvium conditioned by these large floods is supported by radiocarbon dating of floodplain exposures. These dates indicate that most of the contemporary floodplain alluvium is younger that 560 14C yrs BP. The highest terrace remnants date to 3250 14C yrs BP and record a series of overbank flood gravels. Evidence for the regionally extensive Miraflores ENSO flood, ca. 1300 AD, exists in tributary and along mainstem sections. This flood has been documented along the coasts of Northern Chile to northern Peru, and has been evoked to explain significant social collapse. Our field evidence indicates that it catastrophically affected

  4. Surface Features and Cathodoluminescence (CL) Characteristics of Corundum Gems from Eastern of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, A.

    2017-12-01

    Thailand has long been well known as a supplier of gemstones and also one of the world's color stone centers for decades. The principal gemstones are corundum, garnet and zircon. The corundum deposits of Chanthaburi-Trat Provinces form the most significant ruby-sapphire concentration in Thailand. Corundums are commonly found in secondary deposits (alluvium, elluvial, residual-soil and colluvium deposits as well as stream sediments) with the thickness of the gem-bearing layer varying from 10-100cm and the thickness of the overburden ranging up to 15m. A number of corundum samples were collected from each of the twenty-nine corundum deposits in the Chanthaburi-Trat gem fields, eastern of Thailand. Corundum varies in colour across the region with colours associated with three geographic zones; a western zone, characterized by blue, green and yellow sapphires; a middle zone with blue, green sapphires plus rubies; and an eastern zone yielding mainly rubies. This project has aim to study surface features and characterize the Cathodoluminescence (CL) of corundum gems in the Chanthaburi-Trat gem fields, Thailand. Surfaces of the corundums under a scanning electron microscope show triangular etch features and randomly oriented needle-like patterns. These reveal that the corundums have interacted with the magma during their ascent to the Earth's surface. Surface features attributable to transport and weathering processes are scratches, conchoidal fractures and a spongy surface appearance. Clay minerals and Fe-Ti oxide minerals deposited on the spongy surfaces of some corundums also indicate that these grains experienced chemical weathering or reacted with the soil solution while they were in the alluvium. Cathodoluminescence shows some blue sapphires to exhibit dull blue luminescence. The main cause of the CL appearance of sapphires is likely to be a quench centre, Fe2+ in their structure. The bright red luminescence in corundum reflects a high Cr3+ content and is always

  5. Terrace Geochemistry at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site - WM2017-17232 Initial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States); Ranalli, Tony [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dander, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, David [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The objective of this investigation was to identify and differentiate potential non- mill-related water inputs to a shallow terrace groundwater system through the use of aqueous chemical and isotopic tracers at a former uranium- and vanadium-ore processing facility. Terrace groundwater in the vicinity of the Shiprock, New Mexico, site is hypothesized to be largely anthropogenic because natural rates of recharge in the terrace are likely insufficient to sustain a continuous water table in the terrace alluvial system, as observed in several analogue terrace locations east of the site and in response to post-mill dewatering efforts across the site. The terrace is composed of alluvial sand and gravel and weathered and unweathered Mancos Shale. Terrace groundwater exists and flows in the alluvium and to a much less extent in the Mancos Shale. Historical data established that in both the terrace and floodplain below the terrace, mill-derived uranium and sulfate is found primarily in the alluvium and the upper portion of the weathered Mancos Shale. Groundwater extraction is being conducted in the vicinity of former mill operations and in washes and seeps to dewater the formation and remove contamination, thus eliminating these exposure pathways and minimizing movement to the floodplain. However, past and present contribution of non-mill anthropogenic water sources may be hindering the dewatering effort, resulting in reduced remedy effectiveness. Groundwater source signatures can be determined based on chemical and isotopic ratios and are used to help identify and delineate both mill and non-mill water contributions. Aqueous chemical and isotopic tracers, such as 234U/238U activity ratios and uranium concentrations, δ34S sulfate and sulfate concentrations, tritium concentrations, and δ2Hwater and δ18O water are being used in this Phase I study. The aqueous chemical and isotopic analysis has identified areas on the terrace where groundwater is derived from mill

  6. Geology and hydrology between Lake McMillan and Carlsbad Springs, Eddy County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Edward Riley

    1967-01-01

    The hydrology of the Pecos River valley between Lake McMillan and Carlsbad Springs, Eddy County, N. Mex., is influenced by facies changes in rocks of Permian age. Water stored for irrigation leaks from Lake McMillan into evaporite rocks, principally gypsum, of the Seven Rivers Formation and from Lake Avalon into carbonate rocks of the Tansill Formation. This leakage returns to the Pecos River at Major Johnson Springs and Carlsbad Springs. The river has perennial flow between Major Johnson Springs and Lake Avalon, but it loses water into evaporite rocks of the Yates Formation in this reach. Ground-water movement is generally toward the Pecos River in aquifers in the Pecos River valley except in the Rustler Formation east of the river where it moves southeastward toward playas east of Lake Avalon. The chloride content of ground and surface waters indicates that surface water moves from some reaches of the Pecos River and from surface-storage reservoirs to aquifers and also indicates the degree of mixing of ground and surface waters. About 45,000 acre-feet of ground water is stored in highly permeable rocks in a 3-mile wide part of the Seven Rivers Formation between Lake McMillan and Major Johnson Springs. This water in storage comes from leakage from Lake McMillan and from alluvium north of the springs. The flow of Major Johnson Springs is derived from this aquifer. That part of the flow derived from the alluvium north of the springs averaged 13 cfs (cubic feet per second) from 1953 through 1959 ; about 8 cfs of this flow had not been previously measured at gaging stations on the Pecos River and its tributaries. The most favorable plans for increasing terminal storage of the Carlsbad Irrigation District are to construct a dam at the Brantley site (at the downstream end of Major Johnson Springs), or to use underground storage in the permeable Seven Rivers Formation between Lake McMillan and Major Johnson brings in conjunction with surface storage. To avoid excessive

  7. Effect of reducing groundwater on the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose TP

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Laboratory batch sorption experiments were used to investigate variations in the retardation behavior of redox-sensitive radionuclides. Water-rock compositions were designed to simulate subsurface conditions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS, where a suite of radionuclides were deposited as a result of underground nuclear testing. Experimental redox conditions were controlled by varying the oxygen content inside an enclosed glove box and by adding reductants into the testing solutions. Under atmospheric (oxidizing conditions, radionuclide distribution coefficients varied with the mineralogic composition of the sorbent and the water chemistry. Under reducing conditions, distribution coefficients showed marked increases for 99Tc (from 1.22 at oxidizing to 378 mL/g at mildly reducing conditions and 237Np (an increase from 4.6 to 930 mL/g in devitrified tuff, but much smaller variations in alluvium, carbonate rock, and zeolitic tuff. This effect was particularly important for 99Tc, which tends to be mobile under oxidizing conditions. A review of the literature suggests that iodine sorption should decrease under reducing conditions when I- is the predominant species; this was not consistently observed in batch tests. Overall, sorption of U to alluvium, devitrified tuff, and zeolitic tuff under atmospheric conditions was less than in the glove-box tests. However, the mildly reducing conditions achieved here were not likely to result in substantial U(VI reduction to U(IV. Sorption of Pu was not affected by the decreasing Eh conditions achieved in this study, as the predominant sorbed Pu species in all conditions was expected to be the low-solubility and strongly sorbing Pu(OH4. Depending on the aquifer lithology, the occurrence of reducing conditions along a groundwater flowpath could potentially contribute to the retardation of redox-sensitive radionuclides 99Tc and 237Np, which are commonly identified as long-term dose contributors in the risk

  8. Syntectonic Mississippi River Channel Response: Integrating River Morphology and Seismic Imaging to Detect Active Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Alluvial rivers, even great rivers such as the Mississippi, respond to hydrologic and geologic controls. Temporal variations of valley gradient can significantly alter channel morphology, as the river responds syntectonically to attain equilibrium. The river will alter its sinuosity, in an attempt to maintain a constant gradient on a surface that changes slope through time. Therefore, changes of river pattern can be the first clue that active tectonics is affecting an area of pattern change. Here I present geomorphological and seismic imaging evidence of a previously unknown fault crossing the Mississippi river south of the New Madrid seismic zone, between Caruthersville, Missouri and Osceola, Arkansas, and show that both datasets support Holocene fault movement, with the latest slip occurring in the last 200 years. High resolution marine seismic reflection data acquired along the Mississippi river imaged a NW-SE striking north-dipping fault displacing the base of the Quaternary alluvium by 15 m with reverse sense of movement. The fault consistently deforms the Tertiary, Cretaceous and Paleozoic formations. Historical river channel planforms dating back to 1765 reveal that the section of the river channel across the fault has been characterized by high sinuosity and steep projected-channel slope compared to adjacent river reaches. In particular, the reach across the fault experienced a cutoff in 1821, resulting in a temporary lowering of sinuosity followed by an increase between the survey of 1880 and 1915. Under the assumption that the change in sinuosity reflects river response to a valley slope change to maintain constant gradient, I use sinuosity through time to calculate the change in valley slope since 1880 and therefore to estimate the vertical displacement of the imaged fault in the past 200 years. Based on calculations so performed, the vertical offset of the fault is estimated to be 0.4 m, accrued since at least 1880. If the base of the river alluvium

  9. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Great Karoo, South Africa: Processes and drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldknow, Chris; Hooke, Janet; Lang, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The Great Karoo spans the north-central part of South Africa at a major climatic boundary. The characteristics, sequences, spatial patterns and drivers of river response to Late Quaternary climate changes in this region remain unclear due to the fragmentary alluvial/colluvial stratigraphic record and the lack of dated palaeoclimatic archives. Dendritic gully networks incised into deep deposits (up to 6 m) of colluvium and alluvium in the upper Sundays River catchment expose a legacy of "cut and fill" features. In 1st order tributaries, these are predominantly discontinuous palaeochannels and flood-outs with localised palaeosols, whereas in 2nd & 3rd order tributaries there are: 1) incised palaeo-geomorphic surfaces, 2) semi-continuous inset terrace sequences, 3) buried palaeo-gully topography. Using a combination of field mapping, logging of sediment outcrops, soil micromorphological and grain size analysis, mineral magnetic measurements and radiometric dating (OSL & 14C), we derive a stratigraphic evolution model which demonstrates a) the number of phases of incision, aggradation and pedogenesis, b) the spatial and temporal extent of each phase and c) the drivers of alluviation and associated feedbacks. Our reconstruction of regional valley alluviation indicates four distinct terrace units of contrasting depositional age. The base of the succession reflects slow aggradation under periglacial conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum. Subsequent channel entrenchment, causing terrace abandonment (T1) occurred in the deglacial period when vegetation and rainfall were in anti-phase. Re-instatement of connectivity with deep upland colluvial stores resulted in the injection of a pulse of sediment to valley floors, triggering compartmentalised backfilling (aggradation of T2) which propagated upstream as far as the second order drainage lines. This backfilling restructured the local hydrology, which, in concert with enhanced summer-rainfall, contributed to a

  10. A Unique Laboratory to Explore Soil-Wine Relationships, North Canterbury, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R.; Tomasino, E.; Tonkin, P.; Webb, T.; Burns, S. F.; Weersing, M.

    2012-12-01

    The special character of North Canterbury is a reflection of its geological history - a region of oblique crustal convergence forming northeast striking folds, creating hill, valley and basin topography. Cretaceous to Tertiary glauconitic sediments, limestones, sandstones and weathered conglomerates overlie basement greywacke sandstones and siltstones. During the late Quaternary, erosion infilled valleys with locally sourced sediments, and basins with greywacke alluvium. Calcareous and noncalcareous loess mantles are locally sourced. Detailed soil mapping of vineyards planted between 1980 and 2000 reveal bedrock and colluvial hill slopes with clayey Haplustolls and Argiustolls, fans with deep silty Hapustalfs and terraces with deep alluvium forming clayey Calciusterts and gravels forming Haplustepts. Definitions of terroir variously include physical attributes such as climate, landscapes, soils and vines, together with cultural traditions represented by grape varieties and systems for canopy management, which come together in particular sensory attributes displayed by certain wines. We have recently begun to explore terroir in the context of New Zealand Pinot Noir (the variety considered by many as most able to communicate details of local geography and site). The assessment of wine sensory attributes is not a trivial task. Our experience is that scale is an important influence as ferment size decreases. We recommend the use of commercially produced wines for such studies. Our work has been carried out using statistically valid designs with expert but untrained panelists. In these circumstances the meaning ascribed to particular attributes may vary between panelists but there is evidence to support the contention that expert panelists tend to share a standard vocabulary and are likely to be familiar with appropriate conceptual models of the wines that allow their differentiation. Our results confirm that Pinot Noir wines from climatically differing regions of New

  11. Transport of Intrinsic Plutonium Colloids in Saturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D.; Abdel-Fattah, A.; Boukhalfa, H.; Ware, S. D.; Tarimala, S.; Keller, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Actinide contaminants were introduced to the subsurface environment as a result of nuclear weapons development and testing, as well as for nuclear power generation and related research activities for defense and civilian applications. Even though most actinide species were believed to be fairly immobile once in the subsurface, recent studies have shown the transport of actinides kilometers away from their disposal sites. For example, the treated liquid wastes released into Mortandad Canyon at the Los Alamos National Laboratory were predicted to travel less than a few meters; however, plutonium and americium have been detected 3.4 km away from the waste outfall. A colloid-facilitated mechanism has been suggested to account for this unexpected transport of these radioactive wastes. Clays, oxides, organic matters, and actinide hydroxides have all been proposed as the possible mobile phase. Pu ions associated with natural colloids are often referred to as pseudo-Pu colloids, in contrast with the intrinsic Pu colloids that consist of Pu oxides. Significant efforts have been made to investigate the role of pseudo-Pu colloids, while few studies have evaluated the environmental behavior of the intrinsic Pu colloids. Given the fact that Pu (IV) has extremely low solubility product constant, it can be inferred that the transport of Pu in the intrinsic form is highly likely at suitable environmental conditions. This study investigates the transport of intrinsic Pu colloids in a saturated alluvium material packed in a cylindrical column (2.5-cm Dia. x 30-cm high) and compares the results to previous data on the transport of pseudo Pu colloids in the same material. A procedure to prepare a stable intrinsic Pu colloid suspension that produced consistent and reproducible electrokinetic and stability data was developed. Electrokinetic properties and aggregation stability were characterized. The Pu colloids, together with trillium as a conservative tracer, were injected into the

  12. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  13. Summary of results of cratering experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toman, J [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The use of nuclear excavation as a construction technique for producing harbors, canals, highway cuts, and other large excavations requires a high assurance that the yield and depth of burst selected for the explosive will produce the desired configuration within an acceptable degree of tolerance. Nuclear excavation technology advanced significantly during 1968 as a result of the successful execution of Projects Cabriolet, Buggy, and Schooner. Until these experiments were conducted, the only nuclear data available for designing large excavations were derived from Sedan (100 kt in alluvium), Danny Boy (0.42 kt in basalt), and Sulky (0.090 kt in basalt). Applicable experience has now been extended to include two additional rock types: tuff and porphyritic trachyte, non-homogeneous formations with severe geologic layering, and a nuclear row in hard rock. The continued development of cratering calculations using in situ geophysical measurements and high-pressure test data have provided a means for predicting the cratering characteristics of untested materials. Chemical explosive cratering experiments conducted in the pre-Gondola series during the past several years have been directed toward determining the behavior of weak, wet clay shales. This material is important to nuclear excavation because of potential long-term stability problems which may affect the cratered slopes. (author)

  14. Compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lat, D. C.; Ali, N.; Jais, I. B. M.; Baharom, B.; Yunus, N. Z. M.; Salleh, S. M.; Azmi, N. A. C.

    2018-04-01

    This study is carried out to determine the geotechnical properties and compressibility characteristics of marine clay collected at Sabak Bernam. The compressibility characteristics of this soil are determined from 1-D consolidation test and verified by existing correlations by other researchers. No literature has been found on the compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay. It is important to carry out this study since this type of marine clay covers large coastal area of west coast Malaysia. This type of marine clay was found on the main road connecting Klang to Perak and the road keeps experiencing undulation and uneven settlement which jeopardise the safety of the road users. The soil is indicated in the Generalised Soil Map of Peninsular Malaysia as a CLAY with alluvial soil on recent marine and riverine alluvium. Based on the British Standard Soil Classification and Plasticity Chart, the soil is classified as a CLAY with very high plasticity (CV). Results from laboratory test on physical properties and compressibility parameters show that Sabak Bernam Marine Clay (SBMC) is highly compressible, has low permeability and poor drainage characteristics. The compressibility parameters obtained for SBMC is in a good agreement with other researchers in the same field.

  15. Evaluation and proposed study of potential ground-water supplies, Gallup area, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, William L.

    1975-01-01

    The ground-water potential of 5 areas in central-western New Mexico within 85 miles (135 km) of Gallup, N. Mex. was evaluated by reviewing the published literature, inspecting aerial and space photographs, and interviewing ranchers and personnel employed by well-drilling and mineral-exploration companies by telephone. The San Andres Limestone and underlying Glorieta Sandstone of Permian age are the oldest aquifers capable of yielding water of a quality suitable for municipal use. Extreme local variations in hydraulic conductivity and water quality reflect a karstic topography developed on the San Andres Limestone prior to burial by Upper Triassic sediments. The San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone form an important aquifer in the Grants-Bluewater area where yields of as much as 2,200 gallons per minute (140 l/s) have been obtained. Yields from wells completed in the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer on the Chaco slope and in the Gallup sag-Mogollon slope on the northeast and southeast flanks, respectively, of the Zuni uplift will be much less than those prevailing in the Grants-Bluewater area. Water quality in the San Andres Limestone and Glorieta Sandstone deteriorates with distance away from the axis of the Zuni uplift. Sandstones of Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous age are potential aquifers wherever they are present. Yields to wells tapping these aquifers are generally less than 200 gallons per minute (13 l/s) due to the relatively low hydraulic conductivity. Wells tapping alluvium of Late Cenozoic age along the Rio San Jose and Puerco River and interbedded volcanics and alluvium elsewhere in the area generally yield less than 100 gallons per minute (6 l/s) of water. Tributaries ,of the Rio San Jose that have eroded canyons into Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks east of the Continental Divide and south of the eastern part of the Zuni uplift have been repeatedly displaced and (or) covered by Quaternary volcanic rocks. The exact location, extent, and depth of

  16. Analytical procedures used by the uranium - radon - radium geochemistry group; Methodes d'analyses utilisees par la section de geochimie uranium, radon, radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthollet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The analytical methods described are applied to the geochemical prospecting of uranium. The nature of the material under investigation, which may be soil, alluvium, rock, plant or water, and the particular requirements of geochemical exploration, have prompted us to adjust the widely used conventional methods to the demands of large scale operation, without lowering their standards of accuracy and reliability. These procedures are explained in great detail. Though most of this technical information may appear superfluous to the chemical engineer well versed in trace element determination, it will, however, serve a useful purpose both with the operator in charge of routine testing and with the chemist called upon to interpret results. (author) [French] Les methodes d'analyses decrites sont utilisees pour la prospection geochimique de l'uranium. La nature des materiaux: sols, alluvions, roches, vegetaux, eaux, et les exigences propres a la prospection geochimique, nous ont conduit a adapter des methodes classique couramment utilisees pour les rendre aptes a etre executees en grande serie, sans abandonner leurs qualites de precision et de fidelite. Ces methodes sont presentees avec un maximum de details operatoires qui paraitront superflus aux chimistes habitues aux dosages de traces, mais seront utiles aussi bien aux manipulateurs charges des analyses qu'aux geochimistes appeles a exploiter les resultats. (auteur)

  17. Assessment of Geochemical Environment for the Proposed INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Craig Cooper

    2011-11-01

    Conservative sorption parameters have been estimated for the proposed Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility. This analysis considers the influence of soils, concrete, and steel components on water chemistry and the influence of water chemistry on the relative partitioning of radionuclides over the life of the facility. A set of estimated conservative distribution coefficients for the primary media encountered by transported radionuclides has been recommended. These media include the vault system, concrete-sand-gravel mix, alluvium, and sedimentary interbeds. This analysis was prepared to support the performance assessment required by U.S. Department of Energy Order 435.1, 'Radioactive Waste Management.' The estimated distribution coefficients are provided to support release and transport calculations of radionuclides from the waste form through the vadose zone. A range of sorption parameters are provided for each key transport media, with recommended values being conservative. The range of uncertainty has been bounded through an assessment of most-likely-minimum and most-likely-maximum distribution coefficient values. The range allows for adequate assessment of mean facility performance while providing the basis for uncertainty analysis.

  18. Hydrogeological functioning of the tablecloth of the Midelt Furrow (High Moulouya, MOROCCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhmerdi, H.; Boukdir, A.; Kossir, A.; Alili, L.; Ben-Said, E.

    2018-05-01

    The superficial tablecloth of furrow of Midelt belongs to the bowl of High Moulouya which stretches out from the west eastward between the High Atlas in the South and the Medium Atlas west and in the Northeast. The methodology used includes the synthesis of geological data, piezometry, hydrodynamics, hydroclimatology and water quality. This study provides the following results: The flow mode of the water table is general SW to NE on the left bank of the Moulouya river and on the right bank, the flow is from the NW to the SE. The piezometric ratings vary from 1460 to 1780 m. The hydraulic gradient is the order of 2% on average. The transmissivity is usually about 10-3 m2/s. the punctual flows can reach 50 l / s (case of the drilling N ° IRE 879/38 realized in the alluviums of the Outat). The flow provided by the sources from conglomerates and lake limestones of the Plio-Villafranchien is 50 l / s. The unit of the Mio- Plio-Quaternary aquifer is fed from the infiltrations of rains, by the wadis which cross the banks of the conglomerates and by the landing of the tablecloths of Lias, Dogger and Cretaceous this feeding is however weak in because of the discontinuity of the formations and the poor permeability of the different levels. From a qualitative point of view the groundwater analysis of the aquifer shows that their overall quality is average to good.

  19. A revised Lithostratigraphic Framework for the Southern Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.W. Spengler; F.M. Byers; R.P. Dickerson

    2006-01-01

    An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits and intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain

  20. Hydrogeologic inferences from drillers' logs and from gravity and resistivity surveys in the Amargosa Desert, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oatfield, W.J.; Czarnecki, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada, in the Basin and Range province, is hydraulically downgradient from Yucca Mountain, the potential site of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Ground-water flow paths and flow rates beneath the Amargosa Desert are controlled in part by the total saturated thickness and the hydraulic properties of basin-fill alluvial sediments. Drillers' logs of water wells completed in alluvium were analyzed to help characterize the hydrogeologic framework underlying the Amargosa Desert. Fractions of coarse-grained sediments, calculated from each of these logs, were contoured using a universal-kriging routine to interpolate values. Results from a previous electrical sounding survey also were contoured, including the estimated depth to Paleozoic basement rocks. The vertical electric sounding results were obtained from individual depth-to-resistivity profiles, from which the average resistivity of the total profile and the resistivity of the upper 75 meters were calculated. the distribution and variations in average resistivity of the total depth correlated reasonably well with the distribution of variations in regional gravity. 24 refs., 17 figs

  1. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurr, R. Theodore

    1976-01-01

    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  2. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis J. Hansen and W. Kent Ostler

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, (3) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies

  3. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater Sampling at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site, September 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsosie, Bernadette [U. S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Johnson, Richard [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring wells at the Bluewater, New Mexico, Disposal Site to monitor groundwater contaminants as specified in the 1997 Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the DOE Bluewater (UMTRCA Title II) Disposal Site Near Grants, New Mexico (LTSP). Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). A duplicate sample was collected from location HMC-951. Alluvium wells are completed in the alluvial sediments in the former channel of the Rio San Jose, which was covered by basalt lava flows known as the El Malpais, and are identified by the suffix (M). Bedrock wells are completed in the San Andres Limestone/Glorieta Sandstone hydrologic unit (San Andres aquifer) and are identified by the suffix (SG). Wells HMC-951 and OBS-3 are also completed in the San Andres aquifer. The LTSP requires monitoring for molybdenum, selenium, uranium, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); PCB monitoring occurs only during November sampling events. This event included sampling for an expanded list of analytes to characterize the site aquifers and to support a regional groundwater investigation being conducted by the New Mexico Environment Department.

  4. Evaluation of remedial alternative of a LNAPL plume utilizing groundwater modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.; Way, S.; Powell, G.

    1997-01-01

    The TIMES model was utilized to evaluate remedial options for a large LNAPL spill that was impacting the North Platte River in Glenrock, Wyoming. LNAPL was found discharging into the river from the adjoining alluvial aquifer. Subsequent investigations discovered an 18 hectare plume extended across the alluvium and into a sandstone bedrock outcrop to the south of the river. The TIMES model was used to estimate the LNAPL volume and to evaluate options for optimizing LNAPL recovery. Data collected from recovery and monitoring wells were used for model calibration. A LNAPL volume of 5.5 million L was estimated, over 3.0 million L of which is in the sandstone bedrock. An existing product recovery system was evaluated for its effectiveness. Three alternative recovery scenarios were also evaluated to aid in selecting the most cost-effective and efficient recovery system for the site. An active wellfield hydraulically upgradient of the existing recovery system was selected as most appropriate to augment the existing system in recovering LNAPL efficiently

  5. Description of the physical environment and coal-mining history of west-central Indiana, with emphasis on six small watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Crawford, C.G.; Duwelius, R.F.; Renn, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    West-central Indiana is underlain by coal-bearing Pennsylvanian rocks. Nearly all of the area has been glaciated at least once and is characterized by wide flood plains and broad, flat uplands. The most productive aquifers are confined or unconfined outwash aquifers located along the major rivers. Bedrock aquifers are regionally insignificant but are the sole source of groundwater for areas that lack outwash, alluvium, or sand and gravel lenses in till. Indiana has > 17 billion short tons of recoverable coal reserves; about 11% can be mined by surface methods. More than 50,000 acres in west-central Indiana were disturbed by surface coal mining from 1941 through 1980. Ridges of mine spoil have been graded to a gently rolling topography. Soils are well drained and consist of 6 to 12 inches of silt-loam topsoil that was stockpiled and then replaced over shale and sandstone fragments of the graded mine spoil. Grasses and legumes form the vegetative cover in each watershed. Pond Creek and the unnamed tributary to Big Branch are streams that drain mined and unreclaimed watersheds. Approximately one-half of the Pond Creek watershed is unmined,agricultural land. Soils are very well drained shaly silty loams that have formed on steeply sloping spoil banks. Both watersheds contain numerous impoundments of water and have enclosed areas that do not contribute surface runoff to streamflow. The ridges of mine spoil are covered with pine trees, but much of the soil surface is devoid of vegetation

  6. Nuclear-waste isolation in the unsaturated zone of arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Korbin, G.

    1982-05-01

    The vadose zone in arid regions is considered as a possible environment for geologic isolation of nuclear waste. There are several topographic and lithologic combinations in the vadose zone of arid regions that may lend themselves to waste isolation considerations. In some cases, topographic highs such as mesas and interbasin ranges - comprised of several rock types, may contain essentially dry or partially saturated conditions favorable for isolation. The adjacent basins, especially in the far western and southwestern US, may have no surface or subsurface hydrologic connections with systems ultimately leading to the ocean. Some rock types may have the favorable characteristics of very low permeability and contain appropriate minerals for the strong chemical retardation of radionuclides. Environments exhibiting these hydrologic and geochemical attributes are the areas underlain by tuffaceous rocks, relatively common in the Basin and Range geomorphic province. Adjacent valley areas, where tuffaceous debris makes up a significant component of valley fill alluvium, may also contain thick zones of unsaturated material, and as such also lend themselves to strong consideration as respository environments. This paper summarizes the aspects of nuclear waste isolation in unsaturated regimes in alluvial-filled valleys and tuffaceous rocks of the Basin and Range province

  7. Alterasi Akibat Proses Hidrothermal di Bolaang Mongondow, Provinsi Sulawesi Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Harjanto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bolaang Mongondow is located in central north Sulawesi arm, which is composed of Neogen magmatic arc and potentially contain economic minerals. This condition is behind the research purpose to study the mineral resources potencies. Research aim is to study alteration caused by hydrothermal process and its relation with gold (Au deposit based on field study and laboratory analysis. Methodologies used for the research are literature study, geological survey, rocks sampling, laboratory analysis, and data processing. Research area is a multiply diorite intrusion complex. Andesite, volcaniclastic rocks, and dacite, the older rocks, were intruded by this complex. Later, dacitic tuff, volcanic sandstone, and alluvium deposited above them. There are three measured and mapped major faults heading NE-SW crossed by E-W fault and NW-SE fault lately crossed all the older faults. Early stage hydrothermal alteration related to the existence of young quartz diorite, showing alteration stage from the potassic center to distal prophyllitic. Final stage hydrothermal alteration consist of argilic, advanced argilic, and silica-clay mineral±magnetite±chlorite alteration overlapping the earlier alteration. Mineralization of Cu-Au±Ag in central part of research area or Tayap-Kinomaligan area is mostly asociated with potassic altered young quartz diorite and crossed by paralel and stockworked quartz-magnetite-chalcopyrite±bornite vein.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration in Dumoga Barat, Bolaang Mongondow area North Sulawesi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Harjanto' Sutanto; Sutarto; Achmad Subandrio; I Made Suasta; Juanito Salamat; Giri Hartono; Putu Suputra; I Gde Basten; Muhammad Fauzi; Rosdiana

    2016-01-01

    Bolaang Mongondow is located in central north Sulawesi arm, which is composed of Neogen magmatic arc and potentially contain economic minerals. This condition is behind the research purpose to study the mineral resources potencies. Research aim is to study alteration caused by hydrothermal process and its relation with gold (Au) deposit based on field study and laboratory analysis. Methodologies used for the research are literature study, geological survey, rocks sampling, laboratory analysis, and data processing. Research area is a multiply diorite intrusion complex. Andesite, volcaniclastic rocks, and dacite, the older rocks, were intruded by this complex. Later, dacitic tuff, volcanic sandstone, and alluvium deposited above them. There are three measured and mapped major faults heading NE-SW crossed by E-W fault and NW-SE fault lately crossed all the older faults. Early stage hydrothermal alteration related to the existence of young quartz diorite, showing alteration stage from the potassic center to distal prophylatic. Final stage hydrothermal alteration consist of argilic, advanced argilic, and silica-clay mineral±magnetite±chlorite alteration overlapping the earlier alteration. Mineralization of Cu-Au±Ag in central part of research area or Tayap-Kinomaligan area is mostly associated with potassic altered young quartz diorite and crossed by parallel and stock worked quartz-magnetite-chalcopyrite±bornite vein. (author)

  9. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Pecos, Texas. Solitario survey area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Payne, A.G.; Grimes, J.G.; Helgerson, R.N.; Bard, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the Solitario survey area portion of the detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Pecos, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 119 groundwater and 520 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are breifly discussed. Groundwaters having concentrations of uranium greater than or equal to 11.5 ppB are observed in the western half of the survey area. These wells generally produce from the Chisos Formation and Buck Hill Volcanic Series or alluvium derived from these units. Lithium, sodium, boron, uranium/specific conductance, uranium/boron, and uranium/sulfate are noted to be most highly associated within the area of anomalously high uranium. The highest potential for uranium mineralization, in view of these groundwater data, lies in the LaVuida and Bandera Mesa areas. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 2.57 ppM soluble uranium occur in numerous areas within the survey area. The highest concentrations of uranium occur in sediments derived from the Buck Hill Volcanic Series and Cretaceous limestones. Above background concentrations of arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, nickel, calcium, and strontium were noted to be associated with areas of anomalously high uranium. These elements are most prominently associated with uranium anomalies occurring in Cretaceous limestone

  10. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. Semiannual water sampling is scheduled for the spring and fall. Water quality sampling is conducted at the processing site (1) to ensure protection of human health and the environment, (2) for ground water compliance monitoring during remedial action construction, and (3) to define the extent of contamination. At the processing site, the frequency and duration of sampling will be dependent upon the nature and extent of residual contamination and the compliance strategy chosen. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  11. The role of calculations to define containment phenomenology in complex geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, R.P.; Rambo, J.T.; Bryan, J.B.

    1985-10-01

    Containment evaluation of some underground nuclear events has become strongly dependent on the use of calculations to help define important phenomenology. This results from the increasing necessity to test in sites having a geology that precludes acceptance based solely on experience. This paper discusses the rationale of a suite of TENSOR code calculations undertaken in support of the containment evaluation for a recent event and highlights the results of these calculations. The calculations illustrate containment phenomena in a layered geology of alluvium and tuff with a working point in the proximity of the Paleozoic surface. They show that reflected disturbances from surfaces above and/or below the working point can significantly hinder the development of the residual stress field if their arrival in the residual stress region coincides with the rebound phase of cavity growth. In addition, the results demonstrate a need for the development of a criterion for the probability of successful containment in complex geology other than the historical concept of a strong, sufficiently thick residual stress field. 15 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance basic data for Dodge City NTMS Quadrangle, Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Results of a reconnaissance geochemical survey of the Dodge City Quadrangle are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 756 groundwater and 321 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwater data indicate that the most promising areas for uranium mineralization are as follows: (1) in the north central area of the quadrangle within close proximity to the Arkansas River, mostly from waters of the Ogallala Formation; (2) in the west central area, from groundwater samples of the Dakota and the Ogallala Formations; and (3) between the North Fork of the Cimarron River and the main Cimarron River, mostly in waters from the Ogallala Formation. Associated with the high uranium values are high concentrations for magnesium, strontium, and sulfate. Of the groundwater samples taken 81% were collected from the Ogallala Formation. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium concentrations in scattered samples in the northwestern, central, and southwestern areas of the quadrangle. Most of the samples with high uranium values were collected from the Quaternary alluvium. Associated with the high uranium values are high concentrations of barium, cerium, iron, manganese, titanium, vanadium, yttrium, and zirconium

  13. Stable-isotope studies of groundwaters in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Oxygen-18/16 and deuterium/hydrogen ratio measurements have been made on groundwaters sampled according to specific field criteria applied during pump tests of the Rustler Formation in Nash Draw, a solution-subsidence valley west of the WIPP site in the northern Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico. Comparison of these data with similar measurements on other groundwaters from the northern Delaware Basin indicates two nonoverlapping populations of meteoric groundwaters. Most of the Rustler waters in Nash Draw and at the WIPP site and older waters from the eastern two-thirds of the Capitan Limestone constitute one population, while unconfined groundwaters originating as observable modern surface recharge to alluvium, the near-surface Rustler in southwestern Nash Draw, and the Capitan in the Guadalupe Mountains (Carlsbad Caverns) constitute the other. The isotopic distinction suggests that Rustler groundwater in most of Nash Draw and at the WIPP site is not receiving significant modern meteoric recharge. A likely explanation for this distinction is that meteoric recharge to most of the Rustler and Capitan took place in the geologic past under climatic conditions significantly different from the present. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Groundwater potential prediction by using geoelectricity method a case study in Simpang Lima and around it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, D. R.; Supriyadi; Aryani, N. P.; Naufal, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    Water is an important natural resource, which is available both on surface as well as in recharge zone of weathered layer and in various other suitable water reservoir formations/structures below the surface. The study was conducted in Semarang City, Indonesian. Simpang Lima area were chosen since they have geology record of thick alluvium. The condition of Simpang Lima and around it which currently has developed into the main business area in Semarang City. This is marked by the presence like hotels, super market, that is more than one. This condition certainly requires a supply of water for various purposes that support economic efforts in the region. During this time the water needs are met by drilling wells and used as much as possible without taking into account the impact of water utilization. This study aims to determine the zones that have the potential existence of groundwater. The method used is Geoelectric method with Shlumberger configuration in 7 distributed spatial point. The results showed that there is a potential groundwater in eastern Pekunden, Erlanga, behind The Hotel Horizon, and Simpang Lima. Groundwater is found successively at an average depth of 15 meters under earth’s surface.

  15. Status of the ground water flow model for the UMTRA Project, Shiprock, New Mexico, site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model was constructed for the alluvial aquifer in the area of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Shiprock, New Mexico, site. This model was used to investigate the effects of various hydrologic parameters on the evolution of the ground water flow field. Results of the model are useful for defining uncertainties in the site conceptual model and suggesting data collection efforts to reduce these uncertainties. The computer code MODFLOW was used to simulate the two-dimensional flow of ground water in the alluvium. The escarpment was represented as a no-flow boundary. The San Juan River was represented with the MODFLOW river package. A uniform hydraulic conductivity distribution with the value estimated by the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and a uniform recharge distribution was used. Infiltration from the flowing artesian well was represented using the well package. The ground water flow model was calibrated to ground water levels observed in April 1993. Inspection of hydrographs shows that these levels are representative of typical conditions at the site

  16. Site response variation due to the existence of near-field cracks based on strong motion records in the Shi-Wen river valley, southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Yu, Teng-To; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yeh, Yeoin-Tein; Lin, Sih-Siao

    2014-10-01

    Site effect analysis has been applied to investigate soil classification, alluvium depth, and fracture detection, although the majority of previous studies have typically focused only on the response of large-scale single structures. In contrast, we investigated the site effect for small-scale cracks using a case study in southern Taiwan to provide a means of monitoring slope stability or foundation integrity in situ using only an accelerometer. We adopted both the reference site and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio methods. We obtained seismographs associated with the typhoon-related development of a crack set (52 m long, 5 m deep) in a steep slope and compared the resonance frequency between two conditions (with and without cracks). Moreover, we divided the seismic waves into P, S, and coda waves and examined the seismic source effect. Our results demonstrate that frequencies of 14.5-17.5 Hz are most sensitive to these cracks, particularly for the E-W component of the P-waves, which coincides with the crack’s strike. Peak ground acceleration, which is controlled by seismic moment and attenuated distance, is another important factor determining the resonance results. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of temporal seismic waves can be used to detect the existence of nearby subsurface cracks.

  17. Site response variation due to the existence of near-field cracks based on strong motion records in the Shi-Wen river valley, southern Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chi-Shin; Yu, Teng-To; Peng, Wen-Fei; Yeh, Yeoin-Tein; Lin, Sih-Siao

    2014-01-01

    Site effect analysis has been applied to investigate soil classification, alluvium depth, and fracture detection, although the majority of previous studies have typically focused only on the response of large-scale single structures. In contrast, we investigated the site effect for small-scale cracks using a case study in southern Taiwan to provide a means of monitoring slope stability or foundation integrity in situ using only an accelerometer. We adopted both the reference site and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio methods. We obtained seismographs associated with the typhoon-related development of a crack set (52 m long, 5 m deep) in a steep slope and compared the resonance frequency between two conditions (with and without cracks). Moreover, we divided the seismic waves into P, S, and coda waves and examined the seismic source effect. Our results demonstrate that frequencies of 14.5−17.5 Hz are most sensitive to these cracks, particularly for the E−W component of the P-waves, which coincides with the crack’s strike. Peak ground acceleration, which is controlled by seismic moment and attenuated distance, is another important factor determining the resonance results. Our results demonstrate that the ratio of temporal seismic waves can be used to detect the existence of nearby subsurface cracks. (paper)

  18. Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Budahn, J.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect four primary sources: (1) alluvial sediments (represented by Hf, K, Rb, Zr, and rare-earth elements, (2) playas, most of which produce calcareous dust (Sr, associated with Ca), (3) the area of Owens (dry) Lake, a human-induced playa (As, Ba, Li, Pb, Sb, and Sr), and (4) anthropogenic and/or volcanic emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and Sb). A comparison of dust and source samples with previous analyses shows that Owens (dry) Lake and mining wastes from the adjacent Cerro Gordo mining district are the primary sources of As, Ba, Li, and Pb in dusts from Owens Valley. Decreases in dust contents of As, Ba, and Sb with distance from Owens Valley suggest that dust from southern Owens Valley is being transported at least 400 km to the east. Samples of old dust that accumulated before European settlement are distinctly lower in As, Ba, and Sb abundances relative to modern dust, likely due to modern transport of dust from Owens Valley. Thus, southern Owens Valley appears to be an important, geochemically distinct, point source for regional dust in the southwestern United States. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Nuclear cratering on a digital computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terhune, R W; Stubbs, T F; Cherry, J T [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Computer programs based on the artificial viscosity method are applied to developing an understanding of the physics of cratering, with emphasis on cratering by nuclear explosives. Two established codes, SOC (spherical symmetry) and TENSOR (cylindrical symmetry), are used to illustrate the effects of variations in the material properties of various media on the cratering processes, namely shock, spall, and gas acceleration. Water content is found to be the most important material property, followed by strength, porosity, and compressibility. Crater profile calculations are presented for Pre-Gondola Charley (20-ton nitromethane detonation in shale) and Sedan (100-kt nuclear detonation in alluvium). Calculations also are presented for three 1-Mt yields in saturated Divide basalt and 1-Mt yield in dry Buckboard basalt, to show crater geometry as a function of the burial depth for large explosive yields. The calculations show, for megaton-level yields, that gas acceleration is the dominate mechanism in determining crater size and depends in turn on the water content in the medium. (author)

  20. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Ackermann, Hans D.; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  1. Integrated approach for demarcating subsurface pollution and saline water intrusion zones in SIPCOT area: a case study from Cuddalore in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S; Sonkamble, S; Krishnakumar, K; Mondal, N C

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with a systematic hydrogeological, geophysical, and hydrochemical investigations carried out in SIPCOT area in Southern India to demarcate groundwater pollution and saline intrusion through Uppanar River, which flows parallel to sea coast with high salinity (average TDS 28, 870 mg/l) due to back waters as well as discharge of industrial and domestic effluents. Hydrogeological and geophysical investigations comprising topographic survey, self-potential, multi-electrode resistivity imaging, and water quality monitoring were found the extent of saline water intrusion in the south and pockets of subsurface pollution in the north of the study area. Since the area is beset with highly permeable unconfined quaternary alluvium forming potential aquifer at shallow depth, long-term excessive pumping and influence of the River have led to lowering of the water table and degradation of water quality through increased salinity there by generating reversal of hydraulic gradient in the south. The improper management of industrial wastes and left over chemicals by closed industries has led surface and subsurface pollution in the north of the study area.

  2. Characterization of sediment and sediment cores in harbour and shelf areas from the viewpoint of environmental changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Duy Hien; Pham Ngoc Chuong; Nguyen Dieu Minh; Nguyen Kien Chinh

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of 35 elements in the sediment samples were determined by INAA, RNAA, PGNAA and polarography methods at the Dalat nuclear research reactor. The elemental compositions of the samples have been assesses taking into account the data on mineral compositions and grain size distributions. In general, the trace elements compositions of the collected bottom sediments are still of geochemical origin and rather similar to those of the alluvium (suspended matters) transported by rivers Red and Mekong. The concentrations of some ecologically relevant heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, etc.) are more lower than those in some polluted estuaries in industrialized countries. Thus, the obtained data can be considered as a background reference allowing the assessment of any elemental concentration variations of anthropogenic origin in the future. The obtained analytical data shows that the cores drilled out at a distance 120 km from the estuaries of r. Mekong (9 o 34'N, 107 o 52'E) and under 50 m depth of water consist mostly of classic sediments (terrigenous origin). C-14 dating shows a sedimentation rate 0.5 m/1000 y. (author)

  3. Assessment of liquefaction potential during earthquakes by arias intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, R.E.; Mitchell, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    An Arias intensity approach to assess the liquefaction potential of soil deposits during earthquakes is proposed, using an energy-based measure of the severity of earthquake-shaking recorded on seismograms of the two horizontal components of ground motion. Values representing the severity of strong motion at depth in the soil column are associated with the liquefaction resistance of that layer, as measured by in situ penetration testing (SPT, CPT). This association results in a magnitude-independent boundary that envelopes initial liquefaction of soil in Arias intensity-normalized penetration resistance space. The Arias intensity approach is simple to apply and has proven to be highly reliable in assessing liquefaction potential. The advantages of using Arias intensity as a measure of earthquake-shaking severity in liquefaction assessment are: Arias intensity is derived from integration of the entire seismogram wave form, incorporating both the amplitude and duration elements of ground motion; all frequencies of recorded motion are considered; and Arias intensity is an appropriate measure to use when evaluating field penetration test methodologies that are inherently energy-based. Predictor equations describing the attenuation of Arias intensity as a function of earthquake magnitude and source distance are presented for rock, deep-stiff alluvium, and soft soil sites.

  4. Isotopic and Radioactivity Fingerprinting of Groundwater in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murad, A.; Hussein, S. [Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Aldahan, A. [Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hou, X. L. [Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Possnert, G. [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-07-15

    A pilot investigation using radioactivity together with chemical features was conducted to characterize groundwater sampled from wells drilled in fractured Paleogen-Neogen carbonate rocks along the foothill of about 1200 m absl high mountain and wells drilled in Quaternary clastic sediments from a nearby alluvial plain in the southeastern part of the UAE. These two water modes are relatively easily separated by their chloride and EC (salt content) contents and provide an ideal case for testing radioactivity fingerprints. The groundwater of the alluvial plain, which is expected to reflect a short distance precipitation recharge source, indicates a concentration of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the groundwater of the carbonate rocks. The range of variability for gross alpha is similar, but the gross beta activity indicates only 1 order of magnitude difference between the two water types. The radioactively richer groundwater of the carbonate aquifers compared to the alluvium plane may reflect the signature of deep basinal fluids. These marked differences in radioactivity of the two water modes clearly suggests that radioactive fingerprinting can provide a potential method for the identification groundwater sources in the UAE. (author)

  5. Analyzing the subsurface structure using seismic refraction method: Case study STMKG campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibowo, Bagus Adi; Ngadmanto, Drajat; Daryono

    2015-01-01

    A geophysic survey is performed to detect subsurface structure under STMKG Campus in Pondok Betung, South Tangerang, Indonesia, using seismic refraction method. The survey used PASI 16S24-U24. The waveform data is acquired from 3 different tracks on the research location with a close range from each track. On each track we expanded 24 geofons with spacing between receiver 2 meters and the total length of each track about 48 meters. The waveform data analysed using 2 different ways. First, used a seismic refractionapplication WINSISIM 12 and second, used a Hagiwara Method. From both analysis, we known the velocity of P-wave in the first and second layer and the thickness of the first layer. From the velocity and the thickness informations we made 2-D vertical subsurface profiles. In this research, we only detect 2 layers in each tracks. The P-wave velocity of first layer is about 200-500 m/s with the thickness of this layer about 3-6 m/s. The P-wave velocity of second layer is about 400-900 m/s. From the P-wave velocity data we interpreted that both layer consisted by similar materials such as top soil, soil, sand, unsaturated gravel, alluvium and clay. But, the P-wave velocity difference between those 2 layers assumed happening because the first layer is soil embankment layer, having younger age than the layer below

  6. An informal judgment assessment of subsidence mitigation options for low-level radioactive waste management on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Besinger, H.; Dolenc, M.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of options to mitigate the effects of subsidence at low-level radioactive waste disposal sites on the Nevada Test Site was conducted using an informal method of expert judgment. Mitigation options for existing waste cells and future waste cells were identified by a committee composed of knowledgeable personnel from the DOE and DOE-contractors. Eight ranking factors were developed to assess the mitigation options and these factors were scored through elicitation of consensus views from the committee. Different subsets of the factors were applied respectively, to existing waste cells and future waste cells, and the resulting scores were ranked using weighted and unweighted scores. These scores show that there is a large number of viable mitigation options and considerable flexibility in assessing the subsidence issue with a greater range of options for future waste cells compared to existing waste cells. A highly ranked option for both existing and future waste cells is covering the waste cells with a thick closure cap of native alluvium

  7. Characterization of the Highway 95 Fault in lower Fortymile Wash using electrical and electromagnetic methods, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Kryder, Levi; Walker, Jamieson

    2012-01-01

    The Highway 95 Fault is a buried, roughly east-west trending growth fault at the southern extent of Yucca Mountain and Southwestern Nevada Volcanic Field. Little is known about the role of this fault in the movement of groundwater from the Yucca Mountain area to downgradient groundwater users in Amargosa Valley. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Arizona Water Science Center (AZWSC), in cooperation with the Nye County Nuclear Waste Repository Project Office (NWRPO), has used direct current (DC) resistivity, controlled-source audio magnetotelluric (CSAMT), and transient electromagnetics (TEM) to better understand the fault. These geophysical surveys were designed to look at structures buried beneath the alluvium, following a transect of wells for lithologic control. Results indicate that the fault is just north of U.S. Highway 95, between wells NC-EWDP-2DB and -19D, and south of Highway 95, east of well NC-EWDP-2DB. The Highway 95 Fault may inhibit shallow groundwater movement by uplifting deep Paleozoic carbonates, effectively reducing the overlying alluvial aquifer thickness and restricting the movement of water. Upward vertical hydraulic gradients in wells proximal to the fault indicate that upward movement is occurring from deeper, higher-pressure aquifers.

  8. Regional Tectonic Control of Tertiary Mineralization and Recent Faulting in the Southern Basin-Range Province, an Application of ERTS-1 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, I. C.; Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Research based on ERTS-1 MSS imagery and field work in the southern Basin-Range Province of California, Nevada and Arizona has shown regional tectonic control of volcanism, plutonism, mineralization and faulting. This paper covers an area centered on the Colorado River between 34 15' N and 36 45' N. During the mid-Tertiary, the area was the site of plutonism and genetically related volcanism fed by fissure systems now exposed as dike swarms. Dikes, elongate plutons, and coeval normal faults trend generally northward and are believed to have resulted from east-west crustal extension. In the extensional province, gold silver mineralization is closely related to Tertiary igneous activity. Similarities in ore, structural setting, and rock types define a metallogenic district of high potential for exploration. The ERTS imagery also provides a basis for regional inventory of small faults which cut alluvium. This capability for efficient regional surveys of Recent faulting should be considered in land use planning, geologic hazards study, civil engineering and hydrology.

  9. Efficient analysis using custom interactive visualization tools at a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.; Durham, L.

    1992-01-01

    Custom visualization analysis programs were developed and used to analyze contaminant transport calculations from a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model developed for a Department of Energy Superfund site. The site hydrogeology, which is highly heterogenous, includes both fractured limestone and dolomite and alluvium deposits. Three-dimensional interactive visualization techniques were used to understand and analyze the three-dimensional, double-porosity modeling results. A graphical object oriented programming environment was applied to efficiently develop custom visualization programs in a coarse-grained data structure language. Comparisons were made, using the results from the three-dimensional, finite-difference model, between traditional two-dimensional analyses (contour and vector plots) and interactive three-dimensional techniques. Subjective comparison areas include the accuracy of analysis, the ability to understand the results of three-dimensional contaminant transport simulation, and the capability to transmit the results of the analysis to the project management. In addition, a quantitative comparison was made on the time required to develop a thorough analysis of the modeling results. The conclusions from the comparative study showed that the visualization analysis provided an increased awareness of the contaminant transport mechanisms, provided new insights into contaminant migration, and resulted in a significant time savings

  10. Numerical simulation of scour by a wall jet downstream of a solid apron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, R.M. [Univ. of Windsor, Fluid Dynamics Research Inst., Windsor, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: az3@uwindsor.ca; Neyshabouri, S.A.A.S. [Univ. of Tarbiat Modarres, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: salehi@modares.ac.ir

    2003-07-01

    The time consuming and expensive nature of experimental research on scouring processes caused by flowing water makes it attractive to develop numerical tools for the prediction of the interaction of the fluid flow and the movable bed. In this paper the numerical simulation of scour caused by a wall jet flowing over a solid apron is presented. The flow is assumed to be two-dimensional, and the alluvium is cohesionless. The solution process, repeated at each time step, involves simulation of a turbulent wall jet flow, determination of the convection-diffusion of sand concentration, and prediction of the bed deformation. For simulation of the jet flow, the governing equations for momentum, mass balance and turbulent parameters are solved by the finite volume method. The SIMPLE scheme with momentum interpolation is used for pressure correction. A convection-diffusion equation is solved for sediment concentration. A boundary condition for concentration at the bed, which takes into account the effect of bed-load, is implemented. The time rate of deposition and scour at the bed is obtained by solving the continuity equation for sediment. A meshing technique is devised to deal with the movement of the bed adjacent to the rigid apron. Comparison of the simulation results with available experimental data shows favorable agreement for the time evolution of the scour hole and for the maximum scour depth. (author)

  11. Shallow Depth Study Using Gravity & Magnetics Data in Central Java - Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy Ismullah M, Muhammad; Altin Massinai, Muhammad; Maria

    2018-03-01

    Gravity and magnetics measurements carried out in Karangsambung - Bayat - Wonosari track, Central Java - Yogyakarta region as much as 34 points for subsurface identification. Modeling and interpretation using both data at 3 sections. Section A lies on Karangsambung area and reach to 1900 m. Section A showed formation of 0.000001 - 0.0014 nT and 2.00 - 2.80 g/cm3 like alluvium, basalt and tuff. Section B lies on Wates - Yogyakarta area and reach to 1700 m. Section B showed formation of (-0.01) - 0.02 nT and 2.40 - 3.00 g/cm3 like andesite intrusive and Merapi volcano sediments. Section C lies on Bayat - Wonosari area and reach to 2000 m. Section C showed formation of 0.00016 - 0.0005 nT and 2.30 - 3.14 g/cm3 like limestone, tuff and diorite intrusive. Based on modeling results from 2D structure inversion method can identify the formation of sediments from volcano activity on Karangsambung - Bayat - Wonosari track, Central Java - Yogyakarta region. The method of this study shows potential application for identify the formation of volcano activity from 2D structure.

  12. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Civil Engineering Dept.; Conway, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments.

  13. Seismic Imaging of the Source Physics Experiment Site with the Large-N Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Snelson, C. M.; Mellors, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site. The goal of SPE is to understand seismic wave generation and propagation from these explosions. To achieve this goal, we need an accurate geophysical model of the SPE site. A Large-N seismic array that was deployed at the SPE site during one of the chemical explosions (SPE-5) helps us construct high-resolution local geophysical model. The Large-N seismic array consists of 996 geophones, and covers an area of approximately 2 × 2.5 km. The array is located in the northern end of the Yucca Flat basin, at a transition from Climax Stock (granite) to Yucca Flat (alluvium). In addition to the SPE-5 explosion, the Large-N array also recorded 53 weight drops. Using the Large-N seismic array recordings, we perform body wave and surface wave velocity analysis, and obtain 3D seismic imaging of the SPE site for the top crust of approximately 1 km. The imaging results show clear variation of geophysical parameter with local geological structures, including heterogeneous weathering layer and various rock types. The results of this work are being incorporated in the larger 3D modeling effort of the SPE program to validate the predictive models developed for the site.

  14. 3D Orthorhombic Elastic Wave Propagation Pre-Test Simulation of SPE DAG-1 Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. P.; Preston, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    A more realistic representation of many geologic media can be characterized as a dense system of vertically-aligned microfractures superimposed on a finely-layered horizontal geology found in shallow crustal rocks. This seismic anisotropy representation lends itself to being modeled as an orthorhombic elastic medium comprising three mutually orthogonal symmetry planes containing nine independent moduli. These moduli can be determined by observing (or prescribing) nine independent P-wave and S-wave phase speeds along different propagation directions. We have developed an explicit time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm for simulating 3D elastic wave propagation in a heterogeneous orthorhombic medium. The components of the particle velocity vector and the stress tensor are governed by a set of nine, coupled, first-order, linear, partial differential equations (PDEs) called the velocity-stress system. All time and space derivatives are discretized with centered and staggered FD operators possessing second- and fourth-order numerical accuracy, respectively. Additionally, we have implemented novel perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundary conditions, specifically designed for orthorhombic media, to effectively suppress grid boundary reflections. In support of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Phase II, a series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site, the code has been used to perform pre-test estimates of the Dry Alluvium Geology - Experiment 1 (DAG-1). Based on literature searches, realistic geologic structure and values for orthorhombic P-wave and S-wave speeds have been estimated. Results and predictions from the simulations are presented.

  15. Effects of metals and arsenic on riparian communities in southwest Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, K; Galbraith, H; Lipton, J; Kapustka, L A

    1996-10-01

    : Concentrations of metals and arsenic in floodplain soils of Silver Bow Creek and the upper Clark Fork River in southwest Montana were related to phytotoxic responses by individual plants in laboratory experiments, vegetative community structure and composition in the field and wildlife habitat. Samples collected from barren or very sparsely vegetated mixed mine tailings and alluvium deposits (slickens) in the floodplains along Silver Bow Creek and the Clark Fork River had concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn that were significantly elevated relative to reference sites. Laboratory phytotoxicity tests demonstrated severe and rapid effects of the elevated concentrations of metals and As on hybrid poplar and standard test species (alfalfa, lettuce and wheat): growth inhibition of hybrid poplars was nearly 100% and of standard test species ≥75%. Vegetation community measurements revealed that slickens have replaced riparian forest, shrub, hay fields and pasture land; in doing so, the slickens have reduced both the compositional and structural heterogeneity of the riparian habitat. This reduction in habitat complexity has reduced the capacity of the area to provide a diversity of suitable wildlife habitat.

  16. LLNL Input to SNL L2 MS: Report on the Basis for Selection of Disposal Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.; Blink, J.A.; Halsey, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    This mid-year deliverable has two parts. The first part is a synopsis of J. Blink's interview of the former Nevada Attorney General, Frankie Sue Del Papa, which was done in preparation for the May 18-19, 2010 Legal and Regulatory Framework Workshop held in Albuquerque. The second part is a series of sections written as input for the SNL L2 Milestone M21UF033701, due March 31, 2011. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste is categorized in this review into several categories. Section II discusses alternatives to geologic disposal: space, ice-sheets, and an engineered mountain or mausoleum. Section III discusses alternative locations for mined geologic disposal: islands, coastlines, mid-continent, and saturated versus unsaturated zone. Section IV discusses geologic disposal alternatives other than emplacement in a mine: well injection, rock melt, sub-seabed, and deep boreholes in igneous or metamorphic basement rock. Finally, Secton V discusses alternative media for mined geologic disposal: basalt, tuff, granite and other igneous/metamorphic rock, alluvium, sandstone, carbonates and chalk, shale and clay, and salt.

  17. Summary of results of cratering experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, J.

    1969-01-01

    The use of nuclear excavation as a construction technique for producing harbors, canals, highway cuts, and other large excavations requires a high assurance that the yield and depth of burst selected for the explosive will produce the desired configuration within an acceptable degree of tolerance. Nuclear excavation technology advanced significantly during 1968 as a result of the successful execution of Projects Cabriolet, Buggy, and Schooner. Until these experiments were conducted, the only nuclear data available for designing large excavations were derived from Sedan (100 kt in alluvium), Danny Boy (0.42 kt in basalt), and Sulky (0.090 kt in basalt). Applicable experience has now been extended to include two additional rock types: tuff and porphyritic trachyte, non-homogeneous formations with severe geologic layering, and a nuclear row in hard rock. The continued development of cratering calculations using in situ geophysical measurements and high-pressure test data have provided a means for predicting the cratering characteristics of untested materials. Chemical explosive cratering experiments conducted in the pre-Gondola series during the past several years have been directed toward determining the behavior of weak, wet clay shales. This material is important to nuclear excavation because of potential long-term stability problems which may affect the cratered slopes. (author)

  18. Nuclear cratering on a digital computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhune, R.W.; Stubbs, T.F.; Cherry, J.T.

    1970-01-01

    Computer programs based on the artificial viscosity method are applied to developing an understanding of the physics of cratering, with emphasis on cratering by nuclear explosives. Two established codes, SOC (spherical symmetry) and TENSOR (cylindrical symmetry), are used to illustrate the effects of variations in the material properties of various media on the cratering processes, namely shock, spall, and gas acceleration. Water content is found to be the most important material property, followed by strength, porosity, and compressibility. Crater profile calculations are presented for Pre-Gondola Charley (20-ton nitromethane detonation in shale) and Sedan (100-kt nuclear detonation in alluvium). Calculations also are presented for three 1-Mt yields in saturated Divide basalt and 1-Mt yield in dry Buckboard basalt, to show crater geometry as a function of the burial depth for large explosive yields. The calculations show, for megaton-level yields, that gas acceleration is the dominate mechanism in determining crater size and depends in turn on the water content in the medium. (author)

  19. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwali, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  20. Borehole-calibration methods used in cased and uncased test holes to determine moisture profiles in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammermeister, D.P.; Kneiblher, C.R.; Klenke, J.

    1985-01-01

    The use of drilling and coring methods that minimize the disturbance of formation rock and core has permitted field calibration of neutron-moisture tools in relatively large diameter cased and uncased boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. For 5.5-inch diameter cased holes, there was reasonable agreement between a field calibration in alluvium-colluvium and a laboratory calibration in a chamber containing silica sand. There was little difference between moisture-content profiles obtained in a neutron-access hole with a hand-held neutron-moisture meter and an automated borehole-logging tool using laboratory-generated calibration curves. Field calibrations utilizing linear regression analyses and as many as 119 data pairs show a good correlation between neutron-moisture counts and volumetric water content for sections of uncased 6-inch diameter boreholes in nonwelded and bedded tuff. Regression coefficients ranged from 0.80 to 0.94. There were only small differences between calibration curves in 4.25- and 6-inch uncased sections of boreholes. Results of analyzing field calibration data to determine the effects of formation density on calibration curves were inconclusive. Further experimental and theoretical work is outlined

  1. Soil Erodibility for Water Pollution Management of Melaka Watershed in Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Adham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between surface runoffand soil erodibility are significant in water pollution and watershed management practices. Land use pattern, soil series and slope percentage are also major factors to develop the relationships. Daily rainfall data were collected and analyzed for variations in precipitation for calculating the surface runoff of these watersheds and surface runoff map was produced by GIS tools. Tew equation was utilized to predict soil erodibility of watershed soils.Results indicated that the weighted curve number varies from 82 to 85 and monthly runoff 23% to 30% among the five watersheds. Soil erodibility varies from 0.038 to 0.06 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. Linau-Telok-Local Alluvium, Malacca-Munchong, Munchong-Malacca-Serdang and Malacca-Munchong-Tavy are the dominant soil series of this region having the average soil erodibility of about 0.042 ton/ha (MJ.mm/ha/h. The main focus of this study is to provide the information of soil erodibility to reduce the water pollution of a watershed.

  2. Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim

    One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux

  3. IAEA KEN 7005 project: Evaluation of Surface and Groundwater Interaction of the Kilimanjaro Aquifer applying Isotope Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opiyo, A.N.E.

    2017-01-01

    Mombasa City is the second largest city in Kenya, has inadequate water supply and experiences a chronic water shortage. Mombasa City and the other areas to its north are supplied with water from the Mzima springs and other systems. Mzima Springs is location in relation to Chyulu Hills and Mt. Kilimanjaro. This study therefore attempts to examine the relationship between Mzima Springs on one hand and Kilimanjaro Aquifer and Chyulu Hills aquifer/springs on the other. The overall objective of this project is to conduct water resources assessment to quantify water in the project area and establish the relationship between surface and groundwater resources in the Mt. Kilimanjaro, Lakes Jipe/Challa, Mzima and Chyulu Hills ecosystem. The Kilimanjaro aquifer includes the volcanic pyroclastic and volcanic alluvium deposits found at the base of Mount Kilimanjaro and extending across the Kenyan-Tanzanian border. Occurrence of groundwater in the surrounding basement plains is limited to faults, fractures and small parts of weathered zones and also to the bottom layers of wide alluvial valleys which are recharged by natural flood spreading. One of the achievement include establishment and equipping of the National Isotope Hydrology Laboratory

  4. Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z. Jadoon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m below the surface. The geology surrounding the fluvial system at Wadi Qidayd consists of pelitic Precambrian rocks that contribute sediments ranging in size from mud to boulders to the alluvium. Sediments within the wadi channel consist of fining upward, downstream-dipping beds, causing channel floodwaters to pass through several sediment sequences, including several mud layers, before it can reach the water table. Investigation of the wadi aquifer using field observation, geological characterization, water-level monitoring, geophysical profiles, and a hypothetical model suggests a critical water level has been reached that affects the recharge of the aquifer. The wetted front can no longer reach the water table due to the water uptake in the wetting process, downstream deflection by the clay layers, and re-emergence of water at the surface with subsequent direct and diffusive evaporative loss, and likely uptake by deep-rooted acacia trees. In many areas of the wadi system, recharge can now occur only along the channel perimeter via fractured rocks that are in direct horizontal hydraulic connection to the permeable beds above and below the water table.

  5. Vertical Variability in Saturated Zone Hydrochemistry Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Patterson; P. Striffler

    2007-01-01

    The differences in the saturated zone hydrochemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-22PC reflect the addition of recharge along Fortymile Wash. The differences in water chemistry with depth at borehole NC-EWDP-19PB appear to indicate that other processes are involved. Water from the lower part of NC-EWDP-19PB possesses chemical characteristics that clearly indicate that it has undergone cation exchange that resulted in the removal of calcium and magnesium and the addition of sodium. This water is very similar to water from the Western Yucca Mountain facies that has previously been thought to flow west of NC-EWDP-19PB. Water from the lower zone in NC-EWDP-19PB also could represent water from the Eastern Yucca Mountain facies that has moved through clay-bearing or zeolitized aquifer material resulting in the altered chemistry. Water chemistry from the upper part of the saturated zone at NC-EWDP-19PB, both zones at NC-EWDP-22PC, and wells in the Fortymile Wash facies appears to be the result of recharge through the alluvium south of Yucca Mountain and within the Fortymile Wash channel

  6. Measurement of submarine groundwater discharge using diverse methods in Coleroon Estuary, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R.; Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Gopinath, S.; Saravanan, K.

    2018-03-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is described as submarine inflow of fresh and brackish groundwater from land into the sea. The release of sewages from point and non-point source pollutants from industries, agricultural and domestic activities gets discharged through groundwater to ocean creating natural disparity like decreasing flora fauna and phytoplankton blooms. Hence, to quantify fluxes of SGD in coastal regions is important. Quantification of SGD was attempted in Coleroon estuary, India, using three dissimilar methods like water budget, Darcy law and manual seepage meter. Three seepage meters were installed at two prominent litho units (alluvium and fluvio marine) at a distance of (0-14.7 km) away from Bay of Bengal. The water budget and Darcy law-quantified submarine seepage at a rate of 6.9 × 106 and 3.2 × 103 to 308.3 × 103 m3 year-1, respectively, and the seepage meter quantified seepage rate of 0.7024 m h-1 at an average. Larger seepage variations were isolated from three different techniques and the seepage rates were found to be influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the litho units and distance from the coast.

  7. Rapid subsidence in damaging sinkholes: Measurement by high-precision leveling and the role of salt dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desir, G.; Gutiérrez, F.; Merino, J.; Carbonel, D.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Guerrero, J.; Fabregat, I.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations dealing with subsidence monitoring in active sinkholes are very scarce, especially when compared with other ground instability phenomena like landslides. This is largely related to the catastrophic behaviour that typifies most sinkholes in carbonate karst areas. Active subsidence in five sinkholes up to ca. 500 m across has been quantitatively characterised by means of high-precision differential leveling. The sinkholes occur on poorly indurated alluvium underlain by salt-bearing evaporites and cause severe damage on various human structures. The leveling data have provided accurate information on multiple features of the subsidence phenomena with practical implications: (1) precise location of the vaguely-defined edges of the subsidence zones and their spatial relationships with surveyed surface deformation features; (2) spatial deformation patterns and relative contribution of subsidence mechanisms (sagging versus collapse); (3) accurate subsidence rates and their spatial variability with maximum and mean vertical displacement rates ranging from 1.0 to 11.8 cm/yr and 1.9 to 26.1 cm/yr, respectively; (4) identification of sinkholes that experience continuous subsidence at constant rates or with significant temporal changes; and (5) rates of volumetric surface changes as an approximation to rates of dissolution-induced volumetric depletion in the subsurface, reaching as much as 10,900 m3/yr in the largest sinkhole. The high subsidence rates as well as the annual volumetric changes are attributed to rapid dissolution of high-solubility salts.

  8. Mapping rock forming minerals at Boundary Canyon, Death Valey National Park, California, using aerial SEBASS thermal infrared hyperspectral image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslett, Zan; Taranik, James V.; Riley, Dean N.

    2018-02-01

    Aerial spatially enhanced broadband array spectrograph system (SEBASS) long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral image data were used to map the distribution of rock-forming minerals indicative of sedimentary and meta-sedimentary lithologies around Boundary Canyon, Death Valley, California, USA. Collection of data over the Boundary Canyon detachment fault (BCDF) facilitated measurement of numerous lithologies representing a contact between the relatively unmetamorphosed Grapevine Mountains allochthon and the metamorphosed core complex of the Funeral Mountains autochthon. These included quartz-rich sandstone, quartzite, conglomerate, and alluvium; muscovite-rich schist, siltstone, and slate; and carbonate-rich dolomite, limestone, and marble, ranging in age from late Precambrian to Quaternary. Hyperspectral data were reduced in dimensionality and processed to statistically identify and map unique emissivity spectra endmembers. Some minerals (e.g., quartz and muscovite) dominate multiple lithologies, resulting in a limited ability to differentiate them. Abrupt variations in image data emissivity amongst pelitic schists corresponded to amphibolite; these rocks represent gradation from greenschist- to amphibolite-metamorphic facies lithologies. Although the full potential of LWIR hyperspectral image data may not be fully utilized within this study area due to lack of measurable spectral distinction between rocks of similar bulk mineralogy, the high spectral resolution of the image data was useful in characterizing silicate- and carbonate-based sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks in proximity to fault contacts, as well as for interpreting some mineral mixtures.

  9. Relations between Precipitation and Shallow Groundwater in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changnon, Stanley A.; Huff, Floyd A.; Hsu, Chin-Fei

    1988-12-01

    The statistical relationships between monthly precipitation (P) and shallow groundwater levels (GW) in 20 wells scattered across Illinois with data for 1960-84 were defined using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modeling. A lag of 1 month between P to GW was the strongest temporal relationship found across Illinois, followed by no (0) lag in the northern two-thirds of Illinois where mollisols predominate, and a lag of 2 months in the alfisols of southern Illinois. Spatial comparison of the 20 P-GW correlations with several physical conditions (aquifer types, soils, and physiography) revealed that the parent soil materials of outwash alluvium, glacial till, thick loess (2.1 m), and thin loess (>2.1) best defined regional relationships for drought assessment.Equations developed from ARTMA using 1960-79 data for each region were used to estimate GW levels during the 1980-81 drought, and estimates averaged between 25 to 45 cm of actual levels. These estimates are considered adequate to allow a useful assessment of drought onset, severity, and termination in other parts of the state. The techniques and equations should be transferrable to regions of comparable soils and climate.

  10. Intrinsic vulnerability assessment of shallow aquifers of the sedimentary basin of southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheed A. Oke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The shallow groundwater of the multi-layered sedimentary basin aquifer of southwestern Nigeria was assessed based on its intrinsic vulnerability property. The vulnerability evaluation involves determining the protective cover and infiltration condition of the unsaturated zone in the basin. This was achieved using the PI (P stands for protective cover effectiveness of the overlying lithology and I indicates the degree of infiltration bypass vulnerability method of the European vulnerability approach. The PI method specifically measures the protection cover and the degree to which the protective cover is bypassed. Intrinsic parameters assessed were the subsoil, lithology, topsoil, recharge and fracturing for the protective cover. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of topsoil, infiltration processes and the lateral surface and subsurface flow were evaluated for the infiltration bypassed. The results show moderate to very low vulnerability areas. Low vulnerability areas were characterised by lithology with massive sandstone and limestone, subsoils of sandy loam texture, high slopes and high depth to water table. The moderate vulnerability areas were characterised by high rainfall and high recharge, low water table, unconsolidated sandstones and alluvium lithology. The intrinsic vulnerability properties shown in vulnerability maps will be a useful tool in planning and monitoring land use activities that can be of impact in groundwater pollution.

  11. Investigation of background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in Durango, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, G.H.; Foutz, W.L.; Lesperance, L.R.

    1989-11-01

    As part of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has performed radiological surveys on 435 vicinity properties (VPs) in the Durango area. This study was undertaken to establish the background radiation levels and geologic unit profiles in the Durango VP area. During the months of May through June, 1986, extensive radiometric measurements and surface soil samples were collected in the Durango VP area by personnel from ORNL's Grand Junction Office. A majority of the Durango VP surveys were conducted at sites underlain by Quaternary alluvium, older Quaternary gravels, and Cretaceous Lewis and Mancos shales. These four geologic units were selected to be evaluated. The data indicated no formation anomalies and established regional background radiation levels. Durango background radionuclide concentrations in surface soil were determined to be 20.3 ± 3.4 pCi/g for 40 K, 1.6 ± 0.5 pCi/g for 226 Ra, and 1.2 ± 0.3 pCi/g for 232 Th. The Durango background gamma exposure rate was found to be 16.5 ± 1.3 μR/h. Average gamma spectral count rate measurements for 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th were determined to be 553, 150, and 98 counts per minute (cpm), respectively. Geologic unit profiles and Durango background radiation measurements are presented and compared with other areas. 19 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs

  12. Stability of nuclear crater slopes in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, Robert W.; Frandsen, Alton D.; LaFrenz, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    The United States Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group was established in 1962 to participate with the Atomic Energy Commission in a joint research and development program to develop nuclear engineering and construction technology. A major part of this research effort has been devoted to studies of the engineering properties of craters. The program to date has included field investigations of crater properties in various media over a broad range of chemical and nuclear explosive yields, studies of man-made and natural slopes, and studies directed toward the development of analytical and empirical methods of crater stability analysis. From this background, a general understanding has been developed of the effects of a cratering explosion on the surrounding medium and of physical nature of the various crater zones which are produced. The stability of nuclear crater slopes has been a subject of prime interest in the feasibility study being conducted for an Atlantic-Pacific sea-level canal. Based on experimental evidence assembled to date, nuclear crater slopes in dry dock and dry alluvium have an initially stable configuration. There have been five nuclear craters produced to date with yields of 0.4 kt or more on which observations are based and the initial configurations of these craters have remained stable for over seven years. The medium, yield, crater dimensions, and date of event for these craters are summarized. It is interesting to note that the Sedan Crater has been subjected to strong seismic motions from nearby detonations without adverse effects

  13. Hydrochemical study of Drean–Annaba aquifer system (NE Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayad Lamine

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is subject to frequent changes in the Drean-Annaba alluvium aquifer. Water-rock interaction can not be the only process that produces the observed modification, but dryness that the country knew during the last two decades has highly contributed to the water quality changes. During this period, irregularities in the distribution of rainfalls, in time and space, have been observed. As a result, a periodicity in hydrochemical changes in water of wells and rivers is noticed. Statistical, the principals components analysis (PCA tools and Tickel diagram have been used to show, through chemical presentation, these effects. The results show, indeed, seasonal changes of water quality for the period 1999-2000. From a cationic point of view, a competition between alkaline and alkaline earths is shown. On the other hand, from an anionic point of view, there is a transition from chlorides to sulphates and may be to bicarbonates. The present work was carried out in a relatively small area and this was useful to show the relationship that existed between dryness and water quality of both the aquifer system and surface water.

  14. Efficient analysis using custom interactive visualization tools at a Superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Durham, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Custom visualization analysis programs were developed and used to analyze contaminant transport calculations from a three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model developed for a Department of Energy Superfund site. The site hydrogeology, which is highly heterogenous, includes both fractured limestone and dolomite and alluvium deposits. Three-dimensional interactive visualization techniques were used to understand and analyze the three-dimensional, double-porosity modeling results. A graphical object oriented programming environment was applied to efficiently develop custom visualization programs in a coarse-grained data structure language. Comparisons were made, using the results from the three-dimensional, finite-difference model, between traditional two-dimensional analyses (contour and vector plots) and interactive three-dimensional techniques. Subjective comparison areas include the accuracy of analysis, the ability to understand the results of three-dimensional contaminant transport simulation, and the capability to transmit the results of the analysis to the project management. In addition, a quantitative comparison was made on the time required to develop a thorough analysis of the modeling results. The conclusions from the comparative study showed that the visualization analysis provided an increased awareness of the contaminant transport mechanisms, provided new insights into contaminant migration, and resulted in a significant time savings.

  15. UAV-Based Optical Granulometry as Tool for Detecting Changes in Structure of Flood Depositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Langhammer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new non-invasive technique of granulometric analysis based on the fusion of two imaging techniques, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV-based photogrammetry and optical digital granulometry. This newly proposed technique produces seamless coverage of a study site in order to analyze the granulometric properties of alluvium and observe its spatiotemporal changes. This proposed technique is tested by observing changes along the point bar of a mid-latitude mountain stream. UAV photogrammetry acquired at a low-level flight altitude (at a height of 8 m is used to acquire ultra-high resolution orthoimages to build high-precision digital terrain models (DTMs. These orthoimages are covered by a regular virtual grid, and the granulometric properties of the grid fields are analyzed using the digital optical granulometric tool BaseGrain. This tested framework demonstrates the applicability of the proposed method for granulometric analysis, which yields accuracy comparable to that of traditional field optical granulometry. The seamless nature of this method further enables researchers to study the spatial distribution of granulometric properties across multiple study sites, as well as to analyze multitemporal changes using repeated imaging.

  16. Seismic anisotropy and its relation with crust structure and stress field in the Reggio Emilia Region (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheriti, L.; Ferulano, M. F.; Di Bona, M.

    2006-11-01

    Shear wave splitting is measured at 14 seismic stations in the Reggio Emilia region above local background seismicity and two sequences of seismic events. The good quality of the waveforms together with the favourable distribution of earthquake foci allows us to place strong constraints on the geometry and the depth of the anisotropic volume. It is about 60 km2 wide and located between 6 and 11 km depth, inside Mesozoic age carbonate rocks. The splitting results suggest also the presence of a shallower anisotropic layer about 1 km thick and few km wide in the Pliocene-Quaternary alluvium above the Mesozoic layer. The fast polarization directions (N30°E) are approximately parallel to the maximum horizontal stress (σ1 is SSW-NNE) in the region and also parallel to the strike of the main structural features in the Reggio Emilia area. The size of the delay times suggests about 4.5 per cent shear wave velocity anisotropy. These parameters agree with an interpretation of seismic anisotropy in terms of the extensive-dilatancy anisotropy model which considers the rock volume to be pervaded by fluid-saturated microcracks aligned by the active stress field. We cannot completely rule out the contribution of aligned macroscopic fractures as the cause of the shear wave anisotropy even if the parallel shear wave polarizations we found are diagnostic of transverse isotropy with a horizontal axis of symmetry. This symmetry is commonly explained by parallel stress-aligned microcracks.

  17. Implications of Seismically Active Fault Structures in Ankay and Alaotra Regions of Northern and Central Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, S.; Stamps, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the seismically active fault structures in central and northern Madagascar. We study the Ankay and Lake Alaotra regions of Madagascar, which are segmented by multiple faults that strike N-S. In general, normal seismic events occur on faults bounding the Alaotra-Ankay rift basin where Quaternary alluvium is present. Due to this pattern and moderate amounts of low magnitude seismic activity along these faults, it is hypothesized the region currently undergoes E-W extension. In this work we test how variations in fault strength and net slip changes influence expected crustal movement in the region. Using the Coulomb stress failure point as a test of strength we are able to model the Alaotra-Ankay region using MATLAB Coulomb 3.3.01. This program allows us to define realistic Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of mapped rock compositions in the region, i.e. paragneiss and orthogneiss, create 3D fault geometries, and calculate static stress changes with coinciding surface displacements. We impose slip along multiple faults and calculate seismic moment that we balance by the 3 observed earthquake magnitudes available in the USGS CMT database. Our calculations of surface displacements indicate 1-3 millimeters could be observed across the Alaotra-Ankay rift. These values are within the observable range of precision GNSS observations, therefore our results will guide future research into the area and direct potential GNSS station installation.

  18. Multimodel analysis of anisotropic diffusive tracer-gas transport in a deep arid unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Walvoord, Michelle Ann; Andraski, Brian J.; Striegl, Robert G.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Gas transport in the unsaturated zone affects contaminant flux and remediation, interpretation of groundwater travel times from atmospheric tracers, and mass budgets of environmentally important gases. Although unsaturated zone transport of gases is commonly treated as dominated by diffusion, the characteristics of transport in deep layered sediments remain uncertain. In this study, we use a multimodel approach to analyze results of a gas-tracer (SF6) test to clarify characteristics of gas transport in deep unsaturated alluvium. Thirty-five separate models with distinct diffusivity structures were calibrated to the tracer-test data and were compared on the basis of Akaike Information Criteria estimates of posterior model probability. Models included analytical and numerical solutions. Analytical models provided estimates of bulk-scale apparent diffusivities at the scale of tens of meters. Numerical models provided information on local-scale diffusivities and feasible lithological features producing the observed tracer breakthrough curves. The combined approaches indicate significant anisotropy of bulk-scale diffusivity, likely associated with high-diffusivity layers. Both approaches indicated that diffusivities in some intervals were greater than expected from standard models relating porosity to diffusivity. High apparent diffusivities and anisotropic diffusivity structures were consistent with previous observations at the study site of rapid lateral transport and limited vertical spreading of gas-phase contaminants. Additional processes such as advective oscillations may be involved. These results indicate that gases in deep, layered unsaturated zone sediments can spread laterally more quickly, and produce higher peak concentrations, than predicted by homogeneous, isotropic diffusion models.

  19. Geological Structures Mapping of Bukit Bunuh using 2-D Resistivity Imaging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Amalina, M. K. A.; Nordiana, M. M.; Rahman, Nazrin; Saidin, Mokhtar; Masnan, S. S. K.

    2018-04-01

    The geological area of Bukit Bunuh is very complex due to the meteorite impact that has occurred millions years ago at Lenggong, Perak. The lithology of the study area consists of alluvium, tephra dust, and granitic rock. The geological contact, fault and fracture zone were found at the study area may indicate the geological process that undergoes at a place locally or regionally. These important features have led to the further research on 2-D resistivity imaging method (2-D RIM) to study the geological features. This method can provide the subsurface image that will delineate the geological structures. The surveys include three separate lines of different length which depend on the accessibility. The surveys were done by using Pole-Dipole array and 10 m of electrodes spacing. The objectives of this research are to determine the subsurface geological contact and to determine the existence of fault/fracture zones at the contact zone. The results from 2-D inversion profiles have successfully signified the types of geological structural such as fault, contact, and fractures. Hence, the results from 2-D RIM were used to draw the geological lineaments of Bukit Bunuh. The discontinuity of the lineaments may indicate the structures present.

  20. A hydrogeologic map of the Death Valley region, Nevada, and California, developed using GIS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faunt, C.C.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Turner, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    In support of Yucca Mountain site characterization studies, a hydrogeologic framework was developed, and a hydrogeologic map was constructed for the Death Valley region. The region, covering approximately 100,000 km 2 along the Nevada-California border near Las Vegas, is characterized by isolated mountain ranges juxtaposed against broad, alluvium-filled valleys. Geologic conditions are typical of the Basin and Range Province; a variety of sedimentary and igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks have been subjected to both compressional and extensional deformation. The regional ground-water flow system can best be described as a series of connected intermontane basins in which ground-water flow occurs in basin-fill deposits, carbonate rocks, clastic rocks, and volcanic rocks. Previous investigations have developed more site-specific hydrogeologic relationships; however, few have described all the lithologies within the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. Information required to characterize the hydrogeologic units in the region was obtained from regional geologic maps and reports. Map data were digitized from regional geologic maps and combined into a composite map using a geographic information system. This map was simplified to show 10 laterally extensive hydrogeologic units with distinct hydrologic properties. The hydraulic conductivity values for the hydrogeologic units range over 15 orders of magnitude due to the variability in burial depth and degree of fracturing

  1. Report on the radiochemical and environmental isotope character for monitoring well UE-1-q: Groundwater Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davisson, M.L.; Hudson, G.B.; Kenneally, J.; Nimz, G.J.; Rego, J.H.

    1993-06-01

    Well UE-1-q is located in the northeastern portion of area 1 of the Nevada Test Site in southwestern Nevada, 1244.1 meters above sea level. The well was originally an exploratory hole drilled to a depth of 743 meters below the surface (mbs) by LANL in November of 1980. In May 1992, the Groundwater Characterization Program (GCP) extended the total depth to approximately 792.5 mbs. UE-1-q is cased to a total depth of 749.5 mbs, with the remaining uncased depth exposed exclusively to Paleozoicaged carbonate rock, the principle zone of groundwater sampling. Geologic logging indicates approximately 390 meters of tuffaceous and calcareous alluvium overlies 320 meters of Tertiary-aged volcanic ash-flow and bedded tuffs. Paleozoic carbonate lithology extends from 716 mbs to the total well depth and is separated from the overlying Tertiary volcanic deposits by 6 meters of paleocolluvium. This report outlines the results and interpretations of radiochemical and environmental isotopic analyses of groundwater sampled from UE-1-q on July 10, 1992 during the well pump test following well development. In addition, results of the field tritium monitoring performed during the well drilling are reported in Appendix 1. Sampling, analytical techniques, and analytical uncertainties for the groundwater analyses are presented in Appendix 2

  2. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Utah: Petrographic characterization of the alteration to 2 kilometers depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.; Parry, W.T.

    1978-04-01

    Hydrothermal alteration in drill cuttings from Thermal Power drillhole 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal area, has been studied petrographically. The hole is sited in alluvium approximately 1.6 km southeast of the old Resort and was rotary drilled to a depth of 1866.0 m. The exact hole location is 2310 FNL, 350 FWL, Sec. 2, Twp 27S, Rge 9W, elevation 1908.5 m. Core was extracted from 792.5 to 795.5 m. Thin sections were made from samples at 15.2 m intervals of drill cuttings collected at 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals during drilling. Thin sections were made of 1.5 or 3.0 m intervals from 274.3 to 304.8 m, 487.9 to 581.2 m, and 868.7 to 899.2 m. These intervals were chosen for close spaced sampling on the basis of increases in temperature, porosity, conductivity and acoustic velocity shown in geophysical logs. A total of 153 thin sections of cuttings were made, and an additional 9 sections were made from the core. Depths of thin section samples are listed in the appendix. A visual estimate of the percentage of each rock type was made for each thin section.

  3. Source effects on surface waves from Nevada Test Site explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, H.J.; Vergino, E.S.

    1981-11-01

    Surface waves recorded on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) digital network have been used to study five underground nuclear explosions detonated in Yucca Valley at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of this study is to characterize the reduced displacement potential (RDP) at low frequencies and to test secondary source models of underground explosions. The observations consist of Rayleigh- and Love-wave amplitude and phase spectra in the frequency range 0.03 to 0.16 Hz. We have found that Rayleigh-wave spectral amplitudes are modeled well by a RDP with little or no overshoot for explosions detonated in alluvium and tuff. On the basis of comparisons between observed and predicted source phase, the spall closure source proposed by Viecelli does not appear to be a significant source of Rayleigh waves that reach the far field. We tested two other secondary source models, the strike-slip, tectonic strain release model proposed by Toksoez and Kehrer and the dip-slip thrust model of Masse. The surface-wave observations do not provide sufficient information to discriminate between these models at the low F-values (0.2 to 0.8) obtained for these explosions. In the case of the strike-slip model, the principal stress axes inferred from the fault slip angle and strike angle are in good agreement with the regional tectonic stress field for all but one explosion, Nessel. The results of the Nessel explosion suggest a mechanism other than tectonic strain release

  4. Investigations of the Fundamental Surface Reactions Involved in the Sorption and Desorption of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, Ken; Heske, Clemens; Moser, Duane; Misra, Mnoranjan; McMillion, Glen

    2011-04-20

    Models for describing solution- and surface-phase reactions have been used for 30 years, but only recently applicable to complex surfaces. Duff et al., using micro-XANES, found that Pu was concentrated on Mn-oxide and smectite phases of zeolitic tuff, providing an evaluation of contaminant speciation on surfaces for modeling. Experiments at Los Alamos demonstrated that actinides display varying surface residence time distributions, probably reflective of mineral surface heterogeneity. We propose to investigate the sorption/desorption behavior of radionuclides from mineral surfaces, as effected by microorganisms, employing isolates from Nevada Test Site deep alluvium as a model system. Characterizations will include surface area, particle size distribution, x-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, extractions, and microbiology. Surface interactions will be assessed by electron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) researchers will collaborate to enhance scientific infrastructure and the understanding of contaminant behavior on surfaces, with broader implications for the management of DOE sites.

  5. Hydrogeologic investigations at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, W.L.; Trudeau, D.A.; Drellack, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site was established in 1950 as a continental area for testing nuclear devices and, since 1963, all nuclear detonations there have been underground. Most tests are conducted in vertical shafts with a small percentage conducted in tunnels. The majority of detonation points are above the water table, primarily in volcanic rocks or alluvium. In the testing areas the water table is 450--700 m below the surface. Pre- and post- event geologic investigations are conducted for each test location and long-term studies assess the impact of underground testing on a more regional scale. Studies in progress have not identified any impact on the regional ground water system from testing, but some local effects have been recognized. In some areas where several large tests have been conducted below the water table, water levels hundreds of meters above the regional water table have been measured and radioactivity has been discovered associated with fractures in a few holes. Flow-through and straddle packer testing has revealed unexpectedly high hydraulic pressures at depth. Recently, a multiple completion monitoring well installed to study three zones has confirmed the existence of a significant upward hydraulic gradient. These observations of local pressurization and fracture flow are being further explored to determine the influence of underground nuclear testing on the regional hydrogeologic system

  6. Preliminary study of the uranium favorability of Mesozoic intrusive and Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Central Mojave Desert, Kern and San Bernardino counties, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leedom, S.H.; Kiloh, K.D.

    1978-02-01

    Numerous, small, low-grade, supergene uranium deposits are found in Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks in the central Mojave Desert of southern California. Large thorium-to-uranium ratios in samples of Mesozoic intrusive rocks exposed in the area indicate that these rocks have been extensively weathered, eroded, and subsequently leached by ground waters, and that they may have been the primary source of uranium for the deposits. The uranium content of samples of volcanic intrusive and extrusive rocks is average for intermediate to silicic rocks, but samples of basalt flows in the area contain six times the average uranium content of mafic igneous rocks. Devitrified tuffs and tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, interbedded with calcareous units, are additional sources of uranium for supergene uranium deposits found in calcareous units. Uranium is also found in accessory minerals in a few Mesozoic quartz-rich pegmatite dikes. Uranium deposits in the central Mojave Desert have been formed by enrichment during diagenetic replacement of Tertiary carbonate rocks; by supergene enrichment along fractures, joints, and bedding planes in Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks; during formation of Holocene caliche; and by deposition within hydrothermally altered shear zones. Within the area, the diagenetic replacement type of deposit has the greatest potential for large, low-grade uranium occurrences. The other type of uranium deposits are small, erratically distributed, and extensively covered by alluvium

  7. Geohydrology of volcanic tuff penetrated by test well UE-25b#1, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoud, R.G.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Whitfield, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Test well UE-25bNo1, located on the east side of Yucca Mountain in the southwestern part of the Nevada Test Site, was drilled to a total depth of 1,220 meters and hydraulically tested as part of a program to evaluate the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a nuclear-waste repository. The well penetrated almost 46 meters of alluvium and 1,174 meters of Tertiary volcanic tuffs. The composite hydraulic head for aquifers penetrated by the well was 728.9 meters above sea level (471.4 meters below land surface) with a slight decrease in loss of hydraulic head with depth. Average hydraulic conductivities for stratigraphic units determined from pumping tests, borehole-flow surveys, and packer-injection tests ranged from less than 0.001 meter per day for the Tram Member of the Crater Flat Tuff to 1.1 meters per day for the Bullfrog Member of the Crater Flat Tuff. The small values represented matrix permeability of unfractured rock; the large values probably resulted from fracture permeability. Chemical analyses indicated that the water is a soft sodium bicarbonate type, slightly alkaline, with large concentrations of dissolved silica and sulfate. Uncorrected carbon-14 age dates of the water were 14,100 and 13,400 years. (USGS)

  8. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted eutric tropofluvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwuma, M.C.; Eshett, E.T.; Onweremadu, E.U.; Okon, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined zinc availability in crude oil-polluted soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of zinc on the physiochemical properties of soils in relation to remediation activities. The study was located at a site in Nigeria where crude oil spillage had occurred over a period of 2 months. The region was characterized by quarternary, alluvium, meander belt, wooded back swamps as well as fresh water swamps and Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plains with large deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Three different land units were studied, notably (1) unpolluted, (2) polluted without vegetation and (3) polluted with vegetation. Soil sampling was conducted using a transect method. Hydrometer analyses were conducted to determine particle size distribution, while a core method was used to determine bulk density. Soil pH, total carbon, phosphorus, and total nitrogen were also measured. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to correlate and regress zinc availability against the selected soil properties. The study showed that zinc availability increased with increases in the value of the effective carbon cation exchange capacity in the unpolluted and polluted samples without vegetation. Zinc decreased with increased clay and organic matter content. Results suggested that soils must be reclaimed quickly in order to prevent additional degradation. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted eutric tropofluvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukwuma, M.C.; Eshett, E.T.; Onweremadu, E.U.; Okon, M.A. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria). Dept. of Soil Science and Technology

    2010-04-01

    This study examined zinc availability in crude oil-polluted soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of zinc on the physiochemical properties of soils in relation to remediation activities. The study was located at a site in Nigeria where crude oil spillage had occurred over a period of 2 months. The region was characterized by quarternary, alluvium, meander belt, wooded back swamps as well as fresh water swamps and Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plains with large deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Three different land units were studied, notably (1) unpolluted, (2) polluted without vegetation and (3) polluted with vegetation. Soil sampling was conducted using a transect method. Hydrometer analyses were conducted to determine particle size distribution, while a core method was used to determine bulk density. Soil pH, total carbon, phosphorus, and total nitrogen were also measured. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to correlate and regress zinc availability against the selected soil properties. The study showed that zinc availability increased with increases in the value of the effective carbon cation exchange capacity in the unpolluted and polluted samples without vegetation. Zinc decreased with increased clay and organic matter content. Results suggested that soils must be reclaimed quickly in order to prevent additional degradation. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Map showing ground-water conditions in the House Rock area, Coconino County, Arizona-- 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, G.W.; Farrar, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    The House Rock area includes about 1,500 sq mi in north-central Arizona. Ground water is present in several aquifers that are made up of one or more formations. In the Paria Plateau and Wahweap areas ground water is obtained from the N aquifer, which includes the Navajo Sandstone, Kayenta Formation, and Moenave Formation. Reported static water levels in wells range from 515 to 1,500 ft below the land surface. The chemical quality of the water in the N aquifer varies with location, and dissolved solids generally are less than 850 milligrams per liter. Several wells and test holes in the Lees Ferry area penetrate either the alluvium, Chinle Formation, Moenkopi Formation, or a combination of these. As of 1976, water from these wells was not being used because of poor chemical quality. In the southern and western parts of the area many springs discharge from te Kaibab, Redwall , and Muav Limestones. The quality of water from these formations generally is excellent. Information on the map (scale 1:125,000) includes the principal aquifer that furnishes water to individual wells and springs, depth to water, altitude of the water level, and chemical quality of the water. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. Co-occurrence of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater of semi-arid regions in Latin America: genesis, mobility and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Herrera, María Teresa; Bundschuh, Jochen; Nath, Bibhash; Nicolli, Hugo B; Gutierrez, Melida; Reyes-Gomez, Victor M; Nuñez, Daniel; Martín-Dominguez, Ignacio R; Sracek, Ondra

    2013-11-15

    Several million people around the world are currently exposed to excessive amounts of arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) in their drinking water. Although the individual toxic effects of As and F have been analyzed, there are few studies addressing their co-occurrences and water treatment options. Several studies conducted in arid and semi-arid regions of Latin America show that the co-occurrences of As and F in drinking water are linked to the volcaniclastic particles in the loess or alluvium, alkaline pH, and limited recharge. The As and F contamination results from water-rock interactions and may be accelerated by geothermal and mining activities, as well as by aquifer over-exploitation. These types of contamination are particularly pronounced in arid and semi-arid regions, where high As concentrations often show a direct relationship with high F concentrations. Enrichment of F is generally related to fluorite dissolution and it is also associated with high Cl, Br, and V concentrations. The methods of As and F removal, such as chemical precipitation followed by filtration and reverse osmosis, are currently being used at different scales and scenarios in Latin America. Although such technologies are available in Latin America, it is still urgent to develop technologies and methods capable of monitoring and removing both of these contaminants simultaneously from drinking water, with a particular focus towards small-scale rural operations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Groundwater arsenic contamination affecting different geologic domains in India--a review: influence of geological setting, fluvial geomorphology and Quaternary stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Subhrangsu K; Shah, Babar A

    2007-10-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is pervasive within lowland organic-rich Bengal Delta and narrow entrenched channels in the Middle Ganga floodplains. Local areas of Damodar fan-delta and isolated areas within the Dongargarh Proterozoic rift-zone in central India are also contaminated. In this rift-zone, arsenic is enriched in felsic magmatic rocks and weathered rocks and soils from local areas are enriched further in arsenic and iron. Late Quaternary stratigraphy, geomorphology and sedimentation have influenced groundwater arsenic contamination in alluvium that aggraded during the Holocene sea-level rise. No specific source of arsenic could be identified, although Himalaya is the main provenance for the Ganga floodplain and the Bengal Delta. Gondwana coal seams and other Peninsular Indian rocks might be sources for arsenic in the Damodar fan-delta. As-bearing pyrite or any As-mineral is nearly absent in the aquifer sediments. Arsenic mainly occurs adsorbed on hydrated-iron-oxide (HFO), which coat sediment grains and minerals. Arsenic and iron are released to groundwater by bio-mediated reductive dissolution of HFO with corresponding oxidation of organic matter.

  13. Preliminary geological study in kabupaten Pamekasan area to support the selection of candidate site of nuclear desalination plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Lilik Subiantoro; Kurnia Setiawan Widana

    2014-01-01

    The area around the southern coast Pamekasan is one of the candidates for the alternatives location of nuclear desalination plant site. In 1949 around Sampang Madura ever tectonic earthquake measuring 5 on the Richter scale with its epicenter on land. Tectonic earthquake with epicenter on land is likely related to the presence of active faults on the Madura island. Location prospective nuclear desalination plant site should be away or free of active faults. The study aimed to obtain geological information and find out the characteristics of tectonics including active fault to support site studies of nuclear desalination plant on the island of Madura. The method used is the geological mapping scale, 1 : 50,000. Lithology in the area along the south coast district Pamekasan is alluvium Holocene age and conglomerate units of Pleistocene age. There were no indications of active faults in the region. Candidates site at this location is less attractive in terms of geotechnical foundation as can be ascertained bedrock will be found sufficient in that building construction will require expensive. (author)

  14. Geology and potency of Uranium mineralization occurrences in Harau area, West Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin

    2013-01-01

    The Background of this study is due to the geological setting of Harau area and its surrounding, West Sumatera, that is identified as a favourable area for uranium accumulation which is indicated by the presence of anomalous radioactivity in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks deposited on the terrestrial environment and the presence of anomalous uranium contents in Pre-Tertiary granites in several places in West Sumatera, and the presence of radioactivity anomalous in the Pre Tertiary metamorphic rocks. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential formation of uranium mineralization in the Harau area, to be used as a basis to conduct more detailed research in order to inventory the potential of uranium resources in Indonesia. The scope of the discussion in this review includes a discussion of geology, geochemistry and radioactivity of the outcrops. The composition of regional stratigraphic from old to young is quartzite unit, phyllite unit, conglomerate unit, sandstone unit, tuff unit and alluvium river. The main fault that developed in the study area are normal faults trending southwest – northeast. The study area is splitted into two sections where the southeastern part relatives fall down of the northwest. Based on geological setting, radioactivity and uranium data then is assumed that Harau is a potential area for the formation of uranium mineralization in sandstone and its vein type. Sandstone type is expected occur in sandstone conglomerate unit of The Brani Formation and vein type is expected occur in the quartzite unit of The Kuantan Formation. (author)

  15. COASTAL DYNAMICS OF SINGKAWANG, WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Darlan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically, Singkawang and adjacent area consist of zones beaches, undulating hills, and steep hills. Granitic rocks and alluvium as a based rock of Singkawang coasts. Generally, Singkawang coasts was developed for coastal farms, fishery pond, and beach resorts, where most of these area have been eroded. Geological and physical oceanography condition are the aspects that build the characteristics of Singkawang coast. Human activities also play an important role in managing the equilibrium and dynamics of this coastal region. This research is to determine the dynamics and coastline changes of Singkawang coasts based on the characteristics of the coastal element and sediment. The high erosion was occurred at Semalagi–Cape Bajau. The Cape Bajau - Cape Banjar is relatively stable due to headlands of this coast is characterized by igneous rocks which resistant to the erosion. The Cape Banjar – South Coasts is very intensive erosion coast. Modern shorelines of the Singkawang coast might be as a shallow marine environment which were occurred thousands years ago (pre-Recent. The high of sedimentation process is generated by global sea level change, where was occurred at that time, and might be changed the area become part of the mainland coast of Singkawang. Keywords: coastal dynamics, erosion, sedimentation, Singkawang, West Kalimantan.

  16. Observation of time dependent dispersion in laboratory scale experiments with intact tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.; Triay, I.R.; Ott, M.A.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    The migration of radionuclides through intact tuff was studied using tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The tuff samples were both highly zeolitized ash-fall tuff from the Calico Hills and densely welded devitrified tuff from the Topopah Springs member of the Paintbrush tuff. Tritiated water and pertechnetate were used as conservative tracers. The sorbing tracers 85 Sr, 137 Cs, and 133 Ba were used with the devitrified tuff only. Greater tailing in the elution curves of the densely welded tuff samples was observed that could be fit by adjusting the dispersion coefficient in the conventional Advection Dispersion Equation, ADE. The curves could be fit using time dependent dispersion as was previously observed for sediments and alluvium by Dieulin, Matheron, and de Marsily. The peak of strontium concentration was expected to arrive after 1.5 years based on the conventional ADE and assuming a linear K d of 26 ml/g. The observed elution had significant strontium in the first sample taken at 2 weeks after injection. The peak in the strontium elution occurred at 5 weeks. The correct arrival time for the strontium peak was achieved using a one dimensional analytic solution with time dependent dispersion. The dispersion coefficient as a function of time used to fit the conservative tracers was found to predict the peak arrival of the sorbing tracers. The K d used was the K d determined by the batch method on crushed tuff. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  17. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  18. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation Near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site--Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    2003-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, ( 3 ) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies.

  19. Use of Thermal Data to Estimate Infiltration in Pagany Wash Associated with the winter of 1997-1998 El Nino Precipitation, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeCain, G.D.; Lu, N.; Kurzmack, M.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature and air-pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole located in Pagany Wash, a normally dry stream-carved channel northeast of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, indicated that the annual temperature wave was measurable to a depth of 11.1 m. Temperature depressions were measured at depths of 3.1, 6.1, 9.2, and 11.1 m below ground surface. The temperature depressions were interpreted to be the result of infiltration associated with the 1997-1998 El Nino precipitation. A pressure differential, of approximately 2 kiloPascals, between stations located 11.1 and 24.5 m below ground surface was interpreted to be the result of compressed air ahead of the wetting front. The pressure differences between stations indicated that the wetting front migrated deeper than 35.2 m and that the Yucca Mountain Tuff retarded the downward movement of the wetting front. An analytical method indicated that the infiltration flux through the Pagany Wash alluvium due to the 1997-1998 El Nino precipitation was approximately 940 mm. A one-dimensional numerical model indicated that the infiltration flux was approximately 1000 mm. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the potential temperature decrease due to conduction was minimal and that cooler surface temperatures could not account for the measured subsurface temperature depressions

  20. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.A.; Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1991-01-01

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undistributed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (> 4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine

  1. Stabilization and solidification of chromium-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherne, C.A.; Thomson, B.M.

    1997-11-01

    Chromium-contaminated soil is a common environmental problem in the United States as a result of numerous industrial processes involving chromium. Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is the species of most concern because of its toxicity and mobility in groundwater. One method of diminishing the environmental impact of chromium is to reduce it to a trivalent oxidation state [Cr(III)], in which it is relatively insoluble and nontoxic. This study investigated a stabilization and solidification process to minimize the chromium concentration in the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) extract and to produce a solidified waste form with a compressive strength in the range of 150 to 300 pounds per square inch (psi). To minimize the chromium in the TCLP extract, the chromium had to be reduced to the trivalent oxidation state. The average used in this study was an alluvium contaminated with chromic and sulfuric acid solutions. The chromium concentration in the in the in situ soil was 1212 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) total chromium and 275 mg/kg Cr(VI). The effectiveness of iron, ferrous sulfate to reduce Cr(VI) was tested in batch experiments

  2. Cold-climate slope deposits and landscape modifications of the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, Eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Wayne L.; Dejong, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene cold-climate geomorphology are distributed across the weathered and eroded Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain uplands from the Wisconsinan terminal moraine south to Tidewater Virginia. Cold-climate deposits and landscape modifications are superimposed on antecedent landscapes of old, weathered Neogene upland gravels and Pleistocene marine terraces that had been built during warm periods and sea-level highstands. In New Jersey, sequences of surficial deposits define a long history of repeating climate change events. To the south across the Delmarva Peninsula and southern Maryland, most antecedent topography has been obscured by Late Pleistocene surficial deposits. These are spatially variable and are collectively described as a cold-climate alloformation. The cold-climate alloformation includes time-transgressive details of climate deterioration from at least marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 through the end of MIS 2. Some deposits and landforms within the alloformation may be as young as the Younger Dryas. Southwards along the trend of the Potomac River, these deposits and their climatic affinities become diffused. In Virginia, a continuum of erosion and surficial deposits appears to be the product of ‘normal’ temperate, climate-forced processes. The cold-climate alloformation and more temperate deposits in Virginia are being partly covered by Holocene alluvium and bay mud.

  3. Cyclic Sediment Trading Between Channel and River Bed Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadchi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Much of the previous work on sediment tracing has focused on determining either the initial sources of the sediment (soils derive from a particular rock type) or the erosion processes generating the sediment. However, alluvial stores can be both a source and sink for sediment transported by streams. Here geochemical and fallout radionuclide tracing of river-bed and alluvial sediments are used to determine the role of secondary sources, sediment stores, as potential sources of sediment leaving Emu Creek catchment, southeastern Queensland, Australia. Activity concentrations of 137Cs on the river sediments are consistent with channel erosion being the dominant source at all sites sampled along the river. To characterise the deposition and remobilisation cycles in the catchment, a novel geochemical tracing approach was used. Successive pockets of alluvium were treated as discrete sink terms within geochemical mixing models and their source contributions compared with those of river bed sediments collected adjacent to each alluvial pocket. Three different size fractions were examined; silts and clays (banks indicates a high degree of 'trading' between the fluvial space and the alluvial space. Hence, management works aimed at primarily reducing the supply of sediments to the outlet of Emu Creek should focus on rehabilitation of channel banks in the lower catchment.

  4. Terrane Boundary Geophysical Signatures in Northwest Panay, Philippines: Results from Gravity, Seismic Refraction and Electrical Resistivity Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian Aira S. Gabo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Panay consists of two terranes that form part of the Central Philippine collision zone: Buruanga Peninsula and Antique Range. The Buruanga Peninsula consists of a Jurassic chert-clastic-limestone sequence, typical of oceanic plate stratigraphy of the Palawan Micro-continental Block. The Antique Range is characterized by Antique Ophiolite Complex peridotites and Miocene volcanic and clastic rocks, representing obducted oceanic crust that serves as the oceanic leading edge of the collision with the Philippine Mobile Belt. The Nabas Fault is identified as the boundary between the two terranes. This study employed the gravity method to characterize the Northwest Panay subsurface structure. Results indicate higher Bouguer anomaly values for Buruanga Peninsula than those for Antique Range, separated by a sudden decrease in gravity values toward the east-southeast (ESE direction. Forward gravity data modeling indicates the presence of an underlying basaltic subducted slab in the Buruanga Peninsula. Furthermore, the Nabas Fault is characterized as an east-dipping thrust structure formed by Buruanga Peninsula basement leading edge subduction beneath Antique Range. Additional geophysical constraints were provided by shallow seismic refraction and electrical resistivity surveys. Results from both methods delineated the shallow subsurface signature of the Nabas Fault buried beneath alluvium deposits. The gravity, seismic refraction and electrical resistivity methods were consistent in identifying the Nabas Fault as the terrane boundary between the Buruanga Peninsula and the Antique Range. The three geophysical methods helped constrain the subsurface configuration in Northwest Panay.

  5. Ash-flow tuff distribution and fault patterns as indicators of rotation of late-tertiary regional extension, Nevada test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ander, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    Isopach and structure contour maps generated for Yucca Flat as well as fault pattern analyses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) can aid in more efficient site selection and site characterization necessary for containment. Furthermore, these geologic studies indicate that most of the alluvial deposition in Yucca Flat was controlled by north-trending faults responding to a regional extension direction oriented approximately 20 0 to 30 0 west of the N50 0 W direction observed today. The Yucca Flat basin-forming Carpetbag and Yucca fault systems seem to be deflected at their southern ends into the northeast-trending Cane Spring and Mine Mountain fault systems. Left-lateral strike-slip displacement of approx. 1.4 km found on these northeasterly faults requires that most of the displacement on the combined fault systems occurred in an extension field oriented approximately N80 0 W. Fault movement in this extensional field postdates the Ammonia Tanks tuff (approx. 11 My) and was strongly active during deposition of some 1100 meters of alluvium in Yucca Flat. Time of rotation of regional extension to the presently active N50 0 W direction is unknown; however, it occurred so recently that it has not greatly modified fault displacement patterns extant at the NTS

  6. Three-dimensional geologic mapping of the Cenozoic basin fill, Amargosa Desert basin, Nevada and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the subsurface geologic framework of the Cenozoic basin fill that underlies the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada and southeastern California has been improved by using borehole data to construct three-dimensional lithologic and interpreted facies models. Lithologic data from 210 boreholes from a 20-kilometer (km) by 90-km area were reduced to a limited suite of descriptors based on geologic knowledge of the basin and distributed in three-dimensional space using interpolation methods. The resulting lithologic model of the Amargosa Desert basin portrays a complex system of interfingered coarse- to fine-grained alluvium, playa and palustrine deposits, eolian sands, and interbedded volcanic units. Lithologic units could not be represented in the model as a stacked stratigraphic sequence due to the complex interfingering of lithologic units and the absence of available time-stratigraphic markers. Instead, lithologic units were grouped into interpreted genetic classes, such as playa or alluvial fan, to create a three-dimensional model of the interpreted facies data. Three-dimensional facies models computed from these data portray the alluvial infilling of a tectonically formed basin with intermittent internal drainage and localized regional groundwater discharge. The lithologic and interpreted facies models compare favorably to resistivity, aeromagnetic, and geologic map data, lending confidence to the interpretation.

  7. Permafrost delineation for remediation planning : Fort Wainwright, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astley, B. [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Anchorage, AK (United States); Snyder, C. [YEC Inc., Valley Cottage, NJ (United States); Delaney, A. [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Fairbanks, AK (United States); Arcone, S.; Lawson, D. [Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2003-07-01

    In the summer of 1999, geophysical and hydrogeological surveys were conducted at the Birch Hill Tank Farm and Truck Fill Stand in Fort Wainwright, Alaska to assess the distribution of benzene, 1,2-dichloroethane, and 1,2-dibromoethane. The Birch Hill site consists of a silt, sand and gravel fluvial deposit that overlies bedrock. Permafrost occurs discontinuously throughout the alluvium and underlying bedrock, resulting in a complex aquifer distribution. The bedrock beneath the Tank Farm is highly fractured and faulted with a weathered horizon that is 30 meters thick. The goal of this study was to map the discontinuous permafrost and aquifers in the alluvial deposits and weathered bedrock zone for the purpose of delineating bedrock depth and structural features that influence ground water flow. Several methods were used to define subsurface conditions, including borehole logs, DC resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar. A 3-D hydrogeologic model was used to develop a ground water flow model used to determine contaminant migration pathways and rates. The permafrost configuration was found to be the most important boundary condition in this model. 7 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  8. Numerical modeling studies on the alternately pulsed infiltration and subsequent evaporation of water in a dry high desert alluvial soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawlfield, D.E.; Lindstrom, F.T.; Weaver, H.

    1993-01-01

    The concept of no liquid-phase migration of low-level radionuclides is extremely important for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (USDOE/NV) Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMS) in Areas 3 and 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Each site location is situated in an area known for its dry conditions. A series of computer modeling problems were set up to study the effects of pulsing the desert surface with large amounts of water, followed by intense evaporative conditions. The pulsed-water scenarios were run using an in-house model, named open-quotes ODRECHB,close quotes which is briefly described. ODRECHB is particularly adapted to model the dry desert alluvium and extreme evaporative conditions found at NTS. Comparable results were obtained using the well known Battelle NW code open-quotes UNSAT-H 2.0,close quotes by Fayer and Jones. The realistic-to-overly conservative water applications to a bare soil surface did not cause water to infiltrate below ten meters. The results are shown on the accompanying video tape

  9. Modeling a ponded infiltration experiment at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, D.B.; Guertal, W.R.; Flint, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository for high level radioactive waste. As part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, a field-scale ponded infiltration experiment was done to help characterize the hydraulic and infiltration properties of a layered dessert alluvium deposit. Calcium carbonate accumulation and cementation, heterogeneous layered profiles, high evapotranspiration, low precipitation, and rocky soil make the surface difficult to characterize.The effects of the strong morphological horizonation on the infiltration processes, the suitability of measured hydraulic properties, and the usefulness of ponded infiltration experiments in site characterization work were of interest. One-dimensional and two-dimensional radial flow numerical models were used to help interpret the results of the ponding experiment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of a ponded infiltration experiment done around borehole UE25 UZN number-sign 85 (N85) at Yucca Mountain, NV. The effects of morphological horizons on the infiltration processes, lateral flow, and measured soil hydaulic properties were studied. The evaluation was done by numerically modeling the results of a field ponded infiltration experiment. A comparison the experimental results and the modeled results was used to qualitatively indicate the degree to which infiltration processes and the hydaulic properties are understood. Results of the field characterization, soil characterization, borehole geophysics, and the ponding experiment are presented in a companion paper

  10. Groundwater exploration using 2D Resistivity Imaging in Pagoh, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Muhammad; Nawawi, M. N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Groundwater is a very important component of water resources in nature. Since the demand of groundwater increases with population growth, it is necessary to explore groundwater more intensively. In Malaysia only less than 2% of the present water used is developed from groundwater. In order to determine the existence of usable groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes in Pagoh, 2D resistivity imaging technique was utilized. The 2-D resistivity imaging technique utilized the Wenner—Schlumberger electrode array configuration because this array is moderately sensitive to both horizontal and vertical structures. Three lines were surveyed for groundwater delineation purpose The length for each survey lines are 400 meters. At Pagoh, the survey site shows the existence of groundwater. It is indicated by the resistivity values about 10-100 ohm-m. The maximum depth of investigation survey is 77 meters. In general the results show that the subsurface is made up of alluvium and clay and the high resistivity values of more than 1000 ohm-m near the surface is due laterite and the end of the depth can be interpreted as mixture of weathered material or bedrock.

  11. Identification of subsurface layer with Wenner-Schlumberger arrays configuration geoelectrical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin; Prasetyawati Umar, Emi

    2018-02-01

    One of measurement methods to investigate the condition of the subsurface is by using geoelectric method. This research uses wenner-Schlumberger arrays configuration geoelectrical method which is mapping resistivity that is commonly known as profiling (2D) in order to identify the lateral and vertical anomaly of material resistivity. 2D resistivity cross section is obtained from the result of data- processing on software Res2Dinv. The data were obtained along 70 m using Wenner-Schlumberger configuration with 5 m spaced electrode. The approximated value of resistivity obtained from the data processing ranged from 1000-1548 Ωm and with the iteration error 87.9%. Based on the geological map of Ujung Pandang sheet, the location of the research is an alluvium and coastal precipitation area with grain in forms of gravel, sand, clay, mud, and coral limestone. Thus, by observing and analyzing the variety of the resistivity cross-section from the inversion data, there are areas (a) showing resistivity values ranged from 0.1-0.2 Ωm which is estimated to be salt water intrusion based on the resistivity table of Earth materials, and region (b) which is a mixture of sand and clay material with the range of resistivity values between 1-1000 μm.

  12. Stability of nuclear crater slopes in rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Robert W; Frandsen, Alton D; LaFrenz, Robert L [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The United States Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group was established in 1962 to participate with the Atomic Energy Commission in a joint research and development program to develop nuclear engineering and construction technology. A major part of this research effort has been devoted to studies of the engineering properties of craters. The program to date has included field investigations of crater properties in various media over a broad range of chemical and nuclear explosive yields, studies of man-made and natural slopes, and studies directed toward the development of analytical and empirical methods of crater stability analysis. From this background, a general understanding has been developed of the effects of a cratering explosion on the surrounding medium and of physical nature of the various crater zones which are produced. The stability of nuclear crater slopes has been a subject of prime interest in the feasibility study being conducted for an Atlantic-Pacific sea-level canal. Based on experimental evidence assembled to date, nuclear crater slopes in dry dock and dry alluvium have an initially stable configuration. There have been five nuclear craters produced to date with yields of 0.4 kt or more on which observations are based and the initial configurations of these craters have remained stable for over seven years. The medium, yield, crater dimensions, and date of event for these craters are summarized. It is interesting to note that the Sedan Crater has been subjected to strong seismic motions from nearby detonations without adverse effects.

  13. Tangshan 1976 earthquake: Modelling of the SH-wave motion in the area of Xiji-Langfu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R.

    1995-06-01

    The reasons for the anomalous high macroseismic intensity caused in the Xiji-Langfu area by the Tangshan, 1976 earthquake can be found in its special geological conditions. This area is formed of deep deposits beside the Xiadian fault, that consist mainly of alluvium sands and clays, which are poorly consolidated with high water content. Resonances, excitation of local surface waves and their propagation cause strong amplifications and long durations of signals. Based on simulated strong ground motion, we have computed quantities commonly used for engineering purposes: the maximum amplitude (AMAX) and the total energy of ground motion (W), which is related to the Arias Intensity. AMAX and W do not decrease gradually as the epicentral distance increases, since the low velocities and the thickness of the deposits are responsible for the large increment of the values of AMAX and W inside the basin. On the two sides of the Xiadian fault AMAX and W can vary by 200% and 700% respectively. This computational result can be used to explain the large macroseismic intensity observed in the Xiji-Langfu area, in connection with the Tangshan earthquake. The spectral ratios show that over the whole area significant amplifications occur in the range of frequencies from 0.3 Hz to 1.5 Hz, while the largest amplification is above 6 and takes place around 3 Hz at a distance of about 112 km. from the epicentre. (author). 18 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Water resources of the Kodiak-Shelikof subregion, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stanley H.; Madison, R.J.; Zenone, Chester

    1978-01-01

    Hydrologic data for the Kodiak-Shelikof subregion of south-central Alaska are summarized to provide a basis for planning water resources development, identifying water problems and evaluating existing water quality and availability. Average annual precipitation, measured at a few coastal locations in this maritime climatic zone, ranges from 23 to 127 inches. Mean annual runoff for the Kodiak Island group ranges from 4 to 8 cfs/sq mi. A maximum instantaneous runoff of 457 cfs/sq mi has been determined from a small basin on Kodiak Island. Lowest measured stream discharges range from no flow to 0.91 cfs/sq mi. Surface water is the primary source of water supplies for the city of Kodiak and other communities. The geology of the subregion is characterized by metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks with only a thin mantle of unconsolidated material. A few small, alluvium-filled coastal valleys offer the most favorable conditions for ground-water development, but moderate yields (50-100 gal/min) have been obtained from wells in fractured bedrock. Water in streams and lakes generally has a dissolved-solids concentration less than 60 mg/L, and the water varies from a calcium-bicarbonate type to a sodium-chloride type. The chemical composition of ground waters has a dilute calcium-bicarbonate type in unconsolidated materials and a sodium-bicarbonate type in bedrock. The dissolved solids in the groundwater ranges from 170 to 250 mg/L. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Geologic map of the greater Denver area, Front Range urban corridor, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Donald E.; Machette, Michael N.

    1979-01-01

    This digital map shows the areal extent of surficial deposits and rock stratigraphic units (formations) as compiled by Trimble and Machette from 1973 to 1977 and published in 1979 under the Front Range Urban Corridor Geology Program. Trimble and Machette compiled their geologic map from published geologic maps and unpublished geologic mapping having varied map unit schemes. A convenient feature of the compiled map is its uniform classification of geologic units that mostly matches those of companion maps to the north (USGS I-855-G) and to the south (USGS I-857-F). Published as a color paper map, the Trimble and Machette map was intended for land-use planning in the Front Range Urban Corridor. This map recently (1997-1999) was digitized under the USGS Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In general, the mountainous areas in the western part of the map exhibit various igneous and metamorphic bedrock units of Precambrian age, major faults, and fault brecciation zones at the east margin (5-20 km wide) of the Front Range. The eastern and central parts of the map (Colorado Piedmont) depict a mantle of unconsolidated deposits of Quaternary age and interspersed outcroppings of Cretaceous or Tertiary-Cretaceous sedimentary bedrock. The Quaternary mantle comprises eolian deposits (quartz sand and silt), alluvium (gravel, sand, and silt of variable composition), colluvium, and a few landslides. At the mountain front, north-trending, dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock formations form hogbacks and intervening valleys.

  16. Rate estimates for lateral bedrock erosion based on radiocarbon ages, Duck River, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brakenridge, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Rates of bedrock erosion in ingrown meandering rivers can be inferred from the location of buried relict flood-plain and river-bank surfaces, associated paleosols, and radiocarbon dates. Two independent methods are used to evaluate the long-term rates of limestone bedrock erosion by the Duck River. Radiocarbon dates on samples retrieved from buried Holocene flood-plain and bank surfaces indicate lateral migration of the river bank at average rates of 0.6-1.9 m/100 yr. Such rates agree with lateral bedrock cliff erosion rates of 0.5-1.4 m/100 yr, as determined from a comparison of late Pleistocene and modern bedrock cliff and terrace scarp positions. These results show that lateral bedrock erosion by this river could have occurred coevally with flood-plain and terrace formation and that the resulting evolution of valley meander bends carved into bedrock is similar in many respects to that of channel meanders cut into alluvium. 11 references, 5 figures

  17. Rapid formation of a modern bedrock canyon by a single flood event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Michael P.; Fonstad, Mark A.

    2010-07-01

    Deep river canyons are thought to form slowly over geological time (see, for example, ref. 1), cut by moderate flows that reoccur every few years. In contrast, some of the most spectacular canyons on Earth and Mars were probably carved rapidly during ancient megaflood events. Quantification of the flood discharge, duration and erosion mechanics that operated during such events is hampered because we lack modern analogues. Canyon Lake Gorge, Texas, was carved in 2002 during a single catastrophic flood. The event offers a rare opportunity to analyse canyon formation and test palaeo-hydraulic-reconstruction techniques under known topographic and hydraulic conditions. Here we use digital topographic models and visible/near-infrared aerial images from before and after the flood, discharge measured during the event, field measurements and sediment-transport modelling to show that the flood moved metre-sized boulders, excavated ~7m of limestone and transformed a soil-mantled valley into a bedrock canyon in just ~3days. We find that canyon morphology is strongly dependent on rock type: plucking of limestone blocks produced waterfalls, inner channels and bedrock strath terraces, whereas abrasion of cemented alluvium sculpted walls, plunge pools and streamlined islands. Canyon formation was so rapid that erosion might have been limited by the ability of the flow to transport sediment. We suggest that our results might improve hydraulic reconstructions of similar megafloods on Earth and Mars.

  18. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for future water sampling activities, in accordance with the Guidance Document for Preparing Sampling and Analysis Plans for UMTRA Sites. A buffer zone monitoring plan for the Dos Rios Subdivision is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan was developed to ensure continued protection to the public from residual contamination. The buffer zone is beyond the area depicted as contaminated ground water due to former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually at the Gunnison processing site and disposal site. Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  20. Rooting Characteristics of Vegetation Near Areas 3 and 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site--Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy emplaced high-specific-activity low-level radioactive wastes and limited quantities of classified transuranic wastes in Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes from 1984 to 1989. The boreholes are located at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. The boreholes were backfilled with native alluvium soil. The surface of these boreholes and trenches is expected to be colonized by native vegetation in the future. Considering the long-term performance of the disposal facilities, bioturbation (the disruption of buried wastes by biota) is considered a primary release mechanism for radionuclides disposed in GCD boreholes as well as trenches at both Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. This report provides information about rooting characteristics of vegetation near Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs. Data from this report are being used to resolve uncertainties involving parameterization of performance assessment models used to characterize the biotic mixing of soils and radionuclide transport processes by biota. The objectives of this study were to: (1) survey the prior ecological literature on the NTS and identify pertinent information about the vegetation, (2) conduct limited field studies to describe the current vegetation in the vicinity of Areas 3 and 5 RWMSs so as to correlate findings with more extensive vegetation data collected at Yucca Mountain and the NTS, ( 3 ) review prior performance assessment documents and evaluate model assumptions based on current ecological information, and (4) identify data deficiencies and make recommendations for correcting such deficiencies

  1. Hydro-geological studies at the PINSTECH quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, K.; Qureshi, A.A.; Khattak, N.; Akram, M.; Farooq, M.

    2000-05-01

    In order to save the huge amount of water bill and to overcome the shortage of water supply during summer, a resistivity survey was carried out to locate some suitable water bearing horizons within the PINSTECH Quadrangle. Eight shallow bore holes yielding limited amount of water supply were also drilled on trial basis. The work so far done indicates the existence of two water-bearing horizons in this area. a. A shallow water bearing horizon present at the contact of recent alluvium with bedrock at a depth between 7-20 meters. b. A deep water bearing horizon present erratically in the sandstone of Kamlial Formation at a depth between 85-180 meters. On the basis of resistivity measurements, thirteen sites have been earmarked which may contain water bearing zones in the deep horizon. Out of these, nine sites have been classified as the favorable and four as semi-favorable sites. A geological survey of the area was also carried out. The Kamlial sandstone, indicated by the resistivity survey to contain water bearing zones, is less porous with low permeability. Therefore it is not a favorable lithology to contain an aquifer to produce a good water discharge. However, the hole/s penetrating through a faulted/fractured zone being charged through a stream in the vicinity may yield water. (author)

  2. Hotel Pegaso - Georgetown - Guayana Británica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Woodrow, International Ltd., Arquitectos

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available The hotel is made up of a basement and a nine-storey high circular tower. In the first, the common use premises have been arranged, whereas the tower contains the bed-rooms and private apartments. A central service nucleus houses: staircases, lifts and vertical air conditioning ducts. It is built of a metal structure and concrete slabs for the floors. The partition walls dividing the bedrooms in the tower are arranged radially. For the foundations, box-type piles were used, filled with concrete, due to the soft alluvium soil on which the town stands.El hotel está constituido por un basamento y una torre circular de nueve plantas de altura. En el primero se han dispuesto los locales de uso común, mientras que la torre contiene los dormitorios y apartamentos privados. Un núcleo central, de servicio, alberga: las escaleras, los ascensores y los conductos verticales del aire acondicionado. Su construcción es a base de estructura metálica y losas de hormigón para los suelos. Los tabiques que delimitan los dormitorios de la torre van dispuestos de manera radial. Para la cimentación se utilizaron pilotes, tipo cajón, rellenos de hormigón, a causa de los blandos terrenos de aluvión sobre los que se asienta la ciudad.

  3. Ecological characteristics of a Hungarian summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. producing area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csorbai A. Gógán

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has outstanding environment for natural truffle production in some regions including plain and hilly areas. The most famous of all the natural summer truffle (Tuber aestivum Vittad. habitats is the commonly called Jászság region. This area is situated in the middle of Hungary, between river Danube and Tisza. The flatland area is basically covered by river alluviums with main soils of chernozems, fluvisols, solonchaks and arenosols. Climate of the region is typically continental: warm and dry summers and cold winters vary. The area is traditionally of agricultural use, although strong afforestation was made in the late 1950’s. The English oak (Quercus robur L. populations planted at that time gave a basis for current excellent truffle production. Nowadays the region has proved to be the best natural summer truffle (T. aestivum producing area of Hungary with early season opening (June and high quality truffles as early as August. In the research the best truffle producing forest blocks were selected for ecological investigation. Results of the detailed site description showed uniform climate characteristics and dominance of English oak (Q. robur or mixed English oak-Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. forests. Soil types revealed differences from earlier findings: dominance of gleysols and water affected chernozems was declared. Soil chemical parameters are in accordance with literature data: pH, organic matter and active carbonate content of the examined soils fall within the range indicated as the requirement of T. aestivum.

  4. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model of the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2017-09-08

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey study in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, a digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model was constructed for the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. This model was constructed to define the aquifer system geometry and subsurface lithologic characteristics and distribution for use in a regional numerical hydrologic model. The model includes five hydrostratigraphic units: river channel alluvium, three informal subdivisions of Santa Fe Group basin fill, and an undivided pre-Santa Fe Group bedrock unit. Model input data were compiled from published cross sections, well data, structure contour maps, selected geophysical data, and contiguous compilations of surficial geology and structural features in the study area. These data were used to construct faulted surfaces that represent the upper and lower subsurface hydrostratigraphic unit boundaries. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is constructed through combining faults, the elevation of the tops of each hydrostratigraphic unit, and boundary lines depicting the subsurface extent of each hydrostratigraphic unit. The framework also compiles a digital representation of the distribution of sedimentary facies within each hydrostratigraphic unit. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic model reproduces with reasonable accuracy the previously published subsurface hydrogeologic conceptualization of the aquifer system and represents the large-scale geometry of the subsurface aquifers. The model is at a scale and resolution appropriate for use as the foundation for a numerical hydrologic model of the study area.

  5. Development of a NEHRP site classification map of Chiang Mai city, Thailand, based on shear-wave velocity using the MASW technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitimakorn, Thanop

    2013-08-01

    To account for site amplification and seismic hazard mapping, the shear-wave velocity (Vs) profile to a depth of 30 m (Vs (30)) is an important parameter and can be used to calculate the ground motion for specific site conditions. In this study, the near-surface Vs profiles of soils were collected at 44 sites in Chiang Mai city using the multi-channel analysis of surface-wave technique. The Vs of each tested location was average weighted to Vs (30) based on the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) criteria. The average Vs (30) value of the alluvium soils was about 362 m s-1, which falls between NEHRP site classes C and D. The average Vs (30) values of flood plain, fluvial clay and natural levee soils (at 300, 299 and 311 m s-1, respectively) all equated to NEHRP class D. The colluvial deposits in the north-western part of the city were mainly composed of gravel, coarse sand and rock fragments, and were assigned to class C (average Vs (30) of 412 m s-1). Soils with lower Vs values will experience higher earthquake ground shaking than those of the bedrock. Accordingly the major part of Chiang Mai city may experience substantial ground shaking due to the amplification in the soft soils.

  6. Completion Report for Well Cluster ER-6-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    Well Cluster ER-6-1 was constructed for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Division at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This work was initiated as part of the Groundwater Characterization Project, now known as the Underground Test Area Project. The well cluster is located in southeastern Yucca Flat. Detailed lithologic descriptions with stratigraphic assignments for Well Cluster ER-6-1 are included in this report. These are based on composite drill cuttings collected every 3 meters and conventional core samples taken below 639 meters, supplemented by geophysical log data. Detailed petrographic, chemical, and mineralogical studies of rock samples were conducted on 11 samples to resolve complex interrelationships between several of the Tertiary tuff units. Additionally, paleontological analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey confirmed the stratigraphic assignments below 539 meters within the Paleozoic sedimentary section. All three wells in the Well ER-6-1 cluster were drilled within the Quaternary and Tertiary alluvium section, the Tertiary volcanic section, and into the Paleozoic sedimentary section.

  7. Discriminating between natural versus induced seismicity from long-term deformation history of intraplate faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnani, Maria Beatrice; Blanpied, Michael L; DeShon, Heather R; Hornbach, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    To assess whether recent seismicity is induced by human activity or is of natural origin, we analyze fault displacements on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles for two regions in the central United States (CUS): the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) of Texas and the northern Mississippi embayment (NME). Since 2009, earthquake activity in the CUS has increased markedly, and numerous publications suggest that this increase is primarily due to induced earthquakes caused by deep-well injection of wastewater, both flowback water from hydrofracturing operations and produced water accompanying hydrocarbon production. Alternatively, some argue that these earthquakes are natural and that the seismicity increase is a normal variation that occurs over millions of years. Our analysis shows that within the NME, faults deform both Quaternary alluvium and underlying sediments dating from Paleozoic through Tertiary, with displacement increasing with geologic unit age, documenting a long history of natural activity. In the FWB, a region of ongoing wastewater injection, basement faults show deformation of the Proterozoic and Paleozoic units, but little or no deformation of younger strata. Specifically, vertical displacements in the post-Pennsylvanian formations, if any, are below the resolution (~15 m) of the seismic data, far less than expected had these faults accumulated deformation over millions of years. Our results support the assertion that recent FWB earthquakes are of induced origin; this conclusion is entirely independent of analyses correlating seismicity and wastewater injection practices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discriminate natural and induced seismicity using classical structural geology analysis techniques.

  8. A modeling study of the effect of depth of burial of depleted uranium and thorium on radon gas flux at a dry desert alluvial soil radioactive waste management site (RWMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, F.T.; Cawlfield, D.E.; Emer, D.F.; Shott, G.J.

    1993-08-01

    An integral part of designing low-level waste (LLW) disposal pits and their associated closure covers in very dry desert alluvium is the use of a radon gas transport and fate model. Radon-222 has the potential to be a real heath hazard. The production of radon-222 results from the radioactive decay (a particle emission) of radium-226 in the uranium-235 and 238 Bateman chains. It is also produced in the thorium-230 series. Both long lived radionuclides have been proposed for disposal in the shallow land burial pits in Area 5 RWMS compound of Nevada Test Site (NTS). The constructed physics based model includes diffusion and barometric pressure-induced advection of an M-chain of radionuclides. The usual Bateman decay mechanics are included for each radionuclide. Both linear reversible and linear irreversible first order sorption kinetics are assumed for each radionuclide. This report presents the details of using the noble gas transport model, CASCADR9, in an engineering design study mode. Given data on the low-level waste stream, which constitutes the ultimate source of radon-222 in the RWMS, CASCADR9 is used to generate the surface flux (pCi/cm 2 -sec) of radon-222 under the realistic atmospheric and alluvial soil conditions found in the RWMS at Area 5, of the NTS. Specifically, this study examines the surface flux of radon-222 as a function of the depth of burial below the land surface

  9. Evidence for strong Holocene earthquake(s) in the Wabash Valley seismic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, S.

    1991-01-01

    Many small and slightly damaging earthquakes have taken place in the region of the lower Wabash River Valley of Indiana and Illinois during the 200 years of historic record. Seismologists have long suspected the Wabash Valley seismic zone to be capable of producing earthquakes much stronger than the largest of record (m b 5.8). The seismic zone contains the poorly defined Wabash Valley fault zone and also appears to contain other vaguely defined faults at depths from which the strongest earthquakes presently originate. Faults near the surface are generally covered with thick alluvium in lowlands and a veneer of loess in uplands, which make direct observations of faults difficult. Partly because of this difficulty, a search for paleoliquefaction features was begun in 1990. Conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) an earthquake much stronger than any historic earthquake struck the lower Wabash Valley between 1,500 and 7,500 years ago; (2) the epicentral region of the prehistoric strong earthquake was the Wabash Valley seismic zone; (3) apparent sites have been located where 1811-12 earthquake accelerations can be bracketed

  10. Anthropogenic-Induced Changes in the Mechanism of Drylands Ephemeral Stream Recharge, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan

    2016-04-07

    Wadi aquifers in Saudi Arabia historically have been recharged primarily by channel loss (infiltration) during floods. Historically, seasonal groundwater levels fluctuated from land surface to about 3 m below the surface. Agricultural irrigation pumping has lowered the water table up to 35 m below the surface. The geology surrounding the fluvial system at Wadi Qidayd consists of pelitic Precambrian rocks that contribute sediments ranging in size from mud to boulders to the alluvium. Sediments within the wadi channel consist of fining upward, downstream-dipping beds, causing channel floodwaters to pass through several sediment sequences, including several mud layers, before it can reach the water table. Investigation of the wadi aquifer using field observation, geological characterization, water-level monitoring, geophysical profiles, and a hypothetical model suggests a critical water level has been reached that affects the recharge of the aquifer. The wetted front can no longer reach the water table due to the water uptake in the wetting process, downstream deflection by the clay layers, and re-emergence of water at the surface with subsequent direct and diffusive evaporative loss, and likely uptake by deep-rooted acacia trees. In many areas of the wadi system, recharge can now occur only along the channel perimeter via fractured rocks that are in direct horizontal hydraulic connection to the permeable beds above and below the water table.

  11. LLNL Input to SNL L2 MS: Report on the Basis for Selection of Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Halsey, W G

    2011-03-02

    This mid-year deliverable has two parts. The first part is a synopsis of J. Blink's interview of the former Nevada Attorney General, Frankie Sue Del Papa, which was done in preparation for the May 18-19, 2010 Legal and Regulatory Framework Workshop held in Albuquerque. The second part is a series of sections written as input for the SNL L2 Milestone M21UF033701, due March 31, 2011. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste is categorized in this review into several categories. Section II discusses alternatives to geologic disposal: space, ice-sheets, and an engineered mountain or mausoleum. Section III discusses alternative locations for mined geologic disposal: islands, coastlines, mid-continent, and saturated versus unsaturated zone. Section IV discusses geologic disposal alternatives other than emplacement in a mine: well injection, rock melt, sub-seabed, and deep boreholes in igneous or metamorphic basement rock. Finally, Secton V discusses alternative media for mined geologic disposal: basalt, tuff, granite and other igneous/metamorphic rock, alluvium, sandstone, carbonates and chalk, shale and clay, and salt.

  12. Application of the Aquifer Impact Model to support decisions at a CO 2 sequestration site: Modeling and Analysis: Application of the Aquifer Impact Model to support decisions at a CO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Diana Holford [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Locke II, Randall A. [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA; Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM USA; Carroll, Susan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Iranmanesh, Abbas [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA; Mansoor, Kayyum [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA; Wimmer, Bracken [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA; Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Shao, Hongbo [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA; Greenberg, Sallie E. [University of Illinois, Illinois State Geological Survey Champaign IL USA

    2017-10-04

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) has developed a suite of tools to assess and manage risk at CO2 sequestration sites (1). The NRAP tool suite includes the Aquifer Impact Model (AIM), based on reduced order models developed using site-specific data from two aquifers (alluvium and carbonate). The models accept aquifer parameters as a range of variable inputs so they may have more broad applicability. Guidelines have been developed for determining the aquifer types for which the ROMs should be applicable. This paper considers the applicability of the aquifer models in AIM to predicting the impact of CO2 or Brine leakage were it to occur at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP). Based on the results of the sensitivity analysis, the hydraulic parameters and leakage source term magnitude are more sensitive than clay fraction or cation exchange capacity. Sand permeability was the only hydraulic parameter measured at the IBDP site. More information on the other hydraulic parameters, such as sand fraction and sand/clay correlation lengths, could reduce uncertainty in risk estimates. Some non-adjustable parameters, such as the initial pH and TDS and the pH no-impact threshold, are significantly different for the ROM than for the observations at the IBDP site. The reduced order model could be made more useful to a wider range of sites if the initial conditions and no-impact threshold values were adjustable parameters.

  13. Influence of geochemical processes on hydrochemistry and irrigation suitability of groundwater in part of semi-arid Deccan Plateau, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasu, Duraisamy; Singh, Surendra Kumar; Tiwary, Pramod; Sahu, Nisha; Ray, Sanjay Kumar; Butte, Pravin; Duraisami, Veppangadu Perumal

    2017-11-01

    Major ion geochemistry was used to characterise the chemical composition of groundwater in part of semi-arid Deccan plateau region to understand the geochemical evolution and to evaluate the groundwater quality for irrigation. The study area comprises peninsular gneissic complex of Archean age, younger granites and basaltic alluvium. Forty-nine georeferenced groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major ions. The ionic sequence based on relative proportions was Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > Cl- > CO3 2- > BO3 3- > K+. High Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ were generally associated with basaltic alluvial formation, whereas pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved salts (TDS) were found to be higher in granitic formations. High standard deviation for EC, TDS, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ indicated the dispersion of ionic concentration throughout the study area. Four major hydrochemical facies identified were Na-Mg-HCO3 type; Mg-Na-HCO3 type; Na-Mg-Ca-SO4 and Mg-Na-Ca-SO4 type. The graphical plots indicated that the groundwater chemistry was influenced by rock-water interaction, silicate weathering and reverse ion exchange. Sodium-dominated waters might have impeded the hydraulic properties of soils as a result of long-term irrigation.

  14. Actinide speciation in the shallow aquifer of Mortandad Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Polzer, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    Treated waste effluent at Los Alamos has been released to the environment in Mortandad Canyon since 1963. A study has been initiated to investigate the relative mobilities of the actinides in the shallow aquifer of Mortandad Canyon. Speciation of radionuclides and their adsorption by sediment are important parameters in the evaluation of those mobilities. Plutonium concentrations and oxidation states were measured in water collected from four test wells (MCO 4, 5, 6, 7.5). A regular decrease in 239 240 Pu concentration was observed with increasing distance from the discharge point. The large difference between the concentrations discharged (30 to 1000 pCi/l for period 1977-1982) and those in the wells (0.02 to 5.4 pCi/l) suggests that progressive loss of plutonium from the water as it moves through the alluvium is probably more important in regulating the concentrations than the variability of concentrations in the discharged effluent. The K/sub D/s for 228 Th were also determined and found to be similar to those for plutonium. The factors regulating the concentration of dissolved plutonium are probably the same as those regulating 228 Th. In contrast the K/sub D/s of 241 Am decrease regularly with distance from the discharge point and are about 100 times lower than those of plutonium and thorium for water in wells farthest from the discharge point

  15. Potential effects of surface coal mining on the hydrology of the Corral Creek area, Hanging Woman Creek coal field, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClymonds, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Corral Creek area of the Hanging Woman Creek coal field, 9 miles east of the Decker coal mines near the Tongue River, contains large reserves of Federal coal that have been identified for potential lease sale. A hydrologic study was conducted in the area to describe existing hydrologic systems and to study assess potential impacts of surface coal mining on local water resources. Hydrogeologic data collected indicate that aquifers are coal and sandstone beds within the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene age) and sand and gravel in valley alluvium (Pleistocene and Holocene age). Surface-water resources are limited to a few spring-fed stock ponds in the higher parts of the area and the intermittent flow of Corral Creek near the mouth. Most of the stock ponds in the area become dry by midsummer. Mining of the Anderson coal bed would remove three stock wells and would lower the potentiometric surface within the coal and sandstone aquifers. The alluvial aquifer beneath Corral Creek and South Fork would be removed. Although mining would alter the existing hydrologic systems and remove several shallow wells, alternative ground-water supplies are available that could be developed to replace those lost by mining. (USGS)

  16. Seismic response of reactor building on alluvial soil by direct implicit integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakkar, S.K.; Dinkar, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of seismic response of a reactor building is a complex problem. A study has been made in this paper of seismic response of a reactor building by direct implicit integration method. The direct implicit integration methods besides being unconditionally stable have the merit of including response of higher modes without much effort. A reactor building consisting of external shell, internal shell, internals and raft is considered to be resting on alluvium. The complete building including the foundation is idealized by axisymmetric finite elements. The structure is analyzed separately for horizontal and vertical components of ground motion using harmonic analysis. Total response is found by superposition of two responses. The variation of several parameters, such as soil stiffness, embedment depth, inertia of foundation, viscous boundary and damping on seismic response is studied. The structural response is seen to depend significantly on the soil stiffness and damping. The seismic response is observed to be less sensitive to embedment depth and inertia of foundation. The vertical accelerations on the raft, boiler room floor slab and dome due to vertical ground motions are quite appreciable. The viscous boundary is seen to alter structural response in significantly compared to rigid boundaries in a larger mesh and its use appears to be promising in absorbing energy of body waves when used with direct implicit integration method. (orig.)

  17. Influence of particle sorting in transport of sediment-associated contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, L.J.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic and sediment transport models are developed to route the flow of water and sediment (by particle size classes) in alluvial stream channels. A simplified infiltration model is used to compute runoff from upland areas and flow is routed in ephemeral stream channels to account for infiltration or transmission losses in the channel alluvium. Hydraulic calculations, based on the normal flow assumption and an approximating hydrograph, are used to compute sediment transport by particle size classes. Contaminants associated with sediment particles are routed in the stream channels to predict contaminatant transport by particle size classes. An empirical adjustment factor, the enrichment ratio, is shown to be a function of the particle size distribution of stream bed sediments, contaminant concentrations by particle size, differential sediment transport rates, and the magnitude of the runoff event causing transport of sediment and contaminants. This analysis and an example application in a liquid effluent-receiving area illustrate the significance of particle sorting in transport of sediment associated contaminants

  18. Investigations of the Fundamental Surface Reactions Involved in the Sorption and Desorption of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, Ken; Heske, Clemens; Moser, Duane; Misra, Mnoranjan; McMillion, Glen

    2011-01-01

    Models for describing solution- and surface-phase reactions have been used for 30 years, but only recently applicable to complex surfaces. Duff et al., using micro-XANES, found that Pu was concentrated on Mn-oxide and smectite phases of zeolitic tuff, providing an evaluation of contaminant speciation on surfaces for modeling. Experiments at Los Alamos demonstrated that actinides display varying surface residence time distributions, probably reflective of mineral surface heterogeneity. We propose to investigate the sorption/desorption behavior of radionuclides from mineral surfaces, as effected by microorganisms, employing isolates from Nevada Test Site deep alluvium as a model system. Characterizations will include surface area, particle size distribution, x-ray diffraction (XRD), microprobe analysis, extractions, and microbiology. Surface interactions will be assessed by electron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), X-ray emission spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of Nevada, Reno (UNR), and University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) researchers will collaborate to enhance scientific infrastructure and the understanding of contaminant behavior on surfaces, with broader implications for the management of DOE sites.

  19. Transport and deposition of plutonium-contaminated sediments by fluvial processes, Los Alamos Canyon, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1945 and 1952 the development of nuclear weapons at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, resulted in the disposal of plutonium into the alluvium of nearby Acid and (to a lesser degree) DP Canyons. The purpose of this paper is to explore the connection between the disposal sites and the main river, a 20 km link formed by the fluvial system of Acid, Pueblo, DP, and Los Alamos Canyons. Empirical data from 15 yr of annual sediment sampling throughout the canyon system has produced 458 observations of plutonium concentration in fluvial sediments. These data show that, overall, mean plutonium concentrations in fluvial sediment decline from 10,000 fCi/g near the disposal area to 100 fCi/g at the confluence of the canyon system and the Rio Grande. Simulations using a computer model for water, sediment, and plutonium routing in the canyon system show that discharges as large as the 25 yr event would fail to develop enough transport capacity to completely remove the contaminated sediments from Pueblo Canyon. Lesser flows would move some materials to the Rio Grande by remobilization of stored sediments. The simulations also show that the deposits and their contaminants have a predictable geography because they occur where stream power is low, hydraulic resistance is high, and the geologic and/or geomorphic conditions provide enough space for storage. 38 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  20. Paleodrainages of the Eastern Sahara - The radar rivers revisited (SIR-A/B implications for a mid-tertiary Trans-African drainage system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Schaber, G. G.; Mchugh, W. P.; Haynes, C. C.

    1986-01-01

    The images obtained by the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR)-A and -B systems over the southwestern Egypt and northwestern Sudan were coregistered with the Landsat images and the existing maps to aid in extrapolations of the buried paleodrainages ('radar rivers'), first discovered by SIR-A. Field observations explain the radar responses of three types of radar rivers, RR-1 (broad, aggraded valleys filled with alluvium), RR-2 (braided channels inset in the RR-1 valleys), and RR-3 (narrow, long, bedrock-incised channels). A generalized model of the radar rivers, based on field studies and regional geologic relations, shows inferred changes in river regimen since the large valleys were established during the later Paleogene-early Neogene. It is suggested that a former Trans-African master stream system may have flowed from headwaters in the Red Sea Hills southwestward across North Africa, discharging into the Atlantic at the Paleo-Niger delta, prior to the Neogene domal uplifts and building of volcanic edifices across the paths of these ancient watercourses.

  1. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Physical controls on signal penetration and subsurface scattering in the Eastern Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, G. G.; Mccauley, J. F.; Breed, C. S.; Olhoeft, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Interpretation of Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A) images by McCauley et al. (1982) dramatically changed previous concepts of the role that fluvial processes have played over the past 10,000 to 30 million years in shaping this now extremely flat, featureless, and hyperarid landscape. In the present paper, the near-surface stratigraphy, the electrical properties of materials, and the types of radar interfaces found to be responsible for different classes of SIR-A tonal response are summarized. The dominant factors related to efficient microwave signal penetration into the sediment blanket include (1) favorable distribution of particle sizes, (2) extremely low moisture content and (3) reduced geometric scattering at the SIR-A frequency (1.3 GHz). The depth of signal penetration that results in a recorded backscatter, here called 'radar imaging depth', was documented in the field to be a maximum of 1.5 m, or 0.25 of the calculated 'skin depth', for the sediment blanket. Radar imaging depth is estimated to be between 2 and 3 m for active sand dune materials. Diverse permittivity interfaces and volume scatterers within the shallow subsurface are responsible for most of the observed backscatter not directly attributable to grazing outcrops. Calcium carbonate nodules and rhizoliths concentrated in sandy alluvium of Pleistocene age south of Safsaf oasis in south Egypt provide effective contrast in premittivity and thus act as volume scatterers that enhance SIR-A portrayal of younger inset stream channels.

  2. Magnetic and gravity studies of Mono Lake, east-central, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Noah D.; Ponce, David A.; Jayko, Angela S.; Miller, Matt; McEvoy, Bobby; Marcaida, Mae; Mangan, Margaret T.; Wilkinson, Stuart K.; McClain, James S.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Denton, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    From August 26 to September 5, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected more than 600 line-kilometers of shipborne magnetic data on Mono Lake, 20 line-kilometers of ground magnetic data on Paoha Island, 50 gravity stations on Paoha and Negit Islands, and 28 rock samples on Paoha and Negit Islands, in east-central California. Magnetic and gravity investigations were undertaken in Mono Lake to study regional crustal structures and to aid in understanding the geologic framework, in particular regarding potential geothermal resources and volcanic hazards throughout Mono Basin. Furthermore, shipborne magnetic data illuminate local structures in the upper crust beneath Mono Lake where geologic exposure is absent. Magnetic and gravity methods, which sense contrasting physical properties of the subsurface, are ideal for studying Mono Lake. Exposed rock units surrounding Mono Lake consist mainly of Quaternary alluvium, lacustrine sediment, aeolian deposits, basalt, and Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks (Bailey, 1989). At Black Point, on the northwest shore of Mono Lake, there is a mafic cinder cone that was produced by a subaqueous eruption around 13.3 ka. Within Mono Lake there are several small dacite cinder cones and flows, forming Negit Island and part of Paoha Island, which also host deposits of Quaternary lacustrine sediments. The typical density and magnetic properties of young volcanic rocks contrast with those of the lacustrine sediment, enabling us to map their subsurface extent.

  3. Hydrothermal alteration at Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA: DDH 1976-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, N.L.; Parry, W.T.

    1977-09-01

    Hot waters of the Roosevelt Thermal Area, Utah, have altered granitic rocks and detritus of the Mineral Range pluton, Utah. Alteration and mineral deposition recognized in a 200' drill core from DDH 1-76 is most intense in the upper 100 feet which consists of altered alluvium and opal deposits; the lower 100 feet is weakly altered quartz monzonite. Petrographic, x-ray, and chemical methods were used to characterize systematic changes in chemistry and mineralogy. Comparison of the alteration mineral assemblages with known water chemistry and equilibrium activity diagrams suggests that a simple solution equilibrium model cannot account for the alteration. A model is proposed in which upward moving thermal water supersaturated with respect to quartz and a downward moving cool water undersaturated with respect to quartz produces the observed alteration. An estimate of the heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration was made by calculating reaction enthalpies for alteration reactions at each depth. The estimated heat flow varied from .02 HFU (for 200' depth, 400,000 yr duration, and no sulfur oxidation) to 67 HFU (for 5,000' depth, 1,000 yr duration, and all sulfur oxidized from sulfide). Heat flow contributions from hydrothermal alteration are comparable with those from a cooling granitic magma.

  4. PERENCANAAN KOTA BARU BERBASIS LANSKAP EKOLOGIS DI KOTA UJOH BILANG, MAHAKAM ULU, KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezky Khrisrachmansyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahakam Ulu Regency is a new municipality that had been developed in 2012. Ujoh Bilang City is the new Capital City that planned as the Capital City of Mahakam Ulu Regency. The natural condition and local culture in this city create strong local characters. There are some natural and cultural condition in Ujoh Bilang City such as Geological Karst, fertile alluvium soil (nearby the Mahakam River, liveable Dayak culture that should be protected, and attended to the ecological landscape values. The aim of this study is to see the landscape character of Ujoh Bilang New Town and implement the ecological landscape approach which considers the bio-physics and cultural elements in developing and planning the city. The Methods in this study are include qualitative and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis was described by scientific description while the qualitative analysis was used for land suitability analysis with biophysics aspect such as slope, soil, geological condition, and town structure. The local culture values are also considered.

  5. Alternative Site Technology Deployment-Monitoring System for the U-3ax/bl Disposal Unit at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, J.M.; Levitt, D.G.; Rawlinson, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    In December 2000, a performance monitoring facility was constructed adjacent to the U-3ax/bl mixed waste disposal unit at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Recent studies conducted in the arid southwestern United States suggest that a vegetated monolayer evapotranspiration (ET) closure cover may be more effective at isolating waste than traditional Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) multi-layered designs. The monitoring system deployed next to the U-3ax/bl disposal unit consists of eight drainage lysimeters with three surface treatments: two are left bare; two are revegetated with native species; two are being allowed to revegetate with invader species; and two are reserved for future studies. Soil used in each lysimeter is native alluvium taken from the same location as the soil used for the cover material on U-3ax/bl. The lysimeters were constructed so that any drainage to the bottom can be collected and measured. To provide a detailed evaluation of the cover performance, an ar ray of 16 sensors was installed in each lysimeter to measure soil water content, soil water potential, and soil temperature. Revegetation of the U-3ax/bl closure cover establishes a stable plant community that maximizes water loss through transpiration while at the same time, reduces water and wind erosion and ultimately restores the disposal unit to its surrounding Great Basin Desert environment

  6. Continued studies of long-term ecological effects of exposure to uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, W.C.; Miera, F.R. Jr.

    1977-06-01

    Studies of the long-term consequences of exposing terrestrial ecosystems to natural and depleted uranium dispersed during explosives tests at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) and test firing at Eglin Air Force Base (EAFB), Florida, were continued. Soils from EAFB, sampled before and after firing of depleted uranium penetrators against armor plate targets, indicated that the upper (0- to 5-cm-deep) soil usually contained more uranium than lower (5- to 10-cm-deep) soil. However, no significant changes were apparent in samples taken before and after the test firing. E-F explosive testing site at LASL was selected for intensive study of uranium redistribution during its 33-yr use. Highest surface soil (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) uranium concentrations occurred 0 and 10 m from the detonation point and averaged 4500 ppM. Concentrations in surface soil 50 and 200 m from the firing point were usually < 15% of that value. The uranium distribution to 30-cm depths showed significant penetration into the soil. Alluvium collected 250 m from the E-F detonation area in Potrillo Canyon indicated that surface (0- to 2.5-cm-deep) uranium concentrations were about 10% of those at the detonation point, and at 2.8 km they were twice background levels.

  7. Geospatial analysis of creeks evolution in the Indus Delta, Pakistan using multi sensor satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Muhammad Wajid; Mahar, Rasool Bux; Siyal, Altaf Ali; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed

    2018-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) in response to looming climate change is being considered as a major impediment to coastal areas. Acute wave activities and tidal propagations of semi-diurnal to mixed type are impairing the morphology of the Indus Delta in Pakistan. In this study a synthetic approach has been adopted using multi sensor satellite and ground data in order to integrate the individual effect of topography, oceanic activities and vegetative canopy for deduction of a synergic impact over the morphology of the Indus Delta creeks system from 1972 to 2017. Geomorphologic anomalies in the planform of fourteen major creeks were explored. Spatiotemporal variations suggested that a substantial amount of the delta alluvium had been engulfed by the Arabian Sea. On average, the creeks located on the right side of the Indus River were relatively less wide (3.9 km) than those of on the left side (5.2 km). Zonal statistics calculated with topographic position index (TPI) enabled to understand the tide induced inundation extents. The mangrove canopy on the right side was found greater, which is why tidal basins on that side experienced less erosive activities. Thus, it could be maintained that the coastal sedimentary processes may be monitored effectively with the remotely sensed data and temporal pattern of changes can be quantified for future planning and mitigation of adverse effects.

  8. Prediction of maximum earthquake intensities for the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Gibbs, James F.

    1975-01-01

    The intensity data for the California earthquake of April 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the empirical relation derived between 1906 intensities and distance perpendicular to the fault for 917 sites underlain by rocks of the Franciscan Formation is: Intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (Distance) (km). For sites on other geologic units intensity increments, derived with respect to this empirical relation, correlate strongly with the Average Horizontal Spectral Amplifications (AHSA) determined from 99 three-component recordings of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada. The resulting empirical relation is: Intensity Increment = 0.27 +2.70 log (AHSA), and average intensity increments for the various geologic units are -0.29 for granite, 0.19 for Franciscan Formation, 0.64 for the Great Valley Sequence, 0.82 for Santa Clara Formation, 1.34 for alluvium, 2.43 for bay mud. The maximum intensity map predicted from these empirical relations delineates areas in the San Francisco Bay region of potentially high intensity from future earthquakes on either the San Andreas fault or the Hazard fault.

  9. Prediction of maximum earthquake intensities for the San Francisco Bay region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Gibbs, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    The intensity data for the California earthquake of Apr 18, 1906, are strongly dependent on distance from the zone of surface faulting and the geological character of the ground. Considering only those sites (approximately one square city block in size) for which there is good evidence for the degree of ascribed intensity, the empirical relation derived between 1906 intensities and distance perpendicular to the fault for 917 sites underlain by rocks of the Franciscan formation is intensity = 2.69 - 1.90 log (distance) (km). For sites on other geologic units, intensity increments, derived with respect to this empirical relation, correlate strongly with the average horizontal spectral amplifications (AHSA) determined from 99 three-component recordings of ground motion generated by nuclear explosions in Nevada. The resulting empirical relation is intensity increment = 0.27 + 2.70 log (AHSA), and average intensity increments for the various geologic units are -0.29 for granite, 0.19 for Franciscan formation, 0.64 for the Great Valley sequence, 0.82 for Santa Clara formation, 1.34 for alluvium, and 2.43 for bay mud. The maximum intensity map predicted from these empirical relations delineates areas in the San Francisco Bay region of potentially high intensity from future earthquakes on either the San Andreas fault or the Hayward fault.

  10. [The approach to the regulation of mercury according to the content of its termoforms in soils and bed loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, N A

    The article contains the results of the ecological and hygienic diagnostics of conditions of lands of areas of different sizes and varying degrees of urbanization, located in different agro-climatic conditions of European Russia (the southern Astrakhan region, he city of Moscow). Assessments of the state of territories use a new approach to rationing of Hg according to quantitative ratios of the content of its thermoforms in soils, grounds and alluvium (in litho substrate). The method of diagnostics is based on known properties of Hg forms: their geochemical activity (migration mobility) and toxicity decline along with the increment of the Hg temperature threshold of the release in the process of continuous warming up of the litho substrate sample (up to 1100°C). Thermoforms are not tied to specific minerals or chemicals and are conditionally designated as FR (Free: 500°C) Hg forms. Among forms, also conditionally according to complexes of low, medium and high temperature variations(FR + CL, FS + CS and SU + IZ, respectively, there are selected groups of «mobile», «sustainable» and «inert» forms. For technogenic Hg there is characterized the predominance in the sample of «mobile» and to lesser extent degree - «stable» thermoforms. The more intensive this predominance is, the higher is environmental hazard. The natural accumulation is diagnosed by the presence and prevalence of the sum of moderate - and high-temperature inert forms of Hg. According to the ratios of Hg content, its forms and groups, as well as the density of correlationships between them, 6 indices of the conditions of soils and alluvium were developed by ourselves.Main coefficients out of indices on informativeness of results of diagnostics are the following factors: Endogenous input, Geochemical activity and Hg mobility. With regard to the combination of variability in indices, the total amount of Hg, the genesis and intensity of its accumulation (natural or anthropogenic), there were

  11. TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

    2009-07-06

    This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak

  12. Single-station seismic noise measures, microgravity, and 3D electrical tomographies to assess the sinkhole susceptibility: the "Il Piano" area (Elba Island - Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria; Carlà, Tommaso; Bardi, Federica; Marini, Federico; Fontanelli, Katia; Intrieri, Emanuele; Fanti, Riccardo

    2017-04-01

    Sudden subsurface collapse, cavities, and surface depressions, regardless of shape and origin, as well as doline are currently indicate by means of the term "sinkhole". This phenomenon can be classified according to a large variety of different schemes, depending on the dominant formation processes (soluble rocks karstic processes, acidic groundwater circulation, anthropogenic caves, bedrock poor geomechanical properties), and on the geological scenario behind the development of the phenomenon. Considering that generally sinkholes are densely clustered in "sinkhole prone areas", detection, forecasting, early warning, and effective monitoring are key aspects in sinkhole susceptibility assessment and risk mitigation. Nevertheless, techniques developed specifically for sinkhole detection, forecasting and monitoring are missing, probably because of a general lack of sinkhole risk awareness, and an intrinsic difficulties involved in detecting precursory sinkhole deformations before collapse. In this framework, integration of different indirect/non-invasive geophysical methods is the best practice approach. In this paper we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey at "Il Piano" (Elba Island - Italy), where at least nine sinkholes occurred between 2008 and 2014. 120 single-station seismic noise measures, 17 3D electrical tomographies (min area 140.3 m2, max area 10,188.9 m2; min electrode spacing 2 m, max electrode spacing 5 m), 964 measurement of microgravity spaced in a grid of 6 m to 8 m were carried out at the study area. The most likely origin for these sinkholes was considered related to sediment net erosion from the alluvium, caused by downward water circulation between aquifers. Therefore, the goals of the study were: i) obtaining a suitable geological and hydrogeological model of the area; ii) detecting possible cavities which could evolve in sinkholes, and finally iii) assess the sinkhole susceptibility of the area. Among the results of the

  13. Explosion-produced ground motion: technical summary with respect to seismic hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodean, Howard C [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    This paper summarizes the present technical knowledge, experimental and theoretical, of how underground nuclear explosions produce seismic motion that may be a hazard at distances measured in tens of kilometers. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties (at the explosion, along the signal propagation path, and at the site where a hazard may exist) on the ground motion are described in detail, and some consideration is given to the relation between ground motion and damage criteria. The energy released in a nuclear explosion is sufficient to vaporize the explosive and to generate an intense shock wave that is propagated outward into the surrounding rock. Part of the energy transported by the shock wave is dissipated in the shocked material. The shock wave strength decreases with distance from the center of the explosion as a consequence of this energy loss and because of geometric (approximately spherical) divergence. The dissipated energy fraction ranges from over 95% (for competent rocks like granite) to over 99% (for crushable, porous rocks like alluvium) of the explosion yield. Therefore, the energy fraction that is radiated in the form of seismic waves ranges from a few percent down to a few tenths of a percent. This is consistent with the observation that explosions in granite produce more severe ground motion than corresponding explosions in alluvium. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties on the frequency spectrum of the seismic source function are demonstrated by both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis. The characteristics of an ideal elastic medium are such that its frequency response is that of a low-pass filter, with its cutoff frequency being a function of the elastic properties of the material and the radius at which the explosion-produced stress wave becomes elastic. There is further frequency- and distance-dependent attenuation (especially of the higher frequencies) of the seismic waves, because rocks are not

  14. Performance Assessment Transport Modeling of Uranium at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada National Security Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of the assumptions that are pertinent to the radioactive isotope transport in the GoldSim Performance Assessment model of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, with special emphasis on the water-phase reactive transport of uranium, which includes depleted uranium products. The Area 5 PA model assumes activity disposed in trenches is well mixed within the native alluvium of the trench at the time the facility is closed. Waste containers and waste forms are assumed not to limit the release of radionuclides for transport. In the Area 5 RWMS PA model, the pathways that are considered to bring radioactivity in the waste zone to the surface soils of the closure covers are (1) plant uptake, (2) burrowing animal activity, and (3) advection/dispersion/diffusion in the pore water. Water-phase transport is a minor component of the transport, which is dominated by plant uptake and burrowing animal activity. Because the soil column is mostly dry, upward water flux rates are extremely small, resulting in small advective/dispersive transport of radioactive isotopes in pore water of the unsaturated zone. Reactive transport of radioactive elements in the Area 5 soil pore water are modeled using element-specific partition coefficients (Kds) that partition radioactivity between pore water and soil of the disposal cell, and solubility limits that control the solubility of elements in pore water. Geochemical modeling is not performed in the Area 5 RWMS GoldSim PA model; however, Kds and solubility limits were derived from previous geochemical modeling performed using Area 5 geochemical data. Kds for uranium were developed based on geochemical modeling using the mineral characteristics of soil (alluvium) and the chemical characteristics of water at the site (Carle et al., 2002). In the GoldSim model, uranium Kd is represented with a lognormal distribution with a mean value of 0.8 milliliter per gram (taken from Figure 4.11, Page 4-19 of Carle et al

  15. Development of a new medium frequency EM device: Mapping soil water content variations using electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessouri, P.; Buvat, S.; Tabbagh, A.

    2012-12-01

    Both electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity of soil are influenced by its water content. Dielectric permittivity is usually measured in the high frequency range, using GPR or TDR, where the sensitivity to water content is high. However, its evaluation is limited by a low investigation depth, especially for clay rich soils. Electrical conductivity is closely related not only to soil water content, but also to clay content and soil structure. A simultaneous estimation of these electrical parameters can allow the mapping of soil water content variations for an investigation depth close to 1m. In order to estimate simultaneously both soil electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity, an electromagnetic device working in the medium frequency range (between 100 kHz and 10 MHz) has been designed. We adopted Slingram geometry for the EM prototype: its PERP configuration (vertical transmission loop Tx and horizontal measuring loop Rx) was defined using 1D ground models. As the required investigation depth is around 1m, the coil spacing was fixed to 1.2m. This prototype works in a frequency range between 1 and 5 MHz. After calibration, we tested the response of prototype to objects with known properties. The first in situ measurements were led on experimental sites with different types of soils and different water content variations (artificially created or natural): sandy alluvium on a plot of INRA (French National Institute for Agricultural Research) in Orléans (Centre, France), a clay-loam soil on an experimental site in Estrée-Mons (Picardie, France) and fractured limestone at the vicinity of Grand (Vosges, France). In the case of the sandy alluvium, the values of dielectric permittivity measured are close to those of HF permittivity and allow the use of existing theoretical models to determine the soil water content. For soils containing higher amount of clay, the coupled information brought by the electrical conductivity and the dielectric

  16. Gold placer and Quaternary stratigraphy of the Jabal Mokhyat area, southern Najd Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, D.L.; Puffett, W.P.; Campbell, W.L.; Al-Koulak, Z. H.

    1981-01-01

    An ancient gold placer at Jabal Mokhyat (lat 20?12.2'N., long 43?28'E.), about 90 km east of Qalat Bishah in the southern Najd Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was studied in 1973. Seven hundred and twenty-eight samples in 25 measured sections were collected along trenches and pits 2.5 m in depth and 2,600 m in total length. Alluvium was thicker than the excavation depth along about 50 percent of the trench length. The average gold content was 4.4 mg per m3, and the highest grade trench contained 40 mg gold per m 3. Because fine particulate gold is rare in the alluvium, a few large particles, 1 to 5 mm in diameter, greatly affected the sampling results. The ancient placer diggings are in small headwater wadis distributed over a 30-km 2 area, and the total dug area is about 1.2 km2. The placer produced an estimated 50 kg of gold and was worked about 2,600 + 250 years ago. The potential for a present-day placer operation is small. The gold is sparsely distributed in locally derived, flood-deposited, immature gravels throughout a stratigraphic section that consists of 1) calichified, saprolitic bedrock of Precambrian age; 2) basal, intensely calichified, saprolitic gravel (0-3 m thick) of Pleistocene age; 3) disconformable, slightly consolidated gravel and sand (0-1 m thick) of late Pleistocene age containing sparse, disseminated caliche; 4) firm loessic silt (0-1 m thick) of early Holocene age; and 5) loose sand and gravel (0.3-1 m thick) of late Holocene age. The loessic silt accumulated during the Holocene pluvial. The top of the loessic silt unit is dated at about 6,000 years B.P. by using charcoal from hearths of ancient man. Following the Holocene pluvial, the climate became arid, and extreme desiccation resulted in abundant eolian sand that progressively diluted the late Holocene gravels. The remnants of the pre-Holocene stratigraphy suggest similar climatic cycles during the Pleistocene. Abundant, sparsely mineralized, gold-bearing quartz veins (0-1 m wide

  17. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the

  18. Different methods for the estimation of available water resources in the future under the influence of climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic-Dursun, B.; Boreli-Zdravkovic, Dj.; Djuric, D.

    2012-04-01

    The paper analyzes different approaches for the calculation of available water resources the under influence of CC, for cases of drinking water sources in the alluviums of the Sava River (Belgrade GW source)and Nišava River (Mediana GW source). Different types of analyzed sources (bank-filtered and artificially recharged) required different approaches, adjusted to the specific characteristics. The Belgrade GW source (capacity of 4-5 m3/s), is comprised of 99 horizontal wells and over 40 tube wells positioned on the 50 km on the alluvial plain of the most downstream Sava River banks. Deep parts of the water bearing complex are comprised of river-lacustrine polycyclic sediments (from sandy-gravels to silts), while the upper part are alluvial sediments. Main recharge stems from the Sava River by bank filtration process, while due to the layering of the aquifer, recharge from the hinterland in some river bank sections reaches up to 30 %. Test area covers 240km2, of Sava river valley. Future water availability has to be calculated according to the "new" -expected boundary conditions, vertical water balance on the test area and "estimated" river water fluctuations. The artificially-recharged GW source "Mediana" provides water supply to the City of Niš, as one of 6 water supply sources. The concept of this groundwater source is based on surface water abstraction from the Nišava River (catchement area is 4,086 km2 totally, where 1,096 km2 is in Bulgaria), which is transported to infiltration lakes after pre-treatment process. Once in the infiltration lake, the water is infiltrated into the aquifer and abstracted by wells, or collected by a drainage system. This site was used for the analysis of the impacts of climate changes on the discharge of Nisava River, since it feeds aquifer through infiltration lakes (approx. 95-98%) after surface water pretreatment. Estimation of available water resources was done for period until 2100 for A1B climate scenario. Climate

  19. Detailed study of selenium and other constituents in water, bottom sediment, soil, alfalfa, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Stewart, K.C.; Osmundson, B.C.; Krueger, R.P.; Crabtree, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    In 1985, the U.S. Department of the Interior began a program to study the effects of irrigation drainage in the Western United States. These studies were done to determine whether irrigation drainage was causing problems related to human health, water quality, and fish and wildlife resources. Results of a study in 1991-93 of irrigation drainage associated with the Uncompahgre Project area, located in the lower Gunnison River Basin, and of the Grand Valley, located along the Colorado River, are described in this report. The focus of the report is on the sources, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in the hydrologic and biological systems and the effects on biota. Generally, other trace- constituent concentrations in water and biota were not elevated or were not at levels of concern. Soils in the Uncompahgre Project area that primarily were derived from Mancos Shale contained the highest concentrations of total and watrer-extractable selenium. Only 5 of 128\\x11alfalfa samples had selenium concentrations that exceeded a recommended dietary limit for livestock. Selenium data for soil and alfalfa indicate that irrigation might be mobilizing and redistributing selenium in the Uncompahgre Project area. Distribution of dissolved selenium in ground water is affected by the aqueous geochemical environment of the shallow ground- water system. Selenium concentrations were as high as 1,300\\x11micrograms per liter in water from shallow wells. The highest concentrations of dissolved selenium were in water from wells completed in alluvium overlying the Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age; selenium concentrations were lower in water from wells completed in Mancos Shale residuum. Selenium in the study area could be mobilized by oxidation of reduced selenium, desorption from aquifer sediments, ion exchange, and dissolution. Infiltration of irrigation water and, perhaps nitrate, provide oxidizing conditions for mobilization of selenium from alluvium and shale residuum and for

  20. One of the proposals to estimation of the active fault with the flexure structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2010-12-01

    In general, the recurrent interval investigation that uses the trench excavation survey etc. is done to the active fault survey. However, even if form of the search procedure of the active fault where the surface part is flexure structure is understood, it is difficult to understand the detailed activity situation. The active fault survey is done by the sedimentary environment of the investigation site, and an efficient search procedure is different. However, the recurrent interval of the fault with the flexure structure should devise it more. In the present study, two illustrations of the examination case with the active fault with the flexure structure. Osaka bay fault has the flexure structure, and the latest activity is not understood well though many reflection surveys have done. Then, flexure was stepped over and the drilling survey was carried out. It consists of the alluvium marine clay in the surface part compared the change in the amount of piling up by measuring at magnetostratigraphical measurement and a radio carbon age etc., and correlates between up side and down side homogeneous clay layer. As a result, the appearance with a greatly different inclination was confirmed between the boring of both who seemed that the same environments it though the correlation line was basically compared by the same inclination. When the alluvium piles up, such a change point is three times. The change was seen at the rate once every about 2000-3000 years and about 0.58m/ka when putting it together on the result of the age determination. The Uemachi fault is a fault in the south north that passes as for the central area of Osaka. The up side on the fault is modified by erosion and urban development, and one of the faults that a recurrent interval is cramped. Moreover, the surface part is flexure structure in this fault according to the reflection survey. To forecast a long term for the seismic design when the subway in this part was constructed, the drilling survey of

  1. Explosion-produced ground motion: technical summary with respect to seismic hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, Howard C.

    1970-01-01

    This paper summarizes the present technical knowledge, experimental and theoretical, of how underground nuclear explosions produce seismic motion that may be a hazard at distances measured in tens of kilometers. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties (at the explosion, along the signal propagation path, and at the site where a hazard may exist) on the ground motion are described in detail, and some consideration is given to the relation between ground motion and damage criteria. The energy released in a nuclear explosion is sufficient to vaporize the explosive and to generate an intense shock wave that is propagated outward into the surrounding rock. Part of the energy transported by the shock wave is dissipated in the shocked material. The shock wave strength decreases with distance from the center of the explosion as a consequence of this energy loss and because of geometric (approximately spherical) divergence. The dissipated energy fraction ranges from over 95% (for competent rocks like granite) to over 99% (for crushable, porous rocks like alluvium) of the explosion yield. Therefore, the energy fraction that is radiated in the form of seismic waves ranges from a few percent down to a few tenths of a percent. This is consistent with the observation that explosions in granite produce more severe ground motion than corresponding explosions in alluvium. The effects of explosion yield and rock properties on the frequency spectrum of the seismic source function are demonstrated by both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis. The characteristics of an ideal elastic medium are such that its frequency response is that of a low-pass filter, with its cutoff frequency being a function of the elastic properties of the material and the radius at which the explosion-produced stress wave becomes elastic. There is further frequency- and distance-dependent attenuation (especially of the higher frequencies) of the seismic waves, because rocks are not

  2. Preliminary hydrogeologic assessment near the boundary of the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Christina L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-07-19

    structures that could affect groundwater flow between the groundwater basins in the study area, gravity data were collected using more closely spaced measurements in September 2014. Groundwater-level data was gathered and collected from March 2014 through March 2015 to determine depth to water and direction of groundwater flow. The gravity and groundwater-level data showed that the saturated thickness of the alluvium was about 2,000 feet thick to the east and about 130 feet thick above the northward-trending basement ridge near Llano, California. Although it was uncertain whether the basement ridge affects the groundwater system, a potential barrier to groundwater flow could be created if the water table fell below the altitude of the basement ridge, effectively causing the area to the west of the basement ridge to become hydraulically isolated from the area to the east. In addition, the direction of regional-groundwater flow likely will be influenced by future changes in the number and distribution of pumping wells and the thickness of the saturated alluvium from which water is withdrawn. Three-dimensional animations were created to help visualize the relation between the basins’ basement topography and the groundwater system in the area. Further studies that could help to more accurately define the basins and evaluate the groundwater-flow system include exploratory drilling of multi-depth monitoring wells; collection of depth-dependent water-quality samples; and linking together existing, but separate, groundwater-flow models from the Antelope Valley and El Mirage Valley groundwater basins into a single, calibrated groundwater-flow model.

  3. Terrestrial Cosmogenic-Nuclide Dating of Alluvial Fans in Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machette, Michael N.; Slate, Janet L.; Phillips, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) to establish the age of some of the most extensive Quaternary alluvial fans in Death Valley, California. These intermediate-age alluvial fans are most extensive on the western side of the valley, where tectonic deformation is considerably less pronounced than on the eastern side of the valley. These fans are characterized by a relatively smooth, densely packed desert pavement formed by well-varnished (blackened) clasts. These surfaces have been mapped as the Q2 gravel by previous workers and as unit Qai (intermediate age) by us. However, the intermediate-age gravels probably contain multiple subunits, as evidenced by slight differences in morphologic expression, soil formation, and inset geomorphic relations. The TCN technique used herein sums the cosmogenic 36Cl in approximately 2.5-meter-deep profiles through soil and host alluvium, thus avoiding some of the problems associated with the more typical surface-exposure dating of boulders or smaller clasts. Our TCN 36Cl dating of 12 depth profiles indicates that these intermediate-age (Qai) alluvial fans range from about 100 to 40 kilo-annum (ka), with a mean age of about 70 ka. An alternative interpretation is that alluvial unit Qai was deposited in two discrete episodes from 90 to 80 ka and from 60 to 50 ka, before and after MIS (marine oxygen-isotope stage) 4 (respectively). Without an intermediate-age unit, such as MIS 4 lake deposits, we can neither disprove nor prove that Qai was deposited in two discrete intervals or over a longer range of time. Thus, in Death Valley, alluvial unit Qai largely brackets MIS 4, which is not associated with a deep phase of Lake Manly. These Qai fans extend to elevations of about -46 meters (150 feet below sea level) and have not been transgressed by Lake Manly, suggesting that MIS 4 or MIS 2 lakes were rather shallow in Death Valley, perhaps because they lacked inflow from surface runoff of the Sierra Nevada drainages through

  4. Riola release report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  5. Prehistoric horticultural adaptation of soils in the middle Waikato Basin : review and evidence from S14/201 and S14/185, Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumbley, W.; Higham, T.F.G.; Low, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    The middle Waikato Basin contains extensive evidence, reviewed here, for the modification of soils for horticulture (gardening) by pre-European Maori. We investigated an area of Maori gardens at archaeological sites S14/201 and S14/185 in Hamilton City. Two groups of multiple, near-circular hollows, each about 0.3 m in diameter and infilled with gravelly sand, were exposed during the site excavations. The hollows, extending through modified A horizon materials into upper B horizon materials, are interpreted as representing the lower part of small truncated mounds (puke) that had been built up by early Maori for growing kumara (Ipomoea batatas). The hollows were grouped in a distinctive quincunx-like pattern in which four hollows formed the corners of a square with one hollow in the centre. The characteristics and layout of the hollows match historical descriptions of mounds used by Maori gardeners. We also used particle-sized analysis to quantify the extent to which upper horizons of the antedecent soils had been modified by the addition of gravel and sand excavated from borrow pits in adjacent volcanogenic alluvium (Hinuera Formation). A radiocarbon date obtained from charcoal found in a fireplace under the modified A horizon and near the hollows suggests that the site was occupied in the late fifteenth century. Identification to species level of charcoal fragments found in the modified soil suggests that site S14/201 may have been cleared of large podocarp trees not long before gardening activities began. This conclusion is supported by similar evidence from another site on the same stretch of the Waikato River. If so, such late (localised) deforestation contrasts with evidence from other palaeoenvironmental studies that shows regional deforestation began considerably earlier (about AD 1300) in the Waikato region. (author). 63 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Peco, Texas. Sierra Vieja survey area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butz, T.R.; Payne, A.G.; Grimes, J.G.; Helgerson, R.N.; Bard, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the Sierra Vieja survey area of the detailed geochemical survey for Trans-Pecos, Texas are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 29 groundwater and 240 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Highest concentrations of uranium in groundwater predominantly occur in areas marginal to the Rio Grande. These wells and spring produce from Quaternary alluvium or the Vieja Group. High specific conductance is also associated with most of the wells located marginal to the Rio Grande. The specific conductance of wells in other areas with greater than or equal to 11.5 ppB uranium are notably lower. Higher than background concentrations of molybdenum, arsenic, and vanadium are observed with wells containing greater than or equal to 11.5 ppB uranium. Total alkalinity and pH display a variable distribution throughout the survey area. Stream sediment from several areas contain greater than or equal to 2.57 soluble uranium. In areas where these concentrations account for greater than or equal to 83% of the uranium present in the sediment, above background concentrations of sodium, aluminum, barium, potassium, zirconium, cerium, and strontium are detected. The degree to which these elements are associated with favorably high uranium concentrations is related to the relative amounts of volcaniclastic and calcareous sedimentary material incorporated in the sample

  7. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed

  8. THE IMAGES OF SUBSURFACE TERTIARY – QUARTENARY DEPOSITS BASED ON GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RECORDS OF SUBI KECIL ISLAND COAST, NATUNA DISTRICT, RIAU ARCHIPELAGO PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Tertiary to Quaternary deposits from coast of Subi Kecil Island, Natuna Distric, Riau Archipelago Province, were imaged with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR. The GPR survey was carried out by using GSSI Surveyor III/20 with 270 MHz and 40 MHz of 3200 MLF antennas. GPR data were processed using software GSSI’s RADAN for Windows NT™. The interpretation were done by using the radar facies as a groups of radar reflections. The GPR images of study area can be recoqnized in to several facies such as parallel, sub parallel, chaotic, oblique, mound and reflection-free. The calibration were done with geological data along the coast (cliff and outcrop. Unit A is the uppermost layer which is characterized by continous to non continous pararel reflection, srong reflector and high amplitude and is interpreted as alluvium deposits. Below the unit A is unit B which is characterized by non continous sub parallel, chaotic and mound reflector, strong reflector and high amplitude. Unit C and D (Mio-Oligocene are overlain by unit A and B include chaotic, reflection-free and, locally, discontinuous parallel, oblique mound reflector radar facies, correlatable at the cliff face to massive sands, mostly representing near coastal deposits. These units are bounded by continuous, high amplitude reflections that can be easily correlatable throughout the GPR profiles, serving as important stratigraphic markers. The GPR survey may improve the reconstruction of the depositional environments through the recognition of massive and unconsolidated sand deposits within unit A and B (Holocene. The stratigraphic framework was also improved through the recognition of the discontinuity surface between Units C and D.

  9. Anthropogenic effects on soil micromycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different authropogenic pollutants (mineral and organic fertilizers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Čačak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and under greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Čapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season, and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg x ha-1 and organic fertilizers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg x ha-1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor, inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  10. Use of Long-Term Lysimeter Data in Support of Shallow Land Waste Disposal Cover Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desotell, L.T.; Hudson, D.B.; Yucel, V.; Carilli, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Water balance studies using two precision weighing lysimeters have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site in support of low-level radioactive waste disposal since 1994. The lysimeters are located in northern Frenchman Flat approximately 400 meters (m) from the southwest corner of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. Frenchman Flat is in the northern Mojave Desert and has an average annual precipitation of 125 millimeters (mm). Each lysimeter consists of a 2 m by 4 m by 2 m deep steel tank filled with native alluvium, supported on a sensitive scale. The scale is instrumented with an electronic load-cell and data-logger for continuous measurement of total soil water storage with a precision of approximately ±800 grams or ±0.1 mm of soil water storage. Data-loggers are linked to cell phone modems for remote data acquisition. One lysimeter is vegetated with native creosote bush, four wing salt bush, and annual grass at the approximate density of the surrounding landscape while the other is maintained as bare soil. Since no drainage has been observed from the bottom of the lysimeters and run-on/run-off is precluded, the change in soil-water storage is equal to precipitation minus evaporation/evapotranspiration. After equilibration, the bare lysimeter contains approximately 20.2 centimeters (cm) of water (10.1 % volumetric water content) and the vegetated lysimeter contains approximately 11.6 cm of water (5.8 % volumetric water content). The finite difference code UNSAT-H was used to simulate the continuous water balance of the lysimeters. Calibrated one-dimensional model simulations were generally in agreement with field data. 30-year model simulations were conducted to evaluate long-term potential transport of radionuclides via the soil water migration pathway. A 30-year climate record was generated by repeating the existing data record. Simulations indicate a 2 m thick closure cover, in conjunction with native vegetation, will essentially eliminate drainage

  11. Geologic setting of the proposed West Flank Forge Site, California: Suitability for EGS research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, Andrew; Blake, Kelly; Lazaro, Mike; Blankenship, Douglas; Kennedy, Mack; McCullough, Jess; DeOreo, S.B.; Hickman, Stephen H.; Glen, Jonathan; Kaven, Joern; Williams, Colin F.; Phelps, Geoffrey; Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Siler, Drew; Robertson-Tait, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The proposed West Flank FORGE site is within the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station (NAWS), China Lake, CA. The West Flank is west of the Coso geothermal field, an area of China Lake NAWS dominated by the Quaternary Coso volcanic field largely comprised of rhyolite domes and their volcaniclastic and epiclastic horizons. The largest dome flow complex, Sugarloaf Mountain, marks the northwestern margin of the geothermal field. The West Flank is situated due west of Sugarloaf. The geologic setting of the West Flank was determined from one deep well (83-11) drilled as a potential production hole in 2009. The bottom-hole temperature (BHT) of well 83-11 approaches 600 oF (315˚C), but flow tests demonstrate very low, non-commercial permeabilities. With the exception of the upper 600 feet of volcaniclastic alluvium, well 83-11 is completed in granitic basement. The West Flank possesses the primary attributes of a FORGE site: non-commercial permeability (geothermal fieldThe Coso Mountains host the Coso volcanic field and are within a right-releasing stepover between the dextral Airport Lake (ALF) and Little Lake fault zones (LLFZ) and the Wild Horse Mesa and Owens Valley faults. Two distinct fault populations have been identified at Coso: WNW-trending and antithetical, NE-trending strike-slip faults and N- to NNE-trending normal faults. These faults are both high permeability drilling targets at depth within the main (productive) geothermal field and they locally segment the field into distinct hydrothermal regimes. The West Flank may be segmented from the rest of the field by one such northerly trending fault. The overall minimum principal stress orientation in the main geothermal field varies from 103˚ to 108˚; however, the minimum horizontal principal stress in 83-11 is rotated to 081˚.

  12. Groundwater monitoring for remedial investigation in the Oriskany-Whitestown Sand Plain, Oneida County, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewer, R.P.; Birckhead, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    The 50-acre Whitestown Landfill is listed by NYSDEC as a Class 2 inactive hazardous waste disposal site. During Remedial Investigations, a 23-well groundwater monitoring system was installed, exploring Wisconsin age glaciofluvial deposits of the Oriskany-Whitestown sand plain. These were described in the late 19th century as deltaic sediments deposited in a proglacial lake. However, no recent studies and only limited subsurface data were available, prompting a two-phase installation program. The landfill is located above steep bluffs 70 feet above the Mohawk River and Oriskany Creek valleys. Beneath the landfill, Phase I identified a gradational sequence of coarse to fine deltaic sediments with glacial till. This sequence was partly eroded and overlain by alluvium and colluvium in the valleys. The landfill was constructed on surficial deposits of coarse fluviodeltaic gravel. These were underlain by deltaic deposits grading from sand to silt with depth, the lower silts comprising the uppermost aquifer. The silts made identification of the water table difficult during drilling and caused problems in meeting a stringent development criterion for turbidity. Phase I found that the saturated zone, up to 50 feet thick, is perched on glaciolacustrine clays and, locally, tills, which were the lower boundary of the system investigated. Partly influenced by the clays, groundwater and contaminant movement was to the adjoining valley, causing off-site impacts in the shallow alluvial/colluvial aquifer. Therefore, Phase 11 focused on characterizing flow and groundwater quality in the discharge area, particularly with respect to an adjacent residence and wetlands. Contamination was found to extend northward only as far as the Old Erie Canal, which parallels the base of the bluff. Only limited off-site involvement was documented which will be monitored in the post-closure period using the installed well system

  13. Nitrous oxide emission from cropland and adjacent riparian buffers in contrasting hydrogeomorphic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K; Jacinthe, P A; Vidon, P; Liu, X; Baker, M E

    2014-01-01

    Riparian buffers are important nitrate (NO) sinks in agricultural watersheds, but limited information is available regarding the intensity and control of nitrous oxide (NO) emission from these buffers. This study monitored (December 2009-May 2011) NO fluxes at two agricultural riparian buffers in the White River watershed in Indiana to assess the impact of land use and hydrogeomorphologic (HGM) attributes on emission. The study sites included a riparian forest in a glacial outwash/alluvium setting (White River [WR]) and a grassed riparian buffer in tile-drained till plains (Leary Weber Ditch [LWD]). Adjacent corn ( L.) fields were monitored for land use assessment. Analysis of variance identified season, land use (riparian buffer vs. crop field), and site geomorphology as major drivers of NO fluxes. Strong relationships between N mineralization and NO fluxes were found at both sites, but relationships with other nutrient cycling indicators (C/N ratio, dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C) were detected only at LWD. Nitrous oxide emission showed strong seasonal variability; the largest NO peaks occurred in late spring/early summer as a result of flooding at the WR riparian buffer (up to 27.8 mg NO-N m d) and N fertilizer application to crop fields. Annual NO emission (kg NO-N ha) was higher in the crop fields (WR: 7.82; LWD: 6.37) than in the riparian areas. A significant difference ( LWD, respectively), and this difference was attributed to site geomorphology and flooding (WR is flood prone; no flooding occurred at tile-drained LWD). The study results demonstrate the significance of landscape geomorphology and land-stream connection (i.e., flood potential) as drivers of NO emission in riparian buffers and therefore argue that an HGM-based approach should be especially suitable for determination of regional NO budget in riparian ecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. The Study of Geological Structures in Suli and Tulehu Geothermal Regions (Ambon, Indonesia Based on Gravity Gradient Tensor Data Simulation and Analytic Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lewerissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In early 2017, the geothermal system in the Suli and Tulehu areas of Ambon (Indonesia was investigated using a gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal. The gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal were obtained through forward modeling based on a rectangular prism. It was applied to complete Bouguer anomaly data over the study area by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The analysis was conducted to enhance the geological structure like faults as a pathway of geothermal fluid circulation that is not visible on the surface because it is covered by sediment. The complete Bouguer anomaly ranges of 93 mGal up to 105 mGal decrease from the southwest in Suli to the northeast in Tulehu. A high gravity anomaly indicates a strong magmatic intrusion below the Suli region. The gravity anomalies decrease occurs in the Eriwakang mountain and most of Tulehu, and it is associated with a coral limestone. The lower gravity anomalies are located in the north to the northeast part of Tulehu are associated with alluvium. The residual anomaly shows that the drill well TLU-01 and geothermal manifestations along with the Banda, and Banda-Hatuasa faults are associated with lowest gravity anomaly (negative zone. The gravity gradient tensor simulation and an analytic signal of Suli and Tulehu give more detailed information about the geological features. The gzz component allows accurate description of the shape structures, especially the Banda fault associated with a zero value. This result will be useful as a geophysical constraint to subsurface modeling according to gravity gradient inversion over the area.

  15. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  16. River-groundwater connectivity in a karst system, Wellington, New South Wales, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Mohammadreza; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of river-aquifer connectivity in karst environments is difficult due to the presence of conduits and caves. This work demonstrates how geophysical imaging combined with hydrogeological data can improve the conceptualization of surface-water and groundwater interactions in karst terrains. The objective of this study is to understand the association between the Bell River and karst-alluvial aquifer at Wellington, Australia. River and groundwater levels were continuously monitored, and electrical resistivity imaging and water quality surveys conducted. Two-dimensional resistivity imaging mapped the transition between the alluvium and karst. This is important for highlighting the proximity of the saturated alluvial sediments to the water-filled caves and conduits. In the unsaturated zone the resistivity imaging differentiated between air- and sediment-filled karst features, and in the saturated zone it mapped the location of possible water- and sediment-filled caves. Groundwater levels are dynamic and respond quickly to changes in the river stage, implying that there is a strong hydraulic connection, and that the river is losing and recharging the adjacent aquifer. Groundwater extractions (1,370 ML, megalitres, annually) from the alluvial aquifer can cause the groundwater level to fall by as much as 1.5 m in a year. However, when the Bell River flows after significant rainfall in the upper catchment, river-leakage rapidly recharges the alluvial and karst aquifers. This work demonstrates that in complex hydrogeological settings, the combined use of geophysical imaging, hydrograph analysis and geochemical measurements provide insights on the local karst hydrology and groundwater processes, which will enable better water-resource and karst management.

  17. Drilling and coring methods that minimize the disturbance of cuttings, core, and rock formation in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; McDaniel, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    A drilling-and-casing method (Odex 115 system) utilizing air as a drilling fluid was used successfully to drill through various rock types within the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper describes this method and the equipment used to rapidly penetrate bouldery alluvial-colluvial deposits, poorly consolidated bedded and nonwelded tuff, and fractured, densely welded tuff to depths of about 130 meters. A comparison of water-content and water-potential data from drill cuttings with similar measurements on rock cores indicates that drill cuttings were only slightly disturbed for several of the rock types penetrated. Coring, sampling, and handling methods were devised to obtain minimally disturbed drive core from bouldery alluvial-colluvial deposits. Bulk-density values obtained from bulk samples dug from nearby trenches were compared to bulk-density values obtained from drive core to determine the effects of drive coring on the porosity of the core. Rotary coring methods utilizing a triple-tube core barrel and air as the drilling fluid were used to obtain core from welded and nonwelded tuff. Results indicate that the disturbance of the water content of the core was minimal. Water-content distributions in alluvium-colluvium were determined before drilling occurred by drive-core methods. After drilling, water-content distributions were determined by nuclear-logging methods. A comparison of the water-content distributions made before and after drilling indicates that Odex 115 drilling minimally disturbs the water content of the formation rock. 10 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Archaeological investigations on the Buckboard Mesa Road Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amick, D.S.; Henton, G.H.; Pippin, L.C.

    1991-10-01

    In 1986, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) conducted an archaeological reconnaissance of a new alignment for the Buckboard Mesa Road on the Nevada Test Site for the Department of Energy (DOE). During this reconnaissance, several archaeological sites of National Register quality were discovered and recorded including a large quarry, site 26Ny4892, and a smaller lithic scatter, site 26Ny4894. Analysis of the debitage at 26Ny4892 indicates that this area was used primarily as a quarry for relatively small cobbles of obsidian found in the alluvium. Lithic reduction techniques used here are designed for efficiently reducing small pieces of toolstone and are oriented towards producing flake blanks from small cores and bifacially reducing exhausted cores. Projectile point cross references indicate that the area has seen at least casual use for about 10,000 years and more sustained use for the last 3,000 years. Initial obsidian hydration measurements indicate sustained use of the quarry for about the last 3,000 years although the loci of activities appear to change over time. Based on this study, the DRI recommends that quarrying activities in the area of 26Ny4892 are sufficiently sampled and that additional investigations into that aspect of prehistoric activity in the area are not necessary. This does not apply to other aspects of prehistoric use. DRI recommends that preconstruction surveys continue to identify nonquarrying, prehistoric utilization of the area. With the increased traffic on the Buckboard Mesa Road, there is a greater potential for vandalism to sites of National Register-quality located near the road. The DRI recommends that during the orientation briefing the workers at the Test Site be educated about the importance of cultural resources and the need for their protection. 202 refs., 41 figs., 52 tabs.

  19. Paleofloristic and paleofaunistic analysis of Dudváh River oxbow and implication for Late Holocene paleoenvironmental development of the Žitný ostrov Island (SW Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pišút, Peter; Břízová, Eva; Čejka, Tomáš; Pipík, Radovan

    2010-12-01

    Žitný ostrov, the largest island of the Danube River (SW Slovakia) gained its present shape in the Neoholocene period. As a result of increased flood and geomorphological Danube river activity dated to 1378-1528 AD, the Lower Dudváh River was abandoned and its alluvium became a part of the Žitný ostrov. Study of a Dudváh terrestrialized paleomeander by means of pollen and macrofossil analysis provides new information about the paleoenvironments of the Danubian Plain. The meander under study was cut-off during the Sub-Boreal period when the land was mostly covered by oak-dominated mixed forest with a notable high frequency of Fagus and Abies. In low-lying depressions, Alnus glutinosa formed typical alder carrs. The largest decline of the mixed forest occurred during the Sub-Atlantic period. Until the mid-19th century the region was strongly influenced by shallow groundwater and periodical floods, as reflected by pollen of aquatics and marsh species. Amongst non-arboreal taxa, pollen of Cyperaceae, Brassicaceae/Cuscuta, Poaceae and Apiaceae prevailed. Local successional changes started with i) stage of abandoned oxbow still with influx of moving water, poor in both macrophytes and molluscs, ii) shallow eutrophic oxbow lake with slowly flowing or stagnant water overgrown with aquatics (Ranunculus subgen. Batrachium, Potamogeton sp., Ceratophyllum demersum etc.) and abundant molluscs, iii) an open marsh dominated by Cyperaceae (mainly Carex riparia) with Atriplex prostrata, supporting diverse molluscan and Ostracod fauna. Present-day habitat is a result of landscape changes, which have been associated with draining, intensified agriculture, ruderalisation and spread of invasive species.

  20. Conception to set up a new groundwater monitoring network in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Water Framework Directive of the European Union (WFD adopted in year 2000. outlines number of water policy and management actions, where monitoring is of primary importance. Following WFD principles Serbia adopted new legislation in water sector aiming to conserve or achieve good ecological, chemical and quantitative status of water resources. Serbia, as most of the countries of former Yugoslavia mostly uses groundwater for drinking water supply (over 75%. However, the current situation in monitoring of groundwater quality and quantity is far from satisfactory. Several hundred piezometers for observation of groundwater level under auspices of the Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia are located mostly in alluviums of major rivers, while some 70 piezometers are used by the Serbian Environmental Protection Agency for controlling groundwater quality. Currently only 20% of delineated groundwater bodies are under observation. This paper evaluates current conditions and proposes to expand national monitoring network to cover most of groundwater bodies or their groups, to raise number of observation points to a density of ca. 1 object /200 km2 and to include as much as possible actual waterworks in this network. Priority in selecting sites for new observation piezometers or springs has to be given to groundwater bodies under threats, either to their water reserves or their water chemical quality. For the former, an assessment of available renewable reserves versus exploitation capacity is needed, while to estimate pressures on water quality, the best way is to compare aquifers’ vulnerability against anthropogenic (diffuse and punctual hazards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176022

  1. Ground magnetic exploration for radioactive minerals in Missikat area eastern desert of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadek, H.S.; Soliman, S.A.; Abdelhady, H.M.; Elsayed, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    The airborne radiometric surveys and subsequent geological investigations proved the occurrence of uranium mineralization in jasperoid vein which cuts across the pink granites of Gebel El Missikat. The Missikat granites are intruded in older granodiorite and diorite exposures where the whole system is intersected by a system of faults and sheers. The relationship between the different structures and the origin of mineralization is not yet understood. The present study is the first step in a systematic approach of subsurface geophysical exploration for the mineral deposits. Ground magnetic survey was conducted along more than 25 lines across the jasperoid vein and separated at 50m while the magnetic measurements were taken at stations spaced 20m apart. The collected data has been reduced and analysed automatically using appropriate advanced software. The interpretation of the resultant magnetic contour map and profiles reveals the subsurface configuration of the different lithologic units in the area. Most of the granodiorites, exposed due west, are just roof pendants where they are underlain by the Missikat granite pluton. In addition it was possible to map the subsurface contacts between the granites and other geologic units beneath the Wadi Alluvium. The structural interpretation of magnetic data succeeded to distinguish additional fault lines and shear zones in the area. In this respect, a system of NE shears parallel to the mineralized vein, was distinguished by the associated weak magnetic anomalies. The anomalies resulting from the vein and shears suggest wider repetition of the mineralization and in addition, they can be used to distinguish the locations of increasing mineral potential in depth. Such locations are recommended for further geophysical exploration using more effective, however, expensive methods such as induced polarization (IP), self potential (SP) and miseala mass. The recommended exploration can be used for precise determination of the

  2. Effect of high aluminum concentration in water resources on human health, case study: Biga Peninsula, northwest part of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Coşkun; Karaman, Handan Işin Ozişik; Baba, Alper; Sengünalp, Fatma

    2010-05-01

    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration exist as outcrop around the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from these altered volcanic rocks. The concentrations of aluminum (Al) in these springs ranged from 13.17 to 15.70 ppm in this region. These high levels of Al were found to exceed the maximum allowable limits (0.2 ppm) depicted in national and international standards of drinking water quality. Therefore, the effect of high Al in water resources on human health was evaluated in this research. A total of 273 people aged above 18 years and living in the Kirazli region (whose water supply is from springs emerging from these alteration zones) and in the Ciplak-Halileli region (whose water supply is provided from an alluvium aquifer) were selected as the research group. For this group, a questionnaire was completed that contained questions on descriptive characteristics of humans and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered by the authors using the face-to-face interview technique. A neurological examination was then performed by the neurology specialist as a second-stage investigation. Finally, 10 ml of venous blood samples were obtained from these people as a third-stage analysis to determine the serum Al levels together with vitamin B(12), folic acid, and thyroid-stimulating hormone parameters. The result typically revealed that the MMSE score was less in 31.9% and there was no statistically significant difference between the two regions. However, the result also showed that neuropathy in the history (including a careful past medical history) was significantly higher in the Kirazli region.

  3. Determination of slope failure using 2-D resistivity method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muztaza, Nordiana Mohd; Saad, Rosli; Ismail, Nur Azwin; Bery, Andy Anderson

    2017-07-01

    Landslides and slope failure may give negative economic effects including the cost to repair structures, loss of property value and medical costs in the event of injury. To avoid landslide, slope failure and disturbance of the ecosystem, good and detailed planning must be done when developing hilly area. Slope failure classification and various factors contributing to the instability using 2-D resistivity survey conducted in Selangor, Malaysia are described. The study on landslide and slope failure was conducted at Site A and Site B, Selangor using 2-D resistivity method. The implications of the anticipated ground conditions as well as the field observation of the actual conditions are discussed. Nine 2-D resistivity survey lines were conducted in Site A and six 2-D resistivity survey lines with 5 m minimum electrode spacing using Pole-dipole array were performed in Site B. The data were processed using Res2Dinv and Surfer10 software to evaluate the subsurface characteristics. 2-D resistivity results from both locations show that the study areas consist of two main zones. The first zone is alluvium or highly weathered with the resistivity of 100-1000 Ωm at 20-70 m depth. This zone consists of saturated area (1-100 Ωm) and boulders with resistivity value of 1200-3000 Ωm. The second zone with resistivity values of > 3000 Ωm was interpreted as granitic bedrock. The study area was characterized by saturated zones, highly weathered zone, highly contain of sand and boulders that will trigger slope failure in the survey area. Based on the results obtained from the study findings, it can be concluded that 2-D resistivity method is useful method in determination of slope failure.

  4. Geological evidence of tsunamis and earthquakes at the Eastern Hellenic Arc: correlation with historical seismicity in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerassimos Papadopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary stratigraphy determined by trenching in Dalaman, south-western Turkey, revealed three sand layers at a distance of approximately 240 m from the shoreline and at elevations of +0.30, +0.55 and +0.90 cm. Storm surge action does not explain the features of these deposits that show instead typical characteristics of tsunami deposition. The sand layers correlate with historical tsunamis generated by large earthquakes which ruptured the eastern Hellenic Arc and Trench in 1303, 1481 and 1741. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating of a wood sample from layer II indicated deposition in AD 1473±46, which fits the 1481 event. From an estimated average alluvium deposition rate of approximately 0.13 cm/year, layers I and III were dated at 1322 and 1724, which may represent the large 1303 and 1741 tsunamis. The geological record of the 1303 key event is very poor; therefore, sand layer I perhaps represents an important geological signature of the 1303 tsunami. However, the strong tsunami reported to have been generated by the 1609 earthquake is missing from Dalaman stratigraphy: this underlines the sensitivity of tsunami geological signatures to various local factors. The 1303 earthquake ruptured the trench between the islands of Crete and Rhodes. For the earthquakes of 1481, 1609 and 1741 we suggested that they were very likely generated in the Rhodes Abyssal Plain where sea depths of up to approximately 4200 m, together with the thrust component of seismotectonics, favor tsunami generation. Sand dykes directed upwards from layer I to layer II indicated that the 1481 earthquake triggered liquefaction of sand layer I. The results substantially widen our knowledge about the historical earthquake and tsunami activity in the eastern Mediterranean basin.

  5. Geology of the Nevada Test Site and nearby areas, southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.

    1982-10-01

    The Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site (NTS) lies in the southern part of the Great Basin Section of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province. This report addresses the geological setting of the NTS in the context of the current waste isolation policy. The intent is to provide a synthesis of geological conditions at the NTS and nearby areas so that a general background of information is available for assessing the possible role of geology in providing protections for humans from buried radioactive wastes. The NTS is characterized by alluvium-filled, topgraphically closed valleys surrounded by ranges composed of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Tertiary volcanic tuffs and lavas. The Paleozoic rocks are a miogeosynclinal sequence of about 13,000 ft of pre-Cambrian to Cambrian clastic deposits (predominantly quartzites) overlain by about 14,000 ft of Cambrian through Devonian carbonates, 8000 ft of Mississippian argillites and quartzites, and 3000 ft of Pennsylvanian to Permian limestones. Tertiary volcanic rocks are predominatly silicic composition and were extruded from numerous eruptive centers during Miocene and Pliocene epochs. Within eruptive caldera depressions, volcanic deposits accumulated to perhaps 10,000 ft in total thickness, thinning to extinction outward from the calderas. Extrusion of minor amounts of basalts accompanied Pliocene and Pleistocene filling of structural basins with detritus from the ranges. Regional compressional and extensional structures as well as local volcanic structures occur in the NTS region. Normal extensional faulting coincided with the outbreak of volcanism during the Miocene and was superimposed on existing Mesozoic structures. Continued extensional deformation may be occurring at the present time

  6. Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ivan G.; Stokoe, Kenneth; Cox, Brady R.; Yuan, Jiabei; Knudsen, Keith L.; Terra, Fabia; Okubo, Paul G.; Lin, Yin-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical ground-motion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectral-analysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

  7. Radiotracer technique to quantify change in filtration velocity as a measure of dilution effect by artificial recharge in an arsenic infested aquifer at Ashoknagar, Habra - II block, 24 Paragana district, West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, U.P.; Sharma, Suman

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotopes are frequently employed as tracers for various applications in industry, agricultural, medicine and hydrology. In hydrology, radiotracers are commonly applied to investigate several hydrological parameters of aquifers such as hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity and direction of flow etc. They impart valuable insight into the understanding of the hydrological systems. Application of radioisotopes in determination of groundwater flow velocity is now a well established technique. In this paper, groundwater filtration velocity was determined in an arsenic infested alluvium aquifer at Ashoknagar, Habra, West Bengal for determining the dilution effect due to arsenic free water. In some parts of West Bengal, generally shallow aquifers up to 80 m deep are contaminated due to geogenic arsenic. Researchers have different views about origin and mobility of arsenic in the groundwaters of West Bengal. For the removal of Arsenic from the groundwater various methods have been suggested and implemented such as ion-exchange, co-precipitation, adsorption, membrane separation and dilution etc. Dilution of the Arsenic concentration by artificial recharge of arsenic free water from the constructed pits in the contaminated aquifer is one such simple method. Efficacy of this method was studied by measuring filtration velocity in the contaminated aquifer at the Ashoknagar, Habra - II Block, North 24 Paragana district, West Bengal. Radioactive 82 Br in the form of aqueous ammonium bromide was used as a tracer to measure filtration velocity of the groundwater. Point dilution technique in a single well was applied. Filtration velocity provided relevant information about the arsenic dilution in the groundwater by the artificial recharge and its value will be used as a model parameter. (author)

  8. Arsenic and Fluoride Mobilization Mechanism in Groundwater of Indus Delta and Thar Desert, Sindh, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIQAR HUSAIN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Indus deltaic plain consists of medium to fine grained sediments, rich in organic matter deposited during the Holocene period. Thar desert is covered with sand dunes and loess originated from transported sediments from Rann of Kutch or the Indus plain by monsoon winds or by the reworking of local alluvial deposits. Groundwater salinity and microbial pollution are common in both types of lanforms, but arsenic (AS and fluoride (F toxicity dominate in the groundwater of Indus delta and Thar desert, respectively. Arsenic concentration in Tando Mohammad Khan and Tando Allayar varies from 10-500 ppb and exhibits near neutral slightly alkaline pH ranging from 6.8 to 8.0. Arsenic distribution is patchy and seems to be related to the prsence of small scale redox zonation in the aquifer. High arsenic affected areas are densely populated and intensively cultivated and its hot spots are those from where the Indus river passed during the Holocene period including Tando Allayar and Tando Mohammad Khan. Extensive ground water irrigation has accelerated flow of groundwater that brought dissolved degraded organic matter in contact with arsenic bearing sediments, enhancing reduction processes and triggering release of arsenic from detrital bioitite and muscovite in the groundwater. Furthermore, unlined sanitation and microbial contamination contribute to degradation of organic matter that enhances the reduction of iron oxy-hydroxide leading to release of arsenic to groundwater. Fluoride is found in all the groundwater samples of Tharparkar district, in the range of 0.96-2.74mg/l. The pH of groundwater is alkaline (7.38-8.59, which is accelerating maximum (1.24%F dissolution in the groundwater. The favourable pH of groundwater and soil composition of Holocene sediments of Indus delta and slightly older alluvium of Thar desert, respectively are responsible for mobilization of arsenic and fluoride in groundwater of Sindh province of Pakistan.

  9. Identification of Bottled Zam Zam Water in Malaysian Market using Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotobe Ratios (δ2H and δ18O)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslanzairi Mostapa; Abdul Kadir Ishak; Kamaruzaman Mohamad; Rohaimah Demanah

    2014-01-01

    The water drawn from the well of Zam Zam is believed by the adherents of Islam to be blessed and capable of treating a variety of ailments. The water originates from a well in an alluvium area, located in Mecca, Saudi Arabia and has been in use since 4000 years ago. Due to the religious significance of the water drawn from this well, bottled versions are very popular among Malaysians. Unfortunately, this disproportionate popularity may entice some unscrupulous dealers to engage in fraudulent behaviour, such as selling ordinary water purported to be Zam Zam water. This unethical practice might very well pose a physical and economical hazard to consumers. Therefore, for the purpose of this preliminary study, five samples of Zam Zam bottled water from different brands were purchased and analyzed using Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (IRMS). For comparison purpose, four samples of zam zam water from Mecca, and two more types of water samples originating from Malaysian were also analyzed, namely, bottled drinking water and tap water. The sources of these water samples are from groundwater and surface water (river), respectively. Results of hydrogen (ε 2 H) and oxygen (ε 18 O) isotope ratios of zam zam water from mecca are in the range of -13.62 % to -10.60 %, and -2.17 % to 0.06 %, respectively, while the hydrogen (ε 2 H) and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotope ratios of five samples from the bottled Zam Zam water are within the range of -50.74 % to -7.95 % to -5.39 %, respectively. The results from the measured values of all the water samples, and might be immensely useful for the purpose of regulatory monitoring of bottled water products. (author)

  10. Understanding Laterally Varying Path Effects on P/S Ratios and their Effectiveness for Event Discrimination at Local Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Discrimination between underground explosions and naturally occurring earthquakes is an important endeavor for global security and test-ban treaty monitoring, and ratios of seismic P to S-wave amplitudes at regional distances have proven to be an effective discriminant. The use of the P/S ratio is rooted in the idea that explosive sources should theoretically only generate compressional energy. While, in practice, shear energy is observed from explosions, generally when corrections are made for magnitude and distance, P/S ratios from explosions are higher than those from surrounding earthquakes. At local distances (chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding and modeling capabilities of shear waves generated by explosions. Phase I consisted of 5 explosions in granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. We apply a high-resolution 2D attenuation model to events near the NNSS to examine what effect path plays in local P/S ratios, and how well an earthquake-derived model can account for shallower explosion paths. The model incorporates both intrinsic attenuation and scattering effects and extends to 16 Hz, allowing us to make lateral path corrections and consider high-frequency ratios. Preliminary work suggests that while 2D path corrections modestly improve earthquake amplitude predictions, explosion amplitudes are not well matched, and so P/S ratios do not necessarily improve. Further work is needed to better understand the uses and limitation of 2D path corrections for local P/S ratios.

  11. Preliminary Groundwater Simulations To Compare Different Reconstruction Methods of 3-d Alluvial Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, V.; de Marsily, G.; Delay, F.; Perrier, E.

    Alluvial floodplains are extremely heterogeneous aquifers, whose three-dimensional structures are quite difficult to model. In general, when representing such structures, the medium heterogeneity is modeled with classical geostatistical or Boolean meth- ods. Another approach, still in its infancy, is called the genetic method because it simulates the generation of the medium by reproducing sedimentary processes. We developed a new genetic model to obtain a realistic three-dimensional image of allu- vial media. It does not simulate the hydrodynamics of sedimentation but uses semi- empirical and statistical rules to roughly reproduce fluvial deposition and erosion. The main processes, either at the stream scale or at the plain scale, are modeled by simple rules applied to "sediment" entities or to conceptual "erosion" entities. The model was applied to a several kilometer long portion of the Aube River floodplain (France) and reproduced the deposition and erosion cycles that occurred during the inferred climate periods (15 000 BP to present). A three-dimensional image of the aquifer was gener- ated, by extrapolating the two-dimensional information collected on a cross-section of the floodplain. Unlike geostatistical methods, this extrapolation does not use a statis- tical spatial analysis of the data, but a genetic analysis, which leads to a more realistic structure. Groundwater flow and transport simulations in the alluvium were carried out with a three-dimensional flow code or simulator (MODFLOW), using different rep- resentations of the alluvial reservoir of the Aube River floodplain: first an equivalent homogeneous medium, and then different heterogeneous media built either with the traditional geostatistical approach simulating the permeability distribution, or with the new genetic model presented here simulating sediment facies. In the latter case, each deposited entity of a given lithology was assigned a constant hydraulic conductivity value. Results of these

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment detailed geochemical survey for Edgemont, South Dakota; Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butz, T.R.; Dean, N.E.; Bard, C.S.; Helgerson, R.N.; Grimes, J.G.; Pritz, P.M.

    1980-05-31

    Results of the Edgemont detailed geochemical survey are reported. Field and laboratory data are presented for 109 groundwater and 419 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are given. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Groundwaters containing greater than or equal to 7.35 ppB uranium are present in scattered clusters throughout the area sampled. Most of these groundwaters are from wells drilled where the Inyan Kara Group is exposed at the surface. The exceptions are a group of samples in the northwestern part of the area sampled and south of the Dewey Terrace. These groundwaters are also produced from the Inyan Kara Group where it is overlain by the Graneros Group and alluvium. The high uranium groundwaters along and to the south of the terrace are characterized by high molybdenum, uranium/specific conductance, and uranium/sulfate values. Many of the groundwaters sampled along the outcrop of the Inyan Kara Group are near uranium mines. Groundwaters have high amounts of uranium and molybdenum. Samples taken downdip are sulfide waters with low values of uranium and high values of arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and vanadium. Stream sediments containing greater than or equal to 5.50 ppM soluble uranium are concentrated in basins draining the Graneros and Inyan Kara Groups. These values are associated with high values for arsenic, selenium, and vanadium in samples from both groups. Anomalous values for these elements in the Graneros Group may be caused by bentonite beds contained in the rock units. As shown on the geochemical distribution plot, high uranium values that are located in the Inyan Kara Group are almost exclusively draining open-pit uranium mines.

  13. Seismic risk analysis for the Babcock and Wilcox facility, Leechburg, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Babcock and Wilcox Plutonium Fuel Fabrication facility at Leechburg, Pennsylvania are presented. This report focuses on earthquakes; the other natural hazards, being addressed in separate reports, are severe weather (strong winds and tornados) and floods. The calculational method used is based on Cornell's work (1968); it has been previously applied to safety evaluations of major projects. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases. Because of the aseismicity of the region around the site, an analysis different from the conventional closest approach in a tectonic province was adapted. Earthquakes as far from the site as 1,000 km were included, as were the possibility of earthquakes at the site. In addition, various uncertainties in the input were explicitly considered in the analysis. The results of the risk analysis, which include a Bayesian estimate of the uncertainties, are presented, expressed as return period accelerations. The best estimate curve indicates that the Babcock and Wilcox facility will experience 0.05 g every 220 years and 0.10 g every 1400 years. The bounding curves roughly represent the one standard deviation confidence limits about the best estimate, reflecting the uncertainty in certain of the input. Detailed examination of the results show that the accelerations are very insensitive to the details of the source region geometries or the historical earthquake statistics in each region and that each of the source regions contributes almost equally to the cumulative risk at the site. If required for structural analysis, acceleration response spectra for the site can be constructed by scaling the mean response spectrum for alluvium in WASH 1255 by these peak accelerations

  14. Natural and human-induced sinkholes in gypsum terrain and associated environmental problems in NE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, G.; Del Campo, P. Pérez; Gutiérrez-Elorza, M.; Sancho, C.

    1995-04-01

    The central Ebro Basin comprises thick evaporite materials whose high solubility produces typically karstic landforms. The sinkhole morphology developed in the overlying alluvium has been studied using gravimetry and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) on stream terraces, as well as analyzing the evolution of sinkhole morphologies observed in aerial photographs taken in 1928, 1957, and 1985. The sinkhole morphologies give some idea of possible subsurface processes as well as an indication of the final mechanisms involve in sinkhole development. On stream terraces and cover pediments the most commonly encountered dolines are bowl-shaped in their morphology with both diffuse and scarped edges. In contrast, dolines developed in the gypsiferous silt infilled valleys have a funnel and well-shaped morphology. The diffuse-edged bowl-shaped dolines are developed through the progressive subsidence of the alluvial cover, due to washing down of alluvial particles through small voids and cracks into deeper subsurface caves, resulting in a decrease alluvial density. Future compaction of the alluvial cover will produce surface subsidences. This type of dolines are associated with negative gravity anomalies. In contrast, the scarped-edge dolines are formed by the sudden collapse of a cavity roof. The cavities and cracks formed in the gypsum karst may migrate to the surface through the alluvial deposits by piping, and they may subsequently collapse. In this instance, the cavities can be detected by both gravity and GPR anomalies where the voids are not deeper than 4 5 m from the surface. These processes forming sinkholes can be enhanced by man-induced changes in the groundwater hydrologic regime by both inflows, due to irrigation, ditch losses, or pipe leakages, and by outflows from pumping activities.

  15. Interpretasi Vulkanostratigrafi Daerah Mamuju Berdasarkan Analisis Citra Landsat-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederikus Dian Indrastomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mamuju and its surrounding area are constructed mainly by volcanic rocks. Volcanoclastic sedimentary rocks and limestones are laid above the volcanic rocks. Volcanic activities create some unique morphologies such as craters, lava domes, and pyroclastic flow paths as their volcanic products. These products are identified from their circular features characters on Landsat-8 imagery. After geometric and atmospheric corrections had been done, a visual interpretation on Landsat-8 imagery was conducted to identify structure, geomorphology, and geological condition of the area. Regional geological structures show trend to southeast – northwest direction which is affects the formation of Adang volcano. Geomorphology of the area are classified into 16 geomorphology units based on their genetic aspects, i.e Sumare fault block ridge, Mamuju cuesta ridge, Adang eruption crater, Labuhan Ranau eruption crater, Sumare eruption crater, Ampalas volcanic cone, Adang lava dome, Labuhan Ranau intrusion hill, Adang pyroclastic flow ridge, Sumare pyroclastic flow ridge, Adang volcanic remnant hills, Malunda volcanic remnant hills, Talaya volcanic remnant hills, Tapalang karst hills, Mamuju alluvium plains, and Karampuang reef terrace plains. Based on the Landsat-8 imagery interpretation result and field confirmation, the geology of Mamuju area is divided into volcanic rocks and sedimentary rocks. There are two groups of volcanic rocks; Talaya complex and Mamuju complex. The Talaya complex consists of Mambi, Malunda, and Kalukku volcanic rocks with andesitic composition, while Mamuju complex consist of Botteng, Ahu, Tapalang, Adang, Ampalas, Sumare, danLabuhanRanau volcanic rocks with andesite to leucitic basalt composition. The volcanostratigraphy of Mamuju area was constructed based on its structure, geomorphology and lithology distribution analysis. Volcanostratigraphy of Mamuju area is classified into Khuluk Talaya and Khuluk Mamuju. The Khuluk Talaya consists

  16. ANTHROPOGENIC EFFECTS ON SOIL MICROMYCETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin A. Đukić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a synthesis of long-term investigations based on the effect of different (mineral and organic fertilisers, heavy metals, contaminated irrigation water, nitrification inhibitor and detergents on the dynamics of soil fungi number. The investigations were performed at the Microbiology Department and trial fields of the Faculty of Agronomy in Cacak on smonitza and alluvium soils in field and greenhouse conditions. Maize, wheat, barley and red clover were used as test plants in these studies. The quantitative composition of the fungi in the soils investigated was determined by the Czapek selective agar dilution method. The study results show that the number of soil fungi was dependent on the type and rate of agrochemicals used, on the growing season and the soil zone the samples were taken from for the analysis. Lower nitrogen fertiliser rates (80 and 120 kg?ha-1 and organic fertilisers stimulated the development of soil fungi, unlike the rate of 150 kg?ha- 1. Heavy metals, mercury and cadmium in particular, as well as high rates of the N-serve nitrification inhibitor inhibited the development of this group of soil microorganisms. Generally, the adverse effect of contaminated irrigation water on the soil fungi was recorded in both soil types, and particularly in the smonitza under red clover. Low detergent (Meril concentrations did not have any significant effect on this group of microorganisms. In this respect, it can be concluded that the soil fungi number dynamics can be used in monitoring soils polluted by different toxinogenic substances.

  17. The mining in the Departments of Guainia and Vaupes: socioeconomic condition and the population's dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzola Pinto, Luis Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The new departments of Guainia and Vaupes are regions of the Colombian periphery, located in the Amazon region, with big extensions territorial and low population. The which, between 80% and 90% they are indigenous. Ecologically, they are plane places with tropical humid forests, savanna relicts and some rocky mountains. The environmental offer is reduced by the poverty of the waters and the scarce nutrients of the soils. They are departments with discharges rates of poverty and misery, where the cost of life is high and the presence of the state is reduced. The gold mining is one of the scarce economic activities that contribute to the employment generation, but they generate cultural problems to the aboriginals, and contamination to the hydric sources. The exploitations fulfill the cycle's characteristic of the peacefulness that has a quick peak, followed by a decline of the production. The exploited gold corresponds to the alluviums and elluvions, being to extract the vein of gold. The peacefulness attract residents of interior of the country with low resources, which move among Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil depending on the expectations of the new locations of the Amazon Guyana. Alone 10% of the miners are native of the departments; other 10% is foreign, preferably Brazilian. In the Vaupes and Guainia they face two production systems: the capitalism of accumulation and consumption vs. the production of subsistence where it is important the value of the use and not the commercial value. It also confront the western culture with values singular of lucrative technology, against the indigenous culture and ecological technologies, but it is expected that of these differences a new culture and production system that it join the best in both components

  18. Mineral resources of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.

  19. St. Louis area earthquake hazards mapping project; seismic and liquefaction hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Chris H.; Bauer, Robert A.; Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, David; Pierce, Larry; Voigt, Vicki; Mitchell, Brad; Gaunt, David; Williams, Robert; Hoffman, David; Hempen, Gregory L.; Steckel, Phyllis; Boyd, Oliver; Watkins, Connor M.; Tucker, Kathleen; McCallister, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    We present probabilistic and deterministic seismic and liquefaction hazard maps for the densely populated St. Louis metropolitan area that account for the expected effects of surficial geology on earthquake ground shaking. Hazard calculations were based on a map grid of 0.005°, or about every 500 m, and are thus higher in resolution than any earlier studies. To estimate ground motions at the surface of the model (e.g., site amplification), we used a new detailed near‐surface shear‐wave velocity model in a 1D equivalent‐linear response analysis. When compared with the 2014 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Model, which uses a uniform firm‐rock‐site condition, the new probabilistic seismic‐hazard estimates document much more variability. Hazard levels for upland sites (consisting of bedrock and weathered bedrock overlain by loess‐covered till and drift deposits), show up to twice the ground‐motion values for peak ground acceleration (PGA), and similar ground‐motion values for 1.0 s spectral acceleration (SA). Probabilistic ground‐motion levels for lowland alluvial floodplain sites (generally the 20–40‐m‐thick modern Mississippi and Missouri River floodplain deposits overlying bedrock) exhibit up to twice the ground‐motion levels for PGA, and up to three times the ground‐motion levels for 1.0 s SA. Liquefaction probability curves were developed from available standard penetration test data assuming typical lowland and upland water table levels. A simplified liquefaction hazard map was created from the 5%‐in‐50‐year probabilistic ground‐shaking model. The liquefaction hazard ranges from low (60% of area expected to liquefy) in the lowlands. Because many transportation routes, power and gas transmission lines, and population centers exist in or on the highly susceptible lowland alluvium, these areas in the St. Louis region are at significant potential risk from seismically induced liquefaction and associated

  20. Geologic and well-construction data for the H-10 borehole complex near the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.G.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The H-10 borehole complex, a group of three closely spaced boreholes, is located 4 miles southeast of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site in west-central Lea County, New Mexico. The holes were drilled during August and October 1979 to obtain geologic and hydrologic data to better define the regional ground-water-flow system. The geologic data presented in this report are part of a site-characterization study for the possible storage of defense-associated radioactive wastes within salt beds of the Salado Formation of Permian age. The geologic data include detailed descriptions of cores, cuttings, and geophysical logs. Each borehole was designed to penetrate a distinct water-bearing zone: H-10a (total depth 1318 feet) was completed just below the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation of Permian age; H-10b (total depth 1398 feet) was completed just below the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation; and H-10c (total depth 1538 feet) was completed below the Rustler Formation-Salado Formation contact. The geologic units penetrated in borehole H-10c are surficial alluvium and eolian sand of Holocene age (0 to 5 feet); the Mescalero caliche (5 to 9 feet) and the Gatuna Formation (9 to 90 feet) of Pleistocene age: formations in the Dockum Group (Chinle Formation, 90 to 482 feet and Santa Rosa Sandstone, 482 to 658 feet) of Late Triassic age; and the Dewey Lake Red Beds (658 to 1204 feet), the Rustler Formation (1204 to 1501 feet), and part of the Salado Formation (1501 to 1538 feet), all of Permian age. The sections of the Rustler and Salado Formations penetrated by borehole H-10c are complete and contain little or no evidence of dissolution of halite and associated rocks, indicating that the eastward-moving dissolution within the Rustler or on top of the Salado, found west of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site, has not reached the H-10 site

  1. Geology of the Golden Gate Highlands National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Groenewald

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The Golden Gate Highlands National Park is underlain by stratigraphic units belonging to the upper part of the Karoo Sequence. These units include part of the Beaufort Group and the Molteno, Elliot, Clarens and Drakensberg Formations. Dolerite dykes and sills are intruded into the succession while recent alluvium and scree cover the valley floors and mountain slopes. The Beaufort Group is represented by red mudstone and light brown fine-grained feldspathic sandstone of the Tarkastad Subgroup. The Molteno Formation consists of medium- to coarse-grained trough cross-bedded sandstone, while the Elliot Formation comprises a thick succession of red mudstone, siltstone and interlayered fine- to medium-grained, light yellow-brown sandstone. The most characteristic feature of the park is the yellowish sandstone cliffs of the Clarens Formation. Cave formation is caused by exudation, differential weathering due to different degrees of carbonate cementation and undercutting of the sandstone. The highest peaks are capped by numerous layers of amygdaloidal and massive varieties of basaltic lava of the Drakensberg Formation. A possible volcanic pipe occurs in the eastern part of the park. The Elliot and Clarens Formations are rich in vertebrate fossil remains, especially Massospondylus sp. Remains of Notochampsa sp., Pachygenelus monus, Clarencea gracilis, Lanasaurus scalpridens and a cluster of unidentified dinosaur eggs have also been found. The formations underlying the Golden Gate Highlands National Park were formed during the Late Triassic Epoch and the Jurassic Period (roughly 150 to 230 million years ago. The strata in the park show very little structural deformation and the only obvious structures are faults which are intruded by dolerite.

  2. Sediment deposition and sources into a Mississippi River floodplain lake; Catahoula Lake, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latuso, Karen D.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.; DeLaune, Ronald D.

    2017-01-01

    Floodplain lakes are important wetlands on many lowland floodplains of the world but depressional floodplain lakes are rare in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. One of the largest is Catahoula Lake, which has existed with seasonally fluctuating water levels for several thousand years but is now in an increasingly hydrologically altered floodplain. Woody vegetation has been encroaching into the lake bed and the rate of this expansion has increased since major human hydrologic modifications, such as channelization, levee construction, and dredging for improvement of navigation, but it remains unknown what role those modifications may have played in altering lake sedimentation processes. Profiles of thirteen 137Cs sediment cores indicate sedimentation has been about 0.26 cm y− 1 over the past 60 years and has been near this rate since land use changes began about 200 years ago (210Pb, and 14C in Tedford, 2009). Carbon sequestration was low (10.4 g m− 2 y− 1), likely because annual drying promotes mineralization and export. Elemental composition (high Zr and Ti and low Ca and K) and low pH of recent (sediments suggest Gulf Coastal Plain origin, but below the recent sediment deposits, 51% of sediment profiles showed influence of Mississippi River alluvium, rich in base cations such as K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +. The recent shift to dominance of Coastal Plain sediments on the lake-bed surface suggests hydrologic modification has disconnected the lake from sediment-bearing flows from the Mississippi River. Compared to its condition prior to hydrologic alterations that intensified in the 1930s, Catahoula Lake is about 15 cm shallower and surficial sediments are more acidic. Although these results are not sufficient to attribute ecological changes directly to sedimentological changes, it is likely the altered sedimentary and hydrologic environment is contributing to the increased dominance of woody vegetation.

  3. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Shiprock, New Mexico, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Site is the initial document for developing site-specific activities to achieve regulatory compliance in the UMTRA Ground Water Project. The regulatory framework used to select the proposed ground water compliance strategies is presented along with a discussion of the relationship of this SOWP to other UMTRA Ground Water Project programmatic documents. The Shiprock site consists of two, interconnected hydrogeologic systems: the terrace system and the floodplain system. Separate compliance strategies are proposed for these two systems. The compliance strategy for the terrace aquifer is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards based on classification of the terrace aquifer as having Class III (limited-use) ground water. The compliance strategy for the floodplain aquifer is active remediation using a subsurface biological barrier. These strategies were selected by applying site-specific data to the compliance framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) (DOE, 1994a). The site conceptual model indicates that milling-related contamination has impacted the ground water in the terrace and floodplain aquifers. Ground water occurs in both aquifers in alluvium and in fractures in the underlying Cretaceous age Mancos Shale. A mound of ground water related to fluids from the milling operations is thought to exist in the terrace aquifer below the area where settling ponds were in use during the mill operations. Most of the water occurring in the floodplain aquifer is from recharge from the San Juan River

  4. Miscellaneous investigations series: Bedrock geologic map of the Lone Mountain pluton area, Esmeralda County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, F.

    1984-01-01

    The joint attitudes were measured in the field and plotted on aerial photos at a scale of 1:24,000. The pluton is intensely jointed, primarily as a result of cooling and movement of the magma within a northwest-trending stress field. Foliation, in general, is poorly developed, and quality varies from area to area, but it is best developed close to the contacts with the metasedimentary rocks. A prominent northwest foliation direction was observed that parallels the northwest elongation of the exposed pluton. Faults in the pluton are difficult to identify because of the homogeneity of the rock. Several faults were mapped in the northern part of the area where they have a northeast trend and intersect the northwest-trending lamprophyre dikes with little apparent displacement. A major fault that bounds the northern part of the pluton is downthrown to the north and strikes northeast. This fault offsets the alluvium, the metasedimentary rocks, and the pluton and forms fault scraps as high as 10 m. Aeromagnetic data (US Geological Survey, 1979) suggest the following: (1) the local magnetic highs in the central part of the Lone Mountain pluton are probably related to topographic highs (peaks) where the flight lines are closer to the pluton; (2) a magnetic low in the northeastern part of Lone Mountain coincides with the pluton-country rock contact, which may be very steep; (3) the contours for the southwestern part of the mapped area indicate that the pluton-country rock contact is not as steep as that in the northeastern part and that the pluton probably coalesces at depth with the Weepah pluton, a pluton exposed south of the mapped area; and (4) the contours for the area of the Lone Mountain pluton express a northwest-trending gradient that parallels the northwest elongation of the Lone Mountain pluton and the northwest-trending stress field. 10 refs

  5. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.

    2015-06-01

    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (bank attached bars or inset or inner floodplains, these more or less flat-lying surfaces within the macro-channel have hitherto received little attention in sediment budgeting models. We use high resolution LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over the last ~ 100 years can be accounted for by that stored as in-channel alluvium. These features therefore can play an important role in mitigating the impact on the receiving water of accelerated erosion.

  6. Occurrence of phosphorus in groundwater and surface water of northwestern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Heather L.; Kingsbury, James A.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous localized studies of groundwater samples from the Mississippi River V