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Sample records for alloys laser welded

  1. Laser-TIG Welding of Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulsky, I.; Somonov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of investigation the technological opportunity of laser-TIG welding of titanium alloys. The experimental stand for implementation of process with the capability to feed a filler wire was made. The research of the nature of transfer the filler wire into the welding pool has been demonstrated. The influence of distance between the electrode and the surface of the welded plates on the stability of the arc was shown. The relationship between welding velocity, the position of focal plane of the laser beam and the stability of penetration of plates was determined.

  2. Laser Welding of TC-1 Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanbin DU; Lunji HU; Xiyuan HU; Jianhua LIU

    2003-01-01

    The technology of CO2 laser welding and joint properties of titanium alloy were investigated. The problem of moltenpool protection was resolved by designing a shielding trailer and a special clamp. Joints with silvery appearance wereobtained, which have no pore and crack. In addition, the welding speed could reach 3 m/min for the plate of 1.5 mmthickness being penetrated. The reason of the porosity formation in partial penetration joints is that the keyholescan be easily cut apart in the radial direction, which makes the gas enclosed in the molten pool. The surface oxideof specimens can not affect the porosity formation in welds directly.

  3. Effect of laser characteristics on the weld shape and properties of penetration laser weld of BT20 titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俐; 巩水利; 姚伟; 胡伦骥

    2004-01-01

    The laser beam welding of BT20 titanium alloy was conducted to investigate the weld shape, microstructures and properties. The full penetration weld characteristics produced by CO2 laser and by YAG laser were compared. The results show that the full penetration weld of YAG laser welding closes to "X" shape, and weld of CO2 laser welding is "nail-head" shape. Those result from special heating mode of laser deep penetration welding. The tension strength of CO2 laser and YAG laser joints equal to that of the base metal, but the former has better ductility. All welds consist mainly of the acicular α phase and a few β phase in microstructure. The dendritic crystal of CO2 laser weld is a little finer than YAG laser weld. According the research CO2 laser is better than YAG laser for welding of BT20 titanium alloy.

  4. Comparison between hybrid laser-MIG welding and MIG welding for the invar36 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Li, Yubo; Ou, Wenmin; Yu, Fengyi; Chen, Jie; Wei, Yanhong

    2016-11-01

    The invar36 alloy is suitable to produce mold of composite materials structure because it has similar thermal expansion coefficient with composite materials. In the present paper, the MIG welding and laser-MIG hybrid welding methods are compared to get the more appropriate method to overcome the poor weldability of invar36 alloy. According to the analysis of the experimental and simulated results, it has been proved that the Gauss and cone combined heat source model can characterize the laser-MIG hybrid welding heat source well. The total welding time of MIG welding is 8 times that of hybrid laser-MIG welding. The welding material consumption of MIG welding is about 4 times that of hybrid laser-MIG welding. The stress and deformation simulation indicate that the peak value of deformation during MIG welding is 3 times larger than that of hybrid laser-MIG welding.

  5. Laser welding of AZ61 magnesium-based alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongying; Li Zhijun; Zhang Yihui

    2006-01-01

    Laser welding of AZ61 magnesium alloys was carried out asing a CO2 laser weldingexperimental system.The welding properties of AZ61 sheets with different thickness were investigated.The effect of processing parameters including laser power, welding speed and protection gas flow was researched.The results show that laser power and welding speed have large effect on the weld width and joint dimensions.Protection gas flow has relatively slight effect on the weld width.The property test of three typical joints indicates that microhardness and tensile strength in weld zone are higher than that of AZ61 base metal.Joints with good appearance and excellent mechanical properties can be produced using CO2 laser welding method.The microstructure with small grains in weld zone is believed to be responsible for the excellent mechanical properties of AZ61 joints.

  6. Development of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, R.V.; Leong, K.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    Laser welding is potentially advantageous because of its flexibility and the reduced amount of material affected by the weld. Lasers do not require a vacuum (as do electron beam welders) and the welds they produce high depth-to-width ratios. Scoping with a small pulsed 50 J YAG laser indicated that lasers could produce successful welds in vanadium alloy (V-5%Cr-5%Ti) sheet (1 mm thick) when the fusion zone was isolated from air. The pulsed laser required an isolating chamber filled with inert gas to produce welds that did not contain cracks and showed only minor hardness increases. Following the initial scoping tests, a series of tests were preformed with a 6 kW continuous CO{sub 2} laser. Successful bead-on-plate welds were made on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-5%Cr-5%Ti alloys to depths of about 4 mm with this laser.

  7. Laser vision sensing based on adaptive welding for aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhixiang; SONG Yonglun; ZHANG Jun; ZHANG Wanchun; JIANG Li; XIA Xuxin

    2007-01-01

    A laser vision sensing based on the adaptive tungsten inert gas(TIG)welding system for large-scale aluminum alloy components was established to fit various weld groove conditions.A new type of laser vision sensor was used to precisely measure the weld groove.The joint geometry data,such as the bevel angle,the gap,the area,and the mismatch,etc.,aided in assembling large-scale aerospace components before welding.They were also applied for automatic seam tracking,such as automatic torch transverse alignment and torch height adjustment in welding.An adaptive welding process was realized by automatically adjusting the wire feeding speed and the welding current according to the groove conditions.The process results in a good weld formation and high welding quality,which meet the requirements of related standards.

  8. Development of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, R.V.; Leong, K.H.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Laser welding is potentially advantageous because of its flexibility and the reduced amount of material affected by the weld. Bead-on-plate and butt welds were previously performed to depths of about 4 mm with a 6-kW CO{sub 2} laser on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-5%Cr-5%Ti alloys. These welds were made at a speed of 0.042 m/s using argon purging at a flow rate of 2.8 m{sup 3}/s. The purge was distributed with a diffuser nozzle aimed just behind the laser beam during the welding operation. The fusion zones of welds made under these conditions consisted of very fine, needle-shaped grains and were also harder than the bulk metal (230-270 dph, compared to {approx}180 dph for the bulk metal). A limited number of impact tests showed that the as-welded ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT) was above room temperature, but heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h in vacuum reduced the DBTT to <{minus}25{degrees}C. Activities during this reporting period focused on improvements in the purging system and determination of the effect of welding speed on welds. A 2-kW continuous YAG laser at Lumonics Corp. in Livonia, MI, was used to make 34 test welds for this study.

  9. Properties of welded joints in laser welding of aeronautic aluminum-lithium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malikov, A. G.; Orishich, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work presents the experimental investigation of the laser welding of the aluminum-lithium alloys (system Al-Mg-Li) and aluminum alloy (system Al-Cu-Li) doped with Sc. The influence of the nano-structuring of the surface layer welded joint by the cold plastic deformation method on the strength properties of the welded joint is determined. It is founded that, regarding the deformation degree over the thickness, the varying value of the welded joint strength is different for these aluminum alloys.

  10. A Review: Welding Of Dissimilar Metal Alloys by Laser Beam Welding & Friction Stir Welding Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Deepika Harwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar metals has attracted attention of the researchers worldwide, owing to its many advantages and challenges. There is no denial in the fact that dissimilar welded joints offer more flexibility in the design and production of the commercial and industrial components. Many welding techniques have been analyzed to join dissimilar metal combinations. The objective of this paper is to review two such techniques – Laser welding and Friction stir welding. Laser beam welding, a high power density and low energy-input process, employs a laser beam to produce welds of dissimilar materials. Friction stir welding, a solid-state joining process, is also successfully used in dissimilar welding applications like aerospace and ship building industries. This paper summarizes the trends and advances of these two welding processes in the field of dissimilar welding. Future aspects of the study are also discussed.

  11. Analysis and Comparison of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Luisa Campanelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid-state joining process; i.e., no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW is a combination in which the FSW is the dominant welding process and the laser pre-heats the weld. In this work FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 6 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in butt joint configuration. LAFSW is studied firstly to demonstrate the weldability of aluminum alloy using that technique. Secondly, process parameters, such as laser power and temperature gradient are investigated in order to evaluate changes in microstructure, micro-hardness, residual stress, and tensile properties. Once the possibility to achieve sound weld using LAFSW is demonstrated, it will be possible to explore the benefits for tool wear, higher welding speeds, and lower clamping force.

  12. Study on the effect of welding current during laser beam-resistance seam welding of aluminum alloy 5052

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongqiang; Zhao Xihua; Zhao He; Cao Haipeng; Zhao Huanling

    2008-01-01

    The effect of welding current on the weld shape and tensile shear load during laser beam-resistance seam welding (LB-RSW) of aluminum alloy 5052 is studied. Experimental results show that the penetration depth, weld width,tensile shear load and the ratio of penetration depth to weld width of LB-RSW are bigger than those of laser beam welding(LBW) under the same conditions and the former three parameters increase as welding current rises. The weld shape of LB-RSW below 5 kA welding current is nearly the same as that of LBW. The weld morphology is protuberant under the condition of 5 kA welding current and 0.8 m/min welding speed. Furthermore, the microstructure of the weld seam of LB-RSW is coarser than that of LBW.

  13. Autogeneous Laser and Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of T-joint Low Alloy Steel with Fiber Laser Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, A.; Lappalainen, E.; Salminen, A.

    This paper is focused on the welding of low alloy steels S355 and AH36 in thicknesses 6, 8 and 10 mm in T-joint configuration using either autogeneous laser welding or laser-arc hybrid welding (HLAW) with high power fiber lasers. The aim was to obtain understanding of the factors influencing the size of the fillet and weld geometry through methodologically studying effects of laser power, welding speed, beam alignment relative to surface, air gap, focal point position and order of processes (in case of HLAW) and to get a B quality class welds in all thicknesses after parameter optimization.

  14. Joint performance of CO2 laser beam welding 5083-H321 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Junfeng; Zhang Dongyun; Xiao Rongshi; Chen Kai; Zuo Tiechuan

    2007-01-01

    Laser beam welding of aluminum alloys is expected to offer good mechanical properties of welded joints. In this experimental work reported, CO2 laser beam autogenous welding and wire feed welding are conducted on 4mm thick 5083-H321 aluminum alloy sheets at different welding variables. The mechanical properties and microstructure characteristics of the welds are evaluated through tensile tests, micro-hardness tests, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experimental results indicate that both the tensile strength and hardness of laser beam welds are affected by the constitution of filler material, except the yield strength. The soften region of laser beam welds is not in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). The tensile fracture of laser beam welded specimens takes place in the weld zone and close to the weld boundary because of different filler materials. Some pores are found on the fracture face, including hydrogen porosities and blow holes, but these pores have no influence on the tensile strength of laser beam welds. Tensile strength values of laser beam welds with filler wire are up to 345.57MPa, 93% of base material values, and yield strengths of laser beam welds are equivalent to those of base metal (264.50MPa).

  15. A study on the porosity of CO2 laser welding of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Li; Hu Lunji; Gong Shuili

    2006-01-01

    The CO2 laser welding of BT20 titanium alloy and Ti-23Al-17Nb titanium aluminide was conducted to investigate into the porosity in titanium alloy weld. The results show that there are two sorts of porosities observed in welds of titanium alloy laser welding based on the microscopic characteristics of the porosities. One is the metallurgical porosity with round and smooth inner wall, which results from the surface contamination. The other is the processing porosity with irregular and rough inner wall that displays the trace of the pool flowing, which results from the ruffle on the keyhole wall gathering together locally and closing down the gas in the keyhole into bubbles because of the keyhole fluctuating. The CO2 laser welding could break down easily the surface oxide film and produce little metallurgical porosity, but produces easily processing porosity when partial penetration or unstable-full penetration laser welding is conducted, which always occurs in the center of weld.

  16. Experimental and simulation studies on laser conduction welding of AA5083 aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, M. J.; Lamas, M. I.; Yáñez, A.; Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Boukha, Z.; Botana, F. J.

    In this paper, a three-dimensional numerical model was developed to study laser welding in an aluminium alloy (AA5083). The CFD model was used to solve the governing equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy, so as to obtain the morphology, velocity field and temperature field of the melted zone in steady state. The predicted dimensions of the weld pool agreed well with experimental results obtained on laser conduction welding with a (CW) high power diode laser. The study allowed to determine the effect of different surface treatment (sandblasting, black painting) on the laser absorptivity of the alloy and analyze the heat transfer mechanism within the weld pool.

  17. Electrochemical behavior of YAG laser-welded NiTi shape memory alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xiao-jun; YANG Da-zhi; LIU Xiao-peng

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical behaviors of laser-welded Ti-50.6%Ni(mole fraction) shape memory alloy and the base metal in 0.9% NaCl solution were investigated by electrochemical techniques as corrosion potential measurement, linear and potentiodynamic polarization. The results indicate that the laser-welded NiTi alloy is less susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion than the base metal, which is demonstrated by the increase in polarization resistance(Rp) and pitting potential(ψpit) and decrease in corrosion current density(Jcorr) and mean difference between ψpit and ψprot values. It is confirmed by scanning electron microscope micrographs that pits could be observed on the surface of base metal but not on the surface of laser-welded alloy after potentiodynamic tests. An improvement of corrosion resistance of laser-welded NiTi alloy could be attributed to almost complete dissolution of inclusions upon laser welding.

  18. Characteristics of laser beam welds of age-hardenable 6061-T6 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Akio; Kobayashi, Kojiro F.

    2003-03-01

    Laser beam welding is attractive for joining age-hardenable aluminum alloys, because its low over-all heat input results in a narrow weld heat affected zone (HAZ), where softening caused by dissolution of age precipitates occurs. In the present work, 1mm-thick 6061-T6 aluminum alloy plates were welded using a 2.5 kW CO2 laser and it was experimentally proved that the width of the softened region in the laser beam weld was less than 1/7 that of a TIG weld. Moreover the hardness in the softened region of the laser beam weld was found to be almost fully recovered to the base metal hardness by applying a post-weld aging treatment at 443 K for 28.8 ks without solution annealing unlike the TIG weld. These results characterize the advantage of laser beam welding in joining of the age-hardenable aluminum alloy as compared with the conventional arc welding. The hardness distributions in the HAZ were theoretically evaluated based on kinetic equations describing the dissolution of hardening β' (Mg2Si) precipitates and the precipitation of non-hardening β' (Mg2Si) precipitates during the weld thermal cycles to quantitatively prove above mentioned advantageous characteristics of laser beam welding.

  19. High Power Laser Welding. [of stainless steel and titanium alloy structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    A review of recent developments in high power, carbon dixoide laser welding is presented. Deep penetration welding in stainless steel to 0.5-in. thick, high speed welding in thin gage rimmed steel and gas shielded welding in Ti-6Al-4V alloy are described. The effects of laser power, power density, focusing optics, gas-shielding techniques, material properties and weld speed on weld quality and penetration are discussed. It is shown that laser welding performance in thin materials is comparable to that of electron beams. It is further shown that high quality welds, as evidenced by NDT, mechanical and metal-lographic tests, can be achieved. The potential of the laser for industrial welding applications is indicated.

  20. Weld Bead Size, Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Alloys Joints Welded by Pulsed Laser Spot Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chuang; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang; Peng, Genchen; Wang, Xian

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed laser spot welding of intersection points of zirconium alloys straps was performed. Weld bead size, microstructure and the corrosion behavior of weld bead were investigated. With the increasing laser peak power or number of shots, the weld width of the beads increased, the protrusion decreased and the dimple increased with further increase in heat input. The fusion zone consisted of a mixture of αZr and residual βZr phases. After annealing treatment, βNb and Zr(Fe, Nb)2 second phase particles were precipitated inter- and intragranular of αZr grains adequately. The oxide thickness of annealed weld bead was about 3.90 μm, decreased by about 18.1% relative to the 4.76 μm of as-welded specimen corroded at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 20 days. The corrosion resistance of annealed specimen was better than that of as-welded specimen, since the second phase particles exerted better corrosion resistance, and the content of Nb in βZr and the fraction of βZr decreased after the annealing treatment.

  1. Laser Beam Welding of Aluminum Alloys Under the Influence of an Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Avilov, V.; Gumenyuk, A.; Rethmeier, M.

    During laser beam welding of aluminum alloys an electromagnetic field may favour pore outgassing through the top oxide layer. High frequencies cause a small penetration depth and thus exert a stabilizing effect on the weld surface. The point at which the laser beam between the two magnetic poles hits the workpiece surface is crucial to the influence of the magnetic field on the weld surface roughness. Using analyzed parameters for different laser points of application cause a change in weld surface roughness could be observed. The weld surface roughness could be reduced by 50%. The outgassing effect in terms of a reduction of pores could be observed for all parameter sets investigated.

  2. Subtask 12B2: Development of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, R.V.; Leong, K.H.; Keppler, E.E.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The development of techniques for joining vanadium alloys will be required for the construction of fusion devices utilizing the desirable properties of these alloys. The primary objective of this program is to develop of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys, particularly for the manufacture of welded materials testing specimens. Laser welding is potentially advantageous because of its flexibility and the reduced amount of material effected by the weld. Lasers do not require a vacuum (as does electron beam welders) and the welds they produce have large depth-to-width ratios. Results of scoping tests using a small, pulsed laser (50 joule, YAG laser) indicated that lasers could produce successful welds in vanadium alloy (V-5%Cr-5%Ti) sheet (1-mm thick) when the fusion zone was isolated from air. The pulsed laser required an isolating chamber filled with inert gas to produce welds that did not contain cracks and showed only minor hardness increases. Successful bead-on-plate welds have been made to depths of about 4-mm using a 6 kW continuous CO{sub 2} laser with argon purging. 2 figs.

  3. Laser-welded V-Cr-Ti alloys: Microstructural and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Smith, D.L.; Sanders, P.G.; Leong, K.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A systematic study has been initiated to examine the use of lasers to weld sheet materials of V-Cr-Ti alloys and to characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of the laser-welded materials. In addition, several post-welding heat treatments are being applied to the welded samples to evaluate their benefits, if any, to the structure and properties of the weldments. Hardness measurements are made across the welded regions of different samples to evaluate differences in the characteristics of various weldments.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF LASER BEAM WELDING PROCESS OF AZ61 MAGNESIUM-BASED ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y. Wang; Z.J. Li

    2006-01-01

    Laser welding process of AZ61 magnesium alloys is investigated using a special CO2 laser experimental system. The effect of processing parameters including laser power, welding speed,and protection gas flow at the top and bottom is researched The results show that an ideal weld bead can be formed by choosing the processing parameters properly. An optimized parameter range is obtained by a large number of experiments. Among them, laser power and welding speed are the two main parameters that determine the weld width and dimensions. The protect gas flow rate has a slight effect on the weld width, but it directly effects the surface color of the weld. The test results for typical welds indicate that the microhardness and tensile strength of the weld zone are better than that of the base metal. A fine-grained weld region has been observed and no obvious heat-affected zone is found. The weld zone mainly consists of small α-Mg phase, (α +Al12Mg17), and other eutectic phases. The small grains and the eutectic phases in the joint are believed to play an important role in the increase of the strength of welds for AZ61 magnesium alloys.

  5. Effect of fiber laser parameters on laser welded AZ31B Magnesium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Salleh Naqiuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the usage of Magnesium (Mg alloys has been hugely applied in the industrial application such as in automotive, marine, and electronic due to its advantages of recyclability and lightweight. This alloys required low heat input to be weld since it is easily evaporated due to the Magnesium Oxide (MgO at the surface and it also possesses lower melting point compared to steel. Laser welding is more convenient to weld Mg alloys due to its high power and lower heat input. AZ31B was selected since it has strong mechanical properties among others Mg alloys due to the major alloying elements; Aluminium (Al and Zinc (Zn. Low power fiber laser machine with wavelength of 900 nm was used in this experiment. The intention of this work was to investigate the effect of low power fiber laser parameters and effect of shielding gas on weld penetration and microstructure. Another aim in this work was to produce the joint for this thin sheets metal. Penetration depth and microstructure evaluation were emphasized in the analysis section. Bead-on-Plate (BOP and laser lap welding was conducted on AZ31B with thicknesses of 1.0 mm and 0.6 mm for feasibility study using pulsed wave (PW mode. Defocusing features was used in order to find better focal position, which has less occurrence of evaporation (underfill. The effect of different angle of irradiation was also investigated. Two types of shielding gases, Argon (Ar and Nitrogen (N2 were used in order to study the effect of shielding gas. Lastly, the effect of pulsed energy on penetration types and depth of BOP welded samples was investigated. Focus point was found at focal length of 156 mm with 393.75 μm. For BOP experiment, higher pulsed energy used contributes to melt through defect. Meanwhile, Ns shielding gas proved to be better shielding gas in laser welding the AZ31B. Higher angle of irradiation could reduce the underfill defect. Fillet Lap joint of similar metal was successfully done where 2.0 J of

  6. Mechanism of laser welding on dissimilar metals between stainless steel and W-Cu alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Chen; Zhiyong Wang; Rongshi Xiao; Tiechuan Zuo

    2006-01-01

    @@ CO2 laser is employed to join a piece of powder metallurgical material (PMM) to a stainless steel in butt joint welding mode. The powder Ni35, as a filler powder, is used. The weld metal comes from three parts of stainless steel, powder Ni35, and Cu in W-Cu PMM. It is indicated that some parts of the W-Cu base metal are heated by laser and the metal Cu at the width of 0.06-0.12 mm from the edge is melted into the melting pool in the laser welding process. The formation of firm weld joint is just because that the melting liquid metal could fill the position occupied by metal Cu and surround the metal W granules fully. The analysis results indicate that the mechanism of the laser welding for stainless steel and W-Cu alloy is a special mode of fusion-brazing welding.

  7. Bending Properties and Fracture Behavior of Ti-23Al-17Nb Alloy Laser Beam Welding Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guoqing; WU Aiping; ZOU Guisheng; ZHAO Yue; CHEN Qiang; REN Jialie

    2009-01-01

    Ti-23Al-17Nb alloy is an important high temperature structural material used in the space and aerospace fields. Welding of this alloy is an indispensable processing method, so the microstructures and mechanical properties of these welded joints must be studied to improve the welds. Longitudinal three-point bending tests were conducted to measure the bending ductility of laser beam welded joints. The crack dis-tribution and fracture surface were investigated to further analyze the fracture behavior. The results indicate that the bending ductility decreases as the heat input by the laser beam welding increases. The crack in-ducing strain reaches 4.24%, while the fracturing strain exceeds 5% when the heat input is below 316 J/cm. If the columnar crystal grain of the weld metal exhibits a uniform orientation, the bending ductility is worse. The fractography analysis shows that the cracking propagates transgranularly and the fracture surface has a cleavage mode.

  8. Effects on mechanical properties in electron beam welding of TC4 alloy by laser shock processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jinzhong; ZHANG Yongkang; KONG Dejun; REN Xudong; GE Tao; ZOU Shikun

    2007-01-01

    The surface of TC4 titanium alloy welding line by electron beam welding (EBW) was processed by high power Q-switched and repetition-rate Nd: glass laser. Effects of laser power and spot diameter on residual stress and microhardness of the TC4 alloy welding line by laser shock processing (LSP) have been analyzed. Results show that residual stresses almost do not change as laser poweris 45.9 J,spot diameter is φ9 mm; While laser power is 45.9 J, spot diameter less than φ3 mm, the distribution of residual stress in welding line occurs obvious variation, which residual stress increase obviously with spot diameter decrease. When power density is bigger than 1.8×1010W/cm2, residual stresses of electron beam welding line occur change by LSP,which improve obviously residual stress distribution; while laser power is bigger than 1.2×1010W/cm2, the surface micro-hardness of electron beam welding line occurs change by LSP, which improve obviously micro-hardness distribution. Mechanical properties of TC4 titanium alloy welding line will be improved by LSP, which provides experimental foundation for further controlling the distributions of residual stress and micro-hardness during laser shock processing.

  9. Analysis and Comparison of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina Luisa Campanelli; Giuseppe Casalino; Caterina Casavola; Vincenzo Moramarco

    2013-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e., no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. Laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) is a combination in which the FSW is the dominant welding process and the laser pre-heats the we...

  10. Process Parameter Optimization for Wobbling Laser Spot Welding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili-Farahani, F.; Lungershausen, J.; Wasmer, K.

    Laser beam welding (LBW) coupled with "wobble effect" (fast oscillation of the laser beam) is very promising for high precision micro-joining industry. For this process, similarly to the conventional LBW, the laser welding process parameters play a very significant role in determining the quality of a weld joint. Consequently, four process parameters (laser power, wobble frequency, number of rotations within a single laser pulse and focused position) and 5 responses (penetration, width, heat affected zone (HAZ), area of the fusion zone, area of HAZ and hardness) were investigated for spot welding of Ti6Al4V alloy (grade 5) using a design of experiments (DoE) approach. This paper presents experimental results showing the effects of variating the considered most important process parameters on the spot weld quality of Ti6Al4V alloy. Semi-empirical mathematical models were developed to correlate laser welding parameters to each of the measured weld responses. Adequacies of the models were then examined by various methods such as ANOVA. These models not only allows a better understanding of the wobble laser welding process and predict the process performance but also determines optimal process parameters. Therefore, optimal combination of process parameters was determined considering certain quality criteria set.

  11. Metallurgical and mechanical properties of laser welded high strength low alloy steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyyaravelu, Ramachandran; Kuppan, Palaniyandi; Arivazhagan, Natarajan

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed at investigating the microstructure and mechanical properties of Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser welded high strength low alloy (HSLA) SA516 grade 70 boiler steel. The weld joint for a 4 mm thick plate was successfully produced using minimum laser power of 2 kW by employing a single pass without any weld preheat treatment. The micrographs revealed the presence of martensite phase in the weld fusion zone which could be due to faster cooling rate of the laser weldment. A good correlation was found between the microstructural features of the weld joints and their mechanical properties. The highest hardness was found to be in the fusion zone of cap region due to formation of martensite and also enrichment of carbon. The hardness results also showed a narrow soft zone at the heat affected zone (HAZ) adjacent to the weld interface, which has no effect on the weld tensile strength. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints were 338 MPa and 549 MPa, respectively, which were higher than the candidate metal. These tensile results suggested that the laser welding process had improved the weld strength even without any weld preheat treatment and also the fractography of the tensile fractured samples showed the ductile mode of failure.

  12. Laser-welded V-Cr-Ti alloys: Microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Smith, D.L.; Xu, Z.; Leong, K.H. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A systematic study has been in progress at Argonne National Laboratory to examine the use of YaG or CO{sub 2} lasers to weld sheet materials of V-Cr-Ti alloys and to characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of the laser-welded materials. In addition, several postwelding heat treatments are being applied to the welded samples to evaluate their benefits, if any, to the structure and properties of the weldments. Hardness measurements are made across the welded regions of different samples to evaluate differences in the characteristics of various weldments. Several weldments were used to fabricate specimens for four-point bend tests. Several additional weldments were made with a YaG laser; here, the emphasis was on determining the optimal weld parameters to achieve deep penetration in the welds. A preliminary assessment was then made of the weldments on the basis of microstructure, hardness profiles, and defects.

  13. Joint performance of laser-TIG double-side welded 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-bin; MIAO Yu-gang; LI Li-qun; WU Lin

    2009-01-01

    The influence of welding parameters on mechanical properties and microstructure of the welds of laser-TIG double-side welded 5A06 aluminum alloy was investigated. The results show that the weld cross-sectional shape has an intimate relation with the mechanical properties and microstructure of the welds. The symmetrical "X" cross-section possesses a relatively higher tensile strength and elongation than the others, about 91% and 58% of those of base metal, respectively. The good weld profiles and free defects are responsible for the improvement of tensile properties. Due to low hardness of the fusion zone, this region is the weakest area in the tensile test and much easier to fracture. The loss of Mg element is responsible for the decrease of mechanical properties of the joints. The microstructure of "X" cross-section has an obvious difference along the direction of weld depth, and that of the "H" cross-section is consistent and coarse.

  14. Effects of Aging Treatment on Laser-Welded Mg-Rare Earth Alloy NZ30K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-rare earth alloys have received extensive attention due to their attractive mechanical properties resulting from high density of precipitation. The precipitation sequence in laser-welded Mg-3Nd-0.2Zn-0.4Zr (NZ30K alloy during aging treatment at 200°C and 225°C has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results indicate that the tensile strength of laser-welded NZ30K can be improved significantly after aging treatment at 200°C for 8 h. It is found that the precipitation in laser-welded NZ30K alloy follows the sequence of supersaturated solid solution → β′′(DO19 → β′(fcc.

  15. Laser Deep Penetration Welding of an Aluminum Alloy with Simultaneously Applied Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woizeschke, Peer; Radel, Tim; Nicolay, Paul; Vollertsen, Frank

    2016-12-01

    In aluminum welding, the grain structure of produced seams is an essential factor with respect to the seam properties. In the casting technology the effect of mechanical vibrations on the grain growth during the solidification of liquid metals is known as a refinement method. In this paper, the transferability of this approach from comparatively long-time processes in the field of casting to the short-time process of laser deep penetration welding is investigated. Therefore, specimens were sinusoidal vibrated with frequencies up to 4 kHz during bead-on-plate full-penetration welding experiments. The resulting grain size was determined by applying the circular intercept procedure on the center of a cross-section micrograph of each weld. The results show that grain refinement is in general achievable by mechanical vibrations in the audible frequency range during laser full penetration keyhole welding of the aluminum alloy EN AW-5083.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B welded by laser-TIG hybrid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎明; 宋刚; 王继锋; 梁国俐

    2004-01-01

    The laser-TIG hybrid welding was mainly used to weld the wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B. The technical characteristics of laser-TIG hybrid welding process was investigated and the interactional mechanism between laser and arc was discussed, at the same time the microstructure and mechanical properties of the wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B using laser-TIG hybrid welding were analyzed by optical microscope, EPMA, SEM, tensile machine, hardness machine. The experimental results show that the presence of laser beam boosts up the stability of the arc during high speed welding and augments the penetration of weld; the crystal grains of magnesium alloy weld are fine without porosity and cracks in the best welding criterion and the microstructure of HAZ does not become coarse obviously. The elements profile analysis reveals that Mg content in the weld is lower than that of the base metal, but Al content is higher slightly. Under this experimental condition, the wrought magnesium alloy AZ31B joint can be achieved using laser-TIG hybrid process and the tensile strength of the joint is equivalent to that of the base metal.

  17. Laser-assisted friction stir welding of aluminum alloy lap joints: microstructural and microhardness characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalino, Giuseppe; Campanelli, Sabina L.; Contuzzi, Nicola; Angelastro, Andrea; Ludovico, Antonio D.

    2014-02-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state joining process; i.e., no melting occurs. The welding process is promoted by the rotation and translation of an axis-symmetric non-consumable tool along the weld centerline. Thus, the FSW process is performed at much lower temperatures than conventional fusion welding, nevertheless it has some disadvantages. The laser Assisted Friction Stir Welding (LAFSW) combines a Friction Stir Welding machine and a laser system. Laser power is used to preheat and to plasticize the volume of the workpiece ahead of the rotating tool; the workpiece is then joined in the same way as in the conventional FSW process. In this work an Ytterbium fiber laser with maximum power of 4 kW and a commercial FSW machine were coupled. Both FSW and LAFSW tests were conducted on 3 mm thick 5754H111 aluminum alloy plates in lap joint configuration with a constant tool rotation rate and with different feed rates. The two processes were compared and evaluated in terms of differences in the microstructure and in the micro-hardness profile.

  18. Influence of the Local Chemical Composition on the Mechanical Properties of Laser Beam Welded Al-Li Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enz, Josephin; Riekehr, Stefan; Ventzke, Volker; Kashaev, Nikolai

    The increasing interest of the aircraft industry in reduction of structural weight of aircrafts has resulted in the development of lightweight and high-strength Al-Li alloys as well as in the introduction of laser beam welding to the manufacturing process. The objective of this study is the investigation of the influence of variations in the chemical composition on local mechanical properties, like micro-hardness and micro-tensile strength, of CO 2 laser beam welded skin-stringer joints made from AA2196 and AA2198. Additionally the influence of the welding process on weld chemistry is studied in view of the improvement of the weld quality.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Laser+GMAW Hybrid Welding of Aluminum Alloy T-Joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoxiang XU; Chuansong WU; Xuezhou MA; Xuyou WANG

    2013-01-01

    A 3-D finite element model is developed to predict the temperature field and thermally induced residual stress and distortion in laser+GMAW hybrid welding of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy T-joint.And the characteristics of residual stress distribution and deformation are numerically investigated.In the simulation,the heat source model takes into account the effect of joint geometric shape and welding torch slant on the heat flux distribution and a sequentially coupled thermo-mechanical method is used.The calculated results show that higher residual stress is distributed in and surround the weld zone.Its peak value is very close to the yield strength of base metal.Besides,a large deformation appears in the middle and rear part of the weldment.

  20. SRμCT study of crack propagation within laser-welded aluminum-alloy T-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzen, J.; Beckmann, F.; Riekehr, S.; Bayraktar, F. S.; Haibel, A.; Staron, P.; Donath, T.; Utcke, S.; Kocak, M.; Schreyer, A.

    2008-08-01

    Using laser welding in fabrication of metallic airframes reduces the weight and hence fuel consumption. Currently only limited parts of the airframes are welded. To increase laser beam welded parts, there is the need for a better understanding of crack propagation and crack-pore interaction within the welds. Laser beam welded Al-alloys may contain isolated small process pores and their role and interaction with growing crack need to be investigated. The present paper presents the first results of a crack propagation study in laser beam welded (LBW) Al-alloy T-joints using synchrotron radiation based micro computed tomography (SRμCT). A region-of-interest technique was used, since the specimens exceeded the field of view of the X-ray detector. As imaging with high density resolution at high photon energies is very challenging, a feasibility measurement on a small laser weld, cut cylindrically from the welded region of a T-joint, was done before starting the crack-propagation study. This measurement was performed at the beamline HARWI-II at DESY to demonstrate the potential of the SRμCT as non-destructive testing method. The result has shown a high density resolution, hence, the different Al alloys used in the T-joint and the weld itself were clearly separated. The quantitative image analysis of the 3D data sets allows visualizing non-destructively and calculating the pore size distribution.

  1. Hybrid laser-arc welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybrid laser-arc welding (HLAW) is a combination of laser welding with arc welding that overcomes many of the shortfalls of both processes. This important book gives a comprehensive account of hybrid laser-arc welding technology and applications. The first part of the book reviews...... the characteristics of the process, including the properties of joints produced by hybrid laser-arc welding and ways of assessing weld quality. Part II discusses applications of the process to such metals as magnesium alloys, aluminium and steel as well as the use of hybrid laser-arc welding in such sectors as ship...... building and the automotive industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Hybrid laser-arc welding, will be a valuable source of reference for all those using this important welding technology. Professor Flemming Ove Olsen works in the Department of Manufacturing...

  2. Development and application of high-precision laser welding technology for manufacturing Ti alloy frames of glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. S.; Yang, M. S.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, D. Y.; Kim, J. M.; Leem, B. C.; Shin, J. S.; Lee, D. H

    1999-12-01

    The research and development efforts of the high precision laser welding technology for manufacturing titanium alloy frames of glasses. For this purpose, laser welding device with the high beam quality is designed and fabricated, which consists of a optical fiber transmission part, a welding monitoring part and a welding controller. The welding nozzle and holding fixtures for manufacturing titanium and shape memory alloy frames of glasses. Titanium and shape memory alloy frames of glasses to be developed were experimentally manufactured by utilizing the laser welding using the optical fiber of GI 400 {mu}m. As a result, the seam welding with the bead width of 0.3 mm or less and the weld penetration of 0.3-0.4mm could be accomplished. The fundamental technology was established through design of welding jigs with a variety of configurations and adequate welding conditions. Also, for the purpose to enable the companies participating in this project to commercialize the developed technology acceleratedly, a training program for the engineers belonging to such companies was conducted along with the technology transfer through joint experiments with the engineers. (author)

  3. Investigation of in situ and conventional post-weld heat treatments on dual-laser-beam-welded {gamma}-TiAl-based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jie; Ventzke, Volker; Kashaev, Nikolai; Huber, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Mechanics Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Staron, Peter; Schell, Norbert [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Materials Research, Materials Physics Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes a way to improve the microstructure and mechanical properties of welding seams by in situ and conventional post-weld heat treatments for laser beam welding of the Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.2C-0.2B alloy. The seams are crack-free with reduced longitudinal residual stress and higher elongation to fraction after post-weld heat treatment. The welding zone consists of {alpha}{sub 2} after welding, transforms to a massive {gamma} during in situ post-weld heat treatment, and finally forms a convoluted microstructure after conventional heating. The phase composition across the welding zone is discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Laser Welding Characterization of Kovar and Stainless Steel Alloys as Suitable Materials for Components of Photonic Devices Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhali, M. M. A.; Zainal, Saktioto J.; Munajat, Y.; Jalil, A.; Rahman, R.

    2010-03-01

    The weldability of Kovar and stainless steel alloys by Nd:YAG laser beam is studied through changing of some laser beam parameters. It has been found that there is a suitable interaction of the pulsed laser beam of low power laser pulse with both the two alloys. The change of thermophysical properties with absorbed energy from the laser pulse is discussed in this paper which reports the suitability of both Kovar and stainless steel 304 as the base materials for photonic devices packaging. We used laser weld system (LW4000S from Newport) which employs Nd:YAG laser system with two simultaneous beams output for packaging 980 nm high power laser module. Results of changing both laser spot weld width and penetration depth with changing both the pulse peak power density, pulse energy and pulse duration show that there are good linear relationships between laser pulse energy or peak power density and pulse duration with laser spot weld dimensions( both laser spot weld width and penetration depth). Therefore we concluded that there should be an optimization for both the pulse peak power and pulse duration to give a suitable aspect ratio (laser spot width to penetration depth) for achieving the desired welds with suitable penetration depth and small spot width. This is to reduce the heat affected zone (HAZ) which affects the sensitive optical components. An optimum value of the power density in the order of 105 w/cm2 found to be suitable to induce melting in the welded joints without vaporization. The desired ratio can also be optimized by changing the focus position on the target material as illustrated from our measurements. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the temperature distribution during the laser pulse heating and predict the penetration depth inside the material. Samples have been investigated using SEM with EDS. The metallographic measurements on the weld spot show a suitable weld yield with reasonable weld width to depth ratio.

  5. T-joints of Ti alloys with hybrid laser-MIG welding: macro-graphic and micro-hardness analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, R.; Sorgente, D.; Palumbo, G.; Scintilla, L. D.; Brandizzi, M.; Satriano, A. A.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-03-01

    Titanium alloys are characterized by high mechanical properties and elevated corrosion resistance. The combination of laser welding with MIG/GMAW has proven to improve beneficial effects of both processes (keyhole, gap-bridging ability) while limiting their drawbacks (high thermal gradient, low mechanical resistance) In this paper, the hybrid Laser-GMAW welding of Ti-6Al-4V 3-mm thick sheets is investigated using a specific designed trailing shield. The joint geometry was the double fillet welded T-joint. Bead morphologies, microstructures and mechanical properties (micro-hardness) of welds were evaluated and compared to those achieved for the base metals.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigations of hybrid laser arc welding of aluminum alloys in the thick T-joint configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Nikodinovski, M.; Chenier, P.; Ma, J.; Liu, W.; Kovacevic, R.

    2014-07-01

    In the present investigation, a numerical finite element model was developed to simulate the hybrid laser arc welding of different aluminum alloys, namely 5××× to 6××× series. The numerical simulation has been considered two double-ellipsoidal heat sources for the gas metal arc welding and laser welding. The offset distance of the metal arc welding and laser showed a significant effect on the molten pool geometry, the heat distribution and penetration depth during the welding process. It was confirmed that when the offset distance is within the critical distance the laser and arc share the molten pool and specific amount of penetration and dilution can be achieved. The models and experiments show that the off-distance between the two heat sources and shoulder width have considerable influence on the penetration depth and appearance of the weld beads. The experiments also indicate that the laser power, arc voltage and type of the filler metal can effectively determine the final properties of the bonds, specifically the bead appearance and microhardness of the joints. The experiments verified the numerical simulation as the thermocouples assist to comprehend the amount of heat distribution on the T-joint coupons. The role of the welding parameters on the mechanism of the hybrid laser welding of the aluminum alloys was also discussed.

  7. Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of Laser Arc Hybrid Welded Dissimilar Al and Ti Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber laser-cold metal transfer arc hybrid welding was developed to welding-braze dissimilar Al and Ti alloys in butt configuration. Microstructure, interface properties, tensile behavior, and their relationships were investigated in detail. The results show the cross-weld tensile strength of the joints is up to 213 MPa, 95.5% of same Al weld. The optimal range of heat input for accepted joints was obtained as 83–98 J·mm−1. Within this range, the joint is stronger than 200 MPa and fractures in weld metal, or else, it becomes weaker and fractures at the intermetallic compounds (IMCs layer. The IMCs layer of an accepted joint is usually thin and continuous, which is about 1μm-thick and only consists of TiAl2 due to fast solidification rate. However, the IMCs layer at the top corner of fusion zone/Ti substrate is easily thickened with increasing heat input. This thickened IMCs layer consists of a wide TiAl3 layer close to FZ and a thin TiAl2 layer close to Ti substrate. Furthermore, both bead shape formation and interface growth were discussed by laser-arc interaction and melt flow. Tensile behavior was summarized by interface properties.

  8. Mitigation of Tensile Weld Stresses in Alloy 22 Using Laser Peening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H L; Evans, K J; Hackel, L A; Rankin, J E; Yamamoto, R M; Demma, A G; Dewald, A T; Lee, M J; Hill, M R

    2002-11-27

    The goal of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is safe permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. One of the many technical challenges to this plan is the design of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) including the waste package that will contain the radioactive waste. One potential failure mode of the waste package is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), which occurs when three criteria simultaneously exist. These criteria are a potentially corrosive environment, a material susceptible to SCC, and the presence of tensile residual stresses at the surface of the material. While many design decisions have been made to attempt to minimize the occurrence of the first two conditions, it is necessary to control the third condition, the presence of tensile residual stresses. These stresses occur as a result of a variety of manufacturing techniques, including welding. While most of the residual stresses due to the welding of the waste package can be mitigated through solution heat-treating, the final closure weld, which occurs after the radioactive waste has been placed in the waste package, must be treated to eliminate the presence of tensile residual stress near the surface. Laser peening is a commercially proven technology that has been shown to create compressive residual stress in both unstressed materials, as well as materials containing tensile surface residual stresses generated by welding. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the laser peening process and the associated hardware for use by the YMP. Upon completion of the testing and engineering phases, LLNL will transfer the laser peening technology to U.S. industry and assist DOE in developing vendors to supply production units to be installed at the YMP facilities. The overall testing effort is divided into-two phases. Phase I of this project consisted of a study into the effectiveness of laser peening in generating compressive stress in small Alloy 22 base metal coupons and converting

  9. Lap Fillet Welding of Thin Sheet AZ31 Magnesium Alloy with Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Mahadzir; Yamasaki, Kazuhiko; Maekawa, Katsuhiro

    In recent years, reducing the size and weight of consumer products requires the joining of thin sheets of magnesium alloys with both thickness and joining area of less than 1mm, especially for packaging purposes. Conventional welding processes are difficult to joint a thin sheet magnesium alloy because of high heat input, which in turns leads to various problems such as burn through and cracks. In this study, lap fillet welding of thin sheet magnesium alloy AZ31B with a thickness of 0.3 mm has been carried out using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam. The influences of gap, laser beam center location and scan speed on joint appearances have been investigated. It was found that defects were significantly reduced when the gap width was less than 35 µm when the laser beam center was located just on the edge of the upper specimen (x=0), and scan speed was varied from 400 to 450 m/min. Wider bond width at average value of 300 µm was achieved when the beam center was at x=0 with a wide range of scan speeds from 250 to 450 mm/min compared with the cases at x=-0.1 and -0.2 mm from edge. Increases in bond width and minimal defects at x=0 improve fracture load by 68% compared with those at x=-0.1 mm.

  10. Process Optimization of Dual-Laser Beam Welding of Advanced Al-Li Alloys Through Hot Cracking Susceptibility Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yingtao; Robson, Joseph D.; Riekehr, Stefan; Kashaev, Nikolai; Wang, Li; Lowe, Tristan; Karanika, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Laser welding of advanced Al-Li alloys has been developed to meet the increasing demand for light-weight and high-strength aerospace structures. However, welding of high-strength Al-Li alloys can be problematic due to the tendency for hot cracking. Finding suitable welding parameters and filler material for this combination currently requires extensive and costly trial and error experimentation. The present work describes a novel coupled model to predict hot crack susceptibility (HCS) in Al-Li welds. Such a model can be used to shortcut the weld development process. The coupled model combines finite element process simulation with a two-level HCS model. The finite element process model predicts thermal field data for the subsequent HCS hot cracking prediction. The model can be used to predict the influences of filler wire composition and welding parameters on HCS. The modeling results have been validated by comparing predictions with results from fully instrumented laser welds performed under a range of process parameters and analyzed using high-resolution X-ray tomography to identify weld defects. It is shown that the model is capable of accurately predicting the thermal field around the weld and the trend of HCS as a function of process parameters.

  11. Experimental Investigations on Pulsed Nd:YAG Laser Welding of C17300 Copper-Beryllium and 49Ni-Fe Soft Magnetic Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, S. A. A. Akbari; Ebrahimzadeh, H.

    2011-01-01

    Copper-beryllium and soft magnetic alloys must be joined in electrical and electro-mechanical applications. There is a high difference in melting temperatures of these alloys which cause to make the joining process very difficult. In addition, copper-beryllium alloys are of age hardenable alloys and precipitations can brittle the weld. 49Ni-Fe alloy is very hot crack sensitive. Moreover, these alloys have different heat transfer coefficients and reflection of laser beam in laser welding process. Therefore, the control of welding parameters on the formation of adequate weld puddle composition is very difficult. Laser welding is an advanced technique for joining of dissimilar materials since it can precisely control and adjust the welding parameters. In this study, a 100W Nd:YAG pulsed laser machine was used for joining 49Ni-Fe soft magnetic to C17300 copper-beryllium alloys. Welding of samples was carried out autogenously by changing the pulse duration, diameter of beam, welding speed, voltage and frequency. The spacing between samples was set to almost zero. The ample were butt welded. It was required to apply high voltage in this study due to high reflection coefficient of copper alloys. Metallography, SEM analysis, XRD and microhardness measurement was used for survey of results. The results show that the weld strength depends upon the chemical composition of the joints. To change the wells composition and heat input of the welds, it was attempted to deviate the laser focus away from the weld centerline. The best strength was achieved by deviation of the laser beam away about 0.1mm from the weld centerline. The result shows no intermetallic compounds if the laser beam is deviated away from the joint.

  12. Effect of filler wire on the joint properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys using CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hongying; Li Zhijun

    2007-01-01

    Laser welding with filler wire of AZ31 magnesium alloys is investigated using a CO2 laser experimental system. The effect of three different filler wires on the joint properties is researched. The results show that the weld appearance can be effectively improved when using laser welding with filler wire. The microhardness and tensile strength of joints are almost the same as those of the base metal when ER AZ31 or ER AZ61 wire is adopted. However, when the filler wire of ER 5356 aluminum alloy is used, the mechanical properties of joints become worse. For ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 filler wires, the microstructure of weld zone shows small dendrite grains. In comparison, for ER 5356 filler wire, the weld shows a structure of snowy dendrites and many intermetallic compounds and eutectic phases distribute in the dendrites. These intermetallic constituents with low melting point increase the tendency of hot crack and result in fragile joint properties. Therefore, ER AZ31 and ER AZ61 wire are more suitable filler material than ER 5356 for CO2 laser welding of AZ31 magnesium alloys.

  13. Experimental comparison of the MIG, friction stir welding, cold metal transfer and hybrid laser-MIG processes for AA 6005-T6 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Serafino; Sgambitterra, Emanuele; Rinaldi, Sergio; Gallone, Antonello; Viscido, Lucio; Filice, Luigino; Umbrello, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties of welded joints of AA 6005-T6 aluminum alloy obtained with hybrid laser-MIG and cold metal transfer (CMT) welding were analyzed. The performance of hybrid laser-MIG and CMT welded joints were identified using tensile, bending, shear and fatigue life tests. Taking into account the process conditions and requirements, hybrid laser-MIG and CMT welding processes were compared with friction stir welding (FSW) and conventional metal inert gas (MIG) welding processes, shown in a previous work, to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the processes for welding applications of studied Al alloy. Better tensile, bending and shear strength and fatigue life behavior were obtained with hybrid laser-MIG and FSW welded joints compared with conventional MIG processes.

  14. On the Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Hybrid Laser-Welded Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. C.; Hu, Y. N.; Song, X. P.; Xue, Y. L.; Peng, J. F.

    2015-04-01

    Butt-welded 2-mm-thick high-strength aluminum alloys have been welded using a hybrid fiber laser and pulsed arc heat source system with the ER5356 filler. The microstructure, size of precipitates, texture, grain size and shape, change of strengthening elements, mechanical properties, and surface-based fatigue fracture characteristics of hybrid-welded joints were investigated in detail. The results indicate that the hybrid welds and the unaffected base materials have the lowest and largest hardness values, respectively, compared with the heat-affected zone. It is resonably believed that the elemental loss, coarse grains, and changed precipitates synthetically produce the low hardness and tensile strengths of hybrid welds. Meanwhile, the weaker grain boundary inside welds appears to initiate a microcrack. Besides, there exists an interaction of fatigue cracks and gas pores and microstructures.

  15. Numerical and experimental evaluation of Nd:YAG laser welding efficiency in AZ31 magnesium alloy butt joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, energy aspects related to the efficiency of laser welding process using a 2 kW Nd:YAG laser were investigated and reported. AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets 3.3 mm thick were butt-welded without filler using Helium and Argon as shielding gases. A three-dimensional and semi-stationary finite element model was developed to evaluate the effect of laser power and welding speed on the absorption coefficient, the melting and welding efficiencies. The modeled volumetric heat source took into account a scale factor, and the shape factors given by the attenuation of the beam within the workpiece and the beam intensity distribution. The numerical model was calibrated using experimental data on the basis of morphological parameters of the weld bead. Results revealed a good correspondence between experiment and simulation analysis of the energy aspects of welding. Considering results of mechanical characterization of butt joints previously obtained, the optimization of welding condition in terms of mechanical properties and energy parameters was performed. The best condition is represented by the lower laser power and higher welding speed that corresponds to the lower heat input given to the joint.

  16. A Quantitative Model of Keyhole Instability Induced Porosity in Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shengyong; Chen, Weidong; Wang, Wen

    2014-06-01

    Quantitative prediction of the porosity defects in deep penetration laser welding has generally been considered as a very challenging task. In this study, a quantitative model of porosity defects induced by keyhole instability in partial penetration CO2 laser welding of a titanium alloy is proposed. The three-dimensional keyhole instability, weld pool dynamics, and pore formation are determined by direct numerical simulation, and the results are compared to prior experimental results. It is shown that the simulated keyhole depth fluctuations could represent the variation trends in the number and average size of pores for the studied process conditions. Moreover, it is found that it is possible to use the predicted keyhole depth fluctuations as a quantitative measure of the average size of porosity. The results also suggest that due to the shadowing effect of keyhole wall humps, the rapid cooling of the surface of the keyhole tip before keyhole collapse could lead to a substantial decrease in vapor pressure inside the keyhole tip, which is suggested to be the mechanism by which shielding gas enters into the porosity.

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Laser-Friction Stir Welding between AA6061-T6 Al Alloy and AZ31 Mg Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woong-Seong Chang; S.R.Rajesh; Chang-Keun Chun; Heung-Ju Kim

    2011-01-01

    For the purpose of improving the strength of this dissimilar joint, the present study was carried out to investigate the improvement in intermetallic layer by using a third material foil between the faying edges of the friction stir welded and hybrid welded Al6061-T6/AZ31 alloy plates. The difference in microstructural and mechanical characteristics of friction stir welded and hybrid welded Al6061-T6/AZ31 joint was compared. Hybrid buttwelding of aluminum alloy plate to a magnesium alloy plate was successfully achieved with Ni foil as filler material, while defect-free laser-friction stir welding (FSW) hybrid welding was achieved by using a laser power of 2 kW. Transverse tensile strength of the joint reached about 66% of the Mg base metal tensile strength in the case of hybrid welding with Ni foil and showed higher value than that of the friction stir welded joint with and without the third material foil. This may be due to the presence of less brittle Ni-based intermetallic phases instead of Al12Mg17.

  18. Effect of external applied steady magnetic field on the morphology of laser welding joint of 4-mm 2024 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Zhou, Junjie; Sun, Weihua; Chen, Jicheng; Wei, Yanhong

    2017-01-01

    Additional external steady magnetic fields were applied to investigate the influence of a steady magnetic field aligned perpendicular to the welding direction during laser beam welding of 2024 aluminum alloy. The flow pattern in the molten pool and the weld seam geometry were significantly changed by the induced Lorentz force distribution in the liquid metal. It revealed that the application of a steady magnetic field to laser beam welding was helpful to the suppression of the characteristic wineglass-shape and the depth-to-width ratio because of the Marangoni convection. The microstructures and component distributions at various laser power and magnetic field intensity were analyzed too. It was indicated that the suppression of the Marangoni convection by Lorentz force was beneficial to accumulation of component and grain coarsening near the fusion line.

  19. Finite volume modeling of laser assisted friction stir welding of 2017A-T451 aluminum alloy for enhanced sustainability of welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Oussama; Badji, Riad; Hadji, Mohamed; Kouadri-Henni, Afia

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on a new welding modification friction stir welding, using a preheating during the welding phase. This method utilizes laser energy to pre-heat the workpiece to a localized area at the front of the FSW tool, thereby reducing the temperature gradient over a localized area in advance of the tool. The amount of heat generated during welding determines the quality of the weld. Therefore the understanding of the temperature distribution is required to determine the optimal method of welding parameters. In this study, a two-dimensional model of an aluminum alloy plate coupled to a circular laser source is developed, using FLUENT software that is based on the finite volume method, also the geometry of the pin of the FSW tool was modified in several configurations to highlight the effect of the geometry of the tool on the temperature distribution in the welded plate. The model developed can be used to better understand the process, predict process performance and to determine the optimal parameters of the process.

  20. Nickel-based alloy/austenitic stainless steel dissimilar weld properties prediction on asymmetric distribution of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyu; Ma, Guangyi; Chai, Dongsheng; Niu, Fangyong; Dong, Jinfei; Wu, Dongjiang; Zou, Helin

    2016-07-01

    A properties prediction method of Nickel-based alloy (C-276)/austenitic stainless steel (304) dissimilar weld was proposed and validated based on the asymmetric distribution of laser energy. Via the dilution level DC-276 (the ratio of the melted C-276 alloy), the relations between the weld properties and the energy offset ratio EC-276 (the ratio of the irradiated energy on the C-276 alloy) were built, and the effects of EC-276 on the microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of dissimilar welds were analyzed. The element distribution Cweld and EC-276 accorded with the lever rule due to the strong convention of the molten pool. Based on the lever rule, it could be predicted that the microstructure mostly consists of γ phase in each weld, the δ-ferrite phase formation was inhibited and the intermetallic phase (P, μ) formation was promoted with the increase of EC-276. The ultimate tensile strength σb of the weld joint could be predicted by the monotonically increasing cubic polynomial model stemming from the strengthening of elements Mo and W. The corrosion potential U, corrosion current density I in the active region and EC-276 also met the cubic polynomial equations, and the corrosion resistance of the dissimilar weld was enhanced with the increasing EC-276, mainly because the element Mo could help form a steady passive film which will resist the Cl- ingress.

  1. Microstructure and mechanical properties of newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 welded by fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Banglong [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qin, Guoliang, E-mail: glqin@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Meng, Xiangmeng; Ji, Yang; Zou, Yong [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Lei, Zhen [Harbin Welding Institute, Harbin 150028 (China)

    2014-11-03

    The newly developed aluminum–lithium alloy 2A97 was for the first time joined by laser beam welding in order to meet the ever-increased long-term requirements of aerospace, aviation and armament industries. The weld appearance, microstructure, solute segregation, precipitate behavior, and their relationships with mechanical properties of welded joints were investigated. Sound joints with no crack and a few small porosities are obtained under appropriate heat inputs. As a result of heterogeneous nucleation involving the effect of Zr and Li, a non-dendritic equiaxed zone forms between partially melted zone and fusion zone. The crystal morphologies in fusion zone vary from columnar dendrite to equiaxed dendrite, with the increase of constitutional supercooling. Solute segregation leads to the variations of Cu content in grain interior and boundary, as well as the weak ability of re-precipitation of fusion zone. Most precipitates in the base metal dissolve during welding, and fusion zone contains a decreased quantity of δ′, β′, θ′, and T{sub 1}. The ultimate tensile strength of laser welded joints is 83.4% of that of the base metal, and can meet the application requirements from related industries, but the ductility still needs to be improved. Welding defects and loss of solid solution/precipitation hardened structure lead to the degradation of mechanical properties. Tensile fracture occurs in weld with the brittle intergranular dominated mode and premature failure occurs and extends in the equiaxed zone.

  2. Influence of Surface Pre-treatments on Laser Welding of Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Amaya, J. M.; Amaya-Vázquez, M. R.; González-Rovira, L.; Botana-Galvin, M.; Botana, F. J.

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, Ti6Al4V samples have been welded under conduction regime by means of a high power diode laser. The main objective of the work has been to determine the actual influence of the surface pre-treatments on the laser welding process. Thus, six different pre-treatments were applied to Ti6Al4V samples before performing bead-on-plate and butt welding treatments. The depth, width, microstructure, and microhardness of the different weld zones were deeply analyzed. Grinding, sandblasting, and chemical cleaning pre-treatments lead to welds with the highest depth values, presenting high joint strengths. Treatments based on the application of dark coatings generate welds with lower penetration and worse mechanical properties, specially the graphite-based coating.

  3. Influence of Laser Welding Speed on the Morphology and Phases Occurring in Spray-Compacted Hypereutectic Al-Si-Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gietzelt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Normally, the weldability of aluminum alloys is ruled by the temperature range of solidification of an alloy according to its composition by the formation of hot cracks due to thermal shrinkage. However, for materials at nonequilibrium conditions, advantage can be taken by multiple phase formation, leading to an annihilation of temperature stress at the microscopic scale, preventing hot cracks even for alloys with extreme melting range. In this paper, several spray-compacted hypereutectic aluminum alloys were laser welded. Besides different silicon contents, additional alloying elements like copper, iron and nickel were present in some alloys, affecting the microstructure. The microstructure was investigated at the delivery state of spray-compacted material as well as for a wide range of welding speeds ranging from 0.5 to 10 m/min, respectively. The impact of speed on phase composition and morphology was studied at different disequilibrium solidification conditions. At high welding velocity, a close-meshed network of eutectic Al-Si-composition was observed, whereas the matrix is filled with nearly pure aluminum, helping to diminish the thermal stress during accelerated solidification. Primary solidified silicon was found, however, containing considerable amounts of aluminum, which was not expected from phase diagrams obtained at the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  4. Phase Transformation and Residual Stress in a Laser Beam Spot-Welded TiAl-Based Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Staron, Peter; Riekehr, Stefan; Stark, Andreas; Schell, Norbert; Huber, Norbert; Schreyer, Andreas; Müller, Martin; Kashaev, Nikolai

    2016-12-01

    The microstructure, chemical composition, residual stress, and lattice parameter evolution of the welding zone (WZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of a laser-beam-welded TiAl-based alloy were investigated. It was found that both α 2 and γ phases remain highly restrained in the WZ edge, and the stresses are relieved in the HAZ. A grain refinement mechanism is proposed, which works by heating the material to the β or α + β phase field for a short time. The lamellar colonies are refined by the Nb-enriched segregations.

  5. Study of the structure and properties of laser-welded joints of the Al-Mg-Li alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, N. B.; Antenorova, N. P.; Senaeva, E. I.

    2015-12-01

    The macro- and microstructures, the distribution of chemical elements and of the values of the microhardness over the width of the zones of remelting and heat-affected zone have been studied after the laser welding of sheets of an Al-Mg-Li alloy. It has been shown that the material of the zone of remelting (1.2 mm thick) represents in itself finely dispersed misoriented dendrites, in the primary branches of which particles of the strengthening δ' phase (Al3Li) with dimensions of no more than 10 nm and in the interdendrite spaces, dispersed particles of the S phase (Al2MgLi and FeAl2) have been revealed. The hardness of the material of the zone of remelting was 108-123 HV 0.05; the hardness of the basic alloy, 150-162 HV 0.05. In the heat-affected zones of thickness 2 mm, the primary recrystallization occurred only in a narrow zone directly at the boundary with the weld. The strength of the welded junction was 470-490 MPa, which corresponds to the regulated degree of strength of the aluminum alloys of this class. The relative elongation of the material of the weld proved to be considerably less than that in the alloy matrix because of the microporosity of the weld material. It is shown that the convective stirring of the melt in the welding pool upon the laser welding made it possible to avoid the appearance of macroscopic defects, but on the microlevel there are observed micropores in the form of spheres with dimensions of 5-50 μm. The solidification of the alloy occurred in such a way that the dendrites had time to grow around the gas bubbles prior to their collapse, forming a sufficiently strong carcass. Inside the dendritic carcass, there have been revealed coarse inclusions (to 200 μm) that consist of oxides (Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, SiO2, CaO), of an iron-based alloy, and of the host aluminum alloy.

  6. Effect of Weld Characteristic on Mechanical Strength of Laser-Arc Hybrid-Welded Al-Mg-Si-Mn Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Gao, Ming; Jiang, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2016-11-01

    Laser-arc hybrid welding (LAHW) was employed to improve the tensile properties of the joints of 8-mm-thick Al-Mg-Si-Mn alloy (AA6082) using Al-5Mg filler wire. The weld microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscope, electron backscattered diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy in detail. The LAHW joints with pore-free and high-tensile performances were obtained. The strength enhancement of the fusion zone and heat-affected zone in the LAHW joint was mainly attributed to the grain refinement strengthening and the precipitation strengthening, respectively. The microstructure characteristics were related to the effects of laser-arc interaction on the energy transfer within the molten pool. The arc caused the majority of laser energy to dissipate out of the keyhole, and then it reduced the heat input. The lower heat input refined the grain size, weakened the overaging effect, and thus improved the tensile strength.

  7. Influence of laser power on microstructure and mechanical properties of laser welded-brazed Mg to Ni coated Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Caiwang; Lu, Qingshuang; Chen, Bo; Song, Xiaoguo; Li, Liqun; Feng, Jicai; Wang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    AZ31B Magnesium (Mg) and Ti-6Al-4V titanium (Ti) alloys with Ni coating were joined by laser welding-brazing process using AZ92 Mg based filler. The influence of laser power on microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. Ni coating was found to significantly promote good wetting-spreading ability of molten filler on the Ti sheet. Acceptable joints without obvious defects were obtained within a relatively wide processing window. In the process metallurgical bonding was achieved by the formation of Ti3Al phase at direct irradiation zone and Al-Ni phase followed by a layer of Mg-Al-Ni ternary compound adjacent to the fusion zone at the intermediate zone. The thickness of reaction layers increased slowly with the increasing laser power. The tensile-shear test indicated that joints produced at the laser power of 1300 W reached 2387 N fracture load, representing 88.5% joint efficiency with respect to the Mg base metal. The corresponding failure occurred in the fusion zone of the Mg base metal, while joints fractured at the interface at lower/higher laser power due to the crack or excessive intermetallic compound (IMC) formation along the interface.

  8. Microstructure and calorimetric behavior of laser welded open cell foams in CuZnAl shape memory alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Previtali, Barbara; Tuissi, Ausonio

    Cellular shape memory alloys (SMAs) are very promising smart materials able to combine functional properties of the material with lightness, stiffness, and damping capacity of the cellular structure. Their processing with low modification of the material properties remains an open question. In this work, the laser weldability of CuZnAl SMA in the form of open cell foams was studied. The cellular structure was proved to be successfully welded in lap joint configuration by using a thin plate of the same alloy. Softening was seen in the welded bead in all the investigated ranges of process speed as well as a double stage heat affected zone was identified due to different microstructures; the martensitic transformation was shifted to higher temperatures and the corresponding peaks were sharper with respect to the base material due to the rapid solidification of the material. Anyways, no compositional variations were detected in the joints.

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of laser-arc hybrid welding joint of GH909 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Yan, Fei; Liu, Sang; Li, Ruoyang; Wang, Chunming; Hu, Xiyuan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, laser-arc hybrid welding of 10 mm thick low-thermal-expansion superalloy GH909 components was carried out to obtain a joint with good performance. This investigation was conducted using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, energy diffraction spectrum and other methodologies. The results showed that weld joints with a desirable wineglass-shaped weld profile can be obtained employing appropriate process parameters. The different grains in between the upper central seam and the bottom seam were associated with the temperature gradient, the pool's flow and the welding thermal cycle. MC-type carbides and eutectic phases (γ+Laves) were produced at grain boundaries due to the component segregation during the welding process. In addition, γ‧ strengthening phase presented in the interior of grains, which kept a coherent relationship with the matrix. The lowest hardness value occurred in the weld center, which indicated that it was the weakest section in the whole joint. The average tensile strength of the joints reached to 632.90 MPa, nearly 76.84% of the base metal. The fracture analysis revealed that the fracture mode of the joint was ductile fracture and the main reason for joint failure was as a result of the occurrence of porosities produced in the weld during the welding process.

  10. Laser beam welding of high strength aluminium-lithium alloys; Laserstrahlschweissen von hochfesten Aluminium-Lithium Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enz, Josephin

    2012-07-01

    The present development in aircraft industry determined by the demand for a higher cost-effectiveness. Laser beam welding is one of the most promising joining technologies for the application in the aircraft industry through the considerable reduction of the production costs. Furthermore the weight of an aircraft structure can be reduced by the use of light and high strength aluminium alloys. This paper deals with the development of a process for the laser beam welding of a skin-stringer-joint where the Al-Li-alloy AA2196 is used as stringer material and the Al-Li-alloy AA2198 is used as skin and stringer material. By the use of design of experiments the optimal welding process parameters for different material combinations were determined which will be used for the welding of a 5-stringer panel. Therefore the weld seams of the joints were tested for irregularities and microstructural characteristics. In addition several mechanical tests were performed, which define the quality of the welded joint. Furthermore the influence of the oxide layer and the welding preparation on the welding performance was investigated. (orig.) [German] Die derzeitigen Entwicklungen im Flugzeugbau werden durch die allgemeine Forderung nach einer Steigerung der Wirtschaftlichkeit bestimmt. Das Laserstrahlschweissen ist dabei eines der vielversprechendsten Fuegeverfahren fuer die Anwendung im Flugzeugbau durch das die Herstellungskosten deutlich reduziert werden koennen. Zudem kann durch die Verwendung von leichten und hochfesten Aluminium-Legierungen das Gewicht einer Flugzeugstruktur zusaetzlich reduziert werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit befasst sich mit der Entwicklung eines Prozesses zum Laserstrahlschweissen einer Skin-Stringer-Verbindung aus den Aluminium-Lithium-Legierungen AA2196 (als Stringer-Werkstoff) und AA2198 (als Skin- und Stringer-Werkstoff). Unter Verwendung der statistischen Versuchsplanung wurden die optimalen Einstellungen der Schweissprozessparameter fuer die

  11. Bringing Pulsed Laser Welding into Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1996-01-01

    activities concerning the weldability of high alloyed austenitic stainless steels for mass production industry applying industrial lasers for fine welding will be described. Studies on hot cracking sensitivity of high alloyed austenitic stainless steel applying both ND-YAG-lasers and CO2-lasers has been......In this paper, some research and develop-ment activities within pulsed laser welding technology at the Tech-nical University of Denmark will be described. The laser group at the Insti-tute for Manufacturing Technology has nearly 20 years of experience in laser materials process-ing. Inter......-nationally the group is mostly known for its contri-butions to the development of the laser cutting process, but further it has been active within laser welding, both in assisting industry in bringing laser welding into production in several cases and in performing fundamental R & D. In this paper some research...

  12. Combination of laser keyhole and conduction welding: Dissimilar laser welding of niobium and Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkamany, M. J.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Poursalehi, R.; Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2016-04-01

    Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of pure niobium plate to titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V sheet in butt joint is studied regarding the laser/metal interaction modes. To obtain the optimized process parameters in dissimilar welding of Ti-6Al-4V/Nb, the melting ratio of laser beam energy for each weld counterpart is evaluated experimentally. Different laser welding modes of keyhole and conduction are predicted regarding the absorbed energy from the similar laser pulses on each weld counterpart. Laser keyhole and conduction welding were observed simultaneously through direct visualization of laser interaction with dissimilar metals using High Speed Imaging (HSI) system.

  13. Effect of laser parameters on arc behavior of laser-TIG double-side welding for aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Yugang; Li Liqun; Zhang Xinge; Chen Yanbin; Wu Lin

    2010-01-01

    The influence of laser parameters on arc behavior of laser-TIG double-side welding was investigated by utilizing CCD sensor and image processing methods. It was found that arc images had an obvious transformation from laser preheating to laser plasma ejected from the keyhole bottom, resulting in the phenomena of arc column convergence and arc root constriction. The attraction phenomenon of the laser and the arc is also found in laser-TIG double-side welding. More noteworthy is that the behavior of arc attraction or constriction became much obvious at a lower current or laser plasma ejected from the keyhole bottom. The decrease in arc voltage had a certain relation with the improvement of arc stability.

  14. Multispot fiber laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schutt Hansen, Klaus

    This dissertation presents work and results achieved in the field of multi beam fiber laser welding. The project has had a practical approach, in which simulations and modelling have been kept at a minimum. Different methods to produce spot patterns with high power single mode fiber lasers have...... been possible to control the welding width in incremental steps by adding more beams in a row. The laser power was used to independently control the keyhole and consequently the depth of fusion. An example of inline repair of a laser weld in butt joint configuration was examined. Zinc powder was placed...... in the weld causing expulsion of the melt pool. Trailing beams were applied to melt additional material and ensure a melt pool. The method showed good results for increasing tolerances to impurities and reduction of scrapped parts from blowouts during laser welding....

  15. Laser forming and welding processes

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shuja, Shahzada Zaman

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces model studies and experimental results associated with laser forming and welding such as laser induced bending, welding of sheet metals, and related practical applications. The book provides insight into the physical processes involved with laser forming and welding. The analytical study covers the formulation of laser induced bending while the model study demonstrates the simulation of bending and welding processes using the finite element method. Analytical and numerical solutions for laser forming and welding problems are provided.

  16. Microgalvanic corrosion of laser-welded HSLA steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looi, Y.-M.

    2008-01-01

    Laser welding of galvanized high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels leads to the evaporation of zinc at the weld and the formation of a heat-affected-zone (HAZ). High heat input due to welding generates macro galvanic coupling between the weld and the parent metal as well as micro galvanic corrosion a

  17. Laser-MIG Arc Hybrid Brazing-Fusion Welding of Al Alloy to Galvanized Steel with Different Filler Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shujun WANG; Guoliang QIN; Yuhu SU

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum alloy plates were joined to galvanized steel sheets with lap joint by laser-MIG arc hybrid brazingfusion welding with AlSi5,AlSi12,AlMg5 filler wires,respectively.The influences of Si and Mg on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the brazed-fusion welded joint were studied.The increase of Si element in the fusion weld can make the grain refined,and increase the microhardness of the fusion weld.Therefore,the microhardness in fusion weld made from AlSi12 and AlSi5 filler wires can be up to 98.4 HV0.01and 96.8 HV0.01,which is higher than that from AlMg5 filler wire of 70.4 HV0.01.The highest tensile strength can reach 178.9 MPa made with AlMg5 filler wire.The tensile strength is 172.43 MPa made with AlSi5 filler wire.However,the lowest tensile strength is 144 MPa made with AlSi12 filler wire.The average thicknesses of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer with AlSi5,AlSi12,AlMg5 filler wires are 1.49-2.64 μm.The lMCs layer made from AlSi5,AlSi12 filler wires are identified as FeAl2,Fe2Als,Fe4Al13 and Al0.5Fe3Si0.5,that from AlMg5 filler wire are identified as FeAl2,Fe2Al5 and Fe4Al13.

  18. Impact property of low-activation vanadium alloy after laser welding and heavy neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasaka, Takuya, E-mail: nagasaka@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Watanabe, Hideo [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga (Japan); Miyazawa, Takeshi [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yamazaki, Masanori [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Shinozaki, Kenji [Department of Mechanical System Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    Weld specimens of the reference low activation vanadium alloy, NIFS-HEAT-2, were irradiated up to a neutron fluence of 1.5 × 10{sup 25} n m{sup −2} (E > 0.1 MeV) (1.2 dpa) at 670 K and 1.3 × 10{sup 26} n m{sup −2} (5.3 dpa) at 720 K in the JOYO reactor in Japan. The base metal exhibited superior irradiation resistance with the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) much lower than room temperature (RT) for both irradiation conditions. The weld metal kept the DBTT below RT after the 1.2 dpa irradiation; however, it showed enhanced irradiation embrittlement with much higher DBTT than RT after the 5.3 dpa irradiation. The high DBTT for the weld metal was effectively recovered by a post-irradiation annealing at 873 K for 1 h. Mechanisms of the irradiation embrittlement and its recovery are discussed, based on characterization of the radiation defects and irradiation-induced precipitation.

  19. Laser Impact Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Daehn, Glenn S.; Lippold, John; Liu, Deijan; Taber, Geoff; Wang, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    Laser impact welding is a solid-state, collision-based welding process. In this process, laser-generated optical energy is converted to kinetic energy through the ablation at the surface and confinement of the gas generated between a flyer and backing plate. The launch of the flyer can be affected by many factors, for example, backing material, ablative layer, and flyer thickness. In this paper, the effect of three backing materials: glass, polycarbonate and cellophane tape, we...

  20. Welding of Prosthetic Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowska M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the techniques of joining metal denture elements, used in prosthetic dentistry: the traditional soldering technique with a gas burner and a new technique of welding with a laser beam; the aim of the study was to make a comparative assessment of the quality of the joints in view of the possibility of applying them in prosthetic structures. Fractographic examinations were conducted along with tensile strength and impact strength tests, and the quality of the joints was assessed compared to the solid metal. The experiments have shown that the metal elements used to make dentures, joined by the technique which employs a laser beam, have better strength properties than those achieved with a gas burner.

  1. Effects of filling material and laser power on the formation of intermetallic compounds during laser-assisted friction stir butt welding of steel and aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xinjiang; Jin, Xiangzhong; Peng, Nanxiang; Ye, Ying; Wu, Sigen; Dai, Houfu

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, two kinds of materials, Ni and Zn, are selected as filling material during laser-assisted friction stir butt welding of Q235 steel and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, and their influences on the formation of intermetallic compounds on the steel/aluminum interface of the joints were first studied. SEM was used to analyze the profile of the intermetallic compound layer and the fractography of tensile fracture surfaces. In addition, EDS was applied to investigate the types of the intermetallic compounds. The results indicate that a thin iron-abundant intermetallic compound layer forms and ductile fracture mode occurs when Ni is added, but a thick aluminum-abundant intermetallic compound layer generates and brittle fracture mode occurs when Zn is added. So the tensile strength of the welds with Ni as filling material is greater than that with Zn as filling material. Besides, the effect of laser power on the formation of intermetallic compound layer when Ni is added was investigated. The preheated temperature field produced by laser beam in the cross section of workpiece was calculated, and the tensile strength of the joints at different laser powers was tested. Results show that only when suitable laser power is adopted, can suitable preheating temperature of the steel reach, then can thin intermetallic compound layer form and high tensile strength of the joints reach. Either excessive or insufficient laser power will reduce the tensile strength of the joints.

  2. 异种合金激光熔钎焊研究进展%Progress in Laser Fusion Welding-Brazing of Dissimilar Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖荣诗; 董鹏; 赵旭东

    2011-01-01

    激光熔钎焊是利用两种合金熔点的差异,通过激光加热使低熔点材料(母材和填充材料)熔化,在接头界面与固态高熔点母材相互作用达到冶金结合的异种合金连接方法.按激光能量吸收机制对激光熔钎焊进行了分类,并结合所做工作,阐述了激光熔钎焊方法的发展及研究进展.%Laser fusion welding-brazing processes are methods to metallurgically join dissimilar alloys with different melting points by laser heating to melt materials (substrate and filler material) with lower melting point, and by the interaction between the weld pool and the solid substrate with higher melt point at the joint interface. Laser fusion welding-brazing processes of dissimilar alloys are classified according to the laser energy absorption mechanisms. The development and state of the art of laser fusion welding-brazing processes are reviewed.

  3. Observation of changes in the metallurgical characteristics of Ni-Cr alloys using Nd:YAG laser welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mh; Choi, Sm

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of hardness change according to penetration depth in the laser fusing zone and observed the correlation of the microstructure as an Nd:YAG laser was irradiated to Ni-Cr alloy for dental use by setting the spot diameter size to various conditions. In all groups, the hardness depth profiles in the laser fusing zone and heat-affected zone (HAZ) had larger values than those of the base metal. In addition, the hardness values in places beyond the fusing zone and the HAZ were measured as being quantitatively lower. The observation result of the diffusion of the constituent elements and microstructure using field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalyzer showed that the fusing zone revealed a much finer dendritic form than the base metal due to the self-quenching effect after welding, while no change in constituent elements was found although some evaporation of the main elements was observed. In addition, Mo- and Si-combined intermetallic compounds were formed on the interdendritic area. Through this study, the laser fusing zone had better hardenability due to the intermetallic compound and grain refinement effect.

  4. Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Zhi-hong; HE Di-qiu; WANG Hong

    2004-01-01

    Friction stir welding(FSW), a new solid-state welding technology invited in the early 1990s,enables us weld aluminum alloys and titanium alloys etc. The processing of FSW, the microstructure in FSW alloysand the factors influencing weld quality are introduced. The complex factors affecting the properties are researched.

  5. Comparison on welding mode characteristics of arc heat source for heat input control in hybrid welding of aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Moo-Keun; Kim, Jong-Do; Oh, Jae-Hwan

    2015-03-01

    Presently in shipbuilding, transportation and aerospace industries, the potential to apply welding using laser and laser-arc hybrid heat sources is widely under research. This study has the purpose of comparing the weldability depending on the arc mode by varying the welding modes of arc heat sources in applying laser-arc hybrid welding to aluminum alloy and of implementing efficient hybrid welding while controlling heat input. In the experimental study, we found that hybrid welding using CMT mode produced deeper penetration and sounder bead surface than those characteristics produced during only laser welding, with less heat input compared to that required in pulsed arc mode.

  6. Laser welding of stainless steel weld filler metals at high cooling rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    Several stainless steels were laser welded under conditions resulting in high cooling rates of the welds. Significant changes in the microstructures, compared to those produced by conventional welding techniques, were found. For alloys 304, 308, 309, 316 and 347, a general decrease in ferrite content with increasing cooling rate was found. For three alloys (304, 308, 347), a fully austenitic structure was obtained at the highest cooling rates. For alloys 312 and 446, the high cooling rates retarded the formation of austenite, resulting in higher ferrite contents and fully ferritic structures at the highest cooling rates. Only for alloy 310 was the microstructure after laser welding comparable to that found after conventional welding. The results are discussed in terms of their impact on the Schaeffler diagram and its applicability to laser welding. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Adel K. M.; Taha, Ziad. A.; Shehab, Abeer A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied. Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

  8. Welding shape memory alloys with NdYAG lasers Soldadura de ligas de memória de forma com laser Nd-YAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Quintino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand of emerging joining techniques for shape memory alloys (SMA has become of great importance, as their functional properties namely shape memory effect (SME and superelasticity (SE present unique solutions for state-of-the-art applications. Welding of SMAs is a challenge due to the risk of reduced mechanical performance after laser processing. The wider application of these alloys in various sectors as aerospace, medical or electronic industry is hindered by the limitations in its processing. The need to weld SMAs to other materials is pressing for applications in the above referred sectors. In dissimilar joints the need to understand materials behavior is even more challenging since base materials have different physical properties leading to different heat flow, convection processes and residual stress distribution. The chemical composition across the weld pool varies and intermetallic compounds are formed. Research detailing the effects of laser processing on NiTi is essential to overcome many of these challenges. The objectives of the current study are to analyze the effects of laser welding in the weld shape of both similar and dissimilar joints of NiTi to stainless steel and titanium alloys.A procura de técnicas de ligação para ligas de memória de forma tem-se revetido de importância crescente, devido ao desenvolvimento de aplicações deste material com particulares propriedades de memória de forma e superelasticidade. A soldadura de ligas de memória de forma é um desafio devido ao risco de emporbrecimento das propriedades mecânicas depois do processamento laser. A aplicação alargarda destas ligas em vários sectores como o aeroespacial, medico ou electrónico é prejudicado pelas limitações de processamento. A necessidade de soldar ligas de memória de forma a outros materiais é premente para estes sectores. Em juntas dissimilares, o entendimento do comportamento dos materaias é um desafio ainda maior uma vez que

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser-Welded Joints of Ti-22Al-25Nb/TA15 Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dalong; Hu, Shengsun; Shen, Junqi; Zhang, Hao; Bu, Xianzheng

    2016-05-01

    Laser beam welding (LBW) was applied to join 1-mm-thick dissimilar titanium alloys, Ti-22Al-25Nb (at.%) and TA15, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints were systematically analyzed. Defect-free joints were obtained, and the fusion zone mainly consisted of B2 and martensitic α' phases because of the uneven distribution of the β phase stabilizer and rapid cooling rate of LBW. The phase compositions of the heat-affected zone varied with the different thermal cycles during the welding process. The different microstructures of the dissimilar titanium alloys led to an unsymmetrical hardness profile, with the welded seam exhibiting the lowest value of 271 HV. In room-temperature tensile tests, the fractures all occurred preferentially in the fusion zone. The strengths of the joints were close to those of the base metal but with prominently decreasing ductility. In tensile tests performed at 550 °C, all the joints fractured in the TA15 base metal, and the strength and plasticity of the welds were equivalent to those of the TA15 base metal.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Laser Welding for Aluminium Alloy%激光焊接铝合金材料过程的建模与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳; 张静; 胡敬佩; 项俊锋

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of the temperature field during laser welding based on aluminium alloy 3A21 was dynamically simulated by FEA software-ANSYS. In view of the highly non-linear characters of laser welding, a travel heat source combining with the body loads was built by analyzing the thermal physical parameters of material, such as latent heat of fusion, thermal conduction,convection and radiation. The results show that the temperature gradient of laser welding is larger, and HAZ is smaller than others. The temperature curves in the temperature fields rise and decline exponential], and the temperature in weld and near weld changes rapidly. The simulation results of width in the weld is in line with the experimental results, which verify the applicability of the model established by moving heat source during the laser welding based on aluminum alloy sheet applying to the temperature field simulation, and to a certain extent, the forming mechanism of the laser welding is revealed.%在试验基础上,利用有限元软件ANSYS对3A21铝合金材料激光焊接温度场进行了动态模拟.通过对激光焊接非线性瞬态过程的分析,分析与温度场有关的潜热、热传导、对流、辐射等材料热物理属性,建立了激光焊接的移动热源模型.仿真结果表明:激光焊接薄板铝合金的温度场梯度大,热影响区小;温度场中各点温度呈指数式升高和衰减;焊缝和近焊缝区温度升降急剧,焊缝宽度的仿真结果与试验结果相一致,从而验证了所建立的移动热源模型在激光焊接铝合金薄板温度场模拟中的适用性,在一定程度上揭示了激光焊接的成型机理.

  11. Study of issues in difficult-to-weld thick materials by hybrid laser arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, Mehdi

    There is a high interest for the high strength-to-weight ratio with good ductility for the welds of advanced alloys. The concern about the welding of thick materials (Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and 5xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys) has stimulated the development of manufacturing processes to overcome the associated issues. The need to weld the dissimilar materials (AHSS and aluminum alloys) is also required for some specific applications in different industries. Hence, the requirement in the development of a state-of-the-art welding procedure can be helpful to fulfill the constraints. Among the welding methods hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) has shown to be an effective method to join thick and difficult-to-weld materials. This process benefits from both advantages of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and laser welding processes. The interaction of the arc and laser can help to have enough penetration of weld in thick plates. However, as the welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys and steels is very difficult because of the formation of brittle intermetallics the present work proposed a procedure to effectively join the alloys. The reports showed that the explosively welded aluminum alloys to steels have the highest toughness, and that could be used as an "insert" (TRICLAD) for welding the thick plates of AHSS to aluminum alloys. Therefore, the HLAW of the TRICLAD-Flange side (Aluminum alloy (AA 5456)) to the Web side (Aluminum alloys (AA 6061 and AA 5456)) and the TRICLAD-Flange side (ASTM A516) to the Web side (AHSS) was studied in the present work. However, there are many issues related to HLAW of the dissimilar steels as well as dissimilar aluminum alloys that have to be resolved in order to obtain sound welds. To address the challenges, the most recent welding methods for joining aluminum alloys to steels were studied and the microstructural development, mechanical properties, and on-line monitoring of the welding processes were discussed as well

  12. Microstructural factors determining mechanical properties of laser-welded Ti-4.5Al-2.5Cr-1.2Fe-0.1C alloy for use in next-generation aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Masaaki, E-mail: nakai@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Niinomi, Mitsuo [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Akahori, Toshikazu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Hayashi, Kazuhiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Itsumi, Yoshio [Titanium Research and Development Section, Kobe Steel, Ltd., Takasago 676-8670 (Japan); Murakami, Shogo [Materials Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe 651-2271 (Japan); Oyama, Hideto [Titanium Research and Development Section, Kobe Steel, Ltd., Takasago 676-8670 (Japan); Abe, Wataru [Aerospace Company, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kakamigahara 504-8710 (Japan)

    2012-07-30

    The complex microstructure of a high hot-workable {alpha} + {beta}-type titanium alloy, Ti-4.5Al-2.5Cr-1.2Fe-0.1C with a continuously varying {alpha} phase in terms of its size, distribution, morphology, and crystal orientation from the welded zone to the matrix, including a trace amount of welding defect, was investigated by several microstructural and crystallographical analysis techniques such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction to elucidate the crucial factors determining its mechanical properties such as tensile properties and fatigue etc. The alloy was processed with laser welding to prepare parts for use in next-generation aircraft. The tensile properties of welded samples exhibit a strength-ductility balance similar to that of non-welded sample. All the failures in these samples occur at their matrices because the hardness values of welded zone on the cross section perpendicular to loading direction of the welded samples are higher than that on the same plane of non-welded sample, which is related to crystal texture of {alpha} phase. However, the fatigue strengths of welded samples are lower than that of non-welded sample. Such the decrease in fatigue strength of welded samples is caused by the presence of pores formed during welding.

  13. Optimization of weld bead geometry in laser welding with filler wire process using Taguchi’s approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    dongxia, Yang; xiaoyan, Li; dingyong, He; zuoren, Nie; hui, Huang

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, laser welding with filler wire was successfully applied to joining a new-type Al-Mg alloy. Welding parameters of laser power, welding speed and wire feed rate were carefully selected with the objective of producing a weld joint with the minimum weld bead width and the fusion zone area. Taguchi approach was used as a statistical design of experimental technique for optimizing the selected welding parameters. From the experimental results, it is found that the effect of welding parameters on the welding quality decreased in the order of welding speed, wire feed rate, and laser power. The optimal combination of welding parameters is the laser power of 2.4 kW, welding speed of 3 m/min and the wire feed rate of 2 m/min. Verification experiments have also been conducted to validate the optimized parameters.

  14. Comparative evaluation of tungsten inert gas and laser beam welding of AA5083-H321

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Subbaiah; M Geetha; B Shanmugarajan; S R Koteswara Rao

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the bead-on-plate welds were made on AA5083-H321 alloy plates using both tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and laser beam (LB) welding processes to study the enhancement of mechanical properties such as weld yield strength and hardness. The low heat input of laser beam welding effectively reduced the size of the fusion zone and heat affected zone compared to tungsten inert gas welding process. High speed LB welding and fast heating and cooling of LB welding process hinders grain growth compared to TIG welding process. The effect of vapourization of volatile alloying elements is also considered. It seems that magnesium evaporation is relatively less in LB welding compared to TIG welding. Tensile testing of the welded joints revealed that LB welding results in superior mechanical properties. It is concluded that LB welding process is more suitable to join AA5083-H321.

  15. Method for laser welding a fin and a tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuerschbach, Phillip W. (Tijeras, NM); Mahoney, A. Roderick (Albuquerque, NM); Milewski, John O (Santa Fe, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method of laser welding a planar metal surface to a cylindrical metal surface is provided, first placing a planar metal surface into approximate contact with a cylindrical metal surface to form a juncture area to be welded, the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface thereby forming an acute angle of contact. A laser beam, produced, for example, by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser, is focused through the acute angle of contact at the juncture area to be welded, with the laser beam heating the juncture area to a welding temperature to cause welding to occur between the planar metal surface and the cylindrical metal surface. Both the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface are made from a reflective metal, including copper, copper alloys, stainless steel alloys, aluminum, and aluminum alloys.

  16. In Situ Observation of Solidification Conditions in Pulsed Laser Welding of AL6082 Aluminum Alloys to Evaluate Their Impact on Hot Cracking Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Witzendorff, Philipp; Kaierle, Stefan; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2015-04-01

    The influence of laser pulse parameters on solidification conditions and hot crack formation in pulsed laser welding of Al6082 aluminum alloys was studied with the aid of high-speed cameras capturing visible and infrared radiation. Hot cracking was evaluated with respect to strain rate, strain, and metallurgical outcome. The strain rate was approximated by the product of interface velocity and temperature gradient at the interface. The temperature gradient decreases during the course of solidification and followed a specific course. The interface velocity was therefore used as an indicator for the strain rate, which increased in a logarithmic manner with respect to the slope of the laser pulse's cooling time. The accumulated strain was calculated by measuring the spot weld deformation during solidification. Within the heat-conduction welding regime, hot cracking can be reduced by lowering the interface velocity leading to a reduced strain rate and enhanced permeability of the dendritic microstructure. An over-proportional increase of the accumulated strain was observed for keyhole welding, which led to a high susceptibility to hot cracking regardless of the interface velocity. At low interface velocities, hot cracking was induced by extensive hydrogen diffusion at the solid-liquid interface, which promotes crack initiation.

  17. Investigation and Optimization of Disk-Laser Welding of 1 mm Thick Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizia Caiazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V joints are employed in nuclear engineering, civil industry, military, and space vehicles. Laser beam welding has been proven to be promising, thanks to increased penetration depth and reduction of possible defects of the welding bead; moreover, a smaller grain size in the fusion zone is better in comparison to either TIG or plasma arc welding, thus providing an increase in tensile strength of any welded structures. In this frame, the regression models for a number of crucial responses are discussed in this paper. The study has been conducted on 1 mm thick Ti-6Al-4V plates in square butt welding configuration; a disk-laser source has been used. A three-level Box-Behnken experimental design is considered. An optimum condition is then suggested via numerical optimization with the response surface method using desirability functions with proper weights and importance of constraints. Eventually, Vickers microhardness testing has been conducted to discuss structural changes in fusion and heat affected zone due to welding thermal cycles.

  18. Fundamental Laser Welding Process Investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1998-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory investigations the fundamental behavior of the laser welding process was analyzed by the use of normal video (30 Hz), high speed video (100 and 400 Hz) and photo diodes. Sensors were positioned to monitor the welding process from both the top side and the rear...... side of the specimen.Special attention has been given to the dynamic nature of the laser welding process, especially during unstable welding conditions. In one series of experiments, the stability of the process has been varied by changing the gap distance in lap welding. In another series...

  19. 激光焊接新型钴铬合金的力学性能%Mechanical study of laser welded new Co-Cr alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁锐英; 赵艳萍; 温黎明; 白宇宏; 吴文慧; 徐艳丽; 孟贺

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are no reports on laser welding about a kind of Co-Cr alloys, which do not include Ni and Be nowadays.OBJECTIVE: To apply laser welding technique to prepare a new Co -Cr alloy in order to provide welding parameters for clinicapplication.METHODS: Sixty plastic plate patterns (0.5 mm×6 mm×30 mm) were casted from new Co-Cr alloy. All the plates were randomlydivided into 6 groups, one as control group, and the others as examination group. The plates of examination group wereperpendicularly cut at the center of the plates. After the cut halves we re fixed in a jig, they were laser welded using a NG:YAGlaser at a several level output energy in increments of 30 V from 220 to 340 V. The spot diameter and pulse duration employedwas 0.6 mm and 10 ms. Uncut specimens served as the non-welded control specimens. Tensile testing was conducted and thebreaking force was recorded and the data was statistically analyzed.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The tensile strength of laser welding New Co -Cr alloys increased with the electric voltage. Theelongation increased with the electric voltage at the electric voltage lower than 280 V, but showed contrary trend when the electricvoltage higher than 280 V. The tensile strength and elongation was (679.94±46.87) MPa and (5.91±0.38)% respectively at theoptimized welding parameters. The tensile strength and elongation of laser welded New Co -Cr alloy under the optimizedparameters (280 V, 10 ms, spot diameter 0.6 mm) can be satisfied with the clinical requirement.%背景:新型钴铬合金为一种不含镍和铍等有害成分的齿科合金材料,但关于其激光焊接的研究尚未见报道.目的:分析新型钴铬合金的激光焊接参数,优选激光焊接电压条件.方法:铸造0.5 mm×6 mm×30 mm的新型钴铬合金试件60个,将试件分成6组.1组作为对照组;5组试件从中间断开,进行激光焊接,光斑直径设定为0.6 mm,脉冲持续时间10 ms,电压分别为220,250,280,310,340 V,焊后进行

  20. A study of laser-beam welding conducted at the Centre for Laser Technologies of Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, Bogdan; Gradoń, Ryszard; Trela, Paweł; Cendrowicz, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here is part of a larger research project on laser-beam welding conducted at the Centre for Laser Technologies of Metals. The primary objectives were to compare laser-beam welding with a conventional process when used for longitudinal seams in street lamp posts, to select the process parameters for girth welds in cylindrical high-strength steel machine elements, and to assess whether laser-beam welding can be used for magnesium alloys. The paper includes recommendations for the selection of welding parameters.

  1. Effects of Weaving Laser on Weld Microstructure and Crack for Al 6k21-T4 Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.H. Kim; N.Y. Kang; W.T. Oh; C.H. Kim; J.H. Kim; Y.S. Kim; Y.H. Park

    2011-01-01

    For Al 6k21-T4 overlap weld joint, the shear-tensile strength by using the weaving laser was improved as compared to the case of linear laser. For the specimen of low strength, the porosity was distributed continuously along the intersection between the plates and fusion line. However, for the optimized welding condition, large oval-shaped porosities were located only in the advancing track of the concave part. Therefore, the continuity of cracks and porosities played a key role to determine the strength. And, the weaving width was also the important parameter to control the strength. Furthermore, the concave part had more significant hot and cold cracking in the weld and heat-affected zone (HAZ), respectively, than the convex part.

  2. Improvement in Fatigue Performance of Aluminium Alloy Welded Joints by Laser Shock Peening in a Dynamic Strain Aging Temperature Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Su

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As a new treatment process after welding, the process parameters of laser shock peening (LSP in dynamic strain aging (DSA temperature regimes can be precisely controlled, and the process is a non-contact one. The effects of LSP at elevated temperatures on the distribution of the surface residual stress of AA6061-T6 welded joints were investigated by using X-ray diffraction technology with the sin2ϕ method and Abaqus software. The fatigue life of the welded joints was estimated by performing tensile fatigue tests. The microstructural evolution in surface and fatigue fractures of the welded joints was presented by means of surface integrity and fracture surface testing. In the DSA temperature regime of AA6061-T6 welded joints, the residual compressive stress was distributed more stably than that of LSP at room temperature. The thermal corrosion resistance and fatigue properties of the welded joints were also improved. The experimental results and numerical analysis were in mutual agreement.

  3. Effects of Surface Alloying and Laser Beam Treatment on the Microstructure and Wear Behaviour of Surfaces Modified Using Submerged Metal Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regita BENDIKIENE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of surface alloying of cheap plain carbon steel using submerged metal arc technique and subsequent laser beam treatment on the microstructure and wear behaviour of surfaced layers were studied. This method is the cheapest one to obtain high alloyed coatings, because there is no need to apply complex technologies of powder making (metal powder is spread on the surface of base metal or inserted into the flux, it is enough to grind, granulate and blend additional materials. On the other hand, strengthening of superficial layers of alloys by thermal laser radiation is one of the applications of laser. Surface is strengthened by concentrated laser beam focused into teeny area (from section of mm till some mm. Teeny area of metal heat up rapidly and when heat is drain to the inner metal layers giving strengthening effect. Steel surface during this treatment exceeds critical temperatures, if there is a need to strengthen deeper portions of the base metal it is possible even to fuse superficial layer. The results presented in this paper are based on micro-structural and micro-chemical analyses of the surfaced and laser beam treated surfaces and are supported by analyses of the hardness, the wear resistance and resultant microstructures. Due to the usage of waste raw materials a significant improvement (~ 30 % in wear resistance was achieved. The maximum achieved hardness of surfaced layer was 62 HRC, it can be compared with high alloyed conventional steel grade. Wear properties of overlays with additional laser beam treatment showed that weight loss of these layers was ~10 % lower compared with overlays after welding; consequently it is possible to replace high alloyed conventional steel grades forming new surfaces or restoring worn machine elements and tools.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.1.7621

  4. Intraoral laser welding: ultrastructural and mechanical analysis to compare laboratory laser and dental laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca; Villa, Elena; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Merigo, Elisabetta; Vescovi, Paolo; Meleti, Marco; Manfredi, Maddalena; Nammour, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The Nd:YAG laser has been used since 1970 in dental laboratories to weld metals on dental prostheses. Recently in several clinical cases, we have suggested that the Nd:YAG laser device commonly utilized in the dental office could be used to repair broken fixed, removable and orthodontic prostheses and to weld metals directly in the mouth. The aim of this work was to evaluate, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), the quality of the weld and its mechanical strength, comparing a device normally used in dental laboratory and a device normally used in the dental office for oral surgery, the same as that described for intraoral welding. Metal plates of a Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy and steel orthodontic wires were subjected to four welding procedures: welding without filler metal using the laboratory laser, welding with filler metal using the laboratory laser, welding without filler metal using the office laser, and welding with filler metal using the office laser. The welded materials were then analysed by SEM, EDS and DMA. SEM analysis did not show significant differences between the samples although the plates welded using the office laser without filler metal showed a greater number of fissures than the other samples. EDS microanalysis of the welding zone showed a homogeneous composition of the metals. Mechanical tests showed similar elastic behaviours of the samples, with minimal differences between the samples welded with the two devices. No wire broke even under the maximum force applied by the analyser. This study seems to demonstrate that the welds produced using the office Nd:YAG laser device and the laboratory Nd:YAG laser device, as analysed by SEM, EDS and DMA, showed minimal and nonsignificant differences, although these findings need to be confirmed using a greater number of samples.

  5. Assessment of Hot Crack Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Crack testing concerning small and fast solidifying laser welds in austenitic stainless steel has been studied. A set of methods has been applied to investigate alloy properties, including (1) Application of known information to predict solidification phases, (2) Weld metal solidification rate...

  6. Forming of aluminium alloy friction stir welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Carlo

    2016-10-01

    The present paper aims at investigating, through analytical models, numerical models and experiments, the effect of the warm deformation phase, realised with an in temperature upsetting, on the weld previously performed by friction stir lap welding on aluminium alloy blanks. The investigation allows to show the deformation zones after upsetting that determine the homogenisation of the weld section. The analytical model allows to relate the friction factor with the upsetting load. The presence on the weld of not elevated friction factor values determines the deformation and localisation levels very useful for the weld. Such methodology allows to improve the weld itself with the forming phase.

  7. Sensor integration for robotic laser welding processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, Dimitrios; Aarts, Ronald; Meijer, Johan

    2005-01-01

    The use of robotic laser welding is increasing among industrial applications, because of its ability to weld objects in three dimensions. Robotic laser welding involves three sub-processes: seam detection and tracking, welding process control, and weld seam inspection. Usually, for each sub-process,

  8. METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR LASER WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to laser welding of at least two adjacent, abutting or overlapping work pieces in a welding direction using multiple laser beams guided to a welding region, wherein at least two of the multiple laser beams are coupled into the welding region so as to form a melt and at least...

  9. Monitoring of solidification crack propagation mechanism in pulsed laser welding of 6082 aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Witzendorff, P.; Kaierle, S.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    2016-03-01

    Pulsed laser sources with pulse durations in the millisecond regime can be used for spot welding and seam welding of aluminum. Seam welds are generally produced with several overlapping spot welds. Hot cracking has its origin in the solidification process of individual spot welds which determines the cracking morphology along the seam welding. This study used a monitoring unit to capture the crack geometry within individual spot welds during seam welding to investigate the conditions for initiation, propagation and healing (re-melting) of solidification cracking within overlapping pulsed laser welds. The results suggest that small crack radii and high crack angles with respect to welding direction are favorable conditions for crack healing which leads to crack-free seam welds. Optimized pulse shapes were used to produce butt welds of 0.5 mm thick 6082 aluminum alloys. Tensile tests were performed to investigate the mechanical strength in the as-welded condition.

  10. Picosecond laser welding of optical to metal components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Richard M.; Troughton, Michael; Chen, Jinanyong; Elder, Ian; Thomson, Robert R.; Lamb, Robert A.; Esser, M. J. Daniel; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    We report on practical, industrially relevant, welding of optical components to themselves and aluminum alloy components. Weld formation is achieved through the tight focusing of a 5.9ps, 400kHz Trumpf laser operating at 1030nm. By selecting suitable surface preparation, clamping and laser parameters, the plasma can be confined, even with comparatively rough surfaces, by exploiting the melt properties of the glass. The short interaction time allows for a permanent weld to form between the two materials with heating limited to a region ~300 µm across. Practical application of these weld structures is typically limited due to the induced stress within the glass and, critically, the issues surrounding post-weld thermal expansion. We report on the measured strength of the weld, with a particular emphasis on laser parameters and surface preparation.

  11. Computerized simulation of YAG pulse laser welding of titanium alloy (TA6V): experimental characterization and modelling of the thermomechanical aspects of this process; Simulation numerique du soudage du TA6V par laser YAG impulsionnel: caracterisation experimentale et modelisation des aspects thermomecanique associees a ce procede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, Y

    2007-09-15

    This work is a part of study which goal is to realize a computer modelling of the thermomechanical phenomena occurring during the YAG pulse laser welding of titanium alloy (TA6V). The filet welding has different heterogeneities (microstructural and mechanical). In fact, the temperature causes microstructural changes (phase transformations, precipitations) and modifies the mechanical properties. Thermomechanical modelling has thus to be established for the welding of TA6V. (author)

  12. Laser welding of fused quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  13. Experimental study on activating welding for aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yong; Fan Ding

    2005-01-01

    TIG welding and EB welding for aluminum alloy 3003 were carried out to study the effects of activating flux on weld penetration of activating welding for aluminum alloys. SiO2 was used as the activating flux. It is found that, SiO2 can increase the weld penetration and decrease the weld width of FBTIG when the flux gap is small. For A-TIG welding and EB welding with focused mode, the weld penetrations and the weld widths increase simultaneously. SiO2 has little effect on the weld penetration and weld width of EB welding with defocused mode. It is believed that, change of surface tension temperature gradient is not the main mechanism of SiO2 improving weld penetration of activating welding for aluminum alloys.

  14. MODELLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LASER WELDED INCOLOY 800 HT JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiya Paulraj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at finding the effect of laser welding speed on incoloy 800 HT. This alloy is one of the potential materials for Generation IV nuclear plants. Laser welding has several advantages over arc welding such as low fusion zone, low heat input and concentrated heat intensity. Three different welding speeds were chosen and CO2 laser welding was performed. 2D modeling and simulation were done using ANSYS 15 to find out the temperature distribution at different welding speeds and it was found that an increase in the welding speed decreased the temperature. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, toughness and hardness were evaluated. The effect of welding speed on metallurgical characteristics was studied using optical microscopy (OM, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM with EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD technique and fractographic analysis. From the results it was found that high welding speed (1400 mm/min decreased the joint strength. The M23C6 and Ni3Ti carbides were formed in a discrete chain and in a globular form along the grain boundaries of the weld region which increased the strength of the grain boundaries. Fractographic evaluations of the tested specimens for welding speed (1000 and 1200 mm/min showed deep and wide dimples indicating ductile failures.

  15. Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Alloy Circumferential Weld Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Cantrell, Mark; Carter, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding is an innovative weld process that continues to grow in use, in the commercial, defense, and space sectors. It produces high quality and high strength welds in aluminum alloys. The process consists of a rotating weld pin tool that plasticizes material through friction. The plasticized material is welded by applying a high weld forge force through the weld pin tool against the material during pin tool rotation. The high weld forge force is reacted against an anvil and a stout tool structure. A variation of friction stir welding currently being evaluated is self-reacting friction stir welding. Self-reacting friction stir welding incorporates two opposing shoulders on the crown and root sides of the weld joint. In self-reacting friction stir welding, the weld forge force is reacted against the crown shoulder portion of the weld pin tool by the root shoulder. This eliminates the need for a stout tooling structure to react the high weld forge force required in the typical friction stir weld process. Therefore, the self-reacting feature reduces tooling requirements and, therefore, process implementation costs. This makes the process attractive for aluminum alloy circumferential weld applications. To evaluate the application of self-reacting friction stir welding for aluminum alloy circumferential welding, a feasibility study was performed. The study consisted of performing a fourteen-foot diameter aluminum alloy circumferential demonstration weld using typical fusion weld tooling. To accomplish the demonstration weld, weld and tack weld development were performed and fourteen-foot diameter rings were fabricated. Weld development consisted of weld pin tool selection and the generation of a process map and envelope. Tack weld development evaluated gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding for tack welding rings together for circumferential welding. As a result of the study, a successful circumferential demonstration weld was produced leading

  16. Etude expérimentale du soudage par laser YAG de l'alliage base nickel Hastelloy X Experimental study of YAG laser welding of nickel base alloy Hastelloy X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graneix Jérémie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le procédé de soudage laser YAG est envisagé pour remplacer le procédé de soudage TIG manuel pour la réalisation de pièces de turboréacteur en alliage nickel-chrome-molybdène Hastelloy X. Cette étude expérimentale a permis de définir un domaine de soudabilité de cet alliage répondant aux critères spécifiques du secteur aéronautique. The YAG laser welding process is contemplated to replace the manual TIG welding process for the production of parts of turbojet in Hastelloy X. This experimental study has identified the field of weldability of this alloy to meet the specific requirements of the aerospace industry.

  17. Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Carlson, Blair; Hartfield-Wunsch, Susan; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2014-01-15

    A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.

  18. Laser based spot weld characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  19. Studies of Hot Crack Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Thomas Winther

    During the present work crack testing concerning small and fast solidifying laser welds in austenitic stainless steel has been studied. A set of methods has been applied to investigate alloy properties, including ·Application of known information to predict solidification phases from the alloy...... investigated and recommendations are given. From studies of literature it is found that the austenitic stainless steels have lowest crack susceptibility by a solidification course leaving approximately 15% rest ferrite in the weld metal. The alloys properties and the solidification rate determines the amount...

  20. Laser welding of tailored blanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peças, P.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser welding has an incrising role in the automotive industry, namely on the sub-assemblies manufacturing. Several sheet-shape parts are laser welded, on a dissimilar combination of thicknesses and materials, and are afterwards formed (stamped being transformed in a vehicle body component. In this paper low carbon CO2 laser welding, on the thicknesses of 1,25 and 0,75 mm, formability investigation is described. There will be a description of how the laser welded blanks behave in different forming tests, and the influence of misalignment and undercut on the formibility. The quality is evaluated by measuring the limit strain and limit effective strain for the laser welded sheets and the base material, which will be presented in a forming limit diagram.

    A soldadura laser assume um papel cada vez mais importante na indústria automóvel, principalmente para a fabricação de sub-conjuntos constituídos por varias partes de chapa de diferentes espessuras (e diferentes materiais, que depois de estampados constituem um componente para integrar num veículo. Descreve-se neste artigo o trabalho de investigação de enformabilidade de chapa de ac.o de baixo carbono soldada por laser de CO2, nas espessuras de 1,25 e 0,75 mm. Apresenta-se uma descrição do comportamento das chapas soldadas por laser em diferentes testes de enformação, e a influência dos defeitos das soldaduras (desalinhamento e queda do banho-undercut no comportamento à enformação. A qualidade é avaliada pela medição da extensão limite e da extensão limite efectiva no material base e no material soldado, que serão representadas num diagrama de limite de enformabilidade.

  1. Experimental Research in Pulsed Laser Welding of High-Silicon Aluminum Alloy%高硅铝合金脉冲激光焊接工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕振君; 赵龙海; 华鹏; 李先芬; 周伟

    2015-01-01

    The paper highlighted the pulsed laser-cladding welding test for joining of Al-27Si; it analyzed the effects of various welding parameters on weld surface quality and weld pool shape. The results showed that welding heat input increased with the increase of welding current, pulse width and laser frequency, thereby increasing weld penetration;weld penetration decreased and inter-ripple distance increased with the increase of welding travel speed. The paper pointed out that improved weld joint was available with welding current of 90A, pulsed width of 2ms, laser frequency of 30Hz and welding travel speed of 200mm/min.%文章采用脉冲激光焊机针对Al-27Si进行了表面脉冲激光熔敷焊接试验,通过调整焊接电流、焊接速度、激光脉宽和激光频率,系统分析研究各种激光焊接参数对焊缝表面成型质量和横截面形状尺寸的影响规律。实验结果表明,提高焊接电流、激光脉冲宽度和频率,均能增加焊接热输入,从而增加焊接熔深;增大焊接速度,焊缝熔深减小,鱼鳞状波纹宽度增大。综合分析,在焊接电流90A、激光脉宽2ms、频率30Hz、焊接速度200mm/min的焊接规范下,能够得到较好的焊接接头。

  2. Effect of weld microstructure on weld properties in A-TIG welding of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤尧; 杨春利; 林三宝; 吴林; 苏生

    2003-01-01

    Conventional TIG welding is known as its low productivity and limited weld depth in a single pass. Activating TIG welding (A-TIG) can greatly improve the penetration when compared with the conventional TIG welding. The effects of five kinds of activating fluxes with single component (NaF, CaF2, AlF3, NaCl or CaCl2) on penetration, microstructure and weld mechanical properties during the TIG welding of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were studied. Compared with the conventional TIG welding, the experimental results show that the fluxes can greatly improve the penetration at the same welding specifications. This is because of the constriction of anode spots and the change of surface tension grads. Among them the effect of flux NaF is the best in the weld tensile strength, and the effect of flux CaF2 on the weld bend intension is the best. The appearance of inferior crystal grains and the structure of trident crystal grains are the main reasons that the performance of weld with fluoride is improved. These experimental results can be used as an aid for selecting suitable activating flux for titanium alloy.

  3. Review of laser hybrid welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus

    2004-01-01

    In this artucle an overview og the hybrid welding process is given. After a short historic overview, a review of the fundamental phenomenon taking place when a laser (CO2 or Nd:YAG) interacts in the same molten pool as a more conventional source of energy, e.g. tungsten in-active gas, plasma...

  4. Ultrasonic inspection of AA6013 laser welded joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Passini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in laser beam welding for aerospace applications is continuously growing, mainly for aluminum alloys. The joints quality is usually assessed by non-destructive inspection (NDI. In this work, bead on plate laser welds on 1.6 mm thick AA6013 alloy sheets, using a 2 kW Yb-fiber laser were obtained and inspected by pulse/echo ultrasonic phased-array technique. Good and poor quality welds were inspected in order to verify the limits of inspection, comparing also to X-ray radiography and metallographic inspections. The results showed that ultrasonic phased array technique was able to identify the presence of grouped porosity, through the attenuation of the amplitude of the echo signal. This attenuation is attributed to the scattering of the waves caused by micro pores, with individual size below the resolution limit of the equipment, but when grouped, can cause a perceptive effect on the reflection spectra.

  5. Macrostructural and microstructural features of 1 000 MPa grade TRIP steel joint by CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenquan; Sun Daqian; Kang Chungyun

    2008-01-01

    Bead-on-plate CO2 laser welding of 1 000 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel was conducted under different welding powers, welding speeds and shield gases. The macrostructural and microstructural features of the welded joint were investigated. The increase of welding speed reduced the width of the weld bead and the porosities in the weld bead resulting from the different flow mode of melted metal in weld pool. The decrease of welding power or use of shield gas of helium also contributed to the reduction of porosity in the weld bead due to the alleviation of induced plasma formation, thus stabilizing the keyhole. The porosity formation intimately correlated with the evaporation of alloy element Mn in the base metal. The laser welded metal had same martensite microstructure as that of water-quenched base metal. The welding parameters which increased cooling rate all led to fine microstructures of the weld bead.

  6. YAG laser welding with surface activating flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊丁; 张瑞华; 田中学; 中田一博; 牛尾诚夫

    2003-01-01

    YAG laser welding with surface activating flux has been investigated, and the influencing factors and mechanism are discussed. The results show that both surface activating flux and surface active element S have fantastic effects on the YAG laser weld shape, that is to obviously increase the weld penetration and D/W ratio in various welding conditions. The mechanism is thought to be the change of weld pool surface tension temperature coefficient, thus, the change of fluid flow pattern in weld pool due to the flux.

  7. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu-Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu-Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint.

  8. Evolution of a Laser Hybrid Welding Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.; Frostevarg, Jan; Ilar, Torbjörn; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    Laser arc hybrid welding combines the advantages but also the complex physical mechanisms of gas metal arc welding and laser keyhole welding. From manifold mainly experimental but also theoretical research results a map with versatile functions was initiated for the first time. The purpose is to survey the overall context and to facilitate navigation to the various phenomena that are shown through case studies accompanied by theoretical explanations and guidelines for optimization. Though not complete, the map enables systematic and graphical navigation to relevant publications. Based on a fundamental structure of the map, which was decided early, it is inherently extendable in the future by adding existing and new knowledge, also from other research groups, enabling evolution. The fundament of the map structure comprises gouge thickness, joint type and metal grade, in coherence with product and weld designers' starting points. The next hierarchy level of the map offers options in the joint type as well as in hybrid welding techniques. The latter contains techniques like double-sided welding, pulse shaping management of the arc or laser, CMT arcs, tandem arcs, or remelting of undercuts. In addition to laser-arc hybrid welding, other hybrid laser techniques like multilayer hot-wire laser welding of narrow gaps or hybrid laser friction stir welding can be taken into account. At the other end of the hierarchy, the map offers via a database-like archive electronic navigation to research results like weld macrographs, high speed imaging or numerical simulation results of the welding process.

  9. Laser welding closed-loop power control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser.......A closed-loop control system is developed to maintain an even seam width on the root side of a laser weld by continually controlling the output laser power of a 1500 W CO2 laser....

  10. FLUXES FOR MECHANIZED ELECTRIC WELDING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    WELDING FLUXES, WELDING ), (* WELDING , WELDING FLUXES), ARC WELDING , WELDS, STABILITY, POROSITY, WELDING RODS, STEEL, CERAMIC MATERIALS, FLUXES(FUSION), TITANIUM ALLOYS, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COPPER ALLOYS, ELECTRODEPOSITION

  11. Intermetallic alloy welding wires and method for fabricating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-06-11

    Welding wires for welding together intermetallic alloys of nickel aluminides, nickel-iron aluminides, iron aluminides, or titanium aluminides, and preferably including additional alloying constituents are fabricated as two-component, clad structures in which one component contains the primary alloying constituent(s) except for aluminum and the other component contains the aluminum constituent. This two-component approach for fabricating the welding wire overcomes the difficulties associated with mechanically forming welding wires from intermetallic alloys which possess high strength and limited ductilities at elevated temperatures normally employed in conventional metal working processes. The composition of the clad welding wires is readily tailored so that the welding wire composition when melted will form an alloy defined by the weld deposit which substantially corresponds to the composition of the intermetallic alloy being joined. 4 figs.

  12. Laser Welding Test Results with Gas Atmospheres in Welding Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Hong, Jin-Tae; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Heo, Sung-Ho; Jang, Seo-Yun; Yang, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The weld beads of specimens welded under identical conditions in the helium and argon gas were cleaner, more regular, and steadier than those in a vacuum. The penetration depth of the FZ in the vacuum was much deeper than those in the helium and argon gas. To measure the irradiation properties of nuclear fuel in a test reactor, a nuclear fuel test rod instrumented with various sensors must be fabricated with assembly processes. A laser welding system to assemble the nuclear fuel test rod was designed and fabricated to develop various welding technologies of the fuel test rods to joint between a cladding tube and end-caps. It is an air-cooling optical fiber type and its emission modes are a continuous (CW) mode of which the laser generates continuous emission, and pulse (QCW) mode in which the laser internally generates sequences of pulses. We considered the system welding a sample in a chamber that can weld a specimen in a vacuum and inert gas atmosphere, and the chamber was installed on the working plate of the laser welding system. In the chamber, the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a cladding tube and an end-cap.

  13. Techniques for laser welding polymeric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, I A

    2003-04-01

    Recent advances in laser techniques mean that lasers are now being considered as an alternative to vibration, ultrasonic, dielectric, hot plate or hot bar welding, and adhesive bonding of plastics. The techniques required to put laser welding methods into practice are described for medical devices, tubular systems, films and synthetic fabrics.

  14. Study on DC welding parameters of Al-alloy shaping based on arc-welding robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Al-alloy arc-welding shaping system based on arc-welding robot is established, and the Al-alloy shaping manufacture is realized with the DC (direct current) gas metal arc welding (GMAW). The research indicates that the metal transfer type of DC GMAW, heat input and the initial temperature of the workpiece greatly affect the Al-alloy shaping based on arc welding robot. On the penetration, the weld width and the reinforcement, the influence of welding parameters is analyzed by generalized regression neural network (GRNN) fitting.

  15. Laser Shock Processing of Metal Sheet and Welded Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Shi-kun; TAN Yong-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-bin; LIU Fang-jun

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the application of laser shock processing(LSP) as a post weld treatment technology and a strengthening technology, a series experiments and analysis were taken in this paper. The hardness of the laser shock processed zone of Al-Li alloy was measured, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints of the Ni-based superalloy GH30 and the Austenitic stainless steel 1Cr18Ni9Ti were compared with those without LSP in this paper. The results showed that the size of strengthened zone was similar to that of laser spot and strengthened layer was about 1mm deep, and the high intense dislocations and twins produced in the shocked zone. Plastic strain also gained surface residual compress stress, which is benefit for the fatigue properties of welded zones. In this test, the surface hardness of welding zone of the superalloy GH30 improved obviously and tensile strength increased by 12%, but the improvement of fatigue life was not obvious; Martensite phase is formed in plasma welding 1Cr18Ni9Ti, which reduced the effect of strain deformation martensite induced by laser shock processing, but the surface residual compress stress gained by laser shock processing can obviously improve the fatigue life of 1Cr1 8Ni9Ti welded joints.

  16. Laser Shock Processing of Metal Sheet and Welded Joints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUShi-kun; TANYong-sheng; ZHANGXiao-bin; LIUFang-jun

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the application of laser shock processing(LSP) as a post weld treatment technology and a strengthening technology, a series experiments and analysis were taken in this paper. The hardness of the laser shock processed zone of A1-Li alloy was measured, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the welded joints of the Ni-based superalloy GH30 and the Austenitic stainless steel 1Crl8Ni9Ti were compared with those without LSP in this paper. The results showed that the size of strengthened zone was similar to that of laser spot and strengthened layer was about lmm deep, and the high intense dislocations and twins produced in the shocked zone. Plastic strain also gained surface residual compress stress, which is benefit for the fatigue properties of welded zones. In this test, the surface hardness of welding zone of the superalloy GH30 improved obviously and tensile strength increased by 12%, but the improvement of fatigue life was not obvious; Martensite phase is formed in plasma welding 1Crl8Ni9Ti, which reduced the effect of strain deformation martensite induced by laser shock processing, but the surface residual compress stress gained by laser shock processing can obviously improve the fatigue life of 1Crl 8Ni9Ti welded joints.

  17. Effect of Multi-repair Welding on Fatigue Performance of Aluminum Alloy Profile Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, You-De; Shi, Chun-Yuan; Tian, Hong-Lei

    2016-05-01

    Aluminum alloy profile has been widely used in the manufacture of the rail vehicles. But it's necessary for the repair welding of the welded joints to be conducted because some defects exist in the weld such as porosity, inclusions and incomplete penetrations in the welding processes. In this paper, the influence of the multi-repair welding of 6005A aluminum alloy profile butt welded joints on the fatigue performance are investigated based on the results of fatigue tests. The parameters of curves and the fatigue strength of the welded joints are calculated, and Goodman fatigue limit diagram is also obtained. The results show that fatigue strength of aluminum alloy profile butt welded joints, in condition of 107 cycle life, meet the standard requirement for the as-welded, repair welded state one time or two times respectively.

  18. Comparison of Laser, Laser Filling and Laser-arc Hybrid Welding of Mg Alloy%镁合金激光、激光填丝及激光——电弧复合焊接接头对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 张林; 林天晓; 曾晓雁

    2011-01-01

    The weld microstructure and mechanical properties of laser filling and laser-arc hybrid welded joints of AZ31B alloy were compared. The results show that obvious undercut and notch defects are observed in laser welds, while laser filling and hybrid welds show accepted appearance without above defects. As the laser power and welding speed are constant, the laser filling weld has the finest solidification structure and narrowest partial melted zone, while the hybrid weld has the coarsest solidification structure and widest partial melted zone. Both the tensile strength and elongation of laser filling welds are best. The tensile strength of laser filling welds is even higher than that of base metal, while the maximum tensile strength of both laser and hybrid welds are about 95% of base metal. The fracture surface of all the joint is characterized by ductile-brittle mixed fracture.%系统对比了镁合金单纯激光、激光填丝和激光-电弧复合焊接接头的微观组织及力学性能.试验结果表明,激光焊缝表面有明显的咬边及凹坑缺陷出现;激光填丝及复合焊缝成形良好、均匀规整.在激光功率和焊接速度相同的情况下,激光填丝焊接头的凝固组织最细小,半熔化区最窄;激光-电弧复合焊接头的凝固组织最粗大,半熔化区最宽.拉伸性能测试表明,激光填丝焊接头抗拉强度和伸长率最高,且抗拉强度优于母材;复合焊和单纯激光焊接头的抗拉强度为母材的95%左右.此外,所有接头均表现为韧-脆混合断裂模式.

  19. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  20. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santella, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  1. Corrosion Properties of Laser Welded Stainless Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldingh, Jakob; Olsen, Flemmming Ove

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the corrosion properties of laser welded AISI 316L stainless steel are examined. A number of different welds has been performed to test the influence of the weld parameters of the resulting corrosion properties. It has been chosen to use the potential independent critical pitting...

  2. Change of Hot Cracking Susceptibility in Welding of High Strength Aluminum Alloy AA 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, M.; Hofmann, K.; Mann, V.; Hugger, F.; Roth, S.; Schmidt, M.

    High strength aluminum alloys are known as hard to weld alloys due to their high hot crack susceptibility. However, they have high potential for applications in light weight constructions of automotive industry and therefore it is needed to increase weldability. One major issue is the high hot cracking susceptibility. Vaporization during laser beam welding leads to a change of concentration of the volatile elements magnesium and zinc. Hence, solidification range of the weld and therefore hot cracking susceptibility changes. Additionally, different welding velocities lead to changed solidification conditions with certain influence on hot cracking. This paper discusses the influence of energy per unit length during laser beam welding of AA 7075 on the change of element concentration in the weld seam and the resulting influence on hot cracking susceptibility. Therefore EDS-measurements of weld seams generated with different velocities are performed to determine the change of element concentration. These quantitative data is used to numerically calculate the solidification range in order to evaluate its influence on the hot cracking susceptibility. Besides that, relative hot crack length and mechanical properties are measured. The results increase knowledge about welding of high strength aluminum alloy AA 7075 and hence support further developing of the welding process.

  3. 镁/镀锌钢异种合金单、双光束激光熔钎焊特性%Single and dual beam laser welding-brazing characteristics of magnesium/zinc-coated steel dissimilar alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    檀财旺; 梅长兴; 李俐群; 戴景民; 郭伟

    2012-01-01

    以镁焊丝为填充材料,对镁/镀锌钢异种合金进行单、双光束激光熔钎焊试验研究,分析不同工艺参数对焊缝成形的影响规律,获得不同热源作用方式下的界面形态规律及其对界面强度的影响.结果表明:采用单、双光束进行填丝熔钎焊均可获得较满意的外观成形:单光束容易存在未钎合现象,焊接过程不够稳定,而双光束具有更好的温度分布,容易提高润湿铺展能力.剪切强度测试结果表明,单、双光束最大的接头效率分别达到30.9%和42.4%,焊趾处裂纹的存在是导致接头失效的主要原因.%The single and dual laser welding-brazing of AZ31 Mg alloy to DP980 galvanized steel was conducted with Mg filler wire. The effect of different parameters on the weld appearance was analyzed. Moreover, the interfacial pattern under different heat sources and its influence on the interfacial strength were obtained. The results indicate that good weld appearance can be achieved using both single and dual laser beam welding-brazing as filler wire. It tends to produce the lack of fusion defect by single-beam welding and the welding process is unstable. The dual-beam welding has much more uniform temperature distribution, so, the spreading-wetting ability is better than the former. The shear test results show that the highest joint efficiency of single-beam and dual-beam welding are 30.9% and 42.4%, respectively. The crack produced at the toe of weld after laser welding-brazing is the main reason for joint failure.

  4. Particulate and gaseous emissions when welding aluminum alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Homer; Epstein, Seymour; Peace, Jon

    2007-09-01

    Fabrication and repair of aluminum components and structures commonly involves the use of electric arc welding. The interaction of the arc and the metal being welded generates ultraviolet radiation, metallic oxides, fumes, and gases. Aluminum is seldom used as the pure metal but is often alloyed with other metals to improve strength and other physical properties. Therefore, the exact composition of any emissions will depend on the welding process and the particular aluminum alloy being welded. To quantify such emissions, The Aluminum Association sponsored several studies to characterize arc welding emissions by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) processes for various combinations of base and filler alloys. In all cases, the tests were conducted under conditions that could be found in a production weld shop without forced ventilation. The concentrations of each analyte that a welder could be exposed to were greatly affected by the welding process, the composition of the base and filler alloys, the position of the welder, and the welding helmet. The results obtained can be used by employers to identify and control potential hazards associated with the welding of aluminum alloys and can provide the basis for hazard communication to employees involved in the welding of these alloys.

  5. Formation Regularity of Pores During Laser Welding of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys and Its Mechanism%压铸镁合金激光焊气孔形成规律及原因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧; 单际国; 温鹏; 任家烈

    2011-01-01

    由于母材含有大量气源,气孔是压铸镁合金激光焊最主要的问题.在不同的激光功率密度下,采用不同的热输入对压铸镁合金激光焊气孔形成规律进行了研究.在低激光功率密度(1.6×10W/cm以下)焊接时,随着热输入的升高气孔率持续升高;在高激光功率密度(3.2×10W/cm以上)焊接时,在一定热输入下气孔率出现极小值,由此增加或减少热输入都会造成气孔率的升高,但当热输入非常低时气孔率又出现降低的趋势,即不同激光功率密度下气孔率随焊接热输入的变化存在两种不同的规律.结合压铸镁合金母材中气源行为以及焊接热过程,对两种规律的形成原因进行了讨论和实验验证,研究发现获得低气孔率焊缝的关键是抑制压铸镁合金中原子氢的析出,使其以固溶形式继续存在于焊缝中.%Welding pore is the main problem during laser welding of die-cast magnesium alloys. The influences of laser power density and heat input on pore formation regularity during laser welding of die-cast magnesium alloys are studied. The formation regularities of pore are different under low and high laser power densities. Under low laser power densities (less than 1.6 × l06 W/cm2 ), porosity increases with the increase of weld heat input; under high power densities(more than 3.2 × l06 W/cm2 ), the minimum value of porosity can be obtained at certain weld heat input, and changing weld heat input a bit higher or lower than this certain value both increase porosity, but when the weld heat input is low enough, low porosity can be obtained. The different regularities can be attributed to the influences of laser power density and weld heat input on welding thermal process and the behaviors of gas sources in weld pool. It is found that suppressing the atomic hydrogen precipitation is the key of obtaining low porosity welds.

  6. AZ31B镁合金/不锈钢异种合金双光束激光熔钎焊接特性%Welding Characteristics of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy/Stainless Steel Dissimilar Alloys by Dual Beam Laser Welding-Brazing Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俐群; 郭伟; 檀财旺

    2012-01-01

    以镁基焊丝为填充材料,采用双光束激光熔钎焊的方法对AZ31B镁合金/不锈钢的焊接特性进行了研究.分析了不同工艺参数对焊缝成形、接头力学性能和断裂行为的影响.结果表明,采用双光束进行填丝熔钎焊能够获得较满意的外观成形,无明显缺陷,焊接工艺范围较宽.接头拉伸均断裂于熔化焊的镁侧焊缝及热影响区(HAZ),最大剪切强度为193 MPa,达到镁合金母材强度的71%.组织分析发现焊缝和HAZ的晶粒粗大,成为接头的薄弱部位,是接头失效的主要原因.钎焊侧界面发生了冶金反应,界面处生成1~2 μm的反应层.%AZ31B magnesium alloys and 201 stainless steel are joined by laser welding-brazing process with Mg based filler. The welding characteristics including influence of processing parameters on weld appearance, mechanical properties and fracture behavior are studied- Results indicate that satisfactory appearance of welds without evident defects can be achieved by dual beam laser-brazing process with filler. A wide processing window is obtained. The tensile-shear test shows that fracture occurred at two places, weld seam and heat affect zone (HAZ) at the welding side of Mg alloys. The maximum shear strength can reach 193 Mpa, which is 71% of that of Mg base metal. The microstructure observed indicates that seam and HAZ are weak parts, which results in failure of joint due to presence of coarse grains. Metallurgical reaction occurs at the brazing side, where reaction layer with thickness of 1~2 μm forms.

  7. Development of Technology and Equipment of the Automated Laser Welding for Manufacturing Heat Exchanger Details of Marine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelyagin, V.D.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the developed automated laser welding technology for flat tubes of copper-nickel alloys laser welding complex technological equipment, which can be applied on the enterprises of machine building, aerospace, shipbuilding and automobile industries, was designed and created. To control the integrity of welded flat tubes a technique, which consists in testing sample pressure and finding defective sections by laser interferometry in the automated mode, was developed. Specialized welding head was designed and manufactured for the industrial use of the developed laser welding technology.

  8. A Parametric Analysis of CO2 Laser Heat Absorption Profile of 5083 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSEPH .I. ACHEBO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloys are amongst the most difficult everyday metals that can be welded using the laser welding process. For this reason, high power density lasers are needed to weld these alloys because they require higher thermal diffusivity to form a key hole than would be needed for other metals such as steel. This means that more heat wouldhave to be applied while welding aluminum alloys than would be needed to weld steel to achieve a satisfactory coupling effect. The heat input generated from laser welding is affected by the absorptivity coefficient, the welding speed and the time spent. Once the optimum heat input is attained, it is expected to create less heat distortion, its energy is more concentrated within the weld area and deep weld penetration is achieved. Determining optimum values of welding parameters would lead to acceptable weld quality. In this study, the heat absorption profile of a CO2 laser welding of 5083 aluminum alloy was investigated using the models proposed by Bramson in 1968 and Okon et al in 2002. The 4mm thick aluminum alloy investigated was as received from the vendors. The calculated laser beam absorptivity coefficient, irradiance and boiling temperature were 0.12, 2.3 x 106 Wcm-2 and 2482oC respectively. These calculated values compared well with reported values in other literature.

  9. Laser welding and post weld treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-04-03

    Laser welding and post weld laser treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steels (Grade P91) were performed in this preliminary study to investigate the feasibility of using laser welding process as a potential alternative to arc welding methods for solving the Type IV cracking problem in P91 steel welds. The mechanical and metallurgical testing of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-welded samples shows the following conclusions: (1) both bead-on-plate and circumferential butt welds made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser show good welds that are free of microcracks and porosity. The narrow heat affected zone has a homogeneous grain structure without conventional soft hardness zone where the Type IV cracking occurs in conventional arc welds. (2) The laser weld tests also show that the same laser welder has the potential to be used as a multi-function tool for weld surface remelting, glazing or post weld tempering to reduce the weld surface defects and to increase the cracking resistance and toughness of the welds. (3) The Vicker hardness of laser welds in the weld and heat affected zone was 420-500 HV with peak hardness in the HAZ compared to 240 HV of base metal. Post weld laser treatment was able to slightly reduce the peak hardness and smooth the hardness profile, but failed to bring the hardness down to below 300 HV due to insufficient time at temperature and too fast cooling rate after the time. Though optimal hardness of weld made by laser is to be determined for best weld strength, methods to achieve the post weld laser treatment temperature, time at the temperature and slow cooling rate need to be developed. (4) Mechanical testing of the laser weld and post weld laser treated samples need to be performed to evaluate the effects of laser post treatments such as surface remelting, glazing, re-hardening, or tempering on the strength of the welds.

  10. Recent progress on gas tungsten arc welding of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This is a progress report on a continuing research project to acquire a fundamental understanding of the metallurgical processes in the welding of vanadium alloys. It also has the goal of developing techniques for welding structural vanadium alloys. The alloy V-4Cr-4Ti is used as a representative alloy of the group; it is also the prime candidate vanadium alloy for the U.S. Fusion Program at the present time. However, other alloys of this class were used in the research as necessary. The present work focuses on recent findings of hydrogen embrittlement found in vanadium alloy welds. It was concluded that the atmosphere in the inert gas glove box was insufficient for welding 6mm thick vanadium alloy plates.

  11. Study on Laser Welding of Al Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of laser welding parameter on strength of welded joints were studied. The mechanism for loss of joint strength was analyzed. It was pointed out that an important factor affecting joint strength is the reaction between matrix and reinforced phase. On the basis of this, the concept of critical Si activity α[si]min was proposed. Using appropriate welding parameters and Si activity, high quality laser welded joints in an aluminum matrix composite SiCw/6061A1 can be successfully obtained.

  12. Fiber Laser Welding Characteristics of Laser Melting Deposited TC17 Alloy%激光熔化沉积TC17钛合金光纤激光焊接特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 刘栋; 汤海波; 张述泉; 王华明

    2012-01-01

    Laser melting deposited TCI 7 alloy and forged TCI 7 alloy are welded by fiber laser. The microstructure, phase constitution and mechanical properties of the weld joint are studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction and microhardness tests. Results indicate that the fusion zone (FZ) mainly consists of fine dendrite which nucleated and epitaxially grows from the substrates. The heat input makes the β grain of forged TCI7 grow more seriously than that of laser melting deposited TCI7. The heat affected zone (HAZ) of laser melting deposited TCI7 is much narrower than that of forged TCI7. Laser melting deposited TCI7 exhibits better thermal stability than forged TCI7. The microhardness of FZ is higher than that of the base metal, and the microhardness of HAZ is lower than that of the base metal.%利用光纤激光对激光熔化沉积TC17钛合金与锻造TC17钛合金薄板进行了激光热导熔化焊接,利用光学显微镜、扫描电镜、X射线衍射仪和显微硬度计分析了接头的组织结构及显微硬度分布.结果表明,TC17钛合金激光熔化沉积件及锻件薄壁板状试样激光焊接接头凝固组织为沿未熔母材外延定向生长的细小树枝晶组织.锻造钛合金焊缝热影响区(HAZ)大且热影响区β晶粒发生了严重的长大现象,而激光熔化沉积钛合金焊缝热影响区小且热影响区β晶粒尺寸几乎无明显变化,表现出优异的焊接热稳定性.无论锻造钛合金还是激光熔化沉积钛合金,其焊缝区显微硬度高于母材,热影响区显微硬度低于母材.

  13. Variable-Polarity Plasma Arc Welding Of Alloy 2219

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel W.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Report presents results of study of variable-polarity plasma arc (VPPA) welding of aluminum alloy 2219. Consists of two parts: Examination of effects of microsegregation and transient weld stress on macrosegregation in weld pool and, electrical characterization of straight- and reverse-polarity portions of arc cycle.

  14. The corrosion resistance of composite arch wire laser-welded by NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wires with Cu interlayer in artificial saliva with protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Sun, Xinhua; Hou, Xu; Li, Hongmei; Sun, Daqian

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the corrosion resistance of laser-welded composite arch wire (CoAW) with Cu interlayer between NiTi shape memory alloy and stainless steel wire in artificial saliva with different concentrations of protein was studied. It was found that protein addition had a significant influence on the corrosion behavior of CoAW. Low concentration of protein caused the corrosion resistance of CoAW decrease in electrochemical corrosion and immersion corrosion tests. High concentration of protein could reduce this effect.

  15. Friction stir welding characteristics of two aluminum alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘会杰; 藤井英俊; 前田将克; 野城清

    2003-01-01

    The friction stir welding characteristics of the strain-hardened AA1050-H24 and precipitate-hardened AA2017-T351 aluminum alloys were examined in order to reveal the effects of the alloy properties on the friction stir welding behavior of the base materials. The results show that (1) for AA1050-H24, the weld possesses a smooth surface and clear ripples, there is no elliptical weld nugget in the weld, there is not discernible interface between the stir zone and the thermo-mechanically affected zone(TMAZ), and the internal defect of the weld looks like a long crack and is located in the lower part of the weld; (2) for AA2017-T351, the weld usually possesses a rough surface and visible ripples, the elliptical weld nugget clearly exists in the weld and there is obvious plastic flow and a discernible interface between the nugget and the TMAZ, and the internal defect of the weld is composed of many voids and distributed in the middle part of the weld; (3) the effective ranges of the welding parameters for AA1050-H24 and AA2017-T351 are both narrow, especially for the latter; and (4) the tensile strength efficiencies of the joints for the two typical alloys are similar, i e 79% for AA1050-H24 and 82% for AA2017-T351.

  16. Studies on CO2-laser Hybrid-Welding of Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Bagger, Claus

    2005-01-01

    CO2-laser welding of copper is known to be difficult due to the high heat conductivity of the material and the high reflectivity of copper at the wavelength of the CO2-laser light. THis paper presents a study of laser welding of copper, applying laser hybrid welding. Welding was performed...... as a hybrid CO2-laser and GTAW welding process in 2 mm pure copper sheets. The purpose was to identify maximum welding speeds for the three independent welding processes, i.e. GTAW alone, laser alone and combined processes. After welding, representative welds were quality assesed according to inernational...... norms. The paper describes the results obtained, showing significant productivity improvements and good weld qualities applying laser hybrid welding....

  17. The Advantage of Sensor Sealing Laser Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yezhi; XU yu

    2007-01-01

    @@ Laser Welding Inevitably Applied in Sen sor Production Certain kinds of sensors such as pressure sensor,temperature sensor, optic-electronic sensor etc. utilize welding seal according to different application environment. With precision components and IC which is isolated by inert gas inside, these sensors should be sealed and able to resist the pressure. So the welding process must avoid distortion and harm to the components and IC.

  18. Plasma Arc Augmented CO2 laser welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Andersen, Mikkel; Frederiksen, Niels

    2001-01-01

    In order to reduce the hardness of laser beam welded 2.13 mm medium strength steel CMn 250, a plasma arc has been used simultaneously with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser source. In a number of systematic laboratory tests, the plasma arc current, plasma gas flow and distance to the laser source were varied...... with all laser parameters fixed. The welds were quality assessed and hardness measured transversely to the welding direction in the top, middle and root of the seam. In the seams welded by laser alone, hardness values between 275 and 304 HV1 were measured, about the double of the base material, 150 HV1...

  19. Numerical simulation of temperature field in deep penetration laser welding of 5A06 aluminum cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Deep penetration laser welding temperature field of 5A06 aluminum alloy canister structure was simulated using the surface-body combination heat source model by ANSYS, which was made up of Gauss surface heat source model and Gauss revolved body heat source model. Convection, radiation and conduction were all considered during the simulation process. The thermal cycle curves of the points both on the shell outer surface and in the seam thickness direction were calculated. Simulated results agreed well with the experiment results. It concluded that the surface-body combination heat source model was fit for the temperature field simulation of deep penetration laser welding of the aluminum alloy canister structure. This method was proved to be an efficient way to predict the shape and dimension of welded joint for deep penetration laser welding of the aluminum alloy canister structure.

  20. Plasma heating effects during laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G. K.; Dixon, R. D.

    Laser welding is a relatively low heat input process used in joining precisely machined components with minimum distortion and heat affects to surrounding material. The CO2 (10.6 (MU)m) and Nd-YAG (1.06 (MU)m) lasers are the primary lasers used for welding in industry today. Average powers range up to 20 kW for CO2 and 400 W for Nd-YAG with pulse lengths of milliseconds to continuous wave. Control of the process depends on an understanding of the laser-plasma-material interaction and characterization of the laser beam being used. Inherent plasma formation above the material surface and subsequent modulation of the incident laser radiation directly affect the energy transfer to the target material. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the laser beam affect the available power density incident on the target, which is important in achieving repeatability in the process. Other factors such as surface texture, surface contaminants, surface chemistry, and welding environment affect plasma formation which determines the weld penetration. This work involves studies of the laser-plasma-material interaction process and particularly the effect of the plasma on the coupling of laser energy to a material during welding. A pulsed Nd-YAG laser was used with maximum average power of 400 W.

  1. Laser Welding of Ultra-Fine Grained Steel SS400

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yun; TIAN Zhi-ling; CHEN Wu-zhu; WANG Cheng; BAO Gang

    2003-01-01

    The effects of laser welding on microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-fine grained steel SS400 were studied. The plasma arc welding and MAG welding were conducted to make a comparison between these weldings and laser welding. The coarse grain heat-affected zone (HAZ) of laser welding was simulated using thermomechanical simulation machine, and the impact toughness was tested. The deep penetration laser welding produces weld of large depth and narrow width. The weld metal and HAZ of laser welding was heated and then cooled rapidly. The prior austenite grain size of coarse grain HAZ is 1/10 of that for arc welding. For laser welding, the toughness of weld metal is higher than that of base metal, and the toughness of the coarse grain HAZ of laser welding is on a level with that of base metal. Matching lower laser power with lower welding speed, the hardening tendency of the weld metal and the coarse grain HAZ can be decreased. There is no softened zone. The tensile strength of welded joint formed by laser is higher than that of base metal. The joint has good bending ductility.

  2. Laser powder technology for cladding and welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J.; Volz, R.

    1999-06-01

    Laser powder technology offers several advantages compared to conventional cladding and welding techniques and is attracting increasing industrial interest. The laser materials processing group of the German Aerospace Center at Stuttgart, Germany, is currently developing these new methods for application in industrial process engineering. Key areas of the work include the design and implementation of a modular working head that can be universally used for laser welding and surface treatment, the development of powder nozzles for cladding and welding, and the construction of new systems for special applications (e.g., for inner cladding). Some of these developments are described, as well as some important examples that highlight the potential of welding and surface treatment using laser powder techniques.

  3. Low distortion laser welding of cylindrical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Sonja

    2011-02-01

    Automotive components are for the most part cylindrical and thus the weld seams are of radial shape. Radial weld seams are usually produced by starting at a point on the component's surface rotating the component resulting in an overlap zone at the start/end of the weld. In this research, it is shown that the component's distortion strongly depends on the overlap of weld start and end. A correlation between overlap zone and distortion is verified by an experimental study. In order to reduce distortion generated by the overlap zone a special optics is used which allows shaping the laser beam into a ring shape which is then focused on the cylindrical surface and produces a radial ring weld seam simultaneously by one laser pulse. In doing this, the overlap zone is eliminated and distortion can be reduced. Radial weld seams are applied on precision samples and distortion is measured after welding. The distortion of the precision samples is measured by a tactile measuring method and a comparison of the results of welding with the ring optics to reference welds is done.

  4. Tool For Friction Stir Tack Welding of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Gerald W.; Dingler, Johnny W.; Loftus, Zachary

    2003-01-01

    A small friction-stir-welding tool has been developed for use in tack welding of aluminum-alloy workpieces. It is necessary to tack-weld the workpieces in order to hold them together during friction stir welding because (1) in operation, a full-size friction-stir-welding tool exerts a large force that tends to separate the workpieces and (2) clamping the workpieces is not sufficient to resist this force. It is possible to tack the pieces together by gas tungsten arc welding, but the process can be awkward and time-consuming and can cause sufficient damage to necessitate rework. Friction stir tack welding does not entail these disadvantages. In addition, friction stir tack welding can be accomplished by use of the same automated equipment (except for the welding tool) used in subsequent full friction stir welding. The tool for friction stir tack welding resembles the tool for full friction stir welding, but has a narrower shoulder and a shorter pin. The shorter pin generates a smaller workpiece-separating force so that clamping suffices to keep the workpieces together. This tool produces a continuous or intermittent partial-penetration tack weld. The tack weld is subsequently consumed by action of the larger tool used in full friction stir welding tool.

  5. MICROSTRUCTURAL STUDIES OF FRICTION STIR WELDED AZ31 MAGNESIUM ALLOY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Zhang; S.B.Lin; L.Wu; J.C.Feng

    2004-01-01

    Friction stir welding achieves the weld in solid phase by locally introducing frictional heating and plastic flow arising from rotation of the welding tool, which results in changes in the local microstructure of magnesium alloy. The purpose in the paper is to study the microstructures of friction stir welded AZ3I magnesium alloy. Residual microstructures,including dynamic re-crystallization zone and nugget structures have been systematically investigated utilizing optical microscopy (OM), scanning electric microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-hardness. AZ31 magnesium alloy has been successfully friction stir welded and exhibits the variations of microstructure including dynamically recrystallized,equaxied grains in the weld nugget. Residual hardness in the nugget was found slightly lower than the parent but not too obvious.

  6. Twinning in weld HAZ of ZK21 commercial magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The microstructure and properties of Mg ZK21 laser beam weld without filler were researched using optical microscopy (OM), electron microscopy and mechanical test. The results show that the fracture strain of the joints after laser beam welding reduces by about 10.7% at room temperature. By means of laser beam welding, the fusion zones contain tensile RS, while the base material far away from the fusion line is under balancing compressive RS. The microstructm-es of the weld were characterized by a narrow heat affected zone and twins. Significant { 10-12 } tension twins occur in the weld HAZ during laser welding processing. Due to the influence of temperature field and stress on morphologies, most of twins form twinning bands, which are nearly parallel to the welding direction.

  7. Friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林三宝; 张华; 吴林; 冯吉才; 戴鸿滨

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is an new solid-phase joining technology which has more advantages over fusion welding methods in welding of aluminum and other non-ferrous metals. The effects of welding parameters on mechanical properties and microstructure during friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy were studied in this paper. Microstructures and mechanical properties of the joints were investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electric microscopy (SEM), micro-hardness analysis, and tensile test. Experimental results show that the magnesium alloy can be successfully welded by FSW method, and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of FSW joint reaches up to 90 percent of base metal. The microstructures of welded joints exhibit the variation from dynamically recrystallized fine grains to greatly deformed grains. Hardness in nugget zone was found lower than the base metal but not too obvious.

  8. Comparative study on interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-GTA welding and laser-GMA welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghua; Xu, Jiannan; Xin, Lijun; Zhao, Zuofu; Wu, Fufa

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes an investigation on differences in interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-gas tungsten arc (LT) welding and laser-gas metal arc (LM) welding. The characteristics of LT heat source and LM heat source, such as plasma behavior, heat penetration ability and spectral information were comparably studied. Based on the plasma discharge theory, the interactions during plasma discharge were modeled and analyzed. Results show that in both LT and LM welding, coupling discharge between the laser keyhole plasma and arc happens, which strongly enhance the arc. But, the enhancing effect in LT welding is much more sensitive than that in LM welding when parameters are adjusted.

  9. Spectral diagnostics of a vapor-plasma plume produced during welding titanium with a high-power ytterbium fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uspenskiy, S. A.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Bykovskiy, D. P.; Mironov, V. D.; Prokopova, N. M.; Tret'yakov, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    This work is devoted to the research of welding plume during high power ytterbium fiber laser welding of a titanium alloy in the Ar shielding gas environment. High speed video observation of a vapor-plasma plume for visualization of processes occurring at laser welding was carried out. The coefficient of the inverse Bremsstrahlung absorption of laser radiation is calculated for a plasma welding plume by results of spectrometer researches. The conclusion deals with the impact of plasma on a high-power fiber laser radiation.

  10. System design of welding dynamic displacement measurement using laser ESPI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the advantages of electronic speckle pattern interferometry(ESPI), such as non-contact, high precision, strong parasitic light resistance, and full-field measurement, a system for measuring welding dynamic displacement fields using ESPI was designed. The system consists of a 70mW He-Ne laser source, an optical path system, a computer-assisted frame grabber and a processing system. By measuring dynamic displacement fields on one LY2 aluminum alloy plate during an argon arc point welding, it can be proved that using ESPI to measure welding dynamic displacement fields is fully feasible, and this method can offer a solid experimental base for the structure mechanics.

  11. Fluxless Joining between Aluminium Alloy and Galvanized Steel by Fiber Laser Fusion Welding-Brazing with Filler Powder%铝/钢异种金属无钎剂激光填粉熔钎焊接

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵旭东; 肖荣诗

    2012-01-01

    The fluxless fusion welding-brazing result between 6061 aluminum alloy and galvanized steel with filler material is studied by using rectangular laser beam. The dependence of the mechanical properties on solidification behavior is established based on the joint formation and the weld microstructure. The results indicate that a fusion welding-brazing weld of AA6061 and galvanized steel without flux can be achieved using the welding with filler powder. By optimizing the welding parameters, the favorable weld without crack and porosity can be achieved. The weld width and the thickness of intermetallic compounds layer increase with laser energy input increasing. The intermetallic in the weld is composed of Al-Fe and Al-Fe-Si system phases. Specimens are fractured at the weld/steel interface with the brittle characteristic during tensile test. The weakness of the joint is the weld interface. The maximum intensity of 152. 5 N/mm is obtained. Al6Fe2Zn0.4 and α-Al are found in the fracture surface on the aluminum side. The intensity of joint is both determined by weld width and the thickness of intermetallic compound layer.%采用宽带激光光斑和填粉焊接技术,在不使用钎剂的情况下进行6061铝合金/镀锌钢板的熔钎焊接实验.分析测试了接头成形、焊缝组织和接头强度,并探讨了影响接头强度的因素.结果表明,采用此方法可实现6061铝合金/镀锌钢板的熔钎焊连接.选用优化的焊接工艺参数获得了成形饱满,无裂纹、气孔等缺陷的焊缝.焊缝熔宽和金属间化合物层厚度随焊接热输入量的增加而增大.熔钎焊缝中金属间化合物由AFFe和Al-Fe-Si系统化合物组成.拉伸试样均断裂在钎料/镀锌钢界面,接头最大机械抗力为152.5 N/mm,断口呈脆性断裂特征,钎料/镀锌钢界面为接头的薄弱环节.拉伸试样铝一侧断裂面由Al5 Fe2 Zno.4和α-Al组成.焊缝熔宽、金属间化合物层厚度共同决定了接头的机械抗力水平.

  12. Laser welding-brazing and numerical simulation of zinc-coated steel and 6016 aluminum alloy%镀Zn钢-6016铝合金异种金属的激光熔钎焊及数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周惦武; 吴平; 彭利; 张屹; 陈根余

    2012-01-01

    熔钎焊是抑制或减少钢/铝异种金属激光焊接过程中FeAl脆性金属间化合物产生的有效工艺方法.采用光纤激光器,不添加任何钎料,对1.2 mm厚DC56D+ZF镀锌钢和6016铝合金平板试件进行激光搭接焊试验,利用MATLAB软件,针对焊接过程的实际情况,在一定的基本假设下建立准稳态下钢/铝异种金属激光焊接熔池形状的数学模型,基于准稳态形状控制方程数值计算获得的熔池几何形状分布,结合试验来调整焊接工艺参数,获得最佳焊接成形,利用卧式金相显微镜、扫描电镜和X射线衍射仪等手段研究焊接接头各区域的金相组织、主要元素分布与物相组成.结果表明:焊接激光束照射搭接在钢板上的铝板对接焊缝时,焊接功率和焊接速度对熔池几何形状的影响较大,随着激光功率的增大,熔深增加;而随着焊接速度的增加,熔深却变浅.当焊接功率为1 600~1 800W、焊接速度v=30 mm/s、离焦量D=0 mm时,焊缝成形性良好,无明显裂纹、气孔等缺陷,焊接接头区域存在一个台阶状结构,在平台区域,钢/铝两钟金属存在明显的界限,界面结合依靠液态的铝在钢母材表面上的润湿、填充和铺展等作用;下凹区域,钢/铝熔合较好,Fe和Al元素的混合区宽度较大,未形成明显的FeAl脆性金属间化合物,Fe和Al的热扩散是该区域界面结合的主要原因.%The laser welding-brazing is an effective process to inhibit or reduce FeAl brittle intermetallic compound produced during laser welding-brazing of steel and aluminum alloy. The laser lap welding test was carried out based on the DC56D+ZF galvanized steel with thickness of 1.2 mm and the 6016 aluminum alloy with the fiber laser. The Matlab software was used, according to the actual situation of welding process, the steel and aluminum dissimilar metal laser welding pool shapes of the mathematical model in the flight quasi-steady state was established under

  13. Laser tailor welding of aluminum alloy sheet and cup axon formability of TWB%铝合金薄板激光拼焊工艺及其杯突成形性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云涛; 张文俊; 杨立军; 张建

    2012-01-01

    The process and forming performance of laser tailor-welded board(TWB) of 6061 aluminum alloy were studied.The forming characteristics of TWB in the cup axon trials and the influence of welded beam on overall plastic forming of tailor-welded plate were analyzed.The cupping test results of laser TWB shows that the cracking generally appears in the narrow HAZ.The cupping index of TWB was slightly lower than that of base metal.During the numerical simulation process of cupping test with DYNAFORM software,only the location of the welded beam was considered but its type was ignored,and the results showed that the simulation cracking of the TWB easily occurred at the welded seam below the cupping head with the influence of the welded seam,and the simulation results were slightly different from the practical tests,which was possibly related to the set of the welded seam.%主要研究6061铝合金激光拼焊板的工艺及成形性能,分析拼焊板在杯突试验中的成形特点以及焊缝对拼焊板的整体塑性成形的影响.杯突成形性能试验结果显示了宏观开裂发生在稍偏移焊缝中心的狭窄热影响区内;拼焊板试验杯突值低于母材杯突值;基于DYNAFORM软件数值模拟,忽略焊缝类型,仅考虑焊缝在板材上的位置.结果表明,拼焊板杯突模拟开裂容易发生在杯突顶端下沿的焊缝处,模拟结果与实际试验结果略有差异,这可能与焊缝设置有一定关系.

  14. High Rotation Speed Friction Stir Welding for 2014 Aluminum Alloy Thin Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shujin; Zhou, Yang; Xue, Junrong; Ni, Ruiyang; Guo, Yue; Dong, Jianghui

    2017-02-01

    In this study, 2014 aluminum alloy sheets with 1 mm thickness are welded successfully by friction stir welding (FSW) robot under the condition of high rotation speed. When the high rotation speed of 10,000-16,500 rpm is applied, the lower axial pressure (less than 200 N) is obtained, which reduces stiffness requirements for equipment. Welding deformation is inevitable because high rotation speed can easily result in rapid heating rate and uneven heat input. The welding distortion caused by two cooling methods is measured, respectively, by laser range finder. The experimental results show that the welding distortion is smaller under the condition of water cooling. When the rotation speed is up to 15,000 rpm and welding speed 50-170 mm/min, the whole welding process is controllable. Under the higher rotation speed condition, the welding defects disappear gradually and more stable mechanical properties can be obtained up to 75% of base metal (ω = 16,000 rpm, ν = 110 mm/min). The results of different welding parameters demonstrate that the high rotation speed can increase material mixing and reduce the axial force (z force), and it can benefit lightweight sheet welding by using FSW robot.

  15. High Rotation Speed Friction Stir Welding for 2014 Aluminum Alloy Thin Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shujin; Zhou, Yang; Xue, Junrong; Ni, Ruiyang; Guo, Yue; Dong, Jianghui

    2017-03-01

    In this study, 2014 aluminum alloy sheets with 1 mm thickness are welded successfully by friction stir welding (FSW) robot under the condition of high rotation speed. When the high rotation speed of 10,000-16,500 rpm is applied, the lower axial pressure (less than 200 N) is obtained, which reduces stiffness requirements for equipment. Welding deformation is inevitable because high rotation speed can easily result in rapid heating rate and uneven heat input. The welding distortion caused by two cooling methods is measured, respectively, by laser range finder. The experimental results show that the welding distortion is smaller under the condition of water cooling. When the rotation speed is up to 15,000 rpm and welding speed 50-170 mm/min, the whole welding process is controllable. Under the higher rotation speed condition, the welding defects disappear gradually and more stable mechanical properties can be obtained up to 75% of base metal (ω = 16,000 rpm, ν = 110 mm/min). The results of different welding parameters demonstrate that the high rotation speed can increase material mixing and reduce the axial force (z force), and it can benefit lightweight sheet welding by using FSW robot.

  16. Improved diffusion welding and roll welding of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Auto-vacuum cleaning technique was applied to titanium parts prior to welding. This provides oxide-free welding surfaces. Diffusion welding can be accomplished in as little as five minutes of hot pressing. Roll welding can be accomplished with only ten percent deformation.

  17. Phase transformations and microstructure development in low alloy steel welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, S.S.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M. [and others

    1995-07-01

    Microstructure development in low alloy steel welds depends on various phase transformations that are a function of weld heating and cooling. The phase changes include non-metallic oxide inclusion formation in the liquid state, weld pool solidification, and solid state transformations. In this paper the mechanism of inclusion formation during low alloy steel welding is considered and the model predictions are compared with published results. The effect of inclusions on the austenite to ferrite transformation kinetics is measured and the mechanisms of transformation are discussed. The austenite gain development is related to the driving force for transformation of {delta} ferrite to austenite.

  18. Hybrid manufacturing processes for fusion welding and friction stir welding of aerospace grade aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegesky, Megan Alexandra

    Friction stir welding and processing can provide for joints in aerospace grade aluminum alloys that have preferable material properties as compared to fusion welding techniques. Aerospace grade aluminum alloys such as AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 are considered non-weldable by traditional fusion welding techniques. Improved mechanical properties over previously used techniques are usually preferable for aerospace applications. Therefore, by combining traditional fusion welding and friction stir processing techniques, it could be plausible to create more difficult geometries in manufactured parts instead of using traditional techniques. While this combination of fusion welding and friction stir processing is not a new technology, its introduction to aerospace grade aluminum alloys as well as non-weldable alloys, is new. This is brought about by a lowered required clamping force required by adding a fusion weld before a friction stir processing technique. The changes in properties associated with joining techniques include: microstructural changes, changes in hardness, tensile strength, and corrosion resistance. This thesis illustrates these changes for the non-weldable AA2024-T351 and AA7075-T651 as well as the weldable alloy AA5052-H32. The microhardness, tensile strength and corrosion resistance of the four processing states: base material, fusion welded material, friction stir welded material, and friction stir processed fusion welded material is studied. The plausibility of this hybrid process for the three different materials is characterized, as well as plausible applications for this joining technique.

  19. Influence of the Overlapping Factor and Welding Speed on T-Joint Welding of Ti6Al4V and Inconel 600 Using Low-Power Fiber Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamini Janasekaran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Double-sided laser beam welding of skin-stringer joints is an established method for many applications. However, in certain cases with limited accessibility, single-sided laser beam joining is considered. In the present study, single-sided welding of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V and nickel-based alloy Inconel 600 in a T-joint configuration was carried out using continuous-wave (CW, low-power Ytterbium (Yb-fiber laser. The influence of the overlapping factor and welding speed of the laser beam on weld morphology and properties was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. XRD analysis revealed the presence of intermetallic layers containing NiTi and NiTi2 at the skin-stringer joint. The strength of the joints was evaluated using pull testing, while the hardness of the joints was analyzed using Vickers hardness measurement at the base metal (BM, fusion zone (FZ and heat-affected zone (HAZ. The results showed that the highest force needed to break the samples apart was approximately 150 N at a laser welding power of 250 W, welding speed of 40 mm/s and overlapping factor of 50%. During low-power single-sided laser welding, the properties of the T-joints were affected by the overlapping factor and laser welding speed.

  20. Investigation of the vapour-plasma plume in the welding of titanium by high-power ytterbium fibre laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskii, V. N.; Uspenskiy, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The vapour-plasma plume produced in the welding of 6-mm thick VT-23 titanium alloy plates by ytterbium fibre laser radiation of up to 10 kW power is studied in the protective Ar gas medium. High-speed video filming of the vapour-plasma plume is used to visualise the processes occurring during laser welding. The coefficient of inverse bremsstrahlung by the welding plasma plume is calculated from the data of the spectrometric study.

  1. Modification of Structure and Strength Properties of Permanent Joints Under Laser Beam Welding with Application of Nanopowder Modifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, A. N.; Orishich, A. M.; Malikov, A. G.; Ovcharenko, V. E.

    2016-08-01

    In the paper we present the results of experimental study of specially prepared nanosize metal-ceramic compositions impact upon structure, microhardness and mechanical properties of permanent joints produced by laser-beam welding of steel and titanium alloy plates.

  2. Study on arc-ultrasonic TIG welding of titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周荣林; 郭德伦; 李从卿; 张银根

    2004-01-01

    TC4 alloy was welded by conventional TIG welding and arc-ultrasonic TIG welding respectively. The microstructure of joint was analyzed by means of optical-microscope, scanning electron microscope in order to study the relationship between the macro-properties of joint and the microstructure. The results show that the joints were all welded successfully by conventional TIG welding and arc-ultrasonic TIG welding. With the increment of ultrasonic frequency and activated voltage, the width of joint became narrow step by step. The microstructure became more and more fine and was inclined to equiaxed crystal. Moreover, the dendrite depredation was not observed obviously. The properties of welded joint were improved markedly compared with that of conventional TIG welding.

  3. Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew J. (R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA); Faraone, Kevin M. (BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, VA); Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-10-01

    Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

  4. Influence of Surface Coatings of Filler Wires on Weld Seam Properties of Laser Beam Welded Copper Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Vincent; Holzer, Matthias; Hofmann, Konstantin; Özkaya, Esra; Hugger, Florian; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    In laser beam welding of copper its material properties require high intensities of the laser beam for a stable process, which are often realized by small focal diameters. Thus conventional laser beam welding of copper is accompanied by small bridgeable gap widths. A way to increase tolerable gap widths is the use of filler wires, which leads to higher energy consumption per unit length of the process, as extra energy is necessary to melt the filler wire. As some surface coatings are known to reduce energy consumption in laser beam welding of copper, this paper investigates the influence of surface coated filler wires on weld seam properties of laser beam welded of copper alloys with the aim of improved usage of the energy provided for the process. For this reason different coating materials and thicknesses of the filler wires are used within the experiments. The resulting weld seams are evaluated by means of geometrical, electrical and mechanical properties of the joints, e.g. seam width, cross-sectional area, electrical resistance, tensile strength and strain.

  5. Study on heat efficiency of laser-TIG double-side welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Yugang; Li Liqun; Chen Yanbin; Wu Lin

    2008-01-01

    A series of laser-TIG double-side welding experiments for aluminum alloys were carried out to investigate the heat efficiency of the process. The melting efficiency was introduced to evaluate quantitatively the degree of the mutual effect of the laser and the arc. The results showed that the melting efficiency of laser-TIG double-side welding exceeded the sum of the laser and the arc taken separately. With the increase of heat input, the weld depth and melting efficiency of the laser and the arc were increased significantly. This, in fact, implies the strong mutual effect of the laser and the arc as heat sources joined simultaneously in the process. Comparatively, the higher efficiency of the laser constituent of heat sources plays the main role in the increase of the process efficiency. The phenomena of arc column convergence, increased laser absorptivity and the formation of heat accumulation region are the causes of the improvement of heat efficiency.

  6. Effects of Flux Precoating and Process Parameter on Welding Performance of Inconel 718 Alloy TIG Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Liang; Wu, Tong-Min; Cheng, Ching-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of activating flux on the depth-to-width ratio (DWR) and hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 718 alloy tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds. The Taguchi method is employed to investigate the welding parameters that affect the DWR of weld bead and to achieve optimal conditions in the TIG welds that are coated with activating flux in TIG (A-TIG) process. There are eight single-component fluxes used in the initial experiment to evaluate the penetration capability of A-TIG welds. The experimental results show that the Inconel 718 alloy welds precoated with 50% SiO2 and 50% MoO3 flux were provided with better welding performance such as DWR and hot cracking susceptibility. The experimental procedure of TIG welding process using mixed-component flux and optimal conditions not only produces a significant increase in DWR of weld bead, but also decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 718 alloy welds.

  7. Plasma Bursts in Deep Penetration Laser Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrňa, L.; Šarbort, M.

    We present an experimental study of the deep penetration laser welding process which aims to analyze the plasma plume oscillations on a short time scale. Using the high-speed camera we show that the plasma comes out of the keyhole in the form of short bursts rather than the continuous flow. We detect these bursts as the short-time intensity oscillations of light emissions coming from the plasma plume. We determine the period of bursts using the statistical signal processing methods and the short-time frequency analysis. Finally, we compare the characteristics of plasma bursts and the geometry of resulting welds carried out on a 2 kW Yb:YAG laser welding machine for the steel workpiece and various welding parameters settings.

  8. Infrared measurement and simulation of magnesium alloy welding temperature field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liming; CHI Mingsheng; HUANG Ruisheng; SONG Gang; ZHOU Yang

    2005-01-01

    The welding temperature field of magnesium alloy AZ31 welded by TIG was measured with the uncooled infrared (IR) thermal imaging technology. The variables in the mathematic mode of welding temperature fields were revised by IR temperature data. Based on the results of simulation, the loss of temperature fields caused by arc interfered was compensated, and a whole temperature field was achieved, which provided a precise and powerful foundation for the investigation of microstructure of the joints.

  9. Nanoindentation of Electropolished FeCrAl Alloy Welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Jordan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mara, Nathan Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-13

    The present report summarizes Berkovich nanoindentation modulus and hardness measurements on two candidate FeCrAl alloys (C35M and C37M) on as-received (AR) and welded samples. In addition, spherical nanoindentation stress-strain measurements were performed on individual grains to provide further information and demonstrate the applicability of these protocols to mechanically characterizing welds in FeCrAl alloys. The indentation results are compared against the reported tensile properties for these alloys to provide relationships between nanoindentation and tensile tests and insight into weldsoftening for these FeCrAl alloys. Hardness measurements revealed weld-softening for both alloys in good agreement with tensile test results. C35M showed a larger reduction in hardness at the weld center from the AR material compared to C37M; this is also consistent with tensile tests. In general, nanohardness was shown to be a good predictor of tensile yield strength and ultimate tensile stress for FeCrAl alloys. Spherical nanoindentation measurements revealed that the fusion zone (FZ) + heat affected zone (HAZ) has a very low defect density typical of well-annealed metals as indicated by the frequent pop-in events. Spherical nanoindentation yield strength, Berkovich hardness, and tensile yield strength measurements on the welded material all show that the C37M welded material has a higher strength than C35M welded material. From the comparison of nanoindentation and tensile tests, EBSD microstructure analysis, and information on the processing history, it can be deduced that the primary driver for weld-softening is a change in the defect structure at the grain-scale between the AR and welded material. These measurements serve as baseline data for utilizing nanoindentation for studying the effects of radiation damage on these alloys.

  10. Welding with brilliant lasers: prospects and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Sonja; Dausinger, Friedrich

    2010-02-01

    Now that high brightness laser sources featuring high output power are commercially available, extremely small focal diameters and high power densities permit laser welding with a high aspect ratio at low heat input. With regard to an increase in productivity this implies a deeper weld depth at a higher feed rate and hence at a shorter processing time. In this research, a modular optical system generates focal diameters from 195 μm down to 15 μm for the purpose of identifying the prospects and limitations of the application of high brightness beam sources in laser welding. Metallographical analysis and observation using a high speed camera give information about the weld seam geometry and weld pool dynamics. Thus, the influence of minimizing focal diameters on process stability is evaluated: From the correlation of longitudinal cross-sections and high speed camera observation, an interrelationship between spiking and keyhole breakdown results. In dependence of the particular spot size and the beam quality of the laser source a new processing range arises. These observations are traced back to theoretical beam properties and a fundamental thesis about the applicability of a high brightness laser is derived. Eventually it shows that a small beam diameter is most advantageous for micro application.

  11. Welding characteristics in different laser-TIG hybrid manners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦宾; 雷正龙; 李俐群; 吴林

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determining the laser-TIG hybrid welding characteristics was carried out in three kinds of hybrid methods: CO2 laser-TIG coaxial hybrid, CO2 laser-TIG paraxial hybrid and Nd: YAG laser-TIG paraxial hybrid. The experimental results indicate that hybrid welding has two welding mechanisms in CO2 laser-TIG hybrid welding: deep penetration welding and heat conduction welding. As the effect of the laser-induced keyhole, the arc root is condensed, the current density and penetration depth increase significantly, the welding characteristic is apt to deep penetration welding. When current increases to some degree, the keyhole induced by laser disappears, which produces a shallow penetration and wide bead. The weld exhibits heat conduction welding characteristics. Furthermore, the arc images and weld bead cross-sections of three kinds of hybrid manners were also compared and analyzed at different welding currents, which established the foundation for understanding the welding characteristics of laser-TIG hybrid welding comprehensively.

  12. Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, N M; Walsh, J T

    2000-03-01

    Cryogen cooling during laser tissue welding was explored as a means of reducing lateral thermal damage near the tissue surface and shortening operative time. Two centimetre long full-thickness incisions were made on the epilated backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was applied to the incision edges then clamps were used to appose the edges. A 4 mm diameter beam of 16 W, continuous-wave, 1.06 microm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing approximately 100 ms pulses. There was a delay of 2 s between scans. The total irradiation time was varied from 1-2 min. Cryogen was delivered to the weld site through a solenoid valve in spurt durations of 20, 60 and 100 ms. The time between spurts was either 2 or 4 s, corresponding to one spurt every one or two laser scans. Histology and tensile strength measurements were used to evaluate laser welds. Total irradiation times were reduced from 10 min without surface cooling to under 1 min with surface cooling. The thermal denaturation profile showed less denaturation in the papillary dermis than in the mid-dermis. Welds created using optimized irradiation and cooling parameters had significantly higher tensile strengths (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg cm(-2)) than measured in the control studies without cryogen cooling (1.0 +/- 0.2 kg cm(-2)) (p laser welding results in increased weld strengths while reducing thermal damage and operative times. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine weld strengths and the amount of scarring during wound healing.

  13. Effect of pulse duty cycle on Inconel 718 laser welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCay, M. H.; McCay, T. D.; Dahotre, N. B.; Sharp, C. M.; Sedghinasab, A.; Gopinathan, S.

    1989-01-01

    Crack sensitive Inconel 718 was laser pulse welded using a 3.0 kW CO2 laser. Weld shape, structure, and porosity were recorded as a function of the pulse duty cycle. Within the matrix studied, the welds were found to be optimized at a high (17 ms on, 7 ms off) duty cycle. These welds were superior in appearance and lack of porosity to both low duty cycle and CW welds.

  14. Welding Metallurgy of Alloy HR-160

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, J.N.; Michael, J.R.; Newbury, B.D.

    1999-05-28

    The solidification behavior and resultant solidification cracking susceptibility of autogenous gas tungsten arc fusion welds in alloy HR-160 was investigated by Varestraint testing, differential thermal analysis, and various microstructural characterization techniques. The alloy exhibited a liquidus temperature of 1387 {deg}C and initiated solidification by a primary L - {gamma} reaction in which Ni, Si, and Ti segregated to the interdendritic liquid and Co segregated to the {gamma} dendrite cores. Chromium exhibited no preference for segregation to the solid or liquid phase during solidification. Solidification terminated at {approx} 1162 {deg}C by a eutectic-type L - [{gamma}+ (Ni,Co){sub 16}(Ti,Cr){sub 6}Si{sub 7}] reaction. The (Ni,Co){sub 16}(Ti,Cr){sub 6}Si{sub 7} phase is found to be analogous to the G phase which forms in the Ni-Ti-Si and Co-Ti-Si ternary systems, and similarities are found to exist between the solidification behavior of this commercial multicomponent alloy and the simple Ni-Si and Ni-Ti binary systems. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent of the [{gamma} +(Ni,Co){sub l6}(Ti,Cr){sub 6}Si{sub 7}] eutectic-typr constituent with the Scheil equation using experimentally determined k values for Si and Ti from electron microprobe data. The alloy exhibited a very high susceptibility to solidification cracking in the Varestraint test. This is attributed to a large solidification temperature range of 225 {deg}C and the presence of 2 to 5 vol% solute rich interdendritic liquid which preferentially wets the grain boundaries and interdendritic regions.

  15. Fusion Welding of AerMet 100 Alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENGLEHART, DAVID A.; MICHAEL, JOSEPH R.; NOVOTNY, PAUL M.; ROBINO, CHARLES V.

    1999-08-01

    A database of mechanical properties for weldment fusion and heat-affected zones was established for AerMet{reg_sign}100 alloy, and a study of the welding metallurgy of the alloy was conducted. The properties database was developed for a matrix of weld processes (electron beam and gas-tungsten arc) welding parameters (heat inputs) and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) conditions. In order to insure commercial utility and acceptance, the matrix was commensurate with commercial welding technology and practice. Second, the mechanical properties were correlated with fundamental understanding of microstructure and microstructural evolution in this alloy. Finally, assessments of optimal weld process/PWHT combinations for cotildent application of the alloy in probable service conditions were made. The database of weldment mechanical properties demonstrated that a wide range of properties can be obtained in welds in this alloy. In addition, it was demonstrated that acceptable welds, some with near base metal properties, could be produced from several different initial heat treatments. This capability provides a means for defining process parameters and PWHT's to achieve appropriate properties for different applications, and provides useful flexibility in design and manufacturing. The database also indicated that an important region in welds is the softened region which develops in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) and analysis within the welding metallurgy studies indicated that the development of this region is governed by a complex interaction of precipitate overaging and austenite formation. Models and experimental data were therefore developed to describe overaging and austenite formation during thermal cycling. These models and experimental data can be applied to essentially any thermal cycle, and provide a basis for predicting the evolution of microstructure and properties during thermal processing.

  16. Temperature control during laser vessel welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, T A; Welch, A J

    1993-02-01

    A technique is described for the computer control of temperature during laser vessel welding. The technique is based on the use of thermal feedback from a calibrated IR sensor. The utilization of thermalfeedback makes it possible for welding to be performed at a quasiconstant temperature. An experimentalsystem based on this concept has been developed and evaluated in mock anastomoses with vasculartissue. A computer simulation of laser vessel welding with a one-dimensional heat conduction model hasbeen performed. Model parameters have been adjusted so that the relative effect of laser penetrationdepth and tissue dehydration as well as the role of thermal feedback in limiting the peak surfacetemperature can be studied. The results of the mock anastomoses are discussed in light of the computer model.

  17. Numerical Simulation Of The Laser Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Siwek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The model takes into consideration thermophysical and metallurgical properties of theremelting steel, laser beam parameters and boundary conditions of the process. As a resultof heating the material, in the area of laser beam operation a weld pool is being created,whose shape and size depends on convection caused by the Marangoni force. The directionof the liquid stream depends on the temperature gradient on the surface and on the chemicalcomposition as well. The model created allows to predict the weld pool shape depending onmaterial properties, beam parameters, and boundary conditions of the sample.

  18. Keyhole formation and its characteristics in laser welding mode transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Guoliang; Gao Jinqiang; Lin Shangyang

    2010-01-01

    Keyhole is the most important characteristic for laser deep penetration welding, and its formation indicates the beginning of laser deep penetration welding mode. The keyhole developing process was analyzed and the keyhole formation time was calculated according to welding speed and the length of weld bead formed in the keyhole formation process. The results showed that the keyhole forms in 40-70 ms at different rate of change of laser power. In laser deep penetration welding process, the variation of light intensity radiated by laser induced plasma can identify the keyhole formation, but it can not be used to estimate the keyhole formation time because of delay effect.

  19. Friction stir welding of copper alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shuhua; Liu Meng; Wang Deqing; Xu Zhenyue

    2007-01-01

    Copper plates,brass plates and copper/brass plates were friction stir welded with various parameters. Experimental results show that the microstructure of the weld is characterized by its much finer grains as contrasted with the coarse grains of parent materials and the heat-affected zones are very narrow. The microhardness of the copper weld is a little higher than that of parent plate. The microhardness of brass weld is about 25% higher than that of parent material. The tensile strength of copper joints increases with increasing welding speed in the test range. The range of parameters to obtain good welds for copper is much wider than that for brass. When different materials were welded, the position of copper plate before welding affected the quality of FSW joints. If the copper plate was put on the advancing side of weld, the good quality of weld could be got under proper parameters.

  20. Laser micro welding of copper and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, Ihor; Schmidt, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Aluminum combines comparably good thermal and electrical properties with a low price and a low material weight. These properties make aluminum a promising alternative to copper for a large number of electronic applications, especially when manufacturing high volume components. However, a main obstacle for a wide use of this material is the lack of a reliable joining process for the interconnection of copper and aluminum. The reasons for this are a large misalignment in the physical properties and even more a poor metallurgical affinity of both materials that cause high crack sensitivity and the formation of brittle intermetallic phases during fusion welding. This paper presents investigations on laser micro welding of copper and aluminum with the objective to eliminate brittle intermetallic phases in the welding structure. For these purposes a combination of spot welding, a proper beam offset and special filler material are applied. The effect of silver, nickel and tin filler materials in the form of thin foils and coatings in a thickness range 3-100 μm has been investigated. Use of silver and tin filler materials yields to a considerable improvement of the static and dynamic mechanical stability of welded joints. The analysis of the weld microstructure shows that an application even of small amounts of suitable filler materials helps to avoid critical, very brittle intermetallic phases on the interface between copper and solidified melt in the welded joints.

  1. Residual Stress and Fatigue Strength of Hybrid Laser-MIG-Welded A7N01P-T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuying; Chen, Hui; Qiu, Peixian; Zhu, Zongtao

    2016-09-01

    A7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy is widely used in some important welded components of high-speed trains. The hybrid laser-metal inert gas (MIG) welding process was studied to solve problems associated with the MIG welding process, such as low welding efficiency, high residual stress and deformation, and serious loss of strength. A high-speed camera, a voltage and current collection system, and NI DAQ were used to acquire arc profiles, welding voltage, and welding current simultaneously. Thermal cycle tests were carried out. Residual stresses induced by the welding process and fatigue strength of the joint were investigated. Large-size fatigue specimens were used in fatigue tests. The results show that the energy of the hybrid welding process is focused, and the power density of hybrid welding process is intense. The heat input per unit of the hybrid welding process is only half of that of the MIG welding process. Compared with the MIG welded joint, the overall residual stress level of the hybrid-welded joint is lower. The peak longitudinal stress of the hybrid-welded joint is reduced by 20 pct. The fatigue strength of hybrid joints is 14 pct higher than that of MIG-welded joints. Narrow weld and HAZ, weak softening behavior, and low residual stress level are the causes of the improvement of fatigue strength.

  2. Residual Stress and Fatigue Strength of Hybrid Laser-MIG-Welded A7N01P-T4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuying; Chen, Hui; Qiu, Peixian; Zhu, Zongtao

    2017-02-01

    A7N01P-T4 aluminum alloy is widely used in some important welded components of high-speed trains. The hybrid laser-metal inert gas (MIG) welding process was studied to solve problems associated with the MIG welding process, such as low welding efficiency, high residual stress and deformation, and serious loss of strength. A high-speed camera, a voltage and current collection system, and NI DAQ were used to acquire arc profiles, welding voltage, and welding current simultaneously. Thermal cycle tests were carried out. Residual stresses induced by the welding process and fatigue strength of the joint were investigated. Large-size fatigue specimens were used in fatigue tests. The results show that the energy of the hybrid welding process is focused, and the power density of hybrid welding process is intense. The heat input per unit of the hybrid welding process is only half of that of the MIG welding process. Compared with the MIG welded joint, the overall residual stress level of the hybrid-welded joint is lower. The peak longitudinal stress of the hybrid-welded joint is reduced by 20 pct. The fatigue strength of hybrid joints is 14 pct higher than that of MIG-welded joints. Narrow weld and HAZ, weak softening behavior, and low residual stress level are the causes of the improvement of fatigue strength.

  3. Mechanical Characteristics of Welded Joints of Aluminum Alloy 6061 T6 Formed by Arc and Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astarita, A.; Squillace, A.; Nele, L.

    2016-01-01

    Butt welds formed by arc welding in inert gas with nonconsumable electrode (tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding) and by friction stir welding (FSW) from aluminum alloy AA6061 T6 are studied. Comparative analysis of the structures and mechanical properties of the welded joints is performed using the results of optical and electron microscopy, tensile tests, tests for residual bending ductility, and measurements of microhardness. The changes in the microstructure in different zones and the degrees of degradation of the mechanical properties after the welding are determined. It is shown that the size of the tool for the friction stir welding affects the properties of the welds. Quantitative results showing the relation between the microscopic behavior of the alloy and the welding-induced changes in the microstructure are obtained. Friction stir welding is shown to provide higher properties of the welds.

  4. MODEL OF LASER-TIG HYBRID WELDING HEAT SOURCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanbin; Li Liqun; Feng Xiaosong; Fang Junfei

    2004-01-01

    The welding mechanism of laser-TIG hybrid welding process is analyzed. With the variation of arc current, the welding process is divided into two patterns: deep-penetration welding and heat conductive welding. The heat flow model of hybrid welding is presented. As to deep-penetration welding, the heat source includes a surface heat flux and a volume heat flux. The heat source of heat conductive welding is composed of two Gaussian distribute surface heat sources. With this heat source model, a temperature field is calculated. The finite element code MARC is employed for this purpose. The calculation results show a good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Differences between Laser and Arc Welding of HSS Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němeček, Stanislav; Mužík, Tomáš; Míšek, Michal

    Conventional welding processes often fail to provide adequate joints in high strength steels with multiphase microstructures. One of the promising techniques is laser beam welding: working without filler metal and with sufficient capacity for automotive and transportation industry (where the amount of AHSS steels increases each year, as well as the length of laser welds). The paper compares microstructures and properties of HSS (high strength steel) joints made by MAG (Metal Active Gas) and laser welding. The effects of main welding parameters (heat input, welding speed and others) are studied on multiphase TRIP 900 steel tubes and martensitic sheets DOCOL 1200, advanced materials for seat frames and other automotive components. Whereas the strength of conventional welds is significantly impaired, laser welding leaves strength of the base material nearly unaffected. As the nature of fracture changes during loading and depending on the welding method, failure mechanisms upon cross tension tests have been studied as well.

  6. Assisting Gas Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1996-01-01

    are applied with three different flow rates for each of the gases. A number of systematic laboratory experiments is carried out by employing various experimental designs, 33 and 32 Factorial Design. In the experiments a CO2 laser is used to weld thin sheets of mild steel. The welding specimens are evaluated....... The relations between the gas parameters and signal frequencies are studied. Finally the relationships of the gas parameters and weld characteristics are studied. The possibility of using photo diode signals in controlling the gas parameters is discussed.KeywordsCO2 laser welding, assisting gas parameters......High quality laser welding is achieved under the condition of optimizing all process parameters. Assisting gas plays an important role for sound welds. In the conventional welding process assisting gas is used as a shielding gas to prevent that the weld seam oxidates. In the laser welding process...

  7. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF TEMPERATURE FIELD IN LASER+GMAW HYBRID WELDING FOR T-JOINT OF ALUMINUM ALLOY%铝合金T型接头激光+GMAW复合热源焊温度场的有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥国祥; 武传松; 秦国梁; 王旭友

    2012-01-01

    从宏观传热学出发,综合考虑焊缝横断面形状特点及接头形式对焊接热流的影响,建立了适用的T型接头激光+GMAW复合热源焊的组合式热源模型.利用双椭球体热源模型描述电弧热流和熔滴热焓,采用热流峰值指数递增-锥体热源模型表征激光热输入,并通过坐标系转换的方法旋转热源模型,以考虑焊枪倾斜对焊接热流分布的影响,推导出适用于T型接头复合焊的热源模型表达公式,从而简化了T型接头焊接数值模拟中的模型加载过程.将所建立的模型用于不同焊接条件下铝合金T型接头激光+GMAW单侧双面焊接焊缝形状和尺寸的模拟计算,计算结果与实验结果吻合较好,从而证明了模型的准确性和适用性;利用该模型计算了铝合金T型接头复合焊近缝区不同位置的热循环曲线,分析了铝合金T型接头复合焊热循环特征,为其组织和性能的预测奠定了基础.%T-welded structures of aluminum alloy are increasingly used in automotive, railway vehicles, aerospace and bridges. However, compared with the simple joint, the T-joint of aluminum alloy is more difficultly welded due to its complex temperature distribution and fluid flow mode in the weld pool. Whether using laser welding or the conventional arc welding process, aluminum alloy T-wleded joint is more prone to welding defects such as crack, pore, undercutting, joint softening, and so on. As a promising joining technology, laser+gas metal arc welding (laser+GMAW) hybrid welding not only combines the advantages of laser welding with those of GMAW, but also overcomes their shortcomings, thus having great potential to achieve high efficiency and high quality welding of aluminum alloy T-joint. So far, however, there is a lack of fundamental investigations involving mathematical modelling and understanding of the hybrid welding process of aluminum alloy T-joint. As key factors determining the weld quality, thermal field has

  8. Laser welding of polymers using high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Friedrich G.; Russek, Ulrich A.

    2003-09-01

    Laser welding of polymers using high power diode lasers offers specific process advantages over conventional technologies, such as short process times while providing optically and qualitatively valuable weld seams, contactless yielding of the joining energy, absence of process induced vibrations, imposing minimal thermal stress and avoiding particle generation. Furthermore this method exhibits high integration capabilities and automatization potential. Moreover, because of the current favorable cost development within the high power diode laser market laser welding of polymers has become more and more an industrially accepted joining method. This novel technology permits both, reliable high quality joining of mechanically and electronically highly sensitive micro components and hermetic sealing of macro components. There are different welding strategies available, which are adaptable to the current application. Within the frame of this discourse scientific and also application oriented results concerning laser transmission welding of polymers using preferably diode lasers are presented. Besides the used laser systems the fundamental process strategies as well as decisive process parameters are illustrated. The importance of optical, thermal and mechanical properties is discussed. Applications at real technical components will be presented, demonstrating the industrial implementation capability and the advantages of a novel technology.

  9. Multiphysical Modeling of Transport Phenomena During Laser Welding of Dissimilar Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métais, A.; Matteï, S.; Tomashchuk, I.; Gaied, S.

    The success of new high-strength steels allows attaining equivalent performances with lower thicknesses and significant weight reduction. The welding of new couples of steel grades requires development and control of joining processes. Thanks to high precision and good flexibility, laser welding became one of the most used processes for joining of dissimilar welded blanks. The prediction of the local chemical composition in the weld formed between dissimilar steels in function of the welding parameters is essential because the dilution rate and the distribution of alloying elements in the melted zone determines the final tensile strength of the weld. The goal of the present study is to create and to validate a multiphysical numerical model studying the mixing of dissimilar steels in laser weld pool. A 3D modelling of heat transfer, turbulent flow and transport of species provides a better understanding of diffusion and convective mixing in laser weld pool. The present model allows predicting the weld geometry and element distribution. The model has been developed based on steady keyhole approximation and solved in quasi-stationary form in order to reduce the computation time. Turbulent flow formulation was applied to calculate velocity field. Fick law for diluted species was used to simulate the transport of alloying elements in the weld pool. To validate the model, a number of experiments have been performed: tests using pure 100 μm thick Ni foils like tracer and weld between a rich and poor manganese steels. SEM-EDX analysis of chemical composition has been carried out to obtain quantitative mapping of Ni and Mn distributions in the melted zone. The results of simulations have been found in good agreement with experimental data.

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF CONTROLLING IN TITANIUM ALLOY SHEETS WELDING RESIDUAL STRESS BY TRAILING PEENING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.S. Liu; H. Y. Fang; W.L. Xu; Z.B. Dong; D.Y. Yu

    2004-01-01

    It is a promising and new technology to apply welding with trailing peening to control welding stress and distortion of titanium alloy. Numerical simulation of conventional welding and welding with trailing peening of the titanium alloy sheet is carried out,using nonlinear finite element theory and the engineering analysis software MARC.The result shows that welding with trailing peening technology reduces longitudinal residual stress in welding joint effectively, and it is more effective to reduce residual stress to peen the weld than to peen the weld toe. It is a effective result that other technology and method used in welding can never achieved.

  11. Improvement of Weld Quality Using a Weaving Beam in Laser Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xudong ZHANG; Wuzhu CHEN; Gang BAO; Lin ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a way to improve the weld quality through suppressing the porosity formation and restraining the growth of columnar grains by using a weaving beam in laser welding. The experimental results show that the N2 porosity of beamweaving laser welding low carbon steel can be remarkably reduced with increasing weaving frequency, and porosity can be eliminated when the weaving amplitude is only 0.5 mm; and the Ar porosity in the weld metal is decreased with increasing weaving frequency and amplitude when the welding speed is higher than 0.5 m/min. The beam-weaving laser welding of ultrafine grained steel has been investigated. The experimental results show that beam-weaving laser welding with appropriate amplitude and frequency can partly restrain the growth of the columnar grain and improve the tensile strength of the weld metal.

  12. Gas-tungsten arc welding of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Lowell D.

    1984-01-01

    A gas-tungsten arc welding method for joining together structures formed of aluminum alloy with these structures disposed contiguously to a heat-damagable substrate of a metal dissimilar to the aluminum alloy. The method of the present invention is practiced by diamond machining the fay surfaces of the aluminum alloy structures to provide a mirror finish thereon having a surface roughness in the order of about one microinch. The fay surfaces are aligned and heated sufficiently by the tungsten electrode to fuse the aluminum alloy contiguous to the fay surfaces to effect the weld joint. The heat input used to provide an oxide-free weld is significantly less than that required if the fay surfaces were prepared by using conventional chemical and mechanical practices.

  13. Penetration control in laser welding of sheet metal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, S.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.; Meijer, Johan; Jonker, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    For economical reasons it is desirable to apply the highest possible speed during laser welding. Increasing the welding speed at a certain laser power might result in insufficient penetration of the weld. This work describes the design of a feedback controller, which is able to maintain full penetra

  14. Laser weld process monitoring and control using chromatic filtering of thermal radiation from a weld pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Chung, Chin Man

    2000-06-01

    The application of high power Nd: YAG lasers for precision welding in industry has been growing quite fast these days in diverse areas such as the automobile, the electronics and the aerospace industries. These diverse applications also require the new developments for the precise control and the reliable process monitoring. Due to the hostile environment in laser welding, a remote monitoring is required. The present development relates in general to weld process monitoring techniques, and more particularly to improved methods and apparatus for real-time monitoring of thermal radiation of a weld pool to monitor a size variation and a focus shift of the weld pool for weld process control, utilizing the chromatic aberration of focusing lens or lenses. The monitoring technique of the size variation and the focus shift of a weld pool is developed by using the chromatic filtering of the thermal radiation from a weld pool. The monitoring of weld pool size variation can also be used to monitor the weld depth in a laser welding. Furthermore, the monitoring of the size variation of a weld pool is independent of the focus shift of a weld pool and the monitoring of the focus shift of a weld pool is independent of the size variation of a weld pool.

  15. Influence of welding speed on corrosion behaviour of friction stir welded AA5086 aluminium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamran Amini; Farhad Gharavi

    2016-01-01

    The plates of AA5086 aluminium alloy were joined together by friction stir welding at a fixed rotation speed of 1000 r/min various welding speeds ranging from 63 to 100 mm/min. Corrosion behavior of the parent alloy (PA), the heat affected zone (HAZ), and the weld nugget zone (WNZ) of the joints were studied in 3.5% (mass fraction) aerated aqueous NaCl solution by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion susceptibility of the weldments increases when the welding speed increases to 63 and 100 mm/min. However, the value of corrosion rate in the weldments is lower than that in the PA. Additionally, the corrosion current density increases with increasing the welding speed in the HAZ and the WNZ. On the contrary, the corrosion potential in the WNZ appears more positive than in the HAZ with decreasing the welding speed. The WNZ exhibits higher resistance compared to the HAZ and the PA as the welding speed decreases. The results obtained from the EIS measurements suggest that the weld regions have higher corrosion resistance than the parent alloy. With increasing the welding speed, the distribution and extent of the corroded areas in the WNZ region are lower than those of the HAZ region. In the HAZ region, in addition to the pits in the corroded area, some cracks can be seen around the corroded areas, which confirms that intergranular corrosion is formed in this area. The alkaline localized corrosion and the pitting corrosion are the main corrosion mechanisms in the corroded areas within the weld regions. Crystallographic pits are observed within the weld regions.

  16. Prediction of optimum weld pool geometry of PCTIG welded titanium alloy using statistical design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Balasubramanian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical strength of the weldments is not only influenced by the composition of the metals but selection of process parameters and weld bead profile also play a vital role in determining the strength. The relationships between the process parameters and the bead parameters controlling the bead shape are to be established. This is achieved by the development of mathematical expressions, relating the weld bead dimensions to the important process control variables affecting these dimensions. Also, optimization of the process parameters to control and obtain the required shape and quality of weld beads is also made possible with these expressions. The pulsing current parameters on weld pool geometry namely front height, back height, front width and back width of pulsed current tungsten inert gas welding (PCTIG of titanium alloy was analyzed. Box–Behnken design was used to develop empirical relationships, incorporating pulsed current parameters and weld pool geometry.

  17. Effect of welding techniques on microstructure and mechanical properties of aluminium-lithium alloy welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Gokhale, A.A.; Saxena, V.K. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India); Prasad Rao, K.

    2000-07-01

    The tensile properties and fatigue crack growth behaviour of sheets of an Al-1.9Li-1.8Cu-1.0 Mg-0.1Zr alloy welded under different conditions were evaluated. The basic welding technique was constant current (CC) gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding. Two modifications viz. pulsed current (PC) and magnetic arc oscillation (AO) were introduced to study effects on microstructure and properties. Both PC and AO resulted in microstructural refinement in the fusion zone. The tensile residual stresses present in CC welds reduced when either PC or AO welding was used. The tensile strength and ductility increased, and fatigue crack growth rates lowered when PC or AO conditions replaced CC welding. (orig.)

  18. Recent Developments in Friction Stir Welding of Al-alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çam, Gürel; Mistikoglu, Selcuk

    2014-06-01

    The diversity and never-ending desire for a better life standard result in a continuous development of the existing manufacturing technologies. In line with these developments in the existing production technologies the demand for more complex products increases, which also stimulates new approaches in production routes of such products, e.g., novel welding procedures. For instance, the friction stir welding (FSW) technology, developed for joining difficult-to-weld Al-alloys, has been implemented by industry in manufacturing of several products. There are also numerous attempts to apply this method to other materials beyond Al-alloys. However, the process has not yet been implemented by industry for joining these materials with the exception of some limited applications. The microstructures and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al-alloys existing in the open literature will be discussed in detail in this review. The correlations between weld parameters used during FSW and the microstructures evolved in the weld region and thus mechanical properties of the joints produced will be highlighted. However, the modeling studies, material flow, texture formation and developments in tool design are out of the scope of this work as well as the other variants of this technology, such as friction stir spot welding (FSSW).

  19. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of laser dissimilar welding of carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouie Esfahani, M. R.; Coupland, J.; Marimuthu, S.

    2015-07-01

    This study reports an experimental and numerical investigation on controlling the microstructure and brittle phase formation during laser dissimilar welding of carbon steel to austenitic stainless steel. The significance of alloying composition and cooling rate were experimentally investigated. The investigation revealed that above a certain specific point energy the material within the melt pool is well mixed and the laser beam position can be used to control the mechanical properties of the joint. The heat-affected zone within the high-carbon steel has significantly higher hardness than the weld area, which severely undermines the weld quality. A sequentially coupled thermo-metallurgical model was developed to investigate various heat-treatment methodology and subsequently control the microstructure of the HAZ. Strategies to control the composition leading to dramatic changes in hardness, microstructure and service performance of the dissimilar laser welded fusion zone are discussed.

  20. Modeling corrosion behavior of gas tungsten arc welded titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The pitting corrosion characteristics of pulse TIG welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy in marine environment were explained.Besides the rapid advance of titanium metallurgy, this is also due to the successful solution of problems associated with the development of titanium alloy welding. The preferred welding process of titanium alloy is frequently gas tungsten arc(GTA) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy. In the case of single pass GTA welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. The benefit of the process is utilized to obtain better quality titanium weldments. Four factors, five levels, central composite, rotatable design matrix are used to optimize the required number of experiments. The mathematical models have been developed by response surface method(RSM). The results reveal that the titanium alloy can form a protective scale in marine environment and is resistant to pitting corrosion. Experimental results are provided to illustrate the proposed approach.

  1. A Review of Dissimilar Welding Techniques for Magnesium Alloys to Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys and aluminum alloys is an important issue because of their increasing applications in industries. In this document, the research and progress of a variety of welding techniques for joining dissimilar Mg alloys and Al alloys are reviewed from different perspectives. Welding of dissimilar Mg and Al is challenging due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compound (IMC such as Mg17Al12 and Mg2Al3. In order to increase the joint strength, three main research approaches were used to eliminate or reduce the Mg-Al intermetallic reaction layer. First, solid state welding techniques which have a low welding temperature were used to reduce the IMCs. Second, IMC variety and distribution were controlled to avoid the degradation of the joining strength in fusion welding. Third, techniques which have relatively controllable reaction time and energy were used to eliminate the IMCs. Some important processing parameters and their effects on weld quality are discussed, and the microstructure and metallurgical reaction are described. Mechanical properties of welds such as hardness, tensile, shear and fatigue strength are discussed. The aim of the report is to review the recent progress in the welding of dissimilar Mg and Al to provide a basis for follow-up research.

  2. Microstructural refinement of weld fusion zones in {alpha}-{beta} titanium alloys using pulsed current welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaresan, S.; Janaki Ram, G.D. [Indian Inst. of Technol., Chennai (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Madhusudhan Reddy, G. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)

    1999-04-01

    Pulsing of the welding current is one approach for refining the fusion zone grain structure in {alpha}-{beta} titanium alloy welds. This paper reports work in which gas tungsten-arc welds were produced in two {alpha}-{beta} titanium alloys under a variety of conditions including direct current (d.c.) pulsing and alternating current (a.c.) pulsing. The results show that, while d.c. pulsing did also refine the weld metal {beta} grain structure, the effect of a.c. pulsing was much greater. Current pulsing enhances fluid flow, reduces temperature gradients and causes a continual change in the weld pool size and shape. These effects, which are believed to be responsible for refining the solidification structure, are much stronger in a.c. pulsing than in d.c. pulsing. The observed grain refinement was shown to result in an appreciable increase in fusion zone tensile ductility. Post-weld heat treatment improved ductility both in pulsed and unpulsed welds, but pulsed welds showed greater tensile elongation even in the heat treated condition. (orig.) 27 refs.

  3. ARc Welding (Industrial Processing Series).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARC WELDING , *BIBLIOGRAPHIES), (*ARC WELDS, BIBLIOGRAPHIES), ALUMINUM ALLOYS, TITANIUM ALLOYS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS, METAL PLATES, SPOT WELDING , STEEL...INERT GAS WELDING , MARAGING STEELS, MICROSTRUCTURE, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, HEAT RESISTANT METALS, WELDABILITY, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, RESISTANCE WELDING

  4. Moiré method analysis for tensile strain field of 2024 aluminum alloy welded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文立; 魏艳红; 刘雪松; 方洪渊; 赵敏; 田锡唐

    2003-01-01

    Using experimental mechanics method of moiré analysis, strain field distributions of 2024 aluminum alloy welded joints under different conditions were investigated. The results show that moiré stripes of welded joint without trailing peening just before fracture are not only few and scattered but also uneven, and the stress mainly concentrates on the poor position-welded toes during the tensioning process with the relatively poor mechanical properties of welded joints; When the method of welding with trailing peening is adopted, moiré stripes of welded joint just before fracture are relatively thick and even due to the strengthening welded toes during the welding process, and fracture position transfers from the welded toes to weld, at the same time the mechanical properties of welded joints are improved greatly than conventional welding which can show that the technology of trailing peening is effective to strengthen welded joints of aluminum alloy with high strength.

  5. Laser penetration spike welding : A microlaser welding technique enabling novel product designs and constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, DK; Hoving, W; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    A novel method for laser penetration microspot welding of sheet metal is presented. With this so called "laser spike-welding," large gap tolerances are allowed. Depending on the ratio of laser spot radius to top plate thickness, gaps of 100% of the top layer thickness and more can be bridged. With c

  6. Corrosion of friction stir welded magnesium alloy AM50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Rongchang [School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Xingshenglu Rd. 4, Chongqing 400050 (China)], E-mail: rczeng2001@yahoo.com.cn; Chen Jun [School of Material Science and Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Xingshenglu Rd. 4, Chongqing 400050 (China); Dietzel, Wolfgang; Zettler, Rudolf; Santos, Jorge F. dos [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max Planck Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Lucia Nascimento, M. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Fachgebiet Werkstofftechnik, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kainer, Karl Ulrich [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Max Planck Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The microstructure of a friction stir welded magnesium alloy AM50 was examined by means of optical light microscopy. The chemical composition, particularly the iron content, and morphology of the oxide film were analyzed and discerned via auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Corrosion behaviour of the welds and base materials were investigated by virtue of neutral salt spray tests and potentiodynamic polarization measurements in conventional cells and in a mini cell. The results demonstrate that minor increases in iron concentration as might be speculated to occur as a consequence of tool/work piece interaction during the welding process on the corrosion resistance of the weld can be ignored. The corrosion morphology was predominantly influenced by the distribution of the Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase. Here, it was also found that the corrosion resistance of the friction stir weld varied in response to changes in the joint microstructure.

  7. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Unlike in autogenous laser welding, hybrid laser welding of stainless steel could introduce grain boundary carbides due to low cooling rates. Formation of grain boundary carbides leads to reduced corrosion properties. Studies have initially been carried out on hybrid laser welding and subsequent...... laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L welds. Welding and laser treatment parameters were varied. General corrosion behaviour of the weld and laser treated surface was characterised using a gel visualization test. The local electrochemistry of the weld and laser...... treated surface was investigated using a novel micro electrochemical technique with a tip resolution of ~1 mm. Results show that hybrid laser welding of 316L has increased corrosion susceptibility probably as a result of grain boundary carbide formation. However a suitable post laser treatment could...

  8. Visual sensing of weld pool in variable polarity TIG welding of aluminium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-jun; YAN Zhi-hong; WU Lin

    2006-01-01

    The passive visual sensing method was successfully applied to monitor the weld pool in TIG welding of aluminium alloy.In order to reduce the disturbance from the arc and acquire clear image, two techniques were used: one was the own-developed computer-controlled variable polarity power(VPP), the other was the composite filter technology. The VPP source did not have high-frequency electromagnetic interference from arc stabilizer in traditional AC welding power, and its output current wave was controlled by computer, so the imaging current and the imaging time could be adjusted easily. Filter spectral window was identified at 650 nm by analyzing the measured arc light spectral distribution. At the end, the high quality and clear images of welding pool of aluminium alloy were successfully acquired at low imaging current.

  9. Welding development for V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.F.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-04-01

    A vanadium structure, cooled with helium, is a favored concept for an advanced breeding blanket for fusion systems. The objective of this task is to develop the metallurgical and technological base for the welding of thick sections of V-Cr-Ti. The subsize Charpy test results for electron beam weld metal from the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy has shown significant improvement in Charpy fracture energy compared to both gas tungsten arc weld metal and the base metal itself. These results are preliminary, however, and additional confirmation testing and analysis will be required to explain this improvement in properties.

  10. Welding of Vanadium, Tantalum, 304L and 21-6-9 Stainless Steels, and Titanium Alloys at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using a Fiber Delivered 2.2 kW Diode Pumped CW Nd:YAG Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, T; Elmer, J; Pong, R; Gauthier, M

    2006-06-16

    This report summarizes the results of a series of laser welds made between 2003 and 2005 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The results are a compilation of several, previously unpublished, internal LLNL reports covering the laser welding of vanadium, tantalum, 304L stainless steel, 21-6-9 (Nitronic 40) steel, and Ti-6Al-4V. All the welds were made using a Rofin Sinar DY-022 diode pumped continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. Welds are made at sharp focus on each material at various power levels and travel speeds in order to provide a baseline characterization of the performance of the laser welder. These power levels are based on measurements of the output power of the laser system, as measured by a power meter placed at the end of the optics train. Based on these measurements, it appears that the system displays a loss of approximately 10% as the beam passes through the fiber optic cable and laser optics. Since the beam is delivered to the fixed laser optics through a fiber optic cable, the effects of fiber diameter are also briefly investigated. Because the system utilizes 1:1 focusing optics, the laser spot size at sharp focus generally corresponds to the diameter of the fiber with which the laser is delivered. Differences in the resulting weld penetration in the different materials system are prevalent, with the welds produced on the Nitronic 40 material displaying the highest depths (> 5 mm) and minimal porosity. A Primes focusing diagnostic has also been installed on this laser system and used to characterize the size and power density distribution of the beams as a function of both power and focus position. Further work is planned in which this focusing diagnostic will be used to better understand the effects of changes in beam properties on the resulting weld dimensions in these and other materials systems.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF DROPLET TRANSFER IN CO2 LASER-MIG HYBRID WELDING WITH SHORT-CIRCUITING MODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Zhenglong; CHEN Yanbin; LI Liqun; WU Lin

    2006-01-01

    LF6 aluminum alloy plates with 4.5 mm thickness are welded in this experiment. Welding is carried out by using the CO2 laser-MIG paraxial hybrid welding in flat position. The experimental results indicate that the inherent droplet transfer cycle time of conventional MIG arc is changed due to the interaction between CO2 laser beam and MIG arc in the short-circuiting mode of laser-MIG hybrid welding. Because of the preheating action of CO2 laser to electrode and base material, the droplet transfer frequency of MIG arc is increased in the hybrid welding process. When laser power is increased to a certain degree, the droplet transfer frequency is decreased due to the effect of laser-induced keyhole. Furthermore, through analyzing the MIG welding current and arc voltage waveforms and the characteristics of droplet transfer in the hybrid welding process, the effect of laser energy and the action point between laser beam and arc on the frequency of droplet transfer and weld appearance is investigated in details.

  12. Advanced Laser Transmission Welding Strategies for Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippo, V.; Jaeschke, P.; Brueggmann, M.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    Laser transmission welding can be used to join endless fibre reinforced thermoplastics. The welding temperature is affected by the heat conduction along carbon fibresand depends on the local orientation of the fibres in the weld seam and the laser welding technique itself. In these investigations the heat development during the welding with quasi-static temperature fields, which is a combination of two laser welding techniques, is evaluated and compared to welding with a homogenized intensity distribution. In order to optimize the temperature distribution over the weld seam width for both linear and curved weld seams, different scanning structures have beenadapted. The experiments were conducted with a diode laser emitting at a wavelength of 940 nm and the process was monitored by aninfrared camera. The used thermoplastics consist of laminates based on unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polyphenylenesulfide. With the developed scanning structures, a near-homogeneous temperature distribution was generated over the width of the weld seam for curved weld seams, which is not possible by welding with a homogenized laser radiation intensity distribution.

  13. Effect of pulsed current and post weld aging treatment on tensile properties of argon arc welded high strength aluminium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu 608002 (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com; Ravisankar, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu 608002 (India); Reddy, G. Madhusudhan [Metal Joining Section, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Kanchanbag (P.O.), Hyderabad 560058 (India)

    2007-06-25

    This paper reveals the effect of pulsed current and post weld aging treatment on tensile properties of argon arc welded AA7075 aluminium alloy. This alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to-weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. As welded joint strength is much lower than the base metal strength and hence, a simple aging treatment has been given to improve the tensile strength of the joints. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in GTA and GMA welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Post weld aging treatment is accompanied by an increase in tensile strength and tensile ductility.

  14. An integrated meso-scale numerical model of melting and solidification in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, G.; Tong, M.; Browne, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present an integrated numerical model for the simulation of laser spot welding of an aluminium alloy at meso-scale in 2D. This model deals with the melting of the parent materials which form the weld pool and the subsequent solidification of the liquid metal in the pool, during the welding process. The melting of the parent materials due to the applied heating power is an important phenomenon, which determines the conditions at the onset of solidification, such as the geometry of the weld pool and the distribution of the temperature field. An enthalpy method is employed to predict the melting during the heating phase of welding. A Gaussian distribution is used to model the heat input from the laser. Once the laser beam is switched off and the melting halts, solidification commences. The UCD front tracking model [1,2] for alloy solidification is applied to predict the advancement of the columnar dendritic front, and a volume-averaging formulation is used to simulate nucleation and growth of equiaxed dendrites. A mechanical blocking criterion is used to define dendrite coherency, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition within the weld pool is predicted.

  15. Electrochemical Testing of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded and Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welded Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, S D; Wong, F M G; Gordon, S R; Wong, L L; Rebak, R B

    2003-09-07

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is the material selected for the fabrication of the outer shell of the nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository site. A key technical issue in the Yucca Mountain waste package program has been the integrity of container weld joints. The currently selected welding process for fabricating and sealing the containers is the traditional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIG method. An appealing faster alternative technique is reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding. Standard electrochemical tests were carried on GTAW and RPEB welds as well as on base metal to determine their relative corrosion behavior in SCW at 90 C (alkaline), 1 M HCl at 60 C (acidic) and 1 M NaCl at 90 C (neutral) solutions. Results show that for all practical purposes, the three tested materials had the electrochemical behavior in the three tested solutions.

  16. Equalization of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy welded joint by scanning electron beam welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The equalization of Ti-6Al-4V alloy welded joint with base metal on corrosion resistance, strength and ductility was studied. The solidification microstructure is transformed from 650 μm columnar grains to 100 μm equiaxed grains by scanning electron beam welding. The anodic polarization curve of 150 μm equiaxed grains coincides with that of base metal. Equal corrosion resistance between weld metal and base metal was ob tained. Uniform microstructure and solutedistribution are the basis of equalization. Corrosion rate of weld with 150 μm equiaxed grains is the lowest, 2.45 times lower than that of 650 μm columnar grains. Weld strength is 98% as much as that of base metal, yield-strength ratio is 99.5%, which is 3.6% higher than that of base metal.

  17. Seam tracking for laser welding with an industrial robot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.R.B.E.; Amerongen, van J.; Jonker, J.B.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2001-01-01

    Because of their construction and flexibility, industrial robots are suitable to be used, with a laser source and an optical fiber, for laser welding of 3D products. However, the positioning accuracy of robots are insufficient for laser welding. Also the product and clamping tolerances are too wide

  18. On the Mechanisms for Martensite Formation in YAG Laser Welded Austenitic NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Miranda, R. M.; Schell, N.

    2016-03-01

    Extensive work has been reported on the microstructure of laser-welded NiTi alloys either superelastic or with shape memory effect, motivated by the fact that the microstructure affects the functional properties. However, some effects of laser beam/material interaction with these alloys have not yet been discussed. This paper aims to discuss the mechanisms for the occurrence of martensite in the heat-affected zone and in the fusion zone at room temperature, while the base material is fully austenitic. For this purpose, synchrotron radiation was used together with a simple thermal analytic mathematical model. Two distinct mechanisms are proposed for the presence of martensite in different zones of a weld, which affects the mechanical and functional behavior of a welded component.

  19. Effect of Heat Input on the Tensile Damage Evolution in Pulsed Laser Welded Ti6Al4V Titanium Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Jianxun

    2016-11-01

    The present paper is focused on studying the effect of heat input on the tensile damage evolution of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of Ti6Al4V alloy under monotonic loading. To analyze the reasons that the tensile fracture site of the pulsed-laser-welded Ti6Al4V sheet joints changes with the heat input under monotonic loading, the microstructure of the sample with different nominal strain values was investigated by in situ observation. Experiment results show that the tensile ductility and fatigue life of welded joints with low heat input are higher than that of welded joints with high heat input. Under tensile loads, the critical engineering strain for crack initiation is much lower in the welded joint with high heat input than in the welded joints with low and medium heat input. And the microstructural damage accumulation is much faster in the fusion zone than in the base metal for the welded joints with high input, whereas the microstructural damage accumulation is much faster in the base metal than in the fusion zone for the welded joints with low input. Consequently, the welded joints fractured in the fusion zone for the welds with high heat input, whereas the welded joints ruptured in the base metal for the welds with low heat input. It is proved that the fine grain microstructure produced by low heat input can improve the critical nominal strain for crack initiation and the resistance ability of microstructural damage.

  20. TC4钛合金激光焊接接头力学行为的原位研究%In-situ investigation on mechanical behavior of laser-welded joint for TC4 titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锡龙; 宋旭; 张建勋

    2012-01-01

    采用扫描电镜(SEM)原位拉伸法观察TC4钛合金激光焊接接头各微区孔洞形核与成长、损伤与断裂行为,研究接头微观组织对其损伤和断裂行为的影响.结果表明:焊缝区裂纹形核于晶内孪晶、滑移线与晶界交汇处,主裂纹形成直至最终断裂;热影响区多裂纹起裂,单一裂纹扩展至最终断裂;母材区孔洞优先形核于相界面及晶界区域,缺口前端孔洞群相互贯穿直至最终断裂.当应变超过0.023时,母材区及热影响区靠近母材一侧从协调变形向以界面微孔洞的行核与聚合为主转化;焊缝区粗大晶粒内部网篮状马氏体存在且晶界面积较小,导致变形机制未发生改变,促使其力学性能低于焊缝的.%In order to investigate the effects of microstructures on damage evolution and fracture behavior in laser welded joint for Ti-6A1-4V alloy, the microvoids nucleation, growth, coalescence and crack were observed by in-situ tensile test. The results show that the crack in the weld metal grows rapidly when it nucleates at the twin boundary of the inner grain , and the intersection of slip line and grain boundary. The multi-cracks in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) occur in front of the notch, one crack propagation leads to the final fracture. When the strain exceeds 0.023, the deformation mechanism in the base metal and HAZ near the base metal changes from compatible deformation to bluntness and expansion alternately when the microvoid is nucleated firstly along the grain boundary. The deformation mechanism in the welded metal does not change due to its coarse martensite and small grain boundary. Therefore, the tensile stress in the welded metal is higher than that in the other areas.

  1. 选区激光熔化TC4钛合金电子束焊接试验研究%Electron Beam Welding of Selective Laser Meltded TC4 Titanium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 梁晓康; 陈济轮; 黑艳颖; 田彩兰

    2014-01-01

    初步研究了选区激光熔化成形TC4钛合金的电子束焊接性。试验采用中压电子束对4mm厚试片进行焊接。焊后采用光学显微镜、显微硬度计、拉伸试验机评价了接头的显微组织和力学性能。选区激光熔化TC4焊缝与板材焊缝类似,接头的抗拉强度为1278MPa,达到母材90%以上。%In this paper, the elctron beam weldability of selective laser meltded TC4 titanium alloys was investigated preliminarily. The optical microscope, microhardness and tensile test were used in analysted the characteristic of the elctron beam welded joint. The well electron beam weldability was shown from the analysis results. The tensile strengh of selective laser melted TC4 joints was 1278MPa.

  2. Effect of welding parameters and tool shape on properties of friction stir welding of Aluminum alloy AA- 6061

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hussain Albloushi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW is a widely used solid state joining process for soft materials such as aluminium alloys because it avoids many of the common problems of fusion welding. It has many benefits when applied to welding of aluminum alloys. FSW process parameters such as welding speed, rotational speed and tool geometry play vital roles in the weld quality. The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of different welding speeds, rotational speeds and tool pin profile on the weld quality of a AA6061 aluminum alloy. A friction stir welding tool consists of rotating shoulder and pin that heats the working piece by friction and moves a softened alloy around it to form a joint. In this research work the effect of the tool shape and welding parameters (rotating speed and welding speed on the mechanical properties of an aluminium plates will be investigated experimentally. The induced heat during the welding process played the main role in the mechanical and appearance of the joints, which is related to the welding parameters.

  3. Analysis of laser alloyed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, D.C.; Augustyniak, W.M.; Buene, L.; Draper, C.W.; Poate, J.M.

    1981-04-01

    Surface alloys of precious metals have many advantages over bulk alloys, the most obvious of which is cost reduction due to the reduced consumption of precious metal. There are several techniques for producing surface alloys. In this paper the laser irradiation technique is presented. The following lasers: CW CO/sub 2/, Q-switched Nd-YAG, frequency double Q-switched Nd-YAG, and pulsed ruby were used to irradiate and melt thin solid films of precious metals on metal substrates. This causes the surfaces to melt to a depth of approximately 10,000A. Alloying then takes place in the liquid phase where most metals are miscible. The high quench rates obtainable by this method of melting can result in the forming of metastable alloys. This melting and regrowth process is well understood and has been discussed in the literature over the last few years. This paper deals with two binary alloy systems, Au-Ni and Pd-Ti. Surface alloys of Au-Ni with a wide range of concentrations have been produced by laser irradiation of thin Au films on Ni. These films have been analyzed using Rutherford backscattering (RBS) and channeling. Many thin film metals other than Au have also been successfully alloyed using these methods. An example of a potential application is the laser surface alloying of Pd to Ti for corrosion passivation.

  4. Influence of shielding gas pressure on welding characteristics in CO2 laser-MIG hybrid welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanbin Chen; Zhenglong Lei; Liqun Li; Lin Wu

    2006-01-01

    The droplet transfer behavior and weld characteristics have been investigated under different pressures of shielding gas in CO2 laser and metal inert/active gas (laser-MIG) hybrid welding process. The experimental results indicate that the inherent droplet transfer frequency and stable welding range of conventional MIG arc are changed due to the interaction between CO2 laser beam and MIG arc in laser-MIG hybrid welding process, and the shielding gas pressure has a crucial effect on welding characteristics. When the pressure of shielding gas is low in comparison with MIG welding, the frequency of droplet transfer decreases, and thedroplet transfer becomes unstable in laser-MIG hybrid welding. So the penetration depth decreases, which shows the characteristic of unstable hybrid welding. However, when the pressure of shielding gas increases to a critical value, the hybrid welding characteristic is changed from unstable hybrid welding to stablehybrid welding, and the frequency of droplet transfer and the penetration depth increase significantly.

  5. Importance of Marangoni Convection in Laser Full-Penetration Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶晓虎; 陈熙

    2002-01-01

    We study the effects of welding speed, Marangoni convection and natural convection on heat transfer and melt flow in a laser full-penetration welding using a three-dimensional modelling approach. The computed results demonstrate the importance of considering Marangoni convection. The predicted weld pool profile is favourably compared with experimental observation.

  6. Impact properties and hardening behavior of laser and electron-beam welds of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Strain, R.V.; Tsai, H.C.; Park, J.H.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The authors are conducting a program to develop an optimal laser welding procedure that can be applied to large-scale fusion-reactor structural components to be fabricated from vanadium-base alloys. Results of initial investigation of mechanical properties and hardening behavior of laser and electron-beam (EB) welds of the production-scale heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (500-kg Heat 832665) in as-welded and postwelding heat-treated (PWHT) conditions are presented in this paper. The laser weld was produced in air using a 6-kW continuous CO{sub 2} laser at a welding speed of {approx}45 mm/s. Microhardness of the laser welds was somewhat higher than that of the base metal, which was annealed at a nominal temperature of {approx}1050{degrees}C for 2 h in the factory. In spite of the moderate hardening, ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTTs) of the initial laser ({approx}80{degrees}C) and EB ({approx}30{degrees}C) welds were significantly higher than that of the base metal ({approx}{minus}170{degrees}C). However, excellent impact properties, with DBTT < {minus}80{degrees}C and similar to those of the base metal, could be restored in both the laser and EB welds by postwelding annealing at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h in vacuum.

  7. Study of mechanism of activating flux increasing weld penetration of AC A-TIG welding for aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; FAN Ding; FAN Qinghua

    2007-01-01

    When multi-component flux AF305 is used as surface activating flux for an aluminum alloy, the weld penetration of activating flux-tungsten inert-gas (A-TIG)welding is over two times more than that of conventional TIG welding. Using A-TIG welding with the modes of alternating current (AC), direct current electrode negative (DCEN) and direct current electrode positive (DCEP), respectively, the flux differently affects weld penetration when the polarity is different. After studied the effect of compelled arc constriction on weld penetration of AC welding, it is believed that the constriction of the whole arc root is not the main mechanism that flux AF305 dramatically improves weld penetration. The penetration has a relationship with the separate distribution of slag on the weld surface. Then, an observation of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an electronic data systems (EDS) analysis of slag were performed respectively. The separate distribution of slag on the weld pool during welding and the great constriction of arc spots were confirmed by TIG welding with helium shielding gas. The relationship between slag distribution and weld penetration was studied by adding aluminum powder into flux AF305 to change the distribution of slag. During welding, the separate distribution of slag on the weld pool results in the great constriction of arc spots, an increase in arc spot force, and an increase in Lorentz force within the arc and weld pool. Finally, the weld penetration is increased.

  8. Effects of the laser beam superficial heat treatment on the gas Tungsten arc Ti-6al-4v welded metal microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, I.; Dontu, Octavian; Geanta, V.; Ganatsios, S.

    2008-03-01

    The microstructure of the weld and the extent to which it is different from the thermo-mechanically processed base material is strongly influenced by the thermal cycle of welding. The mechanical properties of composite weld structures in titanium alloys depend on structural characteristics of each region (weld, base material and heat affected area), influenced by the specific thermal cycle imposed during welding and the subsequent post-weld heat treatment. In order to improve the as-welded metal toughness and ductility, the welded metal was subjected to various post weld laser heat treatments, above and below beta transus temperature in a shielding atmosphere of pure argon. Standard micro-hardness measurements and tensile strength techniques showed higher mechanical properties of the heat treated samples in different conditions with respect to the base metal. Metallographic investigations attribute this to the formation of α'phases in heat treated material, especially in the weld metal.

  9. Measurement of Laser Weld Temperatures for 3D Model Input.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagel, Daryl; GROSSETETE, GRANT; Maccallum, Danny O.

    2016-10-01

    Laser welding is a key joining process used extensively in the manufacture and assembly of critical components for several weapons systems. Sandia National Laboratories advances the understanding of the laser welding process through coupled experimentation and modeling. This report summarizes the experimental portion of the research program, which focused on measuring temperatures and thermal history of laser welds on steel plates. To increase confidence in measurement accuracy, researchers utilized multiple complementary techniques to acquire temperatures during laser welding. This data serves as input to and validation of 3D laser welding models aimed at predicting microstructure and the formation of defects and their impact on weld-joint reliability, a crucial step in rapid prototyping of weapons components.

  10. Welded joints integrity analysis and optimization for fiber laser welding of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dissimilar materials welded joints provide many advantages in power, automotive, chemical, and spacecraft industries. The weld bead integrity which is determined by process parameters plays a significant role in the welding quality during the fiber laser welding (FLW) of dissimilar materials. In this paper, an optimization method by taking the integrity of the weld bead and weld area into consideration is proposed for FLW of dissimilar materials, the low carbon steel and stainless steel. The relationships between the weld bead integrity and process parameters are developed by the genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is taken for optimizing the predicted outputs from GA-BPNN for the objective. Through the optimization process, the desired weld bead with good integrity and minimum weld area are obtained and the corresponding microstructure and microhardness are excellent. The mechanical properties of the optimized joints are greatly improved compared with that of the un-optimized welded joints. Moreover, the effects of significant factors are analyzed based on the statistical approach and the laser power (LP) is identified as the most significant factor on the weld bead integrity and weld area. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective for improving the reliability and stability of welded joints in the practical production.

  11. Towards real time diagnostics of Hybrid Welding Laser/GMAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, T. R.; Kunerth, D. C.; Nichol, C. I. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3570 (United States); Todorov, E.; Levesque, S. [Edison Welding Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  12. Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads in laser butt welding is sought identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number of "reference" welds are made and compared to the sheets with shear cut edges. In the tests the gap...... were also x-ray photographed.Of the weld combinations analysed 80 % were of high quality and 17 % of a non-acceptable quality. 90 % of the bad welds had a gap distance larger than 0.05 mm. The results showed that 85 % of the bad welds were shear cut and only 15 % grinded. Two third of the bad welds...

  13. Towards Real Time Diagnostics of Hybrid Welding Laser/GMAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Mcjunkin; Dennis C. Kunerth; Corrie Nichol; Evgueni Todorov; Steve Levesque; Feng Yu; Robert Danna Couch

    2013-07-01

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  14. Closing the weld gap with laser/mig hybrid welding process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Wiwe, Bjarne David;

    2003-01-01

    In this article, laboratory tests are demonstrated that systematically accesses the critical gap distance when welding CMn 2.13 mm steel with a 2.6 kW CO2 laser, combined with a MIG energy source. In the work, the welding speed is varied at gap distances from 0 to 0.8 mm such that the limits...... for obtaining sound welds are identified. The welds are quality assessed according to ISO 13.919-1 and EN25817, transversal hardness measurements are made and the heat input to the workpiece is calculated. The results show that the critical gap is 0.1 mm for a laser weld alone. With hybrid welding, this can...... be increased to 0.6 mm, even at a welding speed of 3.5 m/min. The maximum welding speed with the hybrid process is comparable to laser welding alone, 4.5 m/min. The measured hardness is comparable to MIG welding, and this corresponds to a 33 percent reduction compared to laser welding alone. The heat input...

  15. Studies on corrosion protection of laser hybrid welded AISI 316 by laser remelting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Ambat, Rajan; Rasmussen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    laser surface melting on microstructure and corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L welds. Welding and laser treatment parameters were varied. General corrosion behaviour of the weld and laser treated surface was characterised using a gel visualization test. The local electrochemistry of the weld and laser...... treated surface was investigated using a novel micro electrochemical technique with a tip resolution of ~1 mm. Results show that hybrid laser welding of 316L has increased corrosion susceptibility probably as a result of grain boundary carbide formation. However a suitable post laser treatment could...

  16. Temporarily alloying titanium to facilitate friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovanski, Yuri [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2009-05-01

    While historically hydrogen has been considered an impurity in titanium, when used as a temporary alloying agent it promotes beneficial changes to material properties that increase the hot-workability of the metal. This technique known as thermohydrogen processing was used to temporarily alloy hydrogen with commercially pure titanium sheet as a means of facilitating the friction stir welding process. Specific alloying parameters were developed to increase the overall hydrogen content of the titanium sheet ranging from commercially pure to 30 atomic percent. Each sheet was evaluated to determine the effect of the hydrogen content on process loads and tool deformation during the plunge phase of the friction stir welding process. Two materials, H-13 tool steel and pure tungsten, were used to fabricate friction stir welding tools that were plunged into each of the thermohydrogen processed titanium sheets. Tool wear was characterized and variations in machine loads were quantified for each tool material and weld metal combination. Thermohydrogen processing was shown to beneficially lower plunge forces and stabilize machine torques at specific hydrogen concentrations. The resulting effects of hydrogen addition to titanium metal undergoing the friction stir welding process are compared with modifications in titanium properties documented in modern literature. Such comparative analysis is used to explain the variance in resulting process loads as a function of the initial hydrogen concentration of the titanium.

  17. Laser Welding of Large Scale Stainless Steel Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitemeyer, D.; Schultz, V.; Syassen, F.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    In this paper a welding process for large scale stainless steel structures is presented. The process was developed according to the requirements of an aircraft application. Therefore, stringers are welded on a skin sheet in a t-joint configuration. The 0.6 mm thickness parts are welded with a thin disc laser, seam length up to 1920 mm are demonstrated. The welding process causes angular distortions of the skin sheet which are compensated by a subsequent laser straightening process. Based on a model straightening process parameters matching the induced welding distortion are predicted. The process combination is successfully applied to stringer stiffened specimens.

  18. Effects of Friction Stir Welding Speed on AA2195 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Ho-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of friction stir welding (FSW to aerospace has grown rapidly due to the high efficiency and environmental friendly nature of the process. FSW is achieved by plastic flow of frictionally heated material in solid state and offers many advantages of avoiding hot cracking and limiting component distortion. Recently low density, high modulus and high strength AA2195 are used as substitute for conventional aluminum alloys since the weight saving is critical in aerospace applications. One of the problems for this alloy is weld metal porosity formation leading to hot cracking. Combination of FSW and AA2195 provides synergy effect to improve mechanical properties and weight saving of aerospace structure such as cryogenic fuel tanks for launch systems. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of friction stir welding speed on mechanical and microstructural properties of AA2195. The friction stir welded materials were joined with four different tool rotation speeds (350~800 rpm and five welding speeds (120~360 mm/min, which are the two prime welding parameters in this process.

  19. 脉冲激光焊接Hastelloy C-276合金的熔池流动传热特性分析%Analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in weld pool during pulsed laser welding Hastelloy C-276 alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴东江; 王占宏; 马广义; 杨义彬; 郭玉泉; 郭东明

    2012-01-01

    基于流体动力学方程和传热方程建立了三维瞬态模型,用于研究脉冲激光焊接0.5 mm厚Hastelloy薄板时熔池的流动行为及传热特性.应用Fluent软件,采用有限容积法(FVM)求解控制方程,用SIMPLE算法处理速度与压力的耦合.引入Pe来衡量焊接熔池中对流传热与传导传热的相对强弱,并以此分析焊接熔池的传热特性.结果表明:沿焊接方向,焊接熔池的流动速度随着离熔池中心距离的增加先增加后减小;在给定试验条件下,熔池流动速度在离熔池中心0.2 mm左右时出现最大值,且沿焊接方向前方稍大于后方,而后迅速减小为零;焊接熔池中对流的存在使得焊接熔池熔深较小而熔宽较大;最终的焊接形貌由对流传热与传导传热相互作用而成.对焊缝形貌的数值模拟结果与实验结果进行了比较,计算结果与实验结果吻合较好.此模型可为脉冲激光焊接Hastelloy C-276薄板时熔池流体流动行为的分析提供理论依据.%A 3D transient model was established based on the theories of fluid dynamics and heat transfer to analyze the fluid flow and the heat transfer characteristics in the liquid pool when a pulse laser was used to weld the Hastelloy C-276 alloy. On the basis of software Fluent, the Finite Volume Method (FVM) was employed to solve the control equations and the algorithm of SIMPLE was adopted to deal with the coupling of velocity and pressure. The Pe number was induced to evaluate the relative importance of convection and conduction then to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of welding pool. The research indicates that fluid flow velocities along the welding direction in the liquid pool increase with the increasing of the distance from the melting pool center, and then decrease. Under the given conditions, the maximum flow velocity is firstly found at the 0. 2 mm from the melting pool center, then it reduces to zero rapidly and velocities in front of the

  20. Microhardness Testing of Aluminum Alloy Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohanon, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    A weld is made when two pieces of metal are united or fused together using heat or pressure, and sometimes both. There are several different types of welds, each having their own unique properties and microstructure. Strength is a property normally used in deciding which kind of weld is suitable for a certain metal or joint. Depending on the weld process used and the heat required for that process, the weld and the heat-affected zone undergo microstructural changes resulting in stronger or weaker areas. The heat-affected zone (HAZ) is the region that has experienced enough heat to cause solid-state microstructural changes, but not enough to melt the material. This area is located between the parent material and the weld, with the grain structure growing as it progresses respectively. The optimal weld would have a short HAZ and a small fluctuation in strength from parent metal to weld. To determine the strength of the weld and decide whether it is suitable for the specific joint certain properties are looked at, among these are ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% offset yield strength and hardness. Ultimate tensile strength gives the maximum load the metal can stand while the offset yield strength gives the amount of stress the metal can take before it is 0.2% longer than it was originally. Both of these are good tests, but they both require breaking or deforming the sample in some way. Hardness testing, however, provides an objective evaluation of weld strengths, and also the difference or variation in strength across the weld and HAZ which is difficult to do with tensile testing. Hardness is the resistance to permanent or plastic deformation and can be taken at any desired point on the specimen. With hardness testing, it is possible to test from parent metal to weld and see the difference in strength as you progress from parent material to weld. Hardness around grain boundaries and flaws in the material will show how these affect the strength of the metal while still

  1. Three thermal analysis models for laser, GMAW-P and Iaser+GMAW-P hybrid welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guoxiang; WU Chuansong; QIN Guoliang; WANG Xuyou; LIN Shangyang

    2009-01-01

    The temperature fields and the weld pool geometries for laser + GMA W-P hybrid welding, laser welding and pulsed gas metal arc welding (GMAW-P) are numerically simulated in quasi-steady state by using the developed heat source models, respectively. The calculated weld cross-sections of the three types of welding processes agree well with their respective measured results. Through comparison, it is found that the temperature distribution of laser+ GMAW-P hybrid welding possesses the advantages of those in both laser and GMA W-P welding processes so that the improvement of welding productivity and weld quality are ensured.

  2. Initial Development in Joining of ODS Alloys Using Friction Stir Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Solid-state welding of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloy MA956 sheets using friction stir welding (FSW) was investigated. Butt weld was successfully produced. The weld and base metals were characterized using optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, and energy dispersion x-ray spectrum. Microhardness mapping was also conducted over the weld region. Analyses indicate that the distribution of the strengthening oxides was preserved in the weld. Decrease in microhardness of the weld was observed but was insignificant. The preliminary results seem to confirm the envisioned feasibility of FSW application to ODS alloy joining. For application to Gen IV nuclear reactor heat exchanger, further investigation is suggested.

  3. Wear resistance of laser cladding and plasma spray welding layer on stainless steel surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinlin Wang(王新林); Shihong Shi(石世宏); Qiguang Zheng(郑启光)

    2004-01-01

    The effect of coatings, which are formed with laser cladding and plasma spray welding on 1Cr18Ni9Ti base metal, on wear resistance is studied, A 5-kW transverse flowing CO2 laser is used for cladding Co base alloy powder pre-placed on the substrate. Comparing with the plasma spray coatings, the spoiled rate of products with laser clad layers was lower and the rate of finished products was higher. Their microstructure is extremely fine. They have close texture and small size grain. Their dilution resulting from the compositions of the base metal and thermal effect on base metal are less. The hardness, toughness,and strength of the laser cladding layers are higher. Wear tests show that the laser layers have higher properties of anti-friction, anti-scour and high-temperature sliding strike. The wear resistance of laser clad layers are about one time higher than that of plasma spray welding layer.

  4. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior ofthe Laser Continuous Heat Treatment Welded Joints of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Heping; JIN Xuejun

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical corrosion behaviors of the welded joints of 2205 duplex stainless steel with the laser continuous heat treatment were investigated.The secondary austenite formation is the outcome of thermodynamic equilibrium breach of the alloy during heat treatment and the result of the continuous heat treatment which has the most important effect on the weld material.The partitioning behaviors of chromium and molybdenum as well as the volume fraction of ferrite and austenite have a remarkable influence on the composition of the individual phase.Mechanical examination of the laser trated weld demonstrates that the tensile strength and yield strength increase with increasing the amount of the secondary austenite.It is shown that the ultimate tensile strength of the 6 kW laser-treated weld is higher about 20 MPa than no heat treatment weld and the ductility can be further improved without compromising strength.The results indicate that the welding alters the corrosion behavior because of different post heat treatment power and the broad active peak is not identified which is attributed to the dissolution of the secondary austenitic in the ferrite phase.It is indicated that pitting resistance equivalent (PRE) values of base metal and 6 kW weld are higher than that of other welds; base metal is 33.7,6 kW weld 33.3,no treatment 32.4,4 kW weld 32.8,8 kW weld 32.5.The extent of corrosion resistance improvement after reheating treatment is mainly caused by the removal of nitrogen from ferritic regions,which occurred as a consequence of secondary austenite growth.

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFECTS IN ALLOY 152, 52 AND 52M WELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Seffens, Rob J.; Efsing, Pal G.

    2009-08-27

    Defect distributions have been documented by optical metallography, scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction in alloy 152 and 52 mockups welds, alloy 52 and 52M overlay mockups and an alloy 52M inlay. Primary defects were small cracks at grain boundaries except for more extensive cracking in the dilution zone of an alloy 52 overlay on 304SS. Detailed characterizations of the dilution zone cracks were performed by analytical transmission electron microscopy identifying grain boundary titanium-nitride precipitation associated with the intergranular separations. I. INTRODUCTION Weldments continue to be a primary location of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in light-water reactor systems. While problems related to heat-affected-zone (HAZ) sensitization and intergranular (IG) SCC of austenitic stainless alloys in boiling-water reactors (BWRs) have been significantly reduced, SCC has now been observed in HAZs of non-sensitized materials and in dissimilar metal welds where Ni-base alloy weld metals are used. IGSCC in weld metals has been observed in both BWRs and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) with recent examples for PWR pressure vessel penetrations producing the most concern. This has led to the replacement of alloy 600/182/82 welds with higher Cr, more corrosion-resistant replacement materials (alloy 690/152/52/52M). Complicating this issue has been a known susceptibility to cracking during welding [1-7] of these weld metals. There is a critical need for an improved understanding of the weld metal metallurgy and defect formation in Ni-base alloy welds to effectively assess long-term performance. A series of macroscopic to microscopic examinations were performed on available mockup welds made with alloy 52 or alloy 152 plus selected overlay and inlay mockups. The intent was to expand our understanding of weld metal structures in simulated LWR service components with a focus on as-welded defects. Microstructural features, defect distributions

  6. Pre-Industry-Optimisation of the Laser Welding Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui

    This dissertation documents the investigations into on-line monitoring the CO2 laser welding process and optimising the process parameters for achieving high quality welds. The requirements for realisation of an on-line control system are, first of all, a clear understanding of the dynamic...... from on-line monitored photo diode signals, has proved to be capable of optimising the focal point position automatically with good accuracy in CW CO2 laser welding....... phenomena of the laser welding process including the behaviour of the keyhole and plume, and the correlation between the adjustable process parameters: laser power, welding speed, focal point position, gas parameters etc. and the characteristics describing the quality of the weld: seam depth and width...

  7. Research on CMT welding of nickel-based alloy with stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cold Metal Transfer (CMT) welding technique is a new welding technique introduced by Fronius company. CMT welding of nickel-based alloy with stainless steel was carried out using CuSi3 filler wire in this paper. Effects of welding parameters, including welding current, welding speed, etc, on weld surface appearance were tested. Microstructure and mechanical properties of CMT weld were studied. The results show that the thickness of interface reaction layer of the nickel-based alloy is 14.3μm, which is only 4.33% of base material. The weld is made up of two phases,α-copper and iron-based solid solution. Rupture occurs initially at the welded seam near the edge of stainless steel in shear test. The maximum shear strength of the CuSi3 welded joint is 184.9MPa.

  8. Temperature field simulation of laser-TIG hybrid welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈彦宾; 李俐群; 方俊飞; 封小松; 吴林

    2003-01-01

    The three-dimensional transient temperature distribution of laser-TIG hybrid welding was analyzed and simulated numerically. Calculations were based on a finite element model, in which the physical process of hybrid welding was studied and the coupling effect of the laser and arc in the hybrid process was fully considered. The temperature fields and weld cross-sections of the typical welding parameters are obtained using present model. The calculation results show that the model can indicate the relationship of energy match between laser and arc to joints cross-sections objectively, and the simulation results are well agreed with the experimental results.

  9. Studies on the effect of vibration on hot cracking and Grain size in AA7075 Aluminum alloy Welding

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this present study is to investigate the vibration effect which is applied during Gas tungsten Arc welding (GTAW) welding in order to improve the quality of high strength Aluminum alloy weldment. An important metallurgical difficulty in arc welding of high strength aluminum alloys is formation of hot cracking. When Aluminum alloy is welded by GTAW process, weld fusion zone shows coarse columnar grains during weld metal solidification. This often leads to poor resistance to hot crac...

  10. Mechanical behavior study of laser welded joints for DP steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qi

    2008-03-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are gaining considerable market shares in the automotive industry. The development and application of Dual Phase (DP) steel is just a consistent step towards high-strength steel grades with improved mechanical behavior. Tailor welded blanks with DP steel are promoted in the application of Body-In-White (BIW) structure by the automotive industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that are laser welded together before stamping. Applied cases of tailor welded blanks of high strength steels on the automotive structural parts are investigated in this paper. The mechanical behavior of laser welded joints for DP steel is studied. Microstructure of laser welded joints for DP steel was observed by SEM. Martensite in the weld seam explains the higher strength of welded joints than the base metal. Results show that the strain safety tolerance of laser welded seam for high strength steel can meet the requirement of automobile parts for stamping if the location of laser welded seam is designed reasonably.

  11. Simulation of time-dependent pool shape during laser spot welding: Transient effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlen, Georg; Ludwig, Andreas; Sahm, Peter R.

    2003-12-01

    The shape and depth of the area molten during a welding process is of immense technical importance. This study investigates how the melt pool shape during laser welding is influenced by Marangoni convection and tries to establish general qualitative rules of melt pool dynamics. A parameter study shows how different welding powers lead to extremely different pool shapes. Special attention is paid to transient effects that occur during the melting process as well as after switching off the laser source. It is shown that the final pool shape can depend strongly on the welding duration. The authors use an axisymmetric two-dimensional (2-D) control-volume-method (CVM) code based on the volume-averaged two-phase model of alloy solidification by Ni and Beckermann[1] and the SIMPLER algorithm by Patankar.[2] They calculate the transient distribution of temperatures, phase fractions, flow velocities, pressures, and concentrations of alloying elements in the melt and two solid phases (peritectic solidification) for a stationary laser welding process. Marangoni flow is described using a semiempirical model for the temperature-dependent surface tension gradient. The software was parallelized using the shared memory standard OpenMP.

  12. Electrochemical Testing of Gas Tungsten ARC Welded and Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welded Alloy 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Daniel Day; Frank M.G. Wong; Steven R. Gordon; Lana L. Wong; Raul B. Rebak

    2006-05-08

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is the material selected for the fabrication of the outer shell of the nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository site. A key technical issue in the waste package program has been the integrity of the container weld joints. The currently selected welding process for fabricating and sealing the containers is the traditional gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or TIC method. An appealing faster alternative technique is reduced pressure electron beam (RPEB) welding. It was of interest to compare the corrosion properties of specimens prepared using both types of welding techniques. Standard electrochemical tests were carried on GTAW and RPEB welds as well as on base metal (non-welded) to determine their relative corrosion behavior in simulated concentrated water (SCW) at 90 C (alkaline), 1 M HCI at 60 C (acidic) and 1 M NaCl at 90 C (neutral) solutions. Results show that for all practical purposes, the three tested materials had the same electrochemical behavior in the three tested electrolytes.

  13. Inspection of thick welded joints using laser-ultrasonic SAFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, D; Asaumi, Y; Lord, M; Bescond, C; Hatanaka, H; Tagami, M; Monchalin, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The detection of defects in thick butt joints in the early phase of multi-pass arc welding would be very valuable to reduce cost and time in the necessity of reworking. As a non-contact method, the laser-ultrasonic technique (LUT) has the potential for the automated inspection of welds, ultimately online during manufacturing. In this study, testing has been carried out using LUT combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) on 25 and 50mm thick butt welded joints of steel both completed and partially welded. EDM slits of 2 or 3mm height were inserted at different depths in the multi-pass welding process to simulate a lack of fusion. Line scans transverse to the weld are performed with the generation and detection laser spots superimposed directly on the surface of the weld bead. A CCD line camera is used to simultaneously acquire the surface profile for correction in the SAFT processing. All artificial defects but also real defects are visualized in the investigated thick butt weld specimens, either completed or partially welded after a given number of passes. The results obtained clearly show the potential of using the LUT with SAFT for the automated inspection of arc welds or hybrid laser-arc welds during manufacturing.

  14. Friction Stir Welding of a Thick Al-Zn-Mg Alloy Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchibabu, V.; Reddy, G. M.; Kulkarni, D.; De, A.

    2016-03-01

    Al-Zn-Mg alloys are widely used as structural materials due to high strength-to-weight ratio and impact toughness. As fusion welds in these alloys commonly face hot cracking and macro porosity, friction stir welding is increasingly becoming the preferred recourse. We report here a detailed experimental study on friction stir welding of a specific Al-Zn-Mg alloy with its chemical compositions close to AA7039. The effect of tool rotational speed and welding speed on the weld profile, joint microstructure, and mechanical properties is studied extensively. The results show sound weld profiles and joint properties within the selected range of process conditions. Within the selected range of welding conditions, the welds made at a tool rotational speed of 350 rpm and welding speed of 3 mm/s have showed joint structure, tensile, and impact toughness properties fairly close to that of the base material.

  15. Butt-welding Residual Stress of Heat Treatable Aluminum Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.M. Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This study, taking three types of aluminum alloys 2024-T351, 6061-T6 and 7075-T6 as experimental materials, conducted single V-groove GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) butt-welding to analyze and compare the magnitude and differences of residual stress in the three aluminum alloys at different single V-groove angles and in restrained or unrestrained conditions. The results show that the larger the grooving angle of butt joint, the higher the residual tensile stress. Too small grooving angle will lead to dramatic differences due to the amount of welding bead filler metal and pre-set joint geometry. Therefore, only an appropriate grooving angle can reduce residual stress. While welding, weldment in restrained condition will lead to a larger residual stress. Also, a residual stress will arise from the restraint position. The ultimate residual stress of weldment is determined by material yield strength at equilibrium temperature. The higher the yield strength at equilibrium temperature, the higher the material residual stress. Because of its larger thermal conductivity, aluminum alloy test specimens have small temperature differential. Therefore, the residual tensile stress of all materials is lower than their yield strength.

  16. Friction Stir Welding of Al 5052 with Al 6061 Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Kumbhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW, a solid-state joining technique, is being extensively used in similar as well as dissimilar joining of Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, and their alloys. In the present study, friction stir welding of two aluminium alloys—AA6061 and AA5052—was carried out at various combinations of tool rotation speeds and tool traverse speeds. The transverse cross-section of the weld was used for optical as well as electron microscopy observations. The microstructural studies were used to get an indication of the extent of material mixing both at the macro- and microscales. It was observed that, at the interface region, both materials exhibited similar texture despite the nonrigorous mixing of the materials in the nugget. The extent of interdiffusion of alloying elements at the interface was studied using electron probe microanalysis. The tensile testing evaluation of these specimens showed good mechanical properties. The interdiffusion of alloying elements and development of similar orientations in the nugget could have contributed to the better tensile properties of the friction-stir-welded AA5052-AA6061 specimens.

  17. Induction heat treatment of laser welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove; Sørensen, Joakim Ilsing

    2003-01-01

    750º to 450º C. Initially, a simple analytical model was used to calculate the ideal energy contributions from a CO2 high power laser source together with an induction heat source such that the temperature can be kept at 600º C for 2.5 seconds. This knowledge was then used for the design......In this paper, a new approach based on induction heat-treatment of flat laser welded sheets is presented. With this new concept, the ductility of high strength steels GA260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm and CMn with a thickness of 2.13 mm is believed to be improved by prolonging the cooling time from...... of an induction coil. A number of systematic laboratory tests were then performed in order to study the effects of the coil on bead-on-plate laser welded samples. In these tests, important parameters such as coil current and distance between coil and sample were varied. Temperature measurements were made...

  18. Dynamic cooling during laser skin welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    Cryogen spray cooling of the tissue surface was investigated for laser welding applications. Benefits include reduced thermal damage to the papillary dermis and reduced operation time. Two-cm-long, full-thickness incisions were made on the backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was used as an absorber and clamps were used to appose the incision edges. Continuous-wave, 1.06-μm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing ~100 ms pulses. A 4-mm-diameter laser spot was used with a constant power of 16 W. The total operation time was 60 or 120 s. Cryogen was delivered in spurt durations of 20, 60, or 100 ms, with 2 or 4 s between spurts. The working distance was approximately 12 cm, and the spray covered an area of about 5.0 x 5.0 cm. Control welds were irradiated for 20, 40, or 60 s. Total operation times were reduced from 10 min without dynamic cooling to 1 min with dynamic cooling. Optimal tensile strength was 1.7 +/- 0.7 kg/cm2, comparible to stengths of 2.1 +/- 0.7 kg/cm2 reported in previous studies without cryogen cooling (p>0.25). Thermal damage in the papillary dermis measured 320 +/- 80 μm.

  19. New development in welding thin-shell aluminum alloy structures with high strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文立; 范成磊; 方洪渊; 田锡唐

    2004-01-01

    From the viewpoint of welding mechanics, two new welding methods-welding with trailing peening and welding with trailing impactive rolling were introduced. For aluminum alloy thin-shell structures with high strength, welding will lead to hot cracking, poor joint and distortion. In order to solve them, trailing impactive device was used behind welding torch to impact the different positions of welded joints, thus realizing the welding with free-hot cracking, low distortion and joint strengthening. By use of impactive rolling wheels instead of peening heads, the outlook of welded specimen can be improved and stress concentration at weld toes can be reduced. Equipment of this technology is simple and portable. It can used to weld sheets, longitudinal and ring-like beams of tube-like structures, as well as the thin-shell structures with closed welds such as flanges and hatches. So the technology has the wide application foreground in the fields of aviation and aerospace.

  20. Friction stir welding of 5052 aluminum alloy plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Jai KWON; Seong-Beom SHIM; Dong-Hwan PARK

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding between 5052 aluminum alloy plates with a thickness of 2 mm was performed. The tool for welding was rotated at speeds ranging from 500 to 3 000 r/min under a constant traverse speed of 100 mm/min. The results show that at all tool rotation speeds, defect-free welds are successfully obtained. Especially at 1 000, 2 000 and 3 000 r/min, the welds exhibit very smooth surface morphologies. At 500, 1 000, and 2 000 r/min, onion ring structure is clearly observed in the friction-stir-welded zone (SZ). In addition, the onion ring structure region becomes wider as the tool rotation speed is increased. The gain size in the SZ is smaller than that in the base metal, and is decreased with a decrease of the tool rotation speed. In all tool rotation speeds, the SZ exhibits higher average hardness than the base metal. Especially at 500 r/min, the average hardness of the SZ reaches a level about 33% greater than that of the base metal. At 500, 1 000 and 2 000 r/min, the tensile strength of the friction stir welded (FSWed) plates is similar to that of the base metal (about 204 Mpa). The elongation of the FSWed plates is lower than that of the base metal (about 22%). However, it is noticeable that the maximum elongation of about 21% is obtained at 1 000 r/min.

  1. Formability Analysis of Diode-Laser-Welded Tailored Blanks of Advanced High-Strength Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S. K.; Baltazar Hernandez, V. H.; Kuntz, M. L.; Zhou, Y.

    2009-08-01

    Currently, advances due to tailored blanking can be enhanced by the development of new grades of advanced high-strength steels (HSSs), for the further weight reduction and structural improvement of automotive components. In the present work, diode laser welds of three different grades of advanced high-strength dual-phase (DP) steel sheets (with tensile strengths of 980, 800, and 450 MPa) to high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) material were fabricated by applying the proper welding parameters. Formability in terms of Hecker’s limiting dome height (LDH), the strain distribution on the hemispherical dome surface, the weld line movement during deformation, and the load-bearing capacity during the stretch forming of these different laser-welded blanks were compared. Finite element (FE) analysis of the LDH tests of both the parent metals and laser-welded blanks was done using the commercially available software package LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corporation, Livermore, CA); the results compared well with the experimental data. It was also found that the LDH was not affected by the soft zone or weld zone properties; it decreased, however, with an increase in a nondimensional parameter, the “strength ratio” (SR). The weld line movement during stretch forming is an indication of nonuniform deformation resulting in a decrease in the LDH. In all the dissimilar weldments, fracture took place on the HSLA side, but the fracture location shifted to near the weld line (at the pole) in tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) of a higher strength ratio.

  2. Laser Welding of Sub-assemblies before Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mads; Olsen, Flemmming Ove; Pecas, Paulo

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes some experimental investigations of the formability of CO2-laser-welded 0.75 mm and 1.25 mm low carbon steel. There will be a description of how the laser welded blanks behave in different forming tests, and the influene of misalignment and undercut on the formability....... The quality is evalutated by measuring the imit strain and the limit effective strain for the laser welded sheets and the base material. These strains will be presented in a forming limit diagram (FLD). Finally the formability of the laser sheets is compared to that of the base materials....

  3. Influence of Friction Stir Welding on Corrosion Properties of Aw-7020M Alloy in Sea Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudzik K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW, provides an alternative to MIG and TIG welding methods for joining aluminium alloys. The article presents the results of electrochemical corrosion resistance test of alloy AW- 7020M and its joints welded by FSW. The study was performed using the method of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Impedance spectroscopy studies showed that both, the FSW welded joint and base material AW-7020M has a good resistance to electrochemical corrosion in sea water environment, wherein the welded joint has a higher susceptibility to this type of corrosion. Research has indicated the desirability of applying the FSW method for joining AW-7020M alloy in shipbuilding industry.

  4. Effect of process parameters on porosity formation ratio in dual-beam laser welding of aluminum alloys with filler wire%双光束激光填丝焊工艺对铝合金焊接气孔率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷正龙; 李颖; 陈彦宾; 孙忠绍; 张益坤

    2013-01-01

    以LF6铝合金为材料,CO2激光为热源,开展了双光束激光填丝焊气孔特性分析.与单光束激光填丝焊及双光束自熔焊相比,双光束激光填丝焊能够抑制气孔的产生,尤其是并行双光束激光焊抑制气孔效果更明显.在此基础上进一步分析了保护气体成分和激光能量对焊接气孔率的影响.结果表明,采用氦气保护时,等离子体对激光的屏蔽作用小,能够稳定焊接过程;激光功率过大或者过小都会导致匙孔的不稳定,造成焊缝气孔率增加.%The characterizations of porosity in dual-beam laser welding with filler wire of LF6 aluminum alloys were studied. Compared with the single beam laser welding with filler wire and the dual-beam laser self-fusible welding, the dual-beam laser welding with filler wire can restrain the porosity formation. Especially , the dual-beam laser welding with parallel arrangement has a better effect on inhibition of porosity. Furthermore, the effects of shielding gas component and laser energy on porosity formation ratio were analyzed. The results show that, when the helium is used as the shielding gas, the area of plasma decreases as well as the shielding effect of the plasma on laser deceases, and the welding process become more stable. At the same time, the laser power must be proper, and both too high and too low laser power make the porosity formation ratio enlarged.

  5. Nanosecond pulsed laser welding of high carbon steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Alessandro; Fortunato, Alessandro

    2014-03-01

    The present paper deals with the possibility to exploit low-cost, near infra-red, nanosecond pulsed laser sources in welding of high carbon content thin sheets. The exploitation of these very common sources allows to achieve sound weld beads with a good depth-to-width ratio and very small heat affected zones when the proper process parameters are involved. In particular the role of pulse frequency, pulse duration, peak power and welding speed on the characteristics of the weld beads is studied and the advantage of the application of short-pulse laser sources over traditional long-pulse or continuous wave one is assessed.

  6. Effect of welding speed on the material flow patterns in friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua; Wu Huiqiang; Huang Jihua; LIN Sanbao; WU Lin

    2007-01-01

    The clear zigzag-line pattern on transverse cross sections can be used to explain the formation mechanism of the weld nugget when friction stir welded AZ31 magnesium alloy without any other insert material is used as mark. It provides a simple and useful method to research the joining mechanism of friction stir welding. The rotation speed is kept at 1000 r/min and the welding speed changes from 120 mm/min to 600 mm/min. The macrostructure on the transverse cross section was divided into several parts by faying surface. The results show that the shape and formation procedure of the weld nugget change with the welding speed. There are two main material flows in the weld nugget: one is from the advancing side and the other is from the retreating side. A simple model on the weld nugget formation of FSW is presented in this article.

  7. Effect of Post-Weld Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welds of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Murali Krishna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW of AA2024-T6 to AA6351-T6. FSW is getting widened to be used to join the aluminum alloys. PWHT of AA2024 and AA6351 aluminum alloys are not reported so far even though these alloys are widely used in aerospace and automobile industries. A post weld solution treatment and subsequent ageing resulted in improvement in mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength.

  8. Friction Welding of Aluminium and Aluminium Alloys with Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Ambroziak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents our actual knowledge and experience in joining dissimilar materials with the use of friction welding method. The joints of aluminium and aluminium alloys with the different types of steel were studied. The structural effects occurring during the welding process were described. The mechanical properties using, for example, (i microhardness measurements, (ii tensile tests, (iii bending tests, and (iv shearing tests were determined. In order to obtain high-quality joints the influence of different configurations of the process such as (i changing the geometry of bonding surface, (ii using the interlayer, or (iii heat treatment was analyzed. Finally, the issues related to the selection of optimal parameters of friction welding process were also investigated.

  9. Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds Calculated Using Multiple Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6390--15-9665 Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds...NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Temperature Histories of Structural Steel Laser and Hybrid Laser-GMA Welds Calculated Using Multiple...202) 767-2601 Inverse thermal analyses of structural steel deep-penetration welds are presented. These analyses employ a methodology that is in terms of

  10. Research status and development tendency of welding technology of AZ31B magnesium alloy%AZ31B镁合金焊接技术研究现状及发展方向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奋军; 王憨鹰

    2013-01-01

    Welding characteristics of magnesium alloy are analyzed,and welding processes of AZ31B magnesium alloy are introduced,including laser welding,brazing,diffusion welding,friction stir welding,TIG,electron beam welding and so on. The future directions of welding technology of AZ31B magnesium alloy are pointed out.%分析镁合金的焊接特点,综述了近年来AZ31B镁合金的焊接方法,包括激光焊、钎焊、扩散焊、搅拌摩擦焊、TIG焊、电子束焊等,展望了AZ31B镁合金的焊接研究方向。

  11. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    OpenAIRE

    Mahrle, A; SCHNICK, M; Rose, S; Demuth, C; Beyer, E.; Füssel, U

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) have been performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In case of aluminium weldin...

  12. Eco-efficiency of laser welding applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaierle, Stefan; Dahmen, Martin; Güdükkurt, Okan

    2011-05-01

    As widely known laser materials processing has some advantages regarding local heat input and controllability. In many fields applications were developed which are not accessible for conventional thermal processing. In other fields laser-supported manufacturing techniques are a valuable alternative. On the one hand laser techniques enable increased processing speed and less post-processing, leading to an increased productivity. On the other hand low efficiencies in the energy conversion seem to be a major drawback and apparently limit the range of applications. In the frame of conventional processing schemes laser beam welding requires a high utilization in order to run economically. Main advantages lie in the reduced consumption of material and the reduced efforts in post processing. Because of the locally concentrated heat input process emissions are lower which reduces energy and material consumption in the auxiliary chain. To make full use of the often-conjured flexibility a multitude of manufacturing schemes had been developed and adapted. In order to appraise the versatility of laser driven processing techniques a cost and benefit analysis based on a life-cycle approach is conducted including both, economics and ecology. Eco-efficiency is rated by a variation of the BASF method. Taking into account the reduced consumption of consumables, reduced effort for preparation and post-processing, and focusing on specific application ranges a positive environmental impact can be proven.

  13. Inertia Friction Welding Dissimilar Nickel-Based Superalloys Alloy 720Li to IN718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z. W.; Li, H. Y.; Preuss, M.; Karadge, M.; Bowen, P.; Bray, S.; Baxter, G.

    2007-07-01

    This article describes a comprehensive microstructural characterization of an inertia friction welded joint between nickel-based superalloys 720Li and IN718. The investigation has been carried out on both as-welded and postweld heat-treated conditions. The detailed metallographic analysis has enabled the relation of hardness profiles across inertia-welded alloy 720Li to IN718 and morphological changes of the precipitates present. The work demonstrates that inertia friction welding (IFW) 720Li to IN718 results in a weld free of micropores and microcracks and no significant chemical migration across the weld line. However, substantial differences in terms of grain structure and precipitation phase distribution variations are observed on each side of the dissimilar weld. The high γ‧ volume fraction alloy 720Li exhibits a wider heat-affected zone than the mainly γ‧‧ strengthened IN718. Alloy 720Li displays only a small hardness trough near the weld line in the as-welded condition due to the depletion of γ‧, while γ″-strengthened IN718 shows a soft precipitation-free weld region. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) of the dissimilar weld at 760 °C, a typical annealing temperature for alloy 720Li, results in an overmatch of the heat-affected zone in both sides of the weld. The comparison of the as-welded and postweld heat-treated condition also reveals that IN718 is in an overaged condition after the stress relief treatment.

  14. B218 Weld Filler Wire Characterization for Al-Li Alloy 2195

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Russell, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Lockheed Martin Space Systems- Michoud Operations, and McCook Metals have developed an aluminum-copper weld filler wire for fusion welding aluminum lithium alloy 2195. The aluminum-copper based weld filler wire has been identified as B218, a McCook Metals designation. B218 is the result of six years of weld filler wire development funded by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and McCook Metals. The filler wire chemistry was developed to produce enhanced 2195 weld and repair weld mechanical properties over the 4043 aluminum-silicon weld filler wire, which is currently used to weld 2195 on the Super Lightweight External Tank for the NASA Space Shuttle Program. An initial characterization was performed consisting of a repair weld evaluation using B218 and 4043 weld filler wires. The testing involved room temperature and cryogenic repair weld tensile testing along with fracture toughness testing. From the testing, B218 weld filler wire produce enhanced repair weld tensile strength, ductility, and fracture properties over 4043. B218 weld filler wire has proved to be a superior weld filler wire for welding aluminum lithium alloy 2195 over 4043.

  15. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties of friction stir welded AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabari, S. Sree; Balasubramanian, V.; Malarvizhi, S.; Reddy, G. Madusudhan

    2015-12-01

    AA 2519-T87 is an aluminium alloy that principally contains Cu as an alloying element and is a new grade of Al-Cu alloy system. This material is a potential candidate for light combat military vehicles. Fusion welding of this alloy leads to hot cracking, porosity and alloy segregation in the weld metal region. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process which can overcome the above mentioned problems. However, the FSW of age hardenable aluminium alloys results in poor tensile properties in the as-welded condition (AW). Hence, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is used to enhance deteriorated tensile properties of FSW joints. In this work, the effect of PWHT, namely artificial ageing (AA) and solution treatment (ST) followed by ageing (STA) on the microstructure, tensile properties and microhardness were systematically investigated. The microstructural features of the weld joints were characterised using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tensile strength and microhardness of the joints were correlated with the grain size, precipitate size, shape and its distribution. From the investigation, it was found that STA treatment is beneficial in enhancing the tensile strength of the FSW joints of AA2519-T87 alloy and this is mainly due to the presence of fine and densely distributed precipitates in the stir zone.

  16. Laser Beam Oscillation Strategies for Fillet Welds in Lap Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexander; Goecke, Sven-F.; Sievi, Pravin; Albert, Florian; Rethmeier, Michael

    Laser beam oscillation opens up new possibilities of influencing the welding process in terms of compensation of tolerances and reduction of process emissions that occur in industrial applications, such as in body-in-white manufacturing. The approaches are to adapt the melt pool width in order to generate sufficient melt volume or to influence melt pool dynamics, e.g. for a better degassing. Welding results are highly dependent on the natural frequency of the melt pool, the used spot diameter and the oscillation speed of the laser beam. The conducted investigations with an oscillated 300 μm laser spot show that oscillation strategies, which are adjusted to the joining situation improve welding result for zero-gap welding as well as for bridging gaps to approximately 0.8 mm. However, a complex set of parameters has to be considered in order to generate proper welding results. This work puts emphasize on introducing them.

  17. Thermal and molecular investigation of laser tissue welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, W., IV

    1998-06-01

    Despite the growing number of successful animal and human trials, the exact mechanisms of laser tissue welding remain unknown. Furthermore, the effects of laser heating on tissue on the molecular scale are not fully understood. To address these issues, a multi-front attack oil both extrinsic (solder/patch mediated) and intrinsic (laser only) tissue welding was launched using two-color infrared thermometry, computer modeling, weld strength assessment, biochemical assays, and vibrational spectroscopy. The coupling of experimentally measured surface temperatures with the predictive numerical simulations provided insight into the sub-surface dynamics of the laser tissue welding process. Quantification of the acute strength of the welds following the welding procedure enabled comparison among trials during an experiment, with previous experiments, and with other studies in the literature. The acute weld integrity also provided an indication of tile probability of long-term success. Molecular effects induced In the tissue by laser irradiation were investigated by measuring tile concentrations of specific collagen covalent crosslinks and characterizing the Fourier-Transform infrared (FTIR) spectra before and after the laser exposure.

  18. Modelación del perfil de soldadura y de la cavidad de vapor en la aleación de aluminio 5182 soldada con láser. // Welding profile and steam cavity modelation in aluminum 5182 alloy welded with laser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pastor

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo incursiona en el desarrollo de modelos para predecir la forma de la cavidad de vapor y el perfil de laaleación de aluminio 5182 con soldadura láser, para lo cual ha sido empleado el paquete profesional de elementos finitosCOSMOS/M. La modelación de la soldadura ha sido realizada considerando como variable el grado de desenfoque del hazde láser, considerando el flujo de calor según un modelo Gaussiano, con un coeficiente de absorción de 0.24 para lacondición de haz enfocado y 0.16 para las condiciones de desenfoque negativo y positivo. La validez de los resultadosobtenidos se comprobó mediante los resultados obtenidos en pruebas experimentales.Palabras claves: Aleaciones de aluminio, láser de Nd:YAG._______________________________________________________________________AbstractThe purpose of this research is the study of laser welding process for the 5182 aluminum alloys and the development ofmodels by means of the COSMOS/M package, in order to predict the shape of the steam cavity and the weldingtemperatures profile. Modeling has been done considering the degree of defocusing. The heat flow applied on the modelswas a Gauss flow, with a coefficient of absorption of 0.24 for the condition of the focused face and 0.16 for the conditionsof negative and positive defocusing. The validity of the models has been demonstrated comparing their results with thoseobtained by experimental tests.Key words: Aluminum alloys, Nd: YAG laser.

  19. Heat input effect of friction stir welding on aluminium alloy AA 6061-T6 welded joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the heat input and maximum temperature developed during friction stir welding with different parameters. Aluminium alloy (AA 6061-T6 has been used for experimental and numerical analysis. Experimental analysis is based on temperature measurements by using infrared camera, whereas numerical analysis was based on empirical expressions and finite element method. Different types of defects have been observed in respect to different levels of heat input.

  20. Laser power coupling efficiency in conduction and keyhole welding of austenitic stainless steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Nath; R Sridhar; P Ganesh; R Kaul

    2002-06-01

    Laser welding of thin sheets of AISI 304 stainless steel was carried out with high power CW CO2 laser. The laser power utilized in the welding process was estimated using the experimental results and the dimensionless parameter model for laser welding; and also the energy balance equation model. Variation of laser welding efficiency with welding speed and mode of welding was studied. Welding efficiency was high for high-speed conduction welding of thin sheets and also in keyhole welding process at high laser powers. Effect of pre-oxidization of the surface and powder as filler material on laser power coupling is also reported. The paper also discusses effect of microstructure on the cracking susceptibility of laser welds.

  1. Modeling and design of energy concentrating laser weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.O. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sklar, E. [OptiCad Corp., Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The application of lasers for welding and joining has increased steadily over the past decade with the advent of high powered industrial laser systems. Attributes such as high energy density and precise focusing allow high speed processing of precision assemblies. Other characteristics of the process such as poor coupling of energy due to highly reflective materials and instabilities associated with deep penetration keyhole mode welding remain as process limitations and challenges to be overcome. Reflective loss of laser energy impinging on metal surfaces can in some cases exceed ninety five percent, thus making the process extremely inefficient. Enhanced coupling of the laser beam can occur when high energy densities approach the vaporization point of the materials and form a keyhole feature which can trap laser energy and enhance melting and process efficiency. The extreme temperature, pressure and fluid flow dynamics of the keyhole make control of the process difficult in this melting regime. The authors design and model weld joints which through reflective propagation and concentration of the laser beam energy significantly enhance the melting process and weld morphology. A three dimensional computer based geometric optical model is used to describe the key laser parameters and joint geometry. Ray tracing is used to compute the location and intensity of energy absorption within the weld joint. Comparison with experimentation shows good correlation of energy concentration within the model to actual weld profiles. The effect of energy concentration within various joint geometry is described. This method for extending the design of the laser system to include the weld joint allows the evaluation and selection of laser parameters such as lens and focal position for process optimization. The design of narrow gap joints which function as energy concentrators is described. The enhanced laser welding of aluminum without keyhole formation has been demonstrated.

  2. Effect of friction stir welding and post-weld heat treatment on a nanostructured ferritic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, B.; Yu, X.; Edmondson, P. D.; Parish, C. M.; Miller, M. K.; Meyer, H. M.; Feng, Z.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs) are new generation materials for use in high temperature energy systems, such as nuclear fission or fusion reactors. However, joining these materials is a concern, as their unique microstructure is destroyed by traditional liquid-state welding methods. The microstructural evolution of a friction stir welded 14YWT NFA was investigated by atom probe tomography, before and after a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 1123K. The particle size, number density, elemental composition, and morphology of the titanium-yttrium-oxygen-enriched nanoclusters (NCs) in the stir and thermally-affected zones were studied and compared with the base metal. No statistical difference in the size of the NCs was observed in any of these conditions. After the PWHT, increases in the number density and the oxygen enrichment in the NCs were observed. Therefore, these new results provide additional supporting evidence that friction stir welding appears to be a viable joining technique for NFAs, as the microstructural parameters of the NCs are not strongly affected, in contrast to traditional welding techniques.

  3. A new method for welding aluminum alloy LY12CZ sheet with high strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the viewpoint of welding mechanics, a new welding technology-trailing peening was applied firstly to weld aluminum alloy LY12CZ sheet with high susceptibility to hot cracking. Trailing peening can exert a transverse extrusion strain on the metal in brittle temperature region (BTR) which can compensate for the tensioning strain during the cooling procedure post welding. So, welding hot cracking of LY12CZ sheet can be controlled effectively on the special jig for hot cracking experiment, and the phenomenon of hot cracking can't be found in specimens with large dimensions finally. At the same time, welding with trailing peening can decrease welding distortion caused by longitudinal and transverse shrinkage of weld obviously. Due to strengthening the poor position-weld toe during the process of welding, the residual stress distribution of welded joint is more reasonable. Contrast with conventional welding, mechanical properties such as tensile strength, prolongation ratio and cold-bending angle of welded joint with trailing peening can be improved obviously, and rupture position of welded joint transits from weld toe at conventional welding to weld metal at trailing peening. So, welding with trailing peening can be regarded as a dynamic welding method with low stress, little distortion and hot cracking-free really. As far as theoretical analysis is concerned, the technology of trailing peening can be used to weld the materials with high susceptibility to hot cracking such as LY12CZ and LD10, and solve the welding distortion of thin plate-shell welded structures which contain closed welds such as flange. In addition, the technology of trailing peening has many advantages: simple device, high efficiency, low cost and flexible application which make the welding method have widely applied foreground in the field of aeronautics and aerospace.

  4. Effect of tool shape and welding parameters on mechanical properties and microstructure of dissimilar friction stir welded aluminium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Aneja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present experimental study, dissimilar aluminum alloy AA5083 and AA6082 were friction stir welded by varying tool shape, welding speed and rotary speed of the tool in order to investigate the effect of varying tool shape and welding parameters on the mechanical properties as well as microstructure. The friction stir welding (FSW process parameters have great influence on heat input per unit length of weld. The outcomes of experimental study prove that mechanical properties increases with decreasing welding speed. Furthermore mechanical properties were also found to improve as the rotary speed increases and the same phenomenon was found to happen while using straight cylindrical threaded pin profile tool. The microstructure of the dissimilar joints revealed that at low welding speeds, the improved material mixing was observed. The similar phenomenon was found to happen at higher rotational speeds using straight cylindrical threaded tool.

  5. Development of Weld Metal Microstructures in Pulsed Laser Welding of Duplex Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirakhorli, F.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Torkamany, M. J.

    2012-10-01

    The microstructure of the weld metal of a duplex stainless steel made with Nd:YAG pulsed laser is investigated at different travel speeds and pulse frequencies. In terms of the solidification pattern, the weld microstructure is shown to be composed of two distinct zones. The presence of two competing heat transfer channels to the relatively cooler base metal and the relatively hotter previous weld spot is proposed to develop two zones. At high overlapping factors, an array of continuous axial grains at the weld centerline is formed. At low overlapping factors, in the zone of higher cooling rate, a higher percentage of ferrite is transformed to austenite. This is shown to be because with extreme cooling rates involved in pulsed laser welding with low overlapping, the ferrite-to-austenite transformation can be limited only to the grain boundaries.

  6. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  7. Laser cutting of lightweight alloys sheets with 1μm laser wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, Leonardo Daniele; Tricarico, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    High power fiber laser sources, with a radiation wavelength equal to about 1 μm, offer a great potential in improving the productivity and quality of thin aluminum, magnesium and titanium alloys sheets cutting. This is due to their benefits that are of special interest for this application: power efficiency, beam guidance and beam quality. In this work, an overview regarding the phenomena that for different reasons affect the laser cutting of these materials was given. These phenomena include the formation of a heat affected zone, the chemical contamination, the change of corrosion resistance, the thermal reactivity, the effects of thermal conductivity, reflectivity and viscosity of molten material. The influence of processing parameters on 1 mm thick Al 1050, AZ31 and Ti6Al4V lightweight alloys were experimentally investigated and cutting performances in terms of cut quality, maximum processing speeds and severance energies were evaluated. The advantages of using 1 μm laser wavelength for thin sheets lightweight alloys cutting due to the good cut quality, high productivity and the easily delivery of the beam through the optical fiber, were demonstrated. Results showed that fiber lasers open up new solutions for cutting lightweight alloys for applications like coil sheet cutting, laser blanking, trimming and cutting-welding combination in tailor welded blanks applications.

  8. 76 FR 31940 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Taiwan: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Taiwan: Notice of Rescission of... welded non-alloy steel pipe from Taiwan. The period of review is November 1, 2009, through October 31... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Taiwan. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding,...

  9. 76 FR 49437 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico. This administrative review covers mandatory respondents... Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 75 FR 82374 (December 30,...

  10. 75 FR 77838 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``CWP'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''). The period... Antidumping Duty Orders: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from Brazil, the Republic of...

  11. 77 FR 8808 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2009, through October 31, 2010. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel...

  12. 75 FR 78216 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from Mexico. This administrative review covers mandatory respondents... Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe and Tube...

  13. 76 FR 36089 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``CWP'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''), covering the period.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Following publication of Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From...

  14. 77 FR 73015 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe... merchandise subject to the order is circular welded non-alloy steel pipe and tube. The product is...

  15. 77 FR 34344 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of the Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``CWP'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''). The review covers...: Background Following Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

  16. 78 FR 35248 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Final... order on circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (CWP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea) for the period... has been sold at less than normal value. \\1\\ See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From...

  17. 76 FR 15941 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of the Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Extension of... antidumping duty administrative review of circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2008, through October 31, 2009. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel...

  18. 78 FR 34342 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Final Results and... duty order on certain circular welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico.\\1\\ This administrative review.... \\1\\ See Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results and...

  19. Optimization of pulsed TIG welding process parameters on mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy weldments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Warangal 506 004 (India)], E-mail: adepu_kumar7@yahoo.co.in; Sundarrajan, S. [Scientist ' G' , Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad 500 028 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The present work pertains to the improvement of mechanical properties of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds through pulsed tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding process. Taguchi method was employed to optimize the pulsed TIG welding process parameters of AA 5456 Aluminum alloy welds for increasing the mechanical properties. Regression models were developed. Analysis of variance was employed to check the adequacy of the developed models. The effect of planishing on mechanical properties was also studied and observed that there was improvement in mechanical properties. Microstructures of all the welds were studied and correlated with the mechanical properties.

  20. A Study on Friction Stir Welding of 12mm Thick Aluminum Alloy Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepati Anil Kumar; Pankaj Biswas; Sujoy Tikader; M. M. Mahapatra; N. R. Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

  1. The Mechanical Behavior of Friction-Stir Spot Welded Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Hande

    2014-10-01

    Aluminum and alloys are widely used in the automotive industry due to the light weight, good formability, and malleability. Spot welding is the most commonly used joining method of these materials, but the high current requirements and the inconsistent quality of the final welds make this process unsuitable. An alternative welding technique, the friction-stir spot welding process, can also be successfully used in joining of aluminum and alloys. In this study, 1-mm-thick AA5754 Al-alloy plates in the H-111 temper conditions were joined by friction-stir spot welding using two different weld parameters such as tool rotational speed and dwell time. Mechanical properties of the joints were obtained with extensive hardness measurements and tensile shear tests. The effect of these parameters on the failure modes of welded joints was also determined.

  2. Laser transmission welding of Clearweld-coated polyethylene glycol terephthalate by incremental scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wang, A. H.; Weng, Z. K.; Xia, H. B.

    2016-06-01

    Transmission laser welding using Incremental Scanning Technique(TWIST) mode and conventional contour welding mode were adopted to investigate laser transmission welding of 0.5 mm thick PET plate. A 1064 nm fiber laser was used to weld PET at the (TWIST) mode, and an 808 nm diode laser was applied to conduct the conventional contour welding. The Clearweld coating was used as laser absorbing material. The influences of laser parameters (i.e. defocusing distance, distance between two circles) on the quality of weld seams were analyzed by optical microscopy. Moreover, geometry and shear strength of the weld zone were tested to optimize laser parameters. Additionally, the water vapor permeability (WVP) of weld seams was measured to test hermetical capacity. Results show that the shear strength and hermetic capacity of weld seam by TWIST mode are at the same level in comparison with that of the conventional contour welding.

  3. Influence of shielding gas composition on weld profile in pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of low carbon steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jokar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Weld area and weld depth/width ratio can be considered to be of the most important geometrical factors in pulsed laser welding. The effects of carbon dioxide and oxygen additions to the argon shielding gas on the weld properties in pulsed laser welding of low carbon steel is investigated. Presence of carbon dioxide and oxygen up to 10 and 15 percent respectively decreases the weld geometrical factors. But, at higher levels of additions, the weld geometrical factors will increase. It is observed that the plasma plume temperature decreases from 6000K to 5500K with the addition of 15% carbon dioxide but increases to 7700K with 25% carbon dioxide addition. Increase in laser absorption coefficient, laser energy absorption, formation of oxide layer on the work-piece surface, exothermic reactions and their competitive effects can be considered as the competing phenomena involved in such a behavior in the weld profile

  4. Sensor development and integration for robotized laser welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakovou, Dimitrios

    2009-01-01

    Laser welding requires fast and accurate positioning of the laser beam over the seam trajectory. The task of accurate positioning of the laser tools is performed by robotic systems. It is therefore necessary to teach the robot the path it has to follow. Seam teaching is implemented in several ways:

  5. The Evolution of Microstructures and the Properties of Bulk Metallic Glass with Consubstantial Composition Laser Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingjun Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A Zr55Cu30Ni5Al10 plate-like bulk metallic glass (BMG was prepared using copper mold suction casting. Additionally, alloy powders with the same nominal composition were synthesized. The alloy powders were welded or melted to the cleaned surface of the BMG with a laser beam acceleration voltage of 60 kV, a beam current range from 60 to 100 mA, a welding speed of 60 mm/s, as well as an impulse width of 3.0 ms. The effect of consubstantial composition welding on the microstructures and properties was investigated. The molten and subsequently solidified metallic mixtures remain an amorphous structure, but the enthalpy of the welded or melted position varies due to the combination of the micro-structural relaxation and nano-crystals precipitated during the energy inputs. The surface layers of the BMG can be significantly intensified after welding processes; however, the heat-affected zones (HAZs exhibit a slight degradation in mechanical properties with respect to the BMG matrix. This study has important reference value for specialists working on the promotion of applications of BMGs.

  6. Modeling the field of laser welding melt pool by RBFNN

    CERN Document Server

    Bracic, A Borstnik; Grabec, I

    2007-01-01

    Efficient control of a laser welding process requires the reliable prediction of process behavior. A statistical method of field modeling, based on normalized RBFNN, can be successfully used to predict the spatiotemporal dynamics of surface optical activity in the laser welding process. In this article we demonstrate how to optimize RBFNN to maximize prediction quality. Special attention is paid to the structure of sample vectors, which represent the bridge between the field distributions in the past and future.

  7. Laser-Beam Welding Impact on the Deformation Properties of Stainless Steels When Used for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evin Emil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Materials other than standard and advanced high strength steels are remarkable for the thin-walled structures of the car-body in recent years in order to safety enhancement, weight and emission reduction, corrosion resistance improvement. Thus, there are presented in the paper the deformation properties of laser welded austenitic AISI 304 and ferritic AISI 430 stainless steels compared to these one measured for the high strength low alloyed steel H220PD. The properties were researched by tensile test and 3-point bending test with fixed ends on specimens made of basic material and laser welded one. The specimens were welded by solid state fiber laser YLS-5000 in longitudinal direction (the load direction. The deformation properties such as strength, stiffness and deformation work were evaluated and compared. The strength and stiffness were calculated from tensile test results and the deformation work was calculated from both, tensile test and 3-point bending test results. There has been found only minor effect of laser welding to the deformation properties for high strength low alloyed steel H220PD and austenitic stainless steel AISI 304. Otherwise, the laser welding strongly influenced the deformation work of the ferritic stainless steel AISI 430 as well as the elongation at tensile test.

  8. The effect of laser pulse tailored welding of Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, T. Dwayne; Mccay, Mary Helen; Sharp, C. Michael; Womack, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse tailored laser welding has been applied to wrought, wrought grain grown, and cast Inconel 718 using a CO2 laser. Prior to welding, the material was characterized metallographically and the solid state transformation regions were identified using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. Bead on plate welds (restrained and unrestrained) were then produced using a matrix of pulse duty cycles and pulsed average power. Subsequent characterization included heat affected zone width, penetration and underbead width, the presence of cracks, microfissures and porosity, fusion zone curvature, and precipitation and liquated region width. Pedigree welding on three selected processing conditions was shown by microstructural and dye penetrant analysis to produce no microfissures, a result which strongly indicates the viability of pulse tailored welding for microfissure free IN 718.

  9. Problems in laser repair welding of polished surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Skumavc

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents problems in laser repair welding of the tools for injection moulding of plastics and light metals. Tools for injection moulding of the car headlamps are highly polished in order to get a desirable quality of the injected part. Different light metals, glasses, elastomers, thermoplastics and thermosetting polymers are injected into the die cavity under high pressures resulting in the surface damages of the tool. Laser welding is the only suitable repair welding technique due to the very limited sputtering during deposition of the filler metal. Overlapping of the welds results in inhomogeneous hardness of the remanufactured surface. Results have shown strong correlation between hardness and surface waviness after final polishing of the repair welded surface.

  10. Laser Welding Of Thin Sheet Of AISI 301 Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, R.; Miranda, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation on laser welding of AISI 301 stainless steel thin sheet are presented. Welds were made with a CO2 continuous wave laser, varying power density and welding speed. The welds were studied by optical and electron scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and hardness tests. Experimental results show that under appropriate conditions, sound welds are obtained, with a negligeable heat affected zoneanda fine microstructure in the fusion zone. The fusion zone shows a cellular - dendritic microstructure, with austenite and ferrite as the major constituents. Ferrite, whose content is 5 to 7%, is predominantly intradendritic with both vermicular and acicular morphologies. However some interdendritic ferrite may also be present. The characteristics of the structure suggest that the solidification mode of AISI 301 stainless steel is essentially ferritic.

  11. Effect of electron beam welding on the microstructure and mechanical properties of nickel alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Øien, Vegard

    2014-01-01

    The effect of electron beam welding on the precipitation strengthened Ni-base superalloys Inconel 718 and Custom Age 625 PLUS have been investigated. Solidification of the weld metal in these alloys terminates in a eutectic formation of γ/Laves in the interdendritic constituents. The formation is associated with the strong segregation behavior of the alloying element Nb during solidification. Post-weld heat treatments in the form of solution annealing and age hardening are normally used to di...

  12. Numerical Simulation on Temperature Field of TIG Welding for Iridium-tungsten Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; Hong-yi; TANG; Xian; QIN; Shao-peng; LIU; Guo-hui; MA; Hui-min

    2013-01-01

    Ir-W alloy had the advantages of high temperature resistance,corrosion resistance,high hardness The clads produced with Ir-W alloy were sealed with TIG welding.According to energy conservation principle and characteristics of TIG welding,the numerical model of non-steady TIG welding pool shape under moving arc was established.By introducing the heat enthalpy and Gauss heat model of surface

  13. Research on the properties of laser welded joints of aluminum killed cold rolled steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎启; 曹能; 俞宁峰

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum killed cold rolled steel used for automobiles was welded shows that high quality of welding can be realized at welding speed of laser welded joints for aluminum killed cold rolled steel increased compared to those of the base metal while the formability decreased. Forming limit diagram of joint material indicated that the laser weld seam should avoid the maximum deformation area of automobile parts during the designing period for the position of weld seam.

  14. Mechanical Behaviour of Inconel 718 Thin-Walled Laser Welded Components for Aircraft Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Lertora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel alloys are very important in many aerospace applications, especially to manufacture gas turbines and aero engine components, where high strength and temperature resistance are necessary. These kinds of alloys have to be welded with high energy density processes, in order to preserve their high mechanical properties. In this work, CO2 laser overlap joints between Inconel 718 sheets of limited thickness in the absence of postweld heat treatment were made. The main application of this kind of joint is the manufacturing of a helicopter engine component. In particular the aim was to obtain a specific cross section geometry, necessary to overcome the mechanical stresses found in these working conditions without failure. Static and dynamic tests were performed to assess the welds and the parent material fatigue life behaviour. Furthermore, the life trend was identified. This research pointed out that a full joint shape control is possible by choosing proper welding parameters and that the laser beam process allows the maintenance of high tensile strength and ductility of Inconel 718 but caused many liquation microcracks in the heat affected zone (HAZ. In spite of these microcracks, the fatigue behaviour of the overlap welds complies with the technical specifications required by the application.

  15. Mechanical Properties, Microstructure and Crystallographic Texture of Magnesium AZ91-D Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadri-Henni, A.; Barrallier, L.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize the properties of a magnesium alloy welded by friction stir welding. The results led to a better understanding of the relationship between this process and the microstructure and anisotropic properties of alloy materials. Welding principally leads to a large reduction in grain size in welded zones due to the phenomenon of dynamic recrystallization. The most remarkable observation was that crystallographic textures appeared from a base metal without texture in two zones: the thermo-mechanically affected and stir-welded zones. The latter zone has the peculiarity of possessing a marked texture with two components on the basal plane and the pyramidal plane. These characteristics disappeared in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), which had only one component following the basal plane. These modifications have been explained by the nature of the plastic deformation in these zones, which occurs at a moderate temperature in the TMAZ and high temperature in the SWZ.

  16. Radiographic detection of defects in friction stir welding on aluminum alloy AMg5M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Sergei Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Kolubaev, Evgeny A., E-mail: eak@ispms.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050, Russia and Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Rubtsov, Valery E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    In order to reveal weld defects specific to friction stir welding we undertook radiographic inspection of AMg5M aluminum alloy welded joints. Weld defects in the form of voids have been revealed in the weld obtained under the non-optimal rotation and feed rate. Both shape and size of these defects have been confirmed by examining metallographically successive sections prepared in the weld plane as well as in the plane transversal to the tool feed direction. Linear defects have been also found in the sections that are not seen in the radiographic images. Both the preferable localization and origination of the defects have been analyzed.

  17. Investigation of the Microstructure of Joints of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-02-01

    Special features of the microstructure of joints of aluminum-magnesium and aluminum-copper alloys produced by friction stir welding are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a layered structure with ultradisperse grains is produced by friction stir welding at the center of the weld joint. An analogy is drawn between the microstructures of joints produced by friction stir welding and surface layer produced by sliding friction.

  18. Melt pool vorticity in deep penetration laser material welding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Kumar; S Dash; A K Tyagi; Baldev Raj

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, the vorticity of melt motion in the keyhole and weld pool has been evaluated in case of high power CO2 laser beam welding. The circulation of vorticity is obtained as a function of Reynolds number for a given keyhole volume which is linked to Mach number variation. The shear stress and thermal fluxes present in the turbulent pool are linked to diffusivity and Prandtl number variation. It was shown that below a critical value of Rayleigh number, the conduction mode of melt transfer signifying beam absorption becomes dominant. Above this value, convective heat transfer indicates melting and evaporation occurring in the weld pool during laser welding. The evaporative recoil pressure expels the liquid while surface tension and hydrostatic pressure help to retain the melt in the keyhole cavity in this high power laser beam welding. The understanding of several hydrodynamic phenomena occuring in the weld pool is valuable not only for understanding basic mechanistic aspects but also for process optimization involved in laser beam welding.

  19. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia

    2012-05-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700 C

  20. Diffusion Welding of Alloys for Molten Salt Service - Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis Clark; Ronald Mizia; Piyush Sabharwall

    2012-09-01

    The present work is concerned with heat exchanger development for molten salt service, including the proposed molten salt reactor (MSR), a homogeneous reactor in which the fuel is dissolved in a circulating fluid of molten salt. It is an outgrowth of recent work done under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program; what the two reactor systems have in common is an inherently safe nuclear plant with a high outlet temperature that is useful for process heat as well as more conventional generation The NGNP program was tasked with investigating the application of a new generation of nuclear power plants to a variety of energy needs. One baseline reactor design for this program is a high temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which provides many options for energy use. These might include the conventional Rankine cycle (steam turbine) generation of electricity, but also other methods: for example, Brayton cycle (gas turbine) electrical generation, and the direct use of the high temperatures characteristic of HTGR output for process heat in the chemical industry. Such process heat is currently generated by burning fossil fuels, and is a major contributor to the carbon footprint of the chemical and petrochemical industries. The HTGR, based on graphite fuel elements, can produce very high output temperatures; ideally, temperatures of 900 °C or even greater, which has significant energy advantages. Such temperatures are, of course, at the frontiers of materials limitations, at the upper end of the performance envelope of the metallic materials for which robust construction codes exist, and within the realm of ceramic materials, the fabrication and joining of which, on the scale of large energy systems, are at an earlier stage of development. A considerable amount of work was done in the diffusion welding of materials of interest for HTGR service with alloys such as 617 and 800H. The MSR output temperature is also materials limited, and is projected at about 700

  1. Joint Performance for Laser Cutting-welding of Zinc-coated Tailored Blanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chunming; HU Lunji; LIU Jianhua; HU Xiyuan; DU Hanbin

    2005-01-01

    The process of laser butt welding of zinc-coated steel ( SGCD3 and WLZn ) blanks was presented, whose edges were prepared by laser cutting. The properties of the butt joints, such as tensile strength, bending, stamping, weld shape, and corrosion- resistant were tested. The experiments of laser cutting and welding were carried out on a custom-made system designed, which is a set of equipment for wide sheet butt welding based on a laser cutting-welding combination process. The experiments proved the technological feasibility of laser butt welding for thin zinc coated steel sheets whose edges were prepared by laser cutting on the same equipment.

  2. Research progress of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the high-power laser welding process, plasmas are induced by the evaporation of metal under laser radiation, which can affect the coupling of laser energy and the workpiece, and ultimately impact on the reliability of laser welding quality and process directly. The research of laser-induced plasma is a focus in high-power deep penetration welding field, which provides a promising research area for realizing the automation of welding process quality inspection. In recent years, the research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics is mainly in two aspects, namely the research of plasma signal detection and the research of laser welding process modeling. The laser-induced plasma in the laser welding is introduced, and the related research of laser welding process dynamic monitoring technology based on plasma characteristics at home and abroad is analyzed. The current problems in the field are summarized, and the future development trend is put forward.

  3. Notched Tensile and Impact Fracture of Ti-15-3 Laser Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Leu-Wen; Wu, Yan-Jie; Chen, Chun

    2011-12-01

    The notched tensile strength (NTS) and impact toughness of Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al ( β-type titanium alloy Ti-15-3) laser welds aged at temperatures ranging from 590 K to 866 K (317 °C to 593 °C) were determined, and the results were compared to those of unwelded Ti-15-3 plates aged at the same temperature. At a given aging temperature, α precipitates in welded specimens were finer and exhibited higher hardness than those in unwelded specimens. Among the tested specimens, the weld aged at 644 K (371 °C) was most susceptible to notch sensitivity. In those welds aged at or above 755 K (482 °C), the coarse columnar structure was prone to interdendritic fracture during notched tensile tests, which reduced the NTS of the weld relative to that of the unwelded plate aged at an equivalent temperature. Of the tested specimens, the weld that was not subjected to the postweld aging treatment possessed the highest impact toughness among the specimens.

  4. Welding metallurgy of nickel alloys in gas turbine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingenfelter, A. C., LLNL

    1997-05-21

    Materials for gas turbine engines are required to meet a wide range of temperature and stress application requirements. These alloys exhibit a combination of creep resistance, creep rupture strength, yield and tensile strength over a wide temperature range, resistance to environmental attack (including oxidation, nitridation, sulphidation and carburization), fatigue and thermal fatigue resistance, metallurgical stability and useful thermal expansion characteristics. These properties are exhibited by a series of solid-solution-strengthened and precipitation-hardened nickel, iron and cobalt alloys. The properties needed to meet the turbine engine requirements have been achieved by specific alloy additions, by heat treatment and by thermal mechanical processing. A thorough understanding of the metallurgy and metallurgical processing of these materials is imperative in order to successfully fusion weld them. This same basic understanding is required for repair of a component with the added dimension of the potential effects of thermal cycling and environmental exposure the component will have endured in service. This article will explore the potential problems in joining and repair welding these materials.

  5. Investigation of laser tissue welding dynamics via experiment and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Maitland, D J; Heredia, N J; Eder, D C; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; London, R A; Matthews, D L

    1997-02-01

    An in vitro study of laser tissue welding mediated with a dye-enhanced protein solder was performed. Freshly harvested sections of porcine aorta were used for the experiments. Arteriotomies approximately 4 mm in length were treated using an 805 nm continuous-wave diode laser coupled to a 1-mm diameter fiber. Temperature histories of the surface of the weld site were obtained using a fiberoptic-based infrared thermometer. The experimental effort was complemented by the LATIS (LAser-TISsue) computer code, which numerically simulates the exposure of tissue to near-infrared radiation using coupled Monte Carlo, thermal transport, and mass transport models. Comparison of the experimental and simulated thermal results shows that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the model is necessary to determine the thermal distributions and hydration state in the tissue. The hydration state of the weld site was correlated with the acute weld strength.

  6. The Effects of Laser Peening and Shot Peening on Mechanical Properties in Friction Stir Welded 7075-T7351 Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Peening techniques like laser peening and shot peening were used to modify the surface of friction stir welded 7075-T7351 Aluminum Alloy specimens. The tensile coupons were machined such as the loading was applied in a direction perpendicular to the weld direction. The peening effects on the global and local mechanical properties through the different regions of the weld were characterized and assessed. The surface hardness levels resulting from various peening techniques were also investigated for both sides of the welds. Shot peening resulted in an increase to surface hardness levels, but no improvement was noticed on the mechanical properties. In contrast, mechanical properties were improved by laser peening when compared to the unpeened material.

  7. Laser-Hybrid welding, an innovative technology to join automotive body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieben, Manuel; Brunnecker, Frank

    The design of Tail lamps has been changed dramatically since cars built. At modern lamps, the lenses are absolutely transparent and allow a direct view onto the weld seam. Conventional welding technologies, such as vibration and hot plate welding cannot compete with this demand. Focused on this targeted application, LPKF Laser & Electronics AG has developed in cooperation with the Bavarian Laser Centre a unique Laser welding technology called hybrid welding.

  8. Effect of Welding Speeds on Mechanical Properties of Level Compensation Friction Stir Welded 6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Quan; Yue, Yumei; Ji, Shude; Li, Zhengwei; Gao, Shuangsheng

    2016-04-01

    In order to eliminate the flash, arc corrugation and concave in weld zone, level compensation friction stir welding (LCFSW) was put forward and successfully applied to weld 6061-T6 aluminum alloy with varied welding speed at a constant tool rotational speed of 1,800 rpm in the present study. The glossy joint with equal thickness of base material can be attained, and the shoulder affected zone (SAZ) was obviously reduced. The results of transverse tensile test indicate that the tensile strength and elongation reach the maximum values of 248 MPa and 7.1% when the welding speed is 600 mm/min. The microhardness of weld nugget (WN) is lower than that of base material. The tensile fracture position locates at the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the advancing side (AS), where the microhardness is the minimum. The fracture surface morphology represents the typical ductile fracture.

  9. Possibilities in optical monitoring of laser welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horník, Petr; Mrňa, Libor; Pavelka, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Laser welding is a modern, widely used but still not really common method of welding. With increasing demands on the quality of the welds, it is usual to apply automated machine welding and with on-line monitoring of the welding process. The resulting quality of the weld is largely affected by the behavior of keyhole. However, its direct observation during the welding process is practically impossible and it is necessary to use indirect methods. At ISI we have developed optical methods of monitoring the process. Most advanced is an analysis of radiation of laser-induced plasma plume forming in the keyhole where changes in the frequency of the plasma bursts are monitored and evaluated using Fourier and autocorrelation analysis. Another solution, robust and suitable for industry, is based on the observation of the keyhole inlet opening through a coaxial camera mounted in the welding head and the subsequent image processing by computer vision methods. A high-speed camera is used to understand the dynamics of the plasma plume. Through optical spectroscopy of the plume, we can study the excitation of elements in a material. It is also beneficial to monitor the gas flow of shielding gas using schlieren method.

  10. Laser beam welding of Waspaloy: Characterization and corrosion behavior evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja Razavi, Reza

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a study on Nd:YAG laser welding of Waspaloy sheets has been made. Microstructures, phase changes and hardness of the laser joint were investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and vickers microhardness (HV0.3). Corrosion behavior of the weldment at low temperature in 3.5%wt NaCl solution at room temperature was also investigated using open circuit potential and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests. Hot corrosion studies were conducted on samples in the molten salt environment (Na2SO4-60%V2O5) at 900 °C for 50 h. Results indicated that the microstructure of weld zone was mainly dendritic grown epitaxially in the direction perpendicular to the weld boundary and heat transfer. Moreover, the Ti-Mo carbide particles were observed in the structure of the weld zone and base metal. The average size of carbides formed in the base metal (2.97±0.5 μm) was larger than that of the weld zone (0.95±0.2 μm). XRD patterns of the weld zone and base metal showed that the laser welding did not alter the phase structure of the weld zone, being in γ-Ni(Cr) single phase. Microhardness profile showed that the hardness values of the weld zone (210-261 HV) were lower than that of the base metal (323-330 HV). Electrochemical and hot corrosion tests indicated that the corrosion resistance of the weld metal was greater than the base metal in both room and high temperatures.

  11. Sensors Array Technique for Monitoring Aluminum Alloy Spot Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕤; 罗震; 单平; 步贤政; 袁书现; 敖三三

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the sensors array technique is applied to the quality detection of aluminum alloy spot welding.The sensors array has three forms,i.e.,linear magnetic sensors array,annular magnetic sensors array and cross magnetic sensors array.An algorithm based on principal component analysis is proposed to extract the signal eigenvalues.The three types of magnetic sensors array are used in the experiment of monitoring the signal.After the eigenvalues are extracted,they are used to build a relationship with ...

  12. Optimization of friction stir welding parameters for improved corrosion resistance of AA2219 aluminum alloy joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rambabu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium alloy AA2219 (Al–Cu–Mg alloy is widely used in the fabrication of lightweight structures with high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. Welding is main fabrication method of AA2219 alloy for manufacturing various engineering components. Friction stir welding (FSW is a recently developed solid state welding process to overcome the problems encountered in fusion welding. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat on the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters, such as tool pin profile, rotational speed, welding speed and axial force, play major role in determining the microstructure and corrosion resistance of welded joint. The main objective of this work is to develop a mathematical model to predict the corrosion resistance of friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy by incorporating FSW process parameters. In this work a central composite design with four factors and five levels has been used to minimize the experimental conditions. Dynamic polarization testing was carried out to determine critical pitting potential in millivolt, which is a criteria for measuring corrosion resistance and the data was used in model. Further the response surface method (RSM was used to develop the model. The developed mathematical model was optimized using the simulated annealing algorithm optimizing technique to maximize the corrosion resistance of the friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy joints.

  13. Factors affecting the strength of multipass low-alloy steel weld metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    The mechanical properties of multipass high-strength steel weld metals depend upon several factors, among the most important being: (1) The interaction between the alloy composition and weld metal cooling rate which determines the as-deposited microstructure; and (2) the thermal effects of subsequent passes on each underlying pass which alter the original microstructure. The bulk properties of a multipass weld are therefore governed by both the initial microstructure of each weld pass and its subsequent thermal history. Data obtained for a high strength low alloy steel weld metal confirmed that a simple correlation exists between mechanical properties and welding conditions if the latter are in turn correlated as weld cooling rate.

  14. Experimental Evaluation and Characterization of Electron Beam Welding of 2219 AL-Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sobih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to reduce the weight of components, thus allowing a profit in terms of energy saving, automotive industry as well as aircraft industry extensively uses aluminum alloys. The most widely used joining technology in aircraft industry is riveting, while welding seems to be used in the car industry in the case of aluminum alloys. However, welding technology is characterized by many defects, such as gas porosity; oxide inclusions; solidification cracking (hot tearing; and reduced strength in both the weld and the heat affected zones which could limit its development. Many techniques are used for aluminum alloys welding, among them is electron beam welding (EBW, which has unique advantages over other traditional fusion welding methods due to high-energy density, deep penetration, large depth-to-width ratio, and small heat affected zone. The welding parameters that yield to optimal weld joint have been previously obtained. These optimal parameters were validated by welding a specimen using these parameters. To evaluate this optimal weld joint, complete, microstructural observations and characterization have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. This evaluation leads to description and quantification of the solidification process within this weld joint.

  15. Investigation of Friction Stir Welding and Laser Engineered Net Shaping of Metal Matrix Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Ravinder M.

    2002-01-01

    The improvement in weld quality by the friction stir welding (FSW) process invented by TWI of Cambridge, England, patented in 1991, has prompted investigation of this process for advanced structural materials including Al metal matrix composite (Al-MMC) materials. Such materials can have high specific stiffness and other potential beneficial properties for the extreme environments in space. Developments of discontinuous reinforced Al-MMCs have found potential space applications and the future for such applications is quite promising. The space industry has recognized advantages of the FSW process over conventional welding processes such as the absence of a melt zone, reduced distortion, elimination of the need for shielding gases, and ease of automation. The process has been well proven for aluminum alloys, and work is being carried out for ferrous materials, magnesium alloys and copper alloys. Development work in the FSW welding process for joining of Al-MMCs is relatively recent and some of this and related work can be found in referenced research publications. NASA engineers have undertaken to spear head this research development work for FSW process investigation of Al-MMCs. Some of the reported related work has pointed out the difficulty in fusion welding of particulate reinforced MMCs where liquid Al will react with SiC to precipitate aluminum carbide (Al4C3). Advantages of no such reaction and no need for joint preparation for the FSW process is anticipated in the welding of Al-MMCs. The FSW process has been best described as a combination of extrusion and forging of metals. This is carried out as the pin tool rotates and is slowly plunged into the bond line of the joint as the pin tool's shoulder is in intimate contact with the work piece. The material is friction-stirred into a quality weld. Al-MMCs, 4 in. x 12 in. plates of 0.25 in. (6.35mm) thickness, procured from MMCC, Inc. were butt welded using FSW process at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using

  16. Evaluation of the AISI 904L Alloy Weld Overlays Obtained by GMAW and Electro-Slag Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Jorge C. F.; Meira, O. G.; Madalena, F. C. A.; de Souza, L. F. G.; Araujo, L. S.; Mendes, M. C.

    2017-03-01

    The use of superaustenitic stainless steels (SASS) as an overlay replacement for nickel-based alloys can be an interesting alternative for the oil and gas industries, due to its lower cost, when compared to superalloys. Usually, the deposition is made with several welding passes by using conventional arc welding processes, such as gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) or gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes. In this respect, electro-slag welding (ESW), which promotes high heat inputs and low dilution of the welds, can also be attractive for this application, as it provides a higher productivity, once only one layer is needed for the deposition of the minimum thickness required. The present work evaluates the behavior of an AISI 904L SASS weld overlay deposited on a carbon steel ASTM A516 Grade 70 by ESW and GMAW processes. Both as-welded and heat-treated conditions were evaluated and compared. A multipass welding by GMAW process with three layers and 48 passes was performed on 12.5 × 200 × 250 mm steel plates with average welding energy of 1.0 kJ/mm. For ESW process, only one layer was deposited on 50 × 400 × 400 mm steel plates with average welding energy of 11.7 kJ/mm. After welding, a post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) at 620 °C for 10 h was performed in half of the steel plate, in order to allow the comparison between this condition and the as-welded one. For both processes, the austenitic microstructure of the weld deposits was characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction. A low proportion of secondary phases were observed in all conditions, and the PWHT did not promote significant changes on the hardness profile. Martensite for GMAW process and bainite for ESW process were the microstructural constituents observed at the coarse grain heat-affected zone, due to the different cooling rates. For ESW process, no evidences of partially diluted zones were found. As a consequence of the microstructural

  17. Multi-Response Optimization of Friction-Stir-Welded AA1100 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, S.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2012-06-01

    AA1100 aluminum alloy has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures. Friction stir welding process (FSW) is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. The process and tool parameters of FSW play a major role in deciding the joint characteristics. In this research, the relationships between the FSW parameters (rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, shoulder diameter, pin diameter, and tool hardness) and the responses (tensile strength, hardness, and corrosion rate) were established. The optimal welding conditions to maximize the tensile strength and minimize the corrosion rate were identified for AA1100 aluminum alloy and reported here.

  18. Study on quality of resistance spot welded aluminum alloys under various electrode pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-san AO; Zhen LUO; Xin-xin TANG; Lin-shu ZHOU; Shu-xian YUAN; Rui WANG; Kai-lei SONG; Xing-zheng BU; Xiao-yi LI; Zhi-qing XUE

    2009-01-01

    The electrode force is One of the main parameters in resistance spot welding (RSW). It is very important to guarantee the quality of aluminum alloys and determine whether the electrode pressure is stable or adjustable in the welding process. With the drive set of a servo-motor, we conduct the RSW tests and tensile shear tests on the 5052 aluminum alloy sheets. Results of these tests show that all variable pressure curves are suitable for spot welding, and all have their own rules in affecting the tensile strength of the spot welded joints.

  19. Alloying Elements Transition Into the Weld Metal When Using an Inventor Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamadaliev, R. A.; Kuskov, V. N.; Popova, A. A.; Valuev, D. V.

    2016-04-01

    The temperature distribution over the surface of the welded 12Kh18N10T steel plates using the inventor power source ARC-200 has been calculated. In order to imitate multipass welding when conducting the thermal analysis the initial temperature was changed from 298K up to 798K in 100K increments. It has been determined that alloying elements transition into the weld metal depends on temperature. Using an inventor power source facilitates a uniform distribution of alloying elements along the length and height of the weld seam.

  20. Damage Tolerance Assessment of Friction Pull Plug Welds in an Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process used in the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks. Self-reacting friction stir welding is one variation of the friction stir weld process being developed for manufacturing tanks. Friction pull plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential self-reacting friction stir weld. A friction plug weld placed in a self-reacting friction stir weld results in a non-homogenous weld joint where the initial weld, plug weld, their respective heat affected zones and the base metal all interact. The welded joint is a composite plastically deformed material system with a complex residual stress field. In order to address damage tolerance concerns associated with friction plug welds in safety critical structures, such as propellant tanks, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size. Test data relating residual strength capability to flaw size in an aluminum alloy friction plug weld will be presented.

  1. Laser-Assisted Stir Welding of 25-mm-Thick HSLA-65 Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Keith M.

    2002-12-01

    Laser-assisted stir welding is a hybrid process that combines energy from a laser with functional heating and mechanical energy to join materials in the solid state. The technology is an adaptation of friction stir welding which is particularly suited for joining thick plates. Aluminum plates up to 75 mm thick have been successfully joined using friction stir welding. Since joining occurs in the solid state, stir technology offers the capability for fabricating full penetration joints in thick plates with better mechanical properties and less weld distortion than is possible by fusion processes. Currently friction stir welding is being used in several industries to improve productivity, reduce weight, and increase the strength of welded structures. Examples include: (a) the aircraft/aerospace industry where stir technology is currently being used to fabricate the space shuttle's external tank as well as components of the Delta family of rockets; (b) the shipping industry where container manufacturers are using stir technology to produce lighter containers with more payload capacity; and (c) the oil industry where offshore platform manufactures are using automated stir welding plants to fabricate large panels and structures up to 16 meters long with widths as required. In all these cases, stir technology has been restricted to aluminum alloys; however, stainless and HSLA 65 steels have been recently stir welded with friction as the primary heat source. One of the difficulties in adapting stir welding to steel is tool wear aggravated by the high tool rubbing velocities needed to provide frictional heat input into the material. Early work showed that the tool shoulder reached temperatures above 1000 C and the weld seam behind the tool stayed within this temperature range for up to 25 mm behind the tool. Cross sections of stir welded samples showed that the heat-affected zone is relatively wide and follows the profile of the tool shoulder. Besides minimizing the tool

  2. Molten pool and temperature field in CO2 laser welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Aiqin; Chen Li; Wang Yajun; Hu Lunji

    2006-01-01

    Two measuring methods, high-speed camera and optical monitoring system, were used to study processes of laser welding. Molten pool, cooling time and temperature field were analyzed based on real measured images and optical signal data. The results show that the width of molten pool is almost equal to the width of weld, and length is about 7.8 mm. The solidification time is about 0. 5 s and the temperature gradient is great, so HAZ is very small. The method and results will be of benefit to build the relationship between welding parameters and microstructure.

  3. Comparative studies on ultrasonic, friction, laser and resistance pressure welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steels. Final report; Vergleichende Untersuchungen zum Ultraschall-, Reib-, Laserstrahl- und Widerstandspressschweissen von NiTi-Shape-Memory-Metall mit hochlegierten Staehlen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuckschwerdt, K.

    2000-04-01

    The suitability of different welding techniques for welding of NiTi shape memory alloys with high-alloy steel (C12CrNi17-7, X5CrNiNb19-9, X20Cr13) was investigated. The quality of the welds was analyzed using mechanical-technological, fractographic, metallographic and electron microscopy analysis. [German] Ziel dieses Forschungsvorhabens ist es, die Eignung der einzelnen Schweissverfahren fuer das Fuegen von NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen mit hochlegiertem Stahl (X12CrNi17-7, X5CrNiNb19-9, X20Cr13) darzustellen und zu beurteilen. Die Qualitaet der Fuegeverbindungen wird mit Hilfe mechanisch-technologischer, fraktographischer, metallographischer und elektronenmikroskopischer Untersuchungen bewertet.

  4. Double-sided gas tungsten arc welding process on TC4 titanium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Hong-ming; BAI Yan; YANG Tian-dong

    2005-01-01

    TC4 titanium alloy was welded by double-sided gas tungsten arc welding(GTAW) process in comparison with conventional GTAW process, the microstructure and mechanical performance of weld were also studied. The results indicate that double-sided GTAW is superior over regular single-sided GTAW on the aspects of increasing penetration, reducing welding deformation and improving welding efficiency. Good weld joint was obtained, which can reach 96.14% tensile strength and 70.85 % elongation percentage of the base metal. The grains in heat-affected zone(HAZ) are thin and equiaxed and the degree of grain coarsening increases as one moves to the weld center line,and the interior of grains are α and α' structures. The coarse columned and equiaxed grains, which interlace martensitic structures α' and acicular α structures, are observed in weld zone. The fracture mode is ductile fracture.

  5. Corrosion behavior of friction stir welded AZ31B Mg alloy - Al6063 alloy joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ratna Sunil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, AZ31B Mg alloy and Al6063 alloy-rolled sheets were successfully joined by friction stir welding. Microstructural studies revealed a sound joint with good mechanical mixing of both the alloys at the nugget zone. Corrosion performance of the joint was assessed by immersing in 3.5% NaCl solution for different intervals of time and the corrosion rate was calculated. The joint has undergone severe corrosion attack compared with both the base materials (AZ31B and Al6063 alloys. The predominant corrosion mechanism behind the high corrosion rate of the joint was found to be high galvanic corrosion. From the results, it can be suggested that the severe corrosion of dissimilar Mg–Al joints must be considered as a valid input while designing structures intended to work in corroding environment.

  6. Structure of Ti-6Al-4V nanostructured titanium alloy joint obtained by resistance spot welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimenov, V. A., E-mail: klimenov@tpu.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kurgan, K. A., E-mail: kirill-k2.777@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Chumaevskii, A. V., E-mail: tch7av@gmail.com [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 2/4 Akademicheskii pr., Tomsk, 634021 (Russian Federation); Klopotov, A. A., E-mail: klopotovaa@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2 Solyanaya Sq, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gnyusov, S. F., E-mail: gnusov@rambler.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The structure of weld joints of the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V in the initial ultrafine-grained state, obtained by resistance spot welding, is studied using the optical and scanning electron microscopy method and the X-ray structure analysis. The carried out studies show the relationship of the metal structure in the weld zone with main joint zones. The structure in the core zone and the heat affected zone is represented by finely dispersed grains of needle-shaped martensite, differently oriented in these zones. The change in the microhardness in the longitudinal section of the weld joint clearly correlates with structural changes during welding.

  7. Microstructural Aspects in FSW and TIG Welding of Cast ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Astarita, Antonello; Rubino, Felice; Pasquino, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, magnesium ZE41A alloy plates were butt joined through friction stir welding (FSW) and Tungsten Inert Gas welding processes. Process-induced microstructures were investigated by optical and SEM observations, EDX microanalysis and microhardness measurements. The effect of a post-welded T5 heat treatment on FSW joints was also assessed. Sound joints were produced by means of both techniques. Different elemental distributions and grain sizes were found, whereas microhardness profiles reflect microstructural changes. Post-welding heat treatment did not induce significant alterations in elemental distribution. The FSW-treated joint showed a more homogeneous hardness profile than the as-welded FSW joint.

  8. Improving Hygienic Characteristics of Coated Electrodes for Welding High-Alloy Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'yaschenko, D. P.; Chinakhov, D. A.; Ivanov, K. V.; Sadikov, I. D.

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the results of experimental studies showing that the use of an inverter power supply instead of a diode rectifier provides:: fine-droplet electrode metal transfer which reduces generation time by 46% and transfer time by 28%; transfer of alloying elements from welding materials into the weld metal which reduces its loss from the welding line by 6% and the heat affected area by 3%; reducing the emission rate of welding fumes and their components by 23%; reducing specific emission of welding fumes and their components by 23%.

  9. Analysis of Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Alloys and Optimization of Welding Parameters for Maximum Tensile Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. S. K. Aditya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Friction Stir Welding (FSW process is an innovative technique to join metals in the plastic state thus not reaching the liquid state as it happen in traditional welding processes. This feature of the FSW proved that a modification can be done on the fatigue behavior and strength of the welding joints so, some of the leading companies to adopted the process for the manufacturing of Automotive, Locomotive, Shipping & Aerospace. The FSW is a variant of the linear friction welding process in which the material is being welded without bulk melting. The FSW parameters such as tool Rotational speed, Welding speed, Axial Force, Tool tilt angle, Welding Tool Shoulder Diameter, and Welded Plate thickness play a major role in determining the properties like Tensile strength, hardness, residual stress, HAZ etc. of the joints. Our objective is to optimize the welding parameters to achieve Max. Tensile Strength of Aluminium Alloys (especially on AA-2xxx, AA-5xxx under FSW. We only wish to optimize (by Taguchi and ANOVA method with three variable input parameters (Rotational speed in rpm, Translation speed in mm/min & Axial force in KN considering a cylindrical pin.

  10. 76 FR 52636 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea: Partial... the antidumping duty order on certain circular welded non-alloy steel pipe (``circular welded...

  11. Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Strength of Three Aluminum Alloys Used in Light Poles

    OpenAIRE

    Craig C. Menzemer; Eric Hilty; Shane Morrison; Ray Minor; Tirumalai S. Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR) and as-welded (AW) conditions. Tensile tests were also conducted on the AR and AW alloys, subsequent to artificial aging. The welding process used was gas metal arc (GMAW) with spray transfer using 120–220 A of current at ...

  12. Seam gap bridging of laser based processes for the welding of aluminium sheets for industrial applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalderink, Bernard Johan; Pathiraj, B.; Aarts, R.G.K.M.

    2010-01-01

    Laser welding has a large potential for the production of tailor welded blanks in the automotive industry, due to the low heat input and deep penetration. However, due to the small laser spot and melt pool, laser-based welding processes in general have a low tolerance for seam gaps. In this paper, f

  13. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded thin sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lian; TONG Jian-hua; WAN Fa-rong; LONG Yi

    2006-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new and promising welding processing that can produce low-cost and high-quality joints of aluminum alloys. 1 mm thick sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloys which are always used as building and decorating materials were welded by FSW. The microstrueture and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 1 mm thick sheets of 2024-T4 aluminum alloy were studied. It was found that the thinner the 2024 aluminum alloy, the larger the FSW technological parameters field. The grains size of weld nugget zone (WNZ) is approximately 10 times smaller than that of the parent material, but the second phase in the material is not refined apparently in the welding. The FS welded joints have about 40% higher yield strength than the parent material,but the elongation of FS welded joints is under about 50% of the parent material. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)results show that there are much more low angle boundaries (LAB) in WNZ than that in parent material, which indicates that FSW causes a number of sub-grain structures in WNZ, and this is also the reason of the increase of yield strength and Vickers hardness of the welded joint.

  14. Optimization of welding parameters of Ti6Al4V alloy using electron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Havlík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys and their weld joints find wide application, in particular in the aircraft, automotive and chemical industries, because of their outstanding specific strength and corrosion resistance. The high reactivity of these alloys and the strong degradation effect of elements contained in the atmosphere (H, N and O make it necessary for these alloys to be welded in protective atmospheres or in vacuum. From this viewpoint, Electron Beam Welding is an advantageous welding technology, especially in large series production. In the literature, there is sufficient information about the effect of the basic welding parameters, namely accelerating voltage, current and welding speed, on the properties of welded joints. In the paper, the effects of the spot diameter and beam focusing on the penetration depth and the weld shape in the Ti6Al4V alloy are studied. The results obtained are complemented by an analysis of the microstructure and microhardness measurements across the welds.

  15. Corrosion behavior of Al6061 alloy weldment produced by friction stir welding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Gharavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the corrosion behavior of welded lap joints of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy produced by friction stir welding process has been investigated. Corrosion properties of welded lap joints were studied by cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. All tests were performed in an aerated 0.6 mol L−1 NaCl aqueous solution with pH = 6.5 at a temperature of 30 °C to characterize corrosion morphology and realize corrosion features of weld regions as opposed to the parent alloy. The microstructure of weld nugget (WN, heated affected zone (HAZ, and parent alloy were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The experimental results indicated that the welding process has a major effect on the corrosion resistance, which possibly associated to the break-down and dissolution of intermetallic particles. It is supposed that an increasing in intermetallic distributed throughout the matrix of weld regions increases the galvanic corrosion couples. Furthermore, by decreasing the grain size in the weld regions, the susceptibility to corrosion is enhanced. The pitting corrosion and intergranular attack are the dominant corrosion types in the weld regions and the parent alloy.

  16. Subtask 12B1: Welding development for V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.F.; Goodwin, G.M.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Development of the metallurgical and technological basis for the welding of thick sections of V-Cr-Ti alloys. The weldability and weldment properties of the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy have been evaluated. Results for the Sigmajig test of the vanadium alloy were similar to the cracking resistance of stainless steels, and indicates hot-cracking is unlikely to be a problem. Subsize Charpy test results for GTA weld metal in the as-welded condition have shown a significant reduction in toughness compared to the base metal. The weld metal toughness properties were restored to approximately that of the base metal after exposure to a PWHT 950{degrees}C. The subsize Charpy toughness results for the EB weld metal from this same heat of vanadium alloy has shown significant improvement in properties compared to the GTA weld metal and the base metal. Further testing and analysis will be conducted to more fully characterize the properties of weld metal for each welding process and develop a basic understanding of the cause of the toughness decrease in the GTA welds. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Process characteristics of fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A; Schnick, M; Rose, S; Demuth, C; Beyer, E; Fuessel, U, E-mail: achim.mahrle@iws.fraunhofer.de [Dresden University of Technology, Institute of Surface and Manufacturing Technology, PO Box, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-08-31

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on fibre-laser-assisted plasma arc welding (LAPW) were performed. Welding experiments were carried out on aluminium and steel sheets. In the case of a highly focused laser beam and a separate arrangement of plasma torch and laser beam, high-speed video recordings of the plasma arc and corresponding measurements of the time-dependent arc voltage revealed differences in the process behaviour for both materials. In the case of aluminium welding, a sharp decline in arc voltage and stabilization and guiding of the anodic arc root was observed whereas in steel welding the arc voltage was slightly increased after the laser beam was switched on. However, significant improvement of the melting efficiency with the combined action of plasma arc and laser beam was achieved for both types of material. Theoretical results of additional numerical simulations of the arc behaviour suggest that the properties of the arc plasma are mainly influenced not by a direct interaction with the laser radiation but by the laser-induced evaporation of metal. Arc stabilization with increased current densities is predicted for moderate rates of evaporated metal only whereas metal vapour rates above a certain threshold causes a destabilization of the arc and reduced current densities along the arc axis.

  18. Parametric optimisation and microstructural analysis on high power Yb-fibre laser welding of Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, J.; Chen, L.; Davies, C. M.; Dear, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    In this work thin sheets of Ti-6Al-4V were full penetration welded using a 5 kW fibre laser in order to evaluate the effectiveness of high power fibre laser as a welding processing tool for welding Ti-6Al-4V with the requirements of the aircraft industry and to determine the effect of welding parameters including laser power, welding speed and beam focal position on the weld microstructure, bead profile and weld quality. It involved establishing an understanding of the influence of welding parameters on microstructural change, welding defects, and the characteristics of heat affected zone (HAZ) and weld metal (WM) of fibre laser welded joints. The optimum range of welding parameters which produced welds without cracking and porosity were identified. The influence of the welding parameters on the weld joint heterogeneity was characterised by conducting detailed microstructural analysis.

  19. Forming Limits of Weld Metal in Aluminum Alloys and Advanced High-Strength Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Smith, Mark T.; Grant, Glenn J.; Davies, Richard W.

    2010-10-25

    This work characterizes the mechanical properties of DP600 laser welded TWBs (1 mm-1.5 mm) near and in the weld, as well as their limits of formability. The approach uses simple uniaxial experiments to measure the variability in the forming limits of the weld region, and uses a theoretical forming limit diagram calculation to establish a probabilistic distribution of weld region imperfection using an M-K method approach

  20. The high frequency characteristics of laser reflection and visible light during solid state disk laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangdong; You, Deyong; Katayama, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    Optical properties are related to weld quality during laser welding. Visible light radiation generated from optical-induced plasma and laser reflection is considered a key element reflecting weld quality. An in-depth analysis of the high-frequency component of optical signals is conducted. A combination of a photoelectric sensor and an optical filter helped to obtain visible light reflection and laser reflection in the welding process. Two groups of optical signals were sampled at a high sampling rate (250 kHz) using an oscilloscope. Frequencies in the ranges 1-10 kHz and 10-125 kHz were investigated respectively. Experimental results showed that there was an obvious correlation between the high-frequency signal and the laser power, while the high-frequency signal was not sensitive to changes in welding speed. In particular, when the defocus position was changed, only a high frequency of the visible light signal was observed, while the high frequency of the laser reflection signal remained unchanged. The basic correlation between optical features and welding status during the laser welding process is specified, which helps to provide a new research focus for investigating the stability of welding status.

  1. Laser Welding and Syncristallization Techniques Comparison: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Fornaini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laser welding was first reported in 1967 and for many years it has been used in dental laboratories with several advantages versus the conventional technique. Authors described, in previous works, the possibility of using also chair-side Nd : YAG laser device (Fotona Fidelis III, =1064 nm for welding metallic parts of prosthetic appliances directly in the dental office, extra- and also intra-orally. Syncristallisation is a soldering technique based on the creation of an electric arc between two electrodes and used to connect implants to bars intra-orally. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare two different laser welding devices with a soldering machine, all of these used in prosthetic dentistry. Material and Methods. In-lab Nd : YAG laser welding (group A = 12 samples, chair-side Nd : YAG laser welding (group B = 12 samples, and electrowelder (group C = 12 samples were used. The tests were performed on 36 CrCoMo plates and the analysis consisted in evaluation, by microscopic observation, of the number of fissures in welded areas of groups A and B and in measurement of the welding strength in all the groups. The results were statistically analysed by means of one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests. Results. The means and standard deviations for the number of fissures in welded areas were 8.12±2.59 for group A and 5.20±1.38 for group B. The difference was statistical significant (=0.0023 at the level 95%. On the other hand, the means and standard deviations for the traction tests were 1185.50±288.56 N for group A, 896.41±120.84 N for group B, and 283.58±84.98 N for group C. The difference was statistical significant (=0.01 at the level 95%. Conclusion. The joint obtained by welding devices had a significant higher strength compared with that obtained by the electrowelder, and the comparison between the two laser devices used demonstrated that the chair-side Nd : YAG, even giving a

  2. A combined enthalpy / front tracking method for modelling melting and solidification in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, G.; Mirihanage, W. U.; Tong, M.; Browne, D. J.

    2012-07-01

    The authors present an integrated meso-scale 2D numerical model for the simulation of laser spot welding of a Fe-Cr-Ni steel. The melting of the parent materials due to the applied heating power is an important phenomenon, leading to the formation of the weld pool and the subsequent conditions from which solidification proceeds. This model deals with the dynamic formation of the weld pool whereby melting may be occurring at a given location while solidification has already commenced elsewhere throughout the weld pool. Considering both melting and possible simultaneous solidification in this manner ensures a more accurate simulation of temperature distribution. A source based enthalpy method is employed throughout the calculation domain in order to integrate the melting model with the UCD front tracking model for alloy solidification. Melting is tracked via interpolation of the liquidus isotherm, while solidification is treated via both the tracking of the advancing columnar dendritic front, and the nucleation and growth of equiaxed dendrites using a volume-averaging formulation. Heterogeneous nucleation is assumed to take place on TiN grain refiner particles at a grain refiner density of 1000 particles per mm2. A mechanical blocking criterion is used to define dendrite coherency, and the columnar-to-equiaxed transition within the weld pool is predicted.

  3. Microstructures and Toughness of Weld Metal of Ultrafine Grained Ferritic Steel by Laser Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xudong ZHANG; Wuzhu CHEN; Cheng WANG; Lin ZHAO; Yun PENG; Zhiling TIAN

    2004-01-01

    3 mm thick 400 MPa grade ultrafine grained ferritic steel plates were bead-on-plate welded by CO2 laser with heat input of 120~480 J/mm. The microstructures of the weld metal mainly consist of bainite, which form is lower bainite plates or polygonal ferrite containing quantities of dispersed cementite particles, mixed with a few of low carbon martensite laths or ferrite, depending on the heat input. The hardness and the tensile strength of the weld metal are higher than those of the base metal, and monotonously increase as the heat input decreases. No softened zone exists inheat affected zone (HAZ). Compared with the base metal, although the grains of laser weld are much larger, the toughness of the weld metal is higher within a large range of heat input. Furthermore, as the heat input increases, the toughness of the weld metal rises to a maximum value, at which point the percentage of lower bainite is the highest, and then drops.

  4. Tungsten carbide laser alloying of a low alloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Mihai; Taca, Mihaela

    1996-10-01

    Laser alloying is a way to change the composition of metal surfaces in order to improve their corrosion-resistance, high-temperature strength and hardness. The results of a structural and phase analysis of a tungsten carbide based surface layer prepared by laser alloying of a low carbon steel substrate are presented. Structure, phase composition and microhardness of surface alloyed layers have been investigated. The surface of the samples exhibited a thin layer with a different chemical and phase composition. An increase in alloyed surface hardness and wear-resistance was observed.

  5. Characterization of Nitinol Laser-Weld Joints by Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlschlögel, Markus; Gläßel, Gunter; Sanchez, Daniela; Schüßler, Andreas; Dillenz, Alexander; Saal, David; Mayr, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Joining technology is an integral part of today's Nitinol medical device manufacturing. Besides crimping and riveting, laser welding is often applied to join components made from Nitinol to Nitinol, as well as Nitinol components to dissimilar materials. Other Nitinol joining techniques include adhesive bonding, soldering, and brazing. Typically, the performance of joints is assessed by destructive mechanical testing, on a process validation base. In this study, a nondestructive testing method—photothermal radiometry—is applied to characterize small Nitinol laser-weld joints used to connect two wire ends via a sleeve. Two different wire diameters are investigated. Effective joint connection cross sections are visualized using metallography techniques. Results of the nondestructive testing are correlated to data from destructive torsion testing, where the maximum torque at fracture is evaluated for the same joints and criteria for the differentiation of good and poor laser-welding quality by nondestructive testing are established.

  6. Modelling and validation of multiple reflections for enhanced laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, J.; Sklar, E.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of multiple internal reflections within a laser weld joint as functions of joint geometry and processing conditions have been characterized. A computer-based ray tracing model is used to predict the reflective propagation of laser beam energy focused into the narrow gap of a metal joint for the purpose of predicting the location of melting and coalescence to form a weld. Quantitative comparisons are made between simulation cases. Experimental results are provided for qualitative model validation. This method is proposed as a way to enhance process efficiency and design laser welds which display deep penetration and high depth-to-width aspect ratios without high powered systems or keyhole mode melting.

  7. Fatigue Properties of Welded Butt Joint and Base Metal of MB8 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-xia YU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of welded butt joint and base metal of MB8 magnesium alloy were investigated. The comparative fatigue tests were carried out using EHF-EM200K2-070-1A fatigue testing machine for both welded butt joint and base metal specimens with the same size and shape. The fatigue fractures were observed and analyzed by a scanning electron microscope of 6360 LA type. The experimental results show that the fatigue performance of the welded butt joint of MB8 magnesium alloy is sharply decreased. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of base metal and welded butt joint is about 69.41 and 32.76 MPa, respectively. The conditional fatigue limit (1×107 of the welded butt joint is 47.2 % of that of base metal. The main reasons are that the welding can lead to stress concentration in the weld toe area, tensile welding residual stress in the welded joint, as well as grain coarsening in the welding seam. The cleavage steps or quasi-cleavage patterns present on the fatigue fracture surface, indicating the fracture type of the welded butt joint belongs to a brittle fracture.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.9132

  8. Effect of Nd:YAG laser beam welding on weld morphology and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V butt joints and T-joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashaev, Nikolai; Ventzke, Volker; Fomichev, Vadim; Fomin, Fedor; Riekehr, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    A Nd:YAG single-sided laser beam welding process study for Ti-6Al-4V butt joints and T-joints was performed to investigate joining techniques with regard to the process-weld morphology relationship. An alloy compatible filler wire was used to avoid underfills and undercuts. The quality of the butt joints and T-joints was characterized in terms of weld morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties. Joints with regular shapes, without visible cracks, pores, and geometrical defects were achieved. Tensile tests revealed high joint integrity in terms of strength and ductility for both the butt joint and T-joint geometries. Both the butt joints and T-joints showed base material levels of strength. The mechanical performance of T-joints was also investigated using pull-out tests. The performance of the T-joints in such tests was sensitive to the shape and morphology of the welds. Fracture always occurred in the weld without any plastic deformation in the base material outside the weld.

  9. Welding Distortion Prediction in 5A06 Aluminum Alloy Complex Structure via Inherent Strain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zeng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Finite element (FE simulation with inherent deformation is an ideal and practical computational approach for predicting welding stress and distortion in the production of complex aluminum alloy structures. In this study, based on the thermal elasto-plastic analysis, FE models of multi-pass butt welds and T-type fillet welds were investigated to obtain the inherent strain distribution in a 5A06 aluminum alloy cylindrical structure. The angular distortion of the T-type joint was used to investigate the corresponding inherent strain mechanism. Moreover, a custom-designed experimental system was applied to clarify the magnitude of inherent deformation. With the mechanism investigation of welding-induced buckling by FE analysis using inherent deformation, an application for predicting and mitigating the welding buckling in fabrication of complex aluminum alloy structure was developed.

  10. Natural Aging Behavior Of Friction Stir Welded Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalemba I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The long term natural aging behavior of friction stir welded aluminum 7136-T76 and 7042 T6 extrusions was investigated. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties in the as-welded and six years naturally aged conditions were studied and correlated to a coupled thermal/material flow model of the joining process. Hardness profiles for the 7136 alloy taken along the mid-plane thickness of the workpiece displayed the characteristic W-shape. With natural aging, hardness recovery occurred on both sides of the weld, but the position of the hardness minima, particularly on the advancing side, shifted away from the weld centerline. The hardness profile for the 7042 alloy displayed U-shape in the as-welded condition and W-shape after natural aging. The hardness behavior upon natural aging correlated to the temperature profile developed during welding and the degree to which phase dissolution occurred in the regions adjacent to the stir zone.

  11. Applications and mechanisms of laser tissue welding in 1995: review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewski, Guilhem; Prudhomme, Michel; Tang, Jing

    1996-01-01

    For several years laser tissue welding has appeared as a new alternative technique for tissue repair instead of manual sutures. It has been evaluated in different experimental models including blood vessels, skin, nerve, intestine, bile ducts, vas and fallopian tube. Different types of lasers with different sets of parameters have been used: carbon dioxide laser, Nd:YAG laser, argon and KTP laser and diode laser. Recent trends in tissue fusion promote near infrared lasers at low irradiance with intraoperative enhancement of light absorption by specific chromophores. As far as microvascular reconstruction is concerned, successful clinical applications are currently published. Although the molecular mechanism involved in welding is not completely understood, the tissular fusion is considered as a thermal phenomena. In laser assisted microvascular anastomosis, the best experimental model, the ultrastructural examination of arteries anastomosed with Nd:YAG, argon or diode laser revealed interdigitation of collagen fibers which appeared swollen, with modified striation and organized in irregular network. The mechanism of welding involving the formation of non covalent bands between collagen strands, is generally induced by a temperature of 60 - 63 degrees Celsius well adapted to collagen denaturation.

  12. Residual stress analysis of 7075 aluminum alloy after vacuum electron beam welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Furong; Xie Ruijun; Guo Guifang

    2007-01-01

    The residual stresses distribution of 7075 aluminum alloy in vacuum electron beam welding joint was numerically simulated using nonlinear finite element method. The result shows that the longitudinal residual stress is tension stress along weld center and the stress peak value appears in the middle of the welded seam; the transversal residual stress is compression stress; the residual stress in thickness direction is very small.

  13. Effect of pulsed current welding on fatigue behaviour of high strength aluminium alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: visvabalu@yahoo.com; Ravisankar, V. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India); Madhusudhan Reddy, G. [Metal Joining Section, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMRL), Kanchanbag (P.O), Hyderabad 560 058 (India)

    2008-07-01

    High strength aluminium alloys (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys) have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 6 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt%)) grade aluminium alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Fatigue properties of the welded joints have been evaluated by conducting fatigue test using rotary bending fatigue testing machine. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in gas tungsten arc (GTA) and gas metal arc (GMA) welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit.

  14. A Study of Friction Stir Welded 2195 Al-Li Alloy by the Scanning Reference Electrode Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donford, M. D.; Ding, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the corrosion of friction stir welded 2195 Al-Li alloy has been carried out using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET). The results are compared to those obtained from a study of heterogeneously welded samples.

  15. Investigation of copper and copper alloy's welding and discussion on manual SHS welding of copper and copper alloy%铜及铜合金焊接研究现状和手工自蔓延焊接铜问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲利峰; 辛文彤; 吴永胜; 李志尊

    2011-01-01

    Meaning of research on Copper and Copper Alloy's welding is of great importance because of the good property and abroad application. Technical characteristics of Copper and Copper AIloy's normal welding,like gas welding,brazing and soldering,activing welding, MIG welding,friction stir welding, thermit friction stir welding,laser welding,laser welding electron beam welding and Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) welding was studied and classified in the paper as well as the analysis about domestic and foreign present situation of research. It is also analyzed that how normal welding can provide direction and guidance for the Manual SHS Welding Technology of Copper and Copper Alloy. Moreover,the present problem of manual SHS welding of copper and copper alloy is diseussed,especially the wettability between welding seam and base metal,the separation between slag and welding seam on emphasis,and the further research orientation was indicated.%概述了铜及铜合金的气焊、钎焊、活性焊、MIG焊、搅拌摩擦焊及热摩擦搅拌焊、激光焊、电子束焊等常规焊法和自蔓延焊法的技术特点及国内外的研究现状.论述了在当前铜及铜合金手工自蔓延焊接技术的研究过程中如何借鉴融合其他焊接技术的工艺及机理,并讨论了铜及铜合金手工自蔓延焊接所存在的问题并对其产生原因作了初步分析.着重分析了焊接时熳缝金属与母材的润湿性,熔渣与焊缝金属的分离等当亟需解决的问题,指出了需要深入研究的方向和解决问题的思路.

  16. Optimization of laser butt welding parameters with multiple performance characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiya, P.; Abdul Jaleel, M. Y.; Katherasan, D.; Shanmugarajan, B.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents a study carried out on 3.5 kW cooled slab laser welding of 904 L super austenitic stainless steel. The joints have butts welded with different shielding gases, namely argon, helium and nitrogen, at a constant flow rate. Super austenitic stainless steel (SASS) normally contains high amount of Mo, Cr, Ni, N and Mn. The mechanical properties are controlled to obtain good welded joints. The quality of the joint is evaluated by studying the features of weld bead geometry, such as bead width (BW) and depth of penetration (DOP). In this paper, the tensile strength and bead profiles (BW and DOP) of laser welded butt joints made of AISI 904 L SASS are investigated. The Taguchi approach is used as a statistical design of experiment (DOE) technique for optimizing the selected welding parameters. Grey relational analysis and the desirability approach are applied to optimize the input parameters by considering multiple output variables simultaneously. Confirmation experiments have also been conducted for both of the analyses to validate the optimized parameters.

  17. Thermal Stir Welding of High Strength and High Temperature Alloys for Aerospace Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Keystone and MSU team propose to demonstrate the feasibility of solid-state joining high strength and temperature alloys utilizing the Thermal Stir Welding...

  18. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Lap Welded Aluminum Alloy AA2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Babu; G.D. Janaki Ram; P.V. Venkitakrishnan; G. Madhusudhan Reddy; K. Prasad Rao

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir lap welds were produced in 3 mm thick Alclad sheets of Al alloy 2014-T4 using two different tools (with triangular and threaded taper cylindrical pins). The effects of tool geometry on weld microstructure, lap-shear performance and failure mode were investigated. The pin profile was found to significantly influence the hook geometry, which in turn strongly influenced the joint strength and the failure mode. Welds produced in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad sheets by using triangular and threaded taper cylindrical tools exhibited an average lap-shear failure load of 16.5 and 19.5 kN, respectively, while the average failure load for standard riveted joints was only 3.4 kN. Welds produced in alloy 2014-T6 Alclad sheets and in alloy 2014-T4 bare sheets (i.e., no Alclad) were comparatively evaluated with those produced in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad sheets. While the welds made (with threaded taper cylindrical tool) in T6 and T4 conditions showed very similar lap-shear failure loads, the joint efficiency of the welds made in T6 condition (43%) was considerably lower (because of the higher base material strength) than those made in T4 condition (51%). The Alclad layers were found to present no special problems in friction stir lap welding. Welds made with triangular tool in alloy 2014-T4 Alclad and bare sheets showed very similar lap-shear failure loads. The present work provides some useful insights into the use of friction stir welding for joining Al alloys in lap configuration.

  19. Critical Gap distance in Laser Butt-welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    When butt-welding metal sheets with high power lasers the gap distance between the sheets determine the final quality of the seam. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the critical gap distance that results in sound beads is identified. By grinding the edges of the sheets, a number...... of "reference" welds are made and compared to sheets with the edges shear cut. The gap distance is precisely controlled by inserting spacers between the sheets. In the tests the gap is set at 0.00, 0.02, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 mm. Mild steel (St 1203) with thickness? of 0.75 and 1.25 mm with and without zinc...... % of the bad welds have a gap distance larger than 0.05 mm. The results also show that 85 % of the bad welds are shear cut and only 15 % ground. Furthermore the results show that two third of the bad welds are zinc coated.X-ray pictures revealed that welding at "low" welding speeds (2 m/min. for 0.75 mm and 1...

  20. The influence of screw type, alloy and cylinder position on the marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding Influência do tipo de parafuso, liga e da posição do cilindro na adaptação marginal das infra-estruturas sob implantes antes e após a soldagem a laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Castilio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Misfit at the abutment-prosthetic cylinder interface can cause loss of preload, leading to loosening or fracture of gold and titanium screws. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the influence of screw type, alloy, and cylinder position on marginal fit of implant frameworks before and after laser welding. METHODS: After Estheticone-like abutments were screwed to the implants, thirty plastic prosthetic cylinders were mounted and waxed-up to fifteen cylindrical bars. Each specimen had three interconnected prosthetic components. Five specimens were one-piece cast in titanium and five in cobalt-chromium alloy. On each specimen, tests were conducted with hexagonal titanium and slotted gold screws separately, performing a total of thirty tested screws. Measurements at the interfaces were performed using an optical microscope with 5mm accuracy. After sectioning, specimens were laser welded and new measurements were obtained. Data were submitted to a four-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (alpha=0.05. RESULTS: Slotted and hexagonal screws did not present significant differences regarding to the fit of cylinders cast in titanium, either in one-piece casting framework or after laser welding. When slotted and hexagonal screws were tested on the cobalt-chromium specimens, statistically significant differences were found for the one-piece casting condition, with the slotted screws presenting better fit (24.13µm than the hexagonal screws (27.93 µm. Besides, no statistically significant differences were found after laser welding. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The use of different metal alloys do exert influence on the marginal fit, 2 The slotted and hexagonal screws play the exclusive role of fixing the prosthesis, and did not improve the fit of cylinders, and 3 cylinder position did not affect marginal fit values.A desadaptação na interface abutment-cilindro protético pode causar perda da pré-carga, levando ao afrouxamento ou fratura dos parafusos de ouro e tit

  1. Stress corrosion crack initiation of alloy 182 weld metal in primary coolant - Influence of chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonne, O.; Foucault, M.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF SEPTEN (France)

    2011-07-01

    Nickel-base alloys 182 and 82 have been used extensively for dissimilar metal welds. Typical applications are the J-groove welds of alloy 600 vessel head penetrations, pressurizer penetrations, heater sleeves and bottom mounted instrumented nozzles as well as some safe end butt welds. While the overall performance of these weld metals has been good, during the last decade, an increasing number of cases of stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 182 weld metal have been reported in PWRs. In this context, the role of weld defects has to be examined. Their contribution in the crack initiation mechanism requires laboratory investigations with small scale characterizations. In this study, the influence of both alloy composition and weld defects on PWSCC (Stress Corrosion Cracking in Primary Water) initiation was investigated using U-bend specimens in simulated primary water at 320 C. The main results are the following: -) the chemical compositions of the weld deposits leading to a large propensity to hot cracking are not the most susceptible to PWSCC initiation, -) macroscopically, superficial defects did not evolve during successive exposures. They can be included in large corrosion cracks but their role as 'precursors' is not yet established. (authors)

  2. Properties of laser alloyed surface layers on magnesium base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galun, R.; Weisheit, A.; Mordike, B.L. (Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde und Werkstofftechnik)

    1998-01-01

    The investigations have shown that laser surface alloying is a promising process to improve the wear and corrosion properties of magnesium base alloys without affecting the initial bulk properties like the low density. With an alloying element combination of aluminium and nickel the wear rate in the scratch test was reduced by 90% compared to untreated pure magnesium. Additionally the corrosion resistance was improved by laser alloying with this element combination. Because of distortion or crack formation in the case of large area treatments, the laser alloying should be limited to the treatment of smaller areas. In the near future this process could be an interesting alternative to surface coating or to a partially reinforcement with ceramic fibres or particles. (orig.)

  3. Highspeed laser welding of steel using a high-power single-mode continuous-wave fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsel, J.; Loeschner, U.; Schwind, S.; Hartwig, L.; Schille, J.; Exner, H.; Huebner, P.; Eysert, A.

    2013-02-01

    Since a few years, high brilliance laser sources find their way into laser material processing. Laser micro processing by applying high brilliance laser radiation up to 3 kW of continuous wave laser power in combination with ultrafast beam deflection systems has been successfully demonstrated in 2008 for the first time. In the fields of laser welding, high brilliant laser radiation was mainly used for micro welding, but up to now the macro range is still insufficiently investigated. Hence, this study reports on detailed investigations of high speed laser welding of different steel grades, performed with a high power single mode fiber laser source. The laser beam was deflected relative to the sample by using both a fast galvanometer scanner system with f-theta focusing objective and a linear axis in combination with a welding optic, respectively. In the study, the mainly process influencing parameters such as laser power, welding speed, thickness of the metal sheets, angle of incidence and laser beam spot size were varied in a wide range. The weld seam quality was evaluated by structural analyses, static tensile tests and EDX measurements. Finally, the laser welding process has been optimized for different weld seam geometries, for example bead-on-plate welds and butt welds.

  4. Evaluation of weld porosity in laser beam seam welds: optimizing continuous wave and square wave modulated processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew; Faraone, Kevin M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Roach, Robert Allen; Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-02-01

    Nd:YAG laser joining is a high energy density (HED) process that can produce high-speed, low-heat input welds with a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. This is optimized by formation of a ''keyhole'' in the weld pool resulting from high vapor pressures associated with laser interaction with the metallic substrate. It is generally accepted that pores form in HED welds due to the instability and frequent collapse of the keyhole. In order to maintain an open keyhole, weld pool forces must be balanced such that vapor pressure and weld pool inertia forces are in equilibrium. Travel speed and laser beam power largely control the way these forces are balanced, as well as welding mode (Continuous Wave or Square Wave) and shielding gas type. A study into the phenomenon of weld pool porosity in 304L stainless steel was conducted to better understand and predict how welding parameters impact the weld pool dynamics that lead to pore formation. This work is intended to aid in development and verification of a finite element computer model of weld pool fluid flow dynamics being developed in parallel efforts and assist in weld development activities for the W76 and future RRW programs.

  5. Optimizing friction stir welding parameters to maximize tensile strength of AA2219 aluminum alloy joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S.; Elangovan, K.; Balasubramanian, V.; Balasubramanian, M.

    2009-04-01

    AA2219 aluminium alloy (Al-Cu-Mn alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of lightweight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. In contrast to the fusion welding processes that are routinely used for joining structural aluminium alloys, the friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force etc., and the tool pin profile play a major role in determining the joint strength. An attempt has been made here to develop a mathematical model to predict the tensile strength of friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy by incorporating FSW process parameters. A central composite design with four factors and five levels has been used to minimize the number of experimental conditions. The response surface method (RSM) has been used to develop the model. The developed mathematical model has been optimized using the Hooke and Jeeves search technique to maximize the tensile strength of the friction stir welded AA2219 aluminium alloy joints.

  6. Strength and microstructure of 2091 Al-Li alloy TIG welded joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and tensile properties of TIG welding joints of 2091 Al-Li alloy were investigated both in as-welded and different postweld heat treatment condition. The results show that solution strengthening played an important role in the as-welded condition, though the precipitation strengthening δ' phase formed already in the as-welded weld metal, but its effect was not apparent due to the lower volume fraction of δ' phase. So the strength coefficient (φ) of the welded joint/base metal was 64%. After artificially aging heat treatment, the precipitation strengthening effect increased much due to the formation of more δ' phase and s' phase. Its φ value was increased up to 89%. The highest strength of the welded joints was obtained after solid solution and then artificially aged heat treatment. Due to the proper size of precipitation strengthening phases and their well distribution, the φ value was increased up to 98%.

  7. Effect of Welding Parameters on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Fe-40Al Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Torun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction welding of cast Fe-40Al alloy was carried out at 1000 rmp for various friction times, friction pressures, and forging pressures. The microstructures of the interface of welded samples were analyzed by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Micrographs demonstrated that excellent welding formed continuously along the interface, except for samples welded for 3 s. Chemical compositions of the interface of the friction welded samples and of the fractured surface of all the specimens were determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. After the welding process, shear tests were applied to the welded samples to determine the shear strength of joints. Test results indicated that the maximum shear strength was 469.5 MPa.

  8. Optimization of parameters and study of joint microstructure of resistance spot welding of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yarong; Zhang Zhongdian; Li Dongqing

    2006-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the DC spot welding of Mg alloy AZ31B are presented. Experiments are carried out to study the influence of spot welding parameters (electrode force, welding heat input and welding time) on the tensile shear load and the diameter of nugget, based on an orthogonal test and analysis method. The optimum parameters are as follows:electrode force is 2 000 N, welding heat input is 80% and welding time is 6 cycles. The microstructure of spot weld is single fine equiaxed crystals in the nugget, of which the structure is β-Mg17Al12 precipitated on α-Mg boundaries induced by nonequilibrium freezing. And the surface condition of the workpiece has great influence on the joint quality.

  9. Effect of Heat Input During Disk Laser Bead-On-Plate Welding of Thermomechanically Rolled Steel on Penetration Characteristics and Porosity Formation in the Weld Metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed analysis of the influence of heat input during laser bead-on-plate welding of 5.0 mm thick plates of S700MC steel by modern Disk laser on the mechanism of steel penetration, shape and depth of penetration, and also on tendency to weld porosity formation. Based on the investigations performed in a wide range of laser welding parameters the relationship between laser power and welding speed, thus heat input, required for full penetration was determined. Additionally the relationship between the laser welding parameters and weld quality was determined.

  10. Detection of transient reflections during laser beam welding of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Andreas; Liebl, Stefan; Schmitz, Patrick; Zaeh, Michael F.

    2016-03-01

    The advantages of laser beam welding, such as its high flexibility, its high local energy input, and its fast processing speed, led to a substantial increase of industrial applications using this technology. However, only a portion of the laser energy is absorbed during welding due to reflections. These reflections can damage the system components and lead to a reduced process efficiency. Especially when welding copper materials with infrared laser beam sources, the reflections play a significant role, since the reflection coefficient of copper is very high at infrared wavelengths. Therefore, a formation of a keyhole is necessary for a stable and efficient welding process. A theoretical model for the calculation of the reflections on an arbitrary position above the process zone, as well as a radiation analyzer based on a modular set-up are presented. This device enables a time- and space-resolved measurement of the reflected radiation. Using the experimental results, characteristic positions on the hemisphere could be identified to calibrate the theoretical model. The calibrated model allows to analyze the reflected radiation during the welding process to determine the energy which is absorbed by the work piece.

  11. Intraoral Laser Welding (ILW in Implant Prosthetic Dentistry: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fornaini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this clinical study was to describe the possibility of using the Nd:YAG laser device utilized in the dental offices to weld metals intraorally. The authors, before applying this technique “in vivo” on human subjects, tested the “in vitro” metal welding efficacy of dental Nd:YAG device firstly by interferometry, SEM, and EDS and subsequently by thermal camera and thermocouples in order to record temperature changes during the welding process on bovine jaws. Four implants were inserted in the edentulous maxillary arch of a 67 years old male patient. Immediately after that, a bar previously made by the dental technician was intraorally welded to the abutments by Nd:YAG laser (Fidelis Plus III, Fotona, Slovenia with these parameters: 9.90 mJ, 1 Hz, 15 msec, 0.6 mm spot. Then the prosthesis was connected to the bar with four OT Caps. This clinical study, even if preliminary, suggests that laser welding technique may be intraorally used without side effects.

  12. Sensors Array Technique for Monitoring Aluminum Alloy Spot Welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui; LUO Zhen; SHAN Ping; BU Xianzheng; YUAN Shuxian; AO Sansan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the sensors array technique is applied to the quality detection of aluminum alloy spot weld-ing. The sensors array has three forms, i.e., linear magnetic sensors array, annular magnetic sensors array and cross magnetic sensors array. An algorithm based on principal component analysis is proposed to extract the signal eigen-values. The three types of magnetic sensors array are used in the experiment of monitoring the signal. After the eigen-values are extracted, they are used to build a relationship with the nugget information. The result shows that when the distance between the core of the array and the pole is 60 mm, the arrays work best. In this case, when the eigenvalues' range of the linear array is 0.006 5-0.015 1, the quality of the spots is eligible. To the annular and cross array, when the ranges are 0.082 9—0.131 6 and 0.085 1—0.098 2 respectively, the nugget quality is eligible.

  13. Influence of Welding Current and Focal Position on the Resonant Absorption of Laser Radiation in a TIG Welding Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, B.; Huse, M.; Hermsdorf, J.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.; Overmeyer, L.

    The work presents the influence of welding current and focal position on the resonant absorption of diode laser radiation in a TIG welding arc. The laser beam is guided perpendicular to the electrical arc to avoid an interaction with the electrodes. Laser power measurements have shown a reduction of the measured laser power up to 18% after passing the electrical arc. This reduction results from the interaction of argon shielding gas atoms and laser radiation at 810.4 nm and 811.5 nm. The interaction is strongly affected by the adjusted welding current and the adjustment of the laser beam and the electrical arc. Lowering the welding current or shifting the laser beam out of the centerline of the electrical arc reduces the ionization probability. An increased ionization is necessary to decrease the resistance of the electrical arc.

  14. Effect of the overlapping factor on the microstructure and mechanical properties of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welded Ti6Al4V sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiao-Long; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Lin-Jie, E-mail: zhanglinjie@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Jian-Xun

    2014-07-01

    The effect of the overlapping factor on the microstructures and mechanical properties of pulsed Nd:YAG laser welded Ti6Al4V alloy sheets was investigated by microstructural observations, microhardness tests, tensile tests and fatigue tests. A microstructural examination shows that by increasing the overlapping factor, the grains in the fusion zone become coarser, and the width of the heat affected zone increases. As overlapping factor increases, the width of region composed completely of martensite α′ and the secondary α phase in the heat affected zone increases, consequently the gradient of microstructure along the direction from the fusion zone to base metal decreases, so does the gradient of microhardness. The results of tensile and fatigue tests reveal that the joints made using medium overlapping factor exhibit better mechanical properties than those welded with low and high overlapping factors. Based on the experimental results, it can be stated that a sound weld of Ti6Al4V alloy can be obtained if an appropriate overlapping factor is used. - Highlights: • The weld quality of Ti6Al4V alloy under various overlapping factors was assessed. • Tensile and fatigue tests were conducted with as-welded specimen. • Localized strain across the weld was measured using DIC photogrammetry system. • A sound weld of Ti6Al4V alloy is obtained by using right overlapping factor.

  15. Effect of Pulsed Current TIG Welding Parameters on Pitting Corrosion Behaviour of AA6061 Aluminium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Senthil Kumar; V. Balasubramanian; M. Y. Sanavullah; S. Babu

    2007-01-01

    Medium strength aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding process for aluminium alloy is frequently TIG (tungsten inert gas) welding due to its comparatively easier applicability and better economy.In the case of single pass TIG welding of thinner section of this alloy, the pulsed current has been found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. The use of pulsed current parameters has been found to improve the mechanical properties of the welds compared to those of continuous current welds of this alloy due to grain refinement occurring in the fusion zone. A mathematical model has been developed to predict pitting corrosion potential of pulsed current TIG welded AA6061 aluminium alloy.Factorial experimental design has been used to optimize the experimental conditions. Analysis of variance technique has been used to find out the significant pulsed current parameters. Regression analysis has been used to develop the model. Using the developed model pitting corrosion potential values have been estimated for different combinations of pulsed current parameters and the results are analyzed in detail.

  16. Sheet metal welding using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser-robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi; Kullberg, Gunnar; Skoog, Hans

    This paper presents a pulsed Nd: YAG laser-robot system for spot and seam welding of mild steel sheets. The study evaluates the laser beams behaviour for welding, and then investigates pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot and seam welding processes. High pulse power intensity is needed to initiate the key-hole welding process and a threshold pulse energy to reach full penetration. In seam welding, a weld consists of successive overlapping spots. Both high pulse energy and high average power are needed to keep the key-hole welding going. A 70% overlap is used to define overlapping spot welding as seam welding and to optimize process parameters because a high tensile strength joint compatible with the strength of the base material can be obtained when the overlap is ≥ 70%; at the same time a smooth seam with full penetration is obtained. In these cases, the joints in pulsed Nd: YAG laser welding are comparable in strength to those obtained with CO 2 laser welding. Robot positioning and motion accuracies can meet the demands of Nd: YAG laser sheet metal welding, but its cornering accuracy affects the welding processes. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the YAG laser-robot system for production in the automotive industry.

  17. Research for the method of image acquisition of the molten pool in the TIG welding of aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 林涛; 陈善本; 王伟

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining the image of molten pool aluminum alloy's tungsten inert gas(TIG)welding becomes a challenging problem in the welding field. In this paper, a bran-new optical sensor based analyzing the light spectrum was designed, and the clear image of the molten pool during the aluminum alloy's welding using the common industrial CCD camera was obtained. And with the new algorithm provided by myself, the desirable characteristic parameters of the molten pool of aluminum alloy's welding were obtained, and it provides a good base for advanced monitor welding quality.

  18. Laser Welding Of Finned Tubes Made Of Austenitic Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolecki M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the technology of welding of finned tubes made of the X5CrNi1810 (1.4301 austenitic steel, developed at Energoinstal SA, allowing one to get high quality joints that meet the requirements of the classification societies (PN-EN 15614, and at the same time to significantly reduce the manufacturing costs. The authors described an automatic technological line equipped with a Trumph disc laser and a tube production technological process. To assess the quality of the joints, one performed metallographic examinations, hardness measurements and a technological attempt to rupture the fin. Analysis of the results proved that the laser-welded finned tubes were performed correctly and that the welded joints had shown no imperfections.

  19. Activating Flux Design for Laser Welding of Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马立; 胡绳荪; 胡宝; 申俊琦; 王勇慧

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of YAG laser welding process of ferritic stainless steel with activating fluxes were investi-gated in this study. Some conventional oxides, halides and carbonates were applied in laser welding. The results showed that the effect of oxides on the penetration depth was more remarkable. Most activating fluxes improved the penetration more effectively at low power than that at high power. The uniform design was adopted to arrange the formula of multicomponent activating fluxes, showing that the optimal formula can make the penetration depth up to 2.23 times as large as that without flux, including 50%ZrO2, 12.09%CaCO3, 10.43%CaO and 27.48%MgO. Through the high-speed photographs of welding process, CaF2 can minimize the plasma volume but slightly improve the pene-tration capability.

  20. Towards the problem of forming full strength welded joints on aluminum alloy sheets. Part II: AA7475

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikova, Tatiana; Tarasov, Sergey; Eliseev, Alexander; Fortuna, Anastasiya

    2016-11-01

    The microstructural evolution in welded joint zones obtained both by friction stir welding and ultrasonic- assisted friction stir welding on dispersion hardened 7475 aluminum alloy has been examined together with the analysis of mechanical strength and microhardness. It was established that ultrasonic-assisted friction stir provided leveled microhardness profiles across the weld zones as well as higher joint strength as compared to those of standard friction stir welding.

  1. CO2 laser-micro plasma arc hybrid welding for galvanized steel sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. H. KIM; Y. N. AHN; J. H. KIM

    2011-01-01

    A laser lap welding process for zinc-coated steel has a well-known unsolved problem-porosity formation. The boiling temperature of coated zinc is lower than the melting temperature of the base metal. which is steel. In the autogenous laser welding,the zinc vapor generates from the lapped surfaces expels the molten pool and the expulsion causes numerous weld defects, such as spatters and blow holes on the weld surface and porosity inside the welds. The laser-arc hybrid welding was suggested as an alternative method for the laser lap welding because the arc can preheat or post-heat the weldment according to the arrangement of the laser beam and the arc. CO2 laser-micro plasma hybrid welding was applied to the lap welding of zinc-coated steel with zero-gap.The relationships among the weld quality and process parameters of the laser-arc arrangement, and the laser-arc interspacing distance and arc current were investigated using a full-factorial experimental design. The effect of laser-arc arrangement is dominant because the leading plasma arc partially melts the upper steel sheets and vaporizes or oxidizes the coated zinc on the lapped surfaces.Compared with the result from the laser-TIG hybrid welding, the heat input from arc can be reduced by 40%.

  2. Properties and Microstructure of Laser Welded VM12-SHC Steel Pipes Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczyk A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents results of microstructure and tests of welded joints of new generation VM12-SHC martensitic steel using high power CO2 laser (LBW method with bifocal welding head. VM12-SHC is dedicated to energetic installation material, designed to replace currently used. High content of chromium and others alloying elements improve its resistance and strength characteristic. Use of VM12-SHC steel for production of the superheaters, heating chambers and walls in steam boilers resulted in various weldability researches. In article are presented results of destructive and non-destructive tests. For destructive: static bending and Vickers hardness tests, and for non-destructive: VT, RT, UT, micro and macroscopic tests were performed.

  3. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingwei; Zhai, Guofu; Chen, Qing; Wang, Jianqi; Ren, Gang

    2008-09-01

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  4. The interfacial structure of plated copper alloy resistance spot welded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jingwei [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China); Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China)], E-mail: jingweiwu.hit@gmail.com; Zhai Guofu [Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001 Harbin (China); Chen Qing; Wang Jianqi; Ren Gang [Xiamen Hongfa Electroacoustic Co., Ltd, 361021 Xiamen (China)

    2008-09-15

    Plated copper alloys are widely used in electron industry. The plating lay caused the farther decreasing of the welding property of copper alloys, whose intrinsic weldability was poor. In this paper, the bronze and brass specimens with nickel-tin double plating layer were joined by resistance spot welding method. The microstructure and peel strength of the joints were investigated. The experiment results show that a sandwich-like structure was obtained in the faying surface after welding, and the nickel plating layer thickness had severe effect on the reliability of the joints.

  5. Microstructure evaluation in low alloy steel weld metal from convective heat transfer calculations in three dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundra, K.; DebRoy, T.; Babu, S.S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; David, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Heat transfer and fluid flow during manual metal arc welding of low alloy steels were investigated by solving the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in three dimensions. Cooling rates were calculated at various locations in the weldment. Calculated cooling rates were coupled with an existing phase transformation model to predict percentages of acicular, allotriomorphic, and Widmanstaetten ferrites in various low alloy steel welds containing different concentration of V and Mn. Computed microstructures were in good agreement with experiment, indicating promise for predicting weld metal microstructure from the fundamentals of transport phenomena.

  6. Polyethylene laser welding based on optical absorption variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtieri, G.; Visco, A.; Nocita, D.; Torrisi, L.; Ceccio, G.; Scolaro, C.

    2016-04-01

    Polymeric materials, both pure and containing nanostructures, can be prepared as thin sheets in order to produce joints with an interface between an optically transparent sheet and an optically absorbent substrate to be welded by infrared pulsed laser irradiation. The Laser Transmission Welding (LTW) technique has been successfully applied in order to join two or more thermoplastic polymeric sheets that must have a similar chemical composition. In this research work, polymeric joints of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene sheets were realized, characterized and welded. Some polymer sheets were doped, at different concentrations, with carbon nano-particles absorbent the laser radiation. A pulsed laser operating in the wavelength region 532 nm with intensity of the order of 109 Watt/cm2 was employed to be transmitted by the transparent polymer and to be absorbed by the carbon enriched surface. At the interface of the two polymers the released energy induces melting, that is assisted by pressure, producing a fast and resistant welding zone. Mechanical and optical characterizations and surface analyses are presented and discussed.

  7. Ultrasonic-assisted friction stir welding on V95AT1 (7075) aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, S. Yu.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Kolubaev, E. A.; Ivanov, A. N.; Fortuna, S. V.; Eliseev, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted friction stir butt welding on aluminum alloy V95AT1 (7075) has been carried out. Samples have been characterized using metallography, microhardness and XRD. As shown, ultrasonic treatment during welding provides extra plasticizing of metal and better stirring efficiency. The latter serves for elimination of defects, such as root flaw and grain refining in the stir zone. The stress state in the welded joint is characterized by tensile stress in the direction of the weld seam centerline and compression in the transversal direction. The ultrasonic treatment was shown to increase the compression stress and relieve the tensile one.

  8. Microstructural evolution during friction stir welding of AlSi1MgMn alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janjić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the research of the infl uence of geometric and kinematic parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joint of aluminum alloy AlSi1MgMn (6082-T6 obtained through the Friction Stir Welding (FSW process. The experiment parameters were welding speed, rotation speed, angle of pin slope, pin diameter and shoulder diameter. On the obtained welded workpieces the dynamic testing on the impact toughness, and determination of microstructural zones were carried out.

  9. Evaluation of Microstructure and Mechanical Property of FSW Welded MB3 Magnesium Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Kuai-she; SHEN Yang; YANG Xi-rong; WANG Xun-hong; XU Ke-wei

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out on the friction stir welding of MB3 magnesium alloy to determine welding parameters for obtaining an excellent weld appearance without void, cracking, or distortion. Frictional heat and plastic flow created fine and equiaxed grains in the weld nugget, and the elongated and recovered grains in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ). The grains in the heat affected zone (HAZ) grow slightly. The mechanical property results show that maximum joint tensile strength can reach 97.2% of the parent material, which is stronger than that of fusion joints; and the failure almost occurs in the heat affected zone.

  10. High-cycle Fatigue Properties of Alloy718 Base Metal and Electron Beam Welded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Yoshinori; Yuri, Tetsumi; Nagashima, Nobuo; Sumiyoshi, Hideshi; Ogata, Toshio; Nagao, Naoki

    High-cycle fatigue properties of Alloy 718 plate and its electron beam (EB) welded joint were investigated at 293 K and 77 K under uniaxial loading. At 293 K, the high-cycle fatigue strength of the EB welded joint with the post heat treatment exhibited somewhat lower values than that of the base metal. The fatigue strengths of both samples basically increased at 77 K. However, in longer life region, the EB welded joint fractured from a blow hole formed in the welded zone, resulting in almost the same fatigue strength at 107 cycles as that at 293 K.

  11. Corrosion behavior of Al6061 alloy weldment produced by friction stir welding process

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Gharavi; Khamirul Amin Matori; Robiah Yunus; Norinsan Kamil Othman; Firouz Fadaeifard

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the corrosion behavior of welded lap joints of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy produced by friction stir welding process has been investigated. Corrosion properties of welded lap joints were studied by cyclic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests. All tests were performed in an aerated 0.6 mol L−1 NaCl aqueous solution with pH = 6.5 at a temperature of 30 °C to characterize corrosion morphology and realize corrosion features of weld regions as opposed to the par...

  12. Impact resistance and hardness modelling of Aluminium alloy welds using square-headed friction-stir welding tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhakar, U.; Srinivas, J., Dr.

    2016-02-01

    This paper proposes modelling and optimization issues relating to friction-stir welding process of aluminium alloys. A specially prepared SS tool of square headed pin profile with cylindrical shoulder is used with a vertical milling machine. Effects of process variables including tool rotation and tool velocity on the weld performance are studied in terms of impact strength and hardness. Three different rotational motions and three welding speeds (feeds) of tool are considered at constant axial load (depth of cut) condition and altogether nine experiments are conducted on a vertical milling machine with specially prepared fixture. Each weld sample is then tested for its impact strength (IS) and hardness independently. A model is developed to correlate the relations between the hardness/impact strength with tool rotation and weld speed using neural networks. The optimized process conditions are predicted to improvise the impact strength and hardness of the weld. Further, the morphology of the weld is studied using SEM to know the material flow characteristics.

  13. Nanomechanical properties of friction stir welded AA6082-T6 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koumoulos, E.P. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Chemical Engineering 9 Heroon, Polytechneiou st., Zografos, Athens, GR-157 80 (Greece); Charitidis, C.A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Chemical Engineering 9 Heroon, Polytechneiou st., Zografos, Athens, GR-157 80 (Greece); Daniolos, N.M.; Pantelis, D.I. [National Technical University of Athens, Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering 9 Heroon, Polytechneiou st., Zografos, Athens, GR-157 80 (Greece)

    2011-11-25

    Lightweight alloys are of major concern, due to their functionality and applications in transport and industry applications. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process for joining aluminum and other metallic alloys and has been employed in aerospace, rail, automotive and marine industries. Compared to the conventional welding techniques, FSW produces joints which do not exhibit defects caused by melting. The objective of the present study is to investigate the surface hardness (H) and elastic modulus (E) in friction stir welded aluminum alloy AA6082-T6. The findings of the present study reveal that the welding process softens the material, since the weld nugget is the region where the most deformations are recorded (dynamic recrystallization, production of an extremely fine, equiaxial structure), confirmed by optical microscopy and reduced nanomechanical properties in the welding zone. A yield-type pop-in occurs upon low loading and represents the start of phase transformation, which is monitored through a gradual slope change of the load-displacement curve. Significant pile-up is recorded during nanoindentation of the alloy through SPM imaging.

  14. Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Novel CaO-Added Mg Alloy Filler Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung Kang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel “ECO Mg” alloys, i.e., CaO-added Mg alloys, which exhibit oxidation resistance during melting and casting processes, even without the use of beryllium or toxic protection gases such as SF6, have recently been introduced. Research on ECO Mg alloys is still continuing, and their application as welding filler metals was investigated in this study. Mechanical and metallurgical aspects of the weldments were analysed after welding, and welding behaviours such as fume generation and droplet transfer were observed during welding. The tensile strength of welds was slightly increased by adding CaO to the filler metal, which resulted from the decreased grain size in the weld metal. When welding Mg alloys, fumes have been unavoidable so far because of the low boiling temperature of Mg. Fume reduction was successfully demonstrated with a wire composed of the novel ECO Mg filler. In addition, stable droplet transfer was observed and spatter suppression could be expected by using CaO-added Mg filler wire.

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TIG Weld Joint of ZM5 Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Ren-yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The ZM5 magnesium alloy plates were welded by TIG welding method. The microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of ZM5 magnesium alloy joint were studied by optical microscopy, microhardness and tensile testers. The results show that the TIG weld joint of ZM5 magnesium alloy is composed of heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld metal. The heat affected zone is consisted of primary α-Mg phase and eutectic phase that is composed of eutectic α-Mg and eutectic β-Mg17Al12 phase and mainly precipitated at grain boundaries. In the partially melted zone, the eutectic phase is not only increasingly precipitated at grain boundaries, but also dispersed in grains, and the growth of the β-Mg17Al12 phase is obviously observed. The microstructure in the weld is the typical dendritic morphology. The dendrites are considered as primary α-Mg phase, and the interdendritic regions are α+β eutectic phase. The difference in the microstructure of the heat affected zone, partially melted zone and weld results in their various microhardness values, and leads to the smaller tensile strength and ductility in the ZM5 alloy weld joint than parent metal.

  16. Influence of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Strength of Three Aluminum Alloys Used in Light Poles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig C. Menzemer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The conjoint influence of welding and artificial aging on mechanical properties were investigated for extrusions of aluminum alloy 6063, 6061, and 6005A. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted on the aluminum alloys 6063-T4, 6061-T4, and 6005A-T1 in both the as-received (AR and as-welded (AW conditions. Tensile tests were also conducted on the AR and AW alloys, subsequent to artificial aging. The welding process used was gas metal arc (GMAW with spray transfer using 120–220 A of current at 22 V. The artificial aging used was a precipitation heat treatment for 6 h at 182 °C (360 °F. Tensile tests revealed the welded aluminum alloys to have lower strength, both for yield and ultimate tensile strength, when compared to the as-received un-welded counterpart. The beneficial influence of post weld heat treatment (PWHT on strength and ductility is presented and discussed in terms of current design provisions for welded aluminum light pole structures.

  17. Gap-bridging During Quasi-simultaneous Laser Transmission Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmailzl, Anton; Hierl, Stefan; Schmidt, Michael

    Tightness is often the main requirement for quasi-simultaneous laser transmission welds. However, remaining gaps cannot be detected by the used set-path monitoring. By using a pyrometer in combination with a 3D-scanner, weld seam interruptions can be localized precisely while welding, due to temperature deviations along the weld contour. To analyze the temperature signal in correlation to the progress of gap-bridging, T-joint samples with predefined gaps are welded. The set-path is measured synchronously. Additionally, the temperature distribution and the influence of the thermal expansion of the polymers are studied by a thermo-mechanical FEM-process simulation. On top of that, the melt blow-out of the welded samples is analyzed using μCT-measurements. The experiments have shown that closing of a gap can be identified reliably by the temperature signal and that the squeezed melt flow into the gap and the thermal expansion in the gap zone accelerates gap-bridging. Furthermore the inserted heat can be adapted in the fault zone, in order to avoid thermal damage.

  18. Braze Welding TIG of Titanium and Aluminium Alloy Type Al – Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiowski A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the course and the results of technological tests related to TIG-based arc braze welding of titanium and AW-5754 (AlMg3 aluminium alloy. The tests involved the use of an aluminium filler metal (Al99.5 and two filler metals based on Al-Si alloys (AlSi5 and AlSi12. Braze welded joints underwent tensile tests, metallographic examinations using a light microscope as well as structural examinations involving the use of a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The highest strength and quality of welds was obtained when the Al99.5 filler metal was used in a braze welding process. The tests enabled the development of the most convenient braze welding conditions and parameters.

  19. Susceptibility testing for welding of AlMg alloys intended for extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Borowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of research was to determine the weldability, using Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG of extruded sections made of hard-deformable 5xxx series aluminum alloys with differing magnesium content, i.e. AlMg3, AlMg4,5, AlMg5, AlMg7. Welded joints were obtained as a result of a welding process consisting of several steps. Only welds characterized by very good appearance and quality were selected for tests. As a result of conducted research, TIG welding parameters were determined for sections with a thickness of 8 mm. It was observed that alloys of differing Mg content are characterized by high weldability and do not exhibit a significant reduction of the yield point. Moreover, joints exhibit uniform hardness distribution in the welded joint and heat-affected zone. Tensile strength is reduced.

  20. Welding of PMMA by a femtosecond fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Annalisa; Di Niso, Francesca; Gaudiuso, Caterina; De Rosa, Andrea; Vázquez, Rebeca Martínez; Ancona, Antonio; Lugarà, Pietro Mario; Osellame, Roberto

    2015-02-23

    Developing versatile joining techniques to weld transparent materials on a micrometer scale is of great importance in a growing number of applications, especially for the fabrication and assembly of biomedical devices. In this paper, we report on fs-laser microwelding of two transparent layers of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based on nonlinear absorption and localized heat accumulation at high repetition rates. A fiber CPA laser system was used delivering 650-fs pulses at 1030 nm with repetition rates in the MHz regime. The laser-induced modifications produced by the focused beam into the bulk PMMA were firstly investigated, trying to find a suitable set of process parameters generating continuous and localized melting. Results have been evaluated based on existing heat accumulation models. Then, we have successfully laser welded two 1-mm-thick PMMA layers in a lap-joint configuration. Sealing of the sample was demonstrated through static and dynamic leakage tests. This fs-laser micro-welding process does not need any pre-processing of the samples or any intermediate absorbing layer. Furthermore, it offers several advantages compared to other joining techniques, because it prevents contamination and thermal distortion of the samples, thus being extremely interesting for application in direct laser fabrication of microfluidic devices.

  1. Electrophoretic mobility patterns of collagen following laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lawrence S.; Moazami, Nader; Pocsidio, Joanne O.; Oz, Mehmet C.; LoGerfo, Paul; Treat, Michael R.

    1991-06-01

    Clinical application of laser vascular anastomosis in inhibited by a lack of understanding of its mechanism. Whether tissue fusion results from covalent or non-covalent bonding of collagen and other structural proteins is unknown. We compared electrophoretic mobility of collagen in laser treated and untreated specimens of rat tail tendon (>90% type I collagen) and rabbit aorta. Welding was performed, using tissue shrinkage as the clinical endpoint, using the 808 nm diode laser (power density 14 watts/cm2) and topical indocyanine green dye (max absorption 805 nm). Collagen was extracted with 8 M urea (denaturing), 0.5 M acetic acid (non-denaturing) and acetic acid/pepsin (cleaves non- helical protein). Mobility patterns on gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after urea or acetic acid extraction were identical in the lasered and control tendon and vessel (confirmed by optical densitometry), revealing no evidence of formation of novel covalent bonds. Alpha and beta band intensity was diminished in pepsin incubated lasered specimens compared with controls (optical density ratio 0.00 +/- 9 tendon, 0.65 +/- 0.12 aorta), indicating the presence of denatured collagen. With the laser parameters used, collagen is denatured without formation of covalent bonds, suggesting that non-covalent interaction between denatured collagen molecules may be responsible for the weld. Based on this mechanism, welding parameters can be chosen which produce collagen denaturation without cell death.

  2. Effects of Sealing Run Welding with Defocused Laser Beam on the Quality of T-joint Fillet Weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unt, Anna; Poutiainen, Ilkka; Salminen, Antti

    Fillet weld is the predominant weld type used for connecting different elements e.g. in shipbuilding, offshore and bridge structures. One of prevalent research questions is the structural integrity of the welded joint. Post weld improvement techniques are being actively researched, as high stress areas like an incomplete penetration on the root side or fluctuations in penetration depth cannot be avoided. Development of laser and laser-arc hybrid welding processes have greatly contributed to increase of production capacity and reduction of heat-induced distortions by producing single pass full penetration welds in thin- and medium thickness structural steel parts. Present study addresses the issue of how to improve the quality of the fillet welds by welding the sealing run on the root side with defocused laser beam. Welds having incomplete or excessive penetration were produced with several beam angles and laser beam spot sizes on surface. As a conclusion, significant decrease or even complete elimination of the seam irregularities, which act as the failure starting points during service, is achieved.

  3. Numerical simulation of deep cryogenic treatment electrode tip temperature for spot welding aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhisheng; Hu Minying; Liu Cuirong

    2006-01-01

    Deep cryogenic treatment technology of electrodes is put forward to improve electrode life of resistance spot welding of aluminum alloy LF2. Deep cryogenic treatment makes electrode life for spot welding aluminum alloy improve. The specific resistivity of the deep cryogenic treatment electrodes is tested and experimental results show that specific resistivity is decreased sharply. The temperature field and the influence of deep cryogenic treatment on the electrode tip temperature during spot welding aluminium alloy is studied by numerical simulation method with the software ANSYS. The axisymmetric finite element model of mechanical, thermal and electrical coupled analysis of spot welding process is developed. The numerical simulation results show that the influence of deep cryogenic treatment on electrode tip temperature is very large.

  4. Process parameters optimization for friction stir welding of RDE-40 aluminium alloy using Taguchi technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.K.LAKSHMINARAYANAN; V.BALASUBRAMANIAN

    2008-01-01

    Taguchi approach was applied to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better tensile strength of the joints of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as tool rotational speed, traverse speed and axial force on tensile strength of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy, Taguchi parametric design and optimization approach was used. Through the Taguchi parametric design approach, the optimum levels of process parameters were determined. The results indicate that the rotational speed, welding speed and axial force are the significant parameters in deciding the tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimal value of tensile strength of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy is 303 MPa. The results were confirmed by further experiments.

  5. Numerical and experimental study of phase transformation in resistance spot welding of 6082 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xinxin; SHA Ping; LUO Zhen; LUO Baofa

    2009-01-01

    Resistance spot welding(RSW) is an efficient and convenient joining process for aluminum alloy sheet assembly. Because the RSW has the character of energy concentration and quick cooling rate, the microstructure transformation of the base metal can be confined in the least limit. The material properties and the welding parameters have significant effects on thequality of the nugget. To predict the microstructure evolution in the melted zone and the heat-affected zone, an electrical, thermal, metallurgical and mechanical coupled finite element model is described and applied to simulate the welding process of the 6082 aluminum alloy. Experimental tests are also carried out. The comparison between experimental and numerical results shows that the adopted model is effective enough to well interpret and predict some important phenomena in terms of the phase transformation in spot welding of 6082 aluminum alloy.

  6. Liquation Cracking in Arc and Friction-Stir Welding of Mg-Zn Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dustin C.; Chai, Xiao; Tang, Xin; Kou, Sindo

    2015-01-01

    As compared to Al alloys, which are known to be susceptible to liquation ( i.e., liquid formation) and liquation-induced cracking, most Mg alloys have a lower eutectic temperature and thus are likely to be even more susceptible. The present study was conducted to study liquation and liquation cracking in Mg alloys during arc welding and friction-stir welding (FSW). Binary Mg-Zn alloys were selected as a model material in view of their very low eutectic temperature of 613 K (340 °C). Mg-Zn alloys with 2, 4, and 6 wt pct of Zn were cast and welded in the as-cast condition by both gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and FSW. A simple test for liquation cracking was developed, which avoided interference by solidification cracking in the nearby fusion zone. Liquation and liquation cracking in GTAW were found to be in the decreasing order of Mg-6Zn, Mg-4Zn, and Mg-2Zn. Liquation cracking occurred in FSW of Mg-6Zn but not Mg-4Zn or Mg-2Zn. Instead of a continuous ribbon-like flash connected to the weld edge, small chips, and powder covered the weld surface of Mg-6Zn. The results from GTAW and FSW were discussed in light of the binary Mg-Zn phase diagram and the curves of temperature vs fraction solid during solidification.

  7. Grey relational and neural network approach for multi-objective optimization in small scale resistance spot welding of titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Xiaodong; Wang, Yuanxun; Zhao, Dawei [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2016-06-15

    The prediction and optimization of weld quality characteristics in small scale resistance spot welding of TC2 titanium alloy were investigated. Grey relational analysis, neural network and genetic algorithm were applied separately. Quality characteristics were selected as nugget diameter, failure load, failure displacement and failure energy. Welding parameters to be optimized were set as electrode force, welding current and welding time. Grey relational analysis was conducted for a rough estimation of the optimum welding parameters. Results showed that welding current played a key role in weld quality improvement. Different back propagation neural network architectures were then arranged to predict multiple quality characteristics. Interaction effects of welding parameters were analyzed with the proposed neural network. Failure load was found more sensitive to the change of welding parameters than nugget diameter. Optimum welding parameters were determined by genetic algorithm. The predicted responses showed good agreement with confirmation experiments.

  8. Friction stir welding of AZ31 magnesium alloys processed by equal channel angular pressing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bing; YUAN Shouqian; WANG Xunhong

    2008-01-01

    Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is an effective thermo-mechanical process to make ultrafine grains.An investigation was carried out on the friction stir welding (FSW) of ECAPed AZ31 magnesium alloys with a thickness of 15 mm.For different process parameters,the optimum FSW conditions of ECAPed AZ31 magnesium alloys were examined.The basic characterization of weld formation and the mechanical properties of the joints were discussed.The results show that the effect of welding parameters on welding quality was evident and welding quality was sensitive to welding speed.Sound joints could be obtained when the welding speed was 37.5 mm/min and the rotation speed of the stir tool was 750 r/min.The maximum tensile strength (270 MPa) of FSW was 91% that of the base materials.The value of microhardness varied between advancing side and retreating side because of the speed field near the pin of the stir tool,which weakened the deformed stress field.The value of microhardness of the welding zone was lower than that of the base materials.The maximum value was located near the heat-affected zone (HAZ).Remarkable ductile character was observed from the fracture morphologies of welded joints.

  9. Effect Of Process Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of Friction Stir.Welded Joint Of Two Similar &Dissimilar Al-Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umasankar Das,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is an advance joining process for different similar and dissimilar materials. It is commonly used for joining of Aluminum alloys. However it is necessary to overcome some challenges for its wide-spread uses. Tool design and the selection of process parameters are critical issues in the usage of this process. This study focuses on the process parameters that is required for producing effective friction stir welding of two similar aluminum alloys (AA6101T6 to AA6101T6 and dissimilar Aluminum alloys (AA6101T6 alloy to AA6351T6 . Three different tool diameters such as 20 mm, 25 mm and 30 mm with three different tool rotational speeds such as 600 rpm, 800 rpm and 1200 rpm have been used to weld the joints. The welded samples were tested for mechanical properties as well as microstructure. It was observed that 30 mm tool gives better weld quality for friction stir welding of similar aluminum alloy but 25 mm tool with 1200 rpm rotational speed gave satisfactory weld quality for friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys. It is one of the important welding process that can adopted for welding of aluminum alloys with excellent mechanical properties. The results were confirmed by further experiments.

  10. Control of Titanium Alloy Thin Plate Welding Distortion by Trailing Peening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuesong LIU; Hongyuan FANG; Shude JI; Zhibo DONG

    2003-01-01

    The technology of trailing peening is a kind of promisingly bran-new technology which can be used to control weldingstress and distortion of Ti alloy thin plate. Control of TC4 Ti alloy thn plate welding stress and distortion underthe condition of convent

  11. The Effect of Tool Press Force to Weldability of AA5754 and AA6061 Alloys with Friction Stir Welding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Küçükömeroğlu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study AA5754 and A6061 alloys have been butt welded to each other by using friction stir welding (FSW. At constant tool geometry and tool angle experiments were carried out, joints were performed using different welding speed, rotation speed and especially tool press force. The mechanical properties of the welded samples were determined by using tensile test, bending test and micro hardness. Generated microstructure and hardness profile was obtained in the welding zone. In this friction stir welding study the parameters which affect the joint structure are the tool press force, welding speed and tool rotation speed which were determined. At the end of study it is determined that AA5754 and AA6061 alloys can be successfully welded by using Friction Stir Welding method under different tool press forces at least 6kN.

  12. An investigation of the microstructures and properties of metal inert gas and friction stir welds in aluminum alloy 5083

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Yazdipour; A Shafiei M; H Jamshidi Aval

    2011-08-01

    Two different types of welds, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW), have been used to weld aluminum alloy 5083. The microstructure of the welds, including the nugget zone and heat affected zone, has been compared in these two methods using optical microscopy. The mechanical properties of the weld have been also investigated using the hardness and tensile tests. The results show that both the methods could successfully be used to weld such alloy. The strength of the joints is comparable to the strength of the base metal in both cases. However, FSWed samples have shown higher strength in comparison to the MIG samples. The results also show that the extension of the heat affected zone is higher in the MIG method in comparison to the FSW method. The weld metal microstructure of MIG welded specimen contains equiaxed dendrites as a result of solidification process during MIG welding while FSWed samples have wrought microstructures.

  13. Investigations on laser transmission welding of absorber-free thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamuschkin, Viktor; Olowinsky, Alexander; Britten, Simon W.; Engelmann, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Within the plastic industry laser transmission welding ranks among the most important joining techniques and opens up new application areas continuously. So far, a big disadvantage of the process was the fact that the joining partners need different optical properties. Since thermoplastics are transparent for the radiation of conventional beam sources (800- 1100 nm) the absorbance of one of the joining partners has to be enhanced by adding an infrared absorber (IR-absorber). Until recently, welding of absorber-free parts has not been possible. New diode lasers provide a broad variety of wavelengths which allows exploiting intrinsic absorption bands of thermoplastics. The use of a proper wavelength in combination with special optics enables laser welding of two optically identical polymer parts without absorbers which can be utilized in a large number of applications primarily in the medical and food industry, where the use of absorbers usually entails costly and time-consuming authorization processes. In this paper some aspects of the process are considered as the influence of the focal position, which is crucial when both joining partners have equal optical properties. After a theoretical consideration, an evaluation is carried out based on welding trials with polycarbonate (PC). Further aspects such as gap bridging capability and the influence of thickness of the upper joining partner are investigated as well.

  14. Experimental and computational laser tissue welding using a protein patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, W; Heredia, N J; Maitland, D J; Eder, D C; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; London, R A; Matthews, D L

    1998-01-01

    An in vitro study of laser tissue welding mediated with a dye-enhanced protein patch was conducted. Fresh sections of porcine aorta were used for the experiments. Arteriotomies were treated using an indocyanine green dye-enhanced collagen patch activated by an 805-nm continuous-wave fiber-delivered diode laser. Temperature histories of the surface of the weld site were obtained using a hollow glass optical fiber-based two-color infrared thermometer. The experimental effort was complemented by simulations with the LATIS (LAser-TISsue) computer code, which uses coupled Monte Carlo, thermal transport, and mass transport models. Comparison of simulated and experimental thermal data indicated that evaporative cooling clamped the surface temperature of the weld site below 100 °C. For fluences of approximately 200 J/cm2, peak surface temperatures averaged 74°C and acute burst strengths consistently exceeded 0.14×106 dyn/cm (hoop tension). The combination of experimental and simulation results showed that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the computer code has a significant impact on the thermal distributions and hydration levels throughout the tissue volume. The solid-matrix protein patch provided a means of controllable energy delivery and yielded consistently strong welds. © 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  15. Optimization design of resistance spot welding parameters of magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lang Bo; Sun Daqian; Wu Qiong; Xuan Zhaozhi

    2008-01-01

    By means of the quadratic regression combination design process, the regression equations of nugget diameter and tensile shear load of spot welded joint were established. Effects of welding parameters on the nugget diameter and the tensile shear load were investigated. The results show that effect of welding current on nugget diameter is the most evident. And higher welding current will result in bigger nugget diameter. Besides, interaction effect of electrode force and welding current on tensile shear load is the most evident compared with others. The optimum welding parameters corresponding to the maximum of tensile shear load have been obtained by programming using Matlab software, which is 4.7kN electrode force, 28kA welding current and 4 cycle welding time. Under the condition of the optimum welding parameters, the joint having no visible defects can be obtained, nugget diameter and tensile shear load being 6.8mm and 3 256N, respectively.

  16. Recent progress on gas tungsten arc welding of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossbeck, M.L.; King, J.F.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Emphasis has been placed on welding 6.4 mm plate, primarily by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding. The weld properties were tested using blunt notch Charpy testing to determine the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Erratic results were attributed to hydrogen and oxygen contamination of the welds. An improved gas clean-up system was installed on the welding glove box and the resulting high purity welds had Charpy impact properties similar to those of electron beam welds with similar grain size. A post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of 950{degrees}C for two hours did not improve the properties of the weld in cases where low concentrations of impurities were attained. Further improvements in the gas clean-up system are needed to control hydrogen contamination.

  17. Friction Stir Welding in Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys: Heat Transfer Modeling and Thermal History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yi; Lados, Diana A.

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a technique that can be used for materials joining and local microstructural refinement. Owing to the solid-state character of the process, FSW has significant advantages over traditional fusion welding, including reduced part distortion and overheating. In this study, a novel heat transfer model was developed to predict weld temperature distributions and quantify peak temperatures under various combinations of processing parameters for different wrought and cast Al alloys. Specifically, an analytical analysis was first developed to characterize and predict heat generation rate within the weld nugget, and then a two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the temperature distribution in the weld cross-section and top-view planes. A further three-dimensional (3D) simulation was developed based on the heat generation analysis. The model was validated by measuring actual temperatures near the weld nugget using thermocouples, and good agreement was obtained for all studied materials and conditions.

  18. Tensile properties and mechanical heterogeneity of friction stir welded joints of 2014 aluminum alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-hua; LIN San-bao; WU Lin; QU Fu-xing

    2005-01-01

    2014 Al alloy of 8mm in thickness was successfully welded by friction stir welding method. The experimental results show that the tensile properties of the joints are significantly affected by the welding parameters. When the weld pitch is 0.25mm/r corresponding to the rotation speed of 400r/min and the welding speed of 100mm/min, the maximum ultimate strength of the joints is 78% that of the base material. For a certain weld joint, different parts possess different mechanical properties. In the three parts of the joint, the upper part is strongest and the middle part is poorest in mechanical properties. The mechanical properties and fracture locations of the joints are dependent on the microstructure variation and micro-hardness distributions of the joints, which attributes to the different thermo-mechanical actions on the different parts of the joints.

  19. Strain hardening and damage in 6xxx series aluminum alloy friction stir welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simar, Aude; Nielsen, Kim Lau; de Meester, Bruno;

    2010-01-01

    A friction stir weld in 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy has been prepared and analyzed by micro-hardness measurements, tensile testing and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The locations of the various weld zones were determined by micro-hardness indentation measurements. The flow behavior of the various...... zones of the weld was extracted using micro-tensile specimens cut out parallel to the welding direction. The measured material properties and weld topology were then introduced in a fully coupled micro-mechanical finite element model, accounting for nucleation and growth of voids as well as void shape...... evolution. The model shows satisfactory preliminary results in predicting the tensile behaviour of the weld and the true strain at fracture....

  20. Solid state welding processes for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-chromium-aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Solid-state welding processes were evaluated for joining TD-NiCrAl (Ni-16Cr-4Al-2ThO2) alloy sheet. Both hot-press and resistance spot welding techniques were successfully applied in terms of achieving grain growth across the bond line. Less success was achieved with a resistance seam welding process. In stress-rupture shear and tensile shear tests of lap joints at 1100 C, most failures occurred in the parent material, which indicates that the weld quality was good and that the welds were not a plane of weakness. The overall weld quality was not as good as previously attained with TD-NiCr, probably because the presence of alumina at the faying surfaces and the developmental TD-NiCrAl sheet, which was not of the quality of the TD-NiCr sheet in terms of surface flatness and dimensional control.

  1. Bobbin-Tool Friction-Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalder, E C; Pastrnak, J W; Engel, J; Forrest, R S; Kokko, E; Ternan, K M; Waldron, D

    2007-06-06

    It was desired to assemble thick-walled Al alloy 2219 pressure vessels by bobbin-tool friction-stir welding. To develop the welding-process, mechanical-property, and fitness-for-service information to support this effort, extensive friction-stir welding-parameter studies were conducted on 2.5 cm. and 3.8 cm. thick 2219 Al alloy plate. Starting conditions of the plate were the fully-heat-treated (-T62) and in the annealed (-O) conditions. The former condition was chosen with the intent of using the welds in either the 'as welded' condition or after a simple low-temperature aging treatment. Since preliminary stress-analyses showed that stresses in and near the welds would probably exceed the yield-strength of both 'as welded' and welded and aged weld-joints, a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging treatment was also examined. Once a suitable set of welding and post-weld heat-treatment parameters was established, the project divided into two parts. The first part concentrated on developing the necessary process information to be able to make defect-free friction-stir welds in 3.8 cm. thick Al alloy 2219 in the form of circumferential welds that would join two hemispherical forgings with a 102 cm. inside diameter. This necessitated going to a bobbin-tool welding-technique to simplify the tooling needed to react the large forces generated in friction-stir welding. The bobbin-tool technique was demonstrated on both flat-plates and plates that were bent to the curvature of the actual vessel. An additional issue was termination of the weld, i.e. closing out the hole left at the end of the weld by withdrawal of the friction-stir welding tool. This was accomplished by friction-plug welding a slightly-oversized Al alloy 2219 plug into the termination-hole, followed by machining the plug flush with both the inside and outside surfaces of the vessel. The second part of the project involved demonstrating that the welds were fit for the intended

  2. The effect of laser welding process parameters on the mechanical and microstructural properties of V-4Cr-4Ti structural materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, C.; Natesan, K.; Xu, Z.; Smith, D.

    2000-06-15

    This paper reports on a systematic study which was conducted to examine the use of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to weld sheet materials of V-Cr-Ti alloys and to characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of the resulting joints. Deep penetration and defect-free welds were achieved under an optimal combination of laser parameters including focal length of lens, pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, beam travel speed, and shielding gas arrangement. The key for defect-free welds was found to be the stabilization of the keyhole and providing an escape path for the gas trapped in the weld. An innovative method was developed to obtain deep penetration and oxygen contamination free welds. Oxygen and nitrogen uptake were reduced to levels only a few ppm higher than the base metal by design and development of an environmental control box. Effort directed at developing an acceptable postwelding heat treatment showed that five passes of a diffuse laser beam over the welded region softened the weld material, especially in the root region of the weld.

  3. Laser guided and stabilized gas metal arc welding processes (LGS-GMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsdorf, Jörg; Barroi, Alexander; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2013-05-01

    The demands of the industry are cheap and fast production of highly sophisticated parts without compromises in product quality. To realize this requirement, we have developed a laser guided and stabilized gas metal arc process (LGS-GMA welding). The new welding process is based on a gas metal arc process using low power laser radiation for stabilization. The laser stabilization of gas metal arcs welding is applied to joint welding and cladding. With only 400 W laser power and a focal spot of 1.6 mm the laser radiation is mainly interacting with the arc plasma in order to guide and stabilize it. In joint welding up to 100% increase in welding speed is possible, at equal penetration depth. The guidance effect also enables the process to weld in challenging situations like different sheet thicknesses. Used for cladding, the enhanced process stability allows low penetration depth with dilutions of only 3%. Coatings with up to 63 HRC were achieved.

  4. Study on laser welding of stainless steel/copper dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnea, D.; Dontu, O.; Avram, M.; Spânu, A.; Rizescu, C.; Pascu, T.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper stainless steel/copper laser welding was investigated by controlling the processing parameters like welding speed and laser power. Welding the dissimilar materials of stainless steel and copper presents a series of problems. Differences in the physical properties of the two metals, including the melting point, thermal conductivity and thermal dilatation are the main reasons for obtaining an inappropriate laser welding bead. Particularly, the laser welding process of copper is complex because of the very high reflectivity of cooper and in almost situations it requires a specific surface pre-treatment. The main objective of the study conducted in this work was to laser weld a structure used in pressure measuring and control equipments. In order to satisfy the conditions imposed by the sensor manufacturer, the difficulty of obtaining flawless joints was represented by the very small dimensions of the parts to be welded especially of the elastic spiral thickness made of steel.

  5. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDING FOR ALUMINIUM AA6351 ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMED KHALID HUSSAIN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid state welding process in which the relative motion between the tool and the work piece produces heat which makes the material of two edges being joined by plastic atomicdiffusion. This method relies on the direct conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy to form the weld without the application of heat from conventional source. The rotational speed of the tools, the axial pressure and welding speed and the (weld time are the principal variables that are controlled in order to provide the necessary combination of heat and pressure to form the weld. These parameters are adjusted so that the interface is heated into the plastic temperature range (plastic state where welding can take place. During the last stage of welding process, atomic diffusion occurs while the interfaces are in contact, allowing metallurgical bond to form between the two materials. The functional behaviour of the weldments is substantially determined by the nature of the weld strength characterized by the tensile strength, metallurgical behavior, surface roughness, weld hardness and micro hardness. In this project an attempt is made to determine and evaluate the influence of the process parameters of FSW on the weldments. The Vickers hardness, tensile strength and radiography are considered for investigation by varying tool speed, tool feed and maintaining onstant depth of penetration of weld. Experiments were conducted on AA6351 Aluminium alloy in a CNC Vertical Machining Centre. Theoutput factors are measured in UTM, Vickers hardness tester and Radiography equipment. Results show strong relation and robust comparison between the weldment strength and process parameters. Hence FSW process variable data base is to be developed for wide variety of metals and alloys for selection of optimum process parameters for efficient weld.

  6. Study on welded seam recognition using circular laser vision sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peiquan Xu; Xinhua Tang; Ri Na; Shun Yao

    2007-01-01

    A novel visual robotic arc welding system based on circular laser vision sensor is developed. After image de-noising, image segmentation, and image thinning, the relation of depth value of workpiece and off-axis angle γ, three-dimensional (3D) calculation, and seam tracking experiments are carried out. Finally, the error for seam tracking system is analyzed. The results show that 1) 3D information can be obtained using the proposed visual robotic arc welding system and the real-time seam tracking is realized; 2) the seam tracking error is small enough for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process, and this system can be used for seam location and seam tracking or seam finder.

  7. Laser vision based adaptive fill control system for TIG welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The variation of joint groove size during tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding will result in the non-uniform fill of deposited metal. To solve this problem, an adaptive fill control system was developed based on laser vision sensing. The system hardware consists of a modular development kit (MDK) as the real-time image capturing system, a computer as the controller, a D/A conversion card as the interface of controlled variable output, and a DC TIG welding system as the controlled device. The system software is developed and the developed feature extraction algorithm and control strategy are of good accuracy and robustness. Experimental results show that the system can implement adaptive fill of melting metal with high stability, reliability and accuracy. The groove is filled well and the quality of the weld formation satisfies the relevant industry criteria.

  8. Modeling and validation of multiple joint reflections for ultra- narrow gap laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.; Keel, G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sklar, E. [Opticad Corp., Santa Fe, New Mexico (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The effects of multiple internal reflections within a laser weld joint as a function of joint geometry and processing conditions have been characterized. A computer model utilizing optical ray tracing is used to predict the reflective propagation of laser beam energy focused into the narrow gap of a metal joint for the purpose of predicting the location of melting and coalescence which form the weld. The model allows quantitative analysis of the effects of changes to joint geometry, laser design, materials and processing variables. This analysis method is proposed as a way to enhance process efficiency and design laser welds which display deep penetration and high depth to width aspect ratios, reduced occurrence of defects and enhanced melting. Of particular interest to laser welding is the enhancement of energy coupling to highly reflective materials. The weld joint is designed to act as an optical element which propagates and concentrates the laser energy deep within the joint to be welded. Experimentation has shown that it is possible to produce welds using multiple passes to achieve deep penetration and high depth to width aspect ratios without the use of filler material. The enhanced laser melting and welding of aluminum has been demonstrated. Optimization through modeling and experimental validation has resulted in the development of a laser welding process variant we refer to as Ultra-Narrow Gap Laser Welding.

  9. Emission of nanoparticles during friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J F; Miranda, R M; Santos, T J; Carvalho, P A

    2014-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is now well established as a welding process capable of joining some different types of metallic materials, as it was (1) found to be a reliable and economical way of producing high quality welds, and (2) considered a "clean" welding process that does not involve fusion of metal, as is the case with other traditional welding processes. The aim of this study was to determine whether the emission of particles during FSW in the nanorange of the most commonly used aluminum (Al) alloys, AA 5083 and AA 6082, originated from the Al alloy itself due to friction of the welding tool against the item that was being welded. Another goal was to measure Al alloys in the alveolar deposited surface area during FSW. Nanoparticles dimensions were predominantly in the 40- and 70-nm range. This study demonstrated that microparticles were also emitted during FSW but due to tool wear. However, the biological relevance and toxic manifestations of these microparticles remain to be determined.

  10. Processing and Optimization of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welding of AA 2219 and AA 7039 Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarlu, D.; Nageswara rao, P.; Mahapatra, M. M.; Harsha, S. P.; Mandal, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    The present paper discusses the optimization of dissimilar friction stir welding of AA 2219 and AA 7039 alloys with respect to tool design issues including microstructural study of weld. The optimized ultimate tensile strength was ~280 MPa, and % elongation was ~11.5. It was observed that the extent of tool shoulder flat surface and tool rotational speed influenced the weld quality significantly. A mathematical model was also developed using response surface regression analysis to predict the effects of tool geometry and process variables on dissimilar AA 2219 and AA 7039 alloys welds. The microstructure evolution and mechanical properties were investigated by employing electron backscatter diffraction technique, Vickers microhardness, and tensile testing, respectively. The microstructural observations indicated that the grain size obtained at advancing side (AA 2219 alloy side) was much finer compared to the retreating side (AA 7039 alloy side). Hardness distribution in the stir zone was inhomogeneous, which might be due to inadequate mixing of weld zone material. The hardness values observed at the weld zone were lower than that in the base materials.

  11. Analysis on the joint tensile strength and fractography of TiNi shape memory alloy precise pulse resistance butt welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵熹华; 韩立军; 赵蕾

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies mechanical property and fractography of the welded joints obtained in different welding parameters such as welding heat and welding press with/without gas shield in TiNi shape memory alloy precise pulse resistance butt welding using tensile strength test, XRD, SEM and TEM measures. The optimum welding parameters obtaining high tensile strength welded joint are got. On the condition of welding press magneting current 2 A and welding heat 75%, the joint strength is the highest. This is important for to study other properties of TiNi shape memory alloy further. The experimental results state that argon gas shield have different effects on different welding parameters, less on welding press, but great on welding heat. But excessive welding press and welding heat have great effects on joint tensile strength. Too high welding heat can produce the new intermetallic compound, this intermetallic compound lead to dislocation density to increase and form the potential crack initiation, which can easily make the joint fracture under stress effect and decrease the shape memory ratio of joint for high density dislocation groups existing in the twinned martensite.

  12. 76 FR 66899 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... pipe from Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan; and certain circular welded carbon steel... Steel Pipe from Brazil, Mexico, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan; and Certain Circular Welded Carbon... International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Brazil, Mexico,...

  13. Low temperature corneal laser welding investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteini, Paolo; Sbrana, Francesca; Tiribilli, Bruno; Pini, Roberto

    2009-02-01

    The structural modifications in the stromal matrix induced by low-temperature corneal laser welding were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This procedure consists of staining the wound with Indocyanine Green (ICG), followed by irradiation with a near-infrared laser operated at low-power densities. This induces a local heating in the 55-65 °C range. In welded tissue, extracellular components undergo heat-induced structural modifications, resulting in a joining effect between the cut edges. However, the exact mechanism generating the welding, to date, is not completely understood. Full-thickness cuts, 3.5 mm in length, were made in fresh porcine cornea samples, and these were then subjected to laser welding operated at 16.7 W/cm2 power density. AFM imaging was performed on resin-embedded semi-thin slices once they had been cleared by chemical etching, in order to expose the stromal bulk of the tissue within the section. We then carried out a morphological analysis of characteristic fibrillar features in the laser-treated and control samples. AFM images of control stromal regions highlighted well-organized collagen fibrils (36.2 +/- 8.7 nm in size) running parallel to each other as in a typical lamellar domain. The fibrils exhibited a beaded pattern with a 22-39 nm axial periodicity. Laser-treated corneal regions were characterized by a significant disorganization of the intralamellar architecture. At the weld site, groups of interwoven fibrils joined the cut edges, showing structural properties that were fully comparable with those of control regions. This suggested that fibrillar collagen is not denatured by low-temperature laser welding, confirming previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, and thus it is probably not involved in the closure mechanism of corneal cuts. The loss of fibrillar organization may be related to some structural modifications in some interfibrillar substance as proteoglycans or collagen VI. Furthermore, AFM

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded joints of AA6105 aluminum alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Dorta-Almenara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW is one of the most used methods to weld aluminum. This work investigates the influence of welding parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of GTAW welded AA6105 aluminum alloy joints. AA6105 alloy plates with different percent values of cold work were joined by GTAW, using various combinations of welding current and speed. The fusion zone, in which the effects of cold work have disappeared, and the heat affected zone of the welded samples were examined under optical and scanning electron microscopes, additionally, mechanical tests and measures of Vickers microhardness were performed. Results showed dendritic morphology with solute micro- and macrosegregation in the fusion zone, which is favored by the constitutional supercooling when heat input increases. When heat input increased and welding speed increased or remained constant, greater segregation was obtained, whereas welding speed decrease produced a coarser microstructure. In the heat affected zone recrystallization, dissolution, and coarsening of precipitates occurred, which led to variations in hardness and strength.

  15. Welding of Aluminum Alloys to Steels: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    and deformations are a few examples of the unwanted consequences which somehow would lead to brittle fracture , fatigue fracture , shape instability...UNCLASSIFIED 7 UNCLASSIFIED 2.1. Fusion welding methods 2.1.1. Gas metal arc (MIG) welding and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding techniques...coating had imperfect influence to improve the appearance of the weld bead and there were many micro-cracks in the middle of the bond zone. The fracture

  16. 75 FR 13729 - Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea: Extension of... circular welded non-alloy steel pipe from the Republic of Korea, covering the period November 1, 2007 through October 31, 2008. See Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe from the Republic of Korea:...

  17. Heat transfer and fluid flow during keyhole mode laser welding of tantalum, Ti 6Al 4V, 304L stainless steel and vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, R.; Elmer, J. W.; Palmer, T. A.; Roy, T. Deb

    2007-09-01

    Because of the complexity of several simultaneous physical processes, most heat transfer models of keyhole mode laser welding require some simplifications to make the calculations tractable. The simplifications often limit the applicability of each model to the specific materials systems for which the model is developed. In this work, a rigorous, yet computationally efficient, keyhole model is developed and tested on tantalum, Ti-6Al-4V, 304L stainless steel and vanadium. Unlike previous models, this one combines an existing model to calculate keyhole shape and size with numerical fluid flow and heat transfer calculations in the weld pool. The calculations of the keyhole profile involved a point-by-point heat balance at the keyhole walls considering multiple reflections of the laser beam in the vapour cavity. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy are then solved in three dimensions assuming that the temperatures at the keyhole wall reach the boiling point of the different metals or alloys. A turbulence model based on Prandtl's mixing length hypothesis was used to estimate the effective viscosity and thermal conductivity in the liquid region. The calculated weld cross-sections agreed well with the experimental results for each metal and alloy system examined here. In each case, the weld pool geometry was affected by the thermal diffusivity, absorption coefficient, and the melting and boiling points, among the various physical properties of the alloy. The model was also used to better understand solidification phenomena and calculate the solidification parameters at the trailing edge of the weld pool. These calculations indicate that the solidification structure became less dendritic and coarser with decreasing weld velocities over the range of speeds investigated in this study. Overall, the keyhole weld model provides satisfactory simulations of the weld geometries and solidification sub-structures for diverse engineering metals and alloys.

  18. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of armor grade AA7075 aluminum alloy friction stir weld nugget zone – Effect of post weld heat treatment and addition of boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vijaya Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction stir welding (FSW of high strength aluminum alloys has been emerged as an alternative joining technique to avoid the problems during fusion welding. In recent times FSW is being used for armor grade AA7075 aluminum alloy in defense, aerospace and marine applications where it has to serve in non uniform loading and corrosive environments. Even though friction stir welds of AA7075 alloy possess better mechanical properties but suffer from poor corrosion resistance. The present work involves use of retrogression and reaging (RRA post weld heat treatment to improve the corrosion resistance of welded joints of aluminum alloys. An attempt also has been made to change the chemical composition of the weld nugget by adding B4C nano particles with the aid of the FSW on a specially prepared base metal plate in butt position. The effects of peak aged condition (T6, RRA and addition of B4C nano particles on microstructure, hardness and pitting corrosion of nugget zone of the friction stir welds of AA7075 alloy have been studied. Even though RRA improved the pitting corrosion resistance, its hardness was slightly lost. Significant improvement in pitting corrosion resistance was achieved with addition of boron carbide powder and post weld heat treatment of RRA.

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy added with cerium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于思荣; 陈显君; 黄志求; 刘耀辉

    2010-01-01

    The AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet added with 0.5 wt.% Ce was welded with friction stir welding(FSW).The microstructures and mechanical properties of the welded joint were investigated.The results showed that the microstructures in the weld nugget zone were uniform and with small equiaxed grains.The grains in the heat-affected zone and the thermo-mechanical affected zone were coarser than those in the base metal zone and the weld nugget zone.The ultimate tensile strength of AZ31B magnesium alloy added with 0.5...

  20. Influence of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of AW-7020M and Aw-7020 Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Dudzik Krzysztof; Jurczak Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Friction welding associated with mixing the weld material (FSW - Friction Stir Welding ) is an alternative to MIG and TIG welding techniques for Al-alloys. This paper presents experimental results obtained from static tension tests on specimens made of AW-7020M and AW-7020 alloys and their joints welded by using FSW method carried out on flat specimens, according to Polish standards : PN-EN ISO 4136:2011 and PN-EN ISO 6892-1:2010. Results of corrosion resistance tests are also presented. The ...

  1. Investigation on laser brazing AA6056 Al alloy to XC18 low-carbon steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Ding; Feiqun Li; Feng Qu; Patrice Peyre; Remy Fabbro

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the studies of influence of YAG laser heating conditions for Al alloy melt and steel on wettability,the mechanics of the laser overlap braze welding of 6056 Al and XC18 steel sheet has been investigated.Under the temperature range which is above the melting point of the Al alloy and below the melting point of the steel, two dissimilar metals can be joined by means of laser braze welding. There is no crack observed in the joining area, i.e. Al-Fe intermetallic phase (Fe3Al/FeAl/FeAl3/Fe2Al5) layer formed by solution and diffusion between liquid-solid interface. The temperature range can be defined as the process temperatures of laser braze welding of Al-Fe materials. Selecting a higher laser heating temperature can improve the wettability of Al melt to steel surface, but the intermetallic phase layer is also thicker. When the laser heating temperature is so high that the joining surface of steel is melted, there is a crack trend in the joining area.

  2. Laser Beam Welding with High-Frequency Beam Oscillation: Welding of Dissimilar Materials with Brilliant Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetzsch, Mathias; Standfuss, Jens; Klotzbach, Annett; Kaspar, Joerg; Brenner, Berndt; Beyer, Eckhard

    Brilliant laser beam sources in connection with a high frequent beam oscillation make it now possible to join metallic material combinations, which have been conventionally non-laser weldable up to now. It concerns especially such combinations like Al- Cu, where brittle intermetallic phases occur. Extreme small weld seam with high aspect ratio leads to very short meld pool life time. These allow an extensive reduction of the heat input. On the other side the melting behavior at metallic mixed joint, seam geometry, meld pool turbulence and solidification behavior can be influenced by a high frequent time-, position- and powercontrolled laser beam oscillation.

  3. 77 FR 73617 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary Results and Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Value: Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico, 57 FR 42953 (September 17, 1992). Notification... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico: Preliminary...

  4. 75 FR 44763 - Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Circular Welded Non-Alloy Steel Pipe From Mexico; Extension of Time... welded non- alloy steel pipe from Mexico. We also received review requests on November 30, 2009,...

  5. Application of Factorial Design for Gas Parameter Optimization in CO2 Laser Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Dragsted, Birgitte; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1997-01-01

    The effect of different gas process parameters involved in CO2 laser welding has been studied by applying two-set of three-level complete factorial designs. In this work 5 gas parameters, gas type, gas flow rate, gas blowing angle, gas nozzle diameter, gas blowing point-offset, are optimized...... to be a very useful tool for parameter optimi-zation in laser welding process. Keywords: CO2 laser welding, gas parameters, factorial design, Analysis of Variance....

  6. New trends for the NDT of aeronautic welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithurralde, G.; Simonet, D.; Choffy, J.-P.; Bernard, L.

    2001-04-01

    Recent advances in laser beam welding, electron beam welding and friction stir welding enable to join aeronautic and space alloys (mainly aluminum based) and think about new welded design for structural parts at a lower cost. This paper deals with both the non destructive testing approach implemented for welding process optimization, and the NDT multi-sensors tools selected because of their ability for on-line defect tracking automation.

  7. Effect of Stress Relief Annealing on Microstructure & Mechanical Properties of Welded Joints Between Low Alloy Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivas, R.; Das, G.; Das, S. K.; Mahato, B.; Kumar, S.; Sivaprasad, K.; Singh, P. K.; Ghosh, M.

    2017-01-01

    Two types of welded joints were prepared using low alloy carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel as base materials. In one variety, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 82. In another type, buttering material and weld metal were Inconel 182. In case of Inconel 82, method of welding was GTAW. For Inconel 182, welding was done by SMAW technique. For one set of each joints after buttering, stress relief annealing was done at 923 K (650 °C) for 90 minutes before further joining with weld metal. Microstructural investigation and sub-size in situ tensile testing in scanning electron microscope were carried out for buttered-welded and buttered-stress relieved-welded specimens. Adjacent to fusion boundary, heat-affected zone of low alloy steel consisted of ferrite-pearlite phase combination. Immediately after fusion boundary in low alloy steel side, there was increase in matrix grain size. Same trend was observed in the region of austenitic stainless steel that was close to fusion boundary between weld metal-stainless steel. Close to interface between low alloy steel-buttering material, the region contained martensite, Type-I boundary and Type-II boundary. Peak hardness was obtained close to fusion boundary between low alloy steel and buttering material. In this respect, a minimum hardness was observed within buttering material. The peak hardness was shifted toward buttering material after stress relief annealing. During tensile testing no deformation occurred within low alloy steel and failure was completely through buttering material. Crack initiated near fusion boundary between low alloy steel-buttering material for welded specimens and the same shifted away from fusion boundary for stress relieved annealed specimens. This observation was at par with the characteristics of microhardness profile. In as welded condition, joints fabricated with Inconel 82 exhibited superior bond strength than the weld produced with Inconel 182. Stress relief annealing

  8. Structural State of a Weld Formed in Aluminum Alloy by Friction Stir Welding and Treated by Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenov, V. A.; Abzaev, Yu. A.; Potekaev, A. I.; Vlasov, V. A.; Klopotov, A. A.; Zaitsev, K. V.; Chumaevskii, A. V.; Porobova, S. A.; Grinkevich, L. S.; Tazin, I. D.; Tazin, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    The experimental data on structural state of an aluminum alloy, AlMg6, in the weld zone formed by friction stir welding are analyzed in order to evaluate the effect of its subsequent ultrasonic treatment. It is found that the crystal lattice transits into a low-stability state as a result of combined heat-induced and severe shear deformation. This transition is accompanied by considerable structural-phase changes that are manifested as an increased lattice parameter of the solid solution. This increase is caused by both high values of internal stresses and increased concentration of Mg atoms in the solid solution due to essential dissolution of the β-Al2Mg3 particles with the content of manganese higher than that in the matrix. This is accompanied by high-intensity diffusion and relaxation processes due to the low-stability state of crystal lattice (inhomogeneous stresses) in the weld zone.

  9. Friction Stir Welding of Stainless Steel to Al Alloy: Effect of Thermal Condition on Weld Nugget Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Husain, M. M.

    2014-02-01

    Joining of dissimilar materials is always a global challenge. Sometimes it is unavoidable to execute multifarious activities by a single component. In the present investigation, 6061 aluminum alloy and 304 stainless steel were joined by friction stir welding (FSW) at different tool rotational rates. Welded joints were characterized in optical and scanning electron microscopes. Reaction products in the stirring zone (SZ) were confirmed through X-ray diffraction. Joint strength was evaluated by tensile testing. It was found that the increment in average heat input and temperature at the weld nugget (WN) facilitated iron enrichment near the interface. Enhancement in the concentration of iron shifted the nature of intermetallics from the Fe2Al5 to Fe-rich end of the Fe-Al binary phase diagram. The peak microhardness and ultimate tensile strength were found to be maxima at the intermediate tool rotational rate, where Fe3Al and FeAl2 appeared along with Fe2Al5.

  10. The Optimization of Process Parameters and Microstructural Characterization of Fiber Laser Welded Dissimilar HSLA and MART Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celalettin Yuce

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, environmental impact, safety and fuel efficiency are fundamental issues for the automotive industry. These objectives are met by using a combination of different types of steels in the auto bodies. Therefore, it is important to have an understanding of how dissimilar materials behave when they are welded. This paper presents the process parameters’ optimization procedure of fiber laser welded dissimilar high strength low alloy (HSLA and martensitic steel (MART steel using a Taguchi approach. The influence of laser power, welding speed and focal position on the mechanical and microstructural properties of the joints was determined. The optimum parameters for the maximum tensile load-minimum heat input were predicted, and the individual significance of parameters on the response was evaluated by ANOVA results. The optimum levels of the process parameters were defined. Furthermore, microstructural examination and microhardness measurements of the selected welds were conducted. The samples of the dissimilar joints showed a remarkable microstructural change from nearly fully martensitic in the weld bead to the unchanged microstructure in the base metals. The heat affected zone (HAZ region of joints was divided into five subzones. The fusion zone resulted in an important hardness increase, but the formation of a soft zone in the HAZ region.

  11. Control of surface defects on plasma-MIG hybrid welds in cryogenic aluminum alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hee-Keun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately, high production rate welding processes for Al alloys, which are used as LNG FPSO cargo containment system material, have been developed to overcome the limit of installation and high rework rates. In particular, plasma-metal inert gas (MIG hybrid (PMH welding can be used to obtain a higher deposition rate and lower porosity, while facilitating a cleaning effect by preheating and post heating the wire and the base metal. However, an asymmetric undercut and a black-colored deposit are created on the surface of PMH weld in Al alloys. For controlling the surface defect formation, the wire feeding speed and nozzle diameter in the PMH weld was investigated through arc phenomena with high-speed imaging and metallurgical analysis.

  12. Structure and Hardness of 01570 Aluminum Alloy Friction Stir Welds Processed Under Different Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'yasov, R. R.; Avtokratova, E. V.; Markushev, M. V.; Predko, P. Yu.; Konkevich, V. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Structure and hardness of the 01570 aluminum alloy joints processed by friction stir welding at various speeds are investigated. It is shown that increasing the traverse tool speed lowers the probability of macrodefect formation in the nugget zone; however, this can lead to anomalous grain growth in the zone of contact with the tool shoulder. Typical "onion-like" structure of the weld consisting of rings that differ by optical contrast is formed for all examined welding regimes. It is demonstrated that this contrast is caused by the difference in the grain sizes in the rings rather than by their chemical or phase composition. Mechanisms of transformation of the alloy structure during friction stir welding are discussed.

  13. Laser Brazing of High Temperature Braze Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. P.; Seaman, R. F.; McQuillan, T. J.; Martiens, R. F.

    2000-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) consists of 1080 conical tubes, which are furnace brazed themselves, manifolds, and surrounding structural jacket making almost four miles of braze joints. Subsequent furnace braze cycles are performed due to localized braze voids between the coolant tubes. SSME nozzle experiences extremely high heat flux (180 mW/sq m) during hot fire. Braze voids between coolant tubes may result in hot combustion gas escape causing jacket bulges. The nozzle can be disqualified for flight or result in mission failure if the braze voids exceed the limits. Localized braze processes were considered to eliminate braze voids, however, damage to the parent materials often prohibited use of such process. Being the only manned flight reusable rocket engine, it has stringent requirement on the braze process. Poor braze quality or damage to the parent materials limits the nozzle service life. The objective of this study was to develop a laser brazing process to provide quality, localized braze joints without adverse affect on the parent materials. Gold (Au-Cu-Ni-Pd-Mn) based high temperature braze alloys were used in both powder and wire form. Thin section iron base superalloy A286 tube was used as substrate materials. Different Laser Systems including CO2 (10.6 micrometers, 1kW), ND:YAG (1.06 micrometers, 4kW). and direct diode laser (808nm. 150W) were investigated for brazing process. The laser process variables including wavelength. laser power, travel speed and angle of inclination were optimized according to bead geometry and braze alloy wetting at minimum heat input level, The properties of laser brazing were compared to that of furnace brazing. Microhardness profiles were used for braze joint property comparison between laser and furnace brazing. The cooling rate of laser brazing was compared to furnace brazing based on secondary dendritic arm spacing, Both optical and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to evaluate the microstructures of

  14. Laser welding of polymers, compatibility and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Erik; Strange, Marianne; Kristensen, Jens Klæstrup

    2013-01-01

    with the development of related absorbers added to the polymer materials provide the possibility of joining transparent and non-transparent materials. The automotive industry, the medical device industry and the electronic industry are just some of the areas where the technology is widely implemented......Laser welding of polymers is today a commonly used industrial technology. It has shown obvious advantages compared to e.g. adhesive bonding in terms of higher productivity, better quality and easiness for automation. The ongoing development of lasers tailored for polymer welding in coordination....... There is an increasing industrial interest in joining dissimilar polymers. To overcome the challenges involved increased focus is set on the understanding of joining mechanisms, morphology and molecular structure behavior. Also the understanding of resulting mechanical and thermal properties is presently subject...

  15. Optimization of process parameters of aluminum alloy AA 2014-T6 friction stir welds by response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanjaneyulu Kadaganchi; Madhusudhan Reddy Gankidi; Hina Gokhale

    2015-01-01

    The heat treatable aluminum–copper alloy AA2014 finds wide application in the aerospace and defence industry due to its high strength-to-weight ratio and good ductility. Friction stir welding (FSW) process, an emerging solid state joining process, is suitable for joining this alloy compared to fusion welding processes. This work presents the formulation of a mathematical model with process parameters and tool geometry to predict the responses of friction stir welds of AA 2014-T6 aluminum allo...

  16. Damage Tolerance Behavior of Friction Stir Welds in Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process used in the fabrication of various aerospace structures. Self-reacting and conventional friction stir welding are variations of the friction stir weld process employed in the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks which are classified as pressurized structure in many spaceflight vehicle architectures. In order to address damage tolerance behavior associated with friction stir welds in these safety critical structures, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size. Test data describing fracture behavior, residual strength capability, and cyclic mission life capability of friction stir welds at ambient and cryogenic temperatures have been generated and will be presented in this paper. Fracture behavior will include fracture toughness and tearing (R-curve) response of the friction stir welds. Residual strength behavior will include an evaluation of the effects of lack of penetration on conventional friction stir welds, the effects of internal defects (wormholes) on self-reacting friction stir welds, and an evaluation of the effects of fatigue cycled surface cracks on both conventional and selfreacting welds. Cyclic mission life capability will demonstrate the effects of surface crack defects on service load cycle capability. The fracture data will be used to evaluate nondestructive inspection and proof test requirements for the welds.

  17. Cavitation erosion of laser processed Fe-Cr-Mn and Fe-Cr-Co alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szkodo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is attempt explanation how laser beam processing influence on the cavitation performance of the Fe-Cr-Mn and Fe-Cr-Co alloys. This kind of alloys are frequently used in Polish power plants to routine repairs of damaged blades working under cavitation loading.Design/methodology/approach: Padding welds of investigated alloys were tested for three cases: after laser melting, after laser heating of the solid state and without additional processing. Cw. CO2 laser was employed as a source of radiation. The rotating disk rig was used in cavitation erosion investigations. The chemical composition, microstructure, and phase identification of the processed and subjected to cavitation loading alloys were examined using light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively.Findings: Phase transformation for processed and unprocessed alloys was observed. Obtained results revealed that laser processing contributes to delaying of austenite → martensite phase transformation. Kinetic of this transformation is different for investigated alloys and depends on the chemical composition and applied laser processing. Research limitations/implications: Reported research ought to be completed and full cavitation curves (volume loss in time for laser beam processed alloys must be done. Practical implications: For low intensity of cavitation loading, like in field conditions laser beam processing can increase of cavitation erosion resistance of investigated alloys due to increase of hardness.Originality/value: Confirmation that creation of the transformed and hardfacing structures by laser techniques leads in many cases to considerable changes in cavitation erosion properties of the processed materials.

  18. The effect of welding parameters on surface quality of AA6351 aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacob, S.; MAli, M. A.; Ahsan, Q.; Ariffin, N.; Ali, R.; Arshad, A.; Wahab, M. I. A.; Ismail, S. A.; Roji, NS M.; Din, W. B. W.; Zakaria, M. H.; Abdullah, A.; Yusof, M. I.; Kamarulzaman, K. Z.; Mahyuddin, A.; Hamzah, M. N.; Roslan, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the effects of gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT) parameters on surface roughness are experimentally assessed. The purpose of this study is to develop a better understanding of the effects of welding speed, material thickness and contact tip to work distance on the surface roughness. Experiments are conducted using single pass gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT) welding technique to join the material. The material used in this experiment was AA6351 aluminum alloy with the thickness of 5mm and 6mm. A Mahr Marsuft XR 20 machine was used to measure the average roughness (Ra) of AA6351 joints. The main and interaction effect analysis was carried out to identify process parameters that affect the surface roughness. The results show that all the input process parameters affect the surface roughness of AA6351 joints. Additionally, the average roughness (Ra) results also show a decreasing trend with increased of welding speed. It is proven that gas metal arc welding-cold metal transfer (GMAW-CMT)welding process has been successful in term of providing weld joint of good surface quality for AA6351 based on the low value surface roughness condition obtained in this setup. The outcome of this experimental shall be valuable for future fabrication process in order to obtained high good quality weld.

  19. Friction Stir Welds (FSW of aluminium alloy AW6082-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adamowski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is the investigation on the properties and microstructural changes in Friction StirWelds in the aluminum alloy 6082-T6 in function of varying process parameters.Design/methodology/approach: Tensile strength of the produced joints was tested and the correlation withprocess parameter was assessed. Microstructures of various zones of FSW welds are presented and analyzed bymeans of optical microscopy and microhardness measurements.Findings: Mechanical resistance of test welds increased with the increase of travel (welding speed withconstant rotational speed. Softening of the material in weld nugget and heat affected zone was observed, ofentity inferior that that of fusion welds. Origin of tunnel (worm hole defects were found and analyzed.Research limitations/implications: The test welds were produced with various combinations of processparameters without the possibility of controlling the downward force. Further extension of applicable parameterscombinations could be examined.Practical implications: The increase of mechanical resistance with increasing welding speed offers animmediate economic return, as the process efficiency is increased.Originality/value: Information contained herein can be useful to further investigate on the possibility ofimproving the properties of FSW welds, as well as the efficiency of the process.

  20. Friction Stir-Welded Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V: Microstructure, Mechanical and Fracture Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D. G.; Edwards, P.; Cantrell, A. M.; Gangwar, K.; Ramulu, M.

    2015-05-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been refined to create butt welds from two sheets of Ti-6Al-4V alloy to have an ultra-fine grain size. Weld specimen testing was completed for three different FSW process conditions: As welded, stress relieved, stress relieved and machined, and for the un-welded base material. The investigation includes macrostructure, microstructure, microhardness, tensile property testing, notched bar impact testing, and fracture toughness evaluations. All experiments were conducted in accordance with industry standard testing specifications. The microstructure in the weld nugget was found to consist of refined and distorted grains of alpha in a matrix of transformed beta containing acicular alpha. The enhanced fracture toughness of the welds is a result of increased hardness, which is attributed to an increase in alpha phase, increase in transformed beta in acicular alpha, and grain refinement during the weld process. The noted general trend in mechanical properties from as welded, to stress relieved, to stress relieved and machined conditions exhibited a decrease in ultimate tensile strength, and yield strength with a small increase in ductility and a significant increase in fracture toughness.